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Sample records for eastern cuba laterites

  1. Geological interpretation of Eastern Cuba Laterites from an airborne magnetic and radioactive isotope survey

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    Batista, J.A; Blanco, J [Departamento de Geologia, Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa, (Cuba); Perez-Flores, M.A [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    In eastern Cuba area several geophysical techniques have been applied to distinguish the main geological characteristics of the laterites which are of economical importance for the extraction of iron, nickel and chrome. The geophysical measurements include an aeromagnetic survey and thorium (eTh), potassium (K) and uranium (eU) isotope measurements. The results of gamma spectrometer measurements make a distinction between laterite reservoirs. The application of the magnetic and isotope methods allowed the determination of the distribution and development of the laterite crust, as well as the determination of hydrothermal alterations affecting the laterites, which is very useful for mining exploration and exploitation. Such alterations indicate the presence of silicates, which have negative effects on the metallurgic process. It is known that laterite crust has a high content of eU and eTh. [Spanish] Se han utilizado varias tecnicas geofisicas en la region oriental de Cuba para distinguir las principales caracteristicas geologicas de las lateritas, que poseen importancia economica para la extraccion de hierro, niquel y cobalto. Las mediciones geofisicas incluyen un estudio aeromagnetico y mediciones de isotopos de torio (eTh), potasio (K) y uranio (eU). Los resultados de las mediciones espectrometricas establecen diferencias entre los yacimientos de lateritas. De la aplicacion del metodo magnetico e isotopico se determino la distribucion y desarrollo de las cortezas lateriticas, asi como la ubicacion de alteraciones hidrotermales que afectan a las lateritas, lo cual es muy util durante la exploracion y explotacion minera. Esas alteraciones indican la presencia de silicatos, que tienen un efecto negativo en el proceso metalurgico. Se conoce que las cortezas lateriticas tienen altos contenidos de eU y eTh. De los contenidos de eU y eTh se infiere que las lateritas de la region de Moa se formaron antes que las de Mayari. De estas mediciones fue posible inferir el

  2. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

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    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  3. Reactive transport model of the formation of oxide-type Ni-laterite profiles (Punta Gorda, Moa Bay, Cuba)

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    Domènech, Cristina; Galí, Salvador; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Soler, Josep M.; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxide-type Ni-laterite deposits are characterized by a dominant limonite zone with goethite as the economically most important Ni ore mineral and a thin zone of hydrous Mg silicate-rich saprolite beneath the magnesium discontinuity. Fe, less soluble, is mainly retained forming goethite, while Ni is redeposited at greater depth in a Fe(III) and Ni-rich serpentine (serpentine II) or in goethite, where it adsorbs or substitutes for Fe in the mineral structure. Here, a 1D reactive transport model, using CrunchFlow, of Punta Gorda oxide-type Ni-laterite deposit (Moa Bay, Cuba) formation is presented. The model reproduces the formation of the different laterite horizons in the profile from an initial, partially serpentinized peridotite, in 106 years, validating the conceptual model of the formation of this kind of deposits in which a narrow saprolite horizon rich in Ni-bearing serpentine is formed above peridotite parent rock and a thick limonite horizon is formed over saprolite. Results also confirm that sorption of Ni onto goethite can explain the weight percent of Ni found in the Moa goethite. Sensitivity analyses accounting for the effect of key parameters (composition, dissolution rate, carbonate concentration, quartz precipitation) on the model results are also presented. It is found that aqueous carbonate concentration and quartz precipitation significantly affects the laterization process rate, while the effect of the composition of secondary serpentine or of mineral dissolution rates is minor. The results of this reactive transport modeling have proven useful to validate the conceptual models derived from field observations.

  4. Theological Higher Education in Cuba. Part 4: The Historical Roots and Milestones of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary

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    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary was founded in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on October 10, 1949, by the Eastern Baptist Convention. The seminary exists to provide training for pastors in the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in…

  5. THE CUBA COMPANY AND EASTERN CUBA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, 1900-1959

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    Juan Carlos Santamarina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This artide evaluates the Cuba Company’s impact on eastern Cuban economic development. It argues that the Cuba Company’s railroads, together with its development plans and strategies, helped stimulate the extraordinary economic growth of eastern Cuba between 1900 and 1959, especially in the production of sugar. Sugar was king in Cuba before 1900 but only inwestern Cuba; eastern Cuba produced only a minuscule fraction of total Cuban sugar production. Moreover, the Cuban Independence War of 1895-1898 had destroyed the industry. Due to the Cuba Company’s strategy, however, by the 1920s Cuba was once again the largest producer of sugar in the world and eastern Cuba represented over 50% of total Cuban sugarproduction.

  6. [Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba].

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    Quesada, Eddy Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba. The foliar morphology of representative antophytes in four rainforest types of Eastern Cuba was studied in relation to the main abiotic factors. Although there are several leaf types in these forests, the microphyll type is the most important among endemic species in the ophiolites complex and the Montane rainforest. At the Lowland rainforest (metamorphic complex) the mesophyll leaf was the most important. Most foliar epidermis had structures normally found in mesomorphic plants, but xeromorphic and higromorphic morphologies were also present.

  7. Anemia in children under five years old in Eastern Cuba, 2005-2011.

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    Pita, Gisela M; Jiménez, Santa; Basabe, Beatriz; García, René G; Macías, Consuelo; Selva, Lisette; Hernández, Clarisa; Cruz, Margarita; Herrera, Roxana; O'Farrill, Regla; Calderius, Isabel; Paulí, Karelia; Leyva, Moraima; Arocha, Caridad; Herrera, Dania

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is the main nutritional problem in Cuban preschool children, prompting several interventions to prevent and control it. An enhanced national strategy was established in 2008, and particular attention paid to the eastern provinces, the region with greatest challenges in social determinants of health. Determine anemia prevalence in children aged 6-59 months in Cuba's five eastern provinces in three separate years within a decade, as well as association of anemia with epidemiological and nutritional factors, to assess impact of Cuba's Comprehensive Plan for Prevention and Control of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Cuba. Cross-sectional studies of children aged 6-59 months (completed) were conducted in 2005, 2008 and 2011. Hemoglobin levels were measured to diagnose anemia (hemoglobin Cuba and anemia prevention and control measures should be maintained and strengthened: interventions for women of childbearing age, fostering exclusive breastfeeding of infants through their sixth month, and encouraging compliance with recommendations on complementary feeding per Cuba's nutritional guidelines for children aged <2 years. Further evaluation is needed to identify the causes of anemia in the population of preschool children.

  8. Miconia bullotricha and M. hirtistyla, two new species of Miconia sect. Lima (Miconieae, Melastomataceae) from eastern Cuba

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    Majure, Lucas C.; Bécquer, Eldis R.; Judd, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species in Miconia sect. Lima, Miconia bullotricha Bécquer & Majure and Miconia hirtistyla Majure & Judd, from eastern, Cuba. We also provide illustrations and distribution maps for the two species, as well as a key to members of the Lima clade on Cuba. PMID:24526849

  9. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Cuba is a country of 110,860 sq.km with 10.8 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Independence was gained on May 20, 1902. The terrain consists of flat or gently rolling plains, hills, and mountains up to 2000 meters in the Southeast, with a climate which is tropical, yet moderated by trade winds. Spanish is spoken by the Spanish-African mixed population. Life expectancy ranges over 74-77 years. Gross social product is $21 billion, declining at a rate of -20%. Per capita income is $1500. The country's natural resources include nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, and timber. Sugar, fruits, tobacco, coffee, rice, beans, meat, vegetables, food processing, oil refining, cement, electric power, light consumer, and industrial products are areas of economic production. Capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum, and consumer goods are imported, and sugar and its by-products, petroleum, nickel, seafood, citrus, tobacco products and rum are exported. Indepth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  10. Masculinities studies in eastern Cuba: imaginaries significations. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios.

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    Denise Regina Quaresma da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we approached a study about masculinities imaginaries significations in eastern Cuba. Firstly, we rescued relevant moments of the masculinities studies in the country and some theoretical contributions to understand the social production of the masculinities. Besides, we show the qualitative results from the groups with men.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.

  11. Colecta de leguminosas forrajeras en tres provincias orientales de Cuba Collection of forage legumes in three Eastern provinces of Cuba

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    Yuseika Olivera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una labor de prospección y colecta en la zona oriental del país con el objetivo de colectar germoplasma de leguminosas herbáceas, arbustivas y arbóreas multipropósito para ser utilizadas en el sector ganadero. El trayecto incluyó la costa norte y sur de la provincia de Guantánamo, la costa norte y centro de la provincia Holguín, así como la parte centro-este de la provincia Granma. Se utilizó un sistema de muestreo individual en pequeñas poblaciones, con repetitividad de especies en diferentes sitios, y en ocasiones se muestreó aleatoriamente en poblaciones abundantes. La información se recogió a través de los descriptores relacionados con la localización, el hábitat natural, la vegetación, el suelo y los daños motivados por insectos y enfermedades, entre otros. Se colectaron 95 accesiones pertenecientes a 24 especies, entre las que primaron las de tipo herbáceo (10 géneros. Se encontraron especies utilizadas con diversos propósitos (alimento animal, cobertura, abono verde, cercas vivas, etc., tanto herbáceas como arbustivas y arbóreas. Se recomienda beneficiar las muestras obtenidas; proceder a su rápida reproducción, caracterización morfobotánica y evaluación agronómica (fase I; utilizar este material para diversos fines, entre ellos la conservación y el intercambio; así como continuar la colecta en otras zonas del país.A prospecting and collection work was carried out in the eastern zone of the country with the objective of collecting germplasm of herbaceous, shrubby and tree multipurpose legumes to be used in the livestock production sector. The trip included the northern and southern coast of the Guantanamo province, the northern and central coast of the Holguín province, as well as the central-eastern part of the Granma province. An individual sampling system was used in small populations, with repetitiveness of species in different sites, and sometimes random sampling was performed in abundant

  12. Cryptic within cryptic: genetics, morphometrics, and bioacoustics delimitate a new species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from Eastern Cuba.

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    Rodríguez, Ariel; Dugo-Cota, Álvaro; Montero-Mendieta, Santiago; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Vences, Miguel; Vilà, Carles

    2017-01-20

    We studied the variation in genetics, bioacustics, and morphology in Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, a regionally endemic frog species restricted to high elevations in the Sierra Maestra Massif, Western Cuba that was originally described as a cryptic species hidden under the name E. auriculatus. Genetic analysis of mtDNA sequences of the 16S and cob genes identify two allopatric and strongly supported mitochondrial clades (phylogroups) which also showed no haplotype sharing in the nuclear Rag-1 gene. Bioacustic, and morphological comparisons concordantly identify these two phylogroups as independent evolutionary lineages. Therefore, we herein restrict the name Eleutherodactylus glamyrus Estrada and Hedges to populations represented in our analyses as the western phylogroup (Cordillera del Turquino to Pico La Bayamesa) and consider specimens from the eastern phylogroup (Sierra del Cobre) to represent a new species described and named as Eleutherodactylus cattus. Our results add to the growing list of Eleutherodactylus species endemic to Cuba and highlight the importance of combining different sources of evidence for obtaining robust assessments of species limits in amphibians.

  13. The Güira de Jauco amphibolite complex (eastern Cuba). A record of early Campanian collision in the Caribbean plate.

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    Lázaro, C.; Blanco-Quintero, I. F.; García-Casco, A.; Rojas--Agramonte, Y.; Corsini, M.; Núñez-Cambra, K.

    2012-04-01

    Petrological, geochemical and regional geological arguments suggest that the Güira de Jauco amphibolite complex (eastern Cuba) constitutes the metamorphic sole of the huge Cretaceous back-arc related Mayarí-Baracoa ophiolite belt and, hence, this complex is of major interest for deciphering the deficiently known intra-oceanic orogenic history of the Caribbean belt. The amphibolites have subalkaline low- to medium-K basaltic compositions. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns, ranging from flat LREE-depleted to slightly LREE-enriched patterns, and discrimination geochemical diagrams suggest N- to E-MORB protoliths. The peak mineral assemblages are formed by plagioclase (Xab=0.50-0.80), calcic amphibole (pargasite-edenite), titanite, ±epidote, ±quartz, ±diposide, ±garnet (Xalm = 0.45-0.48, Xgrs = 0.41-0.47), typical of epidote amphibolite facies. Retrograde albite, actinolite, clinozoisite, and chlorite record greenschist facies overprint. Peak P-T estimations are 650-750 °C and 7-10 kbar, corresponding to an apparent geothermal gradient of 25°C/km. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating dating of hornblende from three samples yielded ages of 76.6±2 Ma, 78.4±2 Ma and 80.7±7.5 Ma. These arguments, the strong syn-metamorphic deformation of the complex, and stratigraphic data of the eastern Cuba volcanic arc indicating lack of activity at (roughly) Mid-Campanian age indicate onset of collision and ophiolite obduction towards the NE in the back-arc environment of the region shortly before 80 Ma (early Campanian), i.e., more than 10 Myr before subduction/collision/accretion of platform- and arc-derived high-pressure metamorphic units took place in the leading edge of the Caribbean plate (Guatemala, Cuba and Dominican Republic) in response to arc-continent collision (from 70 Ma to Eocene). Such early Campanian age of onset of oceanic tectonic shortening can hardly be related to subduction/collision of the thick oceanic Caribbean lithosphere with the Caribbean arc, for no

  14. Processing of lateritic ores

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    Collier, D.E.; Ring, R.J. [Environment Division, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales (Australia); McGill, J.; Russell, H. [Energy Resources of Australia Ltd., Ranger Mine, Jabiru, Northern Territory (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Highly weathered or lateritic ores that contain high proportions of fine clay minerals present specific problems when they are processed to extract uranium. Of perhaps the greatest significance is the potential of the fine minerals to adsorb dissolved uranium (preg-robbing) from leach liquors produced by processing laterites or blends of laterite and primary ores. These losses can amount to 25% of the readily soluble uranium. The clay components can also restrict practical slurry densities to relatively low values in order to avoid rheology problems in pumping and agitation. The fine fractions also contribute to relatively poor solid-liquid separation characteristics in settling and/or filtration. Studies at ANSTO have characterised the minerals believed to be responsible for these problems and quantified the effects of the fines in these types of ores. Processing strategies were also examined, including roasting, resin-in-leach and separate leaching of the laterite fines to overcome potential problems. The incorporation of the preferred treatment option into an existing mill circuit is discussed. (author)

  15. LINKING THE COMMUNITY IN THE MIGRATORY RAPTOR BIRDS COUNTS (BIRDS: FALCONIFORM IN EASTERN CUBA

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    Naylien Barreda-Leyva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Through interviews, workshops, conferences and sociocultural meeting, is carried out the linking of three communities from the high area of Gran Piedra to the studies and counts of migratory raptors birds developed in the east of Cuba. These small communities are near to one of the two points of count of migratory raptors of the region. During the interviews we could verify that some residents possessed basic knowledge on the raptors birds, but didn't know about the migration of these birds. 100 % of the interviewees coincided in that the main local problematic is the loss of birds of pen due to the attack of raptors, specifically the endemic Cuban threatened Accipitter gundlachi. The workshops were able to create spaces of exchange and reflection about the importance of the raptor’s conservation in the region. This linkage of cooperation and increasing awareness, allow an approaching between the communitarians and the researchers and volunteers that work in the counts of raptor birds in Cuba and the feedback of the scientific knowledge with the popular knowledge.

  16. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  17. Cuba: Clearing Perilous Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    democratization was on permanent hold. Interviewed by Tele- mundo , a Spanish-language TV network in the United States, the Cuban president was...states in Eastern Europe and Asia is the same as that with Cuba. But Cuba is a sui generis case in which analogies drawn from other countries do...United States and the West would not necessarily abate the regime’s authoritarian character. As Latin America, China, and Southeast Asia have demon

  18. Cuba precolombina

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarek, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to ethongenesis issues of native inhabitants of America with focus on the Great Antilles region. The author presents the history of further migratory movement to reach Cuba during Pre-Columbian era. The material contains basic facts about the history and achievement of material culture, spiritual and social of native inhabitants of Cuba: Indian Guanahatabeyes Ciboneys and Tainos.

  19. Barium-rich fluids and melts in a subduction environment (La Corea and Sierra del Convento mélanges, eastern Cuba)

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    Blanco-Quintero, Idael Francisco; Lázaro, C.; García-Casco, A.; Proenza, J. A.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.

    2011-08-01

    Whole-rock compositions of muscovite-bearing amphibolite, trondhjemite, pegmatite and quartz-muscovite rocks from Sierra del Convento and La Corea mélanges (eastern Cuba), as well as mineralogy, record complex circulation of Ba-rich fluids and melts in the subduction environment. Partial melting of fluid-fluxed, MORB-derived amphibolite produced trondhjemite magmas that crystallized at depth, in some cases evolving into pegmatites. Qtz-Ms rocks probably crystallized from primary fluids derived from subducted sediments. All these rocks have elevated concentrations of large-ion lithophile elements, especially Ba (up to 11,810 ppm), presumably released from slab sediments by fluids and/or melts. Fluid-rock interaction produced crystallization of phengite in parental amphibolites. The phengite crystallized in all types of rocks is rich in Ba, with concentric zoning, characterized by Ba-rich cores and Ba-poor rims, indicating a compatible behaviour of Ba in the studied systems. Zoning in phengite is governed primarily by the celadonite (tschermak) exchange vector ((Mg,Fe)Si-(Al)-2), with more moderate contributions of the celsian (BaAl-(KSi)-1) and paragonite (NaK-1) exchange vectors. Late remobilization of Ba at relatively low temperature formed retrograde celsian. The compatible behaviour of Ba in the studied rocks strengthens the importance of the stability of phengite for the transfer of LIL elements from the subduction to the volcanic arc environments.

  20. Calidad de las semillas de accesiones de leguminosas colectadas en la región oriental de Cuba (Nota técnica Seed quality of legume accessions collected in the eastern region of Cuba (Technical note

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    Yolanda González

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una misión de colecta durante el 2006 en la región oriental de Cuba, que comprendió zonas de las provincias de Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Bayamo, Las Tunas y Camagüey. Se colectaron semillas de 95 accesiones de leguminosas, de ellas 68 herbáceas y 27 arbóreas. Posteriormente se hizo una prueba de germinación, para conocer su calidad (con corte de cubierta. Para ello se utilizaron placas de Petri sobre arena de río. El número de semillas utilizadas fue variable en cada accesión (según la cantidad colectada y solo se empleó una réplica (sin diseño estadístico. Los conteos de germinación se realizaron según las normas internacionales. Las semillas de mejor calidad correspondieron a las especies arbóreas, aunque presentaron baja germinación las de Cajanus cajan, Cassia siamea, Peltophorum ferrugianum y Leucaena leucocephala, procedentes de la zona de Floro-Pérez en la provincia de Holguín. Todas mostraron 100% de sobrevivencia. La calidad de las semillas dependió del tiempo que estuvieron en el campo después de la etapa de maduración de las legumbres. A través de esta misión de colecta se incrementó el germoplasma de la EEPF «Indio Hatuey» con 64 nuevas accesiones. Se recomienda la continuidad de la colecta de germoplasma en otras zonas del país, con énfasis en las plantas arbóreas, lo que permitirá lograr una mayor diversidad a partir de su uso en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria, así como llevar a cabo las pruebas de calidad correspondientes.A collection mission was conducted during 2006 in the eastern region of Cuba, which comprised zones of the provinces Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Bayamo, Las Tunas and Camagüey. Seeds from 95 legume accessions, 68 herbaceous ones and 27 trees, were collected. Afterwards, a germination test was conducted, to know their quality (with seed coat cut. For that purpose, Petri dishes were used on river sand. The number of seeds used was variable in each

  1. Calidad de las accesiones colectadas en la región centro-oriental de Cuba (Nota técnica Quality of accessions collected in the central-eastern region of Cuba (Technical note

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    J Reino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una prospección en el 2005, en la región centro-oriental de Cuba, y se colectaron semillas de 43 accesiones (36 de leguminosas arbóreas y siete de herbáceas. Posteriormente se realizó una prueba de germinación para conocer la calidad de las semillas (con corte de cubierta, en placas de petri sobre arena de río. El número de semillas utilizadas en cada accesión fue diferente (según las colectadas y solo se empleó una réplica (sin diseño estadístico. Las semillas de mejor calidad correspondieron a las accesiones Bauhinia acuminata, Bauhinia purpurea (de Nuevitas y Vertientes, Cassia fistula, Albizia kalkora, Centrosema sp. y Centrosema brasilianum (100% de germinación, así como Calopogonium caeruleum (90% y Albizia lucida (91,6%. Siete accesiones no germinaron. La mayoría logró una alta sobrevivencia (en bolsas, aunque en especies como Bauhinia hookeli, B. acuminata, Albizia lebbeck, C. caeruleum, C. brasilianum, Desmodium sp. y Teramnus sp. fue baja y dos accesiones no sobrevivieron. El germoplasma de la EEPF «Indio Hatuey» se incrementó en 34 accesiones. Se demostró la importancia de conocer la calidad de las semillas y la relación entre este indicador y su deterioro, debido a la gran variabilidad que mostró el porcentaje de germinación en semillas colectadas en un mismo período de tiempo.A prospection was made in 2005, in the central-eastern region of Cuba and seeds from 43 accessions (36 tree legumes and seven herbaceous ones were collected. Afterwards, a germination test was conducted in order to learn the quality of the seeds (with seed coat cut, in Petri dishes on river sand. The number of seeds used in each accession was different (according to the collected ones and only one replication was used (without statistical design. The best-quality seeds corresponded to the accessions Bauhinia acuminata, Bauhinia purpurea (from Nuevitas and Vertientes, Cassia fistula, Albizia kalkora, Centrosema sp. and

  2. Calidad de las semillas de accesiones colectadas en las regiones occidental, oriental y central de Cuba (Nota técnica Seed quality of accessions collected in the western, eastern and central regions of Cuba (Technical note

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    Yolanda González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuaron dos misiones de colecta durante el 2007 (regiones occidental y oriental y el 2009 (región central en Cuba, que comprendió zonas puntuales de las provincias de Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Bayamo, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Río, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus y Villa Clara. Se colectaron semillas de 88 accesiones de leguminosas (52 arbóreas y 36 herbáceas. Posteriormente a todas se les realizó una prueba de germinación en placas de Petri con arena de río, previo corte de la cubierta, para conocer su calidad. El número de semillas utilizadas fue variable en cada accesión, en correspondencia con el tamaño de la muestra, y solo se empleó una réplica. Los conteos de germinación se realizaron según las normas internacionales. Se obtuvo una alta calidad en las semillas de las especies arbóreas y arbustivas (70-100%, lo cual no ocurrió en las caobas (Swietenia sp. de Granma (0 y 8% ni en Jatropha curcas colectada en Pinar del Río, Guantánamo (0% y Banao (8%, tampoco en Albizia lebbeck procedente de Guantánamo y en Guazuma ulmifolia (24% de Villa Clara. Para las leguminosas herbáceas la germinación varió entre 80 y 100%, excepto en Macroptilium atropurpureum (60% y en Teramnus (12% procedentes de Granma, en Neonotonia wightii (20% de Matanzas, en Calopogonium sp. (52% de Banao y en Glycine sp. (50% de Sancti Spíritus. Se concluye que la calidad de las semillas estuvo en dependencia del tiempo que estuvieron en el campo después de la maduración de las legumbres. Se recomienda la continuidad de la colecta en otras zonas del país, lo que permitirá una mayor diversidad en los sistemas de producción agropecuarios.Two collection missions were conducted during 2007 (western and eastern regions and 2009 (central region in Cuba, which comprised certain zones of the provinces Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Rio, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus and Villa Clara. Seeds from 88 accessions (52 tree

  3. Timing of subduction and exhumation in a subduction channel: Evidence from slab melts from La Corea Mélange (eastern Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Quintero, I. F.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; García-Casco, A.; Kröner, A.; Mertz, D. F.; Lázaro, C.; Blanco-Moreno, J.; Renne, P. R.

    2011-11-01

    High pressure igneous rocks (tonalites), generated by partial melting of subducted basaltic rocks accreted to the mantle wedge, are present in the La Corea serpentinite-matrix mélange (eastern Cuba) as centimeter- to meter-sized blocks and as concordant to crosscutting veins within high-pressure parent amphibolite blocks. The slab melts have adakitic signatures, in agreement with formation after partial melting of metabasite. Thermobarometric calculations indicate 620-680 °C and 13-15 kbar during crystallization of tonalites and down to 250-300 °C, 6 kbar during retrogression, indicating counter-clockwise P-T paths (hot subduction-cool exhumation). Free water required for melting of amphibolite at moderate temperature (700-750 °C) and moderate pressure (13-16 kbar) close to the wet basaltic solidus is inferred to have been provided after dehydration of sediments, altered basaltic crust and serpentinite of the subducting Proto-Caribbean lithosphere. Single zircon (SHRIMP) and phengite 40Ar/39Ar age data constrain the P-T-t evolution of the mélange from the timing of crystallization of melts at ~ 110-105 Ma to cooling at ~ 87-84 Ma, ca. 350 °C, ca. 9 kbar. These figures are consistent with subduction of an oblique ridge, shortly before 115 Ma. Furthermore, our data indicate very slow exhumation (ca. 1 mm/yr) in the subduction channel during the oceanic convergence stage (120-70 Ma) until final fast exhumation to the surface occurred at 70-65 Ma during a regional arc-platform collision event.

  4. Understanding Lateritic Ore Agglomeration Behaviour as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    istics, low grade lateritic ores require more aggressive but costly chemical and hydrometallurgical techniques (e.g., leaching in ... Isothermal, batch agglomeration tests involving 30 and 44 % w/w sulphuric acid ... *Loss of ignition. Table 2: ...

  5. Concurrent Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  6. Properties of Bentonite Enhanced Loess and Laterite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳生; 白庆中; 聂永丰

    2004-01-01

    Loess and laterite distributed widely in the northern and southern China cannot be directly used as the natural barrier to isolate the solid waste because of their high hydraulic conductivity. In this paper, they are enhanced by bentonite to improve their hydraulic performance. The impact of bentonite content and water content on compressive strength of the compacted soil was investigated. The effects of bentonite content, water content, dry density and hydraulic gradient on the hydraulic conductivity were studied in detail. For the laterite and the laterite with 8% of bentonite, the experimental results of hydraulic conductivity can be applied in the engineering design. However, for the loess and the bentonite enhanced loess, those of hydraulic conductivity can not be directly applied in the engineering design because their hydraulic performance does not comply with the Darcy's law. These experimental results have to be carefully modified before application.

  7. Different Scales of os Isotopic Heterogeneity in Ophiolite Chromitites from Sagua de TÁNAMO and MAYARÍ Mining Districts (eastern Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervilla, F.; Marchesi, C.; González-Jiménez, J. M.; Proenza, J. A.; Garrido, C. J.; Griffin, W. L.; O'Really, S.; Pearson, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    We performed in situ laser ablation MC-ICP-MS measurements of Os isotopes in platinum-group minerals (PGM) included in unaltered chromite from ophiolite chromitites of the Sagua de Tánamo mining district (eastern Cuba). The results reveal important heterogeneities at the km, hand sample and thin section scales. Initial 187Os/188Os (calculated at 90Ma, the estimated age of ophiolite formation) spans from 0.1185 to 0.1295 in the whole district. These values correspond to γOs = -8.1-0.4, calculated by comparison with the Os isotopic evolution of the primitive upper mantle (PUM; Meisel et al., 2001, GCA 65), and all but one PGMs have γOs lower than PUM. PGMs in a single hand sample from the Caridad Mine exhibit 187Os/188Os ratios from 0.1185 to 0.1274, which overlap almost the entire range of values measured in the Sagua de Tánamo district. In one thin section from the same mine 187Os/188Os varies between 0.1200 and 0.1263 in two PGMs that are only few millimetres from each other. The few analyzed PGM grains from the Mayarí district have 187Os/188Os = 0.1271-0.1272 (γOs = -1.4) that are generally higher than in Sagua de Tánamo and much more homogeneous. The sub-PUM (i.e. negative) initial γOs values can be explained by Re depletion during a long history of partial melting starting at 1.61 Ga, as indicated by calculated Os model ages. However, the heterogeneous isotopic signature of PGMs in a single hand sample and thin section suggests a more complex magmatic scenario for the formation of PGMs and the host chromite. At such small scales, the formation of PGMs with variable Os isotopic signatures requires a heterogeneous genetic environment where melts with different Os isotopic compositions coexist in space and/or time. This scenario can be achieved during chromite crystallization by mixing in mantle conduits of primitive and differentiated melts. Each new batch of primitive melt (with its own Os isotopic signature inherited from a highly heterogeneous

  8. Cuba, Are Sanctions Working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1993), 870. 50 Ló pez, 4; quoted in Claudia Ma´rguez Linares, Encuesta informal sobre la atención mé dica primaria en Cuba, (CubaNet, 23 March...University Press, 2002. 4. Quoted in Claudia Ma´rguez Linares, Encuesta informal sobre la atencio´n me´dica primaria en Cuba. CubaNet, 23 March 2001

  9. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  10. para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Eloy García de la Figal Costales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base del análisis de la aplicación del plan de estudio «C Perfeccionado» (cuarta versión de Mecanización Agropecuaria, desde 1999 se determina como objetivo el diseño del plan de estudio de la nueva carrera de Ingeniería Agrícola para Cuba, mediante la precisión del encargo social en las nuevas condiciones, la preparación profesional existente en el ámbito mundial y nacional y las tendencias mundiales en el desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica, empleando la metodología del diseño curricular por objetivos. Se determinaron: el objeto de estudio y de la profesión; principales problemas a resolver; campos de acción; modo de actuación; esferas de actuación y el Modelo del Profesional, siendo su objetivo más general: explotar los sistemas de ingeniería agrícola para los procesos tecnológicos y biotecnológicos de la producción agropecuaria sostenible. El plan posee como currículo básico el 79,62 % y el 40,04 % de práctica laboral e investigativa, ambos respecto al total de horas de 5 594.

  11. Geotehnical Properties of Plastic Stabilized Lateritic Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Akinola Johnson Olarewaju

    2016-01-01

    Stabilization is the combination of soils and additives to change its properties and remain in its stable compacted state without undergoing any change under effect of exposure to weather and traffic. Soil stabilization through the reinforced soil construction is an efficient and reliable technique for improving the strength and stability of soils. The lateritic soil used in this study was taken along Papa-Ilaro road Ajegunle at Abalabi, Ogun State, Nigeria and the solid plastic wastes were t...

  12. Permeability of lateritic soil by various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tavares Rodriguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil Permeability is an important property of soil used to dimension several types of engineering works, and it can be quantified by the permeability rates. Despite of the great use, the type of the re doubts about the best way to determine de permeability rates. The main questions are: (1 the type of the method and (2 the reproducibility of samples in tropical soils. So, the objective of this work is to evaluate the permeability of a lateritic soil by comparing values of permeability coefficient determined for laboratory and in situ testing. For this, it was chosen the lateritic soil of Campo Experimental de Engenharia Geotécncia (CEEG of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL and four equipments: constant and variable head permeameters, Guelph permeameter and infiltrometer. The results show that all the methods present mean value of permeability coefficient on the order of 10-3 cm/s whit variation coefficient in range of 37% to 92% , except the constant permeameter. The heterogeneous structure of lateritic soil (in macro and micro pores is the probably determinant of the variability observed.

  13. Geotehnical Properties of Plastic Stabilized Lateritic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinola Johnson Olarewaju

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stabilization is the combination of soils and additives to change its properties and remain in its stable compacted state without undergoing any change under effect of exposure to weather and traffic. Soil stabilization through the reinforced soil construction is an efficient and reliable technique for improving the strength and stability of soils. The lateritic soil used in this study was taken along Papa-Ilaro road Ajegunle at Abalabi, Ogun State, Nigeria and the solid plastic wastes were taken from different locations in Ilaro. The plastics were grounded into pellets and substituted with laterite at 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% for compaction test and at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% for California bearing ration (CBR test. The tests conducted in line with BS 1377 (1990 are the specific gravity, compaction and CBR. From the results, it was also observed that plastic pellets reduce the bulk densities and dry densities in the same proportion as the percentage water content increases. From the results, it is hereby suggested that plastic pellets could be mixed with lateritic material around underground pipes to mitigate the effects of accidental explosions. Consequently, environmental risk and hazards caused by plastic wastes and accidental explosions could be greatly reduced.

  14. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiaohong; ZHU Lijun; GUO Baiwei; HE Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(Ⅱ) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of latedte to Hg(Ⅱ). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(Ⅱ). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(Ⅱ) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(Ⅱ). The amount of adsorbed Hg(Ⅱ) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(Ⅱ) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(Ⅱ) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(Ⅱ) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200μg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(Ⅱ) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(Ⅱ) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(Ⅱ) from wastewater.

  15. Indicadores vinculados a las funciones asistenciales de los servicios farmacéuticos comunitarios en las regiones Central y Oriental de Cuba Indicators of assistance functions of drug store services at the community in the central and eastern regions of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Fernández Manzano

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron y calcularon indicadores relacionados con la población, cantidad de farmacias, clasificación, existencia de Formulario Nacional de Medicamentos y Manual de Procedimientos de 1 044 farmacias comunitarias, ubicadas en las provincias centrales y 4 provincias de la región Oriental de Cuba, con el objetivo de conocer si existen las condiciones adecuadas que permitan el ejercicio de la atención farmacéutica en este territorio. Para ello se calculó el índice de farmacias por 10 000 habitantes, y habitantes por farmacia. Se procesó la información obtenida a partir de un modelo de recogida de datos, utilizado en la Supervisión Nacional , realizada a las farmacias incluidas en el estudio entre febrero y diciembre de 2004. Mediante la aplicación de la prueba de comparación de porcentajes y MAPINFO (Programa para el Diseño de Mapas, se detectó que existe gran déficit de unidades de farmacias en relación con el número de habitantes por provinciaSome indicators, which are related to population, number of drug stores, classification, the presence of the National Drug Formulary and the Manual of Procedures in 1 044 community drug stores located in the central provinces and in four provinces of the eastern region of Cuba, were identified and estimated to find out the adequate conditions making application of pharmaceutical care possible in these territories. To this end, the index of drug stores per 10 000 inhabitants and the number of inhabitants per drug store were calculated. Information from a data collection model, which was used in the national supervision of the drugstores included in the study from February to December, 2004, was processed. The application of the percentage comparison test and MAPINFO (Map Design Program detected that there was a shortage of drugstores with respect to the number of inhabitants per province

  16. Stabilized Lateritic Blocks Reinforced With Fibrous Coir Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Sreekumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tropical countries are rich in lateritic soil, a naturally available raw material for building construction. But its potential in block making is not yet satisfactorily explored. This paper focuses on an experimental investigation for improvising stabilized lateritic blocks (SLB with coir cutting wastes from coir industry as reinforcing elements. Lateritic soil used in this study showed a higher percentage of clay content. Hence it was pre-stabilized with sand and cement. Blocks were prepared by stabilizing it further with waste fibrous additives and tested for strength and durability. Considerable improvement in strength (compressive strength @19% and tensile strength @ 9% and durability characteristics were exhibited by the new fiber reinforced lateritic blocks (FRLB with fiber content of 0.5%. These blocks can be successfully proposed for load bearing construction and as well as for earthquake resistant structures

  17. CPAFFC Delegation in Cuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Cuban Institute of Friendship with the Peoples and the Cuba-China Friendship Association,a CPAFFC delegation headed by Zhang Enxiang,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Jilin Provincial People’s Congress and honorary president of the Jilin Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries,paid a friendly visit to Cuba from May 29 to June 3,during which it participated in the celebrations of the 160th anniversary of the Chinese arrival in Cuba.

  18. Variaciones en la condición nutricional de langostas Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la región este del Golfo de Batabanó, Cuba Variations of the nutritional condition of lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Eastern region of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lopeztegui Castillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, la región del Golfo de Batabanó es la más importante zona de pesca de langosta debido a que de ella se extrae anualmente alrededor del 70% de la captura nacional. Con el objetivo de determinar variaciones espacio-temporales en la condición nutricional (K de langostas Panulirus argus del Golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, se calculó dicha condición mediante una relación pesolargo (K=Pt/Lt, para lo que se utilizaron ejemplares de cuatro zonas (uno, dos, cuatro y cinco del este del golfo, capturados en los años 1981 y 2010. Se encontró que en todos los casos analizados la condición nutricional fue significativamente mayor en machos que en hembras. Se detectaron variaciones significativas entre zonas en 1981 y 2010. También entre años el estado nutricional de las langostas presenta variaciones significativas, de manera que en 1981 (2.34±0.84g/mm fue mayor que en 2010 (1.96±0.49g/mm. Tanto las variaciones interzonales como las interanuales parecen estar relacionadas con variaciones reportadas en el tipo de fondo y la cobertura vegetal. Variaciones estacionales en la abundancia y distribución de organismos bentónicos que constituyen alimento para las langostas también podrían estar influyendo. Las diferencias entre sexos en cambio, se suponen consecuencia de la metodología utilizada y del dimorfismo sexual característico de esta especie, por cuanto otros métodos de estimación de K que no involucran mediciones morfométricas, no detectan estas diferencias.Variations of the nutritional condition of lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Eastern region of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Nutritional condition can affect survival and growth rate of crustaceans, and this is mostly affected by habitat conditions. This study describes the space-temporary nutritional changes in this commercially important species. With this aim, the variations in the nutritional condition (K of lobsters from four zones (1, 2, 4 and 5 in the Gulf

  19. How Cuba Fought Illiteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    This article describes the successful effort to reduce illiteracy in Cuba by sending young student teachers into the rural areas to teach reading to workers in isolated spots throughout the country. (JD)

  20. Las Mayacaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquiola Cruz, Armando J.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the genus Mayaca Aublet in Cuba are discussed. M. aubletii is confirmed as a distinct species, and a key, illustrations and distribution maps of M. aubletii and M. fluviatilis are included.Se discute la problemática del género Mayaca Aublet en Cuba. Se revalida Mayaca aubletii Michaux, y se ofrecen una clave, ilustraciones y mapa de distribución de M. aubletii y M. fluviatilis.

  1. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  2. Metallogenic Features and Metalogenic Model of Laterite Gold Deposits in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The modern laterite gold deposits in southern China, which belong to reworked laterite deposits, can be further divided into three subclasses and seven types. Their geological features, ore-forming conditions and regularities are discussed. A geologic-geochemical metallogenic model for laterite gold deposits has been established.

  3. Performance of Cement Containing Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bukhari, Z. S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of different industrial waste, by-products or other materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, fly ash, limestone, and kiln dust, etc. as supplemen- tary cementing materials has received considerable attention in recent years. A study has been conducted to look into the performance of laterite as Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM. The study focuses on compressive strength performance of blended cement containing different percentage of laterite. The cement is replaced accordingly with percentage of 2 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % by weight. In addition, the effect of use of three chemically different laterites have been studied on physical performance of cement as in setting time, Le-Chatlier expansion, loss on ignition, insoluble residue, free lime and specifically compressive strength of cement cubes tested at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The results show that the strength of cement blended with laterite as SCM is enhanced. Key words: Portland cement, supplementary cementing materials (SCM, laterite, compressive strength KUI – 6/2013 Received January 4, 2012 Accepted February 11, 2013

  4. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  5. Characterization of nickel laterite reduction from Pomalaa, Sulawesi Tenggara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhamdani, Ahmad Rizky; Petrus, Himawan T. B. M., E-mail: bayu.petrus@ugm.ac.id; Fahrurrozi, Moh. [Material and Mineral Processing Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika 2 Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The effect of using different reductors in the reduction process of nickel laterite was investigated. In this work, the author conducted the reduction of nickel laterite ores by anthracite coal, lamtoro charcoal, and carbon raiser, in air and CO{sub 2} atmosphere, within the temperature ranged from 800°C and 1000°C. The results indicate that at higher temperatures, the reduction reactions proceed more complete. According to the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, the type of carbon used greatly influence the rate of the reduction of nickel laterite. The order of reactivity is anthracite coal, lamtoro charcoal, and carbon raiser, respectively. The reduction atmospheric condition also greatly influences the reduction process. The reduction process in CO{sub 2} atmospheric condition gives a lot of significant decrease in hematite and magnetite presence, means that the reduction reactions proceed more complete compared to the reduction process in the air atmospheric condition.

  6. Laterites-bearing REEs,Wadi Natash,Southeastern Desert,Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; El-Ahmady; Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    The present paper recorded the occurrence of laterites-bearing REEs in Natash area.Natash laterite deposits occur as horizons(5-15 m in thickness) at the boundary between the Cretaceous sandstones,and Natash flows.Laterite was recorded in more than twenty six occurrence distributed over an area of about 500 km2 along and around Wadi Natash.It ranges in color from light-grey,dark-grey to reddish-brown.The distribution of laterite deposits is structural controlled.Mineralogical results of laterites proved the...

  7. Adsorptive Removal of Copper by Using Surfactant Modified Laterite Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Duc Pham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of copper ion (Cu2+ by using surfactant modified laterite (SML was investigated in the present study. Characterizations of laterite were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, and total carbon analysis. The optimum conditions for removal of Cu2+ by adsorption using SML were systematically studied and found as pH 6, contact time 90 min, adsorbent dosage 5 mg/mL, and ionic strength 10 mM NaCl. The equilibrium concentration of copper ions was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS. Surface modification of laterite by anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS induced a significant increase of the removal efficiency of Cu2+. The surface modifications of laterite by preadsorption of SDS and sequential adsorption of Cu2+ were also evaluated by XRD and FT-IR. The adsorption of Cu2+ onto SML increases with increasing NaCl concentration from 1 to 10 mM, but at high salt concentration this trend is reversed because desorption of SDS from laterite surface was enhanced by increasing salt concentration. Experimental results of Cu2+/SML adsorption isotherms at different ionic strengths can be represented well by a two-step adsorption model. Based on adsorption isotherms, surface charge effects, and surface modification, we suggest that the adsorption mechanism of Cu2+ onto SML was induced by electrostatic attraction between Cu2+ and the negatively charged SML surface and nonelectrostatic interactions between Cu2+ and organic substances in the laterite.

  8. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    which market-type re- forms must be introduced in the economy to find a way out of Cuba’s callej6n sin salida (cul-de-sac). At issue, also, is whether...in northern Mexico. See Wayne A. Cornelius and Ann L. Craig, The Mexican Political System in Transition, San Diego: University of California , Center...special circumstances whereby his salida (exit) rebounds to Cuba’s advantage and his greater glory. For Endgame IV to start unfolding without violence

  9. Las Najadaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquiola Cruz, Armando J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of the family Najadaceae in Cuba. The presence of Najas marina, N. guadalupensis f. floridana and N. arguta var. arguta is confirmed, and the area of distribution of N. guadalupensis f. guadalupensis and N. wrightiana is extended. A general key, illustrations and distribution maps are included.Estudio de la familia Najadaceae en Cuba. Se confirma la presencia de Najas marina, N. guadalupensis f.floridana y N. arguta var. arguta, y se amplía la distribución de N. guadalupensis f. guadalupensis y N. wrightiana. Se presenta una clave general, ilustraciones y mapas de distribución.

  10. Characterization and evolution of primary and secondary laterites in northwestern Bengal Basin, West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandipan Ghosh; Sanat K. Guchhait

    2015-01-01

    It is quite impossible to travel far in India without observing the remarkable fer-ruginous crust to which Buchanan in 1807 gave the name of laterite. In Indian peninsula, it is a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession with a polycyclic nature of evolution which marks the unconformity with recent Quaternary alluvium. There are perennial problems and research gaps in the investigation of laterites in India as well as in West Bengal:(1) deifning, identify-ing and classifying lateritic materials, (2) mode of formation of laterite and its other horizons, (3) determining the ages of laterites, (4) reliability of laterites as palaeoclimatic indicators, (5) identifying topographic requirements and pedogeomorphic processes for laterite formation, and (6) reconstructions of former lateritized landscapes. The formation of north-south lateritic hard crust (i.e. Rarh Bengal) on the Rajmahal Basalt Traps, Archean granite-gneiss, Gond-wana sediments, Paleogene gravels and older deltaic alluvium is analyzed here to resolve the aforesaid problems and to depict the variable characteristics of laterites with special reference to its tectono-climatic evolution in the northwestern marginal part of Bengal Basin. This paper reveals that the low-level secondary laterites (probably the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene age) of Rarh Bengal are composed of heterogeneous Fe-Al rich gravelly materials which were derived from the high-level primary laterites (probably the Eocene-Miocene age) of plateau since the Paleogene Period by the peninsular river system, following the underlying structure of Bengal Basin. Alongside the roles of drifting of Indian Plate, establishment of monsoon climate, neo-tectonic uplifts and re-lateritization of ferruginous shelf deposits are determined here to unearth the palaeogenesis of primary and secondary laterites in West Bengal.

  11. Fluoride removal by adsorption on thermally treated lateritic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefyalew Gomoro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of lateritic soils to remove fluoride from water has been studied. Important issues considered in the study include the relation between the mineral composition of soils and their ability to remove fluoride, the effect of thermal treatment of the soil on fluoride removal; the predominant fluoride containing species remain in the treated water and the possible mechanism of fluoride removal by lateritic soils. The fluoride removal capacity of thermally treated lateritic soils used in this study is in the range of 22 to 47 mmol/kg. The maximum capacity of 47 mmol/kg was obtained for RGS fired at 500 oC. The results obtained indicate that there is strong correlation between fluoride removal capacity and gibbsite content of the soil. From this it can be concluded that gibbsite is the active component in lateritic soils that strongly influence the fluoride removal capability. Speciation analysis reveals that at low initial fluoride concentrations the dissolution of gibbsite is facilitated by the adsorption of fluoride onto gibbsite. This may result in the formation of aluminum fluoro complexes in water.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i3.5

  12. Cuba, cultures contemporaines

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Les principaux thèmes de ce numéro consacré à Cuba portent sur la culture insulaire contemporaine appréhendée dans une double perspective : depuis Cuba et également depuis l’exil. Pour le volet cubain, le dossier comprend : une étude des carnets de l’universitaire française Wanda Lekszycka rédigés pendant la période spéciale en temps de paix ; une approche de la revue culturelle et patrimoniale Opus Habana, actuellement produite et éditée par la Oficina del Historiador de la Ciudad de La Haba...

  13. Cuba confronts climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Among environmental problems, climate change presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. Changes in climate and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological changes, extreme weather events, water quality and rising sea levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions.

  14. Cuba on our minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Rutheiser

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Conversatons with Cuba. C. PETER RIPLEY. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1999. xxvi + 243 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 Real Life in Castro's Cuba. CATHERINE MOSES. Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 2000. xi + 184 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 The Cuban Way: Capitalism, Communism, and Confrontation. ANA JULIA JATAR-HAUSMANN. West Hartford CT: Kumarian Press, 1999. xvii + 161 pp. (Paper US$21.95 Castro and the Cuban Revolution. THOMAS M. LEONARD. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. xxv + 188 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Cuba has attracted a great deal of attention from both scholarly and popular authors since 1959. The literature that they have produced has generated much heat, but has shed a considerably smaller amount of light. Most accounts have been situated at the polar extremes of ideology, either condemning or celebrating the island's revolutionary experiment and its maximum leader (for the former is often virtually totally collapsed into the personage of Fidel Castro with the same degrees of vociferous, simplistic certitude. However, neither the fulminating diatribes of the anti-Castro Right nor the fulsome paeans of the Euro-American Left have done much justice to making sense of the complex, confounding, and contradictory realities of Cuban society before, during, and after the Revolution. Indeed, contemporary developments have only magnified the distortions rendered by the astigmatic lenses of cold war intellectualism.

  15. Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Cement Stabilized Laterite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa ALHASSAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Laterite soil collected from Maikunkele area of Minna, classified as an A-7-6 on AASHTO classification, was stabilized with 2-8% cement by weight of the dry soil. Using British Standard Light (BSL compaction energy, the effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA on the soil was investigated with respect to compaction characteristics, California Bearing Ratio (CBR and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS tests. Results obtained, indicate a general decrease in Maximum Dry Density (MDD and increase in Optimum Moisture Content (OMC, all with increase in RHA Content (2-8% at specified cement contents. There was also a tremendous improvement in the CBR and UCS with increase in the RHA content at specified cement contents to their peak values at between 4-6% RHA. The UCS values also improved with curing age. This indicates the potentials of using 4-6% RHA admixed with less cement contents for laterite soil stabilization.

  16. Clean Development Mechanism: Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zaighum Abbass

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 a major Green House Gas (GHG in the atmosphere, is believed to be largely responsible for global climate change through industrial emissions. The level of CO2 concentration has exponentially increased from about 280 ppm at the start of the industrial revolution to about 380 ppm to date. Although Kyoto protocol has bound industrialized nations to reduce green house gas emissions by 5.2% below 1990 levels around year 2008-2012, but violation continues. The cement industry is one of the major emitter of green house gases, particularly CO2 due to its energy intensive production process. It is estimated that approximately 1 tone of CO2 is released during the manufacturing of each tone of Portland cement. Most of CO2 emissions originate from burning fossil fuels and de-carbonization of limestone in a cement plant. During past several decades, the use of by-product materials in concrete, either as components of blended cements or as admixtures, has increased significantly. In this study, another alternate Supplementary Cementing Material (SCM, Laterite has been used with the objectives: to evaluate the performance of cement containing different percentages of laterite (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 %; to identify the optimum replacement percentage; and to investigate the effects of different concentrations of laterite on various properties of cement. For that purpose, laterite was tested: before blending (for elemental and mineralogical composition by using XRF, SEM and XRD: after blending (Elemental analysis using XRF, fineness test by using Blaine’s air permeability test and for particle size % on 45, 90 and 200 µ sieve, respectively; and after hydration (for mineralogical analysis using SEM. Furthermore, physical tests of manufactured cement, i.e., water consistency, setting time, Le-Chatlier-expansion and compressive strength were also evaluated and compared with limestone and fly-ash cement blends. The results show that with the

  17. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma "Who Will Emerge as Cuba’s Next Leader"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    38 Olivo Verde, Defense of the Socialist Homeland, 6 March 1986. 26 MajGen Frias LtGen Espinosa MajGen Sola Cuban forces.39 The FAR is...comprised of three separate branches: the Army (Ejercito 150,000 troops strong), the Navy [Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria (MG) 5,000 troops strong] and...Cintro Frias , and is headquartered in Havana. The Eastern Army Corps, is led by General Ramon Espinosa Martin, and is headquartered in Santiago de Cuba

  18. The Geochemical Features and Evolution of Laterite in the Karst Areas of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立军; 林进也

    1996-01-01

    Guizhou is one of the dominating karst regions,where laterite is widespread,in China.Seventy-two laterite samples were taken from twelve laterite sections in the karst areas of Guizhou Province,which are possessed of typical subtropical karst geomphological and ecological environmental features and have evolved completely from dolostones and limestones.In terms of the major,trace and REE deta for thd samples this paper discusses the geochemical characteristics of laterite in the karst areas with an attempt to disclose the geochemical process and evolutionary rule of laterite formation.There have been involved three important pedogenetic geochemical precesses in the formation of laterite in the karst areas:(1)enrichment of silicon and aluminum and depletion of calcium and magnesium;(2)enrichment of iron and manganese;and(3) enrichment of aluminum and depletion of silicon.During the formation and evolution of laterite,obvious enrichment and differentiation of trace elements such as Cu,Pb,Zn,Ni,Co,Cr,Pb,F,Cl,and As can be observed,but for the rare-earth elements,their enrichment is remarkable against a weak differentiation.The REE distribution patterns in the laterite are similar to those of its parental carbonate rocks.

  19. Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Seshadri

    Full Text Available In recent times, several new species of amphibians have been described from India. Many of these discoveries are from biodiversity hotspots or from within protected areas. We undertook amphibian surveys in human dominated landscapes outside of protected areas in south western region of India between years 2013-2015. We encountered a new species of Microhyla which is described here as Microhyla laterite sp. nov. It was delimited using molecular, morphometric and bioacoustics comparisons. Microhyla laterite sp. nov. appears to be restricted to areas of the West coast of India dominated by laterite rock formations. The laterite rock formations date as far back as the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and are considered to be wastelands in-spite of their intriguing geological history. We identify knowledge gaps in our understanding of the genus Microhyla from the Indian subcontinent and suggest ways to bridge them.

  20. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro; Opportunity for foreign petroleum investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects.

  1. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  2. Arsenic sorption onto laterite iron concretions: temperature effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partey, Frederick; Norman, David; Ndur, Samuel; Nartey, Robert

    2008-05-15

    We investigated arsenate and arsenite sorption onto laterite iron concretions (LIC) to test its suitability for use in the low-tech treatment of arsenic-bearing drinking water. Batch experiments on crushed LIC from Prestea, Ghana were conducted at a series of temperatures, ionic strengths, and pHs. The point of zero net charge on laterite iron concretion was determined by potentiometric titrations yielding an average pHp(ZNC) around 8.64. Experiments show that sorption capacity for both arsenite and arsenate increase with temperature. The equilibrium sorption capacity for arsenite was larger than that for arsenate over the 25 to 60 degrees C temperature range. A Langmuir model satisfactorily fits the arsenite and arsenate sorption isotherm data. Both arsenite and arsenate sorbed over the pH range of natural waters. Arsenite sorption increases with increasing solution pH to a maximum at pH 7, then decreases with further increase in solution pH. Arsenate sorption, on the other hand, shows little change with increasing solution pH. Increasing solution ionic strength 10-fold results in a slight increase in sorption. Ionic strength experiments show that an inner-sphere sorption mechanism is responsible for As (V) sorption on LIC, while As (III) sorption is by an outer-sphere mechanism. Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees) for arsenite and arsenate sorption onto LIC was calculated from Langmuir isotherms; the negative values agree with reaction spontaneity. The positive values of the standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees) show the endothermic nature of arsenite and arsenate sorption onto LIC. Positive entropy (DeltaS degrees) values suggest the affinity of LIC for the arsenic species in solution. Analysis of the arsenic sorption data suggests that LIC can be used for low-tech natural-materials arsenic water treatment. Laterite iron concretions have a number of advantages for this use over commercial materials, including the ability to remove arsenic from waters with a wide

  3. Contratados peninsulares para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Ante las presiones británicas, la metrópoli española y los ideólogos de los hacendados cubanos tuvieron que dar, desde la tercera década del siglo XIX, una respuesta a la previsible escasez de mano de obra esclava. El artículo estudia los sistemas de contrata implantados en la isla para abastecer de mano de obra blanca y barata a Cuba, deteniéndose particularmente la autora en el estudio de las condiciones de semiesclavitud que se escondían en las mencionadas contratas y en el perfil de los inmigrantes (profesiones, sexo, edad, procedencia....

  4. Cuba's kidney transplantation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, Alexander; Pérez, Alexis; Pérez de Prado, Juan C; Fernández-Vega, Silvia; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Arce, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    The first kidney transplant in Cuba was performed on 24 February 1970, using a cadaveric donor. In 1979, living donor kidney transplantation began between first-degree relatives. A total of 2775 patients are enrolled in renal replacement therapy in 47 hospitals across the country, 1440 of whom are awaiting kidney transplantation. Organs for the kidney program are procured in 63 accredited hospitals equipped for multidisciplinary management of brain death. Accordingly, over 90% of transplanted kidneys are from cadaveric donors. Identification of potential recipients is carried out through a national, computerized program that affords all patients the same opportunity regardless of distance from a transplant center, and selection of the most suitable candidate is based primarily on HLA compatibility. KEYWORDS Chronic renal failure, kidney transplantation.

  5. Treatment of landfill leachate by using lateritic soil as a natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafalni; Lim, Han Khim; Ismail, Norli; Abustan, Ismail; Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Ahmad, Anees

    2012-12-15

    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate.

  6. A study on the adsorption of chromium on laterite from Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiaohong; ZHU Lijun; GUO Baiwei; HE Shouyang

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Cr(VI) on laterite from Guizhou Province were studied in this paper, and the adsorption mechanism was discussed as well. Results showed that different mineral compositions in the laterite would cause differences in the capacity of laterite to absorb Cr(VI). Gibbsite, iron oxide minerals and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the capacity of laterite to absorb Cr(VI). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Cr(VI) on laterite. Acidic environment (pH=2-5) is favorable to the adsorption of Cr(VI). The amount of adsorbed Cr(VI) decreases with increasing pH of the solution. With increasing initial concentrations of Cr(VI), the amount of adsorbed Cr(VI) increases first, and then decreases. The optimal adsorption concentration of Cr(VI) on laterite is 250 μg/mL. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on laterite is a rapid process, about 80% Cr(VI) will be adsorbed within 2 hours. And the adsorption of Cr(VI) on kaolinite is a slow process.

  7. Phases transformation of nickel lateritic ore during dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Q.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The high magnesium nickel laterite ore need first be dehydrated if it is treated by the pirometallurgical means. The nickel laterite ore was dehydrated in a laboratory scale sintering pot in this study. The dehydration mechanism was studied by using the thermo-gravimetric (TG tests, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD experiments. The measurements indicated that chlorite (Fe,Mg,Al6(Si,Al4O10(OH8 and serpentine Mg21Si12O28(OH34H2O are the primary phases, while FeO(OH and (Fe,Mg,3Si4O10(OH2 are the minor phases in the ore. The water in the ore can be divided as free water, crystal water, and hydroxyl group. During the heating process, the temperature range for the removal of the free water is 25~140˚C, for the crystal water it is 200~480 ˚C, and for the hydroxyl group it is 500~800˚C. The experiments with various coal dosages show that the temperatures of off-gas and burden increase with an increase in coal dosage. The sinter samples were analyzed using XRD. The results demonstrated that olivine (Mg,Fe2SiO4 and spinel MgFe2O4 are the main bonding phases.

  8. Efficient Utilization of Nickel Laterite to Produce Master Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Cui, Zhixiang; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-12-01

    To lower the smelting temperature associated with the carbothermic reduction processing of laterite, the optimization of slag and alloy systems was investigated to enable the reduction of laterite ore in the molten state at 1723 K. The master Fe-Ni-Mo alloy was successfully produced at a lower temperature (1723 K). The liquidus of the slag decreased with the addition of oxide flux (Fe2O3 and CaO) and that of the ferronickel alloy decreased with the addition of Mo/MoO3. More effective metal-slag separation was achieved at 1723 K, which reduces the smelting temperature by 100 K compared with the current electric furnace process. A small addition of Mo/MoO3 not only decreased the melting point of ferronickel alloys but also served as a collector to aggregate the ferronickel sponges allowing them to grow larger. The FeO concentration in the slag and the nickel grade of the alloy decreased with increasing graphite reductant addition.

  9. 15 CFR 746.2 - Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cuba. 746.2 Section 746.2 Commerce and... § 746.2 Cuba. (a) License requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export Administration Act of... subject to the EAR) to Cuba, except as follows. (1) License Exceptions. You may export or reexport...

  10. Río, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó como estudio de caso en el ambiente de Viñales, Pinar del Río, Cuba con el objetivo de seleccionar material genético de especial valor para la conservación y mejoramiento de la especie; a partir de nueve procedencias, encontrando diferencias significativas entre procedencias para las variables altura, diámetro y ramificación. Se clasificaron las procedencias en grupos de calidad A, B, C y D, recomendando los grupos A y B para el desarrollo de la especie en estos sitios de baja fertilidad. El coeficiente de variación cambió 29.5 y 44.8 %, siendo los parámetros altura y diámetro los de mayor variabilidad, así la selección debe tener estas características, seleccionando como procedencias superiores Marbajita, Cajálbana, El Burén, Los Palacios, La Jagua, La Güira y Juan Manuel.

  11. Studies in neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the middle Eocene Saramaguacan formation of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A.; Cozadd, D.; Areces-Mallea, A.; Frederiksen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacan flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

  12. A Study of Compressive Strength Characteristics of Laterite Sand Hollow Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Olanipekun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental investigations carried out on partial replacement of sand with laterite as it affects the compressive strength of sandcrete hollow blocks. Two mix proportions (1:6 and 1:8 were used with laterite content varying between 0 and 50% at 10% intervals. Hand and machine compaction methods were used. Curing was done by sprinkling water on the specimens. The results showed that for each mix proportion and compaction method, the compressive strength decreases with increase in laterite content. Machine compacted hollow sandcrete blocks made from mix ratio 1:6 and with up to 10% laterite content is found suitable and hence recommended for building construction having attained a 28-day compressive strength of 2.07N/mm2 as required by the Nigerian Standards.

  13. Contribution from coastal laterites to the nearshore placers of central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Srinivas, K.

    The heavy mineral placers with variable concentrations of ilmenite and magnetite occur in the surface and in the sub-surface sediments of many bays along central west coast of India. These sediments are associated with pebbles of laterite...

  14. Radiotracer evaluation of laterite and coal-ash dust discharged into the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thereska, J.; Cuci, T.; Spahiu, P.; Plasari, E. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tirane (Albania). Tracer Section

    1993-12-31

    In Elbasan steel plant a large quantity of dust is discharged into the environment by laterite fluidized bed calciner and the coal boiler for steam production. By means of radiotracers the erosion of the laterite in the fluidized bed calciner was estimated experimentally. Based on the experimental data a mathematical model has been constructed for the erosion, which permits calculation of the mass of the dust deriving from erosion when the granulometric composition of the mineral on entry to the calciner is known. The efficiency of two types of cyclones in laterite calciner and coal boiler, for three granulometric classes of laterite dust and coal-ash was studied. Ways of reducing the quantity of dust discharged into environment are proposed.

  15. Macrofungi in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Greeshma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study on macrofungi in scrub jungles (with and without fire-impact in lateritic region of southwestern coast of India was carried out.  Out of 11 species in 10 genera recovered, six and five species were confined to scrub jungle and fire-impacted scrub jungle, respectively.  An ectomycorrhizal Amanita sp. was the most frequent in scrub jungle associated with exotic (Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium and plantation (Anacardium occidentale trees.  Based on traditional knowledge, it is a highly edible and nutritional delicacy in the coastal regions.  Astraeus odoratus was another common ectomycorrhizal fungus in native trees Hopea ponga, which was recovered from the fire-impacted scrub jungle and is possibly edible.  Edible termite mound mushroom Termitomyces striatus was also common in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  Chlorophyllum molybdites was the most frequent mushroom in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  

  16. Nature and properties of lateritic soils derived from different parent materials in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Tzu-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils.

  17. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsing Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils.

  18. Acid Resistance of Concrete Containing Laterite Aggregate as Partial Coarse Aggregate Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthusamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, issues of granite aggregate depletion in future due to increasing use in concrete industry and the availability of laterite aggregate locally has initiated studies on concrete produced using laterite aggregate as partial coarse aggregate replacement. Although, replacement of laterite aggregate up to 30% able to produce concrete with the targeted strength but durability of this concrete towards acid attack yet to be investigated. Thus, this study presents and discusses the performance of concrete consisting various percentage of laterite aggregate integrated as partial coarse aggregate replacement upon exposure to acidic environment. Mixes consisting various content of laterite aggregate as partial coarse aggregate replacement ranging from 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively were prepared in form of cubes and then subjected to water curing for 28 days before immersed in hydrochloric acid solution for 1800 h. Performance of the specimens were observed through mass loss and strength reduction. Generally, durability performance of concrete produced using up to 20% of laterite aggregate is comparable to plain concrete.

  19. The genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe (Araneae: Sicariidae) in Cuba and Hispaniola, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2013-10-30

    The three known species of the genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe from Cuba and Hispaniola are revised and two new species, Loxosceles maisi sp. nov. and Loxosceles mogote sp. nov., are described from the eastern region of Cuba. These new species are included in the reclusa group, and are considered close to Loxosceles taino Gertsch & Ennik as they have a greatly thickened male palpal tibia, a projecting cymbium, and large receptacles in the female genitalia. The distribution ranges of the known Cuban and Hispaniolan species are extended.

  20. The Hydraenidae of Cuba (Insecta: Coleoptera) III. Description of two new hygropetric species of Hydraena Kugelann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Delgado, Juan A

    2017-04-07

    Two new species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 collected from hygropetric habitats in eastern Cuba are described: Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) blancae sp. nov. from the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain range, and Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) matthiasi sp. nov. from the Sierra Maestra mountain range. Both species, especially the latter, are closely related to Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) franklyni Deler-Hernández & Delgado, 2012. Diagnostic characters for both new species are provided and illustrated; habitat information and distributional data are also included. An updated key to Cuban species of Hydraena is provided. With this study, the number of species of Hydraena known from Cuba raises to six.

  1. Alternative interpretation for the active zones of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Mario Octavio Cotilla

    2014-11-01

    An alternative explanation to the seismoactivity of Cuban faults is presented. The model is a consequence of the interaction between Caribbean and North American plates. It is made with 12 geodynamic cells form by a set of 13 active faults and their 14 areas of intersection. These cells are recognized morpho-structural blocks. The area between Eastern Matanzas and Western Cauto-Nipe is excluded because of the low level of seismic information. Cuba has two types of seismogenetic structures: faults and intersection of faults.

  2. Where Does Cuba Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-14

    124,9 202.4 EEC 137.7 184.4 245.6 209.8 393,2 437.7 10682 Spain 8. 84.9 61,5 86.0 Eastern Europa 4686.4 5161.5 4627.2 4680.2 4518.2 4069,0 27751.5...Nacionec Unidas, Comislon Economics pars America Latina y El Cadbe, Balance Prellminar de /a Economia de America Latin y El Caribe, LC/G.1751, 18

  3. Salida, voz y hostilidad en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. COLOMER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Utilizando las categorías analíticas de Hirschman de "salida", "voz" y "lealtad", se realiza un análisis de los flujos migratorios de Cuba hacia Estados Unidos durante el régimen revolucionario y del desarrollo de la oposición anticastrista en la isla. En particular, se discute el esquema de Hirschman y su utilidad para analizar las interacciones entre los gobiernos de Estados Unidos y de Cuba y para interpretar las sucesivas oleadas de "salida" desde Cuba hacia Estados Unidos.ABSTRACT: This article analyzes emigration from Cuba to the United States after the the 1959 revolution by using Hirschman's concepts of "exit", "voice" and "loyalty." It also analyzes the development of the anti-Castro opposition within Cuba. In particular, this article uses Hirschman's key concepts in order to interprete the relationships between Cuban and the Unisted States and to examine emigration from Cuba to United States.

  4. Salida, voz y hostilidad en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. COLOMER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Utilizando las categorías analíticas de Hirschman de "salida", "voz" y "lealtad", se realiza un análisis de los flujos migratorios de Cuba hacia Estados Unidos durante el régimen revolucionario y del desarrollo de la oposición anticastrista en la isla. En particular, se discute el esquema de Hirschman y su utilidad para analizar las interacciones entre los gobiernos de Estados Unidos y de Cuba y para interpretar las sucesivas oleadas de "salida" desde Cuba hacia Estados Unidos.ABSTRACT: This article analyzes emigration from Cuba to the United States after the the 1959 revolution by using Hirschman's concepts of "exit", "voice" and "loyalty." It also analyzes the development of the anti-Castro opposition within Cuba. In particular, this article uses Hirschman's key concepts in order to interprete the relationships between Cuban and the Unisted States and to examine emigration from Cuba to United States.

  5. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its represe...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  6. Advances in microbial leaching processes for nickel extraction from lateritic minerals - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behra, Sunil Kumar; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine Floribert [Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, (South Africa)

    2015-08-15

    Lateritic nickel minerals constitute about 80% of nickel reserves in the world, but their contribution for nickel production is about 40%. The obstacles in extraction of nickel from lateritic minerals are attributed to their very complex mineralogy and low nickel content. Hence, the existing metallurgical techniques are not techno-economically feasible and environmentally sustainable for processing of such complex deposits. At this juncture, microbial mineral processing could be a benevolent approach for processing of lateritic minerals in favor of nickel extraction. The microbial mineral processing route offers many advantages over conventional metallurgical methods as the process is operated under ambient conditions and requires low energy input; thus these processes are relatively simple and environment friendly. Microbial processing of the lateritic deposits still needs improvement to make it industrially viable. Microorganisms play the pivotal role in mineral bio-processing as they catalyze the extraction of metals from minerals. So it is inevitable to explore the physiological and bio-molecular mechanisms involved in this microbe-mineral interaction. The present article offers comprehensive information about the advances in microbial processes for extraction of nickel from laterites.

  7. Rate of kaolinite transformation in lateritic soils of the middle Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, E.; Allard, T.; Fritsch, E.; Selo, M.; Falgueres, C.; Chabaux, F.; Pierret, M.; Calas, G.

    2006-05-01

    The rate of kaolinite transformation in lateritic soils is a key parameter to understand the dynamics of tropical environments. Slow rates may support the use of the isotopic composition of kaolinite in paleoclimatic reconstructions. In contrast, high rates of dissolution and precipitation support a significant contribution of kaolinite to the biogeochemical cycles of Si and Al. We have investigated the kaolinite transformation in a lateritic profile of the middle Amazon basin using infrared spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance. The upward decrease of kaolinite structural order indicates the dissolution of underlying sedimentary kaolinites and the more recent precipitation of soil kaolinites. A direct assessment of the age of kaolinites was obtained using their concentration in radiation induced defects (RID), which accumulate in the mineral structure over the course of time. The underlying sedimentary kaolin provides apparent ages older than 20 Ma, whereas kaolinite samples from the lateritic soil provide apparent ages ranging from 10 to 6 Ma. The high RID content of these lateritic kaolinites implies that they cannot be representative of present day weathering conditions. Their contribution to the rapid biogeochemical cycling of silica in lateritic topsoils is thus questionable.

  8. Potential use of lateritic and marine clay soils as landfill liners to retain heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalermyanont, Tanit; Arrykul, Surapon; Charoenthaisong, Nanthanit

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a lateritic soil and a marine clay, typical of those found in hot and humid climatic regions, was assessed for use as a landfill liner material. A series of tests were conducted - physical and chemical, batch adsorption, column, hydraulic conductivity, etc., - to evaluate the heavy metal sorption capacity, chemical compatibility of hydraulic conductivity, and transport parameters of the soils. Experimental results showed that the marine clay had better adsorption capacity than that of the lateritic soil and that its hydraulic conductivity was an order of magnitude lower. In addition, the hydraulic conductivities of both soils when permeated with low concentration heavy metal solutions were below 1x10(-7)cm/s. When permeated with Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni solutions, the retardation factors of the lateritic soil and the marine clay ranged from 10 to 98 and 37 to 165, respectively, while the diffusion coefficients ranged from 1.0x10(-5) to 7.5x10(-6) and 3.0 to 9.14x10(-7)cm2/s, respectively. For both soils, Cr and Pb were retained relatively well, while Cd, Zn, and Ni were more mobile. The marine clay had higher retardation factors and lower diffusion coefficients, and its hydraulic conductivity was more compatible with Cr solution, than that of the lateritic soil. In general, the properties of the marine clay indicate that it has significant advantages over the lateritic soil as landfill liner material.

  9. Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Laterite Treated with Iron Ore Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Sa’eed Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of iron ore tailings (IOT on hydraulic conductivity of compacted laterite. The IOT conforms to ASTM C 618-15 Type F designations. In the present study, soil was admixed with 0–20% IOT and compacted at moulding water content ranging from 10 to 25% using four types of compactive efforts. Hydraulic conductivities of the compacted soil-IOT mixtures were determined using deionized water and municipal solid waste leachate as the permeant fluids, respectively. Deionized water was the reference permeant fluid. Results of this study showed that hydraulic conductivity decreased with increase in IOT content as a result of improvement in mechanical properties of the soil. Permeation of the soil-IOT mixtures with leachate caused the hydraulic conductivity to drop to less than 1 × 10−9 m/s especially at higher compactive efforts. Also, bioclogging of the soil pores due to accumulation of biomass from bacteria and yeast present in the leachate tends to significantly reduce the hydraulic conductivity. From an economic point of view, it has been found from the results of this study that soil specimens treated with up to 20% IOT and compacted at the British Standard Light (BSL compactive effort met the maximum regulatory hydraulic conductivity of less than or equal to 1 × 10−9 m/s for hydraulic barrier system.

  10. Recovery of nickel from low grade laterite by electrochemical leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Gyu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Oh, Jong-Kee [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-06-30

    A study on the recovery of nickel from low-grade laterite is carried out by the electrochemical leaching. The results show that the leaching reaction of Ni and Fe increases with time until 60 minutes, after which the leaching rate decreases. The leaching efficiencies of Ni and Fe are 73% and 64% at 2 hr. reaction, respectively. And current density plays an important role in the leaching rate of nickel, but power consumption increases with increase of current density which proportionally corresponds to nickel leaching. Also, the leaching efficiency of nickel appears to decrease in a small amount with increasing solid density. However, so as to reduce power consumption solid density has to be raised so long as the stirring intensity is not restricted due to heavy load. When the pH of the leaching solution is increased to 6.0, iron and nickel are remaining about 10% and 90% of initial concentrations in the leaching solution, respectively. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  11. Playing Business "Ball" with Cuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Gong Liming

    2007-01-01

    @@ If you were lucky enough to have seen the World Volleyball Tournament,you must have seen the Cuban Women's volleyball team take on China in the championship game,a game of which Cuba has become the world champion for 10 times.The great determination and strong tenacity of these young Cuban girls' has been an encouragement to everyone that watches them play.

  12. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  13. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada a cabo de un estudio referativo sobre el envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba, cuyos objetivos son, profundizar en las diferentes aristas del tema así como valorar las dimensiones del mismo, para lo cual se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico y empírico. Entre los resultados obtenidos se encuentra diseño de un trabajo referativo que abarca doce dimensiones del envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba. La realización de este documento facilita el estudio del tema ya que permite profundizar en el contenido sobre Adulto Mayor visto como un sistema desde múltiples aristas.

  14. Relict Oceanic Lithosphere in Cuba: Types and Emplacement Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    CobiellaReguera, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    thrusted upon a southern continental mass (Escambray massif) due to the Albian collision with the volcanic arc. Ophiolites of the northern belt were probably derived from both, the small Late Jurassic- Early Cretaceous oceanic depression and the Aptian-Albian marginal basin. Several distinct episodes of tectonic emplacement of the ophiolites in the northern belt are recognized. a) Late Campanian: first clasts of serpentinites and other ophiolitic rocks in sediments derived from subaerial erosion in western Cuba (obduction?). Closing of the small oceanic basin located between the North American paleomargin and a second, Late Cretaceous, volcanic arc, with a south dipping (present coordinates) subduction zone. b) Late Maastrichtian: thrusting upon the volcanic arcs terrane in eastern Cuba (obduction?). Coeval movements probably were developed in western Cuba. c) Late Paleocene-Middle Eocene: thrusting upon the foreland basin, related to Cuban orogeny in western and central Cuba. d) Late Middle or Late Eocene: Recorded in a single locality along the Caribbean coast in easternmost Cuba and related to the first strike slip movements along the Oriente fault, with the development of a new Caribbean/North American plate boundary.

  15. Durability of Laterite/Sand Hollow Blocks in Magnesium Sulphate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATA Olugbenga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exposure of laterite/sand block to magnesium suphate environment were studied. Change in compressive strength of machine compacted hollow block specimens of mix 1:6 and 10% laterite content were measured after 56 days of continuous immersion in 1%, 3% and 5% of magnesium sulphate solutions. Test results showed that the compressive strength significantly reduced with increase in magnesium sulphate concentration and immersion period. Laterite/sand block made with ordinary Portland cement cannot be recommended for use in sulphate-laden environment since it produced a compressive strength of less than 2.07N/mm2 , as required by the Nigerian Standards, after 28 days of immersion in magnesium sulphate solution.

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Selective Reduction of a Nickeliferous Limonitic Laterite Ore by Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R.; Pickles, C. A.

    2017-09-01

    Nickeliferous limonitic laterite ores are becoming increasingly attractive as a source of metallic nickel as the costs associated with recovering nickel from the sulphide ores increase. Unlike the sulphide ores, however, the laterite ores are not amenable to concentration by conventional mineral processing techniques such as froth flotation. One potential concentrating method would be the pyrometallurgical solid state reduction of the nickeliferous limonitic ores at relatively low temperatures, followed by beneficiation via magnetic separation. A number of reductants can be utilized in the reduction step, and in this research, a thermodynamic model has been developed to investigate the reduction of a nickeliferous limonitic laterite by hydrogen. The nickel recovery to the ferronickel phase was predicted to be greater than 95 % at temperatures of 673-873 K. Reductant additions above the stoichiometric requirement resulted in high recoveries over a wider temperature range, but the nickel grade of the ferronickel decreased.

  17. Evaluation of Plasticity and Particle Size Distribution Characteristics of Bagasse Ash on Cement Treated Lateritic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullahi MU'AZU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateritic soil was treated with 1-4% cement contents and was admixtured with 2-8% bagasse ash content. The paper evaluated the plasticity and particle size distribution characteristic of bagasse ash on cement treated laterite. It was observed that liquid limit and plasticity index reduced while plastic limit increased. As regards the particle size distribution, the was reduction in the percentage of fines as a result of formation of heavier pseudo- and particle with percentage passing BS Sieve No. 200 reduced from 63% to almost zero. However the recommended percentage of bagasse ash should be between 4%-6%.

  18. Time for a New Cuba Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    government took over leadership of the island. The newly elected leader of Cuba, Estrada Palma , was forced by the United States Congress to rule under...providing oil on preferential terms, and it currently supplies about 100,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Cuba has been paying for the oil

  19. Surgidero de Batabanó Harbor, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, R.; Van Kessel, L.; Lendering, K.; Oud, M.; Tromp, R.

    2011-01-01

    The harbor of Surgidero de Batabano is a harbor that lies in the Gulf of Batabano in the South-Western part of Cuba. It serves as a connection between the main land of Cuba and the islands 'Isla de la Juventud' and Cayo Largo. The Batabano harbor suffers from sediment accretion. The accretion of sed

  20. Surgidero de Batabanó Harbor, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, R.; Van Kessel, L.; Lendering, K.; Oud, M.; Tromp, R.

    2011-01-01

    The harbor of Surgidero de Batabano is a harbor that lies in the Gulf of Batabano in the South-Western part of Cuba. It serves as a connection between the main land of Cuba and the islands 'Isla de la Juventud' and Cayo Largo. The Batabano harbor suffers from sediment accretion. The accretion of

  1. Psychology and Health Care in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Averasturi, Lourdes

    1980-01-01

    Describes the orientation and development of professional psychological services in Cuba since the 1959 revolution. Discusses the integration of psychological services with educational and primary health services. Also describes research trends and the relationship between psychology and psychiatry in Cuba. (GC)

  2. Mechanistic and Kinetic Analysis of Na2SO4-Modified Laterite Decomposition by Thermogravimetry Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    Full Text Available Nickel laterites cannot be effectively used in physical methods because of their poor crystallinity and fine grain size. Na2SO4 is the most efficient additive for grade enrichment and Ni recovery. However, how Na2SO4 affects the selective reduction of laterite ores has not been clearly investigated. This study investigated the decomposition of laterite with and without the addition of Na2SO4 in an argon atmosphere using thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS. Approximately 25 mg of samples with 20 wt% Na2SO4 was pyrolyzed under a 100 ml/min Ar flow at a heating rate of 10°C/min from room temperature to 1300°C. The kinetic study was based on derivative thermogravimetric (DTG curves. The evolution of the pyrolysis gas composition was detected by mass spectrometry, and the decomposition products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The decomposition behavior of laterite with the addition of Na2SO4 was similar to that of pure laterite below 800°C during the first three stages. However, in the fourth stage, the dolomite decomposed at 897°C, which is approximately 200°C lower than the decomposition of pure laterite. In the last stage, the laterite decomposed and emitted SO2 in the presence of Na2SO4 with an activation energy of 91.37 kJ/mol. The decomposition of laterite with and without the addition of Na2SO4 can be described by one first-order reaction. Moreover, the use of Na2SO4 as the modification agent can reduce the activation energy of laterite decomposition; thus, the reaction rate can be accelerated, and the reaction temperature can be markedly reduced.

  3. Use of Cement-Sand Admixture in Laterite Brick Production for Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olufemi AGBEDE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Laterite was modified with 45% sand content by dry weight and stabilized with up to 9% cement content respectively and used in the production of 330 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm bricks through the application of a pressure of 3 N/mm2 with a brick moulding machine. Results showed that laterite used in this study cannot be stabilized for brick production within the economic cement content of 5% specified for use in Nigeria. However, bricks made with laterite admixed with 45% sand and 5% cement attained a compressive strength of 1.80 N/mm2 which is greater than the specified minimum strength value of 1.65 N/mm2. Cost comparison of available walling materials in Makurdi metropolis showed that the use of bricks made from 45% sand and 5% cement resulted in a saving of 30 - 47% when compared with the use of sandcrete blocks while the use of fired clay bricks resulted in a savings of 19% per square meter of wall. The study therefore recommends the use of laterite bricks in Makurdi and other locations because it is more economical and environmental friendly than fired clay bricks.

  4. The physical and mechanical properties of laterite gravels from southeastern Nigeria relative to their engineering performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, C. O.

    Laterite gravels are used extensively as aggregates for highway construction, concrete making and fills in SE Nigeria. This paper presents results of laboratory investigations carried out to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of these gravels. High mechanical strength, as measured by aggregate crushing (AC), and Los Angeles abrasion (LAA) values were found to be significant factors controlling the performance. Results indicate that significant correlations exist between these and specific gravity, water absorption and angularity of the gravels. No clear distinction in physical and mechanical properties could be found between the laterite gravels formed over sandstones and shales, indicating perhaps that effects of parent rock on the physical and mechanical nature of laterite gravels is of secondary importance. It is proposed that laterite gravels with AC and LAA values in the range of 30-40% and 34-45%, respectively and 10% fines value of between 8 and 4 tonnes be used only for medium and light trafficked roads. Those with AC and LAA values of less than 30% and 34%, respectively and 10% fines value of greater than 8 tonnes can be used for heavily trafficked roads, provided that acceptable gradation, plasticity limits (on the fines) and other construction specifications are met.

  5. Performance of Laterite-Cement Blocks as Walling Units in Relation to Sandcrete Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Isiwu AGUWA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the performance of laterite-cement blocks as walling materials in relation to those of sandcrete was conducted, for the purpose of establishing a cheaper building material in Minna, Niger state, Nigeria and surrounding towns, in the present ever increasing cost of building material. An A-2-6 laterite according to the AASHTO classification system was stabilized with 0-10% cement content by weight of the soil at a constant interval of 2% to produce 20 blocks of size 100mm × 100mm × 100mm for each mix. One hundred laterite-cement blocks were produced, cured under laboratory conditions and subjected to compressive strength test at 7, 14, 21, and 28-days of age, in five applications for each cement mix ratio. The average compressive strength was determined from five blocks crushed in each mix at every age of curing and the same procedure was repeated using sandcrete blocks. At a common cement content of 6%, the compressive strengths, densities, water absorption and the cost per square metre of wall for both types of blocks were determined. The study recommends the use of laterite-cement blocks as walling materials in Minna and environs because it has better engineering properties and more economical with a saving of 30% per square metre of wall when compared with the use of sandcrete blocks.

  6. Kinetics study of carbon raiser on the reduction of nickel laterite from Pomalaa, Southeast Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, H. T. B. M.; Rhamdani, A. R.; Putera, A. D. P.; Warmada, I. W.; Yuliansyad, A. T.; Perdana, I.

    2016-11-01

    As one of the top ten on nickel laterite ore resources in the world, Indonesia must have been initiating the nickel processing in total amount of about 1.5 million tonnes. In regard to the low nickel laterite processing, one of the possible product is nickel pig iron (NPI) needed for the stainless steel industries. In this study carbon raiser that is waste from oil industries was used to replace metalurgical coke. The kinetic of nickel laterite reduction using carbon raiser was studied and compared with anthrasite coal. In this work, the author conducted the reduction of nickel laterite ores by both carbon raiser and anthrasite coal as reductant, in air and CO2 atmosphere, within the temperature ranged from 800°C and 1000°C. Two models were applied, sphere particle geometry model and Ginstling-Brounhstein diffusion model, to study the kinetic parameters. The results indicated that type of reductants and reduction atmosphere greatly influence the kinetic parameters. The obtained values of activation energy were varied between 17.44-18.12 kcal/mol.

  7. Geochemical,Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiru, Mohammed; Kumral, Mustafa; Kocaturk, Huseyin; Gumus, Lokman; Kaya, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    The obduction and tectonically emplacement of ophiolite during late Cretaceous in the Goynukbelen terrane has acted as a potential source for the enrichment of nickeliferous laterite. These ultramafic rocks are highly susceptible to intense chemical and mechanical weathering which are very unstable at surface environment. The lithologies of the rock unit consist of Dunite and peridotite which are unstable and metamorphosed serpentinite and lizardite which are stable ore forming minerals. The laterite is formed as a result of weathering of the above rock types with interplaying role of climate and topography. The terrane provides the ingredients for the association of laterites. The geochemical, petrological and mineralogical associations of low grade laterite samples that are related to nickeliferous mineralization, the lithological profile of the area were studied looking at the different possible areas of enrichment of such a deposit. Weathering of olivine rich ultramafic rocks result in the breakdown of Magnesium and Silica which are replaced in the lattice with Nickel and Iron are precipitate as ferric hydroxide which form oxide deposit. Nickel bearing mineralogy, hydrous magnesium silicate, smectite, Violarite which is a supergene sulfide mineral that indicate weathering and oxidation of primary pentladite, ullmannite which replaces awaruite in it mineral form, Nickeline,Trevorite, Rammelsbergite and gerdoffite also seen. Petrographic indication shows that serpentinization benefic the Nickeliferous ore forming process as they provide adequate texture and porosity for water channel that facilitate the hydrolysis which breakdown silica, increasing the instability of the rock while paving a way for the formation of lizardite which is an ore forming mineral. From the geochemical analyses the Nickel concentration ranges from 1000-4000PPM. Nickeliferous laterite indicates a supergene enrichment which is favour by the ultramafic parent rock, climate and topography

  8. Nickel-cobalt laterites: a deposit model: Chapter H in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric J.; Gray, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are supergene enrichments of Ni±Co that form from intense chemical and mechanical weathering of ultramafic parent rocks. These regolith deposits typically form within 26 degrees of the equator, although there are a few exceptions. They form in active continental margins and stable cratonic settings. It takes as little as one million years for a laterite profile to develop. Three subtypes of Ni-Co laterite deposits are classified according to the dominant Ni-bearing mineralogy, which include hydrous magnesium (Mg)-silicate, smectite, and oxide. These minerals form in weathering horizons that begin with the unweathered protolith at the base, saprolite next, a smectite transition zone only in profiles where drainage is very poor, followed by limonite, and then capped with ferricrete at the top. The saprolite contains Ni-rich hydrous Mg-silicates, the Ni-rich clays occur in the transition horizon, and Ni-rich goethite occurs in the limonite. Although these subtypes of deposits are the more widely used terms for classification of Ni-Co laterite deposits, most deposits have economic concentrations of Ni in more than one horizon. Because of their complex mineralogy and heterogeneous concentrations, mining of these metallurgically complex deposits can be challenging. Deposits range in size from 2.5 to about 400 million tonnes, with Ni and Co grades of 0.66–2.4 percent (median 1.3) and 0.01–0.15 percent (median 0.08), respectively. Modern techniques of ore delineation and mineralogical identification are being developed to aid in streamlining the Ni-Co laterite mining process, and low-temperature and low-pressure ore processing techniques are being tested that will treat the entire weathered profile. There is evidence that the production of Ni and Co from laterites is more energy intensive than that of sulfide ores, reflecting the environmental impact of producing a Ni-Co laterite deposit. Tailings may include high levels of

  9. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  10. Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez Iglesias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La región nororiental de Cuba, que abarca el norte de los territorios de las provincias Las Tunas, Holguín y Guantánamo, posee un potencial arqueológico de alrededor de 220 sitios, de ellos se posee información zooarqueológica de 35 localidades. Esta información se ha reunido en un sistema de información geográfica(SIG denominado Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba, que permite el manejo de los datos a través de entradas como: nombre del sitio, coordenadas, provincia, municipio, categoría, filiación, lista de taxones presentes (Moluscos, Crustáceos, Peces, Reptiles, Aves, Mamíferos, número de especies respectiva a cada taxón, fechado del sitio, persona y fecha en que fue trabajado. Este levantamiento zooarqueológico ofrece además, una aproximación del uso de los recursos faunísticos por parte de las comunidades aborígenes, en esta área geográfica, así como datos sobre el uso de especies extintas, variaciones en la distribución de especies en el pasado, cuestión tratada en el presente trabajo.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks and Laterite Interlocking Blocks as Walling Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Ayinde Raheem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the production and testing of sandcrete hollow blocks and laterite interlocking blocks with a view to comparing their physical characteristics and production cost. Some units of sandcrete hollow blocks and laterite interlocking blocks were made using machine vibrated sandcrete block mould and hydraulic interlocking block making machine respectively. The blocks were tested to determine their density and compressive strength. The results obtained from the tests were compared with the specifications of Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (2006, Nigerian Building Code (2006, and Nigerian Industrial Standards (2000. The results indicated that the compressive strength of 225mm and 150mm sandcrete hollow blocks varies from 1.59 N/mm2 to 4.25 N/mm2 and 1.48N/mm2 to 3.35N/mm2 respectively, as the curing age increases from 7 to 28 days. For laterite interlocking blocks, the strength varies from 1.70N/mm2 at 7 days to 5.03N/mm2 at 28 days. All the blocks produced satisfied the minimum requirements in terms of compressive strength, by all available codes. The cost per square metre of 225mm and 150mm sandcrete hollow blocks are ₦2,808:00 and ₦2,340:00 respectively, while that of laterite interlocking blocks is ₦2,121:20.It was concluded that laterite interlocking blocks have better strength and are cheaper than sandcrete hollow blocks.

  12. Arsenic adsorption of lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuthiphun, L.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic adsorption efficiency of soil covering materials (lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil obtained from Ronpiboon District, Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province tosolve arsenic air pollution problem was investigated using batch experiments. The four types of the aforementioned soil covering materials were examined to determine their arsenic adsorption efficiency, equilibriumtime as well as adsorption isotherms.The results revealed that among soil covering materials mixed with arsenic-contaminated soil at 10% w/w, the efficiency of arsenic adsorption of fly ash, lateritic soil, lime and limestone powder were 84, 60,38 and 1% respectively. The equilibrium time for lateritic soil at pH 4 was achieved within 4 hrs, whereas pH 7 and 12, the equilibrium time was 6 hrs. For fly ash, 2 hrs were required to reach the equilibrium at pH 12, while the equilibrium time was attained within 6 hrs at pH 4 and 7. Furthermore, lateritic soil possessedhigh arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 7 and 4 and best fit with the Langmuir isotherm. The fly ash showing high arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 12 and 7 fit the Freundlich isotherm at pH 12 and Langmuirisotherm at pH 7.This indicated that lateritic soil was suitable for arsenic adsorption at low pH, whilst at high pH,arsenic was well adsorbed by fly ash. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm could be used to determine quantities of soil covering materials for arsenic adsorption to prevent arsenic air pollution from arseniccontaminated soils.

  13. Sistema de salud de Cuba The health system of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez-Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Cuba y el sistema cubano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, su gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, y las actividades de rectoría e investigación que desarrolla. También se discute la importancia de sus instituciones de investigación y se describe el papel de los usuarios de los servicios en la operación y evaluación del sistema, así como las actividades que en este sentido desarrollan la Federación de Mujeres Cubanas y los Comités de Defensa de la Revolución. La parte final de este trabajo se dedica a discutir las innovaciones más recientes dentro de las que destacan las redes de cardiología, la Misión Milagro y la Batalla de Ideas.This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas.

  14. The Beginning of Semiconductor Research in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltfort, Theodore

    I was invited to Cuba in 1962 to initiate some efforts in semiconductor development. I had been a physicist and senior research engineer with various electronic companies of the "Silicon Valley" of California, south of San Francisco. I had heard of the efforts made by the new revolutionary government of Cuba to advance the level of science and technology, and I was anxious to see what I could do to help.

  15. Cuba: A Short Critical Bibliographic Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basosi, Duccio

    An island with a population of approximately eleven million citizens, Cuba has been the topic of a huge amount of books and articles by scholars, politicians, artists, tourists and—why not?—foreign undercover agents. A random search in a well-known on-line bookshop gives some 118,000 results for the island's name. In brief, to present a selection of basic works on Cuba is a very harsh task that necessarily leads to difficult choices.

  16. The Curious Case of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    As health professionals in the United States consider how to focus health care and coverage to ensure better, more equitable patient and population health outcomes, the experience of Cuba’s National Health System over the last 5 decades may provide useful insights. Although mutual awareness has been limited by long-term political hostilities between the United States and Cuban governments, the history and details of the Cuban health system indicate that their health system merits attention as an example of a national integrated approach resulting in improved health status. More extensive analysis of the principles, practices, and outcomes in Cuba is warranted to inform health system transformation in the United States, despite differences in political-social systems and available resources. PMID:22698011

  17. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  18. Becoming a Chemist in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Hessy L.

    2003-08-01

    Education in Cuba is a national priority. Overall, the population is skilled and motivated to use all available resources; furthermore teachers are dedicated and focused on their mission. This paper reports on information obtained as a result of visits to several secondary schools and three premier institutions of higher learning: the University of Havana, the Higher Polytechnic Institute "Jose Antonio Echevaria", and an Institute for Pedagogy. University tuition is free for all Cubans: students can not work for a salary during the typical five-year program of post-secondary study and instead serve as interns in government, industry, or schools. Experience working abroad is encouraged upon graduation. An overview of Cuban university admissions criteria, some specific programs of study, and placement of students in career jobs upon graduation is presented.

  19. Laterite Based Stabilized Products for Sustainable Building Applications in Tropical Countries: Review and Prospects for the Case of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlin B. Tchamba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateritic soils are formed in the tropics through weathering processes that favor the formation of iron, aluminum, manganese and titanium oxides. These processes break down silicate minerals into clay minerals such as kaolinite and illite. Iron and aluminum oxides are prominent in lateritic soils, and with the seasonal fluctuation of the water table, these oxides result in the reddish-brown color that is seen in lateritic soils. These soils have served for a long time as major and sub-base materials for the construction of most highways and walls of residential houses in tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Civil engineering applications of these lateritic soils are continually being developed with the use of different types of stabilizers. The stabilized soil-based products are as such viewed as environmentally-friendly and low-cost energy materials for sustainable building applications. This work aims at presenting a global view of what has been done in the field of lateritic soil improvement for construction purposes in tropical countries such as Cameroon. This shall be discussed through the presentation of the structure, composition and properties of lateritic soils, the various ways of improving their properties for construction purposes, the properties of products obtained and other prospects.

  20. Pediatric Gastroenterology in Cuba: Evolution and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Guillot, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION This is a historical review based on document analysis. Institutional sources from the National Gastroenterology Institute and Ministry of Public Health were reviewed, as well as international and national literature on the history of pediatric gastroenterology and unpublished texts since its emergence in 1972. DEVELOPMENT Although pediatric gastroenterology has not been formally recognized as a medical specialty in Cuba, there have been important achievements in establishing a network of specialized health care services for digestive diseases of children and adolescents. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and other auxiliary diagnostic modalities have been introduced for children and play a major role in clinical trials and research. This article describes the international context that promoted the specialty's development in Cuba. Reference is made to specialized training from its initial stages in 1972, its consolidation as an emerging discipline in Cuban medicine, and its diffusion in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Professional development and specialized training to meet health human resource needs in pediatric hospitals are described, as well as Cuban participation in the Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. National and international milestones, publications, awards and recognitions that indicate advances despite difficulties are also

  1. Extraction of nickel from Ramu laterite by sulphation roasting-water leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Du, Shangchao; Liu, Guo; Tang, Jianwen; Lu, Yeda; Lv, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Recovery of nickel from a PNG nickel laterite with high content of iron by a sulphation roasting-water leaching has been studied. The influences of sulfuric acid/ore ratio, temperature of roasting and water on recovery efficiency were investigated. The effective separation of nickel over the co-existed elements including iron was achieved by the process with mixing, curing, roasting and leaching stages. Near 100% of nickel was leached from the roasted laterite by water at 80°C in an atmospheric air, while co-leaching of about 2% of iron, under the optimal pre-treatment conditions with the ratio of acid: ore around 0.45:1 and the roasting temperature about 650°C. The advantages and disadvantages of sulphation atmospheric leaching are compared with pressure acid leaching with engineering consideration.

  2. Comparative study of laterite and bentonite based organoclays: implications of hydrophobic compounds remediation from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Muhammad; Waseem, Amir; Khan, Abdur Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Four cost effective organoclays were synthesized, characterized, and studied for the sorption of hydrophobic compounds (edible oil/grease and hydrocarbon oil) from aqueous solutions. Organoclays were prepared by cation exchange reaction of lattice ions (present onto the surface of laterite and bentonite clay minerals) with two surfactants, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HDTMA-Cl) and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (TDTMA-Br). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of synthesized organoclays. It was found that the amount of surfactant loading and the nature of the surfactant molecules used in the syntheses of organoclay strongly affect the sorption capacity of the clay mineral. Further, it was found that both the laterite and bentonite based organoclays efficiently removed the edible and hydrocarbon oil content from lab prepared emulsions; however, the adsorption capacity of clay mineral was greatly influenced by the nature of hydrophobic compounds as well.

  3. Effects of physical properties on electrical conductivity of compacted lateritic soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Bai; Lingwei Kong; Aiguo Guo

    2013-01-01

    Natural soils of various types have different electrical properties due to the composition, structure, water content, and temperature. In order to investigate the electrical properties of lateritic soil, electrical con-ductivity experiments have been conducted on a self-developed testing device. Test results show that the electrical conductivity of laterite increases with the increase of water content, degree of saturation and dry density. When the water content is below the optimum water content, the electrical conductivity of soils increases nonlinearly and the variation rate increases dramatically. However, when the water content, degree of saturation, or dry density increases to a certain value, the electrical conductivity tends to be a constant. In addition, soil electrical conductivity increases with the increase of temperature, and it is observed that the electrical conductivity decreases with the increase of the number of wetting-drying cycles.

  4. Comparative Study of Laterite and Bentonite Based Organoclays: Implications of Hydrophobic Compounds Remediation from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nafees

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cost effective organoclays were synthesized, characterized, and studied for the sorption of hydrophobic compounds (edible oil/grease and hydrocarbon oil from aqueous solutions. Organoclays were prepared by cation exchange reaction of lattice ions (present onto the surface of laterite and bentonite clay minerals with two surfactants, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HDTMA-Cl and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (TDTMA-Br. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of synthesized organoclays. It was found that the amount of surfactant loading and the nature of the surfactant molecules used in the syntheses of organoclay strongly affect the sorption capacity of the clay mineral. Further, it was found that both the laterite and bentonite based organoclays efficiently removed the edible and hydrocarbon oil content from lab prepared emulsions; however, the adsorption capacity of clay mineral was greatly influenced by the nature of hydrophobic compounds as well.

  5. Phase transformation in reductive roasting of laterite ore with microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Yong-feng; ZHAI Xiu-jing; FU Yan; MA Lin-zhi; LI Bin-chuan; ZHANG Ting-an

    2008-01-01

    Selective reduction of laterite ores followed by acid leaching is a promising method to recover nickel and cobalt metal, leaving leaching residue as a suitable iron resource. The phase transformation in reduction process with microwave heating was investigated by XRD and the reduction degree of iron was analyzed by chemical method. The results show that the laterite samples mixed with active carbon couple well with microwave and the temperature can reach approximate 1 000 ℃ in 6.5 min. The reduction degree of iron is controlled by both the reductive agent content and the microwave heating time, and the reduction follows Fe2O3→Fe3O4→FeO→Fe sequence. Sulphuric acid leaching test reveals that the recoveries of nickel and iron increase with the iron reduction degree. By properly controlling the reduction degree of iron at 60% around, the nickel recovery can reach about 90% and iron recovery is less than 30%.

  6. Removal of cesium ions from aqueous solution by adsorption onto local Taiwan laterite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.-H. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Li, M.-H. [Institute of Hydrological Sciences, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Yeh, W.-C.; Wei, Y.-Y. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Teng, S.-P. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: spteng@ess.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-12-30

    Utilization of local Taiwan laterite (LTL) to remove aqueous cesium was investigated in this work under the conditions of various contact time, cesium (Cs) loading and temperature. Experimental results show that adsorption is instantaneous. Freundlich and Langmuir simulation results demonstrate that local Taiwan laterite has high affinity and sorption capacity for Cs at low temperatures, which may be attributed to enhanced desorption as temperature increased. Thermodynamic parameters including {delta}H, {delta}G and {delta}S were calculated and it is indicated that Cs adsorption on LTL is an exothermic, spontaneous and physical adsorption reaction. Moreover, the adsorbed Cs is distributed evenly on the LTL surface, which is confirmed by SEM/EDS mapping images. Furthermore, the absence of apparent shifting or broadening of the kaolinite signal in XRD patterns after Cs adsorption is an indication of the non-expanding characteristic of kaolinite structure.

  7. Influence of Compactive Effort on Bagasse Ash with Cement Treated Lateritic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullahi MU'AZU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of a laboratory study on the influence of British Standard Light (BSL, West African Standard (WAS and British Standard Heavy (BSH compactive effort on up to 8% bagasse ash content with up to 4% cement treated lateritic soil on compaction and shear strength characteristic of laterite. The result shows decreased in Maximum Dry Density with increased in bagasse ash content and in shear strength properties there was decreased in cohesion and an increased in angle internal friction. The decreased was greater with higher bagasse ash content. However, as compactive effort increased from BSL, WAS and BSH, the value of MDD increased and OMC decreased as a result of flocculation and agglomeration of clay particle occupying larger space with a corresponding drop in dry density and because of extra water required for the pozzalanic reaction of bagasse ash and hydration of cement respectively.

  8. Preparation of zeolite NaA for CO2 capture from nickel laterite residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Du; Li-ying Liu; Penny Xiao; Shuai Che; He-ming Wang

    2014-01-01

    Zeolite NaA was successfully prepared from nickel laterite residue for the first time via a fusion-hydrothermal procedure. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized zeolite NaA were characterized with a range of experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. It was revealed that the structures of the produced zeolites were dependent on the molar ratios of the reactants and hydrothermal reaction conditions, so the synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain pure zeolite NaA. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the prepared zeolite NaA was also measured and analyzed. The results showed that zeolite NaA could be prepared with reasonable purity, it had physicochemical properties comparable with zeolite NaA made from other methods, and it had excellent gas adsorption properties, thus demonstrating that zeolite NaA could be prepared from nickel laterite residue.

  9. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RICE HUSK ASH, POWDERED GLASS AND CEMENT AS LATERITIC SOIL STABILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Ridwan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the stabilizing effects of three different materials, namely: rice husk ash, powdered glass, and cement on the properties of lateritic soil. The basic properties of the lateritic soil were first obtained through colour, moisture content determination, specific gravity, particle size distribution and Atterberg limits tests. Each of the stabilizing materials was then mixed with the lateritic soil in varying percentages of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight of the soil. Thereafter, compaction and California bearing ratio (CBR tests were carried out on the sample mixes to determine the effects of the materials on the lateritic soil. Chemical tests were also carried out on the samples to determine their percentage oxides composition. The compaction test showed that the highest maximum dry densities (MDD obtained for the mixed samples were 2.32 g/cm3 (at 2.5% cement addition, 2.28g/cm3 (at 5% powdered glass (PG addition and 2.18 g/cm3 (at 5% rice husk ash (RHA addition with corresponding optimum moisture contents (OMC of 10.06%, 14.3% and 12.31% respectively. The CBR tests showed that the CBR values increased in all cases as the materials were added with those of the cement and powdered glass giving the highest values and showing close semblance under unsoaked conditions. The chemical test showed that the significant oxides present in the cement, powdered glass and rice husk ash were CaO (53.60%, SiO2 (68.45% and SiO2 (89.84% respectively.

  10. Characterization by XPS of standard laterites; Caracterizacion por XPS de lateritas estandar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendialdua, J.; Casanova, R.; Rueda, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Mantilla, M.; Quinones, J.; Alarcon, L.; Escalante, E.; Hoffman, P. [Laboratorio de Fisica de Superficies, Dpto. de Fisica Fac. de Ciencias, ULA, Merida 5101 (Venezuela); Issam, T.; Jalowiecki, L. [Laboratoire de Catalyse Heterogene, U.R.A.C.N.R.S. No. 402, Universite des sciences et Techniques de Lille Flandres-Artois, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2003-07-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize mainly two standard laterite samples. Samples of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} were also analysed for comparison purposes. A detailed study of the O 1s band of oxygen present in these samples allowed us to obtain information which was used to distinguish clearly the samples. (Author)

  11. Structure, reactivity and spectroscopic properties of minerals from lateritic soils : insights from ab initio calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, Etienne; Lazzeri, M.; Mauri, F.; Calas, G.

    2007-01-01

    We review here some recent applications of ab initio calculations to the modelling of spectroscopic and energetic properties of minerals, which are key components of lateritic soils or govern their geochemical properties. Quantum mechanical ab initio calculations are based on density functional theory and density functional perturbation theory. Among the minerals investigated, zircon is a typical resistant primary mineral. Its resistance to weathering is at the origin of the peculiar geochemi...

  12. Evaluation of Changes in Index Properties of Lateritic Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapitus AMADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For soils to be suitable in civil engineering projects, they must meet existing local requirements for index properties in addition to certain strength criteria. Typically, specifications limit these properties to some threshold values which in most cases are project specific. Some lateritic soils in their natural state need some treatment/modification to meet these specification requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the index properties (i.e., particle size distribution, Atterberg limits and compaction characteristics of a residually derived lateritic soil following fly ash application. Lateritic soil – fly ash mixtures with up to 20% fly ash by dry weight of soil were tested and specimens for compaction characteristics were prepared at different compaction states (optimum, dry and wet of optimum moisture content and compacted using British Standard Light (BSL compactive effort. While soil – fly ash mixtures containing up to 15% fly ash classify as CL according to USCS classification system and plotted above A-line in the plasticity chart, it was observed that changes in the gradation characteristics of soil sample treated with 20% fly ash resulted in the alteration of its classification to ML as well as the crossing of the A- line to the silty region. The liquid limit (LL varied from 42.2 to 29.53% representing 70% reduction while the plasticity index (PI of specimen treated with 20% fly ash was 16% lower than that of natural soil. The optimum moisture content (OMC ranged from 17.36% for the natural soil to 18.34% for soil mixtures containing 20% fly ash which yielded dry unit weight of 17.2kN/m3 for the natural soil and 16.1kN/m3 for samples treated with 20% fly ash. From the study, useful data were obtained showing substantial and desirable changes in the properties of lateritic soil as a civil engineering material on application of fly ash.

  13. Arsenic adsorption of lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wuthiphun, L.; Towatana, P.; Arrykul, S.; Chongsuvivatwong, V

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic adsorption efficiency of soil covering materials (lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash) on arsenic-contaminated soil obtained from Ronpiboon District, Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province tosolve arsenic air pollution problem was investigated using batch experiments. The four types of the aforementioned soil covering materials were examined to determine their arsenic adsorption efficiency, equilibriumtime as well as adsorption isotherms.The results revealed that among soil cove...

  14. Indonesia Prohibited Export of Laterite Nickel Ore, China’s Nickel Industry Responded Calmly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>On January 12,the Indonesia government implemented new mining regulation to prohibit export of laterite nickel ore and other crude ores.This may cause certain impact on China’s nickel industry which is in a rapid development period.What countermeasures to adopt has become the hot spot and focal point of the nickel industry and iron & steel industry including stainless steel industry.Recently,when receiving interview from reporters of the

  15. The Effects of Laterite and Associated Terrain Components on PBMR Response in HAPEX-Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, William L.; Choudhury, Bhaskar J.; Wang, James R.

    1997-01-01

    Terrain characteristics such as roughness and vegetation have been shown to significantly affect the interpretation of microwave brightness temperatures (T(B)s) for mapping soil moisture. This study, a part of the 1992 HAPEX-Sahel experiment (Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment in the Sahel), aimed to determine the effects of laterite and associated terrain components (i.e. vegetation, soil, and exposed water bodies) on the T(B) response of the Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR, L-band, 21 cm wavelength), using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator data as a surrogate for ground data. Coincident PBMR and NS001 data acquired from the high altitude (about 1500 m) long transect flights were processed to obtain TBs and radiances, respectively. The transects covered a range of moisture conditions. For this preliminary evaluation, no atmospheric corrections were applied, and the data sets were aligned by matching the acquisition times of the data records. NS001 pixels (about 4 m) were averaged to approximate the resolution of the PBMR (about 450 m), before their flight line data were compared. The laterite plateaux were found to have a surprisingly strong effect on the PBMR T(B) response. T(B) variations along the flight line could largely be explained by a combination of density and dielectric properties of laterite. The effect of surface moisture was distinguishable from the laterite effect, with the distinction apparently related to the occurrence of ephemeral pools of water after rainfall. Model simulated T(B)s agreed reasonably well with the observed T(B)s.

  16. HISTORICAL ECOTOXICOLOGICALASSESSMENT OF SAN JUAN ECOSYSTEM, SANTIAGO DE CUBA, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argota, George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the environmental decision-making related to watershed preservation is oriented under the precepts of an historical environmental assessment. The objective of this research was to conduct a historical ecotoxicological assessment of the San Juan de Santiago de Cuba ecosystem. This was considered a systematic environmental monitoring which ran from 2010 to 2013, made q?uarterly. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, pH, total solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were determined. All parameters of environmental risk prediction were performed using the GECOTOX program. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd on three target organs (brain, gills and liver in the biomonitor adult Gambusia punctata (Poecilidae were analyzed. In this species, the effect of total protein and enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase as biomarkers were evaluated. In general, the parameters were outside the values set used by the Cuban quality standards. The GECOTOX program said that the waters of the San Juan ecosystem presented a high rate of risk. The highest concentrations of metals were determined in the gills, liver and brain, respectively. Biomarker values w? ere high, being higher for females. Finally, it was concluded that from one year to another all responses were ascending; thus, the San Juan ecosystem presented ecotoxicological effects in time.

  17. Unconventional Gas, Status and Perspectives for Its Exploration in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Orelvis Delgado López; Osvaldo López Corzo; Rafael Tenreyro Pérez; Juan Guillermo López Rivera

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this paper, is to define the unconventional gas types that can be found in Cuba andelaborate premises of perspectives areas for its exploration in Cuba. For this reason, a bibliographicrevision was done over the internet, because of the absent of textbooks and experiences of this topicin Cuba. For the enunciation of perspectives areas for unconventional gas exploration in Cuba, bothgas exploration reports in national territory and theoretical aspects elucidated over the intern...

  18. Extraction of copper from an oxidized (lateritic) ore using bacterially catalysed reductive dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancucheo, Ivan; Grail, Barry M; Hilario, Felipe; du Plessis, Chris; Johnson, D Barrie

    2014-01-01

    An oxidized lateritic ore which contained 0.8 % (by weight) copper was bioleached in pH- and temperature-controlled stirred reactors under acidic reducing conditions using pure and mixed cultures of the acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Sulfur was provided as the electron donor for the bacteria, and ferric iron present in goethite (the major ferric iron mineral present in the ore) acted as electron acceptor. Significantly more copper was leached by bacterially catalysed reductive dissolution of the laterite than in aerobic cultures or in sterile anoxic reactors, with up to 78 % of the copper present in the ore being extracted. This included copper that was leached from acid-labile minerals (chiefly copper silicates) and that which was associated with ferric iron minerals in the lateritic ore. In the anaerobic bioreactors, soluble iron in the leach liquors was present as iron (II) and copper as copper (I), but both metals were rapidly oxidized (to iron (III) and copper (II)) when the reactors were aerated. The number of bacteria added to the reactors had a critical role in dictating the rate and yield of copper solubilised from the ore. This work has provided further evidence that reductive bioprocessing, a recently described approach for extracting base metals from oxidized deposits, has the potential to greatly extend the range of metal ores that can be biomined.

  19. ESR dating of laterite from Ban Tha Ta Suea, Kanchanaburi, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwan, S; Vichaidid, T; Limsuwan, P

    2011-02-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating was carried out on laterite samples collected from Ban Tha Ta Suea, the original deposit of the laterite used in the construction of Muang Sing Historical Park. Ban Tha Ta Suea is about 6 km east of Muang Sing Historical Park in Kanchanaburi province (181 km far from Bangkok). The dose response of the g=2.0028 ESR signal was found to be suitable for age determination. An exponential saturation function was fitted to the ESR signal growth on additional γ-irradiation. Extrapolation of this function resulted in the accumulated dose 144±5 Gy. Gamma spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used to determine concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the samples from which the annual dose rate 16±2 mGy was calculated. In addition, the dose rate of cosmic rays was taken into account. The ESR age of laterite samples was found to be 9.0±0.9 ka. This age falls within the Holocene epoch of the Quaternary on the geological time scale. Samples from Muang Sing Historical Park were assigned to the same epoch. Both results agree with the geological map.

  20. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LATERITIC SOIL STABILIZED WITH SAWDUST ASH-LIME MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Segun Nnochiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the geotechnical characteristics of lateritic soil and sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixtures. Preliminary tests were carried out on the natural soil sample for identification and classification purposes. The sawdust was mixed with lime for stabilization in the ratio 2:1. This mixture was thereafter added to the lateritic soil in varying proportions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% by weight of soil. Addition of SDAL increased values of Optimum Moisture Content (OMC from 17.0% at 0% SDAL to 26.5% at 10% SDAL by weight of soil, also, values of Maximum Dry Density (MDD decreased from 2040 kg/m3 at 0% SDAL to 1415 kg/m3 at 10% SDAL. Values of Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS increased from 38.58 kN/m2 at 0% SDAL to highest value of 129.63 kN/m2 at 6% SDAL. The values of liquid limits and plasticity index of the soil were effectively reduced with the addition of the SDAL, from 54.0% at 0% SDAL to 49.0% at 10% SDAL and from 13.7% at 0% SDAL to 12.5% at 10% SDAL respectively. It was therefore concluded that the sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixture can serve as a cheap soil stabilizing agent for poor lateritic soil.

  1. ESR dating of laterite from Ban Tha Ta Suea, Kanchanaburi, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limsuwan, S., E-mail: opticslaser@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Vichaidid, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus, Pattani 94000 (Thailand); Limsuwan, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating was carried out on laterite samples collected from Ban Tha Ta Suea, the original deposit of the laterite used in the construction of Muang Sing Historical Park. Ban Tha Ta Suea is about 6 km east of Muang Sing Historical Park in Kanchanaburi province (181 km far from Bangkok). The dose response of the g=2.0028 ESR signal was found to be suitable for age determination. An exponential saturation function was fitted to the ESR signal growth on additional {gamma}-irradiation. Extrapolation of this function resulted in the accumulated dose 144{+-}5 Gy. Gamma spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used to determine concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in the samples from which the annual dose rate 16{+-}2 mGy was calculated. In addition, the dose rate of cosmic rays was taken into account. The ESR age of laterite samples was found to be 9.0{+-}0.9 ka. This age falls within the Holocene epoch of the Quaternary on the geological time scale. Samples from Muang Sing Historical Park were assigned to the same epoch. Both results agree with the geological map.

  2. Geochemical study of laterites of the Jamnagar district, Gujarat, India: Implications on parent rock, mineralogy and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, R. R.; Randive, K. R.

    2011-11-01

    The laterite deposits occur in a linear stretch along the northern Arabian Sea coast in the Jamnagar and Porbandar districts of, Gujarat state, India. These deposits are characterised by presence of gibbsite, kaoline, calcite, quartz, anatase, natroalunite, goethite and hematite, and relicts of mafic minerals and plagioclase. On the basis of petro-mineralogy and geochemistry, these deposits are grouped as aluminous laterites (Fe 2O 3 - 1.45-3.84%, Av. 3.13, Al 2O 3 - 39.31-57.24, Av. 45.80) and laterites (Fe 2O 3 - 9.84-32.21, Av. 25.13%, Al 2O 3 - 34.74-49.59, Av. 41.27). The major, trace and REE characteristics of laterites indicate that these were formed in situ by the alteration of parent rocks of trachytic/andesitic composition, and the process of bauxitisation followed the path of destruction of kaolinite and deferruginisation. The correlation patterns of several trace and rare earth elements and their preferential enrichment have indicated that there is an influence of precursor rock on the distribution of trace elements. The Jamnagar laterite deposits occur as capping over the Deccan Trap basaltic lava flows and pyroclasic deposits. Lateritisation prevailed during Palaeocene age when India was separated from the Seychelles and passing over the equator. During this time climate, morphology and drainage conditions were favourable for lateritisation that result in the formation of Jamnagar and other laterite deposits within the Deccan Province. Flood basaltic provinces of Deccan, Columbia, North Australia and Hawaii appear good location for hosting laterite deposits due to their wide areal extent, small geological time span and uniform chemical composition. However, comparison of the major flood basaltic provinces of the world has indicated that their palaeopositions along with palaeoclimate, morphology and drainage are equally important factors for facilitating lateritisation.

  3. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  4. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.570 Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. (a) Family... older are authorized to make remittances to nationals of Cuba who are close relatives, as defined...

  5. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a...

  6. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in...

  7. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has...

  8. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13...

  9. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  10. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  11. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L; Aguilar, Julio C; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  12. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  13. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  14. The peridotitic laterites of New Caledonia: a possible analogue for the Martian regolith ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzokwe, G. Y.; Ferre, E. C.; Fifarek, R.; Frima, C.

    2004-12-01

    Peridotites are very common in the Solar System where they generally form the mantle of rocky planets. On Earth, large volumes of peridotites are brought to the surface as obduction ophiolites (Oman, Newfoundland, Papua, New Caledonia). Such peridotites interact with various aqueous fluids throughout their geologic history. High temperature serpentinization (up to 600° C) begins at the ocean ridge with seawater, followed by low temperature serpentinization (below 400° C) away from the ridge. The obduction process generally leads to further alteration by continental aqueous fluids along structural discontinuities. Finally, exposure to the surface results in supergene serpentinization, the formation of weathering rinds, and the development of soils on peridotites that, particularly under hot and humid climates, leads to the formation of peridotitic laterites. The peridotitic laterites of New Caledonia provide excellent opportunities for geoscience investigations because, due to nickel mining, borehole cores through alteration profiles are available. The peridotite nappe, emplaced in the late Eocene, has an estimated thickness up to 3 km and is exposed over an area of 8000 km2. Common lithologies include harzbugite, dunite, wherlite and cumulate gabbro. Regardless of the bedrock lithology, the lateritic profiles display an increase in concentration of Fe oxides and hydroxides towards the top. The alteration paths of distinct bedrock types tend to converge toward the same mineralogy. Low-field and high-field magnetic techniques have been combined to refine the vertical zonation of the lateritic profiles into distinct horizons. Magnetite is the main component in the magnetic susceptibility budget while hematite controls the coercivity. Several distinguishing features are observed in peridotitic laterites: 1) bulbous hematite concretions, 2) reddish fine-grained hematite, 3) gray flaky specular hematite (up to 10 mm in length), 4) ferricretes and manganocretes, and 5

  15. Soil and Terrain Database for Cuba, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the SOTER

  16. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  17. A Perspective on Physics in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Carlos R.

    The author is Cuban by birth: the son of an Afro-Cuban mother and an Afro-American father. He spent the first 8 years of his life attending schools in Havana and New York City. He left Cuba in 1958 so as to gain a more uninterrupted educational experience. This led to his PhD in theoretical physics from Columbia University in 1978, followed by a post-doctoral appointment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He returned to Cuba in 1980 as a member of an academic tour organized by the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. This provided an introduction to various government-run scientific facilities in Havana and the easternmost city of "Santiago de Cuba" in the province of Oriente.

  18. Dating Amazonian laterites through the novel geochronometers kaolinite and iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Thierry; Bressan Riffel, Silvana; Gautheron, Cécile; Fernandes Soares, Bruna; Pinna-Jamme, Rosella; Morin, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Soils on Earth's surface are in constant interaction with climate. As a matter of fact, soils cannot only produce greenhouse effect gases, such as NO2 and CH4, but also behave as sinks for CO2, especially by silicate weathering. Major processes of silicate weathering are known and exhibit climatic zonation at the global scale. Laterites are particularly relevant because they are ancient and deeply weathered soils of major significance. They occupy 30 % of the continental surface and can keep records of past climates and landscape modifications (paleosurface) through specific mineral markers. These formations reach several tens of meters and are mainly composed of kaolinite, iron and aluminium oxides as well as relicts of parent minerals such as quartz and ancillary minerals. Once the major processes of laterite formation are known, their age will allow a growth of researches, owing to the implementation of various chronometers. Moreover, it is fundamental to date laterites in order to improve our understanding of soil formation related to paleoclimates, and to build predictive models of their evolution. In this study, we focus on comparing kaolinite ages with the still unknown ages of lateritic duricrusts from the central Amazon region (Brazil), where strong weathering processes were developed from the early Tertiary, after the Andean uplift. The central Amazon region displays flat areas and dissected plateaus (100-180 m a.s.l.) sustained by weathered clastic sedimentary rocks and latosols. The region contains horizons of duricrusts, relatively continuous layers of Fe-cuirasses, stratified lateritic profiles, and kaolin deposits. Here we employed two methods to date ubiquitous secondary minerals of laterite, which are consistent with geological time-scale. The corresponding geochronometers are the following: (i) radiation-induced defects in kaolinite (trapped in duricrusts) analysed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) (Balan et al., 2005), and (ii

  19. Fossil nickel laterite deposits of the Balkan region; Fossile Nickellaterit-Lagerstaetten auf dem Balkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masurenko, Christian [European Nickel PLC, London (United Kingdom); Radosevic, Branislav [Advanced Systems, Belgrade (RS)

    2008-11-15

    Acid heap leaching is common in the gold and copper industry with the majority of new copper projects being heap leaching (cyanide leaching). Although nickel is worth two to three times more than copper, the process had not been used extensively on nickel ores. The geological formation that led to the Caldag nickel deposit lends itself to heap leaching due to the low clay content of the ore. The nickel is present in the goethitic phase and is soluble in diluted sulphuric acid. The lack of clays in the laterite profile assists the percolation of the solutions through the heaps throughout the heap leach cycle, which in Caldag's case is well over a year. European Nickel has demonstrated the percolation and extraction of nickel at a large scale pilot plant continuously over a three year period, irrigating the heaps with dilute sulphuric acid and producing saleable mixed hydroxide product from the downstream precipitation plant. Compared with pyrometallurgical processes ENickel's process is environment benign and easier to control. The process does not lead to any emissions. The production of sulphuric acid even provides electricity in excess which will be, in the case of Caldag, fed into the local grid. Today, also low grade deposits such as the nickel laterite deposits of the Balkan, often with grades lower than 1.0 % Ni, become more and more interesting. ENickel has recently completed a preliminary economic assessment of the Devolli deposit in Albania. Initial results show a capital investment of approx. 369 Mio. Euro and development of more than 700 direct jobs. The capital investment is therefore five to six times smaller than compared with any pyrometallurgical process (> 2 bn Euro). During the last years ENickel tested different ore types from various deposits all over the world (e.g. Kazakhstan, Philippines, India). One can distinguish two different types of laterites. Recent laterites which occur in the tropical regions of Australia, Indonesia and the

  20. Reconnaissance paleomagnetic results from western Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Pszczolkowski, Andrzej; Shipunov, Stanislav V.

    1996-03-01

    A paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic rocks from the Sierra de Los Organos and Sierra del Rosario fold belts of western Cuba revealed postfolding magnetisation in diabases of the Late Jurassic El Sábalo Formation and carbonates of the middle Cretaceous Pons and the Late Cretaceous Carmita and Moreno formations. Steep components with inclinations of about 70° were isolated from all three formations; at the same time, postfolding shallow components were also found in a few samples of the Pons limestones. We rule out a possibility to account for these results by either horizontal movements or non-dipole field anomaly. Neither very appealing is a hypothesis of a post-remagnetization tilt of the entire region. All the components appear to be confined to a plane perpendicular to the main structural trends; we hypothesize that the remanences might have been distorted or re-aligned during deformation; this assumption, however, is far from being proven. In contrast, well-defined characteristic components were isolated from basalts of the Aptian-Albian Encrucijada ( {D}/{I} = {247°}/{23°}, K = 14, a95 = 9.0°) and the Late Cretaceous Orozco ( {D}/{I} = {228°}/{22°}, K = 110, a95 = 4.7) formations from the Bahia Honda zone in the north of western Cuba; the remanence in the Encrucijada Formation is shown to predate deformation. Mean inclinations in both formations match those in Cretaceous volcanics from central Cuba, and all the results show lower latitudes than expected from the reference data for the North American plate thus implying that volcanic domains of Cuba were displaced northward by about 1000 km prior to the Middle Eocene. Cretaceous declinations in western and central Cuba differ by about the same amount as the major structural trends of these two areas suggesting oroclinal bending of Cuba. At the same time, both areas are rotated counterclockwise with respect to North America thus implying movements on a broader scale.

  1. Spain and Cuba: A very Special Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Roy

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of political changes than include the rise and fall of the Franco regime, the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and the restoration of democracy in Spain, historical links have had and still have an influence on the continuation of a very specialrelationship between Spain and Cuba since the Spanish Civil War.Spain not only did not brake its diplomatic relation Cuba, but during the harshest periods of international isolation and ideological confrontation Madrid still became the primary economic partner of Havana in the capitalist world. Under the PSOE leadership, Spain's role in the pre-transition in Cuba, via aid and cooperation programs,impressive trade figures, and investment, has produced polemical debates with the opposition including threats of termination of aid in the event of a PP victory in the coming elections of March 1996.Spain's foreign policy toward Latin America has experienced an evolution from a policy of substitution and legitimation, to one of pressure. In the case of Cuba, justification for increased trade, aid, and political agreements seems to based on a more traditionalhistorical obligation, plus the added feature of doing fast business. However, the absence of clear accomplishments in the political arena have created a climate of frustration in Spanish diplomatic circles, which has resulted in leaks to the press and resignations.This added to the frequent verbal confrontations and discussions on the U.S. economic embargo, has converted the Cuban topic from a foreign issue to an "internal matter" of Spain. Finally, in spite of the active pressure that Spanish government has applied in Brussels during the second semester of 1995 as president of the European Union,the project of an agreement with Cuba received a delay when political liberalization did not meet European expectations.Only when the final stage of true political and economic transition takes place in Cuba, will the proper evaluation of Spain's role in

  2. Recovery of Nickel and Cobalt from Laterite Tailings by Reductive Dissolution under Aerobic Conditions Using Acidithiobacillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J; Coto, O; Goldmann, S; Graupner, T; Schippers, A

    2015-06-01

    Biomining of sulfidic ores has been applied for almost five decades. However, the bioprocessing of oxide ores such as laterites lags commercially behind. Recently, the Ferredox process was proposed to treat limonitic laterite ores by means of anaerobic reductive dissolution (AnRD), which was found to be more effective than aerobic bioleaching by fungi and other bacteria. We show here that the ferric iron reduction mediated by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans can be applied to an aerobic reductive dissolution (AeRD) of nickel laterite tailings. AeRD using a consortium of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans extracted similar amounts of nickel (53-57%) and cobalt (55-60%) in only 7 days as AnRD using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The economic and environmental advantages of AeRD for processing of laterite tailings comprise no requirement for an anoxic atmosphere, 1.8-fold less acid consumption than for AnRD, as well as nickel and cobalt recovered in a ferrous-based pregnant leach solution (PLS), facilitating the subsequent metal recovery. In addition, an aerobic acid regeneration stage is proposed. Therefore, AeRD process development can be considered as environmentally friendly for treating laterites with low operational costs and as an attractive alternative to AnRD.

  3. de la República de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ponce de León Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un esbozo de las estrategias a seguir para la inserción de la información edafológica en la Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de la República de Cuba, a partir de un análisis del estado actual de desarrollo de la cartografía digital edafológica de Cuba y del desarrollo de bases de datos de la información de perfiles de suelo asociada. Se proponen una serie de tareas para lograr estos fines

  4. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos Humanos y...Fidel, “Health Changes within the Council of Ministers,” from CubaDebate as translated by Granma International, March 3, 2009. 8 Wildredo Cancio Isla ...Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow, “Cuban

  5. Advance in Extraction of Nickel from Laterite Nickel Ore%红土镍矿提镍工艺进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    及亚娜; 孙体昌; 蒋曼

    2011-01-01

    This article introduced the present technologies for dealing with nickel -bearing laterite at home and abroad, which contained pyrometallurgical process, hydrometallurgical extraction and other technologies. It also described relative theoretical studies of the extraction technologies of nickel from laterite nickel ore. These could contribute to exploitation of low grade laterite nickel ore in the future.%介绍了目前国内外红土镍矿处理的火法工艺技术、湿法工艺技术以及其它工艺技术研究现状以及相关的理论研究工作,为今后低品位红土镍矿的开发提供参考.

  6. Palo Monte, um rito Congo em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Juntaram-se em Cuba a partir do século XVI africanos provenientes de toda a costa ocidental africana pertencentes a muitos grupos étnicos. Estes em contacto com as culturas em presença (autóctone, espanhola, portuguesa, africanas desenvolveram diversos sistemas de crença, rituais e práticas mágico-religiosas. No Século XIX o dia de Reis construía o momento mais alto da afirmação da cultura africana em Cuba. Estas manifestações eram acompanhadas da coroação de reis e rainhas Congo, figuras principais da festa e da vida social africana.Africans coming from all West Africa coasts from a large variety of ethnic groups gathered in Cuba since XVIth century. These, in contact with other cultures (native, Spanish, Portuguese, Africans developed some belief systems, rituals and magical-religious practices. On XIXth century the King’s day was the highest moment of affirmation of African culture in Cuba. These experiences were accompanied of king and queen’s crowning, principal figures of African festival and social life.

  7. Reflections on Educational Reform in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Cuban educational reforms, highlighting 1959, 1976, and 1980s initiatives. Compares Cuba's progress with John Kotter's eight-step process based on establishing a sense of urgency, creating a guiding coalition, developing and communicating the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains, and…

  8. Teaching American Diplomacy Using Primary Sources: Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Michael; Anderson, David J.; Starbird, Caroline; Ertenberg, Samantha

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to allow high school students to examine the relationship between Cuba and the United States by studying a rich collection of primary materials and classroom-ready lessons which incorporate those materials. This book contains materials from 27 primary sources, including texts of speeches before the House and Senate,…

  9. Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    1989 when Castro changed Cuba’s traditional revolutionary slogan from "Patria o Muerte ." (Fatherland or Death!) to "Socialismo o Muerte !" (Socialism...8217 prestigious government-affiliated publishing house, Fondo de Cultura Economics (FCE), has just been allowed to open an office in Havana. pretigou goermen

  10. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits.

  11. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  12. Cuba: Issues for 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-14

    Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow...park. On April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos

  13. El movimiento del Software Libre en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rodríguez Figueredo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el movimiento de Software Libre y estándares abiertos de software en Cuba, su surgimiento y evolución hasta la fecha. Se analiza además la necesidad de incorporarlo en el proceso de informatización de la sociedad cubana y lo que ha venido haciéndose en ese sentido.

  14. Historical Overview of Leprosy Control in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín-Chaple, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects the nervous system, skin, internal organs, extremities and mucous membranes. Biological, social and environmental factors influence its occurrence and transmission. The first effective treatments appeared in 1930 with the development of dapsone, a sulfone. The main components of a control and elimination strategy are early case detection and timely administration of multidrug therapy. OBJECTIVES Review the history of leprosy control in Cuba, emphasizing particularly results of the National Leprosy Control Program, its modifications and influence on leprosy control. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The historiological method was applied using document review, complemented by interviews with experts on leprosy and its control. Archived documents, medical records, disease prevalence censuses conducted since 1942, and incidence and prevalence statistics for 1960-2015 from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division were reviewed. Reports and scientific literature published on the Program and the history of leprosy in Cuba were also reviewed. DEVELOPMENT Leprosy has been documented in Cuba since 1613. In 1938, the Leprosy Foundation was created with ten dispensaries nationwide for diagnosis and treatment. The first National Leprosy Control Program was established in 1962, implemented in 1963 and revised five times. In 1972, leper colonies were closed and treatment became ambulatory. In 1977, rifampicin was introduced. In 1988, the Program instituted controlled, decentralized, community-based multidrug treatment and established the criteria for considering a patient cured. In 2003, it included actions aimed at early diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of contacts. Since 2008, it prioritizes actions directed toward the population at risk, maintaining five-year followup with dermatological and neurological examination. Primary health care carries out diagnostic and treatment

  15. Strength Characteristics of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate By Laterite Stone and Fine Aggregate by Quarry Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkata Rao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of concrete mix with partial replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust and simultaneous partial replacement of coarse aggregate by laterite stone aggregate respectively on compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and workability of concrete. Concrete mixes containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 25 % and 30%, replacement (by weight of fine aggregate with quarry dust and simultaneously 25% replacement of coarse aggregate (by weight with laterite stone were casted in lab and checked for compressive strength, split tensile strength ,flexure strength and workability .This replacement results in making the concrete more economically available.

  16. Reduction of lateritic iron ore briquette using coal bed reductant by isothermal - temperature gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhan, Zulfiadi; Himawan, David Mangatur; Dimyati, Arbi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, isothermal-temperature gradient method was used to separate iron and alumina in lateritic iron ore as an alternative technique. The lateritic iron ore was ground to obtain grain size of less than 200 mesh and agglomerated in the form of cylindrical briquette using a press machine. The iron oxide in the briquette was reduced by addition of coal so that all surface of the briquette was covered by the coal. The temperature profile for the reduction process of the briquette was divided into three stages: the first stage was isothermal at 1000°C, the second stage was temperature gradient at varies heating rate of 5, 6.67 and 8.33°C/minutes from 1000 to 1400°C, and the final stage was isothermal at 1400°C. The effect of dehydroxylation of lateritic iron ore was studied as well. Aluminum distribution inside and outside the briquette was analyzed by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The analysis results showed that the aluminum content increased from 8.01% at the outside of the briquette to 13.12% in the inside of the briquette. On contrary, iron content is higher at the outside of the briquette compared to that in the inside. These phenomena indicated that aluminum tends to migrate into the center of the briquette while iron moves outward to the surface of briquette. Furthermore, iron metallization of 91.03% could be achieved in the case of without dehydroxylation treatment. With the dehydroxylation treatment, iron metallization degree was increased up to 95.27%.

  17. The Effects of Eggshell Ash on Strength Properties of Cement-stabilized Lateritic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo U. N

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Eggshell ash obtained by incinerating Fowls’ eggshells to ash has been established to be a good accelerator for cement-bound materials and this would be useful for road construction work at the peak of rainy seasons for reducing setting time of stabilized road pavements. However this should be achieved not at the expense of other vital properties of the stabilized matrix. This is part of the effort in adding value to agricultural materials which probably cause disposal problems. Thus this study aimed at determining the effect of eggshell ash on the strength properties of cement-stabilized lateritic soil. The lateritic soil was classified to be A-6(2 in AASHTO rating system and reddish-brown clayey sand (SC in the Unified Classification System. Constant cement contents of 6% and 8% were added to the lateritic soil with variations in eggshell ash content of 0% to 10% at 2% intervals. All proportions of cement and eggshell ash contents were measured in percentages by weight of the dry soil. The Compaction test, California Bearing Ratio test, Unconfined Compressive Strength test and Durability test were carried out on the soil-cement eggshell ash mixtures. The increase in eggshell ash content increased the Optimum Moisture Content but reduced the Maximum Dry Density of the soil-cement eggshell ash mixtures. Also the increase in eggshell ash content considerably increased the strength properties of the soil-cement eggshell ash mixtures up to 35% in the average but fell short of the strength requirements except the durability requirement was satisfied.

  18. Direct reduction of low grade nickel laterite ore to produce ferronickel using isothermal - temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhan, Zulfiadi; Gibranata, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this study, low grade nickel laterite ore was processed by means of isothermal-temperature gradient method to produce ferronickel nugget. The ore and coal as reductant were ground to obtain the grain size of less than 0.25 mm and 0.425 mm, respectively. Both ground laterite ore and coal were mixed, agglomerated in the form of cylindrical pellet by using press machine and then reduced at temperature of 1000°C to 1400°C in a muffle furnace. The experiments were conducted at three stages each at different temperature profile: the first stage was isothermal at 1000°C; the second stage was temperature gradient at certain heating rate from 1000 to 1400°C; and the third stage was isothermal at 1400°C. The heating rate during temperature gradient stage was varied: 6.67, 8.33 and 10°C/minute. No fluxes were added in these experiments. By addition of 10 wt% of coal into the laterite nikel ore, product of ferronickel nugget was formed with the size varies from 1-2 mm. However, by increasing the coal content, the size of ferronickel nugget was decreased to less than 0.2 mm. The observation of the samples during the heating stage showed that ferronickel nugget grew and separated from the gangue during temperature gradient stage as it achieved the temperature of 1380°C. Furthermore, the experiment results indicated that the recovery of ferronickel can be increased at lower heating rate during temperature gradient stage and longer holding time for final isothermal stage. The highest nickel recovery was obtained at a heating rate of 6.67°C/minute.

  19. Uranium isotope composition of a laterite profile during extreme weathering of basalt in Guangdong, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Zhou, Z.; Gong, Y.; Lundstrom, C.; Huang, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rock weathering and soil formation in the critical zone are important for material cycle from the solid Earth to superficial system. Laterite is a major type of soil in South China forming at hot-humid climate, which has strong effect on the global uranium cycle. Uranium is closely related to the environmental redox condition because U is stable at U(Ⅳ) in anoxic condition and U(Ⅵ) as soluble uranyl ion (UO22+) under oxic circumstance. In order to understand the behavior of U isotopes during crust weathering, here we report uranium isotopic compositions of soil and base rock samples from a laterite profile originated from extreme weathering of basalt in Guangdong, South China. The uranium isotopic data were measured on a Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign using the double spike method. The δ238U of BCR-1 is -0.29±0.03‰ (relative to the international standard CRM-112A), corresponding to a 238U/235U ratio of 137.911±0.004. Our result of BCR-1 agrees with previous analyses (e.g., -0.28‰ in Weyer et al. 2008) [1]. U contents of the laterite profile decrease from 1.9 ppm to 0.9 ppm with depth, and peak at 160 - 170 cm (2.3 ppm), much higher than the U content of base rocks (~0.5 ppm). In contrary, U/Th of laterites is lower than that of base rock (0.27) except the peak at the depth of 160-170 cm (0.38), indicating significant U loss during weathering. Notably, U isotope compositions of soils show a small variation from -0.38 to -0.28‰, consistent with the base rock within analytical error (0.05‰ to 0.08‰, 2sd). Such small variation can be explained by a "rind effect" (Wang et al., 2015) [2], by which U(Ⅳ) can be completely oxidized to U(VI) layer by layer during basalt weathering by dissolved oxygen. Therefore, our study indicates that U loss during basalt weathering at the hot-humid climate does not change U isotope composition of superficial water system. [1] Weyer S. et al. (2008) Natural fractionation of 238U/235

  20. Microorganisms in Lianxian lateritic gold deposit in Guangdong and their effects on leaching of heavy metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Binghui; LIU Huhu; WU Fuhai; XU Wenlie

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms in the lateritic profiles of the Lianxian gold deposit in Guangdong were cultured, isolated and identified. The microorganisms include bacteria such as Bacillus, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Actinetobacter, Aeromona, Listeria, Agrobacterium, Corynebacterium, and Moraxella, fungi such as Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Saccharcomyces, Mucor, and the chemoautotrophic Thiobacillus. It is shown in a leaching experiment that the microorganisms can accelerate the leaching of Cu, Cd, Zn, and that the G - bacteria are most efficient for leaching Cu, Zn and the G + bacteria are better for leaching Cd.

  1. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tourism in Cuba or other commercial activities involving Cuba that are inconsistent with this part; and... a professional who plans to travel to Cuba. Example 1 to paragraph (e): A professor of history...

  2. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  3. Strength Performance Based on Flexibility from Laterite Soil Using Tire Powder and Micro Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Gordan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of environmental issues and human health, one of the advisable techniques to improve soil behavior is the use of scrap tires for soil structures. According to the literature, Tire-Derived Aggregates (TDA are one of the valuable materials in different field of Geotechnical that can be used. TDA properties correspond to some important factors such as high level of flexible, lightweight, high permeability and economic material comparing with sand. Strength performance based on increasing flexibility from laterite soil is the main goal of this study. For this purpose, tropical laterite soil was mixed using TDA and micro silica (MS. As a research method, unconfined tests were carried for thirteen samples based on different percentage of the additives. As a result, the significant reduction for elasticity modulus and strength was observed when soil mixed just using TDA. In addition, the rate of strain at the peak of the curve was dramatically increased. The best performance was found using 6% additives when the ratio was 3% MS and 3% TDA. In fact, the effect of MS was more to increase strength. To recommend, the seepage controlling will investigate at next.

  4. Selective leaching of nickel from prereduced limonitic laterite under moderate HPAL conditions- part I: Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure acid leaching (HPAL is the primary method for extraction of nickel from limonitic laterite. The severe operating conditions, the complexity of facilities, and several technical problems, such as scale formation, have always accompanied the HPAL, however. In this paper, the selective acid leaching of nickel from the pre-reduced limonitic laterite under moderate HPAL conditions was studied. For the calcine with reduction degree of 93.4%, about 88.2% nickel could be selectively extracted at 100°C with an acid/ore ratio of 0.164, leaving less then 5.0g/L iron in the solution. Further increase of leaching temperature, and the ensuing dehydration, transformed goethite in the leaching residue to hematite. When the temperatures were as high as 180°C, the recovery of nickel increased to 95.2%, within one hour, depressing the residual soluble iron to below 1.0g/L (pO2= 1.0 MPa, acid/ore= 0.287.

  5. Effects of Dissolved Alum on the Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Soil for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Oludolapo AMU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to study the effects of dissolved alum on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soil for road construction. Preliminary tests were performed on three samples, A, B and C for identification and classification purposes followed by the consistency limit tests. Geotechnical property tests (compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compression test and triaxial were also performed on the samples, both at the stabilized and unstabilized states by adding varying amounts of alum (5, 10 and 15g of alum/liter to the soil samples. The results show ed that the addition of alum significantly reduced the strength of the three soil samples. Maximum Dry Density (MDD increased simultaneously as the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC increased, the CBR values decreased from 15.2 to 0.9%, 13.1 to 1.3% and 14.0 to 1.2% in samples A, B and C , respectively. Shear strength values also decreased from 43 to 15, 49 to 16 and 41 to 16 kN/m2 in samples A , B and C, respectively. The study concluded that alum -soil is detrimental to the geotechnical properties of lateritic soil for road construction.

  6. Electron-Optical Characterization of Laterites Treated with a Reduction-Roast/Ammoniacal-Leach System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Dhanesh; Siemens, Richard E.; Ruud, Clayton O.

    1980-05-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, is developing a method to recover nickel, cobalt, and copper from low-grade domestic laterites in accordance with its goal to help maintain an adequate supply of minerals to meet national, economic and strategic needs. The metals are recovered by a system that incorporates selective reduction and a controlled oxidizing ammonia/ammonium sulfate leach with solvent extraction and electrowinning. To gain a better understanding of the products reduced and leached with the system, the Bureau of Mines engaged in a joint study with the Denver Research Institute. A more comprehensive application of physical and chemical analytical methods than is usually used in extractive metallurgy research was used to determine the association of nickel with other elements in the laterite under various reduction conditions and in the leached product. The study revealed that alumina and magnesia in the ore influence the formation of refractory nickel compounds which lower the extraction yield and that the addition of sulfur tends to prevent the formation of these compounds.

  7. The effects of dimensional mould sizes on volumetric shrinkage strain of lateritic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Engbonye SANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional influences of specimen size on the volumetric shrinkage strain values of a lateritic soil for waste containment system have not been researched upon. Therefore, this paper presents the result of a laboratory study on the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS of lateritic soil at three different dimensional sizes of mould (split former mould, proctor mould and California bearing ratio mould at three energy levels; British standard light (BSL, West African standard (WAS and British standard heavy (BSH respectively. Compactions were done at different molding water content of -2% to +6% optimum moisture content (OMC. At -2% to +2% molding water content for the split former mould the volumetric shrinkage strain met the requirement of not more than 4% while at +4% and +6% only the WAS and BSH met the requirement. The proctor mould and the CBR mould on the other hand gave a lower value of volumetric shrinkage strain in all compactive effort and the values are lower than the 4% safe VSS suggested by Tay et al., (2001. Based on the VSS values obtained if the CBR mould can be used to model site condition it is recommended for use to simulate site condition for Volumetric shrinkage strain for all molding water content and compactive effort.

  8. Characteristics of Bamboo Leaf Ash Stabilization on Lateritic Soil in Highway Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwole A. Adetuberu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to study the characteristics of bamboo leaf ash stabilization on lateritic soil in highway construction. Preliminary tests were performed on three samples, A, B, and C foridentification and classification purposes followed by the consistency limit tests. Geotechnical property tests (compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR, and triaxial were also performed on the samples, both at the stabilized and unstabilized states by adding 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% bamboo leaf ash (BLA by weight of sample tothe soils. The results showed that the addition of BLA improved the strengths of the samples. Optimum moisture contents reduced to 20.20, 19.60 and 9.32% at 8, 4 and 6% BLA additions in samples A, B and Crespectively while MDD increased to 1400, 1676 and 1941 kg/m3 respectively at 8, 2 and 4% BLA additions in samples A, B, and C. The unsoaked CBR values of samples A and B increased from 5.44 to 38.21% and from 11.42 to 34.99% respectively. The shear strengths of samples A and B also increased from 181.31 to 199.00 kN/m2 and from 144.81 to 155.90 kN/m2 respectively. It was therefore concluded that bamboo leaf ash has a good potential for stabilizing lateritic soils in highway construction.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of the reduction process of Colombian lateritic nickel ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, S. C.; Garces, A.; Restrepo, O. J.; Lara, M. A.; Camporredondo, J. E.

    2015-07-01

    The Colombian nickeliferous laterites are minerals used for the nickel extraction by hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. In this work the thermodynamic behaviour of three Colombian lateritic mineral samples are described, with contents of 1.42%, 1.78% y 2.04% of nickel, when they are subjected to the calcination and reduction processes. The mineral was characterized using X Rays Diffraction and X Rays Fluorescence, giving evidence of the presence of mineralogical species such as nepouite (Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}), goethite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O), silica (SiO{sub 2}), antigorite (Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}) and fosferite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). The thermodynamic analysis was conducted using the software HSC Chemistry for Windows 5.1 and was focused in the quantitative determination of the chemical evolution of the mixture of these minerals with variable quantities of coal, in function of temperature. The results produced by the program showed, in the equilibrium, the feasibility of complete reduction of the nickel, and additionally, a considerable high percentage of reduction of iron oxides (up to 99%) using ratio C/O .1 at temperatures close to 1100 degree centigrade. (Author)

  10. Ferronickel enrichment by fine particle reduction and magnetic separation from nickel laterite ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hui Tang; Run-zao Liu; Li Yao; Zhi-jun Ji; Yan-ting Zhang; Shi-qi Li

    2014-01-01

    Ferronickel enrichment and extraction from nickel laterite ore were studied through reduction and magnetic separation. Reduction experiments were performed using hydrogen and carbon monoxide as reductants at different temperatures (700-1000°C). Magnetic separa-tion of the reduced products was conducted using a SLon-100 cycle pulsating magnetic separator (1.2 T). Composition analysis indicates that the nickel laterite ore contains a total iron content of 22.50wt%and a total nickel content of 1.91wt%. Its mineral composition mainly con-sists of serpentine, hortonolite, and goethite. During the reduction process, the grade of nickel and iron in the products increases with in-creasing reduction temperature. Although a higher temperature is more favorable for reduction, the temperature exceeding 1000°C results in sintering of the products, preventing magnetic separation. After magnetic separation, the maximum total nickel and iron concentrations are 5.43wt%and 56.86wt%, and the corresponding recovery rates are 84.38%and 53.76%, respectively.

  11. Removal of Organic Based Oil and Grease from Food Service Facility Effluent Using a Laterite Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ajith Hebbar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from food service facilities like restaurants, hostels and cafeteria typically contain floating cooked oil, ghee, and other fatty materials which are of organic in origin. Conventionally, before allowing this effluent to treatment plant or sewer, grease traps and skimming devices are used to separate these floating organic matters. If these are not effectively separated, these may clog sewers or interfere with biological treatment system. But these conventional methods need frequent maintenance and may not be cost effective. Alternatively, in this experimental work, an attempt was made to remove floating oil and grease using adsorption by passing the wastewater through a Laterite grain column. A real scale study unit was set up at the effluent point of a restaurant. The Various parameters like height of the column, grain size, and flow rate were monitored during the experiment. The results showed that the oil and grease could be removed up to an extent of 97.6% proving that Laterite has good adsorption potential.

  12. EFFECTS OF COMPACTIVE EFFORTS ON GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SPENT ENGINE OIL CONTAMINATED LATERITE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUREMI, J. ROTIMI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effects of compactive efforts and spent engine oil (SEO contamination on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soils was made. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing lateritic soil with up to 10 % SEO by dry weight of the soil in step concentration of 2 % and subjected to geotechnical tests. Results indicated a decrease in the fine content, decrease in liquid limit, maximum dry density (MDD and unconfined compressive strength (UCS with up to 10 % SEO content. No general trend was observed in the optimum moisture content (OMC with increasing SEO content. The MDD, OMC and UCS values increased with increase in the compactive effort. Regression analysis of the results showed that optimum moisture content, fine content and compactive effort significantly influence the soils UCS values. Analysis of variance showed that SEO and compactive effort has significant effect on the parameters with the exception in one case. The results of laboratory tests showed that geotechnical properties of the SEO contaminated soil were immensely impaired.

  13. Multivariate erosion risk assessment of lateritic badlands of Birbhum (West Bengal, India): A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandipan Ghosh; Kamala Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Each geomorphic hazard involves a degree of risk which incorporates quantification of the probability that a hazard will be harmful. At present, the categorization of sub-watersheds into erosion risk is considered as the fundamental step to conserve the soil loss. Development of badlands over the laterites of Birbhum district is an indicative of excessive soil loss in the monsoonal wet-dry type of climate. Slope erosion and channel erosion have generated huge amount of sediment from the small watersheds during intense monsoonal rainfall (June–September). The adjoining areas of Rampurhat I Block, Birbhum (West Bengal) and Shikaripara Block, Dumka (Jharkhand) have lost the lateritic soil cover at a rate of 20–40 ton/ha/year (Sarkar et al. 2005). In order to estimate the progressive removal of soil particles from the gully-catchments of the above-mentioned area, different morphometric parameters, soil parameters, hydrologic parameters and empirical models are employed. Side by side, the study is carried out to categorize the gully-catchments into different magnitude of erosion risk using several multivariate statistical techniques.

  14. Effects of Density and Moisture Variation on Dynamic Deformation Properties of Compacted Lateritic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of repeated load triaxial tests were conducted in this study to investigate the influences of compaction density and postcompaction moisture variation on the dynamic elastic modulus (Ed and plastic permanent strain (PPS of compacted lateritic soil. Specimens were compacted at optimum moisture content (OMC and three degrees of compaction (90%, 93%, and 96%. Then the specimens were dried or wetted to different moisture contents (OMC, OMC±3%, OMC±6%, and OMC+9% prior to testing for Ed and PPS. Results show that moisture content has greater influence on the Ed and PSS than compaction degree, and the increase in moisture content leads to a decrease of Ed and an increase of PPS. Furthermore, an empirical relationship between Ed and applied cyclic stress (σd is developed that incorporates density and moisture variations. Three different evolution types of PPS with number of load cycles, plastic stable, plastic creep, and incremental collapse, are identified as the increase of moisture content. In addition, the critical dynamic stress (σdc separating stable and unstable deformation is determined based on the shakedown concept. The envelope curves of σdc-moisture of lateritic soil with different degrees of compaction are also determined to provide reference for the pavement design.

  15. Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Overburden Materials on the Charnockite and Gneiss Complexes in Ipele-Owo Area, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ojo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The lateritic soils that overburden Charnockite and Gneiss Complexes in Ipele-Owo area of Ondo State, Nigeria are in great use for local construction. However, little is known of their engineering properties and suitability as sub-grade and sub-base materials for large-scale building and road construction. This work utilized standard geotechnical analytical techniques to examine and characterize these laterites. The results show that the soil is characteristically of a moderate strength based on the average California Bearing Ratio (CBR test result of 52.5%. The average particle size distribution indicates 11% fine grained sand, 2% medium grains, 12.4% coarse grains, 2% fine gravel and 74.6% clay-sized particles. The respective values of the linear shrinkage, liquid and plastic limits are 10.5%, 52.7% and 23.45%. The maximum dry density of the laterites is 1778.5 kg/m3 while the moisture content is 17.65%. It is therefore suggested that the Ipele-Owo laterites are suitable for use as sub-grade and sub-base construction materials since the geotechnical properties are fairly within the regulatory standards in Nigeria

  16. Paleosols in laterite and silcrete profiles Evidence from the South East Margin of the Australian Precambrian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, J. B.

    1994-08-01

    Laterite and silcrete profiles are common in the arid and semi-arid areas of the Australian Precambrian Shield - a vast planar surface masked by the regolith. Much of the geological history of the shield subsequent to its early development is recorded in ancient cover rocks and younger basin sediments which occur in important stratigraphic sequences, particularly on the margins of the shield. Within these sequences, stratigraphically associated or as companion materials, weathering zones and paleosols were developed which individually and as assemblages of layers and horizons record the history of weathering and of soil formation since the Proterozoic. Laterite and silcrete profiles are seen to be assemblages of paleosols, stratigraphically associated deposits and companion materials which were formed in response to changes in groundwater conditions at particular times in the past. The paleosols record the evolution of the regolith: Older weathering zones and bleached rocks were features of successive landscapes after the early Palaeozoic; ferruginous mottling, ferricrete and silcrete pans were formed after the early Cainozoic; ferricretes and mottled clay paleosols - some of which have been described as "laterite" - were formed during and after the Pliocene. Materials in laterite and silcrete profiles are overlain in places by calcretes formed after the early Pleistocene and by younger soils. The assemblages are distinctive and are characteristic of particular morpholithogical provinces.

  17. An educator's perspective on the emerging Cuba and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Carla D

    2006-01-01

    Plagued by many years of frequent leadership changes, and influences from power brokers whose policies and politics were oftentimes detrimental to Cuba's emerging as an industrialized and diverse economy nation, Cuba is now attempting to move beyond the survival mode. After the symbiotic relationship between the Soviet Union was dismantled in the 90s, Cuba is now undergoing metamorphoses of growth and change, socially, politically and culturally, while still remaining a mixture of worlds both rural and urban. This narrative article describes the multicultural experiences that an American university professor recently experienced while visiting Cuba.

  18. Cuba's National eHealth Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ariel; Gorry, Conner

    2008-01-01

    Cuba has been building a national strategy using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health since the establishment of the National Medical Sciences Information Center (CNICM) in 1965. Back then, vital statistics and health data - considered a cornerstone of the country's new universal health system - were transmitted by hand or over the phone. As technology grew more sophisticated over the next 30 years, microprocessors and computers were integrated into the process. In 1992, reeling from economic crisis, Cuba founded the national health telematics network known as INFOMED (www.sld.cu), betting on the strategy that ICTs could be used to improve population health at low cost. From these initial efforts until today, the country has followed a policy to build and strengthen a virtual health information infrastructure.[1].

  19. Cuba - a library for multidimensional numerical integration

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, T

    2004-01-01

    The Cuba library provides new implementations of four general-purpose multidimensional integration algorithms: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. Suave is a new algorithm, Divonne is a known algorithm to which important details have been added, and Vegas and Cuhre are new implementations of existing algorithms with only few improvements over the original versions. All four algorithms can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces.

  20. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  1. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Congress Congressional Research Service 7 only a small and tightly regulated private sector, no independent labor movement, and no unified political...75 democracy activists, including independent journalists and librarians and leaders of independent labor unions and opposition parties. At present...Comisión Cubana de Derechos Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba a Inicios del 2010: Continúa empeorando la situación de derechos humanos,” January 19

  2. Florida, Bahamas, Cuba and Gulf Stream, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This unique photo offers a view of the Florida peninsula, western Bahamas, north central Cuba and the deep blue waters of the Gulf Stream, that hugs the east coast of Florida (27.0N, 82.0W). In addition to being an excellent photograph for showing the geographical relationships between the variety of landforms in this scene, the typical effect of the land-sea breeze is very much in evidence as few clouds over water, cumulus build up over landmass.

  3. Cuba y la OEA: cambio y continuidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferio occidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  4. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Sariego

    Full Text Available Human toxocariasis (HT is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  5. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  6. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  7. CUBA Y LA OEA: CAMBIO Y CONTINUIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferiooccidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  8. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Pliocene Iron-Rich Laterite in the Vatera Area, Lesvos Island, Greece and Its Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.E. KELEPERTSIS

    2002-01-01

    A nickel laterite deposit occurs in the Vatera area of Lesvos Island, Greece, and is transgressively developed on serpentinized basic rock (norite). The overlying sedimentary rocks include marls and marly limestones with sandstone intercalations and belong to the Pliocene sediments. The following lateritic zones are defined from the bottom to top layers: a) bedrock (norite); b) serpentinized zone; c) goethitic zone. The bedrock consists of the following primary minerals: basic plagioclase, orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes. The serpentinized zone includes clinochrysotile, lizardite, antigorite clinoenstatite, calcite and dolomite while in the goethic zone there are goethite, quartz, pyrite, chromite, dolomite. Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO,Na2O, K2O, Ba, Sr, Ni, C and S are enriched in the goethitic zone. Nickel enrichment is related to the formation of nickeliferons minerals substituting for Mg or/and Fe in the goethite and pyrite. Enrichment of Ni in the matrix may be due to the presence of amorphous Ni-silicates (pimelite). There is a significant change (decrease) in the concentration of Ni from the top to bottom parts of the laterite formation, indicating that there was no tendency to migrate downwards (immature laterite). A second support of the immaturity of the Vatera laterite is the incomplete oxidation of ferrous iron to form ferric iron hydroxides. Under tropical/subtropical conditions, which dominated from the end of Miocene to the Pliocene the norite rocks of the Vatera area altered in response to reaction with acid solutions enriched in CO2. Due to hydrolysis and oxidation of pyroxenes, Mg2 +, H4 SiO4 and Ni2 + were removed in the continental acid solutions.

  9. Geochemical balance of lateritization processes and climatic signatures in weathering profiles overlain by ferricretes in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Anicet

    1999-12-01

    A simple geochemical balance of lateritization processes governing the development of several tens of meters of weathering profiles overlain by ferricretes is estimated on the basis of detailed mineralogical and geochemical data. The lateritic weathering mantle of the "Haut-Mbomou" area in Central Africa is composed of different weathering layers described from the base to the top of vertical profiles as a saprolite, a mottled clay layer, a soft nodular layer, a soft ferricrete, and a ferricrete in which kaolinite, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite occur in various quantities. Incongruent dissolution of kaolinite leads to the formation of gibbsite in the upper saprolite, whereas the hematite does not clearly replace the kaolinite according to an epigene process in the upper ferruginous layers of the profiles. Instead, that kaolinite is also transformed into gibbsite according to an incongruent dissolution under hydrated and reducing conditions induced by a relatively humid climatic pattern. The respective relations of the silica, iron, and aluminum balances and the Al substitution rate of the hematite on the one hand, and of RHG [RHG = 100 (hematite/hematite + goethite)] and the kaolinite on the other hand, to the consumption or the release of protons H + permit differentiation of aggrading ferruginization and degradation processes operating in the different lateritic weathering profiles. The Al substitution rate of the Fe-oxyhydroxides varies according to the nature of lateritization processes, e.g., saprolitic weathering and aggrading ferruginization vs. degradation. The observations and results indicate that the ferruginization process of the weathering materials of parent rocks is not a simple ongoing process as often thought. This suggests that the actual lateritic weathering mantle of the Haut-Mbomou area may result from different stages of weathering and erosion during climatic changes.

  10. Perspectivas para la lexicografía especializada en Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    1995-01-01

    En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika......En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika...

  11. Development of a system for landslide risk assessment for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.; Westen, C.J. van

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, such as Cuba, landslide-affected areas are not systematically mapped in a national inventory and no “regional to local” approach for landslide hazard and risk assessment has been carried out so far. Most of the conventional landslide studies in Cuba are qualitative in n

  12. Development of a system for landslide risk assessment for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.; Westen, C.J. van

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, such as Cuba, landslide-affected areas are not systematically mapped in a national inventory and no “regional to local” approach for landslide hazard and risk assessment has been carried out so far. Most of the conventional landslide studies in Cuba are qualitative in

  13. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    Cierran en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, List...23 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and

  14. USA300 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopman Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem in the Caribbean. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates on Cuba. Findings The predominant clone was of the spa type t149, followed by community-associated MRSA USA300. Conclusions We report the first molecular typing results of MRSA isolates from Cuba.

  15. Cuba a la Deriva en un Mundo Postcommunista (Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    oxporimontados pot ]a mayor parto do los paisos on los cualos sucumbi6 ol sistoma comunista. 6 Una confwotseift con Eatada UnIdo. a la G~tterdlmuanwig Aunque en...y las fuorzas armadas do Cuba, asi como gran part. do Arn~rica Latina, so pasarfan a ou bando, asegur~ndole mu lugar en Is historia . Estados Unidos

  16. Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the development of the physical sciences in Cuba since the revolution of 1959. We analyze, using available databases (Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators, INSPEC), the development of the output (number of publications of authors based in Cuba) and of their impact (number of citations) from 1959 until now. We discuss the productivity of Cuba in comparison to the Latin American sister republics and the collaborative efforts between Cuba and highly developed countries. The most important areas of scientific activity within the field of physics, the preferred journals and the leading affiliations are identified. The most frequently cited Cuban physics publications are given. Finally, the overall scientific ranking of Cuba among the world nations is investigated.

  17. The effects of different compaction energy on geotechnical properties of kaolin and laterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Siti Aimi Nadia Mohd; Bakar, Ismail; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Azmi, Mastura; Ramli, Harris

    2017-08-01

    Strength and deformation parameters of compacted soil are known to be related to soil type and moisture. However, little attention has been directed towards understanding the influence of compaction energy on soil type and moisture. This study considers the effect of different compaction energy on certain geotechnical properties of Kaolin and Laterite soil. This paper describes a laboratory study conducted to evaluate the relationship between soil type, soil moisture content with different compaction energy and strength characteristic. Specimens were compacted with impact energy at levels of 596 kg/m3(Standard Proctor) and 2682 kJ/m3 (Modified Proctor) over a wide range of moisture contents to determine dry unit weight, and Unconfined Compression Strength Test (UCS). Result shows that compaction energy is an important factor in determining soil strength that should be considered during the planning phase of any earthwork construction operation.

  18. Effects of Rice Husk Ash on Some Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis O. OKAFOR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is an investigation into the effect of RHA on some geotechnical properties of a lateritic soil classified as A-2-6 (0 or SW for sub-grade purposes. The investigation includes evaluation of properties such as compaction, consistency limits and strength of the soil with RHA content of 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 12.5% by weight of the dry soil. The results obtained show that the increase in RHA content increased the OMC but decreased the MDD. It was also discovered that increase in RHA content, reduced plasticity and increased volume stability as well as the strength of the soil. 10% RHA content was also observed to be the optimum content.

  19. Dissolution kinetics of nickel laterite ore using different secondary metabolic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution kinetics of nickel laterite ore in aqueous acid solutions of three metabolic acids, i.e., citric acid, oxalic acid and acetic acid were investigated in a batch reactor individually. It was determined that experimental data comply with a shrinking core model. The diffusion coefficients for citric acid, oxalic acid and acetic acid were found to be 1.99×10-9 cm²/s, 2.59×10-8 cm²/s and 1.92×10-10 cm²/s respectively. The leaching ability of each acid was observed and it was found that oxalic acid was better than the other two.

  20. Effects of Bamboo Leaf Ash on Lime Stabilized Lateritic Soil for Highway Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Babajide

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research determined the effects of bamboo leaf ash on lime stabilized lateritic soil for highway construction. It was necessary to utilize the properties of waste materials such as bamboo leaf in order to determine its usefulness as a possible complement stabilizer for lime and hence reduce highway construction cost. The three samples A, B and C used in this study were collected from different locations in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Preliminary tests such as the natural moisture content, specific gravity, grain size analysis and Atterberg’s limits were performed on them at their natural states and when stabilized with optimum percentages of lime. Engineering tests such as compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR and undrained traixial were also performed on them at their natural states, when stabilized with the optimum lime percentages and when Bamboo Leaf Ash (BLA was introduced at 2, 4 and 6% to the samples. The results of the strength tests showed that BLA improved the strengths of all the lime stabilized samples. The unsoaked CBR values increased from 4-11, 2-10 and 2-11%, respectively in lime stabilized samples A, B and C with the addition of BLA. The shear strengths also increased substantially, from 42.16 to 398.96 kN/m2, 42.96 to 146.84 kN/m2 and 197.48 to 365.90 kN/m2, respectively with the addition of BLA to the lime stabilized samples. It was therefore concluded that BLA will further increase the strength of lime stabilized lateritic soil for highway construction since it was found as an effective complement for lime in soil stabilization.

  1. Thermochemical analysis of laterite ore alkali roasting: Comparison of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of global nickel reserve is in fact dominated by low grade laterite ores containing only approximately 1.0-1.8 %-Ni. Indonesia is a major limonite and saprolite ores source, particularly in the Sulawesi, northern Maluku, and Papua islands. Production of nickel from laterites typically requires a pre-concentration step which breaks down the mineral crystalline structure, thereby facilitating the subsequent extraction of the valuable metals. This work discusses the thermochemical analysis of the alkali roasting of an Indonesian saprolite ore using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH. These alkali compounds are selected due to their relatively low cost. The Factsage thermochemical computation package is used to predict thermodynamically stable gaseous, solution, pure liquid, and pure solid phases present in the roasting process at temperatures from 100 to 1200°C at ambient pressure, in inert atmosphere. The formation of a liquid solution (or slag) phase is interpreted as a major indicator of mineral structure breakdown. The computed slag formation temperatures are 373.2, 1041.4, and 792.0°C when using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. The masses of volatilized alkali at 1200°C with a total feed mass of 100 gram are 0.49, 3.24, and 3.25 mg for Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. It is therefore hypothesized that Na2CO3 is the most competitive sodium-based alkali for saprolite ore roasting.

  2. Modeling thermal performance of exterior walls retrofitted from insulation and modified laterite based bricks materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, Elvis; Meukam, Pierre; Damfeu, Jean Claude

    2017-06-01

    Uninsulated concrete block walls commonly found in tropical region have to be retrofitted to save energy. The thickness of insulation layer used can be reduced with the help of modified laterite based bricks layer (with the considerably lower thermal conductivity than that of concrete block layer) during the retrofit building fabrics. The aim of this study is to determine the optimum location and distribution of different materials. The investigation is carried out under steady periodic conditions under the climatic conditions of Garoua in Cameroon using a Simulink model constructed from H-Tools (the library of Simulink models). Results showed that for the continuous air-conditioned space, the best wall configuration from the maximum time lag, minimum decrement factor and peak cooling transmission load perspective, is dividing the insulation layer into two layers and placing one at the exterior surface and the other layer between the two different massive layers with the modified laterite based bricks layer at the interior surface. For intermittent cooling space, the best wall configuration from the minimum energy consumption depends on total insulation thickness. For the total insulation thickness less than 8 cm approximately, the best wall configuration is placing the half layer of insulation material at the interior surface and the other half between the two different massive layers with the modified earthen material at the exterior surface. Results also showed that, the optimum insulation thickness calculated from the yearly cooling transmission (estimated only during the occupied period) and some economic considerations slightly depends on the location of that insulation.

  3. Nanotechnologies in Cuba: Popularization and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Castellanos, Carlos

    In Cuba, as in other countries, activities in the field of nanotechnology emerged from the converging development of research in materials physics and chemistry, microelectronics, supramolecular physics, microbiology and molecular biology. During the 1990s, theoretical and experimental work on semiconductor nanostructures gained in importance. Cuban physicists organized the Red CYTED (Network CYTED) to "study fabrication and characterization of semiconductor nanostructures for micro and optoelectronics" which functioned between 1998 and 2003 with the participation of eight Spanish-American countries. The network organized various courses and scientific meetings, edited a book and supported the scientific collaboration among the participant institutions.

  4. The Physics of Complex Systems in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    In relating the circumstances that led to the birth and development of the physics of complex systems in Cuba, it is difficult to avoid being anecdotal—particularly because of the difficult times during which this research started. Cuban eclecticism, whose spectrum extends from religious syncretism to world-class medicine, seems quite coherent with the field of complex systems, characterized by the synergy of diverse fields. Such a combination, however, in the beginning seemed to be quite removed from the physicists' standard research dogmas.

  5. Cuba. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-05-01

    CACO I SAN ANiONIO i MM] 0 I 120327 AWfi ■MOMMm 84 c r L /■ o i M i: \\ i co HAM^ *** ^ Esperanza • Bahla Honda San Cristobal, \\JSLS...C»BO PEPE Jaguey Grande Aguada de Pasajeros i ii-- i \\i;tii\\t CUBA STATION LOCATIONS • METEOROLOGICAL STATION Locations aw shown...40 60 80 100 m&m r 1 A’ / H />’ E A s GRAND CAYMAN H R(» CIENfg CEIv N I 84 83 82 81 oMCLASSIflEO ^ Jf IB ’■ CAYO

  6. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-19

    years, and Omar Rodríguez Saludes , sentenced to 27 years. Other sentenced democracy activists included economist Marta Beatriz Roque (who had been...Convertible Peso ’ No Longer Linked to U.S. Dollar,” CubaNews, April 2005, p. 3. Beginning in 1993, Cubans were allowed to own and use U.S. dollars and to...exchange their dollars for “convertible pesos ,” with a 10% surcharge for the exchange. Cubans could exchange their dollars or deposit them in banks with

  7. Chemical Forms of Heavy Metals in Carbonate—Derived Laterite and Enrichment of Its Iron Oxide Minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立军; 漆亮

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the seven-step continuous extracting method was employed in the study of chemical forms of the six heavy metals Co,Zn,Pb,Cu,Cr and Mn,The result shows that the etals in the laterite are present in the chemical form of crystalline iron oxides and residues,and they are transformed towared organic and exchangeable forms in the surface soil.Linear regression analysis indicates that the above heavy metals have a positive correlation with the crystalline iron oxide minerals.The crystalline iron oxide minerals have a very important role to play in the enrichment of heavy metals,especially the solid components in the laterite.

  8. Supergene neoformation of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni alloys: multistage grains explain nugget formation in Ni-laterites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiglsperger, Thomas; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Baurier-Aymat, Sandra; Galí, Salvador; Lewis, John F.; Longo, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Ni-laterites from the Dominican Republic host rare but extremely platinum-group element (PGE)-rich chromitites (up to 17.5 ppm) without economic significance. These chromitites occur either included in saprolite (beneath the Mg discontinuity) or as `floating chromitites' within limonite (above the Mg discontinuity). Both chromitite types have similar iridium-group PGE (IPGE)-enriched chondrite normalized patterns; however, chromitites included in limonite show a pronounced positive Pt anomaly. Investigation of heavy mineral concentrates, obtained via hydroseparation techniques, led to the discovery of multistage PGE grains: (i) Os-Ru-Fe-(Ir) grains of porous appearance are overgrown by (ii) Ni-Fe-Ir and Ir-Fe-Ni-(Pt) phases which are overgrown by (iii) Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni mineral phases. Whereas Ir-dominated overgrowths prevail in chromitites from the saprolite, Pt-dominated overgrowths are observed within floating chromitites. The following formation model for multistage PGE grains is discussed: (i) hypogene platinum-group minerals (PGM) (e.g. laurite) are transformed to secondary PGM by desulphurization during serpentinization; (ii) at the stages of serpentinization and/or at the early stages of lateritization, Ir is mobilized and recrystallizes on porous surfaces of secondary PGM (serving as a natural catalyst) and (iii) at the late stages of lateritization, biogenic mediated neoformation (and accumulation) of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni nanoparticles occurs. The evidence presented in this work demonstrates that in situ growth of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni alloy nuggets of isometric symmetry is possible within Ni-laterites from the Dominican Republic.

  9. The effects of pH on the adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiaohong; ZHU Lijun; GUO Baiwei; LUO Yi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the role of pH value on the adsorption of Hg2+ on the laterite from Guizhou Province was studied. The lower pH is unfavorable to the adsorption of Hg2+ whereas the higher pH is favorable to the adsorption of Hg2+. When pH reached a certain value, the amount of Hg2+ adsorption reached the maximum. Then the amount of Hg2+ adsorption was reduced with increasing pH value.

  10. An overview of genetic counseling in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Araceli Lantigua

    2013-12-01

    This brief report provides an overview of the history and current status of genetic services in Cuba. In 1971, the University of Medical Sciences of Havana began to train doctors in medical genetics according to the medicine development plan in Cuba. With the aim of introducing genetic services to the population, two main issues were identified: the impact of neural tube defects as a cause of infantile mortality, and a founder effect resulting in a high frequency of sickle cell anemia, which increased the mortality rate and impacted the quality of peoples' lives. The impact of consanguinity is variable; it depends on the isolation of the population, with rates of 1 to 11% in different regions for first and second cousin marriages. From 1981, the services of medical genetics began to expand to the entire country, according to a government directive, and the need to design a program for the specialty became evident. From 1995 to 2000, two Masters-level programs were designed by professors of the Department of Medical Genetics, University of Medical Sciences of Havana, and authorized by the Ministry of Higher Education. One program in medical genetics was designed for physicians with other specialties, and the second program was designed to train professionals to become genetic counselors. The majority of graduates from the latter program are working at the primary level of healthcare.

  11. Empresarios asturianos en Cuba (1840-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collazo Pérez, Enrique

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available This article studies a representative group of emigrants from Asturias who settled in Cuba from the second half of the 19th Century up to 1920, as well as their entreprenurial activities in some key economical sectors such as commerce, Bank, agriculture and sugar industry. It is also analysed the role played and the historical place taken by these businessmen as regards the economical growth of the Island during the said period. Finally, four case studies are made on so many firms of merchants-bankers of Asturian ascendancy.

    En este estudio se examina a un grupo representativo de emigrados asturianos afincados en Cuba desde la segunda mitad del siglo XIX hasta 1920 y la actividad empresarial desplegada por ellos en algunos sectores económicos claves como el comercio, la banca, la agricultura y la industria azucarera. Asimismo se analiza el papel desempeñado y el lugar histórico ocupado por estos empresarios en el crecimiento económico ocurrido en la Isla en el período histórico aludido. En relación con los empresarios dedicados al negocio de banca se realiza un estudio de caso sobre cuatro firmas de comerciantes-banqueros de ascendencia asturiana.

  12. A new species of Carnoya Gilson, 1898 (Rhigonematida: Carnoyidae) parasite of a spirobolid (Diplopoda: Spirobolida) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Nayla García; Rodríguez, Jans Morffe

    2014-05-15

    Carnoya isabelica n. sp. is described parasitizing Nesobolus piedra from Eastern Cuba. The new species is characterized by the presence of 13 copulatory papillae in males (the post-cloacal arranged in two trios, with two lateral papillae and one median papilla that can be laterally displaced), the presence of collars of spines in the both sexes and females with 23-25 collars of spines, cephalic end not swollen and lateral alae extending from the end of spines to the base of the tail. SEM images of both sexes are given.

  13. Inorganic polymers from laterite using activation with phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution: Mechanical and microstructural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria " Enzo Ferrari" , Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello [Dipartimento di Ingegneria " Enzo Ferrari" , Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Pollastri, Simone; Gualtieri, Alessandro F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19I, I-41121 Modena (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Geopolymers from laterite, an iron-rich soil available in developing countries, have great potential as building materials. In this work, laterite from Togo (Africa) was used to prepare geopolymers using both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution. Microstructural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mercury porosimetry, whereas thermal properties were evaluated by thermal analyses. The local environment of iron was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XANES region). The mechanical properties were determined. Modulus of Rupture and Young's modulus fell in the ranges 3.3–4.5 MPa and 12–33 GPa, respectively, rendering the materials good candidates for construction purposes. Heating above 900 °C results in weight-gain, presumably due to iron redox reactions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy data evidence changes in the chemical and structural environments of iron following thermal treatment of geopolymers. These changes indicate interaction between the geopolymer structure and iron during heating, possibly leading to redox properties. -- Highlights: •Geopolymerization of laterite is promising for fabrication of building materials. •Both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution can be used for activation. •Thermally activated redox properties of the inorganic polymers were observed.

  14. Evaluation of Digital Classification of Polarimetric SAR Data for Iron-Mineralized Laterites Mapping in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber G. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the potential of C- and L-band polarimetric SAR data for the discrimination of iron-mineralized laterites in the Brazilian Amazon region. The study area is the N1 plateau located on the northern border of the Carajás Mineral Province, the most important Brazilian mineral province which has numerous mineral deposits, particularly the world’s largest iron deposits. The plateau is covered by low-density savanna-type vegetation (campus rupestres which contrasts visibly with the dense equatorial forest. The laterites are subdivided into three units: chemical crust, iron-ore duricrust, and hematite, of which only the latter two are of economic interest. Full polarimetric data from the airborne R99B sensor of the SIVAM/CENSIPAM (L-band system and the RADARSAT-2 satellite (C-band were evaluated. The study focused on an assessment of distinct schemes for digital classification based on decomposition theory and hybrid approach, which incorporates statistical analysis as input data derived from the target decomposition modeling. The results indicated that the polarimetric classifications presented a poor performance, with global Kappa values below 0.20. The accuracy for the identification of units of economic interest varied from 55% to 89%, albeit with high commission error values. In addition, the results using L-band were considered superior compared to C-band, which suggest that the roughness scale for laterite discrimination in the area is nearer to L than to C-band.

  15. Graham Greene and Cuba: Our man in Havana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hulme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Graham Greene’s novel Our Man in Havana was published on October 6, 1958. Seven days later Greene arrived in Havana with Carol Reed to arrange for the filming of the script of the novel, on which they had both been working. Meanwhile, after his defeat of the summer offensive mounted by the Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista, in the mountains of eastern Cuba, just south of Bayamo, Fidel Castro had recently taken the military initiative: the day after Greene and Reed’s arrival on the island, Che Guevara reached Las Villas, moving westwards towards Havana. Six weeks later, on January 1, 1959, after Batista had fled the island, Castro and his Cuban Revolution took power. In April 1959 Greene and Reed were back in Havana with a film crew to film Our Man in Havana. The film was released in January 1960. A note at the beginning of the film says that it is “set before the recent revolution.” In terms of timing, Our Man in Havana could therefore hardly be more closely associated with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. But is that association merely accidental, or does it involve any deeper implications? On the fiftieth anniversary of novel, film, and Revolution, that seems a question worth investigating, not with a view to turning Our Man in Havana into a serious political novel, but rather to exploring the complexities of the genre of comedy thriller and to bringing back into view some of the local contexts which might be less visible now than they were when the novel was published and the film released.

  16. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy investigation, dose effect, kinetics and adsorption capacity of phosphate from aqueous solution onto laterite and sandstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Lassina Sandotin; Akpo, Sylvain Kouakou; Yvon, Jacques; Coulibaly, Lacina

    2016-12-01

    Environmental pollution by phosphate in developing countries is growing with extensive and diffuse pollution. Solving these problem with intensive technologies is very expensive. Using natural sorbent such as laterite and sandstone could be a solution. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the P-removal efficiency of these materials under various solution properties. Laterite and sandstone used mainly contain very high levels of finely grained iron and aluminum oxy-hydroxides and diverse dioctahedral clays. Phosphate adsorption tests were carried out using crushed laterite and sandstone. Optimal doses and pH effects on phosphate adsorption were studied with a potassium hydrogeno-phosphate solution of 5 mg/L at 30 °C. The main results were that the optimal dosage is 15 and 20 mg/L respectively for laterite and sandstone. The phosphate adsorptions efficiency of laterite and sandstone are pH-dependent, they increase when the pH grows up to the Point of Zero Charge (PZC) and slowly decrease beyond. The adsorption capacities of the materials also increase proportionally with the initial phosphate concentration. The pseudo-second-order successfully described the kinetics of the phosphate adsorption on the two adsorbents. With this model, the adsorption capacity values are obtained, which give an idea of the maximum phosphate uptake that the laterite and sandstone could achieve. The changes on the FTIR spectra of raw materials and phosphate adsorbed material confirm the mechanism of chemisorptions. Considering the above, laterite and sandstone could be used as efficient and cheap adsorbent for the removal of phosphate in aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Parra, Esteban J; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole

    2014-07-01

    We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.

  18. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40% and Santiago de Cuba (39%, and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%, Holguín (12% and Las Tunas (12%. We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.

  19. Oral bioaccessibility of inorganic contaminants in waste dusts generated by laterite Ni ore smelting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Polák, Ladislav; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ratié, Gildas; Garnier, Jérémie; Quantin, Cécile

    2016-09-14

    The laterite Ni ore smelting operations in Niquelândia and Barro Alto (Goiás State, Brazil) have produced large amounts of fine-grained smelting wastes, which have been stockpiled on dumps and in settling ponds. We investigated granulated slag dusts (n = 5) and fly ash samples (n = 4) with a special focus on their leaching behaviour in deionised water and on the in vitro bioaccessibility in a simulated gastric fluid, to assess the potential exposure risk for humans. Bulk chemical analyses indicated that both wastes contained significant amounts of contaminants: up to 2.6 wt% Ni, 7580 mg/kg Cr, and 508 mg/kg Co. In only one fly ash sample, after 24 h of leaching in deionised water, the concentrations of leached Ni exceeded the limit for hazardous waste according to EU legislation, whereas the other dusts were classified as inert wastes. Bioaccessible fractions (BAF) of the major contaminants (Ni, Co, and Cr) were quite low for the slag dusts and accounted for less than 2 % of total concentrations. In contrast, BAF values were significantly higher for fly ash materials, which reached 13 % for Ni and 19 % for Co. Daily intakes via oral exposure, calculated for an adult (70 kg, dust ingestion rate of 50 mg/day), exceeded neither the tolerable daily intake (TDI) nor the background exposure limits for all of the studied contaminants. Only if a higher ingestion rate is assumed (e.g. 100 mg dust per day for workers in the smelter), the TDI limit for Ni recently defined by European Food Safety Authority (196 µg/day) was exceeded (324 µg/day) for one fly ash sample. Our data indicate that there is only a limited risk to human health related to the ingestion of dust materials generated by laterite Ni ore smelting operations if appropriate safety measures are adopted at the waste disposal sites and within the smelter facility.

  20. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  1. Situacion de la gestion de inventarios en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopes-Martinez, Igor; Gomez-Acosta, Martha Ines; Acevedo-Suarez, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente articulo es analizar la situacion de la gestion de inventarios en Cuba, a partir de las experiencias obtenidas durante mas de 10 anos en entidades de los sectores de servicios...

  2. Understanding the residence of Co in ore minerals - towards the development of novel Co extraction strategies for laterite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybowska, Agnieszka; Norman, Rachel; Schofield, Paul; Herrington, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Cobalt has unique properties highly valued for many applications essential to the green economy. It has been classified as a critical raw material due to the particularly high risk of supply shortage and its importance for the value chain. Despite low crustal abundance (25ppm), Co is concentrated by various geological processes to concentrations suitable for mining, however the majority of Co is recovered as a by-product of Cu and Ni processing in three principal geological settings: hydrothermal, magmatic and lateritic. Cobalt-rich laterites, which provide 20% of the world's Co, are mainly processed using energy-inefficient pyrometallurgical techniques or high-pressure acid leaching technologies often optimised for extraction of other elements, which can leave between 50 and 80% of the Co unrecovered. In order to develop more efficient Co extraction strategies, understanding the residence of Co in ore minerals is essential. To this end, we are undertaking a detailed mineralogical, chemical and atomistic-scale characterization of Co in samples from a range of laterite deposits. Bulk samples representative of the average ore material were sourced from a variety of undeveloped laterite deposits: Shevchenko (Kazakhstan), Acoje (Philippines), Nkamouna (Cameroon) and Piauí (Brazil). Bulk chemical and mineralogical characterisation was undertaken with ICP-OES/MS and XRD, followed by spatially resolved chemical and mineralogical imaging at the micron scale using µXRD, EPMA, SEM and synchrotron-based µXRF. The chemical state and local environment of Co were determined using X ray spectroscopy (μXANES and μEXAFS). The total concentrations of Co ranged from 630 to 2780 mg/kg. The ore mineral assemblage in the various samples includes goethite, maghemite, hematite, quartz, talc, serpentines, chlorites, smectites, kaolinite and chromites. Manganese oxide minerals are present but, due to their poor crystallinity and low concentration, are not routinely detectable with bulk

  3. Physics and Women: A Challenge Being Successfully Met in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia

    The history of physics in Cuba, like all the country's educational and scientific development, cannot be understood without taking into account its close relationship with the social changes that took place in Cuba during the five decades elapsed since 1959. This should include due consideration to the role played by women in this process, all the more since the link between science and gender is now generally regarded as a subject of growing special interest

  4. Cuba y las fronteras de la utopía

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba.......Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba....

  5. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L; Muchaal, P.K.; Guerin, Michele T; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a ...

  6. Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of iron-sulfur-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to nickel laterite ores of Sulawesi, Indonesia: Implications for biohydrometallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerun, Siti Khodijah; Hung, Sutina; Mubarok, Mohammad Zaki; Sanwani, Edy

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to isolate and phylogenetically identify the indigenous iron-sulfur-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria capable of bioleaching nickel from laterite mineral ores. The bacteria were isolated from a nickel laterite mine area in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Seven bacterial strains were successfully isolated from laterite mineral ores (strains SKC/S-1 to SKC/S-7) and they were capable of bioleaching of nickel from saprolite and limonite ores. Using EzTaxon-e database, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the seven bacterial strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, resulting in a complete hierarchical classification system, and they were identified as Pseudomonas taiwanensis BCRC 17751 (98.59% similarity), Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum BGSC 3A28 (99.14% and 99.32% similarities), Paenibacillus pasadenensis SAFN-007 (98.95% and 99.33% similarities), Bacillus methylotrophicus CBMB 205 (99.37% similarity), and Bacillus altitudinis 41KF2b (99.37% similarity). It is noteworthy that members of the phylum Firmicutes (in particular the genus Bacillus) predominated in this study, therefore making them to have the high potential to be candidates for the bioleaching of nickel from laterite mineral ores. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the predominance of the phylum Firmicutes in the Sulawesi laterite mineral ores.

  7. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelló González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate.

  8. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló González, Mauro; Pons Vásquez, Reinaldo; Rodriguez Bencomo, David; Choonara, Imti

    2016-01-01

    Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate. PMID:27763571

  9. Cuba, desarrollo, dependencia y heterogeneidad estructural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel J. Fresneda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reexamina la estrategia de desarrollo prevaleciente en Cuba, observando las variables de dependencia y heterogeneidad estructural. Busca distinguir cómo, a pesar de haber existido una desconexión política en la isla, su estrategia de desarrollo socialista enfrenta retos significativos que están determinados por el grado de heterogeneidad de su economía y por la profundidad de su dependencia al sistema de intercambio mundial. Como desafíos más importantes para la estrategia de desarrollo prevaleciente, se denotan: a evaluar los efectos de la incorporación de actores supranacionales en los marcos de una heterogeneidad estructural, por la insuficiencia de financiamientos y capital; y b proponer un desarrollo endógeno a partir de la incorporación del capital humano logrado en la isla.

  10. La obra de Mariano Benlliure en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Laguna Enrique, Martha Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo aborda el estudio de la obra escultórica de Mariano Benlliure Gil en Cuba. Justamente los dos trabajos de mayor envergadura del maestro valenciano en la isla caribeña son el panteón de la familia Falla Bonet, ubicado en el Cementerio de Colón, y el grupo escultórico de tema taurino El coleo. No obstante, existen otras piezas de mediano y pequeño formato de las que también nos hacemos eco en este artículo. Este valioso conjunto de obras procede de la afición al coleccionismo de a...

  11. Virtual Visit - Cuba/March 30 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Visitor Centre

    2016-01-01

    No próximo dia 30/03/2016, o Centro de Promoción Cultural Comunitário KCHO ESTUDIO ROMERILLO (http://www.kchoestudio.com/proyecto/Kcho%20Estudio%20Romerillo,%20Laboratorio%20para%20el%20Arte/) realizará uma Visita Virtual ao Experimento ATLAS, no Centro Europeu de Pesquisa Nuclear, o CERN, na Suíça. Em CUBA, a visita será coordenada pelos professores Amadeu Albino Junior (IFRN - BRASIL), Anderson Guimarães Guedes (UFRN – Brasil). Na Suíça, o detector será apresentado por Denis Oliveira Damazio (BNL/CERN). Após uma curta apresentação sobre o LHC e o Detector ATLAS, os participantes poderão fazer perguntas sobre a experiência.

  12. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this. The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass. This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption.

  13. MEDIO SIGLO DE VIVIENDA SOCIAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania González Couret

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El próximo año 2010 cumple un siglo el primer barrio obrero proyectado y construido en Cuba. Después de 1959 la vivienda cubana se ha caracterizado por un estándar general y uniforme correspondiente al modelo de la vivienda social masiva nacida en Europa a inicios del siglo XX, y a diferencia de lo que sucede en otros países en desarrollo, continúa siendo una responsabilidad del Estado. El artículo ofrece una panorámica de la evolución y tendencias de la vivienda social en Cuba durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Los inicios en los anos '60s se caracterizaron por la búsqueda de tecnologías apropiadas y nuevas formas de expresión para la vivienda social masiva de un país en desarrollo y en Revolución, intentando "erradicar" las condiciones habitacionales precarias, y las diferencias entre la ciudad y el campo. A partir de los 70s la vivienda cubana se vio comprometida con los sistemas de prefabricación de alta tecnología, como vía para dar solución a la demanda masiva. En los '80s cobró fuerza la conservación de los centros urbanos tradicionales y la crisis de los '90s obligó a abandonar definitivamente la industrialización pesada y buscar soluciones "alternativas". El trabajo concluye con el debate actual.

  14. [Effects of applying controlled release fertilizers on N2O emission from a lateritic red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ya-qin; Zheng, Li-xing; Fan, Xiao-lin

    2011-09-01

    Static closed chamber technique and contrast method were adopted to study the effects of three coated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 19:8.6:10.5, high N; 14.4:14.4:14.4, balanced NPK; and 12.5:9.6:20.2, high K) on the NO2O emission from a lateritic red soil under the condition of no crop planting, taking uncoated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 20:9:11, high N; 15:15:15, balanced NPK; and 13:10:21, high K) as the contrasts. Different formula of fertilizer NPK induced significant difference in the N2O emission. Under the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, the cumulative N2O emission was in the order of balanced NPK > or = high N > high K. Applying coated compound fertilizers decreased the N2O emission significantly, and the emission amount under the application of high N, balanced NPK, and high K was 34.4%, 30.5%, and 89.3% of the corresponding uncoated compound fertilizers, respectively. Comparing with the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, applying coated compound fertilizers also decreased the daily N2O flux significantly, and delayed and shortened the N2O peak, suggesting that coated fertilizers could reduce soil nitrogen loss and the global warming potential induced by N2O emission.

  15. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferizoğlu Ece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to their higher extraction efficiencies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the scandium extraction efficiencies of some acidic and neutral organic reagents. For this reason, Ionquest 290 (Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpenthyl phosphonic acid, DEHPA (Di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, Cyanex 272 ((Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid which are acidic organophosphorus compounds, and Cyanex 923 (Trialkylphosphine oxide, which is a neutral organophosphorus compound, were used. The extraction capacities of these organics were studied with respect to the extractant concentration at same pH and phase ratio. As a result of the study, DEHPA was found to have higher scandium extraction efficiency with lower iron extraction at pH = 0.55 at a phase ratio of 10:1 = A:O.

  16. Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite with different solution concentration, pH and packing density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.-H. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Li, M.-H. [Institute of Hydrological Sciences, National Central University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Teng, S.-P. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: spteng@ess.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-09-15

    In this work we used an 'in-diffusion' method to study the effects of pH, solution concentration and packing density on Cs diffusion by packing local Taiwan laterite (LTL) into modified capillary columns with 5 mm diameter. These packed columns were first pre-equilibrated with synthetic groundwater (GW) for 3 weeks. The diffusion experiments were then carried out at ambient condition for 2 weeks. Our experimental results showed that the Cs diffusion profile fits Fick's second law very well in given experimental conditions, indicating the validity of modified capillary column method. Generally speaking, Cs diffusion in LTL decreases as the pH increases and as Cs concentration decreases. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D{sub a}) increases from 5.52x10{sup -12} (10{sup -7} M) to 2.18x10{sup -11} (10{sup -3} M) m{sup 2}/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient (D{sub e}) shows slight variation as the Cs concentration changes. Both the derived D{sub a} and D{sub e} values decrease as the pH increases, implying that the diffusion mechanisms of Cs nuclide in alkaline and acid environment are different. In addition, our results show that Cs diffusion is unaffected by the given packing density, indicating the interlaminary space is not the major determinant of Cs adsorption and diffusion in LTL.

  17. Morphology and composition of gold in a lateritic profile, Fazenda Pison “Garimpo”, Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larizzatti, J. H.; Oliveira, S. M. B.; Butt, C. R. M.

    2008-05-01

    This study describes the morphological evolution of gold grains in a lateritic weathering profile in an equatorial rainforest climate. Primary sources of gold are quartz veins associated with shallow granophyric intrusion. Gold grains were found in fresh ore, saprolite, transition zones, ferruginous duricrust, red latosol, and yellow latosol. Irregularly shaped grains predominate, with smaller proportions of dendritic and prismatic forms. Gold grains are weathered in the uppermost 10 m of the regolith. Mean gold grain size is maximum in the duricrust (>125 μm) and decreases progressively upward into the yellow latosol (Voids and corrosion pits appear on grain surfaces, and progressive rounding is observed from the bottom of the profile to the top. Gold grains can be classified as either homogeneous or zoned with respect to their chemical composition. Homogeneous grains contain 2-15% Ag (mean 8.3%). Zoned grains have more variable Ag contents; grain cores have means of approximately 10% or 23% Ag, with Ag-poor zones of approximately 3.7% Ag along internal discontinuities and/or outer rims. Formation of Ag-poor rims is due to preferential depletion of silver. Processes responsible for duricrust formation may preserve some grains as large aggregates, but subsequent transformation into latosol further modifies them.

  18. Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-qin; Zhang, Jia-en; Ouyang, Ying; Lin, Ling; Quan, Guo-ming; Zhao, Ben-liang; Yu, Jia-yu

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the impact of simulated acid rain (SAR) on nutrient leaching, microbial biomass, and microbial activities in a lateritic red soil in South China. The soil column leaching experiment was conducted over a 60-day period with the following six SAR pH treatments (levels): 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 and one control treatment (pH = 7). Compared with the control treatment, the concentrations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and average well color density (AWCD) in the Ecoplates were all significantly decreased by leaching with SAR at different pH levels. The decrease in MBC and MBN indicated that acid rain reduced the soil microbial population, while the decrease in AWCD revealed that acid rain had a negative effect on soil bacterial metabolic function. Soil basal respiration increased gradually from pH 4.0 to 7.0 but decreased dramatically from pH 2.5 to 3.0. The decrease in soil nutrient was the major reason for the change of soil microbial functions. A principal component analysis showed that the major carbon sources used by the bacteria were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids.

  19. La guerra de 1895 en Cuba y sus consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarragó, Rafael E.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available On 24 February 1895 most people in Cuba did not want a war of independence, because reforms for the island had been approved by the Madrid parliament. The reaction to the insurrection begun in Cuba on that date by the Spanish government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was to treat all Cubans as rebels. In 1896 Cánovas sent general Weyler to Cuba, and by the end of 1897 he had stopped the advances of the insurrectionists, but the forced removal of the rural population into urban settlements that he decreed in order to prevent their assistance to the insurgents, led to thousands of deaths by hunger and disease, and in the United States public opinion began to clamor for intervention in Cuba to expel Spain, and this was advised by people like the Consul General in Havana, Fitzhugh Lee. The war begun in 1895 for the independence of Cuba had as consecuences the war of the United States with Spain in 1898 and its transformation into a world power with the colonies that it took from Spain in Asia and America.El 24 de febrero de 1895 la mayor parte de los habitantes de Cuba no deseaba una guerra de independencia, porque se acababa de votar en el parlamento de Madrid por reformas liberalizantes para la isla. La reacción del gobierno de Antonio Cánovas del Castillo a la insurrección iniciada en Cuba en esa fecha fue no implementar las reformas y tratar a todos los cubanos como insurrectos. En 1896 Cánovas envió al general Weyler a Cuba, quien logró frenar el avance de los insurrectos, pero la reconcentración de los campesinos en centros urbanos que este decretó para privar de su apoyo a los insurrectos causó miles de muertes por hambre y enfermedad y en los Estados Unidos la opinión pública comenzó a favorecer la intervención en Cuba, acción aconsejada por expansionistas como el Cónsul General de los Estados Unidos en La Habana, Fitzhugh Lee. La guerra comenzada en 1895 para la independencia de Cuba tuvo como consecuencias la guerra de

  20. 膨润土增强的黄土和红土的性质%Properties of Bentonite Enhanced Loess and Laterite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳生; 白庆中; 聂永丰

    2004-01-01

    Loess and laterite distributed widely in the northern and southern China cannot be directly used as the natural barrier to isolate the solid waste because of their high hydraulic conductivity. In this paper, they are enhanced by bentonite to improve their hydraulic performance. The impact of bentonite content and water content on compressive strength of the compacted soil was investigated. The effects of bentonite content, water content,dry density and hydraulic graiient on the hydraulic conductivity were studied in detail. For the laterite and the laterite with 8% of bentonite, the experimental results of hydraulic conductivity can be applied in the engineering design. However, for the loess and the bentonite enhanced loess, those of hydraulic conductivity can not be directly applied in the engineering design because their hydraulic performance does not comply with the Darcy's law. These experimental results have to be carefully modified before application.

  1. Evaluación inicial de sistemas integrados para la producción de alimentos y energía en Cuba Initial evaluation of integrated systems for food and energy production in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R Funes-Monzote

    2011-12-01

    performance of diversity, energy efficiency and productivity of 25 production systems in different conversion stages and distributed in the western, central and eastern regions of Cuba. The evaluated indicators (previously validated in Cuba for this type of study and the use of empirical calculation and multivariate statistical methods allowed identifying and characterizing three main types of integrated systems, which were termed BIOMAS-1A, BIOMAS-1B and BIOMAS-1C. The results of the indicators, as well as the analysis of similarities and differences among the different types constitute elements to be taken into consideration for further studies on integrated food and energy systems with a higher number of farms.

  2. EASTERN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVALUATION OF SELECTED ELITE POTATO GENOTYPES IN. EASTERN ... Significant

  3. A review of the use of lateritic soils in the construction/development of sustainable housing in Africa: A geological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyelami, C. A.; Van Rooy, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    Lateritic soils have been described as highly weathered tropical or sub-tropical residual soils with varying proportions of particle sizes ranging from clay size to gravel, usually coated with sesquioxide rich concretions. It is sometimes referred to as brick earth based on its use. The use of laterite and lateritic soils have been found to promote the realization of decent housing and bridging the housing deficit, especially in Africa. The author has attempted to review available information on the recent trends in building bricks and housing development with the aim of identifying a suitable soil material that will meet the present challenge of sustaining the environment without costing too much and maintaining a high standard of strength, durability and aesthetics. A critical review of laterite and lateritic soils from a geological point of view indicated these soils to be one of the best natural materials used in the production of compressed earth bricks. Lateritic soils are mostly well graded, comprising both cohesive (silt and clay) and cohesionless (sands and gravels) soil fraction, it contains sesquioxides and clay minerals which are very useful in the natural binding process as well as in the presence of most chemical binders. Compressed earth bricks are mainly composed of raw earth materials (soil) with their cohesion due principally to the clay fraction present in both humid and dry states. CEB's promote building in a 'sustainable' way and offers a good prospect to using our resources in an efficient manner while creating dwellings that improve human health, well-being and preserving a better environment, with an affordable and natural alternative.

  4. 碱性固化材料对红土地基的化学侵蚀%Chemical Erosion of Laterite Soils by Alkaline Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华舒; 杨宇璐; 闫毅志; 王毅; 汪皓; 胡应庭

    2013-01-01

    The alkaline viscous substances used as reinforcement have engendered long-term erosion of laterite groundwork. Scene-sampling and archetype-testing were executed in a geotechnical engineering project. Chemical erosion of laterite by alkaline material were investigated, and accelerated life tests were designed for laterite eroded by alkaline materials. Engineering factors were compared and concentrations of seeping support-ions were tested for studying laterite eroded by alkaline viscous substances. Mechanism of laterite groundwork eroded by alkaline viscous substances was established. The chemical reactions are important cause for reduction of laterite groundwork life and long term economic benefit, and even can cause catastrophic accident.%碱性材料的固化措施对红土地基产生了不可忽视的长期侵蚀.在岩土工程现场进行了取样和原型试验,分析了导致材料损伤的化学反应,有针对性地设计了红土的碱液加速侵蚀试验,对比讨论了化学损伤前后红土的工程支撑指标变化、红土的工程支撑离子衰减,研究了碱性固化材料在酸性红土的接触带造成损伤的机制,认为化学反应是导致红土地基寿命降低、远期效益低下,乃至诱发灾难性事故的重要原因.

  5. Reemergence of dengue in Cuba: a 1997 epidemic in Santiago de Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourí, G; Guzmán, M G; Valdés, L; Carbonel, I; del Rosario, D; Vazquez, S; Laferté, J; Delgado, J; Cabrera, M V

    1998-01-01

    After 15 years of absence, dengue reemerged in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba because of increasing migration to the area by people from disease-endemic regions, a high level of vector infestation, and the breakdown of eradication measures. The 1997 epidemic was detected early through an active surveillance system. Of 2,946 laboratory-confirmed cases, 205 were dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 12 were fatal. No deaths were reported in persons under 16 years of age. Now the epidemic is fully controlled.

  6. EL PROCESO DE ORDENAMIENTO AMBIENTAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obllurys Cárdenas López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesaria interacción entre el ordenamiento territorial y ordenamiento ambiental fue promulgada en la Ley 81 y en las Estrategias Ambientales Nacionales (EAN desde 1997, en Cuba. Varias situaciones frenaron su cumplimentación, la falta de procedimientos metodológicos que guiaran el proceso, fue una de ellas por lo que la EAN de 2011-2015 y los Lineamientos del PCC lo ratifican como objetivo. En el abordaje de este problema y en la inclusión de los resultados de los estudios de peligro, vulnerabilidad y riesgo y de los escenarios de cambio climático radica la actualidad de la presente investigación. Teniendo como hipótesis que: el empleo de procedimientos metodológicos integradores y participativos facilitará la elaboración de modelos de ordenamiento ambiental (MOA que aporten regulaciones, lineamientos y normas ambientales al proceso de ordenamiento territorial; se persigue como objetivo principal: proponer los procedimientos metodológicos para la elaboración de los MOA y realizar su validación a nivel nacional y municipal. Son empleados métodos teóricos y empíricos combinados en la elaboración de los procedimientos y en su validación a diferentes escalas. Se obtienen como resultado los procedimientos metodológicos, con cinco fases de trabajo y su validación con la elaboración del MOA para el territorio emergido de Cuba, para los sectores agrícola y pecuario y del MOA para el municipio de Yagüajay, para los sectores agrícola, pecuario, forestal, hídrico, turismo y conservación. Se concluyó en la pertinencia de utilizar los procedimientos propuestos para la elaboración de los MOA, teniendo como base el enfoque participativo y a las unidades de paisaje, como unidad de análisis.

  7. Moessbauer study of the evolution of a laterite iron mineral based catalyst: effect of the activation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubeiro, M.L. (Escuela de Quimica, Caracas (Venezuela)); Goldwasser, M.R. (Escuela de Quimica, Caracas (Venezuela)); Perez Zurita, M.J. (Escuela de Quimica, Caracas (Venezuela)); Franco, C. (Escuela de Quimica, Caracas (Venezuela)); Gonzalez-Jimenez, F. (Dept. de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela)); Jaimes, E. (Dept. de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1994-11-01

    The syngas reaction has been studied using a laterite iron mineral, promoted with K and Mn. In situ activation under syngas, as well as pre-treatment with H[sub 2] followed by CO under mild and more severe conditions were tested. These activation procedures led to different iron phase compositions and to different catalytic selectivities. The C[sub 2]-C[sub 4]/CH[sub 4] ratio was significantly lower for those catalysts which after reaction showed the presence of hexagonal carbide and magnetite compared to the solid, which showed the highest proportion of Haegg carbide. (orig.)

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of the reduction process of Colombian lateritic nickel ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, Sandra C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Colombian nickeliferous laterites are minerals used for the nickel extraction by hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. In this work the thermodynamic behaviour of three Colombian lateritic mineral samples are described, with contents of 1.42%, 1.78% y 2.04% of nickel, when they are subjected to the calcination and reduction processes. The mineral was characterized using X Rays Diffraction and X Rays Fluorescence, giving evidence of the presence of mineralogical species such as nepouite (Ni3Si2O5(OH4, goethite (Fe2O3.H2O, silica (SiO2, antigorite (Mg3Si2O5(OH4 and fosferite (Mg2SiO4. The thermodynamic analysis was conducted using the software HSC Chemistry for Windows 5.1 and was focused in the quantitative determination of the chemical evolution of the mixture of these minerals with variable quantities of coal, in function of temperature. The results produced by the program showed, in the equilibrium, the feasibility of complete reduction of the nickel, and additionally, a considerable high percentage of reduction of iron oxides (up to 99% using ratio C/O ≈1 at temperatures close to 1100 °C.Las lateritas niquelíferas colombianas son minerales utilizados para la extracción de níquel mediante procesos hidrometalúrgicos y pirometalúrgicos. En este trabajo se describe el comportamiento termodinámico de tres muestras de mineral laterítico colombiano, con contenidos de 1,42; 1,78 y 2,04% de níquel, respectivamente, cuando se someten a los procesos de calcinación y reducción. El mineral se caracterizó utilizando difracción de rayos X y fluorescencia de rayos X, poniendo de manifiesto la presencia de especies mineralógicas tales como nepouita (Ni3Si2O5(OH4, goethita (Fe2O3.H2O, sílice (SiO2, antigorita (Mg3Si2O5(OH4 y fosferita (Mg2SiO4. El análisis termodinámico se realizó utilizando el software HSC Chemistry for Windows 5.1, y el estudio se centró en la determinación cuantitativa de la evolución química de

  9. Cholera with severe renal failure in an Italian tourist returning from Cuba, July 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarello, M; Deiana, M L; Maurel, C; Lucarelli, C; Luzzi, I; Luzzati, R

    2013-08-29

    In July 2013, an Italian tourist returning from Cuba was hospitalised in Trieste, Italy, for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa with severe renal failure. An outbreak of cholera was reported in Cuba in January 2013. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of cholera in travellers returning from Cuba presenting with acute watery diarrhoea.

  10. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS. ACTION... United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one of three named U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy... the United States and Cuba. These amendments are in accordance with the President's recent...

  11. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in §...

  12. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless...

  13. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically... place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or the purchase or provision of services, may enter a...

  14. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... 772 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures...

  15. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and...

  16. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for...

  17. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated...

  18. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and... north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on subsequent occasions, the Cuban government stated its intent to...

  19. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  20. Different Sorption Approaches and Leachate Fluxes Affecting on Mn2+ Transport through Lateritic Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilert Chotpantarat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Contamination of the underlying aquifer beneath a mining area is usually of great concern even when a prevention plan has been implemented. Approach: To assess the potential risk of heavy metal contamination, the simulation of heavy metal transport was carried out with different leachate fluxes and sorption parameters derived from equilibrium models with linear and Langmuir isotherms and chemical non-equilibrium two-site model. The HYDRUS-2D numerical model was applied to simulate the transport of Mn2+ under single- and multi-metal systems with two variable leachate fluxes (0.002 and 0.0026 m day−1 through the lateritic aquifer, approximately 5 km down gradient of the tailing pond. The model assumed that the compacted clay layer of the Tailing Storage Facility (TSF had been cracked and led to contamination of the shallow ground water. Results: The simulation showed that the time required to reach the Thailand drinking water standard at a specific location of Mn2+ for multi-metal system were faster than those for single metal systems, although different models were applied. The Mn2+ concentration fronts derived from simulation with chemical non-equilibrium two-site model came earlier than those of both equilibrium models under single and multi-metal systems. In addition, with a 30% increase in the leachate flux, from 0.002- 0.0026 m/day, the time required to reach the drinking water standard at the nearest well, 1 km downgradient from the source (well 1 decreased. It took about 57 and 106 years (a 17 and 19% decrease, respectively for Mn2+ under multi- and single-metal systems, respectively. Conclusion: In conclusions, sorption parameters and leachate fluxes should be carefully determined and these predictive patterns used as a management tool for planning water well installations under field conditions.

  1. Unconventional Gas, Status and Perspectives for Its Exploration in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orelvis Delgado López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper, is to define the unconventional gas types that can be found in Cuba andelaborate premises of perspectives areas for its exploration in Cuba. For this reason, a bibliographicrevision was done over the internet, because of the absent of textbooks and experiences of this topicin Cuba. For the enunciation of perspectives areas for unconventional gas exploration in Cuba, bothgas exploration reports in national territory and theoretical aspects elucidated over the internet wereused. Through this method of research it was possible to understand the theoretical aspect ofunconventional gas, the definition of the unconventional gas types that can be present in Cuba andthe most perspectives areas in order to begin its exploration. From these results it is possible toconclude that: The term unconventional gas is used because of the unconventional technical used formake the production of natural gas profitable from low quality reservoirs, and not because it is ahydrocarbon with different characteristics. The main unconventional gas types, which are beingdeveloped nowadays worldwide, are: Tight gas, shale gas y coal bed methane. Preliminarily, in Cubaonly exist conditions for tight and shale gas development.

  2. Revolution on the mind: Cuba, between fact and fable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] To make a world safe for revolution: Cuba's foreign policy. JORGE I. DOMÏNGUEZ. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. viii + 365 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 U.S. - Cuba relations in the 1990s. JORGE I. DoMfNGUEZ & RAFAEL HERNANDEZ (eds.. Boulder CO: Westview, 1989. ix + 324 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.00, Paper US$ 15.95 Transformation and struggle: Cuba faces the 1990s. SANDOR HALEBSKY & JOHN M. KIRK (eds.. with the assistance of Rafael Hernéndez. New York: Praeger, 1990. xxvi + 291 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.95 "A masterpiece of political intrigue" was one description of Jorge Dominguez' earlier book, Cuba: order and revolution; and it is a fitting comment for its sequel foreign policy volume. Dominguez himself opens with: "This is not a book of fiction, yet much of the story seems a fantasy." The story is how, from 1959 to 1988, Cuban leaders sought "to make a world safe for revolution" and, in the process, that small country Cuba came to have "the foreign policy of a big power." In his thorough, methodical fashion, Dominguez marshalls a wealth of documentary evidence from varied and conflicting sources, backed with extensive interview material, to paint a "behind the scènes" story of policymakers and their policy.

  3. Música popular y nacionalismo en los campamentos insurgentes. Cuba (1895-1898) /Popular Music and Nationalism in Insurgent Camps. Cuba (1895-1898)/Música popular e nacionalismo nos acampamentos insurgentes. Cuba (1895-1898)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaddiel Díaz Frene

    2015-01-01

    ...? Palabras clave: música, Cuba, nacionalismo, cultura popular, raza, género, décimas. Popular Music and Nationalism in Insurgent Camps. Cuba (1895-1898) Abstract: This article reconstructs the social uses of the décimas (ten-line stanzas) sung in the insurgent camps during the war for independence that began in Cuba in 1895. Through a review of persona...

  4. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  5. Saharan dust events measured at Camaguey, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuna, J.; Estevan, R.; Barja, B.

    2012-12-01

    Using AERONET level 2.0 dataset from Camagüey, Cuba, Saharan Dust events have been measured from 2009 to the present. The sunphotometer, operated by GOAC in cooperation with RIMA (Red Iberica de Medicion de Aerosoles) has been also contributing to AERONET. Five Saharan dust events AOD measured in July 2009 have been compared with Spatio-temporal coincident MODIS (both from Aqua and Terra instruments) measurements of AOD. Also the SKIRON model AOD forecasts for the same period over Camagüey were compared with local measurements. The daily average values of the sunphotometer measured AOD and modeled forecasted AOD show a better agreement than the rest of the combinations of AOD selection criteria tested, but still notable differences are present. The lack of background aerosols AOD in the forecast produces additional differences in the absence of Saharan dust. In the case of the long range transport of Saharan aerosols the forecasted AOD values are higher than the measured ones. The differences daily mean sunphotometer AOD and the daily mean areal MODIS (both Terra and Aqua) AOD are lower than the differences between the daily maximum sunphotometer AOD and the daily areal maximum MODIS (both from Terra and Aqua) AOD. The mean areal AOD MODIS values (both for Terra and Aqua) underestimates the high aerosols concentrations and overestimates the lower ones, measured by the sunphotometer. New research is underway, covering the 2009 and 2010 Saharan dust events. Preliminary results are shown.

  6. Utilization of hybrid systems in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Mercedes Menendez; Figueredo, Conrado Moreno [Renewable Energy Technologies Study Center (CETER), Marianao (Cuba)

    1996-12-31

    This work deals with the possibility of the wind-photovoltaic hybrid system uses for the electricity generation in Cuba. A design of energy installation is made to satisfy the tourism facilities demands located in Cayo Sabinal, in the north of the province Camaguey. The design is based on the data base of the available wind and solar resources. A group of existing wind-generators in the market is analyzed and the best is selected taking into account a set of energy parameters, the monthly energy supply is function of the turbines numbers and the quantity of necessary solar energy to guarantee the system requirements. An economical evaluation is carried out in order to select the best wind-solar combination and a comparison with other forms of electricity generation (Diesel Plant and a stand alone wind system). In the work is showed the best combination in the critical month is when a 62% of energy is supplied by wind energy and 38% of solar energy. Otherwise in the work is showed hybrid system is more economical than a stand alone wind system and a Diesel Plant. (Author)

  7. Las actuales transformaciones en Cuba y sus efectos en las relaciones Cuba-CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Laguardia Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2011 Cuba aprobó una nueva política económica con el objetivo de relanzar su economía sin comprometer los principales logros sociales asociados a su modelo socialista. La apuesta es lo suficientemente ambiciosa como para generar dudas sobre la posibilidad real de instrumentar con éxito una transformación socioeconómica de tales dimensiones. Lo cierto es que, a pesar de los temores y resistencias a la “actualización” del modelo económico cubano, los cambios internos son obligatorios con el fin de construir un socialismo “próspero y sostenible”, idea que el presidente Raúl Castro ha promovido como objetivo central de los cambios. El artículo analiza las relaciones de Cuba y los países del CARICOM en el contexto de la cambiante realidad cubana actual y examina las posibles modificaciones que esta relación podría experimentar en un futuro próximo como consecuencia de la actualización económica cubana.

  8. 31 CFR 515.559 - Certain transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled foreign firms with Cuba. 515.559 Section 515.559 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba. (a) Effective October 23, 1992, no specific... controlled firms in third countries and Cuba for the exportation to Cuba of commodities produced in...

  9. The Debate in Cuba's Scientific Community on Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, Ernesto; Ochoa, Luis A; Ramos, Lianne

    2015-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death poses a challenge to modern medicine because of its high incidence, the unexpected and dramatic nature of the event, and years of potential life lost. What's more, despite modest decreases in global mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases, incidence of sudden cardiac death has not declined. Cuba, like most of the Americas, suffers from knowledge gaps that hamper adequate strategies to address sudden cardiac death as a population health problem. We suggest that a generally accepted operational definition of sudden cardiac death be agreed upon, and a national registry developed that recognizes this cause of death on death certificates. These two actions will enable Cuba's public health authorities to assess the extent of the problem and to design intervention strategies for the population with intermediate and lower cardiovascular risk, the group in which most cases occur. KEYWORDS Sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular disease, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, risk reduction, prevention and control, Cuba.

  10. Treatment for Myanmar Nickel Laterite with RKEF Process%RKEF工艺处理缅甸镍红土矿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵景富

    2013-01-01

    The pilot plant test on ferronickel alloy production from Myanmar Dagon Hill nickel laterite by rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting process (RKEF) was introduced. The optimum process parameters include moisture of 20%~22% in dried ore, pre-reduction temperature of 900 ℃ , reductant dosage of 7%, nickel grade in ferronickel alloy of 19% ; 25% of dust as dosage of wet laterite, the moisture of dustball of 30% in palletizing process, slag and ferronickel alloy discharging temperature in electric furnace smelting process of 1 550~1 600 ℃ and 1 450~1500 ℃ , respectively.%介绍了采用回转窑—电炉法(RKEF)处理缅甸达贡山镍红土矿生产镍铁的中试试验过程,得到了下述最佳工艺参数:干燥后原矿含水20%~22%、回转窑预还原温度900℃、还原剂煤的配入量7%、镍品位19%,烟尘制粒时湿矿配入量为烟尘的25%、尘球含水30%,电炉熔炼时放渣温度1550~1600℃、镍铁合金放出温度1450~1500℃.

  11. The Potential of Laterite Soils Deposit South Sulawesi as a Precursor for Na-Poly (Ferro-Sialate Geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subaer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study was to investigate the potential of lateritic soils deposit South Sulawesi, Indonesia as a precursor for Na-poly(ferro-sialate geopolymers. The samples of laterite soils were taken from three different regions, namely Sidrap, Bone, and Gowa regency. The soil was clean, grounded, sieves 200 mesh, and dehydroxylated at 750oC for 2 hours. The x-ray fluorescence (XRF and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were used to examine the chemical compositions of the soils. The geopolymers was synthesized through alkali activation method by adjusting the molar oxide ratios of SiO2/(Al2O3+Fe2O3, Na2O/SiO2 and H2O/Na2O in accordance with the chemical compositions of the soils. The functional groups of the resulting geopolymers were examined by using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR. The structure and phase of the resulting material were studied by using x-ray diffraction (XRD. The surface morphology of geopolymers was studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The mechanical strength of the materials was examined through compressive strength measurement. The results of this study showed that high strength Na-poly (ferro-sialate geopolymers were successfully produced and characterized.

  12. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  13. The Politics of Revolutionary Development: Civil-Military Relations in Cuba, 1959-1976,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    34 Cuba Socialista, No. 47 (July 1965), 51-67; Paul Castro, " Problemas del faicimandento del Partido en las FAR," Cuba Socialista, No. 55 (March 1966...34 Cuba Socialista, No. 47 (July 1965, 51-67; and iFail Castro, " Problemas del ffncionamiento del Partido en las FAR," Cuba Socialists, No. 55 (March...mtica del Partido Comnista de Cuba: Tesis5 Resolucion La Habana: Departamentod Orienacin volucianaria del Ccmite Central del PCC, 1976), pp. 114-116. 64

  14. Progresses of Hydrometallurgy Processes for Nickel Laterite Ores%红土镍矿湿法浸出工艺的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马保中; 杨玮娇; 王成彦; 尹飞; 陈永强

    2013-01-01

    The traditional hydrometallurgy processes for nickel laterite ores were elaborated and analyzed.The new hydrometallurgy processes for nickel laterite ores for the past few years were summarized.The development directions of the processes for nickel laterite ores were prospected.To conclude,the processes of high pressure acid leaching-atmosphere leaching (HPAL-AL),nitric acid pressure leaching and at-mosphere water leaching for modified laterite ores would have wide application prospects.%阐述并分析了处理红土镍矿的传统湿法工艺,总结了近年来湿法处理红土镍矿的新工艺,最后展望了红土镍矿处理工艺未来主要的发展方向,指出加压酸浸-常规浸出(HPAL-AL)工艺、硝酸加压浸出工艺和矿改性后常压水浸工艺具有广阔的应用前景.

  15. The Analysis of Microstructure Characteristic Parameters of Kunming Laterite%昆明红土微观结构特征参数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金克盛; 黄英; 陈晓娜

    2012-01-01

    红土的特殊物理力学性质主要是由它的微观结构特征决定的.分析了昆明红土在电子显微镜下的微观结构特征,从经过处理的红土微观结构照片中提取了面积比例、平均周长、最大面积、圆形度、复杂度、定向度和分布分维等定量化参数,并将这些定量化参数与红土的物理力学性质之间建立了联系.%Exceptional physical and mechanical properties of laterite is mainly determined by the micro-structure characteristic of it. This article analysed microstructural characteristics of Kunming laterite under the electron microscope, extracted from the processed photos in the microstructure of laterite. The average perimeter, the maximum area, the degrees of roundness,the degrees of complexity,the degrees of directed and quantitative parameters of fractal dimension and distribution, and also the quantitative parameter associated with the physical and mechanical properties of laterite.

  16. A geological study of clayey laterite and clayey hydromorphic material of the region of Yaoundé (Cameroon): a prerequisite for local material promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngon Ngon, G. F.; Yongue–Fouateu, R.; Bitom, D. L.; Bilong, P.

    2009-09-01

    A geological survey carried out in the Yaoundé (Cameroon) region has revealed the presence of homogeneous clayey laterite in the upper part of a laterite cover on interfluves, thickest on hills (780-800 m altitude) where ferricrete is absent, and clayey heterogeneous hydromorphic material in valleys. We present in this paper the physical, mineralogical and geochemical properties of these occurrences and discuss their potential as raw material for pottery, manufacture of bricks and tiles. These clayey raw materials are mostly made up of fine particles (ranging from 55 to 60% clay + silt in the clayey laterite, more than 70% clay + silt in the clayey hydromorphic material). Their chemical composition is characterized by silica (clay minerals are disorganized and poorly crystallized kaolinites. The average limits of liquidity (44.56% versus 91.58%) and limits of plasticity (22.4 versus 45.93) revealed that clayey hydromorphic material has the greatest plasticity. The studied raw materials are suitable for making pottery as well as the manufacture of bricks and tiles. However, the high iron content in the clayey laterite (between 11 and 12% Fe 2O 3) prevents their efficient use in the manufacture of ceramics.

  17. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  18. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    In response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.

  19. Pay Inequality in Cuba: the Special Period and After

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of pay inequality in Cuba from the early 1990s through 2004, during what was known as the “Special Period in Times of Peace” and after. We measure pay inequality across sectors and regions, using the between-groups component of Theil’s T statistic, and we map the changing components of that statistic in order to provide a compact summary of structural change in Cuba. This method helps us to observe the transition of the Cuban economy from one based fundamenta...

  20. El V Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe RUÍZ ALONSO

    1998-01-01

    RESUMEN: El artículo describe de forma prolija el desarrollo y resultados del V Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba celebrado en La Habana eri octubre de 1997. Por el papel hegemónico del Partido Comunista Cubano en el sistema político cubano, las conclusiones del citado congreso pueden ser interpretadas como elementos claves de reflexión en el marco de la situación económica y política de Cuba.ABSTRACT: This article describes in a detailed manner the development and results of the V Congr...

  1. A POLÍTICA AFRICANA DE CUBA: IDEALISMO OU PRAGMATISMO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analúcia Danilevicz Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As relações cubano-africanas são marcadas por traços de excepcionalidade. A Revolução Cubana coincide, temporalmente, com o aprofundamento do processo descolonizatório na África. Desde os primeiros anos da Revolução, Cuba definiu sua linha de atuação no continente africano, marcada pela cooperação militar e civil. A política africana de Cuba, foi, assim, definida pela autopreservação e zelo revolucionário.

  2. Cuba, Canarias y la prensa, en el contexto del 98

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Ileana Medina Hernández

    1998-01-01

    1898 es para España el año del Desastre, con mayúscula; 1898 es para Cuba el año de la independencia, quizá con minúscula. Canarias es la puerta de salida de Europa; Cuba es puerta la entrada de América. La migración canario - cubana ha sido un factor histórico decisivo en la formación de ambas nacionalidades. La prensa de masas naciente a fines del siglo XIX jugó un papel determinante en la guerra hispano-norteamericana y su desenlace. Conjugando esas cuatro sentencias aplastantes y archicon...

  3. Seismic image of the petroleum structures in Cuba; Imagen sismica de las estructuras para petroleo en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sora Monroy, America; Socorro Trujillo, Rafael [Empresa de Geofisica, La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-07-01

    The main oil trap in Cuba are associated with structural highs. These structures are ;located within different types of rocks (ophiolitics, volcanics sedimentary rocks). During the compressive stage (Late Cretacic - Early Tertiary) have produced the Cuban fold and thurst belt. By the Campanian, the volcanic arc and associated oceanic basement were obducted onto the Continental Crust, consequently sedimentary cover was folded to form many oil structures, for example: ramp anticline structures, fold system duplex. In postorogenic period, tectonic stress is still active, is in this moment a lot of traps has been recognized by floowers structures, and as a result, pull apart basin of 4-6 km thick sediments were mostly in the south of Cuba. This paper illustrates the characteristics of seismic images of oil traps in Cuba. (author)

  4. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  5. Smoking prevalence in Cienfuegos City, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Mikhail; Espinosa, Alfredo; Morejón, Alain; Diez, Emiliano; Landrove, Orlando; Ordúñez, Pedro O

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the last 40 years, high smoking prevalence has been reported throughout Cuba, including in Cienfuegos city in the central part of the island. OBJECTIVES Determine smoking prevalence and potential associated risk factors in Cienfuegos city for 2010-2011. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Cienfuegos city in the context of CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention & Effective Management of Non-communicable Diseases), a PAHO multi-country initiative for a multidimensional approach to chronic non-communicable diseases. Participants totaled 2193 (aged 15-74 years), randomly selected through complex probabilistic three-stage sampling. Variables examined in relation to smoking included age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level. RESULTS Approximately 25% of those surveyed were smokers (30.3% of men and 21.0% of women). For men, prevalence was highest in the groups aged 25-34 and 55-64 years; for women, in the group aged 45-54 years. Concerning skin color, smoking rates were higher among black and mestizo persons (29.5%); and concerning civil status, higher among those who were separated, widowed or divorced (30.0%). Smoking prevalence fell with higher educational level; in keeping with that trend, the university-educated group had the lowest prevalence (16.2%). CONCLUSIONS Although one in four Cienfuegos residents aged ≥15 years smoked in 2010-2011, prevalence there is lower than in previous surveys. Knowledge of differences observed in age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level can be useful for planning future smoking prevention and control actions.

  6. Mortalidad infantil en Cuba 1959-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Riverón Corteguera

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available De 1959 a 1999, con los datos estadísticos disponibles, la mortalidad infantil en Cuba disminuyó en 81,3 %, la mortalidad neonatal precoz se redujo el 73,4 %, la mortalidad neonatal tardía el 83,6 % y la posneonatal en 86,0 %. Las reducciones obtenidas en el período se distribuyeron uniformemente entre todas las provincias, aunque la mayor disminución se produjo en las provincias centrales y occidentales. Los rubros que más disminuyeron sus tasas fueron: enteritis y otras enfermedades diarreicas, infecciones respiratorias agudas, afecciones perinatales en general y las meningitis, aunque todas las causas reducen la mortalidad en el período. La natalidad descendió el 51,3 %, la fecundidad lo hizo en 30 %, el crecimiento demográfico bruto de la población disminuyó el 59,8 %, el parto institucional aumentó en 65,9 %, el bajo peso al nacer descendió el 36,9 %, la mortalidad perinatal se redujo el 67,2 %, los nacidos vivos disminuyeron el 21,1 % y la supervivencia infantil a los 5 años aumentó el 3,8 %. Esto ha sido posible debido principalmente a la decisión política de priorizar el sector de la salud y muy especialmente la salud maternoinfantil adoptada por nuestro Estado a principios de la década de los 60, lo que permitió alcanzar avances en la organización, calidad de la atención y una amplia cobertura de los servicios de salud. También fueron elementos importantes, el mejoramiento del nivel de vida y de la educación alcanzados por la población, las mejoras logradas en la situación sanitaria y epidemiológica, la distribución equitativa de los alimentos que prioriza a la madre y al niño. Un elemento fundamental en la última década ha sido el desarrollo del "médico de la familia" en la atención primaria y el mejoramiento de la atención hospitalaria. Por otra parte han contribuido de manera notable el establecimiento del Programa Nacional de Atención Maternoinfantil, que abarca las inmunizaciones, el control de las

  7. The Statistical Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamic Parameters of Guangxi Laterite%广西红粘土动力非线性参数统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丹鹏; 张忠利

    2016-01-01

    运用数理统计方法研究广西区内189个红粘土样品自振柱试验成果,发现广西红粘土动剪切模量比中应变范围(5×10-4~1×10-3)变易性大,阻尼比变异性无明显规律;在R软件中,运用Davidenkov模型对试验数据进行非线性拟合,对比统计数据表明拟合效果好,可作为广西红粘土动力非线性参数推荐值;同国内公开发表的粘性土动剪切模量比和阻尼比推荐值进行对比分析,表明广西红粘土具有动剪切模量比处于中等水平而阻尼比整体偏小的特征。%The paper studies the free resonance vibration column test results of 189 Guangxi laterite samples by mathematical statistic methods. The results show that the variation of dynamic shear modulus ratio of Guangxi laterite in the middle strain range ( 5í10-4~1í10-3) is great with no law in damping ratio variability; in R software, the paper fits the experimental data in nonlinear way by using the Davidenkov model, and statistical data show good fitting effect, which an be used as recommended values for the dynamic nonlinear parameter of Guangxi laterite; it was indicated that the dynamic shear modulus ratio of Guangxi laterite was at middle level and the damping ratio of Guangxi laterite was smaller by comparing with the recommended value of cohesive soils in published articles.

  8. Environmental and health impacts of a laterite nickel and smelter in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, T.A. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Environmental Science Program; Edinger, E.N. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Yusuf, Y. [Sorowako Indigenous Association, Sorowako, South Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    2005-07-01

    The environmental and potential health impacts associated with a 30-year old laterite nickel mine and smelter in Sorowako, Indonesia were assessed. The objective was to determine the environmental effects of airborne dust and metals from the smelter; the effects of metals pollution from mine and smelter runoff on lake waters, sediment, and fish; and, the potential effects on human health. A high-volume air sampler was used to measure airborne dust concentration and composition in 6 communities around the smelter in June 2002, September 2004, and January 2005. ICP-MS was used to determine the heavy metal composition of airborne dust. An evaluation of daytime and night-time SPM concentrations showed that daytime airborne SPM concentrations were higher than night-time SPM in all but one location. June 2002 air samples from Sorowako, 5 km NW of the smelter, had higher nickel concentrations in night samples than daytime samples. SPM and dust metals data indicate that most night-time dust in Sorowako came from smelter fallout, whereas daytime dust came from both road dust and smelter fallout. Lake water and sediment samples collected away from potential sources of mine and smelter runoff showed SPM concentrations of less than 2 mg/l. Dissolved metals concentrations determined by ICP-MS were also low except from river mouths draining smelter or mines. Lake sediment samples had nickel and chromium concentrations as high as 4.5 per cent, with highest concentrations near rivers draining the smelter. Endemic fish in the lakes have deformities including stunted teeth. Fish tissue and liver metals concentrations are being analyzed by ICP-MS. Eight communities around the smelter were asked to respond to a health questionnaire in an effort to assess potential health impacts of mining and smelting. Twenty-one percent of participants in Kampung Baru reported suffering often from respiratory infections compared to 4.76 per cent in Malili which is 20 km from the smelter. The

  9. Learning together: a Canada-Cuba research collaboration to improve the sustainable management of environmental health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Jerry; Garcia, Maricel; Bonet, Mariano; Yassi, Annalee

    2006-01-01

    To build a national Cuban capacity for training environmental health professionals directly linked to the needs of policy-makers and communities. The University of Manitoba and University of British Columbia collaborated with an established training centre in Cuba (the Instituto Nacional de Higiene y Epidemiologia--INHEM) and new centres in the Central (Santa Clara) and Eastern (Santiago) regions of the country. Cuba. In the mid-1990s, a comprehensive curriculum (masters and diploma programs) was collaboratively developed, applying interactive teaching methods, and was delivered through a series of workshops and other interactions in Cuba, and short-term visits to Canada by Cuban PhD students. The collaboration was successful in fulfilling capacity-building targets (over 50 Masters graduates, 467 Diploma graduates, over 30 trained core faculty in all regional centres as well as new curriculum and new accredited regional programs). Alongside this, a number of collaborative community-based research projects were undertaken in all three regions (drinking water in Santiago; housing and urban renewal, and dengue control in Havana; and tourism-related effects, and effective intersectoral management of population health determinants in Santa Clara). The collaboration led to adopting new strategies for challenges such as a dengue epidemic in 2002, and new research on the effectiveness of intersectoral management of risks of particular interest to both Cuban and Canadian policy-makers. It triggered an ambitious collaboration between the Canadian-Cuban team and colleagues in Ecuador in order to build a similar national network there, built on South-South and North-South links.

  10. Cuba. Escenarios demográficos hacia 2030 Cuba. Demographic scenarios towards 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Albizu-Campos Espiñeira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es un ensayo de construcción de escenarios demográficos para Cuba hacia 2030, introduciendo los elementos fundamentales del cambio de la población a partir de las tendencias recientes observadas en las variables que determinan su dinámica, se debaten los elementos que se consideran claves para modelar su posible evolución, dado que en un contexto como el actual, pronosticar el comportamiento futuro de la población, por lo menos hasta un mediano plazo y con la mayor precisión posible, se convierte en un instrumento esencial para ofrecer criterios cada vez más refinados para la conformación de las políticas orientadas al alcance de las mejores condiciones posibles en el proceso de desarrollo económico del país.

  11. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  12. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  13. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly fo

  14. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  15. Ciencia y coleccionismo en Cuba en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero González, Mercedes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a panoramic is exposed about museums and cabinets which existed in Cuba during the nineteenth century, describing functions and characteristics as well as the causes that made some of them disappear. It is also shown the continuity, asumed by the scientific collection over since major nationalized-institute in the nineteenth century. It is likewise intended to give a general and complete chronology about the development of museum in Cuba, taking into account the lasting-long or not of such institute. The authors regret the work shortege that considers the subject and total absence from the comparative standpoint.

    En este artículo se brinda una panorámica de los museos y gabinetes que existieron en Cuba durante el siglo XIX, describiéndose las características y funciones, así como las causas que hicieron desaparecer a algunos de ellos. También se destaca la continuidad asumida por el coleccionismo científico desde el siglo XVIII y su mayor institucionalización en el XIX. Asimismo se intenta dar una cronología muy general sobre el desarrollo de los museos en Cuba, teniéndose en cuenta la perdurabilidad o no de dicha institucionalización. Los autores lamentan la escasez de trabajos que traten el tema y la ausencia total desde el punto de vista comparativo.

  16. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal indication

  17. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  18. Some Interesting Data About Women Physicists in Cuba (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fuentes, Olimpia Arias

    2009-04-01

    Although the number of women physicists in Cuba, as in the entire world, is less than men physicists, their presence in the academic leadership is strong, unlike the limited women's role in many other countries. Some interesting numeral data are presented to demonstrate this affirmation. This fact emphasizes the advantages reached by women and the increasing prestige obtained by women physicists in our country.

  19. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its implem

  20. Cyathura specus, a new cave Isopod from Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1965-01-01

    During the years 1958-1960, several shipments of specimens collected in the Caguanes Caves of Cuba were sent to the United States National Museum by GILBERTO SILVA TABOADA. Mr. SILVA'S collections included 3 specimens of a blind anthurid isopod, which I determined to be a species of Cyathura, simila

  1. U.S. Embargo Against Cuba: Should it Be Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-23

    disgraced, no one was safe."ś I agree with Schulz when he says that a golpe de estado is unlikely in Cuba in the near future." Fidel Castro has...Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Uruguay .94 Taking this into consideration, the best course of action for the United States would seem to

  2. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly fo

  3. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  4. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  5. Reflexions on multidisciplinarity and geologic risk management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbán Rodríguez Liber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological risk management has special relevance in construction and the creation of new infrastructure in Cuba. The aim of this work was to focus on making some reflections about the multidisciplinarity analysis of geological risk management in the country from a critical perspective

  6. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  7. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  8. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  9. Eroding and imperiling of alkaline materials in laterite structure%碱性材料对红土结构的侵蚀及危害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华舒; 杨宇璐; 魏海; 胡应庭; 汪皓; 王毅

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline materials, such as cement, are largely used to reinforce geotechnical engineering. The economic life of laterite structure is clearly shortened with alkaline reinforcing materials, and the ruinous causes are desiderated. Based on chemical analysis and principle of accelerated life test, laterite is dipped in supersaturating lye at constant temperature and multi-concentrations for simulating time of laterite erode by alkaline reinforcing materials. Changes in concentrations of effective-ion are tested in leachate, and pores-characteristics and grain-size-gradations of laterite are analyzed. Mechanism is put forward to explain how laterite structure is chronically demolished. Underprops of laterite structure, such as Al, Ti, and SiO3, are lost with speedup by alkaline substance. Coating layers of granule, bonded granules, and fillings between grains are clearly destroyed. Laterite is eroded into poorly-graded soil. Exterior polarity of sesquioxides is inchmeal changed by alkaline materials in contact zone, leading to viscous substances degenerating, thus laterite is decomposed and its structure is chronically ruined. Inner hollows and thin piping are largely engendered since reaction products are extruded off structure by seepage. As a result, engineering indices of laterite become bad and seepage failure and engineering collapse may befall.%水泥等碱性物质大量用于加固岩土工程,但红土结构在使用碱性材料加固后经济寿命反而明显缩短,其相关机制亟待明确.基于材料的化学分析和加速寿命实验原理,采用不同浓度的过饱和碱液恒温浸泡红土,模拟碱性加固材料对红土侵蚀的不同时长;然后检测红土被侵蚀后渗液中有效离子的浓度变化,显微观测红土颗粒和孔隙的劣化趋势,揭示碱性物质对红土结构的缓慢破坏机理.对比试验表明:碱性加固材料加速了红土中倍半氧化物、硅酸根等支撑物质的变异和流失;土颗粒的胶

  10. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  11. Novel applications of microwaves in the metallurgical processing of a nickel-ferrous laterite ore and an aluminum industry waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samouhos, M.; Taxiarchou, M.; Kouvelos, E.

    2016-04-01

    Microwave radiation is a relatively new source of energy in the pyrometallurgical process. In this study, the application of microwaves in the carbothermic reductive roasting of a nickeliferous hematitic laterite ore and a red mud are investigated. The effective microwave heating (at temperatures above 900°C) of the aforementioned materials is attainable due to the relatively high values of their imaginary permittivity (ε")- In both two cases, the reduction of the included hematite was attempted, and the reduction degree was calculated as a function of: (a) the heating time and (b) the supplied microwave power. The mechanism of Fe+3 to Fe0 conversion was investigated using Mössbaurer spectroscopy revealing the formation of magnetite, fayalite and nano-structured metallic iron. Finally, it should be noted that that the gaseous products of the microwave pyrometallurgical process were analyzed using a mass spectroscopic technique, which is an important novelty.

  12. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  13. CAUSE STUDY OF LATERITE OVERLYING CARBONATE ROCKS%碳酸盐岩上覆红土的成因研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符必昌; 黄英; 方丽萍; 王昆; 金克盛; 刘鹏

    2013-01-01

    The cause of laterite overlying carbonate rocks has not been resolved and became the key problem for the restriction to further study of laterite,karst etc subject area. It is an important problem to be solved for the not objective scientific research results. Related academic circles in carbonate rocks on the overlaying laterite causes appeared in the process of cognition is discussed,the main problems is reviewed,a new perspective and established carbonate on the overlaying the formation of the laterite model is proposed. The model can not only system science to explain China science for a long time not solved many of the red clay and carbonate complex relations between and objective reasonably explain nature carbonate on the overlaying laterite forming the real reason. The research result has important guiding significance to laterite and karst.%  碳酸盐岩上覆红土的成因一直悬而未决,致使它成了制约我国红土、岩溶等学科领域进行系统深入研究的关键问题,越来越多欠客观科学的红土、岩溶研究结果又使它成为亟待解决的重要问题。通过对我国学术界在碳酸盐岩上覆红土成因认识、研究过程中出现的主要问题进行评述,在此基础上提出一种全新的研究思路,由此建立的碳酸盐岩上覆红土的形成模式既能系统科学地解释长期以来没有解决的诸多红黏土与碳酸盐岩之间的复杂关系,又能客观合理地解释自然界碳酸盐岩上覆红土形成的真实原因,该研究成果对红土、岩溶研究具有重要的指导意义。

  14. 红土镍矿流态化特性的模型试验研究%Model tests on fluidization characteristics of laterite nickel ore in bulk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 朱耀民; 简琦薇; 贾敏才; 金允龙

    2014-01-01

    By means of shaking table tests, the fluidization characteristics of laterite nickel ore in bulk under dynamic loading are investigated. With the help of digital image capture and processing technology, the phenomenon of fluidization evolution is revealed. The effect of different influencing factors such as moisture content, acceleration and the change law of pore water pressure and moisture content in the process of fluidization are analyzed. The test results show that the moisture migration is the main cause for fluidization of laterite nickel ore. The fluidization of laterite nickel ore is mostly influenced by the moisture content, and it is suggested that the moisture content of laterite nickel ore used in the test should be below 31.0% in practical transport. Only when the acceleration is greater than a certain critical value, the acceleration has great influence on the fluidization characteristics of laterite nickel ore. This study is of important significance in reducing risk for laterite nickel ore in the shipping process.%通过室内小型振动台模型试验,对船载红土镍矿的流态化特性进行了研究。基于数字图像采集和分析,揭示了红土镍矿流态化的演化过程。分析了含水率、加速度等因素对红土镍矿流态化特性的影响以及孔隙水压力和含水率在流态化过程中的变化规律。试验结果表明:水分迁移是造成红土镍矿形成流态化的主要原因;含水率是影响红土镍矿流态化发生的关键因素,建议实际运输中控制与本试验相同的红土镍矿含水率在31.0%以下;加速度大于某一临界值时,加速度对红土镍矿流态化特性才有较大影响。研究对减少红土镍矿在船运过程中流态化风险有重要的意义。

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of laterites developed on chlorite schists in Tchollire region, North Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakeng, L. A.; Zame, P. Zo'o.; Tchameni, R.; Mamdem, L.; Bitom, D.

    2016-07-01

    Laterites developed from the weathering of chlorite schists have been studied in Tchollire region, North Cameroon. They include two profiles: a 5.5 m depth profile in Doudja site and a 12.3 m profile in Fimbe site. The chlorite schists have a lepidoblastic to lepidogranoblastic texture and are mainly composed of chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars and quartz but that of Fimbe is marked by the presence of amphibole. It is felsic with a high SiO2 content (67%) and low Fe2O3 (5.8%) and MgO (2.4%) contents in Doudja site but has a lower content of SiO2 (46%) in the Fimbe site where it is mafic with higher contents in Fe2O3 (12.4%) and MgO (6.3%). The chlorite schists of Doudja show high contents in Zr, Sr, Ta, with moderate contents in Cr, V, U and Zn. That of Fimbe is particularly rich in Cr, V, Ni, Sr and Zn with a moderate Zr content. All chlorite schists have high barium contents (270-393 ppm) with LREE-enrichment. The soils are yellowish and, from bottom to top, are composed of a coarse saprolite, fine saprolite, loose clayey horizon and an organo mineral horizon. The main minerals are chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars, quartz, smectites, vermiculite, kaolinite, hematite and goethite. In Doudja, SiO2 mainly decreases from the bottom to the top of the profile while, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 generally increase; in Fimbe, SiO2 and Al2O3 increase up the profile but Fe2O3 decreases; the general high Fe and corresponding decrease in Mg contents in the soils show that the smectite formed is nontronite. Chromium, V, Cu, Ba and Sr show high contents in the two studied profiles but Zr, U and Ta is higher in Doudja than in Fimbe. Copper generally has high contents in the loose clayey and organo mineral horizons. Nickel is higher in the Fimbe profile and probably issued from the Ni-rich mafic protolith. SiO2 has positive correlations with K2O, Zr, Li and Rb. Correlations of SiO2 with CaO, TiO2 and Cr are negative. Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have a positive correlation with Pb. Doudja

  16. Late Cenozoic Geology and Paleo-environment Change in the Eastern Edge of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhizhong; MIAO Qi; JIANG Fuchu; QIAO Yansong; WANG Shubing; YAO Haitao; WANG Yan; LI Chaozhu; FU Jianli; LIU Zongxiu; LI Mingze

    2008-01-01

    There are late Cenozoic lacustrine deposits and loess and red clay and moraines in eastern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Various genetic sediments recorded rich information on late Cenozoic paleo-environment changes. Xigeda lacustrine formed during 4.2 Ma B.P.-2.6 Ma B.P. There were 9 periodic warm-cold alternations. Eolian deposition in western Sichuan began at 1.15 Ma B.P. The loess-soil sequences recorded successively 14 paleo-monsoon climate cycles. Laterite in Chengdu plain recorded 5 stages of paleoclimatic stages since 1.13 Ma B.P. There was an old glacial period of 4.3 Ma B.P. In eastern Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. During Quaternary, there are 5 extreme paleoclimatic events corresponding with 5 glaciations.

  17. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  18. Estructura y daños en las comunidades de octocorales (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea de la Reserva Ecológica Siboney-Juticí, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunier Olivera Espinosa

    2010-12-01

    prevailing environmental conditions in the study area. For data collection, six sampling sites were located every 2-3km ranging from 12m to 17m depth along the spur-and-groove reefs. In each site, 22-26 1m² quadrants were zigzag arranged every 2m. The density of colonies was determined per site. The severity degree and predictability of environmental conditions were inferred by using the Heterogeneity and Equitability indexes, respectively. Hydrodynamic stress and the Comparative Pollution Index were also assessed. Current affectations of the octocoral communities were also determined and classified into four main categories: mechanical damage, diseases, predation and invertebrate and macroalgae overgrowth. As a result, 25 species represented by 752 colonies were recorded and Eunicea flexuosa and Gorgonia ventalina were the most abundant. The occurrence of Eunicea succinea forma succinea constituted the first report for Eastern Cuba. Site densities ranged from 3.58±1.84 to 7.58±2.16 colonies/m² and considered from moderate to low. The biggest densities were reported at both sides of the San Juan River mouth. Despite of the composition and structure of the octocoral communities, low to high hydrodynamic stress and low and moderate levels of contamination were inferred, it is likely that these indexes could have been overestimated due to the sensitivity of the indicator species to other factors such as sedimentation. The environmental conditions were mostly favorable and stable. In general, the number of dead colonies was low and mostly caused by the detachment of the substrate and overgrowth of Millepora alcicornis. Injuries were mainly brought about by mechanical damage, followed by coenenchyme loss, predation by Cyphoma gibbosum and macroalgae overgrowth. On the other hand, negative effects by Hermodice carunculata predation, bleaching, Red Band and Black Band Disease were not observed. Among sampled species, G. ventalina colonies were the most severely damaged within

  19. Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Baquero, Andrea C.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Island organisms often have wider feeding niches than mainland organisms, and migratory birds breeding on continents often widen their niches when overwintering on islands. Cuba's low hummingbird richness has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, we show that the Cuban hummingbird fauna is less...... rich than expected based on Cuba's elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss...... if Cuba's speciose non-Trochilidae nectar-feeding avifauna may be associated with its depauperate hummingbird fauna....

  20. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  1. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  2. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Diaz, Luis M.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent. PMID:21270024

  3. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  4. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferentes, las políticas de la UE y EEUU incluso han contribuido a mantener el régimen castrista en el poder: la UE por su reconocimiento diplomático y la cooperación económica; EEUU, al proporcionar una imagen de enemigo externo. Por ello, y ante el nuevo panorama que ofrece el cambio de gobierno en Cuba, la próxima revisión de la Posición Común de la UE y las elecciones presidenciales en EEUU, es necesario replantearse los objetivos y estrategias políticas para incentivar los derechos humanos en Cuba.

  5. Two decades of re-aligning mundane entrepreneurship in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Scarpaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo examina cómo los pequeños empresarios en Cuba perciben sus entornos internos y externos en un país que regula fuertemente la emergencia de una clase empresarial. Partimos del concepto de intercambios cotidianos o emprendimiento mundano que fue desarrollado originalmente en la ex Unión Soviética, como un lente para comprender el comportamiento de los actores no estatales tanto en Cuba como en la ex Unión Soviética. Nuestro estudio de caso se enmarca en un contexto social e identifica cómo los empresarios cubanos se sostienen fuera del mercado. El resultado es un reajuste en el cual el emprendimiento cubano muestra varias características similares al sistema soviético llamado blat; al mismo tiempo que revela atributos que le son únicos.

  6. Modelling the uv/x-ray cosmic background with CUBA

    CERN Document Server

    Haardt, F; Haardt, Francesco; Madau, Piero

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, I will describe the features of the numerical code CUBA, aimed at the solution of the radiative transfer equation in a cosmological context. CUBA will be soon available for public use at the URL http://pitto.mib.infn.it/~haardt/, allowing for several user-supplied input parameters, such as favourite cosmology, luminosity functions, Type II object evolution, stellar spectra, and many others. I will also present some new results of the UV/X-ray cosmic background as produced by the observed populations of QSOs and star forming galaxies, updating and extending our previous works. The background evolution is complemented with a number of derived quantities such as the ionization and thermal state of the IGM, the HeII opacity, the HI and HeII ionization rates, and the HI, HeII and Compton heating rates.

  7. The Compositional Evolution of the Phyllosilicates in the Lateritic Profile of the Catalão I Ultramafic Alkaline-carbonatitic Complex (GO)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Guitarrari Azzone; Excelso Ruberti

    2010-01-01

    The compositional evolution of the phyllosilicates in the lateritic profile of the Catalão I ultramafic alkaline-carbonatiticcomplex (GO) is proposed in this work based on petrographic and X-ray diffraction analysis, as well as, chemical compositionobtained by WDS electron microprobe. The micaceous minerals found in unweathered rocks are classified as phlogopites(with different parageneses) and tetraferriphlogopites (metasomatic products). In the levels of altered rocks and isalteriticsaproli...

  8. The Basic Metallogenic Regularity of Global Lateritic Nickel Ore Deposits%全球红土型镍矿床的基本成矿规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈百友; 刘洪滔; 杨平; 孙媛

    2013-01-01

    The global lateritic nickel ore deposits have distinct temporal and spatial distribution regularity, and the lateritic nickel ore bodies are characterized by apparent vertical zoning. The intensity of lateritic nickel mineralization is obviously influenced and controlled by the components of ore-forming parent rock (such as nickel content and lithogeochemical and mineral composition), climate, topography, hydrogeology, structural geology, duration of ore-forming process, and maturity of the weathering crust. Types of lateritic nickel ore deposits are mainly controlled by climate, tectonic setting and the state of structural uplift and also influenced by topography, drainage condition, lithology of ore-forming parent rock and its serpentinization.%全球红土型镍矿床具有明显的时空分布规律,红土型镍矿体则具有明显的垂向分带规律。红土型镍矿化强度明显受成矿母岩成分(包括镍含量、岩石地球化学成分、矿物成分)、气候、地形地貌、水文地质、构造地质、成矿时间长短及风化壳成熟度的影响和控制。红土型镍矿的矿床类型主要受气候、大地构造背景、构造隆升状态控制,并受地形地貌、排水条件、成矿母岩岩性及其蛇纹石化程度影响。

  9. Triaxial Test Research about Reshape Laterite Strength%重塑红土强度的三轴试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小文; 陈小燕

    2012-01-01

    采用三轴试验研究不同压实度下红土的应力变形规律,获得了不同压实度下红土的邓肯-张模型参数.结果表明:红土粘聚力及内摩擦角随着压实度增大而增大;其切线模量及体积模量也增大.初始压实度低的土样在剪切过程中均出现先剪缩再剪胀现象;而对初始压实度较高土样,只有在低围压下才出现剪胀现象,高围压下仍表现剪缩现象.%The law of stress and deformation about laterite was researched by triaxial test under different compaction degree,the Duncan-Chang model parameters of laterite with the different compaction degree was obtained. The results showed that the cohesion, internal friction angle of laterite, the tangent elastic modulus and bulk modulus were increased with the increasing of compaction degree. The sample with low initial compaction degree presented the behavior from shear contraction to shear dilatancy. The sample with high initial compaction degree presented shear dilatancy behavior under only low confining pressure and shear contraction behavior under high confining pressure. The parameters derived from the test could provide reference for design and calculation of projects in laterite regions.

  10. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Pliocene Iron—Rich Laterite in the Vatera Area,Lesvos Island,Greece and Its Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.E.KELEPERTSIS

    2002-01-01

    A nickel laterite deposit occurs in the Vatera area of Lesvos Island,Greece ,and is transgressively developed on serpentinized basic rock (norite).The overlying sedimentary rocks include marls and marly limestones with sandstone intercalations and belong to the Pliocene sed-iments.The following alteritic zones are defined from the bottom to top layers:a)bedrock (norite);b)serpentinized zone;c)goethitic zone.The bedrock consists of the following pri-mary minerals:basic plagioclase,orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes.The serpentinized zone includes clinochrysotile,lizardite,antigorite clinoenstatite,calcite and dolomite while in the goethic zone there are goethite,quartz,pyrite,chromite,dolomite.Al2O3 ,Fe2O3,CaO,Na2O,K2O,Ba,Sr,Ni,C and S are enriched in the goethitic zone .Nickel enrichment is re-lated to the formation of nickeliferons minerals substituting for Mg or/and Fe in the goethite and pyrite.Enrichment of Ni in the matrix may be due to the presence of amorphous Ni-sili-cates(pimelite).There is a significant change(decrease)in the concentration of Ni from the top to bottom parts of the laterite formation,indicating that there was no tendency to migrate downwards(immature laterite).A second support of the immaturity of the Vatera laterite is the incomplete oxidation of ferrous iron to form ferric iron hydroxides.Under tropical/subtropical conditions,which dominated from the end of Miocene to the Pliocene the norite rocks of the Vatera area altered in response to reaction with acid solutions enriched in CO2.Due to hydrolysis and oxidation of pyroxenes,Mg2+,H4SiO4 and Ni2+ were removed in the continental acid solutions.

  11. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  12. CuBA - a CUDA implementation of BAMPS

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Nuno; Eilhauer, Ulrike; Bouras, Ioanni

    2012-01-01

    Using CUDA as programming language, we create a code named CuBA which is based on the CPU code "Boltzmann Approach for Many Parton Scattering (BAMPS)" developed in Frankfurt in order to study a system of many colliding particles resulting from heavy ion collisions. Furthermore, we benchmark our code with the Riemann Problem and compare the results with BAMPS. They demonstrate an improvement of the computational runtime, by one order of magitude.

  13. Hotel management in Cuba and the transfer of best practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño, Julio; Bonache, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the management challenges faced by international hotel operators when applying universally accepted management principles to the Cuban hospitality market. The authors use both secondary and primary research sources based on fieldwork carried out in Cuba during the first semester of 2003 and a later visit during the months of December 2003 and January 2004. Eight in depth interviews were conducted with senior executives of Cuban, Span...

  14. Pharmacovigilance in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Bárzaga Arencibia, Z.; López Leyva, A.; Mejías Peña, Y.; González Reyes, A.R.; Fernández Manzano, E.; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to describe the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) detected following increased education about pharmacovigilance and drug toxicity in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba. Methods: Over a period of 24 months (January 2009 to December 2010), all reports of suspected ADRs in children to the Provincial Pharmacovigilance Centre in Camagüey Province were analysed. ADRs were classified in relation to causality and severity. Results: There were 533 reports involvi...

  15. Counter-Insurgency in Cuba: Why Did Batista Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM), an element that was feared throughout Cuba and effective until the end of the Batista regime. 40 Though formidable...measures increased. The police under Col. Ventura and the Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM) played major roles in suppressing the opposition...rarely bearing the evidence of central coordination. The Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM) and the Buro Represivo de Actividades Comunistas (BRAC

  16. Coastal scenic assessment and tourism management in western Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Anfuso, G; Williams, AT; Cabrera Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Pranzini, E.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal scenic assessments via checklist tables (18 natural, 8 human related parameters), can provide benchmark measures regarding desirable/non-desirable beach conditions and also classify sites. The scenic value for 43 sites in western Cuba was investigated, with the aim of helping managers improve bathing areas, especially for tourism purposes. Sites were categorised from Class 1, (top grade scenery), between La Habana and Matanzas, as extremely attractive, with white sand, tur...

  17. Joint Task Force -Guantanamo Bay, Cuba: Open or Close?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    December 1903, the treaty was finalized, and signed in Havana . Another treaty reaffirmed the lease in 1934; it granted Cuba and her trading partners...windward side. Ferry services provide transportation across the bay. The primary mission of this facility is to serve as a strategic logistics base for...the cost of transporting them securely to new facilities? Why spend this amount of money again, rather than keep the current 15 facilities in

  18. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  19. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Delatorre

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF; but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66, subtype C (n≥10, subtype G (n≥8 and CRF18_cpx (n≥2 viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I and B(CU-II, east Africa (clade C(CU-I and central Africa (clades G(CU, CRF18(CU and CRF19(CU, or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG. Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  20. Hotel management in Cuba and the transfer of best practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño, Julio; Bonache, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the management challenges faced by international hotel operators when applying universally accepted management principles to the Cuban hospitality market. The authors use both secondary and primary research sources based on fieldwork carried out in Cuba during the first semester of 2003 and a later visit during the months of December 2003 and January 2004. Eight in depth interviews were conducted with senior executives of Cuban, Span...

  1. Diversifying the picture: indigenous responses to European arrival in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Martinón-Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in cultural contact between indigenous peoples and Europeans following their arrival in the New World. In this article the authors explore local responses to European arrival in Cuba, through analysis of metalwork found in indigenous graves. These studies demonstrate that the local communities valued particular metals quite differently from the Europeans, as the imported materials were incorporated into pre-existing symbolic systems relating to sacred power.

  2. The Current State of Physics in Cuba: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Marcelo

    After 40 years of absence I returned twice to Cuba, in January and December of 2000, to participate as a guest lecturer in two international scientific meetings. The first dealt with physics education, and the second with current issues related to quantum mechanics. In addition to a few participants from Europe, the US and Latin America, the two meetings were well attended by Cuban physicists.

  3. Application of novel, low-cost, laterite-based adsorbent for removal of lead from water: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Somak; De, Sirshendu

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by carcinogenic heavy metal, e.g., lead is an important issue and possibility of using a natural rock, laterite, is explored in this work to mitigate this problem. Treated laterite (TL- prepared using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide) was successfully utilized for this purpose. The adsorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to highlight its physical and chemical properties. Optimized equilibrium conditions were 1 g L(-1) adsorbent concentration, 0.26 mm size and a pH of 7 ± 0.2. Monolayer adsorption capacity of lead on treated laterite was 15 mg/g, 14.5 and 13 mg g(-1) at temperatures of 303 K, 313 K and 323 K, respectively. The adsorption was exothermic and physical in nature. At 303 K, value of effective diffusivity of (De) and mass transfer co-efficient (Kf) of lead onto TL were 6.5 × 10(-10) m(2)/s and 3.3 × 10(-4) m/s, respectively (solved from shrinking core model of adsorption kinetics). Magnesium and sulphate show highest interference effect on the adsorption of lead by TL. Efficacy of the adsorbent has been verified using real-life contaminated groundwater. Thus, this work demonstrates performance of a cost-effective media for lead removal.

  4. Using one waste to tackle another: Preparation of a CO{sub 2} capture material zeolite X from laterite residue and bauxite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liying [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Du, Tao, E-mail: dutao0106@gmail.com [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Li, Gang [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Yang, Fan; Che, Shuai [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Valuable zeolite X has been synthesized from laterite residue and bauxite. • High product purity has been achieved by optimizing the process conditions. • Prepared zeolite X shows comparable gas adsorption properties to commercial ones. • Prepared zeolite X can be used for carbon capture by vacuum swing adsorption. - Abstract: In this work, zeolite X, a benchmark adsorbent for carbon capture, has been successfully prepared from low cost waste minerals namely laterite residue and bauxite using alkali fusion process followed by hydrothermal treatment. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized zeolite X were verified and characterized with a range of experimental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The surface area and (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) gas adsorption isotherms of this product were found comparable to that of commercial ones, demonstrating the effectiveness of synthesizing zeolite X from laterite and bauxite. Further improvement of the product purity was also accomplished by optimizing the process conditions.

  5. Ways to Increase Effective Selenium in Laterite Soil of Hainan%海南砖红壤有效硒提高途径的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜前进; 陈川平; 曾宾

    2013-01-01

    以海南砖红壤为供试土壤,根据作物吸收硒的量来研究施用不同水平的碳酸钙、磷铵、有机质对土壤有效硒的影响.结果表明:在本实验条件下,海南砖红壤中以施用2 g/kg碳酸钙处理植株硒含量增加显著,达到了0.41 mg/kg,砖红壤的有效硒变化显著.%This thesis taking Hainan laterite for the tested soil. According to crop absorption of selenium content to study effects of different levels of calcium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, organic matter of selenium on soil effective. The results showed that on the Hainan laterite soil application of 2 g/kg calcium carbonate was most significantly and plant selenium content was increased 0.41 mg/kg. Effect of selenium of Hainan laterite improved obviously by this experimental condition.

  6. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  7. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  8. The mechanisms of direct democracy in Cuba: design and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Teodoro Yan Guzman Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba the 1940 Constitution regulated different mechanisms of direct democracy (mdd that were not implemented; while the 1976 Constitution in force, although committed from the norm with the direct participation and popular sovereignty, was unambitious in regulating these mechanisms. After the Revolution, direct participation has had different expressions that have been nominated wrongly as some of the mdd, that political theory today recognizes on the ba­sis of certain assumptions. This article examines the mdd in Cuba from 1940 until the present. For this purpose it makes a critical analysis of its regulation, based on the criteria that political theory and constitutional law have offered for the configuration of these mechanisms, and tak­ing into account the particularities and results of the implementation in the Cuban context. The main conclusion of this work is that Cuba regulates forms of participation that directly involve the citizenry, but require changes in its design, so that they become real mechanisms of direct democracy that contribute to the political empowerment of citizens.

  9. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    The Report is Temporarily UnavailableIn response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.In 2013, Cuba was estimated to be among the world’s top ten producers of cobalt and nickel, which are the country’s leading exports. Cuba’s current crude oil and associated natural gas production from onshore and shallow water coastal reservoirs is approximately 50,000 barrels per day of liquids and about 20,000 barrels per day oil equivalent of natural gas. In 2013, the value of mining and quarrying activities accounted for 0.6 percent of Cuba’s gross domestic product (GDP), compared with 1.4 percent in 2000. The value of production from Cuba’s industrial manufacturing sector increased by 88 percent between 1993 and 2013 whereas the sector’s share in the GDP decreased by about 3 percent during the same time period reflecting economic growth in other sectors of the economy.

  10. In Defense of Clinical Autopsy and Its Practice in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo D; de Mendoza-Amat, José Hurtado

    2017-01-01

    There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive). These methods have been used in developed countries but never as effectively as the classic autopsy for identifying cause of death and potential medical errors. Although Cuba has also seen a decrease in its autopsy rates, they remain comparatively high. Between 1996 and 2015, there were 687,689 hospital deaths in Cuba and 381,193 autopsies, 55.4% of the total. These autopsies have positively affected medical care, training, research, innovation, management and society as a whole. Autopsies are an important tool in the National Health System's quest for safe, quality patient care based on the lessons learned from studying the deceased. KEYWORDS Autopsy, postmortem examination, postmortem diagnosis, quality of care, patient safety, medical error, Cuba.

  11. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero-Fernández, S J; Suárez-Medina, R; Mora-Faife, E C; García-García, G; Valle-Infante, I; Gómez-Marrero, L; Abreu-Suárez, G; González-Valdez, J; Fabró-Ortiz, D Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H; Venn, A; Britton, J; Fogarty, A W

    2013-11-01

    Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 2032 children aged 12-15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60-2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48-2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24-2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19-1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health.

  12. Mathematics and Physics in Cuba Before 1959: A Personal Recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, José

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the formal inauguration of the Republic of Cuba (May 20, 1902), the then Historian of the City of Havana, Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring, decided to publish a memorial volume which would include various special studies on the progress made in the country during the preceding half century with regard to specific aspects of national collective life. The volume, entitled Facetas de la vida de Cuba republicana, 1902-1952 (Facets of Life in Republican Cuba, 1902-1952) appeared in print in 1954. Its publication was delayed—as Roig explained in his prologue, somewhat cryptically—"due to causes beyond our control or of that of the Cuban writers to whom we entrusted the preparation of the said studies." Needless to say, the causes referred to were none other than those derived from the atmosphere of political unrest in the country after the military coup staged in March 1952 by former strongman, General Batista.

  13. Zero in on postpartum hemorrhage to reduce Cuba's maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most frequent cause of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and the first direct cause of maternal death in most countries. In Africa and Asia, it accounts for about one third of all maternal deaths. Put more graphically: worldwide, one woman dies every minute from PPH. Defined as blood loss of ≥500 mL after vaginal birth or ≥1000 mL after cesarean delivery, PPH can be fatal in just two hours. In Cuba, between 2000 and 2012, maternal deaths directly related to obstetric causes totaled 410, 24.1% of which occurred postpartum, with PPH the leading cause.[1] While Cuba is among the Latin American countries with lowest maternal mortality, the decline has been slow over the last 20 years: in 1998, direct maternal mortality was 26.5 per 100,000 live births and in 2012, the rate was 21.5. This is troubling and deserves careful study, especially given that Cuba has a single, unified health system supported by significant political will-determining factors in important advances made in maternal-child health on par with wealthier countries.

  14. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  15. Study on Bryophytes in Lateritic Lold Ore of Southwest Guizhou%贵州黔西南红土型金矿苔藓植物的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洪; 张朝晖

    2012-01-01

    为了探明黔西南红土型金矿苔藓植物种类,为进一步利用苔藓植物作为先锋植物研究红土型金矿区植被修复提供较好的材料,采用梅花采样法对黔西南18个红土型金矿苔藓植物进行全面调查、收集、鉴定.结果表明:金矿区共有苔藓植物14科53属124种,其中,苔类植物1科1属2种,藓类植物13科52属122种;金矿区苔藓植物共有1 2种区系类型,以世界广布种占主体;金矿区苔藓植物丰富度指数、种相似性指数均较低,苔藓植物生活型主要以矮丛集型为主;在18个矿中寻找到5种广泛分布的苔藓植物种类:银叶真藓(Bryum argentenm)、卵蒴丝瓜藓(Pohlia proligera)、纤枝短月藓(Brachymenium exile)和土生对齿藓(Didymodon vinealis)、硬叶小金发藓(Pogonatum neesii).%In order to clarify the species of bryophytes at laterite gold deposits in Southwest Guizhou, provide good material for further use of bryophytes as a pioneer plant of laterite gold deposits of vegetation restoration. The comprehensive investigation with plum sampling, collection, identification of the bryophyte at 18 lateritic gold deposit in Southwest Guizhou. The results showed that 124 mosses species in 53 genera of 14 families were found at the 18 lateritic gold deposits. Thereinto, two liverwort species in one genus of one family, 122 mosses species in 53 genera of 13 families. There are 12 flora types of bryophytes in the lateritic gold deposits area, the main type of flora distribution is cosmopolitan. Richness index and similarity coefficient of bryophyte are all relatively low at the gold area; The life-forms of bryophyte is mainly short turfs. At the same time, there are five species of widespread bryophytes found in the 18 mine: B. argentenm, P. proligera, B. ymenium exile , D. vinealis and P. neesii.

  16. 78 FR 13207 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 22, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  17. 77 FR 11377 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and..., 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  18. 76 FR 11071 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 24, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  19. 75 FR 8791 - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Notice of February 23, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  20. 印尼某低品位红土镍矿的热解性能%Pyrolysis Property of the Low Grade Laterite Ore from Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颂; 上官炬; 杜文广; 刘守军; 史鹏政; 梁丽彤

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the technical indicators of pyrometallurgical process of the low grade laterite nickel ore,the pyrolysis properties of the low grade nickel laterite ore from Indonesia was studied. The results showed that the laterite belong to the typical transition layer laterite. The main mineral composition of the laterite are lizardite,goethite,silica,greenalite,schwei-zerite and kaolinite. Nickel mainly occur in the Ni-riched silicate ores,such as serpentine and olivine. And part of nickel occur-rence as nickel oxide in goethite. The pyrolysis analysis results indicated that first weight loss of the laterite occurred at 86℃, which form an endothermic peak and the main violent is H2 O. The first stage corresponded to the evaporated of the free water. The second weight loss of the laterite occurred at 268 ℃,which form an endothermic peak and the main violent is H2 O. The second stage corresponded to the dehydroxylation of goethite. The third weight loss of the laterite occurred at 589 ℃, which form an endothermic peak and the main violent is H2 O. The third stage corresponded to the dehydroxylation of kaolinite and liz-ardite. The laterite form an exothermic peak at 816 ℃,and the quality almost no change,which caused by lizardite pyrolysis produce the amorphous silicate,and the amorphous silicate recrystallization to the forsterite ( Mg2 SiO4 ) and pyroxene ( Mg-SiO3 ) . The last weight loss of the laterite occurred at 1126 ℃,which form an exothermic peak,and the main violent is CO2 . The last stage corresponded to the dolomite decomposed. The experimental results can be somewhat conductive to improve the pyrogenic process of the laterite.%为提高红土镍矿火法冶炼工艺技术指标,对印尼某低品位红土镍矿进行了热解性能分析.结果表明:该红土镍矿属于典型的低品位过渡层红土镍矿,主要组成矿物为利蛇纹石、针铁矿、石英、铁蛇纹石、叶蛇纹石和高岭石,镍主要赋存于蛇纹石

  1. Feasibility study of indoor test of Yunnan laterite landslide%云南红土室内滑坡可行性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄英; 石崇喜; 张祖连; 符必昌; 金克盛

    2014-01-01

    以红土作为室内滑坡模型材料制作红土型边坡,考虑边坡尺寸、土体特性、成型方法、降雨等级的影响,开展降雨作用下红土型边坡的室内滑坡模型试验研究。试验结果表明,直接选用红土开展室内滑坡模型试验的成功率较低,但如果控制好试验条件,红土型边坡仍然可能发生滑坡。室内暴雨作用下,红土型边坡的滑动过程可以分为边坡成型、降雨实施、滑动面形成发展、整体滑动等几个阶段;其滑动特征表现为先坡顶开裂下沉、后坡侧开裂延伸;其滑动条件为坡高、坡角较大,坡顶宽适中,塑性指数偏小,干密度偏小,含水率接近塑限,堆积法成型以及暴雨等方面。%A feasibility study of the indoor test of the Yunnan laterite landslide was carried out under simulated rainfall conditions. In the study, the modeling material, the Yunnan laterite, was used to make lateritic slopes, and the effects of the size of the slope, the lateritic properties, the molding method, and the rainfall level were all considered. The tests results show that, the success rate is low if a laterite is directly selected for the indoor test. However, a lateritic slope landslide may occur if the test conditions are well controlled. Under the conditions of indoor rainstorms, the sliding process of the lateritic slopes can be divided into the following stages: the formation of the slope, the implementation of rainfall, the formation and development of the sliding surface, and the overall slide. The sliding characteristics can be expressed as cracking and sinking on the top of the slope first, and then cracking and extension on the sides of the slope. The conditions for sliding include larger values of the height and angle of the slope, a moderate width of the slope top, a lower plasticity index, a lower dry density, a moisture content of approaching the plastic limit, the stacked molding method, and a

  2. 火法冶炼红土镍矿技术分析%Analysis on Pyrometallurgy Technologies of Laterite-Nickel Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞建明; 郭培民; 赵沛

    2011-01-01

    火法冶炼红土镍矿工艺为当前从红土镍矿中提镍的主要流程.分析了主要的火法冶炼红土镍矿工艺的技术特点.火法冶炼红土镍矿工艺具有工艺成熟、流程短、效率高等优点,但同时也存在能耗较高、熔炼过程渣量过多、有粉尘污染等不足.中国自主开发了高炉冶炼红土矿生产镍铁合金新技术,并在实践中进一步得到发展,高炉冶炼红土矿生产镍铁合金工艺还应从大型化、节能、环保、长寿等领域进一步发展.当前对火法冶炼红土镍矿工艺的研究势在必行,需要在完善还原熔炼工艺方面进行深入的研究,通过研究新方法、新工艺解决火法冶炼工艺中能耗高、各种有价值金属综合回收的难题,实现红土镍矿火法冶炼工艺的低能耗、低排放和镍工业的可持续发展.%Main technical process to extract Ni from laterite-nickel ore were pyrometallurgical technologies currently. The technical characteristics of the main pyrometallurgical technologies of laterite-nickel ore were discussed. The advantage of pyrometallurgical technologies of laterite-nickel ore was mature, simple and effective, etc, while its disadvantage were high energy consumption, excessive slag in the course of smelting, high smelting temperature, serious dust pollution, etc. The technology of laterite ore smelted in BF was industrialization firstly in China, and developed the theory and practice further. The technology of laterite ore smelted in BF was of demonstration of multi-resources utilization, and should be developed in these fields including large-scale BF, energy saving, environmental protection, and long-life. The study on pyrometallurgical technologies of laterite-nickel ore was imperative currently, and it was necessary to be explored in depth from improving reduction smelting technologies. The problems of high energy consumption and recovery of valuable metals in nickel extractive metallurgy can be solved

  3. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 122 Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List... from Cuba. DATES: Effective: April 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arthur A.E. Pitts, Sr., U... to all aircraft (except public aircraft) entering or departing the United States to or from...

  4. Higher Education in Cuba in the 2000s: Past and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Elvira Martin

    This paper reviews the development of higher education in Cuba and its current status. Current educational development in Cuba is the result of more than four decades of sustained social and political endeavor. Three main features of this development have been identified. The first is the absolute commitment of the state to the educational…

  5. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  6. Evolución y perspectivas del registro de medicamentos en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Celeste A Sánchez González; Rodrigo Omar Pérez Massipe

    2002-01-01

    ... la comercialización de medicamentos en Cuba desde 1959 hasta el 2001 y de su nivel de subordinación. Se describió la evolución de los documentos normativos y legales que dan la base al Registro de Medicamentos en Cuba y a su...

  7. Two decades of re-aligning mundane entrepreneurship in Cuba/ Dos décadas de realineación del emprendimiento cotidiano en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph L Scarpaci; Ted A Henken; Archibald R M Ritter

    2016-01-01

    .... We build on the concept of everyday exchange or mundane entrepreneurship, originally developed as a lens to understand non-state actions in the former USSR, and apply it to contemporary Cuba in the post-Soviet era...

  8. MARÍA ZAMBRANO: SUS RELACIONES PERSONALES Y SU APORTACIÓN A CUBA/MARÍA ZAMBRANO: HER PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO CUBA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juana Sánchez-Gey Venegas

    2011-01-01

      This paper collects the most significant moments of María Zambrano's stay in America, especially, her stay in the island of Cuba, where she had contact with philosophers and writers such as José...

  9. [Biological properties of lateritic red soil and their relationships with soil fertility in Southern China under different land use types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Gao, Yun-Hua; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Bo; Li, Jing-Juan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Xu, Huan; Dai, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Taking the lateritic red soil on a typical slopeland in Southern China as test object, this paper studied the soil microbial properties, enzyme activities, and their relationships with soil fertility under four land use types (newly cultivated dryland, shrub land, Eucalyptus land, and orchard). There existed significant differences in the soil biological properties under different land use types, among which, orchard soil had the highest microbial quantity and enzyme activities, newly cultivated dryland soil had the fastest soil respiration rate, the fewest soil microorganism quantity, and the lowest enzyme activities, whereas shrub land and woodland soils had the biological properties ranged between newly cultivated dryland and orchard soils, and there was a high similarity in the biological properties between shrub land and woodland soils. Under different land use types, the soil microbial quantity and enzyme activities were positively correlated with soil organic carbon and most of the soil nutrients. It was suggested the soils with high soil organic matter content and high fertility level were beneficial to the soil microbial growth and enzyme activities.

  10. Extraction of valuable metals from low-grade nickeliferous laterite ore by reduction roasting-ammonia leaching method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Sheng-li; GUO Xue-yi; SHI Wen-tang; LI Dong

    2010-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt were extracted from low-grade nickeliferous laterite ore using a reduction roasting-ammonia leaching method.The reduction roasting-ammonia leaching experimental tests were chiefly introduced,by which fine coal was used as a reductant.The results show that the optimum process conditions are confirmed as follows: in reduction roasting process,the mass fraction of reduetant in the ore is 10%,roasting time is 120 min,roasting temperature is 1023-1073 K; in ammonia leaching process,the liquid-to-solid ratio is 4:1(mL/g),leaching temperature is 313 K,leaching time is 120 min,and concentration ratio of NH3 to CO2is 90 g/L:60 g/L.Under the optimum conditions,leaching efficiencies of nickel and cobalt are 86.25% and 60.84%,respectively.Therefore,nickel and cobalt can be effectively reclaimed,and the leaching agent can be also recycled at room temperature and normal pressure.

  11. On the Origin of Bastnaesite-(La,Nd,Y in the Nissi (Patitira Bauxite Laterite Deposit, Lokris, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kalatha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed geochemical study and a thorough mineralogical description of the rare-earth elements (REE-minerals and associated minerals were carried out in two vertical profiles of approximately 4 m length, from the Nissi (Patitira bauxite laterite deposit, Lokris, Greece, characterized by the presence of goethite in small sizes resembling bacterial cell coated by goethite and a significant REE enrichment. The enrichment of the REE concentrated in bastnaesite-group minerals, the intergrowths between REE-minerals and Al–Ni–silicates with significant sulfur contents and their association with goethite microtextures interpreted as bacteriomorphic, indicate REE remobilization along with iron bio-leaching and re-precipitation on karstified limestone. In addition to the previous-reported hydroxylbastnaesites, a (La,Nd,Y(CO3F member of the bastnaesite-group associated with Al–Ni–silicates were identified, the stability of which may reflect the dependence on the source rocks and the local variations of pH-Eh. Interaction between downward percolating water and carbonate rocks seems to be a very effective mechanism for REE fluorocarbonates deposition under alkaline and reducing conditions.

  12. A socio-economic study along with impact assessment for laterite based technology demonstration for arsenic mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sourav; Roy, Anirban; Mukherjee, Raka; Mondal, Mrinmoy; Karmakar, Sankha; Chatterjee, Somak; Mukherjee, Munmun; Bhattacharjee, Saikat; De, Sirshendu

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic contamination mitigation technologies have been adsorption-based, but the most widely-used and traditionally available adsorbents suffered inherent limitations, including cost infeasibility and problems associated with regeneration and disposal of the spent adsorbent. The present technology is based on indigenously developed activated laterite prepared from the naturally and abundantly available material, and can hence easily be scaled up for community usage and large scale implementation. The total arsenic removal capacity is 32.5mg/g, which is the highest among all naturally occurring arsenic adsorbents. A major issue in earlier adsorbents was that during regeneration, the adsorbed arsenic would be released back into the environment (leaching), and would eventually contaminate the groundwater again. But the adsorbent in this filter does not require regeneration during its five-year lifespan and does not leach upon disposal. An attempt is made to test and demonstrate the practical implementation of the technology - its effectiveness and viability in three community (primary schools - one in Malda and two in north 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India) and 20 household filters, catering to over 5000 people in different areas of West Bengal exposed to high arsenic contamination of groundwater (ranging from 0.05 to 0.5mg/l). The work also focuses on the social impact of the real life technological solution on the lives on the affected people in the worst hit arsenic affected communities, perhaps the greatest public health risk emergency of the decade.

  13. Cuatro aspectos del sector construcción, en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Julián

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the common title of «Four Aspects of the Construction Sector in Cuba», we gather some other works, to a certain extent different in theme and focus, but which globally may help to outline both the present level of the technical development of the construction sector and its potential installed. There is described in the «Technical Center of Construction and Materials», which is a basic institution and one which promotes the technological development of the sector. In another work are reviewed the construction systems employed in Cuba, both autochthonous and foreign, as these systems are the basis and support of Cuban construction. In the third place there is reproduced a punctual aspect of the research work being carried out in ICIDCA (Research Center of the élite of Cuba; it deals with the employment of megasse in the production of agglomerates for use in construction. The panorama finalizes with a brief, schematical resume of the construction of industrial buildings of one storey, by means of prefabricated elements or of industrial origin, which respond to some strict conditions and which are carried out following rigorous rules of the project. We understand that the ensemble of these four facets constitutes a significant sample of that plural prism and ensemble which Is the construction sector of any country.Bajo el título común de «Cuatro Aspectos del Sector Construcción, en Cuba», recogemos otros tantos trabajos, en cierto modo dispares de temática y enfoque, pero que globalmente pueden ayudar a perfilar tanto el nivel actual del desarrollo técnico del sector construcción, como su potencial instalado. Se describe el «Centro Técnico de la Construcción y los Materiales» a modo de institución básica e impulsora del desarrollo tecnológico sectorial. Se pasa revista, en otro trabajo, a los sistemas constructivos empleados en Cuba, tanto autóctonos como foráneos, por ser estos sistemas la base y soporte real del

  14. Tuberculosis mortality trends in cuba, 1998 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Edilberto; Risco, Grisel E; Borroto, Susana; Perna, Abel; Armas, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and death throughout the world. The World Health Organization's Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 proposes that countries cut TB mortality by half compared to 1990 rates. In Cuba, TB mortality declined steadily throughout the 20th century, particularly after 1960. Objective Describe TB mortality distribution and trends in Cuba from January 1998 to December 2007 by infection site, sex, age and province, and determine progress towards the WHO's 2015 target for TB mortality reduction. Methods A time series ecological study was conducted. Death certificates stating TB as cause of death were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division, and population data by age group, sex, and province were obtained from the National Statistics Bureau. Crude and specific death rate trends and variation were analyzed. Results TB mortality declined from 0.4 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 0.2 (under half the 1990 rate) in 2007. Clinical forms of the disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, also declined. The highest mortality rates were found in males and in the group aged ≥ 65 years. Rates were also highest in the capital, Havana, with extreme values of 0.73 and 0.39 per 100,000 population at the beginning and end of the period, respectively. Conclusions Deaths from TB declined steadily compared to total deaths and deaths caused by infectious diseases. The Global Plan to Stop TB target was met well ahead of 2015. If this trend continues, TB is likely to become an exceptional cause of death in Cuba.

  15. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  16. Ciência em Cuba: uma aposta pela soberania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfilio Peláez Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No dia 15 de janeiro de 1960, o então primeiro-ministro do Governo Revolucionário, Fidel Castro Ruz, disse que o futuro de Cuba teria que ser necessariamente um futuro de homens de ciência, um futuro de homens de pensamento. Meio século depois de pronunciada tão profética frase, a ilha caribenha é um país de pesquisadores, especialistas e operários altamente qualificados, que dispõe de uma das indústrias biotecnológicas mais importantes do mundo, com resultados comparáveis aos atingidos pelas nações líderes nessa área do conhecimento, e na qual a atividade científica está a caminho de se converter numa potente força produtiva, geradora de significativo ingresso de divisas e de um bem-estar maior para a sociedade.El 15 de enero de 1960 el entonces primer ministro del Gobierno Revolucionario, Fidel Castro Ruz, dijo que el futuro de Cuba tendría que ser necesariamente un futuro de hombres de ciencia, un futuro de hombres de pensamiento. Medio siglo después de pronunciada tan profética frase, la Isla caribeña es un país de investigadores, especialistas y obreros altamente calificados, que dispone de una de las industrias biotecnológicas más pujantes del mundo, con resultados comparables a los alcanzados por las naciones líderes en esta esfera del conocimiento, y donde la actividad científica va en camino de convertirse en una potente fuerza productiva, generadora de significativos ingresos en divisas y de un mayor bienestar para la sociedad.On January 15, 1960, Fidel Castro Ruz, then prime minister of the Revolutionary Government, said that Cuba's future would necessarily have to be a future of men of science, a future of men of thought. Half a century after this prophetic announcement, the Caribbean island is a country of researchers, specialists and highly skilled workers, boasting one of the world's most important biotechnological industries, with achievements comparable to those of leading nations in this field of

  17. The Spanish Language textbook in Chile and Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcelo Ayzum Echeverría

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description and analysis of the content of textbook of Language and Communication (Spanish in Cuba considering the indispensable tasks for fostering a developmental learning. A comparative analysis of fourth year Cuban and Chilean textbook contents was carried following certain criteria that normally promote good learning practices. Once the textbooks were compared, the findings suggest that school textbooks should be selected on the basis of the criteria taken as reference, in the meantime, such criteria may lead teacher to design complementary tasks.

  18. Modelo de velocidades sísmicas de Cuba Oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Palau Clares, Raúl; Moreno Toirán, Bladimir; Ángel Blanco Rodríguez, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio determina un modelo unidimensional de velocidades de ondas sísmicas muy útil en la rutina diaria de análisis de datos para la localización geográfica de los eventos sísmicos y como modelo inicial para los estudios de tomografía sísmica 3D. Para determinar el modelo de velocidades se utilizó el catálogo cubano de terremotos desde 1998 hasta el 2004. La zona escogida para el estudio se encuentra ubicada en la parte oriental de la isla de Cuba, específicamente entre los 19,80...

  19. Environmental Radioactivity Study in Surface Sediments of Guacanayabo Gulf (Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H.; López-Pino, N.; Rizo, O. Díaz; Bernal, J. L.; D'Alessandro, K.; Padilla, F.; Corrales, Y.; Casanova, O. A.; Gelen, A.; Martínez, Y.; Aguilar, J.; Arado, J. O.; Maidana, N. L.

    2009-06-01

    Sediment samples have been collected in the Guacanayabo gulf located in the southeast Cuba, to determinate the radioactivity levels of 210Pb, 234Th, 214Pb, 137Cs, 232Th and 40K using Low-Background Gamma Spectrometry and to evaluate its impact in the habitat of important marine species for fishery industry. The obtained results show the lowest radioactivity levels determined in Cuban marine environments. The species capture declination in the last years is not originated by radioactive pollution of the zone.

  20. Deposition of Atmospheric Nitrogen Compounds in Humid Tropical Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Cuesta-Santos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid deposition, a direct effect of gaseous air pollutants, is causing widespread damage to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Further, these pollutants are responsible for the corrosion of building materials and cultural objects, as well as having an impact on human health. In Cuba, main atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds varies from approximately 12.0 to 65.0 kg N ha�1 year�1 in rural areas. Ammonia and ammonium are the most important elements in Cuba�s tropical conditions.

  1. Narraciones de la esclavitud en Cuba y los Estados Unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Schulman, Ivan A.

    2014-01-01

    Para mostrar la construcción del imaginario social inserta en las narraciones cubanas de la esclavitud, el artículo formula algunas de las complejas estrategias y direcciones discursivas de obras literarias de Estados Unidos y Cuba. Al enfocar las correspondencias y asimetrías de poder que condicionan la producción de estos textos, que crean sus separados universos ideológicos, se cuestiona la noción tradicional de que las narrativas cubanas sobre la esclavitud eran «abolicionistas», se escri...

  2. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte; Mirelys Rodríguez Alfaro; Alfredo Montero Álvarez; Juan Estévez Álvarez; Adriana M. de Aguiar Accioly; Clístenes W. Araujo Do Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    El contenido de Níquel (Ni) en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas real...

  3. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    El caso cubano señala el alto grado de politización del tema de los derechos humanos en las relaciones internacionales, puesto que el debate se centra en la falta de derechos civiles y políticos o de las libertades democráticas en el único régimen autoritario de las Américas. Cuba demuestra, al mismo tiempo, que tanto las sanciones impuestas por Washington como el compromiso condicionado de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferen...

  4. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  5. Policy Objective and Options under a Leverage Strategy Toward Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    Councils of Min.* & S:ate (c) Pedro Hiret (Hem.) M-26-6:Fg PCC Secretariat (c) Sergio del Valle (Hem.) M-26-7:Fg Min. ol Public Health; Member... Abelardo Colome M-26-7:Rg 1st V.Mia., MINFAR; 1st Substitute (Div. General) Minister of the FAR, respon.for Cuba’s overseas forces Senen Casas M-26-7:Rg...Order: Orisins[l of Functional Resp0onsibility (c) Fidel Castro M-26-7:Fg First Secretary (c) Raul Castro M-26-7:Rg Second Secretary (c) Pedro Miret (Hem

  6. Medical genetics in Cuba and its social impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith María Beltrán Molina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genetics it is the science that studies the genes of the individuals, their operation, their transmission, their alterations, their relationships with other genes and their interaction with the environment. The present article approaches aspects of great interest corresponding to this science, in the same one he/she appears reflected a summary of examples that you/they evidence the advances of the medical genetics in Cuba as well as achievements in favor of the health and the well-being of the children and the Cuban family in general that they register among the noblest ideals and it reflects the humanist and solidary character of the Cuban Revolution.

  7. La ciencia política en Cuba: del estancamiento a la renovación (1980-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alzugaray Treto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Desde finales de los años 80 y principios de los 90, la ciencia política cubana pasa por un proceso de renovación que conlleva una serie de desafíos importantes. Esta renovación está vinculada indisolublemente al impacto que tuvo en el plano de las ciencias sociales del país la caída del socialismo en la Unión Soviética y Europa Oriental. Tales acontecimientos obligaron a repensar los presupuestos básicos de la economía, la sociología y, en fin, la politología. Al calor de esta reelaboración, los politólogos cubanos esencialmente volvieron al rescate de toda la ciencia política tradicional cubana y a la producida desde perspectivas críticas de lo que el recientemente fallecido Roberto González llamaba la `marxología'.Abstract Since the late 1980s (and early 1990s political science in Cuba is embedded in a renovation process that entails a series of important challenges. This renovation is closely related to the impact that the fall of the socialism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe had in the social sciences of the country. Such event forced Cubans to rethink the basics on economics, sociology, and political science. Since then, Cuban political scientists returned to the rescue of traditional political science in Cuba and those critical perspectives, which Roberto González, called once "marxology".

  8. Las relaciones Unión Europea-Cuba. Evolución y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio Díaz Lezcano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones entre la Unión Europea y Cuba han sido oscilantes y precarias desde que fueron establecidas en 1988. A pesar del importante papel de Europa en la actividad económica de Cuba, ésta es el único país de América Latina y uno de los pocos del mundo que no tiene un convenio de colaboración con la Unión Europea. Ello se debe, en lo fundamental, a la supeditación de la U.E a la política de los Estados Unidos.Siguiendo los dictados de Washington, las relaciones de la U.E con Cuba se rigen, desde 1996, por la llamada Posición Común, que condiciona el mejoramiento de los vínculos a un cambio radical en el sistema político prevaleciente en la Isla. De mantenerse esta situación, como todo parece indicar, no se debe esperar un cambio notable a corto y mediano plazo.Palabras Clave: Cuba como caso especial; Posición Común de la U.E.; Triángulo U.E - EE.UU.-Cuba; Transición a la Democracia en Cuba; Crisis del 2003. The relations European Union-Cuba. Evolution and perspective.AbstractThe relations between the European Union and Cuba have been oscillating and precarious since they were established in 1988. In spite of the important paper of Europe in the economic activity of Cuba, this one is the only country of Latin America and one of the few of the world that does not have an agreement of collaboration with the European Union. It must, in the fundamental thing, to the supeditation of the U.E to the policy of the United States.Following the dictations of Washington, the relations of the U.E with Cuba govern, from 1996, by the call Common Position, that it conditions the improvement of the bonds to a radical change in the prevaleciente political system in the Island. to stay this situation, as everything seems to indicate, a remarkable change to and medium term is not due to hope short.Keywords: Cuba as special case; Common Position of the U.E.; Triangle U.E - EE.UU. - Cuba; Transition to the Democracy in Cuba; Crisis of the

  9. La United Fruit Company en Cuba: Organización del trabajo y resistencia obrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zanetti Lecuona Lecuona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba la United Fruit actuó como una empresa azucarera, situación hasta cierto punto excepcional dentro de la especialización bananera que trazó el perfil de esa empresa a escala continental. El estudio que aquí se propone sobre las prácticas de la Compañía en Cuba, en particular respecto a su manejo de la fuerza de trabajo y las relaciones laborales, contribuye a esclarecer algunas constantes de la conducta empresarial de la United en sus diferentes ámbitos de operación.Palabras Clave: Cuba; United Fruit Company; trabajadores; condiciones de trabajo; relaciones laborales. The United Fruit Company in Cuba: Work organization and labor resistanceAbstractIn Cuba, the United Fruit Company was a sugar company, a situation to some extent exceptional in the banana profile of this company. The analysis of the practices of the United Fruit in Cuba, in particular with regard to its handling of the labor force and of labor relations, will contribute to a better knowledge of the entrepreneurial behavior of this company in its different areas of operations.Keywords: Cuba; United Fruit Company; workers; labor conditions; labor relations.

  10. FRACTAL STRUCTURES OF BASALT LATERITE AT VERTICAL SECTIONS%垂直剖面上玄武岩红土的分形结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄英; 符必昌; 李琴书; 付君蕖

    2001-01-01

    本文借助分形几何理论,探讨垂直剖面上玄武岩红土在加分散剂前后颗粒粒度的分维变化特性。研究结果表明:不论是否加分散剂,红土的颗粒粒度都存在线性分形结构。不加分散剂,存在两个无标度区,沿剖面从上到下,分维值逐渐增大;加分散剂,存在一个无标度区,沿剖面从上到下,分维值逐渐减小。分维值的大小反映了红土中颗粒粒度的变化特点。%In terms of fractal geometry, analyses are performed of the features of grain size of the basalt laterite with and without disperser at the vertical section. The results show that linear fractal features exist in the grain size of laterite. There are two liner zones at the fractal lines if no disperser is added and fractal dimension values increase from the top to the bottom of the section, and only one zone if disperser is added and fractal dimension values decrease from the top to the bottom. The fractal dimension value can be used to describe the variations of the grain size of laterite.

  11. The accumulation of Ni in serpentines and garnierites from the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic) elucidated by means of μXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqué-Rosell, Josep; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-02-01

    Ni-bearing serpentines and garnierites (Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates) are the main Ni ores in the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic). In the present paper a set of garnierite samples and the associated Ni-bearing serpentines with characteristic mineral compositions and textures, from the saprolite horizon, were studied by EMPA, μXRF and μXAS. The ultimate goal is to elucidate, for the first time, the Fe speciation and the Ni local environment of saprolite ores from Ni-laterites of the Dominican Republic. The chemical composition of the minerals has been obtained by means of EMPA and the Ni, Fe and Cr elemental maps obtained by μXRF allowed distinguishing the saprolite fragments containing Ni-bearing serpentines and Fe oxyhydroxides from the garnierite veins. The Fe K-edge μXANES demonstrated that Fe in the Ni-poor primary serpentine is mostly in the Fe2+ form, whereas in the Ni-bearing serpentine constituting the bulk of the saprolite and in the Fe-bearing garnierite Type I Fe was in the form of Fe3+. In parallel, the local environment of Ni determined by means of Ni K-edge μEXAFS confirmed that in Ni-poor primary serpentines Ni formed a homogeneous Ni-Mg solid solution, in garnierites formed Ni-Ni clusters, and in Ni-bearing secondary serpentines Ni was found in Ni-Mg and Ni-Ni mixed sites. This paper explains the accumulation of Ni, the speciation of Fe in garnierites with various mineral compositions and in Ni-bearing serpentines from the saprolite horizon in Ni-laterite deposits.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Havana, Cuba, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Díaz, Alexander; Battaglioli, Tullia; Díaz Rodríguez, Raúl; Goza Valdés, Roxana; González Ochoa, Edilberto; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    To estimate the proportion of tuberculosis cases attributable to recent transmission and the risk factors possibly associated with tuberculosis clustering. Population-based study combining information from epidemiological investigation of tuberculosis cases notified to the National Tuberculosis Control Program in Havana, Cuba, in 2009 with the results of genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with variable number tandem repeat of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Of 186 cases, 61 were genotyped: 33 patterns and five clusters with 19, 7, 3, 2 and 2 cases were found. The proportion of cases due to recent transmission was 45% (95% confidence interval 33-58%). Routine contact investigation failed to identify a substantial number of epidemiological links. A history of living in a closed setting was strongly associated with clustering. The proportion of cases due to recent transmission in Havana in 2009 is high. The existing control measures in closed settings should be strengthened. A study on a larger number of cases and for a longer time period should be carried out to obtain more precise estimates. Further studies on the utility and cost-effectiveness of the addition of molecular epidemiology techniques to support the progress towards tuberculosis elimination in Cuba, a low-incidence resource-limited setting, are also needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. United Vietnam and Cuba will overcome all obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the speech of the President of the Viet Nam Women's Union, given on April 15, 1998, at a world women's solidarity meeting held in Cuba. The President gave the Cuban Women's Federation US$50,000 for women's and children's programs. The President indicated that the Vietnamese people wanted to help alleviate the hardships of the Cuban people and show solidarity with Cuba and Comrade Fidel Castro. The money was collected in a nationwide campaign in an effort to express Viet Nam's sympathy for Cubans who face difficult living conditions due to the US embargo. The President thanked the Cuban people for standing up to a superpower for all the world to see and for being confident and optimistic despite hardships. The Vietnamese are ready to defend revolutionary achievements, independence, and socialism. The Vietnamese will be celebrating the 35th year of the founding of the Cuban Committee for Solidarity with Viet Nam, Laos, and Cambodia. The Vietnamese delegation offered warm greetings to the Cuban Party and State and the Cuban women and children under the leadership of Comrade Fidel Castro.

  14. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  15. Implementation of tissue microarrays technique for cancer research in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tissue microarray (TMA technique is based on making cylindrical cores from paraffin donor blocks and transfer to a single recipient block. The TMA has revolutionized the field of pathology for the possibility to evaluate multiple samples in one slide. There is no precedent of this subject in Cuba, so the objective of this research was to implement the TMA technique. The concordance of the results obtained by complete section and the TMA were evaluated for this purpose, in the evaluation of the estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone (PR and epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2 in samples of breast cancer. Forty-five paraffin-embedded samples from women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Institute of Oncology in 2012 were studied. Two TMA blocks were constructed, and subsequently the expression of markers ER, PR and HER2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, in the complete section of tissue and in the TMA. Kappa index was used for concordance analysis. A good concordance was obtained for all three markers (ER k=0.8272; PR k=0.793 and HER2 k=0.716. This study constitutes the first report on the TMA technique in Cuba and shows that it is a valuable tool, suggesting its potential use in translational research and clinical trials on vaccines.

  16. Cuba, Canarias y la prensa, en el contexto del 98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Ileana Medina Hernández

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available 1898 es para España el año del Desastre, con mayúscula; 1898 es para Cuba el año de la independencia, quizá con minúscula. Canarias es la puerta de salida de Europa; Cuba es puerta la entrada de América. La migración canario - cubana ha sido un factor histórico decisivo en la formación de ambas nacionalidades. La prensa de masas naciente a fines del siglo XIX jugó un papel determinante en la guerra hispano-norteamericana y su desenlace. Conjugando esas cuatro sentencias aplastantes y archiconocidas, la investigación del reflejo del proceso independentista cubano en la prensa de canaria aporta sustanciosos elementos al conocimiento del papel de los procesos de comunicación en la historia y en la cultura de ambos archipiélagos, en el importante contexto del fin de siglo XIX.

  17. Virtual Tour Environment of Cuba's National School of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, R. K.; Douglas, I. P.; Garlock, M. E.; Glisic, B.

    2017-08-01

    Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba's National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.

  18. Cuba: Time to Expand Health in All Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell-Florit Serrate, Pastor; Más-Bermejo, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The Adelaide Statement on Health in All Policies (2010), lays out equity-based principles designed to guide policymakers on incorporating health and well-being components into the development, implementation and evaluation of policy and practice while moving towards shared governance at all levels-local, regional, national and international. Special emphasis is placed on cross-sector coordination to achieve policy goals, while improving health and well-being for all.[1] In Cuba's case, experience in disaster preparedness, particularly for hurricanes, has shown good cross-sector coordination.[2] Zika serves as another recent example. First identified in Uganda in 1947, Zika, an emerging disease with outbreaks in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Americas and linked to neurological disorders in newborns, was declared a global health emergency by WHO on February 1, 2016.[3] In response, Cuba further stepped up measures for surveillance, prevention and control it had already announced in December 2015. Building on decades of experience fighting dengue, intensified efforts to stamp out Aedes aegypti and albopictus, the mosquitoes that transmit Zika (as well as dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever), and issued a national 11-point Zika Action Plan to prevent, detect and respond to these arboviral infections.

  19. Las finanzas de Cuba en el ocaso colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the repercussions of the War of Independence on the Cuban economy as a Whole. The data provided include costs per sector, their effects on exports, customs figures and collection of taxes. In addition, the author's analysis on property imposts provides the reader with information on Cuba´s financial situation and that of the landowners at the time when the reconstruction of the country began.

    En este artículo se estudian las repercusiones provocadas por la Guerra de Independencia en el conjunto de la economía cubana, así mismo se aporta información del costo por sectores, su repercusión sobre las exportaciones, los ingresos aduaneros y el cobro de impuestos, y se traza en líneas generales la situación financiera de Cuba y de los propietarios al momento de iniciarse la reconstrucción del país, a partir del estudio de los gravámenes que afectaban la propiedad.

  20. The role of popular energy education and diffusion in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Energy Revolution is a national program for developing renewable energy sources to conserve energy, promote sustainable development and address environmental concerns. It includes the Energy Saving Program by the Ministry of Education (PAEME), the Electricity Saving Program in Cuba (PAEC) by the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS) and the National Program for Energy Sustainable Culture developed by CUBASOLAR. The most important programs related to the use of renewable energy sources have been carried out in the field of biomass, hydropower, wind energy, water supply and solar photovoltaic energy in rural areas. This paper presented the Cuban experiences on education, diffusion and publication of energy themes. Mass communication including television, radio and magazines has been used to explain the rationale of using renewable energy, its efficiency and social impact. The positive results thus far indicate that these measures can be applied in other developing countries such as Latin America and Caribbean, and could also serve as a guide for other areas, including developed countries.

  1. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rafael María de Labra ante la cuestión de Cuba, 1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Acebrón, M. Dolores

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Rafael María de Labra fue uno de los intelectuales del siglo XIX más sensibilizados por el problema colonial y principalmente por la cuestión de Cuba. La lucha infatigable de Labra por conseguir reformas políticas para las dos últimas colonias, Cuba y Puerto Rico, su defensa del sistema político autonomista y el respeto y tolerancia hacia los revolucionarios cubanos le valdría incluso, después de la independencia de Cuba en 1898, el reconocimiento moral de la nueva nación.

  3. Geology, fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope characteristics of the El Cobre VHMS deposit, Southern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazañas, Xiomara; Alfonso, Pura; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Proenza, Joaquín Antonio; Fallick, Anthony Edward

    2008-09-01

    The El Cobre deposit is located in eastern Cuba within the volcanosedimentary sequence of the Sierra Maestra Paleogene arc. The deposit is hosted by tholeiitic basalts, andesites and tuffs and comprises thick stratiform barite and anhydrite bodies, three stratabound disseminated up to massive sulphide bodies produced by silicification and sulphidation of limestones or sulphates, an anhydrite stockwork and a siliceous stockwork, grading downwards to quartz veins. Sulphides are mainly pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite; gold occurs in the stratabound ores. Fluid inclusions measured in sphalerite, quartz, anhydrite and calcite show salinities between 2.3 and 5.7 wt% NaCl eq. and homogenisation temperatures between 177 and 300°C. Sulphides from the stratabound mineralisation display δ 34S values of 0‰ to +6.0‰, whilst those from the feeder zone lie between -1.4‰ and +7.3‰. Sulphides show an intra-grain sulphur isotope zonation of about 2‰; usually, δ 34S values increase towards the rims. Sulphate sulphur has δ 34S in the range of +17‰ to +21‰, except two samples with values of +5.9‰ and +7.7‰. Sulphur isotope data indicate that the thermochemical reduction of sulphate from a hydrothermal fluid of seawater origin was the main source of sulphide sulphur and that most of the sulphates precipitated by heating of seawater. The structure of the deposit, mineralogy, fluid inclusion and isotope data suggest that the deposit formed from seawater-derived fluids with probably minor supply of magmatic fluids.

  4. Sobre la presencia de Cneorum (Cneoraceae en Cuba: ¿ejemplo de disyunción biogeográfica Mediterráneo-Caribe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brull, Gabriel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to shed light on the enigmatic world distribution of the Cneoraceae family, frequently, and until very recently, used as an example of the connection between the Mediterranean and the Caribbean floras. Specifically, we wanted to document the presence/absence of an endemic taxon, first collected in 1861 by Charles Wright from Cuba (Cneorum trimerum. During the last five years, we have visited all the localities where this taxon was originally collected, at Sierra Maestra in eastern Cuba, and revised all available herbarium material. Moreover, we checked all botanical and historical references, and also interviewed local people, to whom we showed pictures of the Mediterranean Cneorum. The conclusions of our survey are the following: i nowadays, there are no Cneorum plants growing in their type localities in Cuba; ii all the collected material from Cuba and deposited in herbaria by Wright, and also others studied by Carlquist, correspond unequivocally to C. tricoccon. The material collected by Ekman in 1922, and identified as C. trimerum, is sterile, and cannot be identified with certainty, however we think it is unlikely to be C. tricoccon; iii this plant was probably introduced during the mid 19th century from Southern France, although it never become naturalized. The presence of French colonist settlements in coffee plantations in those areas where Cneorum was collected, together with the fact that the plant has medicinal properties, lead us to suggest that the colonist themselves were those introducing the plant in Cuba. Lastly, iv Schoepfia stenophylla (Olacaceae has also been recently misidentified as Cneorum tricoccon due to the resemblance of their leaves. Schoepfia stenophylla is an endemic species currently threatened and for which there is an in situ conservation plan. Such confusion between these species has contributed to the maintenance and spreading of the mistakes through the long taxonomic history of

  5. A study to investigate fluoride contamination and fluoride exposure dose assessment in lateritic zones of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Alok C; Bhattacharya, Piyal; Mallick, Anusaya; Ali, Md Motakabber; Pyne, Jagadish; Santra, Subhas C

    2015-04-01

    To assess the status of severity of fluoride contamination in lateritic Bankura and Purulia districts of West Bengal, concentrations of fluoride in different water sources and agricultural field soils were investigated. The fluoride content (mg/l) was observed to differ with aquifer depths: 0.19-0.47 in dug wells, 0.01-0.17 in shallow tube wells, and 0.07-1.6 in deep tube wells. Fluoride within the World Health Organization (WHO) prescribed range (1.0-1.5 mg/l) was estimated only in ~17% of the total collected water samples while ~67% showed fluoride and thus may impede in the production and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones of the residents, especially children. Fluoride in water was found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.63) with pH. The exposure dose of fluoride (mg/kg/day) from drinking water in infants, children, and adults was estimated in the ranges 0.02-0.53, 0.01-0.24, and 0.01-0.14, respectively against the standard value of 0.05. A clear risk of dental fluorosis is apparent in infants and children of the study area. The fluoride in soil (55-399 mg/kg) was detected to be significantly correlated with the fluoride content in deep tube wells and soil pH (r = 0.56 and 0.71, respectively). The relationships of soil fluoride with total hardness and that with phosphate were not significant. There is a high possibility of bioaccumulation of fluoride from contaminated soil and water of the study area to cultivated crops. This will enhance the quantity of fluoride intake into human food chain in addition to drinking water pathway.

  6. Fibrous Platinum-Group Minerals in “Floating Chromitites” from the Loma Larga Ni-Laterite Deposit, Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Aiglsperger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reports on the observation of enigmatic fibrous platinum-group minerals (PGM found within a chromitite body included in limonite (“floating chromitite” from Ni-laterites in the Dominican Republic. Fibrous PGM have a Ru-Os-Ir-Fe dominated composition and are characterized by fibrous textures explained by grain-forming fibers which are significantly longer (1–5 µm than they are wide (~100 nm. Back-scattered electron (BSE images suggest that these nanofibers are platinum-group elements (PGE-bearing and form <5 µm thick layers of bundles which are oriented orthogonal to grains’ surfaces. Trace amounts of Si are most likely associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers. One characteristic fibrous PGM was studied in detail: XRD analyses point to ruthenian hexaferrum. However, the unpolished fibrous PGM shows numerous complex textures on its surface which are suggestive for neoformation processes: (i features suggesting growth of PGE-bearing nanofibers; (ii occurrence of PGM nanoparticles within film material (biofilm? associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers; (iii a Si-rich and crater-like texture hosting PGM nanoparticles and an Ir-rich accumulation of irregular shape; (iv complex PGM nanoparticles with ragged morphologies, resembling sponge spicules and (v oval forms (<1 µm in diameter with included PGM nanoparticles, similar to those observed in experiments with PGE-reducing bacteria. Fibrous PGM found in the limonite may have formed due to supergene (bio-weathering of fibrous Mg-silicates which were incorporated into desulphurized laurite during stages of serpentinization.

  7. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: orlando@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  8. RESEARCH ON ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF ALKALI CONTAMINATED LATERITE UNDER INGOING CONDITION%迁入条件下碱污染红土的工程特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李高; 黄英; 李瑶; 张浚枫

    2016-01-01

    考虑碱液浓度、迁入时间两个因素,通过浸泡试验方法,研究碱液迁入条件下碱污染红土的剪切、压缩等工程特性,分析碱液迁入与红土间的相互作用。试验结果表明:碱液浓度较低时,碱污染红土的抗剪强度、黏聚力、内摩擦角、压缩模量减小,低于素红土;碱液浓度较高时,碱污染红土的抗剪强度、黏聚力、内摩擦角、压缩模量增大,高于素红土;随碱液浓度增大,碱污染红土的抗剪强度、黏聚力、内摩擦角、压缩模量逐渐增大。随迁入时间延长,低浓度下,碱污染红土的抗剪强度、黏聚力、内摩擦角、压缩模量缓慢减小,存在极小值;高浓度下,碱污染红土的抗剪强度、黏聚力、内摩擦角、压缩模量明显增大,存在极大值。碱液迁入引起红土工程特性变化的实质在于迁入过程中碱液与红土间的相互作用,可以分为初期、中期、后期三个阶段来解释。%Under the alkali ingoing condition, considering two influence factors which were the lye concentration and ingoing time, the engineering properties of alkali contamination laterite under ingoing condition were examined by the indoor shear strength and compression test, and the action process of alkali and laterite was analyzed.The results showed that shear strength, cohesion, internal friction angle and compression modulus of the alkali polluted laterite were lower than the plain laterite when the alkali concentration was low;the shear strength, cohesion, internal friction angle and compression modulus of the alkali polluted laterite were higher than the ones of the plain laterite when the alkali concentration was high;with alkali concentration increase, the shear strength, cohesion, internal friction angle and compression modulus of the alkali polluted laterite were gradually increased.With the increasing of ingoing time, at a low concentration, the shear strength

  9. 云南红土室内滑坡模型相似材料的特性研究%Research on the Characteristics of the Similar Material about the Yunnan Laterite Indoor Landslide Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 黄英; 王盼; 邓欣; 樊宇航

    2013-01-01

    针对云南典型红土,考虑掺合红土含量和养护时间的影响,通过比重、颗粒分析、直剪、压缩等试验,研究了掺合红土的物理和力学特性.试验结果表明:红土中掺入仿瓷粉、砂后,比重降低;随掺入含量的增大,红土颗粒中砂粒的含量逐渐增大,黏粒含量逐渐降低;红土中掺入还原铁粉后,比重显著增大,随掺入含量的增大,红土颗粒中砂粒的含量逐渐增大,黏粒含量逐渐降低.随掺入仿瓷粉含量的增加,养护时间的延长,总体上,红土的抗剪强度呈减小趋势,压缩系数呈增大趋势;随掺砂含量的增加,红土的抗剪强度呈增大趋势,压缩系数呈降低趋势,且变化存在一个合理的掺砂含量,尤其掺砂含量在10%~20%时,抗剪强度出现峰值,压缩系数出现谷值,养护时间对掺砂红土影响不明显.随掺入还原铁粉含量的增加,红土的抗剪强度逐渐增大、压缩系数逐渐减小,随养护时间的延长,其抗剪强度呈减小趋势,压缩系数没有明显的变化规律.%Yunnan typical laterite, considering the effect of blending laterite content and maintenance time, through specific gravity, grain composition, direct shea, compression test, the physical and mechanical properties of blending laterite is studied. The test results show that: the laterite mixed with Imitation ceramic powder, sand, specific gravity reduce, increase with the incorporation of the content, sand content of laterite particles gradually increasing, clay content gradually reduced. After the laterite blend in reduced iron powder, the significant increase in the specific gravity of laterite, with the incorporation of content increases, sand content of laterite particles gradually increasing, clay content gradually decreased . with the content of Imitation ceramic powder - doped increasing gradually extended maintenance time. Overall, latente shear strength of a decreasing trend, compression coethcient tended to

  10. Cuba: los entornos cambiantes de la partcipación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo DILLA ALFONSO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La participación popular ha sido una permanente invocación del discurso político revolucionario cubano, particularmente en las instancias comunitarias. Este ensayo trata de analizar la evolución de los diseños, instituciones y realidades participativas a partir de su relación con las situaciones políticas y los modelos de reproducción económicos. Por su relevancia, se presta especial atención al sistema municipal cubano. Este fue creado en 1976 y ha experimentado diversas modificaciones, las más importantes de las cuales tuvieron lugar en 1992. Los cambios económicos y sociales que han tenido lugar en Cuba en los últimos diez años imponen a la participación nuevos retos, entre ellos la necesidad de una concepción más autónoma y pluralista del accionar popular en la esfera pública, lo que de alguna manera ya se expresa en algunos esfuerzos oficiales por adecuar los patrones de participación existentes (esencialmente una participación paternalista-clientelista y en la emergencia de movimientos comunitarios que intentan controlar y transformar las vidas cotidianas en los vecindarios.ABSTRACT: Popular participation has been a permanent slogan in the political discourse of revolutionary Cuba, particularly at the community level. This article deals with the design and evolution of institutions and participatory realities starting with its relation with the political situation and economic models of reproduction. Special attention is given to the municipal system created in 1976 and modified severa! times from which the most important modification was the one in 1992. The social and economic changes of Cuba during the last ten years have posed new challenges to participation such as the need for a more autonomous and pluralistic conception of "popular praxis" in the public sphere. This is present in the official efforts to adequate existing participatory norms (particularly the paternalistic-clientelistic participation and

  11. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  12. El turismo como estrategia de desarrollo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Risco Yera, Yoel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an economic activity which is becoming more and more important, socially, economically and environmentally. This fact is especially relevant in the case of Cuba. The tourist activity is seen as a form of stabilising the balance of payments, a source of income and employment. However, in this times of economic and political uncertainty, the dangers of substituting the basic commodity of sugar for something else (tourism is very big and it may be necessary to revise the use of tourism as a way of future development.

    [es] El turismo se ha convertido en una actividad económica que, cada vez tiene mayor importancia en el desarrollo económico, social y medio ambiental. Este hecho adquiere una especial relevancia en el caso de Cuba. La actividad turística es vista como una forma de equilibrar la balanza de pagos, una fuente de divisas y de empleo. Sin embargo, en momentos de incertidumbre económica y política como son los actuales, los peligros de sustituir un monocultivo (del azúcar por otro (el turismo son muy grandes y se hace necesario revisar su utilización como vía para el desarrollo. [fr] Le tourisme est devenu une activité économique de plus en plus importante du point de vue économique, social et environnemental. Il s'agit là d'un fait tout particulièrement essentiel dans le cas de Cuba. L'activité touristique est abordée comme un moyen permettant d'équilibrer la balance des paiements, ainsi qu'une source de devises et d'emploi. Cependant, considérant la conjoncture actuelle d'incertitude économique et politique qui accroît les risques de remplacer une monoculture (celle du sucre par une autre (le tourisme, il est donc nécessaire de réétudier l'utilisation du tourisme en tant que voie de développement.

  13. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  14. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on

  15. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on ext

  16. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  17. Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales con accion diuretica en el Municipio de Quemado de Guines, Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez Machin, Maykel; Sueiro, Mario L; de la Cruz, Ania; Boffill, Maria A; Moron, Francisco; Mendez, Orestes R; Cardenas, Jaqueline

    2011-01-01

    La flora de Cuba es muy rica en plantas medicinales, de las cuales se reportan aproximadamente 179 especies que la poblacion utiliza para fines diureticos, sin embargo, un gran numero de ellas carece...

  18. Masculinidades en Cuba: legitimación de una dimensión de los estudios de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Quaresma da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine some imagined meanings of masculinity among groups of men in Eastern Cuba. We first present a brief overview of how this subject has been addressed in the Cuban context, highlighting the relevant theoretical contributions to understand our case study. Our findings, which come from an analysis of discussion groups with self-identified heterosexual men, address the imagined meanings around masculine bodies, being a man and husband, and fatherhood. We suggest that, circulating in this culture, there are beliefs and assumptions about being a man that produce categories and rankings, and, as a result, articulate, stabilize, and authorize situations of discrimination, subordination, marginalization, or exclusion among men and in systems of social relations.

  19. 槽式擦洗机在红土矿中的应用和改进%Application and Improvement of Trough Type Scrubber in Lateritic Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓光

    2014-01-01

    Since the ore of a certain overseas open-pit lateritic mine project belongs to refractory ore, secondary ore washing process circuit of drum washer+trough type scrubber shall be adopted. But because of difference adaptability of lateritic ore on the structure of trough type scrubber, such problems as insufficient lifting capacity of sand return and short service life of bearing parts at tail end will be occurred. This paper elaborates a good solution of these problems through improvement on seal structure of water sealing box of equipment structure and trough type scrubber.%国外某露天红土矿项目因其矿石属难洗矿石,采用圆筒洗矿机+槽式擦洗机二段洗矿的工艺流程,但由于槽式擦洗机结构上对红土矿适应性的差异,出现了返砂提升量不足和尾端轴承部件使用寿命短暂等问题,通过对设备结构和槽式擦洗机水密封箱密封结构的改造,很好地解决了这些问题。

  20. 红土镍矿冶炼镍硬铸铁试验%LATERITE NICKEL ORE SMELTING HARD CAST IRON TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴传智; 韦江林; 刘泽; 陆遥遥

    2015-01-01

    为实现最终产品工艺的节能减排,在150 kW单相矿热炉中进行红土镍矿和铬矿直接生产镍硬Ⅳ型铸铁,产品含Ni 5.89%和Cr 8.96%,符合镍硬Ⅳ型铸铁的成分要求,可达到试验预期效果。因此,利用红土镍矿、铬矿通过矿热炉冶炼一步法生产镍硬Ⅳ型铸铁在技术上是可行的。%In order to achieve the energy saving and emission reduction of the final product process, Ⅳ Ni-hard cast iron is produced with lateritic nickel ore and chrome ore in 150 kW single phase submerged arc furnace and gets a Ni 5.89%and Cr 8.96% product, which fulfills the request of composition and can achieve the desired effect. It is feasible in technic of producingⅣNi-hard cast iron with lateritic nickel ore and chrome ore by one-step method.

  1. Distribution and Mobility of Heavy Metal Materials in Settling Ponds Post Laterite Nickel Mining (A Case Study: North Motui Konawe, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Chaerul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of waste matter sedimentation in settling ponds, along with accumulation of heavy metals, such as Nickel (Ni, Chrome (Cr3+ and Cr6+, manganese (Mn and Cobalt (Co and elements or compounds in laterite soil. These heavy metals will concentrate in different environmental geochemistry, which are laterite sediment layers pre- and post-mining. The purposes of this study are to identify changes of heavy metal distribution in settling ponds and analyze heavy metal mobility in settling ponds. The research methods were qualitative and quantitative methods. Laboratory research used AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer which was studied, analyzed, and synthesized comprehensively. Data processing technique used SPSS v.21 software and Principal Component Analysis (PCA method. The result showed that distribution of heavy metals Fe and Cr relatively strengthened constantly. The graphs of Fe and Cr were interpreted as similar mobility and mechanism of transportation os elements which can form chemical compounds. Meanwhile, metals Ni and Co had similar graph which was relatively flat constantly. This was interpreted as similar mobility of heavy metals in settling ponds. The mobility of heavy metals Fe and Cr were mostly concentrated to form ferrochrome compound in the sediment of settling ponds compared with Ni with its low mobility and Co with its very low mobility.

  2. REVIEW OF EARLY COMPREHENSIVE UTILIZATION ON LATERITE TESTS IN CHINA%我国早期综合利用红土矿试验的回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鸿发

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s, China conducted tests and trial productions on laterite utilization successively. It produced ferronickel by means of RKEF technology, and then smelt semi-steel or pig iron by ferronickel slag. Many technical problems were solved, such as ore reduction roasting, ferronickel smelting and furnace ling life. It states that early laterite tests have some reference for future ferronickel production and plant construction.%曾在20世纪60、70年代我国采用RKEF工艺冶炼出了镍铁,并用镍铁渣炼出了半钢或生铁,研究和解决了矿石还原焙烧、镍铁冶炼和电炉炉衬寿命等技术问题,文章指出早期的红土矿试验对今后镍铁的生产和镍铁厂的建设有一定的参考价值。

  3. Effect of pH on transport of Pb2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ through lateritic soil: Column experiments and transport modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srilert Chotpantarat; Say Kee Ong; Chakkaphan Sutthirat; Khemarath Osathaphan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of pH on the transport of Pb2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ through lateritic soil columns.Model results by fitting the symmetric breakthrough curves (BTCs) of bromide (Br-) with CXTFIT model suggested that physical non-equilibrium processes were absent in the columns.The heavy metal BTCs were, however, asymmetrical and exhibited a tailing phenomenon,indicating the presence of chemical non-equilibrium processes in the columns.The retardation factors of Pb2+ were the largest of the four metal ions at both pH 4.0 (33.3) and pH 5.0 (35.4).The use of Langmuir isotherm parameters from batch studies with HYDRUS-1D did not predict the BTCs well.Rather the two-site model (TSM) described the heavy metal BTCs better than the equilibrium linear/nonlinear Langmuir model.The fraction of instantaneous sorption sites (f) of all four metal ions on the lateritic soil was consistently about 30%-44% of the total sorption sites.

  4. United States - Cuba Relations: Does the War on Terrorism Change Our Stance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-09

    embargo. The United States’ North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, Canada and Mexico , are also two of Cuba’s largest trading partners...getting through the lean "Special Period" by way of subsistence farming. Dr. Fernando Funes-Aguilar of the Havana-based Grupo de Agricultura Organica...www.sustainabletimes.ca/articles/cubanfarms.htm>. Internet. Accessed 19 October 2001. Baklanoff, Eric N. Expropriation of U.S. Investments in Cuba, Mexico

  5. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    Democratic ( Libertad ) Act enacting 7 penalties for: foreign companies doing business with Cuba; permitting U.S. citizens to sue foreign investors who...U.S. resident were killed.27 The U.S. responded in March of 1996 by drafting the Cuba Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act ( Libertad Act) or the Helms...settlements of provisions in the Libertad Act would call for political suicide for the Revolution and Castro would avoid this at all costs. TOTAL ENGAGEMENT

  6. The U.S. Embargo on Cuba: A time for Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-06

    jeopardize their lives for “ libertad ”--freedom. In 1966, the United States enacts the “Cuban Refugees-Status” law. The law grants Cuban refugees...Economic Cooperation (Pages 2000) as of January, 2002. The primary foreign investors in Cuba are Canada, Mexico, Argentina , Venezuela, England, Spain...to the farming community total $1 billion. Cuba currently imports between $700 million and $1 billion in food products primarily from Argentina

  7. The Cuba-United States Thaw: Building Bridges Through Science and Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Kouri, Vivian; Resik, Sonia; Acosta, Belsy; Guillen, Gerardo; Goraleski, Karen; Espinal, Marcos; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-06-01

    AbstractBeginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States.

  8. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  9. Assessment of Human Health Vulnerability to Climate Variability and Change in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Bultó, Paulo Lázaro Ortíz; Rodríguez,Antonio Pérez; Valencia, Alina Rivero; Vega, Nicolás León; Gonzalez, Manuel Díaz; Carrera, Alina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we assessed the potential effects of climate variability and change on population health in Cuba. We describe the climate of Cuba as well as the patterns of climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern, particularly dengue fever. Analyses of the associations between climatic anomalies and disease patterns highlight current vulnerability to climate variability. We describe current adaptations, including the application of climate predictions to prevent disease outbreaks. Finally...

  10. Equinodermos (Echinodermata) del occidente del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Valle García, R. del; M. Abreu Pérez; Rodríguez, R.; Solís-Marín, F. A.; A. Laguarda-Figueras; Durán González, A. de la L.

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderms (Echinodermata) from western Archipelago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba. The Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago, central north region of Cuba, has been submitted to a significant tourist development, with the corresponding increase of hotel infrastructure and highways. We sampled 20 stations considering biotope variation in the macrolagoon and the external areas. The samplings were carried out in March - April and October - November, 2001 (20 days per sampling). Towards the external area - where ...

  11. The Training of Physics Teachers in Cuba: A Historical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Alamino Ortega, Diego

    The regular, systematic training of physics teachers in Cuba is quite recent when compared to the long history of physics itself. However, its development may serve to illustrate some interesting solutions to a long-standing question: How should a physics teacher be trained in agreement with a certain society at a given moment? In the Cuban context the answer to this question involves quite an original sequence of continuities and breaks, following perhaps the thoughts of Bolívar's teacher, Simón Rodríguez, who wrote in the nineteenth century: "Beware! The mania of slavishly imitating the enlightened nations may well make America in its infancy play the role of an old lady."

  12. Making Travel to Cuba Work for Health and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, a record-breaking 3.5 million visitors-1 million from Canada alone-traveled to Cuba to explore its history, culture, natural splendor, and visit family. That same year, US President Barack Obama relaxed travel restrictions, giving general authorization for a dozen categories of legal travel by US citizens and residents. As a result, US visitors to the island ballooned by 80% between January 2015 and June 2016. And the numbers keep growing: the latest data show that foreign arrivals reached 4 million in 2016.[1] The surge in visitors highlights the potential negative impact of tourism on a developing country's infrastructure, environment, cultural patrimony and local economy-all considered important social determinants of health.

  13. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Inventory of land snails from Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jonathan Pereira-Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A census of mollusks in Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba was carried out. Biodiversity index were studied by vegetal formation, which are: Evergreen Forest, Semideciduous Forest and Mogote Vegetation Complex. The families best represented were Helicinidae, Annularidae, Urocoptidae and Subulinidae, taking the 97.6% of the species some degree of national endemism and being the 45.24% of these local endemic. The most widely distributed species was Farcimen camaguayanum Torre & Bartsch 1941 and the rarest was Euclastaria euclasta Shuttleworth 1852. The highest biodiversity values were observed in the Mogote Vegetation Complex being of 2,856 according to Shannon-Wiener (H´ index. So far species extinction events are not seen but not discarded for the future due to a decline in local rainfall during the last 15 years as well as human activities such as agriculture and local tourism.

  15. TRINIDAD, PRODUCTO TURÍSTICO INTEGRAL Y SOSTENIBLE EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Canales Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el desmantelamiento de la Unión Soviética, Cuba apostó claramente por el desarrollo del sector turístico. Trinidad, debido a su histórico conjunto urbano propio de la ciudad colonial y su enclave geográfico entre la montaña y el litoral, se ha convertido en un importante destino que aúna el turismo de playa con el de naturaleza y el cultural. En el presente artículo se analizarán los factores que hacen de Trinidad un referente internacional, así como la repercusión que esta actividad ejerce tanto en la economía familiar como en la recuperación del patrimonio local y su entorno ambiental; por ello ha sido declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad.

  16. [Laryngeal cancer in Camaguey (Cuba). Study of 168 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda Marisy, H; Pila Pérez, R; Castillo Toledo, L; Pila Peláez, R

    1994-01-01

    A recent study of cancer of the larynx made at the Manuel Ascunce Domenech Provincial Hospital in Camagüey, Cuba, from 1985 to 1992 is presented. In this period 168 patients were diagnosed as having this illness. Male patients of 51-70 years age were predominant and smoking was an important factor in 76% of all patients and alcohol consumption in 20.2% of patients. The most common site was the glotis (39.2%) and the epidermoid variety was the most frequent type (95.5%). The tumors classified as T1a No Mo were the most representative of the group (32.1%). We encountered metastasis in only 11.3% of our patients. The terapeutic regimen used was radiotherapy.

  17. Cuba y la cuestión racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velia Cecilia Bobes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes race relations in Cuba within the context of her different historical conjunctures, and aims to demonstrate the existence of a racial cleavage in the present, within the dominant idea of the Nation as a supraracial and homogenous body. The paper demonstrates that the question of race has been present in all political movements in Cuba’s history, since it has always permeated the way in which Cubans perceive both themselves and others. Finally, the problem is analyzed within the framework of the revolutionary transformations from 1959 on, with special attention to the tensions implicit in the disjunction of equality before de low vs. the survival of racial prejudice.

  18. Thermodynamic of selective reduction of laterite ore by reducing gases%气体选择性还原红土镍矿的热力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松; 郭曙强; 姜兰; 徐玉棱; 丁伟中

    2015-01-01

    As the sulfide ore deposits become less economical and environmental viable as a source of nickel, increasing attention is being paid to the laterite ores. But in the pyrometallurgical process of laterite, more efforts should be paid to control the reduction of iron oxide in order to get high nickel-content nickeliferous product. For these reasons, equilibrium condition of iron oxide when laterite ore was selectively reduced by CO2/CO, H2O/H2 and CO2/H2 was studied from the perspective of iron activity with an assumption that the activities of FeO and Fe3O4 equal 1 in this work, and it well accounts for the inescapability of Fe metallization. Activity coefficient of iron in Ni?Fe binary solid alloy was calculated by Miedema model based on the known thermodynamics datum filed. According to Raoult's law, the relationship among the Fe/Ni ratio, reduction temperature and reduction gas composition was calculated when laterite ore was selectively reduced by the three different reduction systems. The calculation result was discussed and also compared with the experimental result. The trend of metal iron content in the reduction product of laterite ore varying with temperature and gas composition was well predicted by the calculation result.%由于硫化镍矿生产镍铁在经济和环境上不断出现的问题,采用红土镍矿生产镍铁越来越受到重视.但是红土镍矿制备镍铁的火法工艺中,在提高铁镍产品中的镍含量方面的理论研究仍存在许多不足.出于这方面的考虑,假设Fe2O3、FeO和Fe3O4的活度为1,计算了CO2/CO、H2O/H2和CO2/H2三种气氛下选择性还原红土镍矿时,不同铁活度下铁?铁氧化物的平衡条件.从已有的热力学数据出发,利用Miedema二元合金生成热模型,计算了Ni?Fe固态二元合金中铁的活度系数.并以活度系数为纽带,最终计算出这三种还原气氛下,镍铁合金产物中的铁含量与还原气体分压、还原温度的关系.并用 CO2/H2还原红

  19. Los intereses sectoriales de la vivienda social en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rabinovich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans les premières années qui ont suivi la révolution cubaine, l’Etat embrassa la responsabilité totale dans le domaine du logement social. Cette contribution analyse les modalités de prise en compte des tensions entre critères technocratiques et ceux du « design » ainsi que le rôle attribué à la population dans les politiques et programmes d’habitations collectives depuis 1959. Elle met en lumière le modèle étatique sectoriel lequel a progressivement priorisé la quantité et défini la qualité par des critères de productivité à bas coûts. L’exemple de l’ONG Habitat-Cuba illustre également la fragilité des expériences innovantes des années 1990 qui ont tenté de réconcilier les aspects technocratiques avec les attributs esthétiques, spatiaux et fonctionnels de l’habitat par des approches dites participatives.In the first few years following the Cuban revolution, the State assumed full responsibility for public housing. The present contribution analyzes modalities for dealing with the tensions between technological and design-related criteria, as well as the role set aside for the public in collective housing policies and programmes since 1949. It sheds light on the statist model that has gradually given priority to quantity while defining quality via criteria for low-cost productivity. The example of the NGO Habitat-Cuba also illustrates the fragile nature of the innovative experiments of the 1990s, which attempted to reconcile technocratic aspects with the aesthetic, spatial and functional attributes of housing by means of so-called participatory approaches.

  20. Isolation and identification of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from sugarcane varieties in Cuba

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    Marcia Rojas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops in Cuba and other countries in the world. The worldwide occurrence of G. diazotrophicus in sugarcane and other plants suggest a beneficial association between this species and grass species. The potentialities of endophytes in the agricultural biotechnology are very high, that is why the detec-tion of this bacterium inside of sugarcane is so important. The aim of this work was to detect the occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in 18 varieties of sugarcane growing in Cuba. This species was isolated in 13 varieties on the basis of micromorphological and colonies characteristics. For the first time it was isolated G. diazotrophi-cusfrom varieties Cuba 1616-75, Cuba 751-75, Campos Brasil 44-52 and SP701143 cultivated in Cuba. The 46 isolates from the varieties Jaronú 60-5, Cuba 323-68 and Media Luna 318 were identified as G. diazotrophicusby morphological and biochemical test.

  1. Success and failures of inward-looking development in Cuba (1990-2008): opportunities and problems for small farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Rodríguez, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    While the rest of Latin America followed outward-looking policies of agrarian development during the 1990s and early 2000s, Cuba implemented an inward-looking model during this period. In the midst of the most severe crisis in its history, the Special Period, Cuba dramatically shifted from export dependency to inward-looking development. Cuba is a unique case in terms of agricultural development. Cuba’s agricultural development model provoked important transformations in the country’s agricul...

  2. El Sistema de Control Interno para el Perfeccionamiento de la Gestión Empresarial en Cuba (Internal Control System for the Improvement of Corporate Governance in Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Dinaidys Gómez Selemeneva; Blanca Blanco Camping; Juan R. Conde Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Spanish abstract. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre los antecedentes del control interno empresarial, caracterizando el mismo en Cuba y exponiendo los principales postulados para la gestión del cambio empresarial y su aplicación. Así mismo se describe el proceso de cambio para la implementación del control interno en una organización. English abstract. In this study we examine the history of corporate internal control in order to characterize it in Cuba and to expose the main...

  3. Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea Politics, social ethos and identity in contemporary Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La persistencia del modelo político cubano es paradójica al analizarla sobre e! transfondo de extrema penuria económica, pérdida de apoyo internacional y presiones en aumento de parte de los Estados Unidos y la oposición anticastrista fuera de Cuba. No obstante las circunstancias internacionales adversas que debió enfrentar Cuba tras la caída de la Unión Soviética -su principal fuente de apoyo económico- el gobierno revolucionario logró mantenerse en e! poder. Los autores analizan las condici...

  4. Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea Politics, social ethos and identity in contemporary Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Roniger, Luis; Sznajder, Mario

    2010-01-01

    La persistencia del modelo político cubano es paradójica al analizarla sobre e! transfondo de extrema penuria económica, pérdida de apoyo internacional y presiones en aumento de parte de los Estados Unidos y la oposición anticastrista fuera de Cuba. No obstante las circunstancias internacionales adversas que debió enfrentar Cuba tras la caída de la Unión Soviética -su principal fuente de apoyo económico- el gobierno revolucionario logró mantenerse en e! poder. Los autores analizan las condici...

  5. Una literatura sin residencia fija. Insularidad, historia y dinámica sociocultural en la Cuba del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette, Ottmar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available From its very beginnings, Cuban literature has been a literature with no fixed abode: written between Cuba and Mexico (Jose María Heredia, Cuba and Spain (Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, Cuba and the U.S. (Cirilo Villaverde, or between Cuba, Europe and the Americas (Jose Martí, but to mention the outstanding figures in Cuba's 19th Century. This article tries to unfold and develop the consequences of this new perspective by insisting on the specific «frictional» character of Cuban literature and culture today.

    Desde sus inicios, la literatura cubana se ha constituido como literatura sin residencia fija: entre Cuba y México (José María Heredia, entre Cuba y España (Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, entre Cuba y Estados Unidos (Cirilo Villaverde o entre Cuba, Europa y las Américas (Jose Martí, para solo mencionar las grandes figuras del siglo XIX. Partiendo de este análisis, el presente artículo trata de sacar las consecuencias de este hecho desarrollando una nueva visión de la cultura y de las letras cubanas insistiendo, además, en su carácter especificamente «friccional».

  6. Aspecto de interés sobre la ciguatera en Cuba (Aspects of interest on the ciguatera in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arencibia Carballo, Gustavo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos pescadores caribeños alardean de poder descubrir cuando un pez esciguato (contaminado con las toxinas del ciguatera usando métodospropios, como llevar a cabo bioensayos como dar un pedazo del pez a ungato, verificando si las escamas se le caen a un peces recién capturado o sisus ojos son voluminosos o con poco brillo y que los pescadores creenvehementemente son pruebas apropiadas. Los archivos epidemiológicosen la muestra de Cuba recogen dos brotes de ciguatera por consumo depeces en la misma región del país asociada con la ingestión de este especie de pez, entonces mal identificado de Caranx fallax. Hay una necesidad urgente de identificar técnicas económicas para detectar diferentes complejos de toxinas del Ciguatera incluida palytoxinas y toxinas de diarreicas en el pez contaminado.SummaryCaribbean fishermen boast of being able to detect when a fish is “ciguato” (contaminated with ciguatera toxins by using folk methods, such as carrying out their own “bioassay” by feeding a piece of the fish to a cat,checking if the scales fall off a freshly caught fish, or if its eyes are bulky, that they vehemently claim to be appropriate tests. Epidemiological records in Cuba show there were in the past two Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP outbreaks in the same region of the country associated with the ingestion of the same kind of fish, then misidentified as Caranx fallax.There is an urgent need for economic techniques to detect different toxins of the CFP complex (which includes palytoxins and DSP toxins in the sameblack box in contaminated fish.

  7. Edad de ocurrencia de los fallecimientos por diabetes en Cuba Age of occurrence of deaths from diabetes in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez Alonso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el incremento de la tasa bruta de mortalidad en Cuba durante los últimos años, unido al acelerado proceso de envejecimiento poblacional, nos encauzó en el presente estudio. Objetivo: identificar diferencias en la edad de ocurrencia de las defunciones por diabetes en Cuba del año 1990 a 2010. Métodos: se incluyeron todas las defunciones por diabetes ocurridas en el país durante los años 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 y 2010. A partir de estas se calcularon: las tasas de años de vida potencial perdidos por mortalidad por 1 000, los años de vida potencial perdidos por cada defunción, la media de la edad de los fallecidos, los cuartiles de la distribución de la edad de la muerte, y el porcentaje del total de fallecidos por diabetes por grupos quinquenales de edad. Resultados: la tasa de años de vida potencial perdidos se elevó en el sexo masculino de 2,44 a 2,63 por 1 000, mientras que en las mujeres tuvo un comportamiento discretamente descendente (de 4,54 a 4,46 por 1 000. Los años de vida potencial perdidos por cada defunción disminuyeron en ambos sexos (de 15,98 a 14,83 en hombres, y de 16,31 a 15,27 en mujeres. Esto último se relaciona directamente con el incremento de la media de la edad de los fallecidos, de 67,51 y 69,31 en 1990, a 70,24 y 72,33 en 2010 en hombres y mujeres respectivamente, así como con que los tres cuartiles se correspondieron con una mayor edad en los años 2005 y 2010, en relación con 1990 en ambos sexos. El porcentaje del total de defunciones perteneciente al grupo de 85 años y más fue de 9,9 y 16,2 % en 1990 y 2010 respectivamente. Las defunciones en las mujeres ocurrieron más tardíamente, a pesar de mostrar mayores tasas de años de vida potencial perdidos. Conclusiones: la mortalidad por diabetes en Cuba durante los últimos años se ha desplazado a los grupos de edades más avanzadas.Introduction: the increase of the gross mortality rate in Cuba in the last few years, together with the

  8. Variation of palaeostress patterns along the Oriente transform wrench corridor, Cuba: significance for Neogene Quaternary tectonics of the Caribbean realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Neubauer, F.; Handler, R.; Garcia-Delgado, D. E.; Friedl, G.; Delgado-Damas, R.

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we address the late Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of the North Caribbean (Oriente) Transform Wrench Corridor in the southern Sierra Maestra mountain range, SE Cuba. The region has been affected by historical earthquakes and shows many features of brittle deformation in late Miocene to Pleistocene reef and other shallow water deposits as well as in pre-Neogene, late Cretaceous to Eocene basement rocks. These late Miocene to Quaternary rocks are faulted, fractured, and contain calcite- and karst-filled extension gashes. Type and orientation of the principal normal palaeostress vary along strike in accordance with observations of large-scale submarine structures at the south-eastern Cuban margin. Initial N-S extension is correlated with a transtensional regime associated with the fault, later reactivated by sinistral and/or dextral shear, mainly along E-W-oriented strike-slip faults. Sinistral shear predominated and recorded similar kinematics as historical earthquakes in the Santiago region. We correlate palaeostress changes with the kinematic evolution along the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Three different tectonic regimes were distinguished for the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC): compression from late Eocene-Oligocene, transtension from late Oligocene to Miocene (?) (D 1), and transpression from Pliocene to Present (D 2-D 4), when this fault became a transform system. Furthermore, present-day structures vary along strike of the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC) on the south-eastern Cuban coast, with dominantly transpressional/compressional and strike-slip structures in the east and transtension in the west. The focal mechanisms of historical earthquakes are in agreement with the dominant ENE-WSW transpressional structures found on land.

  9. Corrupción, burocracia colonial y veteranos separatistas en Cuba, 1868-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz, Alfonso W.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative corruption in Cuba during the nineteenth century was a serious problem addressed both by Spanish authorities and the critics of the colonial system in Cuba. In the long run the fiscal, financial, institutional, and ideological costs of corruption undermined Spanish colonial control in Cuba. While the state and Cuban taxpayers had to pay for the increased costs of corruption, corrupt public officials and private contractors and financiers benefited. This study uses both archival manuscript administrative sources and published sources to assess the impact of corruption and its institutional bases during the final phase of Spanish colonialism in Cuba and the early period of post-colonial transition.

    La corrupción administrativa en Cuba durante el siglo XIX constituyó un problema reconocido como muy grave tanto por las autoridades españolas como por los críticos del sistema colonial cubano. Los costos fiscales, institucionales, e ideológicos de la corrupción contribuían a la erosión del dominio español en Cuba. A causa de la corrupción el Estado percibía menos ingresos y los contribuyentes cubanos se veían forzados a llevar a cuestas una creciente deuda pública. Los funcionarios corruptos y los contratistas y financistas privilegiados por el rígido sistema colonial, por el contrario, percibían los beneficios informales a que se creían acreedores por defender el dominio territorial español en Cuba. Utilizando fuentes administrativas manuscritas de archivos cubanos y españoles, así como fuentes públicas impresas, este trabajo evalúa el impacto de la corrupción y sus particulares bases institucionales en la fase final del colonialismo español en la isla y la transición post-colonial temprana.

  10. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Kusmierz, Ralf; Voigt, Kristina

    2013-08-15

    The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations.

  11. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  12. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  13. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  14. Fundadores de la Primera Escuela de Veterinaria de Cuba: Síntesis Biográfica (Founders of the First School of Veterinary Science in Cuba: Biographical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Prado, Enrique A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl 10 de abril de 1907 se fundó en La Habana la Escuela Libre de Veterinaria, primera institución para la enseñanza formal de la veterinaria en Cuba, gracias al esfuerzo personal de varios veterinarios graduados en universidades extranjeras, uno de ellos natural de España. En el presente trabajo se presenta un esbozo biográfico de los fundadores, los que además de ser protagonistas de este hecho histórico para la veterinaria cubana que recientemente cumplió su centenario, se convirtieron posteriormente en relevantes figuras de la profesión en Cuba y gozaron del merecido prestigio y reconocimiento. AbstractOn April 10, 1907 was founded in Havana the School of Veterinary Science, first institution for the formal teaching of the veterinary science in Cuba, thanks to the personal effort of several veterinarians graduated in foreign universities, one of them born in Spain. In this work is presented a biographical sketch of the founders who besides being main characters of this historical fact for the Cuban veterinary science that recently completed its centennial, they became outstanding figures of the profession later on in Cuba and they enjoyed the deserved prestige and recognition.

  15. 掺砂红土的力学特性及掺砂机理研究%Research on mechanical properties and sand-doped mechanism of the laterite improved with sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石崇喜; 黄英; 杨玉婷; 冯欢; 伯桐震

    2011-01-01

    Based on the comparison study of the tests such as Atterberg limits tests, compaction tests, unconfined compression tests, direct shear tests and SEM tests on the mixtures of laterite and sand with different mixing ratios, the influences of different sand-doped ratios to the water features, compaction behaviors, strength properties and micro-structural characteristics of laterite are analyzed. The testing results indicate that after the sand with different mixing ratios is added to laterite, the liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index and optimum moisture content of the laterite are decreased significantly, and the maximum dry density, unconfined compression strength and shear strength of the laterite are increased. With the increase in the proportion of the mixed sand, the liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index and optimum moisture content of the laterite are reducing gradually, and the maximum dry density, unconfined compressive strength and shear strength of the laterite are growing gradually, but there is a reasonable sand-doped ratio for the increase of strength. Based on the digital photos and micro-structure images, the sand-doped mechanism of laterite could be explained from the five aspects such as the aggregation, filling, friction, join-losing and water-reducing, and the variation of the mechanical properties for the laterite mixed with sand is the result of the combination of the five aspects.%通过对不同掺砂比例的红土进行液塑限、击实、无侧限抗压强度、直剪和扫描电镜等试验的对比研究,明确了不同掺砂比例对红土的含水性、击实性、强度等力学特性以及微结构特征的影响.试验结果表明:红土掺砂后,可以显著降低红土的液塑限、塑性指数和最优含水率,提高最大干密度、无侧限抗压强度和抗剪强度.随着掺砂比例的增加,掺砂红土的液塑限、塑性指数和最优含水率逐渐降低,最大干密度、无侧限抗压强度和

  16. GROPING OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENGINEERING INDICES AND DAMAGED SUBSTANCES OF LATERITE ERODED BY ALKALI%碱侵蚀红土的工程指标与受损物质的关系探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华舒; 王毅; 符必昌; 杨宇璐

    2014-01-01

    常用加固材料中的碱性物质与红土中的酸性或两性氧化物发生互损侵蚀。基于材料的化学分析和加速寿命试验原理,设计红土的碱侵蚀试验。检测红土被侵蚀前后渗透液中有效离子含量的变化,以代表红土中相关物质的受损情况;对比试验红土被侵蚀前后主要的工程指标,以代表红土的工程品质劣化情况;分析并建立两者之间的关系。采用多元逐步回归分析法,量化研究碱侵蚀红土中,各项工程指标与受损化学物质之间的相关性;并依据建立的关系式,进一步探讨有效离子对红土工程性质的影响。结果表明:在碱侵蚀红土中,主要工程指标的变化均与化学物质的受损存在着显著的量化关系。分晰碱性物质对红土的侵蚀劣化机制,并可据此分析红土工程的劣化速度与趋势。%Mutually demolishing and eroding occur between the alkaline reinforcement material and the acidic laterite. The alkali erosion tests were designed for laterite based on the chemical analysis of the materials and the principle of life acceleration. The content changes of the effective ions representing the losses of crucial substances in laterite were detected from the leachate from the eroded laterite of the control experiments. Main engineering indices were tested on virgin and eroded laterite to obtain the degradation of the engineering qualities of laterite. The relationships between the ion contents and the engineering indices were established and analysed. The relationships between the engineering indices and the losses of chemical substances were studied using the stepped regression analysis of multiple variables. The effect of effective ions on engineering quality was thoroughly discussed with the relationships derived. Significant quantitative correlations exist between the changes of main engineering indices and the losses of chemical substances in laterite eroded by alkali

  17. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP ...

  18. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  19. Antenatal testing for cystic fibrosis in Cuba, 1988-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Teresa; López, Ixchel; Clark, Yulia; Piloto, Yaixa; González, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; García, Marileivis; Reyes, Lidice; Rodríguez, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with wide variability in clinical severity. It is incurable and characterized by elevated and premature mortality, as well as poor quality of life. Its frequency, lethality and devastating impact on both the physical and psychological wellbeing of patients and their families, make it a serious health problem. Its frequency in Cuba is 1 in 9862 live births, where marked molecular heterogeneity of the CFTR gene makes molecular diagnosis difficult. Six mutations have been identified that together enable molecular characterization of only 55.5% of cystic fibrosis chromosomes. This paper presents national results of antenatal diagnostic testing, using direct and indirect methods, for detection of cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVE Characterize the Cuban public health system's experience with antenatal molecular testing for cystic fibrosis from 1988 through 2011. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted with results of antenatal diagnostic testing of amniotic fluid, performed nationwide from 1988 through 2011, for 108 fetuses of couples with some risk of having children affected by cystic fibrosis, who requested testing. Polymerase chain reaction detected mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A, and markers XV2C and KM19. Data were analyzed using absolute frequencies and percentages, and presented in tables. RESULTS For 93 cases (86.1%), testing for cystic fibrosis was done using direct analysis of mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A; five cases (4.6%) were tested indirectly using markers XV2C/Taq I and KM19/Pst I; and 10 (9.3%) were tested using a combination of the two methods. A total of 72 diagnoses (66.7% of studies done) were concluded, of which there were 20 healthy fetuses, 16 affected, 27 carrier, and 9 who were either healthy or carriers of an unknown mutation. CONCLUSIONS Direct or indirect molecular study was

  20. Microorganismos indicadores de la calidad del agua potable en cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los agentes patógenos transmitidos por el agua constituyen un problema mundial que demanda un urgente control. Las bacterias, virus y parásitos causan enfermedades que varían en severidad. La determinación de microorganismos en el agua de consumo y su concentración proporcionan herramientas de control, indispensables para la toma de decisiones. Los controles rutinarios de todos los microorganismos, potencialmente riesgosos para la salud, resultan difíciles de llevar a cabo, debido a que ello representa, varios días de análisis y costos elevados. Para hacer una evaluación sencilla, económica y fiable de la presencia de patógenos, la vigilancia de la calidad del agua se efectúa mediante indicadores de contaminación, aplicando diferentes enfoques técnicos, cada uno con sus cualidades, defectos y limitaciones. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar el enfoque actual existente a nivel nacional e internacional, en relación con los indicadores microbiológicos empleados para la evaluación del agua potable, como elementos clave, y a partir de estos, proponer un esquema de monitoreo en Cuba. Los resultados reflejaron, la alternativa de considerar, la aplicación de un esquema para monitoreo complementario en Cuba, que incluya como indicadores de contaminación del agua potable además de las bacterias, algunos agentes biológicos no considerados en la norma, como los virus y los parásitos. Asimismo indicaron la necesidad de establecer un valor de referencia y definir los microorganismos a emplear en los monitoreos de validación, operativo o verificación. Esta propuesta aportaría importante información para la actualización de la norma cubana sobre la base del conocimiento de los estándares internacionales más reconocidos.

  1. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit...

  2. 31 CFR 515.560 - Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction. 515.560 Section 515.560 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 515.560 Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S... guidelines with respect to Cuba or engaged in by U.S.-owned or -controlled foreign firms (general and...

  3. Roasting and Consolidation Mechanism of Nickeliferous LateriteOre Pellets%硅镁型红土镍矿球团焙烧固结机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘成; 白晨光; 吕学伟; 胡途; 黄小波

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the roasting and consolidation mechanism of nickeliferous laterite ore, the chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis were firstly carried out. The main mineral phases of nickeliferous laterite ore were Fe2O3, ( Mg, Al)3 ( Si, Fe)2O5(OH)4, besides, it contained few Mg3Si2O5(OH)4, and Ca3Al6Si9O30.15H2O. The free water, the crystal water and hydroxyl could be removed at 95, 293 and 612 X, respectively, according to thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. Meanwhile, Factsage software was used to calculate the theory temperature for generating liquid phase. Nickeliferous laterite ore began to generate liquid phase at 1220 ℃. The roasting experiments of laterite pellets were carried out in box-type high-temperature resistance furnace. The effects of roasting temperature and roasting time on the quality of roasted pellets were studied, the results showed that the compres-sive and shatter strength increased with the increase of roasting temperature and time, and the consolidation mechanism was different at different temperature, which resulted in that, when the temperature was less than 1200℃, the compressive strength and shatter strength was low; when the temperature was 1300 ℃ , the compressive strength and shatter strength greatly increased. When roasting temperature was constant, the compressive and shatter strength increased with the increase of roasting time, but the increase rate was smaller.%针对红土镍矿在焙烧过程中物相转变及固结机制问题,对原矿进行了化学成分、X射线衍射(XRD)分析,得知红土镍矿主要以Fe2O3和单斜形蛇纹石矿物为主,另外含有部分十字沸石和利蛇纹石;通过热重(TG)、差热(DTA)测试,得到了在焙烧过程中,自然水、结晶水及羟基分别在195,293和612℃被脱除,在830℃时,部分硅酸盐发生物相转变;并用Factsage软件对红土矿在加热过程中液相的产生量进行了理论计算,当焙烧温度为1220

  4. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeneida Teixeira Pinto

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%. The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva. The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50 of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  5. En el reino de la ambivalencia. La Cuba de Alejandro de Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lubrich

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in Spanish, Abstracts in English and German.In the Realm of Ambivalence.The Question of Cuba in Alexander von Humboldt’s American TravelogueCuba has a special role in Alexander von Humboldt’s American travel narrative: Humboldt’s experience of colonial slave economy drives his optimistic philosophy, inspired by European Enlightenment, into a crisis, and brings to surface the inherent contradictions of his discourse. This phenomenon is particularly interesting from the perspective of literary criticism: Alexander von Humboldt conceives Cuba as a poetic space, where contradictions and ambivalences coexist. Already on the boat to the island from Venezuela he creates destablizing effects of sensual perceptions. He stages his landing in Havana as a moment of oppositional impressions. Within the symbolic topography of his geographic fantasy, Cuba functions as an imaginary in-between space. And Humboldt’s philosophical and aesthetic terminology undergoes a semantic recoding in Cuba: what was once used in a philosophical and aesthetic sense, now has become charged with an economic and political meaning.

  6. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  7. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  8. Current range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Part II: Winter range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.; Holzman, S.; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo E.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of wintering areas for Neotropical migrants is well established. The wintering range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) is described in detail and presented in maps. The paper also discusses extralimital records from islands in the Caribbean Basin as well as scattered wintering individuals outside the winter range. The possibility of eastern birds wintering on the Yucatan Peninsula and adjacent Central America is considered. An extensive treatment of the protected areas of Peninsular Florida, the northern Bahamas, and Cuba describes the importance of upland habitats within these protected areas for wintering buntings. This information should be useful to land management agencies, conservation organizations, and private landholders for the welfare of the bunting and biodiversity in general and may also be of interest to ornithologists, other biological disciplines, naturalists, and birders.

  9. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil.

  10. Una literatura sin residencia fija. Insularidad, historia y dinámica sociocultural en la Cuba del siglo XX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ette, Ottmar

    2005-01-01

    ...» character of Cuban literature and culture today. Desde sus inicios, la literatura cubana se ha constituido como literatura sin residencia fija: entre Cuba y México (José María Heredia), entre Cuba y España (Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda...

  11. A PARTIAL-EQUILIBRIUM SIMULATION OF INCREASING THE U.S. TARIFF-RATE SUGAR QUOTA FOR CUBA AND MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Petrolia, Daniel R.; Kennedy, P. Lynn

    2002-01-01

    A model consisting of Cuba, Mexico, the U.S., and an aggregated "Rest of the World" was developed to simulate increases in U.S. sugar imports from Cuba and Mexico. Results indicate that increased imports would generate up to $505 million in U.S. net gains, and that world prices increase only minimally.

  12. Conferencia caracterización y normalización de materiales de construcción cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Proaño Cadena, Gaston Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    II JORNADAS IBEROAMERICANAS SOBRE “CARACTERIZACIÒN Y NORMALIZACIÓN DE MATERIALES DE CONSTRUCCIÓN” Ciudad de la Habana – Cuba (2002) II JORNADAS IBEROAMERICANAS SOBRE “CARACTERIZACIÒN Y NORMALIZACIÓN DE MATERIALES DE CONSTRUCCIÓN” Ciudad de la Habana – Cuba (2002)

  13. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Almaguer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 – October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. [i]Cladosporium[/i] cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by [i]Leptosphaeria, Coprinus[/i] and the [i]Aspergillus-Penicillium [/i]type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 – 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores and the lowest in December (7,314 spores. Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores.

  14. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Almaguer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 – October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. Cladosporium cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by Leptosphaeria, Coprinus and the Aspergillus-Penicillium type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 – 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores and the lowest in December (7,314 spores. Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores.

  15. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F Javier; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Maria; Rojas-Flores, Teresa I

    2015-01-01

    The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 - October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores) and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. Cladosporium cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by Leptosphaeria, Coprinus and the Aspergillus-Penicillium type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 - 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores) and the lowest in December (7,314 spores). Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores) was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores).

  16. Cuba. La fecundidad, el PIB y el salario medio real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Albizu-Campos Espiñeira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La reducción de la fecundidad en Cuba, de naturaleza secular y acelerada, y la consecuente contracción de la capacidad multiplicativa de la población, se han convertido hoy en un objeto de atención de los diferentes actores sociales y de política, incluyendo sin duda a los propios demógrafos cubanos, que habían estado advirtiendo sobre ello desde hace ya más de tres décadas. Lo que más resalta del proceso de transición de la fecundidad en el país es, sin duda, lo abrupto de su inicio, la velocidad con que transcurrió, así como la ausencia de desarrollo económico que la acompañó. De ahí que el debate hoy se centre en la instrumentalidad de los diferentes determinantes que condujeron esa transición, y sobre todo, en el papel que jugaron los factores económicos en las diversas etapas, sobre todo en aquellas coyunturas en las que la población debió realizar las actividades de su vida en condiciones de acentuada vulnerabilidad debido a las crisis. Así, de lo que se trata es de aportar elementos que contribuyan a completar el conocimiento sobre el estado de la relación fecundidad-desarrollo en el contexto actual.

  17. Communicative intercultural competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Hernández Díaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of the investigation “Developing Communicative Intercultural Competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba through English”, a master´s degree thesis whose aim was to design a postgraduate course of English for Specific Purposes which would focus on the development of the communicative competence of doctors going to health missions in English-speaking countries or where English is spoken as a lingua franca.This course is based on Developmental Pedagogy, the Communicative Approach and Task-Based Learning. It emphasizes cultural and important intercultural issues to be kept in mind during doctor-patient interviews, doctor-doctor relationships and doctor-family exchanges in a professional context so as to make it possible to establish cultural differences and similarities between the students´ culture and the foreign country´s culture.This is an exploratory investigation with a fundamentally quantitative focus using resources of the qualitative one. This design is a curricular document with all its didactic components, aimed at the development of intercultural communicative competence that responds to the current needs of the participants. 

  18. común manejada por campesinos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Miranda-Lorigados

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La variación genética de 27 accesiones locales de frijol común colectadas en la comunidad de El Tejar - La Jocuma, provincia Pinar del Río, Cuba, se evaluó utilizando marcadores moleculares RAPD (Polimorfismos de ADN Amplificados al Azar y caracteres morfológicos y agronómicos. En total se emplearon 15 cebadores RAPD que generaron 31 fragmentos polimórficos de ADN (un promedio de 2,03 fragmentos por cebador. Las distancias genéticas fueron calculadas utilizando el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen-Dice, y representadas mediante un dendograma (método UPGMA. Se evaluaron una serie de caracteres morfológicos y agronómicos con los que se realizaron análisis multivariados que generaron un clúster (distancias euclidianas y un análisis de componentes principales. El análisis generado a partir de los marcadores RAPD y de los caracteres morfo agronómicos, reveló que las accesiones estudiadas generaron dos grupos principales que corresponden presumiblemente a los acervos Mesoamericano y Andino, considerando las distancias genéticas entre grupos y las diferencias en determinados caracteres morfológicos y agronómicos

  19. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de Níquel (Ni en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas realizadas reflejanun contenido medio de 122,3 mg kg-1de Ni total, muysuperior al señalado por la literatura internacional y valoresextremos de hasta 2850,0 mg kg-1en suelos desarrolladossobre rocas ultrabásicas (serpentinita. Sin embargo, noexisten reportes de valores elevados (tóxicos del elementoen los cultivos. En el trabajo se discute el origen y formasen que se encuentra el Ni en los suelos cubanos; así comosu posible efecto tóxico para las plantas y animales que sealimentan de ellas. Finalmente, se concluyó planteando lanecesidad de establecer Límites Permisibles de Ni en elsuelo, diferenciados de acuerdo al tipo de suelo y su uso.

  20. Las publicaciones en Cuba tras las Independencias Hispanoamericanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José SÁNCHEZ BAENA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tiene una doble vertiente, por un lado dar a conocer las consecuencias que tuvo para la cultura impresa en Cuba el final del trienio liberal y del dominio español en la América continental, y por otro analizar cómo se muestran, a través de los contenidos de las publicaciones periódicas más importantes, los aspectos más destacados que inciden en la sociedad cubana. El extraordinario desarrollo económico y comercial, que tuvo como máximo exponente al grupo de la sacarocracia, hizo imparable la evolución de la imprenta y sus productos, pese a las fuertes medidas de control y censura impuestas ante el miedo al contagio independentista. Aparecieron entonces algunas publicaciones seriadas con cierto nivel en sus contenidos, como la Revista Bimestre Cubana, y comenzó lentamente la expansión de la imprenta por nuevas poblaciones de la Isla.