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Sample records for eastern cuba laterites

  1. Geological interpretation of Eastern Cuba Laterites from an airborne magnetic and radioactive isotope survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, J.A; Blanco, J [Departamento de Geologia, Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa, (Cuba); Perez-Flores, M.A [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    In eastern Cuba area several geophysical techniques have been applied to distinguish the main geological characteristics of the laterites which are of economical importance for the extraction of iron, nickel and chrome. The geophysical measurements include an aeromagnetic survey and thorium (eTh), potassium (K) and uranium (eU) isotope measurements. The results of gamma spectrometer measurements make a distinction between laterite reservoirs. The application of the magnetic and isotope methods allowed the determination of the distribution and development of the laterite crust, as well as the determination of hydrothermal alterations affecting the laterites, which is very useful for mining exploration and exploitation. Such alterations indicate the presence of silicates, which have negative effects on the metallurgic process. It is known that laterite crust has a high content of eU and eTh. [Spanish] Se han utilizado varias tecnicas geofisicas en la region oriental de Cuba para distinguir las principales caracteristicas geologicas de las lateritas, que poseen importancia economica para la extraccion de hierro, niquel y cobalto. Las mediciones geofisicas incluyen un estudio aeromagnetico y mediciones de isotopos de torio (eTh), potasio (K) y uranio (eU). Los resultados de las mediciones espectrometricas establecen diferencias entre los yacimientos de lateritas. De la aplicacion del metodo magnetico e isotopico se determino la distribucion y desarrollo de las cortezas lateriticas, asi como la ubicacion de alteraciones hidrotermales que afectan a las lateritas, lo cual es muy util durante la exploracion y explotacion minera. Esas alteraciones indican la presencia de silicatos, que tienen un efecto negativo en el proceso metalurgico. Se conoce que las cortezas lateriticas tienen altos contenidos de eU y eTh. De los contenidos de eU y eTh se infiere que las lateritas de la region de Moa se formaron antes que las de Mayari. De estas mediciones fue posible inferir el

  2. Critical metals (REE, Sc, PGE) in Ni laterites from Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aiglsperger, T.; Proenza, J. A.; Lewis, J. F.; Labrador, M.; Svojtka, Martin; Rojas-Purón, A.; Longo, F.; Ďurišová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, March 01 (2016), s. 127-147 ISSN 0169-1368 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Caribbean * Cuba * Dominican Republic * Falcondo mining area * Moa Bay mining area * Ni laterite * Platinum Group Elements * Rare Earth Elements * Scandium Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.095, year: 2016

  3. Chemical-mineralogical study of the ferrosialitic lateritic profiles in the Teneme, Farallones and Cayo Guam sectors in north east Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njila, Tendai; Diaz Martinez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The results of a chemical-mineralogical study on the ferrosialitic lateritic weathering profile are presented. Analysis was done using x Ray Fluorescence and Diffraction. The chemical composition of these profile reflects a typical pattern normally observed within such weathering crusts. The sesquioxides of aluminium, iron are concentrated in the upper parts of the profiles as a result of the leaching of alkalis, alkaline-earth elements, and to a lesser extent, silica. Ferrosialitic lateritic profiles formed on Cretaceous and Paleogene islands arcs consist of secondary minerals such as gibbsite, kaolinite, goethite, hematite and montmorillonite, while those associated with basic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of ophiolitic affinity in Cayo Guam are composed of gibbsite and iron oxides. Brings new chemical-mineralogical information on the ferrosialitic lateritic profiles associated with rocks of oceanic nature in north-eastern Cuba, which will help in the exploration for industrial minerals and rocks and their application in industry. (author) [es

  4. laterite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the Deccan region of western India ferricrete duricrusts, usually described as laterites, cap some basalt summits east of the Western Ghats escarpment, basalts of the low-lying Konkan. Plain to its west, as well as some sizeable isolated basalt plateaus rising from the Plain. The duricrusts are iron-cemented saprolite with ...

  5. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  6. Reactive transport model of the formation of oxide-type Ni-laterite profiles (Punta Gorda, Moa Bay, Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Cristina; Galí, Salvador; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Soler, Josep M.; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-10-01

    Oxide-type Ni-laterite deposits are characterized by a dominant limonite zone with goethite as the economically most important Ni ore mineral and a thin zone of hydrous Mg silicate-rich saprolite beneath the magnesium discontinuity. Fe, less soluble, is mainly retained forming goethite, while Ni is redeposited at greater depth in a Fe(III) and Ni-rich serpentine (serpentine II) or in goethite, where it adsorbs or substitutes for Fe in the mineral structure. Here, a 1D reactive transport model, using CrunchFlow, of Punta Gorda oxide-type Ni-laterite deposit (Moa Bay, Cuba) formation is presented. The model reproduces the formation of the different laterite horizons in the profile from an initial, partially serpentinized peridotite, in 106 years, validating the conceptual model of the formation of this kind of deposits in which a narrow saprolite horizon rich in Ni-bearing serpentine is formed above peridotite parent rock and a thick limonite horizon is formed over saprolite. Results also confirm that sorption of Ni onto goethite can explain the weight percent of Ni found in the Moa goethite. Sensitivity analyses accounting for the effect of key parameters (composition, dissolution rate, carbonate concentration, quartz precipitation) on the model results are also presented. It is found that aqueous carbonate concentration and quartz precipitation significantly affects the laterization process rate, while the effect of the composition of secondary serpentine or of mineral dissolution rates is minor. The results of this reactive transport modeling have proven useful to validate the conceptual models derived from field observations.

  7. The contribution of lateritization processes to the formation of the kaolin deposits from eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Sousa, Daniel José Lima; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    The eastern region of the Amazon is home to the most important kaolin bauxite producing district in Brazil, referred to as the Paragominas-Capim kaolin bauxite district, which has a reserve of at least 1.0 billion tons of high-quality kaolin used in the paper coating industry. The kaolin deposits are closely related to sedimentary rocks of the Parnaíba basin and their lateritic cover. Two large deposits are already being mined: IRCC (Ipixuna) and PPSA (Paragominas). The geology of the IRCC mine is comprised of the kaolin-bearing lower unit (truncated mature laterite succession derived from the Ipixuna/Itapecuru formation) and the upper unit (immature lateritized Barreiras formation). The lower kaolin unit is characterized by a sandy facies at the bottom and a soft (ore) with flint facies at the top. It is formed by kaolinite, quartz, some iron oxi-hydroxides, mica and several accessories and heavy minerals. The mangrove covering; and immature lateritization - partial kaolin ferruginization during the Pleistocene.

  8. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    problems are attributable to the overly centralized economy, poor management, and, excessive military spending. Cuba maintains close ties with the USSR, Eastern European countries, North Korea, and Vietnam. Cuba's interventionist activities in Latin America led to the imposition by the Organization of American State of economic sanctions against Cuba between 1964-75. Since 1961, the relationship between the US and Cuba is one of hostility. These hostilities peaked in the 1961 Bay of Pigs episode and the 1962 missile crisis. Between 1975-77 efforts were made to improve relations but these were discontinued in response to Cuba's interventionist activities in Africa and Latin America.

  9. THE CUBA COMPANY AND EASTERN CUBA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, 1900-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Santamarina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This artide evaluates the Cuba Company’s impact on eastern Cuban economic development. It argues that the Cuba Company’s railroads, together with its development plans and strategies, helped stimulate the extraordinary economic growth of eastern Cuba between 1900 and 1959, especially in the production of sugar. Sugar was king in Cuba before 1900 but only inwestern Cuba; eastern Cuba produced only a minuscule fraction of total Cuban sugar production. Moreover, the Cuban Independence War of 1895-1898 had destroyed the industry. Due to the Cuba Company’s strategy, however, by the 1920s Cuba was once again the largest producer of sugar in the world and eastern Cuba represented over 50% of total Cuban sugarproduction.

  10. [Estimation of infant and child mortality in the eastern provinces of Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, G; Herrera, L

    1986-01-01

    An estimate of infant and child mortality in the eastern provinces of Cuba is presented using the Brass method as adapted by Trussell. "Estimations by urban and rural zones are also performed within the provinces studied, and results are compared with those possible to obtain by continuous statistics. Results obtained show that in the eastern [part] of the country Holguin and Guantanamo are the provinces with highest infantile mortality rates, and the lowest rates correspond to Granma, followed by Santiago de Cuba." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  11. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Cuba is a country of 110,860 sq.km with 10.8 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Independence was gained on May 20, 1902. The terrain consists of flat or gently rolling plains, hills, and mountains up to 2000 meters in the Southeast, with a climate which is tropical, yet moderated by trade winds. Spanish is spoken by the Spanish-African mixed population. Life expectancy ranges over 74-77 years. Gross social product is $21 billion, declining at a rate of -20%. Per capita income is $1500. The country's natural resources include nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, and timber. Sugar, fruits, tobacco, coffee, rice, beans, meat, vegetables, food processing, oil refining, cement, electric power, light consumer, and industrial products are areas of economic production. Capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum, and consumer goods are imported, and sugar and its by-products, petroleum, nickel, seafood, citrus, tobacco products and rum are exported. Indepth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  12. Heritage sites in the Eastern region of Cuba, new approaches for preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Bello-Caballero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Region of Cuba holds five properties inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List, which evidence the cultural heritage richness. Therefore, several studies in the national context contribute to analyze the different process related to heritage sites management. However, the studies that embrace current deficiencies on heritage analysis and monitoring are yet insufficient. New studies should contribute to the control and the adoption of conservation actions, by means of the study, visualization and updating of information related to negative factors that influences the loss of cultural values, considering the preventive conservation approach. This paper aims at presenting the joint ongoing research between the Universidad de Oriente and the KU Leuven, within the frame of the VLIR IUC Project, which final goal is to design a method for the spatial analysis and monitoring of heritage sites through a GIS based tool implementation, with a preventive conservation approach.

  13. stabilized lateritic soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    this work to optimize the amount of bagasse ash content in cement-stabilized lateritic soil. Geometric .... can handle or consider all the properties involved at the same time to ...... Bearig Ratio of Used oil contaminated Lateritic soils” Nigerian ...

  14. Masculinities studies in eastern Cuba: imaginaries significations. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Regina Quaresma da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we approached a study about masculinities imaginaries significations in eastern Cuba. Firstly, we rescued relevant moments of the masculinities studies in the country and some theoretical contributions to understand the social production of the masculinities. Besides, we show the qualitative results from the groups with men.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.

  15. The malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum in the endemic avifauna of eastern Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Letícia; Marra, Peter; Gray, Lindsey; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-12-01

    Island populations are vulnerable to introduced pathogens, as evidenced by extinction or population decline of several endemic Hawaiian birds caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium relictum (order Haemosporida). We analyzed blood samples from 363 birds caught near Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, for the presence of haemosporidian infections. We characterized parasite lineages by determining nucleotide variation of the parasite's mitochondrial cyt b gene. Fifty-nine individuals were infected, and we identified 7 lineages of haemosporidian parasites. Fifty individuals were infected by 6 Haemoproteus sp. lineages, including a newly characterized lineage of Haem. (Parahaemoproteus) sp. CUH01. Nine individuals carried the P. relictum lineage GRW4, including 5 endemic Cuban Grassquits (Tiaris canorus) and 1 migratory Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina). A sequence of the merozoite surface protein gene from one Cuban Grassquit infected with GRW4 matched that of the Hawaiian haplotype Pr9. Our results indicate that resident and migratory Cuban birds are infected with a malaria lineage that has severely affected populations of several endemic Hawaiian birds. We suggest GRW4 may be associated with the lack of several bird species on Cuba that are ubiquitous elsewhere in the West Indies. From the standpoint of avian conservation in the Caribbean Basin, it will be important to determine the distribution of haemosporidian parasites, especially P. relictum GRW4, in Cuba as well as the pathogenicity of this lineage in species that occur and are absent from Cuba. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Cryptic within cryptic: genetics, morphometrics, and bioacoustics delimitate a new species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from Eastern Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ariel; Dugo-Cota, Álvaro; Montero-Mendieta, Santiago; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Vences, Miguel; Vilà, Carles

    2017-01-20

    We studied the variation in genetics, bioacustics, and morphology in Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, a regionally endemic frog species restricted to high elevations in the Sierra Maestra Massif, Western Cuba that was originally described as a cryptic species hidden under the name E. auriculatus. Genetic analysis of mtDNA sequences of the 16S and cob genes identify two allopatric and strongly supported mitochondrial clades (phylogroups) which also showed no haplotype sharing in the nuclear Rag-1 gene. Bioacustic, and morphological comparisons concordantly identify these two phylogroups as independent evolutionary lineages. Therefore, we herein restrict the name Eleutherodactylus glamyrus Estrada and Hedges to populations represented in our analyses as the western phylogroup (Cordillera del Turquino to Pico La Bayamesa) and consider specimens from the eastern phylogroup (Sierra del Cobre) to represent a new species described and named as Eleutherodactylus cattus. Our results add to the growing list of Eleutherodactylus species endemic to Cuba and highlight the importance of combining different sources of evidence for obtaining robust assessments of species limits in amphibians.

  17. LINKING THE COMMUNITY IN THE MIGRATORY RAPTOR BIRDS COUNTS (BIRDS: FALCONIFORM IN EASTERN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylien Barreda-Leyva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Through interviews, workshops, conferences and sociocultural meeting, is carried out the linking of three communities from the high area of Gran Piedra to the studies and counts of migratory raptors birds developed in the east of Cuba. These small communities are near to one of the two points of count of migratory raptors of the region. During the interviews we could verify that some residents possessed basic knowledge on the raptors birds, but didn't know about the migration of these birds. 100 % of the interviewees coincided in that the main local problematic is the loss of birds of pen due to the attack of raptors, specifically the endemic Cuban threatened Accipitter gundlachi. The workshops were able to create spaces of exchange and reflection about the importance of the raptor’s conservation in the region. This linkage of cooperation and increasing awareness, allow an approaching between the communitarians and the researchers and volunteers that work in the counts of raptor birds in Cuba and the feedback of the scientific knowledge with the popular knowledge.

  18. Potential for cobalt recovery from lateritic ores in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, R.

    2012-04-01

    Cobalt is one of the 'critical metals' identified under the EU Raw Materials Initiative. Annually the global mine production of cobalt is around 55,000 tonnes,with Europe's industries consuming around 30% of that figure. Currently Europe produces around 27 tonnes of cobalt from mines in Finland although new capacity is planned. Co-bearing nickel laterite ores being mined in Greece, Macedonia and Kosovo where the cobalt is currently not being recovered (ores have typical analyses of 0.055% Co and >1% Ni,). These ores are currently treated directly in pyrometallurgical plants to recover the contained nickel and this process means there is no separate cobalt product produced. Hydrometallurgical treatment of mineralogically suitable laterite ores can recover the cobalt; for example Cuba recovers 3,500 tonnes of cobalt from its laterite mining operations, which are of a similar scale to the current European operations. Implementation of hydrometallurgical techniques is in its infancy in Europe with one deposit in Turkey planning to use atmospheric heap leaching to recover nickel and copper from oxide-dominated ores. More widespread implementation of these methods to mineralogically suitable ore types could unlock the highly significant undeveloped resources (with metal contents >0.04% Co and >1% Ni), which have been defined throughout the Balkans eastwards into Turkey. At a conservative estimate, this region has the potential to supply up to 30% of the EU cobalt requirements.

  19. Processing of low- grade nickel bearing laterites

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Ilic, Ilija

    1999-01-01

    A combination of current trends and developments may undermine the sulphides supremacy and might tip the balance in favour of laterites for new investigations or projects. A list of current laterite operations or laterites processing today is following: Ferronickel smelting, Matte smelting, Reduction roasting-ammonia leaching and High pressure sulphuric acid leaching.Apart from the above mentioned process routes, there have been many attempts to develop processes know as alternative processes...

  20. Geotechnical, mechanical and geological characterization of lateritic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rock sample powder and lateritic gravels mineralogy were determined using optical microscopy and X-rays diffraction on the total fractions and the fine ones. The overall chemical compositions of major elements of lateritic gravels were determined by the use of X-fluorescence and titrimetry. The results obtained show ...

  1. Calidad de las semillas de accesiones colectadas en las regiones occidental, oriental y central de Cuba (Nota técnica Seed quality of accessions collected in the western, eastern and central regions of Cuba (Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuaron dos misiones de colecta durante el 2007 (regiones occidental y oriental y el 2009 (región central en Cuba, que comprendió zonas puntuales de las provincias de Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Bayamo, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Río, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus y Villa Clara. Se colectaron semillas de 88 accesiones de leguminosas (52 arbóreas y 36 herbáceas. Posteriormente a todas se les realizó una prueba de germinación en placas de Petri con arena de río, previo corte de la cubierta, para conocer su calidad. El número de semillas utilizadas fue variable en cada accesión, en correspondencia con el tamaño de la muestra, y solo se empleó una réplica. Los conteos de germinación se realizaron según las normas internacionales. Se obtuvo una alta calidad en las semillas de las especies arbóreas y arbustivas (70-100%, lo cual no ocurrió en las caobas (Swietenia sp. de Granma (0 y 8% ni en Jatropha curcas colectada en Pinar del Río, Guantánamo (0% y Banao (8%, tampoco en Albizia lebbeck procedente de Guantánamo y en Guazuma ulmifolia (24% de Villa Clara. Para las leguminosas herbáceas la germinación varió entre 80 y 100%, excepto en Macroptilium atropurpureum (60% y en Teramnus (12% procedentes de Granma, en Neonotonia wightii (20% de Matanzas, en Calopogonium sp. (52% de Banao y en Glycine sp. (50% de Sancti Spíritus. Se concluye que la calidad de las semillas estuvo en dependencia del tiempo que estuvieron en el campo después de la maduración de las legumbres. Se recomienda la continuidad de la colecta en otras zonas del país, lo que permitirá una mayor diversidad en los sistemas de producción agropecuarios.Two collection missions were conducted during 2007 (western and eastern regions and 2009 (central region in Cuba, which comprised certain zones of the provinces Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Rio, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus and Villa Clara. Seeds from 88 accessions (52 tree

  2. Calidad de las accesiones colectadas en la región centro-oriental de Cuba (Nota técnica Quality of accessions collected in the central-eastern region of Cuba (Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Reino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una prospección en el 2005, en la región centro-oriental de Cuba, y se colectaron semillas de 43 accesiones (36 de leguminosas arbóreas y siete de herbáceas. Posteriormente se realizó una prueba de germinación para conocer la calidad de las semillas (con corte de cubierta, en placas de petri sobre arena de río. El número de semillas utilizadas en cada accesión fue diferente (según las colectadas y solo se empleó una réplica (sin diseño estadístico. Las semillas de mejor calidad correspondieron a las accesiones Bauhinia acuminata, Bauhinia purpurea (de Nuevitas y Vertientes, Cassia fistula, Albizia kalkora, Centrosema sp. y Centrosema brasilianum (100% de germinación, así como Calopogonium caeruleum (90% y Albizia lucida (91,6%. Siete accesiones no germinaron. La mayoría logró una alta sobrevivencia (en bolsas, aunque en especies como Bauhinia hookeli, B. acuminata, Albizia lebbeck, C. caeruleum, C. brasilianum, Desmodium sp. y Teramnus sp. fue baja y dos accesiones no sobrevivieron. El germoplasma de la EEPF «Indio Hatuey» se incrementó en 34 accesiones. Se demostró la importancia de conocer la calidad de las semillas y la relación entre este indicador y su deterioro, debido a la gran variabilidad que mostró el porcentaje de germinación en semillas colectadas en un mismo período de tiempo.A prospection was made in 2005, in the central-eastern region of Cuba and seeds from 43 accessions (36 tree legumes and seven herbaceous ones were collected. Afterwards, a germination test was conducted in order to learn the quality of the seeds (with seed coat cut, in Petri dishes on river sand. The number of seeds used in each accession was different (according to the collected ones and only one replication was used (without statistical design. The best-quality seeds corresponded to the accessions Bauhinia acuminata, Bauhinia purpurea (from Nuevitas and Vertientes, Cassia fistula, Albizia kalkora, Centrosema sp. and

  3. Silicate bonded ceramics of laterites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Douse, V.

    1989-05-01

    Sodium silicate is vacuum impregnated in bauxite waste (red mud) at room temperature to develop ceramics of mechanical properties comparable to the sintered ceramics. For a concentration up to 10% the fracture toughness increases from 0.12 MNm -3/2 to 0.9 MNm -3/2 , and the compressive strength from 7 MNm -2 to 30 MNm -2 . The mechanical properties do not deteriorate, when soaked in water for an entire week. The viscosity and the concentration of the silicate solution are crucial, both for the success of the fabrication and the economics of the process. Similar successful results have been obtained for bauxite and lime stone, even though the latter has poor weathering properties. With scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis, an attempt is made to identify the crystals formed in the composite, which are responsible for the strength. The process is an economic alternative to the sintered ceramics in the construction industry in the tropical countries, rich in lateritic soils and poor in energy. Also the process has all the potential for further development in arid regions abundant in limestone. (author). 6 refs, 20 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Thermoluminescence of laterites: applicability in dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The northward drift of the Indian subcontinent during the past geological periods brought it under the spell of humid tropical climate in post-mesozoic times which initiated chemical weathering processes (lateritization) of the ancient crustal rocks leading to neomineralization. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) of these 'later-formed minerals' has been used to date laterites from a number of localities in India. While the TL emission of most of the laterite samples was poor, three from Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states, each derived from mineralogically dissimilar parent rock, yielded measurable TL and provided dates in the range of 2 to 3.6 x 10 5 yr. It is suggested that TL dating can be a promising tool for such samples, and especially those with low alpha activity (U, Th at sub-ppm levels). (author)

  5. Thermoluminescence of laterites: applicability in dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaran, A V; Nambi, K S.V.; Sunta, C M

    1985-01-01

    The northward drift of the Indian subcontinent during the past geological periods brought it under the spell of humid tropical climate in post-mesozoic times which initiated chemical weathering processes (lateritization) of the ancient crustal rocks leading to neomineralization. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) of these 'later-formed minerals' has been used to date laterites from a number of localities in India. While the TL emission of most of the laterite samples was poor, three from Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states, each derived from mineralogically dissimilar parent rock, yielded measurable TL and provided dates in the range of 2 to 3.6 x 10/sup 5/ yr. It is suggested that TL dating can be a promising tool for such samples, and especially those with low alpha activity (U, Th at sub-ppm levels).

  6. Concurrent Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  7. The effect of laterite density on radon diffusion behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongmei; Tan, Wanyu; Tan, Kaixuan; Liu, Zehua; Fang, Qi; Lv, Junwen; Duan, Xianzhe; Liu, Zhenzhong; Guo, Yueyue

    2018-02-01

    Radon generated in porous media such as soils and rocks migrates into indoor and outdoor air mainly by diffusion, possessing significant hazards to human health. In order to reduce these hazards of radon, it is of great importance to study the diffusion behavior of radon. In this study, we systematically measured the radon diffusion coefficient of laterite with the density ranging from 0.917gcm -3 to 2.238gcm -3 , and studied the effect of laterite density on the radon diffusion. The results show that the radon diffusion coefficient of the laterite generally decreases with the increasing laterite density. In addition, three possible relationships between the radon diffusion coefficient and the laterite density are found out as follows: (1) the linear correlation with a slope of -4.48 × 10 -6 for laterite with density ranging from 0.917 to 1.095gcm -3 , (2) the exponential correlation for laterite with density from 1.095 to 1.63gcm -3 , (3) linear correlation with a slope of -3.1 × 10 -7 for laterite with density from 1.63 to 2.238gcm -3 . The complex relationship between the radon diffusion coefficient and density is caused by the change of porosity and tortuosity of the laterite. Therefore, we suggest that a suitable density should be adopted while using the laterite to effectively cover uranium tailings or economically produce building materials that can curb the radon exhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mathematical models to predict rheological parameters of lateritic hydromixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Hernández-Ramírez; Arístides A. Legrá-Lobaina; Beatriz Ramírez-Serrano; Liudmila Pérez-García

    2017-01-01

    The present work had as objective to establish mathematical models that allow the prognosis of the rheological parameters of the lateritic pulp at concentrations of solids from 35% to 48%, temperature of the preheated hydromixture superior to 82 ° C and number of mineral between 3 and 16. Four samples of lateritic pulp were used in the study at different process locations. The results allowed defining that the plastic properties of the lateritic pulp in the conditions of this study conform to...

  9. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects

  10. Stabilization of Ikpayongo laterite with cement and calcium carbide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laterite obtained from Ikpayongo was stabilized with 2-10 % cement and 2-10 % Calcium Carbide waste, for use as pavement material. Atterberg's limits test, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted on the natural laterite and the treated soil specimens. The plasticity ...

  11. Degradação das paisagens de solos lateríticos e uso da terra no distrito de Birbhum, Bengala Ocidental, Índia / Degraded lateritic soils cape and land uses in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Jha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of lateritic environment as found in the south western and eastern Birbhum district can be considered as irresistible. Inherently poor physical and chemical status of existing lateritic soil profileand radical conversion of land uses as observed at cadastral level are the key factors of land degradation.Lateritic soilscapes are mostly affected by water erosion induced, vegetal and anthropogenic degradation attaining severe and very severe degradation status. Degraded lands in sample mouzas like Ballabhpur, Shyambati, Chawpahari Jungle, Bodakuri and Pachami account for 60.33%, 71.42%, 72.99%, 87.31% and 79.66% respectively out of their total lateritic exposures. In other words about 36.98%, 71.42%, 61.73%, 56.70% and 76.02% out of their total village areas and mostly non agricultural land use areaffected by it. Four degraded villages get the higher priority for friendly landscape conservation actions.

  12. chemical and mineralogical characterization of lateritic iron ore

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2010-04-22

    Apr 22, 2010 ... The laterite iron ore deposit at Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria was studied chemically and mineralogically. The results of the chemical ... SAMPLE PREPARATION. The samples .... 2µm) and were subjected to X-ray diffraction using.

  13. geometric models for lateritic soil stabilized with cement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    stabilized lateritic soil and also to develop geometric models. The compaction, California .... on how effective limited field data are put to use in decision-making. ..... silicates was described as the most important phase of cement and the ...

  14. stabilization of ikpayongo laterite with cement and calcium carbide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Laterite obtained from Ikpayongo was stabilized with 2-10 % cement and 2-10 % Calcium Carbide waste, for use .... or open dumping which have effect on surface and ... Table 1: Chemical Composition of Calcium Carbide Waste and Cement.

  15. Performance of Cement Containing Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bukhari, Z. S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of different industrial waste, by-products or other materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, fly ash, limestone, and kiln dust, etc. as supplemen- tary cementing materials has received considerable attention in recent years. A study has been conducted to look into the performance of laterite as Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM. The study focuses on compressive strength performance of blended cement containing different percentage of laterite. The cement is replaced accordingly with percentage of 2 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % by weight. In addition, the effect of use of three chemically different laterites have been studied on physical performance of cement as in setting time, Le-Chatlier expansion, loss on ignition, insoluble residue, free lime and specifically compressive strength of cement cubes tested at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The results show that the strength of cement blended with laterite as SCM is enhanced. Key words: Portland cement, supplementary cementing materials (SCM, laterite, compressive strength KUI – 6/2013 Received January 4, 2012 Accepted February 11, 2013

  16. Mathematical models to predict rheological parameters of lateritic hydromixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hernández-Ramírez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to establish mathematical models that allow the prognosis of the rheological parameters of the lateritic pulp at concentrations of solids from 35% to 48%, temperature of the preheated hydromixture superior to 82 ° C and number of mineral between 3 and 16. Four samples of lateritic pulp were used in the study at different process locations. The results allowed defining that the plastic properties of the lateritic pulp in the conditions of this study conform to the Herschel-Bulkley model for real plastics. In addition, they show that for current operating conditions, even for new situations, UPD mathematical models have a greater ability to predict rheological parameters than least squares mathematical models.

  17. [Variations of the nutritional condition of lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae) in Eastern region of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopeztegui Castillo, Alexander; Capetillo Piñar, Norberto; Betanzos Vega, Abel

    2012-03-01

    Nutritional condition can affect survival and growth rate of crustaceans, and this is mostly affected by habitat conditions. This study describes the space-temporary nutritional changes in this commercially important species. With this aim, the variations in the nutritional condition (K) of lobsters from four zones (1, 2, 4 and 5) in the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba, were determined. For this, the weight/length ratio (K=Pt/Lt) was calculated using animals captured in 1981 and 2010. The nutritional condition between areas and sexes, and years and sexes, was contrasted by a bifactorial ANOVA, and the overall length and weight of lobsters were compared using a t-Test for independent samples and unifactorial ANOVA. It was found that the nutritional condition was significantly greater in males than in females. In addition, significant variations between zones were detected for both years. Nutritional condition of lobsters from Zone five was the highest for 1981, while it was Zone two for 2010. Lobsters nutritional state showed significant variations between years, being greater in 1981 (2.34 +/- 0.84g/mm) than in 2010 (1.96 +/- 0.49g/mm). The inter-zones variations as well as the inter-annual ones seem to be related to the reported variations of the bottom type and the vegetation cover. Seasonal variations in the abundance and distribution of benthic organisms, that constitute food for lobsters, could also be influencing. The differences between sexes, however, were assumed as a consequence of the methodology used and the sexual dimorphism of the species. Due to other K estimation methods, that do not include morphometric measurements, these differences were not detected. We suggested that the P. argus nutritional condition is a good estimator of the habitat condition. Besides, according to the applied K estimation methodology, it was found that different groups of lobsters that have resemblant nutritional condition, did not necessarily observe similarities in the overall

  18. 3D modeling of the laterites on top of the Koniambo Massif, New Caledonia: refinement of the per descensum lateritic model for nickel mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Benoît; de Veslud, Christian Le Carlier; Boulvais, Philippe; Gautier, Pierre; Cathelineau, Michel; Drouillet, Maxime

    2017-10-01

    Resulting from the weathering of the Peridotite Nappe, laterites are abundant in New Caledonia and host one of the largest nickel deposits worldwide. This work presents a 3D model of the Koniambo nickel laterite ore deposit. It shows that the laterites are located along the ridges of the massif and organized as hectometric-sized patches obliquely cut by the topography and distributed at various elevations. Three kinds of geometry were observed: (i) a thick laterite cover (between 20 and 40 m) overlying saprolite and mainly localized on topographic highs, (ii) a thin laterite cover (from a few meters to 20 m) mainly localized on areas with gentle slopes, and (iii) exposure of saprolite without laterite cover. Our data show that Ni-rich and Ni-poor areas are organized as hectometric-sized patches which broadly correlate with the distribution of the laterite thickness. The highest Ni areas are localized on slopes where laterite cover is thin or absent. The areas with lowest Ni are located in topographic highs under the thickest laterite cover. The vertical Ni mass balance for each borehole shows that, in areas with thick laterite cover, Ni is sub-equilibrated to slightly depleted whereas in areas with thin laterite cover, Ni is enriched. This suggests the existence of lateral infiltration of water rich in dissolved Ni, from areas such as topographic highs to downstream slope areas, in a process leading to enrichment of saprolite in Ni in slope areas. Mechanical transport and leaching of laterite material on slopes, including Ni-bearing material, could also contribute to local enrichment of Ni in the saprolite.

  19. Variaciones en la condición nutricional de langostas Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la región este del Golfo de Batabanó, Cuba Variations of the nutritional condition of lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Eastern region of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lopeztegui Castillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, la región del Golfo de Batabanó es la más importante zona de pesca de langosta debido a que de ella se extrae anualmente alrededor del 70% de la captura nacional. Con el objetivo de determinar variaciones espacio-temporales en la condición nutricional (K de langostas Panulirus argus del Golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, se calculó dicha condición mediante una relación pesolargo (K=Pt/Lt, para lo que se utilizaron ejemplares de cuatro zonas (uno, dos, cuatro y cinco del este del golfo, capturados en los años 1981 y 2010. Se encontró que en todos los casos analizados la condición nutricional fue significativamente mayor en machos que en hembras. Se detectaron variaciones significativas entre zonas en 1981 y 2010. También entre años el estado nutricional de las langostas presenta variaciones significativas, de manera que en 1981 (2.34±0.84g/mm fue mayor que en 2010 (1.96±0.49g/mm. Tanto las variaciones interzonales como las interanuales parecen estar relacionadas con variaciones reportadas en el tipo de fondo y la cobertura vegetal. Variaciones estacionales en la abundancia y distribución de organismos bentónicos que constituyen alimento para las langostas también podrían estar influyendo. Las diferencias entre sexos en cambio, se suponen consecuencia de la metodología utilizada y del dimorfismo sexual característico de esta especie, por cuanto otros métodos de estimación de K que no involucran mediciones morfométricas, no detectan estas diferencias.Variations of the nutritional condition of lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Eastern region of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Nutritional condition can affect survival and growth rate of crustaceans, and this is mostly affected by habitat conditions. This study describes the space-temporary nutritional changes in this commercially important species. With this aim, the variations in the nutritional condition (K of lobsters from four zones (1, 2, 4 and 5 in the Gulf

  20. Las Haloragaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt Gandul, Martha

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the Haloragaceae in Cuba is presented. The presence of Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum and M. pinnatum is confirmed, and the possible extinction of M. sparsiflorum is suggestedEstudio de la familia Haloragaceae en Cuba. Se confirma la existencia de Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum y M, pinnatum, y se plantea la posible extinción de M. sparsiflorum.

  1. SAND-LATERITE MIXTURES FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    costs in the construction of roads carrying medium density traffic and in the ... East Asia (1) but for reasons given later, their results ... that laterites are good materials for road and air-field ... countries like South Africa, this method of soil-.

  2. Multivariate erosion risk assessment of lateritic badlands of Birbhum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Each geomorphic hazard involves a degree of risk which incorporates quantification of the probability that a hazard will be harmful. At present, the categorization of sub-watersheds into erosion risk is considered as the fundamental step to conserve the soil loss. Development of badlands over the laterites of Birbhum district ...

  3. Mineralogical and geochemical trends in lateritic weathering profiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absence of bauxite minerals like gibbsite and diaspora in the profiles shows that the trend of weathering is towards iron enrichment (ferralitization) and not aluminum accumulation (bauxitization). The CIA values of the lateritic layers shows that the weathering process is matured and has reached advanced stage.

  4. effect of compactive effort on strength indices of laterite treated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    Atterberg's limits test, compaction test, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined ... size, highclay content, and the degree to which the soils have been ... in the stabilization of Ikpayongo laterite with cement. However lime which seems to be the conventional ... as soil modification or stabilization, depending on treatment ...

  5. Satellite Remote Sensing For Aluminum And Nickel Laterites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.; Penfield, Glen T.; Grubbs, Donald K.

    1984-08-01

    The new LANDSAT-4,-5/Thematic Mapper (TM) land observational satellite remote sensing systems are providing dramatically new and important short wave infrared (SWIR) data, which combined with Landsat's Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) visible (VIS), very near infrared (VNIR), and thermal infrared (TI) data greatly improves regional geological mapping on a global scale. The TM will significantly improve clay, iron oxide, aluminum, and nickel laterite mapping capabilities over large areas of the world. It will also improve the ability to discriminate vegetation stress and species distribution associated with lateritic environments. Nickel laterites on Gag Island, Indonesia are defined by MSS imagery. Satellite imagery of the Cape Bougainville and the Darling Range, Australia bauxite deposits show the potential use of MSS data for exploration and mining applications. Examples of satellite syn-thetic aperture radar (SAR) for Jamaica document the use of this method for bauxite exploration. Thematic Mapper data will be combined with the French SPOT satellite's high spatial resolution and stereoscopic digital data, and U.S., Japanese, European, and Canadian Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to assist with logistics, mine development, and environ-mental concerns associated with aluminum and nickel lateritic deposits worldwide.

  6. estimation of shear strength parameters of lateritic soils using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... a tool to estimate the. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH). Vol. ... modeling tools for the prediction of shear strength parameters for lateritic ... 2.2 Geotechnical Analysis of the Soils ... The back propagation learning algorithm is the most popular and ..... [10] Alsaleh, M. I., Numerical modeling for strain localization in ...

  7. Improvement of strength characteristics of lateritic sub-grade soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Abstract. This paper presents the results of investigation of the behavior of pavement subgrade soil stabilized with shredded polyethylene waste. ... Keywords: Lateritic soil, High density polyethylene (HDPE) waste, Pavement thickness, Sub-grade soil ...

  8. stabilization of ikpayongo laterite with cement and calcium carbide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    the stabilization of soil will ensure economy in road construction, while providing an effective way of disposing calcium carbide waste. KEYWORDS: Cement, Calcium carbide waste, Stabilization, Ikpayongo laterite, Pavement material. INTRODUCTION. Road building in the developing nations has been a major challenge to ...

  9. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  10. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma Who Will Emerge as Cuba’s Next Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-04

    38 Olivo Verde, Defense of the Socialist Homeland, 6 March 1986. 26 MajGen Frias LtGen Espinosa MajGen Sola Cuban forces.39 The FAR is...comprised of three separate branches: the Army (Ejercito 150,000 troops strong), the Navy [Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria (MG) 5,000 troops strong] and...Cintro Frias , and is headquartered in Havana. The Eastern Army Corps, is led by General Ramon Espinosa Martin, and is headquartered in Santiago de Cuba

  11. Effects of corn cob ash on lime stabilized lateritic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnochiri, Emeka Segun

    2018-03-01

    This study assesses the effects of Corn Cob Ash (CCA) on lime-stabilized lateritic soil. Preliminary tests were carried out on the natural soil sample for purpose of identification and classification. Lime being the main stabilizing material was thoroughly mixed with the soil sample to determine the optimum lime requirement of the sample as a basis for evaluating the effects of the CCA. The optimum lime requirement was 10%. The CCA was thereafter added to the lime stabilized soil in varying proportions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%. Unsoaked CBR increased from 83% at 0% CCA to highest value of 94% at 4% CCA. Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) values increased from 1123kN/m2 at 0% CCA to highest value of 1180kN/m2 at 4% CCA. It was therefore concluded that CCA can serve as a good complement for lime stabilization in lateritic soil.

  12. Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Cement Stabilized Laterite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa ALHASSAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Laterite soil collected from Maikunkele area of Minna, classified as an A-7-6 on AASHTO classification, was stabilized with 2-8% cement by weight of the dry soil. Using British Standard Light (BSL compaction energy, the effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA on the soil was investigated with respect to compaction characteristics, California Bearing Ratio (CBR and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS tests. Results obtained, indicate a general decrease in Maximum Dry Density (MDD and increase in Optimum Moisture Content (OMC, all with increase in RHA Content (2-8% at specified cement contents. There was also a tremendous improvement in the CBR and UCS with increase in the RHA content at specified cement contents to their peak values at between 4-6% RHA. The UCS values also improved with curing age. This indicates the potentials of using 4-6% RHA admixed with less cement contents for laterite soil stabilization.

  13. Lateritinga project: a geochemical orientation study for Amazon lateritic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.L. da

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this project is the development of systematic geochemical orientation survey in lateritic weathered terrain, like those form Amazon Region. The main selected targets (sheets) are: Turiacu, Cajuapara and Serra dos Carajas, with 690 samples collected (soils and lateritic rocks). For the Aurizona-Serra do Pirocaua target (Turiacu sheet), within the purpose of this work, 49 samples were collected in a 100x 200m regular grid. From all samples the fraction minor than 200 mesh was taken to analyses (by XRF, AA, OES, ICP and fire assay) for SiO sub(2), Fe sub(2) O sub(3), TiO sub(2), P sub(2) O sub(5), Sr, Ba, Y, Nb, Zr, Ga, Sc, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, As, Bi, Pt, Pd, Th, Au and REE, as well for their mineralogy by XRD. The chemical results were submitted to statistical treatment with the Geoquant-software for IBM-compatible microcomputer. (author)

  14. Perilaku Kuat Tekan Tanah Laterit dengan Stabilisasi Kapur dan Semen

    OpenAIRE

    febriani, fitri

    2017-01-01

    Laterite soil is a soil that looks like rust color because it contains high iron oxidation. This is not good for infrastructure development, so it needs an innovation as a method of land improvement, that is stabilization. The reinforcement of soil is generally used in a construction to increase the bearing capacity, so it can hold the construction load. The method that frequently used is soil stabilization by the addition of limestone and cement. In this research, the stabilization of clay i...

  15. Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Cement Stabilized Laterite

    OpenAIRE

    Musa ALHASSAN; Alhaji Mohammed MUSTAPHA

    2007-01-01

    Laterite soil collected from Maikunkele area of Minna, classified as an A-7-6 on AASHTO classification, was stabilized with 2-8% cement by weight of the dry soil. Using British Standard Light (BSL) compaction energy, the effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) on the soil was investigated with respect to compaction characteristics, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) tests. Results obtained, indicate a general decrease in Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and increase in Op...

  16. Modeling of heat and mass transfer in lateritic building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, Pierre

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the behavior of building envelopes made of local lateritic soil bricks subjected to different climatic conditions. The analysis is developed for the prediction of the temperature, relative humidity and water content behavior within the walls. The building envelopes studied in this work consist of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials, and limit the heat transfer between the atmospheric climate and the inside environment. In order to describe coupled heat and moisture transfer in wet porous materials, the coupled equations were solved by the introduction of diffusion coefficients. A numerical model HMtrans, developed for prediction of beat and moisture transfer in multi-layered building components, was used to simulate the temperature, water content and relative humidity profiles within the building envelopes. The results allow the prediction of the duration of the exposed building walls to the local weather conditions. They show that for any of three climatic conditions considered, relative humidity and water content do not exceed 87% and 5% respectively. There is therefore minimum possibility of water condensation in the materials studied. The durability of building envelopes made of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust is not strongly affected by the climatic conditions in tropical and equatorial regions. (author)

  17. Where Does Cuba Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-14

    number of foreign tourists visiting the island, which has resulted in the virtual exclusion of the criollos from the choice spots in the littoral, and has...Anallsis Infurmativo de la Realidad ," paper delivered at the Annual Congress of the Partido Democrat. Cristlano de Cuba, Miami, June 4, 1993, pp. 19-23. 25

  18. Effects of some factors on electro-osmotic dewatering of Laterite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect on the EO process. The general effects were same for the two soil samples, but the rate of the effect varied, which implied that EO dewatering was site dependent. It was concluded that EO dewatering was a viable option for dewatering of tropical laterite. Keywords: Electro-osmosis, Soil Dewatering, Tropical Laterite, ...

  19. The High Deccan duricrusts of India and their significance for the `laterite' issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, Cliff D.; Sheth, Hetu C.

    2008-10-01

    In the Deccan region of western India ferricrete duricrusts, usually described as laterites, cap some basalt summits east of the Western Ghats escarpment, basalts of the low-lying Konkan Plain to its west, as well as some sizeable isolated basalt plateaus rising from the Plain. The duricrusts are iron-cemented saprolite with vermiform hollows, but apart from that have little in common with the common descriptions of laterite. The classical laterite profile is not present. In particular there are no pisolitic concretions, no or minimal development of concretionary crust, and the pallid zone, commonly assumed to be typical of laterites, is absent. A relatively thin, non-indurated saprolite usually lies between the duricrust and fresh basalt. The duricrust resembles the classical laterite of Angadippuram in Kerala (southwestern India), but is much harder. The High Deccan duricrusts capping the basalt summits in the Western Ghats have been interpreted as residuals from a continuous (but now largely destroyed) laterite blanket that represents in situ transformation of the uppermost lavas, and thereby as marking the original top of the lava pile. But the unusual pattern of the duricrusts on the map and other evidence suggest instead that the duricrusts formed along a palaeoriver system, and are now in inverted relief. The two interpretations lead to different tectonic histories. Duricrust formation involved lateral material input besides vertical elemental exchange. We may have reached the stage when the very concepts of laterite and lateritization are hindering progress in regolith research.

  20. An Investigation Into The Effect Of Mixtures Of Lateritic-Cement And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of the laterite-cement, shale, and limedust when mixed in proportions to mould bricks under natural conditions and the improvement of structural properties of laterite for wider and more economical usage as construction material were investigated. Shale was found to be a very poor soil stabilizer because it ...

  1. Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Seshadri

    Full Text Available In recent times, several new species of amphibians have been described from India. Many of these discoveries are from biodiversity hotspots or from within protected areas. We undertook amphibian surveys in human dominated landscapes outside of protected areas in south western region of India between years 2013-2015. We encountered a new species of Microhyla which is described here as Microhyla laterite sp. nov. It was delimited using molecular, morphometric and bioacoustics comparisons. Microhyla laterite sp. nov. appears to be restricted to areas of the West coast of India dominated by laterite rock formations. The laterite rock formations date as far back as the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and are considered to be wastelands in-spite of their intriguing geological history. We identify knowledge gaps in our understanding of the genus Microhyla from the Indian subcontinent and suggest ways to bridge them.

  2. Uranium laterite from Ipora/Amorinopolis region- Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The present study gives an account of the uranium bearing laterite in the district of Amorinopolis, GO. Emphasis is given in the study of its mineralogy and of the mineralization controls. The uranium mineralization is chiefly found within the arkosic sandstones at the base of the Devonian Ponta Grossa Formation. The ore is tabular and concordant with the bedding, the controls being simultaneously litho-stratigraphic and biochemical. Narrow permeable horizons of arkosic sandstone lie between impermeable shale an siltstone layers. Within the permeable horizon fossil remains (probably brachiopods) are replaced by uranium minerals. The oxidized iron minerals may have acted to insulate and preserve the secondary soluble uranium minerals. (author)

  3. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-05

    Jan 5, 2011 ... But working together with groups of farmers, a team of young plant breeders is turning things around. ... English · Français ... CASE STUDY: Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's Agriculture ... One method the researchers used to introduce farmers to new or unknown varieties or lines was the ...

  4. Bioleaching of nickel by Aspergillus humicola SKP102 isolated from Indian lateritic overburden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchhanda Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lateritic deposits spread over the Eastern Ghats of Sukinda Valley, Odisha, India, produce a huge amount of overburden annually as a byproduct of chromite mining. This chromite mining overburden contains nickel, the only source of the metal in the country. During this study Aspergillus humicola SKP102, an indigenous fungus isolated from the mining overburden was employed for the leaching of nickel. About 53.89% of the nickel could be leached by the fungus when grown in batch mode using a Czapek dox medium containing 2% (w/v of the mining overburden. The parameters affecting bioleaching were optimized in order to grow the fungus and leach the metal. Of the different options of cheap carbon sources, straw infusion and molasses emerged as viable options for the growth of the fungus and the leaching of nickel. Two-step and indirect techniques were also used for this purpose, and they resulted in 53.09% and 65.04% Ni leaching respectively. Adding diluted sulfuric acid to the leaching medium resulted in 97.05% nickel recovery from the overburden pulp. A. humicola SKP102 could be a potential tool for leaching nickel from the mining overburden.

  5. A democracia em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Guanche Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o próprio desenvolvimento do processo produziram a consolidação de noções que limitaram a participação popular: o apogeu da burocracia, a compreensão da unidade como unanimidade e o seguimento, em certa medida, de correntes do marxismo soviético. Os desafios atuais para aprofundar a democracia em Cuba se apresentam em três planos: socializar o poder, promover a sociodiversidade e desenvolver a ideologia revolucionária.El triunfo revolucionario de 1959 consagró en Cuba un nuevo concepto de democracia, basado en garantizar acceso a la vida política activa a grandes sectores poblacionales, antes excluidos de ella. Para ello desarrolló una política de inclusión social con carácter universal. La práctica política popular puso las riquezas del país en manos de los desposeídos y generó gran movilidad social, hecho que resultó clave para el aumento de la participación popular. El contexto de agresión imperialista y el propio desarrollo del proceso produjo el afianzamiento de nociones que limitaron la participación popular: el auge de la burocracia, la comprensión de la unidad como unanimidad y el seguimiento, en parte, de corrientes del marxismo soviético. Los desafíos actuales se presentan en tres planos para profundizar la democracia en Cuba: socializar el poder, promover la sociodiversidad y desarrollar la ideología revolucionaria.The revolutionary triumph of 1959 established in Cuba a new concept of democracy, one that

  6. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Internet : order@rand.org. al Accesion For "Ni %&’ Storm WarningsDTI’ TAB E03 --- - - -for...reaction leading to an uncontrol- lable burgeoning of private entrepreneurial activity. As one observer 14See Acuerdo del Buro Politico , "Para llevar a...34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p

  7. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  8. A Study of Compressive Strength Characteristics of Laterite Sand Hollow Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Olanipekun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental investigations carried out on partial replacement of sand with laterite as it affects the compressive strength of sandcrete hollow blocks. Two mix proportions (1:6 and 1:8 were used with laterite content varying between 0 and 50% at 10% intervals. Hand and machine compaction methods were used. Curing was done by sprinkling water on the specimens. The results showed that for each mix proportion and compaction method, the compressive strength decreases with increase in laterite content. Machine compacted hollow sandcrete blocks made from mix ratio 1:6 and with up to 10% laterite content is found suitable and hence recommended for building construction having attained a 28-day compressive strength of 2.07N/mm2 as required by the Nigerian Standards.

  9. The lateritic profile of Balkouin, Burkina Faso: Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis, Ilaria; Bonetto, Sabrina; Giustetto, Roberto; Lawane, Abdou; Pantet, Anne; Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Thomassin, Jean-Hugues; Vinai, Raffaele

    2014-02-01

    This study reports on the geochemical and mineralogical characterization of a lateritic profile cropping out in the Balkouin area, Central Burkina Faso, aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the processes responsible for the formation of the laterite itself and the constraints to its development. The lateritic profile rests on a Paleoproterozoic basement mostly composed of granodioritic rocks related to the Eburnean magmatic cycle passing upwards to saprolite and consists of four main composite horizons (bottom to top): kaolinite and clay-rich horizons, mottled laterite and iron-rich duricrust. In order to achieve such a goal, a multi-disciplinary analytical approach was adopted, which includes inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission and mass spectrometries (ICP-AES and ICP-MS respectively), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Contribution from coastal laterites to the nearshore placers of central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Srinivas, K.

    and basalts. The pebbles show genetic relation with the coastal laterites and Deccan trap basalts indicating their derivation from them before the last Holocene transgression. The petrography, mineralogical and geochemical analyses suggest that the minerals...

  11. Effects of Periwinkle Shell Ash on Lime-Stabilized Lateritic Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Keywords: atterberg limits, lateritic soil, lime stabilization, periwinkle shell ash .... specimen were prepared by carefully and completely ..... Fourth Edition. Canada: CENGAGE Learning. Holtz, RD; Kovacs, WD (1981). ... Potentials of Sugar cane.

  12. Effect of rice husk ash on some geotechnical properties of lateritic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Keywords: Rice Husk Ash (RHA), Lateritic soil, Sub-grade, Maximum Dry ... stabilizing agent (cement or lime) included ... soil and then with distilled water. The clay mineral identification was done using ... California Bearing Ratio (CBR). 22.05.

  13. Compositional and structural characterisation of Ni-phyllosilicates in hydrous silicate type Ni-laterite deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Villanova de Benavent, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates (commonly known as garnierites) are significant ore minerals in many Ni-laterite deposits worldwide. However, the characterisation of these mineral phases is complex, as well as their classification and nomenclature, due to their fine-grained nature, low crystallinity and frequent occurrence as mixtures. The aim of this study is to shed some light to the nature of the Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates occurring at the Falcondo Ni-laterite. In this deposit, these ...

  14. Analysis of ASTER data for mapping bauxite rich pockets within high altitude lateritic bauxite, Jharkhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Arindam; Singh, Vivek Kr.; Parveen, Reshma; Kumar, K. Vinod; Jeyaseelan, A. T.; Dhanamjaya Rao, E. N.

    2013-04-01

    Bauxite deposits of Jharkhand in India are resulted from the lateritization process and therefore are often associated with the laterites. In the present study, ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) image is processed to delineate bauxite rich pockets within the laterites. In this regard, spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples are analyzed in the laboratory with reference to the spectral features of gibbsite (main mineral constituent of bauxite) and goethite (main mineral constituent of laterite) in VNIR-SWIR (visible-near infrared and short wave infrared) electromagnetic domain. The analysis of spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples helps in understanding the differences in the spectral features of bauxites and laterites. Based on these differences; ASTER data based relative band depth and simple ratio images are derived for spatial mapping of the bauxites developed within the lateritic province. In order to integrate the complementary information of different index image, an index based principal component (IPC) image is derived to incorporate the correlative information of these indices to delineate bauxite rich pockets. The occurrences of bauxite rich pockets derived from density sliced IPC image are further delimited by the topographic controls as it has been observed that the major bauxite occurrences of the area are controlled by slope and altitude. In addition to above, IPC image is draped over the digital elevation model (DEM) to illustrate how bauxite rich pockets are distributed with reference to the topographic variability of the terrain. Bauxite rich pockets delineated in the IPC image are also validated based on the known mine occurrences and existing geological map of the bauxite. It is also conceptually validated based on the spectral similarity of the bauxite pixels delineated in the IPC image with the ASTER convolved laboratory spectra of bauxite samples.

  15. In situ neutron moisture meter calibration in lateritic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruprecht, J.K.; Schofield, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    An in situ calibration procedure for complex lateritic soils of the jarrah forest of Western Australia is described. The calibration is based on non-destructive sampling of each access tube and on a regression of change in water content on change in neutron count ratio at 'wet' and 'dry' times of the year. Calibration equations with adequate precision were produced. However, there were high residual errors in the calibration equations which were due to a number of factors including soil water variability, the presence of a duricrust layer, soil sampling of gravelly soils and the variability of the cement slurry annulus surrounding each access tube. The calibration equations derived did not compare well with those from other studies in south-west Western Australia, but there was reasonable agreement with the general equations obtained by the Institute of Hydrology, U.K. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Macrofungi in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Greeshma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study on macrofungi in scrub jungles (with and without fire-impact in lateritic region of southwestern coast of India was carried out.  Out of 11 species in 10 genera recovered, six and five species were confined to scrub jungle and fire-impacted scrub jungle, respectively.  An ectomycorrhizal Amanita sp. was the most frequent in scrub jungle associated with exotic (Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium and plantation (Anacardium occidentale trees.  Based on traditional knowledge, it is a highly edible and nutritional delicacy in the coastal regions.  Astraeus odoratus was another common ectomycorrhizal fungus in native trees Hopea ponga, which was recovered from the fire-impacted scrub jungle and is possibly edible.  Edible termite mound mushroom Termitomyces striatus was also common in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  Chlorophyllum molybdites was the most frequent mushroom in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  

  17. Thermo physical properties of lateritic soil bricks: Influence of water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, P.; Noumowe, A.; Kofane, T.C.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental study carried out in order to determine the properties of local materials used as construction materials. Cement stabilized compressed bricks were tested. The thermal properties of lateritic soil based materials were determined. The objectives of work reported in this paper are to determine the effect of addition of pozzolan or sawdust in lateritic soil brick on the thermal properties. It was shown that the effect of the incorporation of pozzolan or sawdust is the decreasing of the thermal conductivity and density. The moisture content of these materials can modify their thermal performance. Thus a study of the influence of the water content on the thermal conductivity k and the thermal diffusivity a is presented. The thermal conductivity, as a function of water content, increases rapidly between O% and 12% for lateritic soil. The thermal diffusivity curve presents a maximum for values of water content of 15% for lateritic soil and 8% for lateritic soil-pozzolan or lateritic soil- sawdust. (author)

  18. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsing Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils.

  19. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

  20. Effect of nonwoven jute agrotextile mulch on soil health and productivity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) in lateritic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Koushik; Kundu, Manik Chandra; Saha, Biplab; Ghosh, Goutam Kumar

    2018-01-16

    A field experiment was conducted in winter season of 2015-2016 in the dry lateritic soil of Eastern India to study the effect of different thicknesses of nonwoven jute agrotextile mulches (NJATM) along with other mulches on soil health, growth and productivity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six treatments viz., T 1 (control, i.e. no mulching), T 2 (300 gsm NJATM), T 3 (350 gsm NJATM), T 4 (400 gsm NJATM), T 5 (rice straw) and T 6 (black polythene mulch), each of which was replicated four times. The highest average curd weight (355.25 g) and yield (8.53 t ha -1 ) of broccoli were recorded in T 3 treatment. The lowest density of broad leaved weed, sedges and grasses were recorded in T 6 treatment which was statistically at par with T 4 . All the treatments composing of NJATM increased the population of all the soil microbes except bacteria in the root rhizosphere of broccoli from their initial population. On average, the highest population of fungi (54.0 × 10 3  cfu per g) and actinomycetes (134.75 × 10 3  cfu per g) was recorded with T 3 and T 4 treatments respectively in the post-harvest soil. The soil moisture was conserved in all treatments compared to control showing highest moisture content in T 4 treatment. Organic carbon and available N, P and K contents of soil were increased in all mulch treated plots compared to control, and their initial value and their highest value were recorded in T 3 . The NJATM of 350 gsm thickness was very effective compared to other mulches in increasing the growth and productivity of broccoli by suppressing weeds, increasing moisture, microbial population and nutrient content of the lateritic soil.

  1. A democracia em Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Zaldívar, Julio César Guanche

    2011-01-01

    O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o pr...

  2. Cuba: The Next Unanticipated Anticipated Strategic Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorrell, Tim

    2005-01-01

    ...; and the current Bush administration with the global war on terrorism (GWOT). Cuba, specifically post-Castro Cuba, could very well trigger the next unanticipated crisis even though the writing is on the...

  3. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-19

    from Cuban nationals outside of the United States. CRS-4 On January 23, 2006, OFAC suspended a South Florida travel agency, La Estrella de Cuba...one of the largest licensed travel service providers in Florida, La Estrella de Cuba, from booking travel to Cuba. Another three agencies had their

  4. Peat resources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova Casanova, E.

    1996-01-01

    During the last few years the drastic cut in oil supply provoked a critical situation in Cuba. The shortage of domestic oil production and the absence of alternative energy sources, such as wide rivers and coal deposits, drove us to decide that the most promising option was to develop our huge peat deposits. However, there are problems concerning skills and finance. This report reviews the potential for peat development to date in the Cuban territory. The figures and characteristics are partly taken from the surveys done by the Russian and Cuban specialists during the 60's. There is some new data compiled from the work done more recently in some of the Cuban peat deposits. The conditions for draining and harvesting are very challenging and difficult if the peat deposits are to be developed without doing any unnecessary damage to the fragile environment of Cuban wetlands. However, if the required financing and skills are available, the work can be carried out and significant risks avoided

  5. Río, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó como estudio de caso en el ambiente de Viñales, Pinar del Río, Cuba con el objetivo de seleccionar material genético de especial valor para la conservación y mejoramiento de la especie; a partir de nueve procedencias, encontrando diferencias significativas entre procedencias para las variables altura, diámetro y ramificación. Se clasificaron las procedencias en grupos de calidad A, B, C y D, recomendando los grupos A y B para el desarrollo de la especie en estos sitios de baja fertilidad. El coeficiente de variación cambió 29.5 y 44.8 %, siendo los parámetros altura y diámetro los de mayor variabilidad, así la selección debe tener estas características, seleccionando como procedencias superiores Marbajita, Cajálbana, El Burén, Los Palacios, La Jagua, La Güira y Juan Manuel.

  6. Growing Eremanthus erythropappus in crushed laterite: A promising alternative to topsoil for bauxite-mine revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Naiara Amaral de Miranda; Leite, Mariangela Garcia Praça; Figueiredo, Maurílio Assis; Kozovits, Alessandra Rodrigues

    2013-11-15

    Topsoil is the preferred substrate for areas requiring rehabilitation after bauxite mining. However, topsoil is sometimes lacking and so there is a need to test the suitability of other, locally available substrates. In an abandoned bauxite mine in Southeastern Brazil, small patches of native vegetation spontaneously established in shallow depressions over weathered laterite, suggesting that granulometric reduction may have facilitated the establishment of plants. To test this hypothesis, blocks of laterite collected in the area were crushed to simulate texture observed in the vegetation patches. Topsoil collected in a preserved ferruginous field near to the extraction area was also used as a substrate in which Eremanthus erythropappus seedlings, a native woody species, were grown. Seedlings were cultivated without fertilizers in these two substrates and also directly over the exposed and uncrushed laterite. The species proved to be very promising for the revegetation, showing a high survival rate in all substrates. Higher annual growth rates and higher final biomass values were observed in topsoil, but the granulometric reduction of laterite doubled plant growth rate in comparison to the exposed laterite. This result was likely due to the increased availability of essential nutrients to plants and to the improvement in physical conditions for root growth and functioning. Moreover, seedling allometry was not altered by the type of substrate, suggesting that the species was highly tolerant to the new substrate conditions, a fundamental characteristic for success of revegetation of bauxite extraction degraded areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances in microbial leaching processes for nickel extraction from lateritic minerals - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behra, Sunil Kumar; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine Floribert

    2015-01-01

    Lateritic nickel minerals constitute about 80% of nickel reserves in the world, but their contribution for nickel production is about 40%. The obstacles in extraction of nickel from lateritic minerals are attributed to their very complex mineralogy and low nickel content. Hence, the existing metallurgical techniques are not techno-economically feasible and environmentally sustainable for processing of such complex deposits. At this juncture, microbial mineral processing could be a benevolent approach for processing of lateritic minerals in favor of nickel extraction. The microbial mineral processing route offers many advantages over conventional metallurgical methods as the process is operated under ambient conditions and requires low energy input; thus these processes are relatively simple and environment friendly. Microbial processing of the lateritic deposits still needs improvement to make it industrially viable. Microorganisms play the pivotal role in mineral bio-processing as they catalyze the extraction of metals from minerals. So it is inevitable to explore the physiological and bio-molecular mechanisms involved in this microbe-mineral interaction. The present article offers comprehensive information about the advances in microbial processes for extraction of nickel from laterites.

  8. Effect on physical properties of laterite soil with difference percentage of sodium bentonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Nur Aisyah; Azmi, Nor Azizah Che; Mukri, Mazidah; Noor, Siti Nur Aishah Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This research was carried out in an attempt to know the physical properties of laterite soil with the appearance of difference percentage of sodium bentonite. Lateritic soils usually develop in tropical and other regions with similar hot and humid climate, where heavy rainfall, warm temperature and well drainage lead to the formation of thick horizons of reddish lateritic soil profiles rich in iron and aluminium. When sodium predominates, a large amount of water can be absorbed in the interlayer, resulting in the remarkable swelling properties observed with hydrating sodium bentonite. There are some basic physical properties test conducted in this research which are Specific Gravity Test, pH Test, Sieve Analysis, Hydrometer Test, Shrinkage Limit and Atterberg Limit. The test will be conducted with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of sodium bentonite. Each test will be repeated three times for the accuracy of the result. From the physical properties test the soil properties characteristic react with the sodium bentonite can be determine. Therefore the best percentage of sodium bentonite admixture can be determined for laterite soil. The outcomes of this study give positive results due to the potential of sodium bentonite to improve the laterite soil particle.

  9. Advances in microbial leaching processes for nickel extraction from lateritic minerals - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behra, Sunil Kumar; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine Floribert [Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, (South Africa)

    2015-08-15

    Lateritic nickel minerals constitute about 80% of nickel reserves in the world, but their contribution for nickel production is about 40%. The obstacles in extraction of nickel from lateritic minerals are attributed to their very complex mineralogy and low nickel content. Hence, the existing metallurgical techniques are not techno-economically feasible and environmentally sustainable for processing of such complex deposits. At this juncture, microbial mineral processing could be a benevolent approach for processing of lateritic minerals in favor of nickel extraction. The microbial mineral processing route offers many advantages over conventional metallurgical methods as the process is operated under ambient conditions and requires low energy input; thus these processes are relatively simple and environment friendly. Microbial processing of the lateritic deposits still needs improvement to make it industrially viable. Microorganisms play the pivotal role in mineral bio-processing as they catalyze the extraction of metals from minerals. So it is inevitable to explore the physiological and bio-molecular mechanisms involved in this microbe-mineral interaction. The present article offers comprehensive information about the advances in microbial processes for extraction of nickel from laterites.

  10. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Selective Reduction of a Nickeliferous Limonitic Laterite Ore by Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R.; Pickles, C. A.

    2017-09-01

    Nickeliferous limonitic laterite ores are becoming increasingly attractive as a source of metallic nickel as the costs associated with recovering nickel from the sulphide ores increase. Unlike the sulphide ores, however, the laterite ores are not amenable to concentration by conventional mineral processing techniques such as froth flotation. One potential concentrating method would be the pyrometallurgical solid state reduction of the nickeliferous limonitic ores at relatively low temperatures, followed by beneficiation via magnetic separation. A number of reductants can be utilized in the reduction step, and in this research, a thermodynamic model has been developed to investigate the reduction of a nickeliferous limonitic laterite by hydrogen. The nickel recovery to the ferronickel phase was predicted to be greater than 95 % at temperatures of 673-873 K. Reductant additions above the stoichiometric requirement resulted in high recoveries over a wider temperature range, but the nickel grade of the ferronickel decreased.

  12. Effects of fines content on hydraulic conductivity and morphology of laterite soil as hydraulic barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello Yamusa, Yamusa; Yunus, Nor Zurairahetty Mohd; Ahmad, Kamarudin; Rahman, Norhan Abd; Sa'ari, Radzuan

    2018-03-01

    Laterite soil was investigated to find out the effects of fines content and to identify the micro-structural and molecular characteristics to evaluate its potentiality as a compacted soil landfill liner material. Tests were carried out on natural soil and reconstituted soil by dry weight of soil samples to determine the physical and engineering properties of the soil. All tests were carried out on the samples by adopting the British Standard 1377:1990. The possible mechanisms that contributed to the clay mineralogy were analyzed using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The laterite soil was found to contain kaolinite as the major clay minerals. A minimum of 50% fines content of laterite soil met the required result for hydraulic barriers in waste containment facilities.

  13. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Faced with a unique economic crisis, Cuba's national agriculture system was near ... But working together with groups of farmers, a team of young plant breeders is turning ... "Sometimes when we plant and we expect good results, we actually get poor results. .... "For me, when I think about varieties, they are like people.

  14. Effect of clay minerals on the stabilization of black cotton and lateritic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyambok, I.O.

    1986-01-01

    The problem associated with black cotton and lateritic soils because of the swelling-shrinkage property of their constituent clay minerals were investigated. Samples of black cotton lateritic soils were collected from different parts of Kenya. The samples were analysed for their mineral compositions and later treated with hydrated lime in order to eliminate the swelling shrinkage behaviour. The samples were subsequently tested for their engineering properties in a soil mechanics laboratory using shear box and Casagrande apparatus. It was found that the chemical treatment of the soils with hydrated lime removes their plastic property and improves their shear strength. (author)

  15. Mechanistic and Kinetic Analysis of Na2SO4-Modified Laterite Decomposition by Thermogravimetry Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    Full Text Available Nickel laterites cannot be effectively used in physical methods because of their poor crystallinity and fine grain size. Na2SO4 is the most efficient additive for grade enrichment and Ni recovery. However, how Na2SO4 affects the selective reduction of laterite ores has not been clearly investigated. This study investigated the decomposition of laterite with and without the addition of Na2SO4 in an argon atmosphere using thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS. Approximately 25 mg of samples with 20 wt% Na2SO4 was pyrolyzed under a 100 ml/min Ar flow at a heating rate of 10°C/min from room temperature to 1300°C. The kinetic study was based on derivative thermogravimetric (DTG curves. The evolution of the pyrolysis gas composition was detected by mass spectrometry, and the decomposition products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The decomposition behavior of laterite with the addition of Na2SO4 was similar to that of pure laterite below 800°C during the first three stages. However, in the fourth stage, the dolomite decomposed at 897°C, which is approximately 200°C lower than the decomposition of pure laterite. In the last stage, the laterite decomposed and emitted SO2 in the presence of Na2SO4 with an activation energy of 91.37 kJ/mol. The decomposition of laterite with and without the addition of Na2SO4 can be described by one first-order reaction. Moreover, the use of Na2SO4 as the modification agent can reduce the activation energy of laterite decomposition; thus, the reaction rate can be accelerated, and the reaction temperature can be markedly reduced.

  16. evaluation of lateritic soil using 2-d electrical resistivity methods at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    The purpose of this study is to search for laterite which is of immense economic ... African and South American lithospheric plates (Burke,. 1971). It is bounded on the ... a number of boreholes (Omatsola and Adegoke 1980,. 1981). During the ...

  17. Bio-extraction of metal ions from laterite ore by Penicillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... prolonged weathering, laterite soil is produced. Plentiful oxygen .... to wet digestion process by using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide as described by ... between 1.9 and 3.1, oxalic acid pH ranges from 1.2 to. 2.9, tartaric ...

  18. Area Handbook Series: Cuba; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    xix Chapter 1. Historical Setting. ...................................... Elizabeth de Lima ...Guane Rio Santo L F AntonClarao -22 % Fei ienfuegos Moron kNulvo Gerona Playa Sancti 11-,Giron Spirntu Jhoi ~~ ~Trinidad Cg a Tunas de Zaza * National...schol- arly literature. xi Country Profile 0 0l Country _ Formal Name: Cuba (Rep6blica de Cuba). Short Form: Cuba. Term for Citizens: Cubans. Capital

  19. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its represe...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  20. Arsenic adsorption of lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuthiphun, L.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic adsorption efficiency of soil covering materials (lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil obtained from Ronpiboon District, Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province tosolve arsenic air pollution problem was investigated using batch experiments. The four types of the aforementioned soil covering materials were examined to determine their arsenic adsorption efficiency, equilibriumtime as well as adsorption isotherms.The results revealed that among soil covering materials mixed with arsenic-contaminated soil at 10% w/w, the efficiency of arsenic adsorption of fly ash, lateritic soil, lime and limestone powder were 84, 60,38 and 1% respectively. The equilibrium time for lateritic soil at pH 4 was achieved within 4 hrs, whereas pH 7 and 12, the equilibrium time was 6 hrs. For fly ash, 2 hrs were required to reach the equilibrium at pH 12, while the equilibrium time was attained within 6 hrs at pH 4 and 7. Furthermore, lateritic soil possessedhigh arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 7 and 4 and best fit with the Langmuir isotherm. The fly ash showing high arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 12 and 7 fit the Freundlich isotherm at pH 12 and Langmuirisotherm at pH 7.This indicated that lateritic soil was suitable for arsenic adsorption at low pH, whilst at high pH,arsenic was well adsorbed by fly ash. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm could be used to determine quantities of soil covering materials for arsenic adsorption to prevent arsenic air pollution from arseniccontaminated soils.

  1. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  2. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada a cabo de un estudio referativo sobre el envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba, cuyos objetivos son, profundizar en las diferentes aristas del tema así como valorar las dimensiones del mismo, para lo cual se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico y empírico. Entre los resultados obtenidos se encuentra diseño de un trabajo referativo que abarca doce dimensiones del envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba. La realización de este documento facilita el estudio del tema ya que permite profundizar en el contenido sobre Adulto Mayor visto como un sistema desde múltiples aristas.

  3. characterization of terrain and biotite gneiss-derived lateritic soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2010-04-08

    Apr 8, 2010 ... from 23m above mean sea level in the lowlying areas to. 41m (msl) for the high rise area is decorated on the eastern part with Inselbergs of ..... through landfill liners Florida centre for solid and hazardous waste management ...

  4. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    office. In January 2006, OFAC suspended a South Florida travel agency, La Estrella de Cuba, from booking travel to Cuba. The agency reportedly was one...plans to conduct 25 on-site audits in 2006 at agencies that do business with Cuba.22 In addition to La Estrella de Cuba, OFAC suspended the service

  5. Mobility of gamma-emitting fission products in typical black and laterite soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on the movement of the gamma-emitting fission products 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce, surface deposited on columns of the black and laterite soils revealed that the mobility of these nuclides in the two soils depended mainly on the ionic form of the nuclide, soil reaction and predominant clay mineral type in the soil. Results showed a rapid breakthrough of 106 Ru in the black soil and considerable migration to the lower layers in the laterite soil on leaching with rain water, or moderately high calcium or sodium irrigation waters. While near complete fixation of 144 Ce and 137 Cs in the top contaminated layer of both soils was observed, a slight movement of 125 Sb only in the black soil was noticed. Incorporation of organic matter had no effects on the movement of fission products in both soil types, whereas ethylenediaminetraacetic acid (EDTA) induced variable movement of the different radionuclides in the two soil types. (author)

  6. Extraction of nickel from Ramu laterite by sulphation roasting-water leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Du, Shangchao; Liu, Guo; Tang, Jianwen; Lu, Yeda; Lv, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Recovery of nickel from a PNG nickel laterite with high content of iron by a sulphation roasting-water leaching has been studied. The influences of sulfuric acid/ore ratio, temperature of roasting and water on recovery efficiency were investigated. The effective separation of nickel over the co-existed elements including iron was achieved by the process with mixing, curing, roasting and leaching stages. Near 100% of nickel was leached from the roasted laterite by water at 80°C in an atmospheric air, while co-leaching of about 2% of iron, under the optimal pre-treatment conditions with the ratio of acid: ore around 0.45:1 and the roasting temperature about 650°C. The advantages and disadvantages of sulphation atmospheric leaching are compared with pressure acid leaching with engineering consideration.

  7. Carbothermic Reduction of Nickeliferous Laterite Ores for Nickel Pig Iron Production in China: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mingjun; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Yuanbo; Fan, Xiaohui

    2013-11-01

    Both the consumption and production of crude stainless steel in China rank first in the world. In 2011, the nickel production in China amounted to 446 kilotons, with the proportion of electrolytic nickel and nickel pig iron (NPI) registering 41.5% and 56.5%, respectively. NPI is a low-cost feedstock for stainless steel production when used as a substitute for electrolytic nickel. The existing commercial NPI production processes such as blast furnace smelting, rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting, and Krupp-Renn (Nipon Yakin Oheyama) processes are discussed. As low-temperature (below 1300°C) reduction of nickeliferous laterite ores followed by magnetic separation could provide an alternative avenue without smelting at high temperature (~1500°C) for producing ferronickel with low cost, the fundamentals and recent developments of the low-temperature reduction of nickeliferous laterite ores are reviewed.

  8. Ferronickel Preparation from Nickeliferous Laterite by Rotary Kiln-Electric Furnace Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Jia, Hao; Luo, Jun; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    Nickel is an important strategic metal, which is mainly used for stainless steel production. In the recent years, ferronickel has been used as a substitute for electrolytic nickel for alleviating the cost of stainless steel production. Rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) smelting is currently the world-wide mainstreaming process for ferronickel production from nickeliferous laterite ore, in spite of the high power consumption. In this study, aiming to provide some meaningful guidance for ferronickel production of RKEF smelting, reductive roasting followed by smelting process was carried out. The conditions including reducing parameters (roasting temperature and time) and smelting parameters (coke dosage, CaO dosage, melting temperature and time) were ascertained. The metal recovery ratios, as well as Ni, Fe, S and P content of ferronickel were considered. The results showed that a ferronickel containing 10. 32 wt. % Ni was obtained from a laterite with 1. 85 wt. % Ni, the nickel recovery ratio was about 99%.

  9. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RICE HUSK ASH, POWDERED GLASS AND CEMENT AS LATERITIC SOIL STABILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Ridwan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the stabilizing effects of three different materials, namely: rice husk ash, powdered glass, and cement on the properties of lateritic soil. The basic properties of the lateritic soil were first obtained through colour, moisture content determination, specific gravity, particle size distribution and Atterberg limits tests. Each of the stabilizing materials was then mixed with the lateritic soil in varying percentages of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight of the soil. Thereafter, compaction and California bearing ratio (CBR tests were carried out on the sample mixes to determine the effects of the materials on the lateritic soil. Chemical tests were also carried out on the samples to determine their percentage oxides composition. The compaction test showed that the highest maximum dry densities (MDD obtained for the mixed samples were 2.32 g/cm3 (at 2.5% cement addition, 2.28g/cm3 (at 5% powdered glass (PG addition and 2.18 g/cm3 (at 5% rice husk ash (RHA addition with corresponding optimum moisture contents (OMC of 10.06%, 14.3% and 12.31% respectively. The CBR tests showed that the CBR values increased in all cases as the materials were added with those of the cement and powdered glass giving the highest values and showing close semblance under unsoaked conditions. The chemical test showed that the significant oxides present in the cement, powdered glass and rice husk ash were CaO (53.60%, SiO2 (68.45% and SiO2 (89.84% respectively.

  10. Evaluation of Changes in Index Properties of Lateritic Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapitus AMADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For soils to be suitable in civil engineering projects, they must meet existing local requirements for index properties in addition to certain strength criteria. Typically, specifications limit these properties to some threshold values which in most cases are project specific. Some lateritic soils in their natural state need some treatment/modification to meet these specification requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the index properties (i.e., particle size distribution, Atterberg limits and compaction characteristics of a residually derived lateritic soil following fly ash application. Lateritic soil – fly ash mixtures with up to 20% fly ash by dry weight of soil were tested and specimens for compaction characteristics were prepared at different compaction states (optimum, dry and wet of optimum moisture content and compacted using British Standard Light (BSL compactive effort. While soil – fly ash mixtures containing up to 15% fly ash classify as CL according to USCS classification system and plotted above A-line in the plasticity chart, it was observed that changes in the gradation characteristics of soil sample treated with 20% fly ash resulted in the alteration of its classification to ML as well as the crossing of the A- line to the silty region. The liquid limit (LL varied from 42.2 to 29.53% representing 70% reduction while the plasticity index (PI of specimen treated with 20% fly ash was 16% lower than that of natural soil. The optimum moisture content (OMC ranged from 17.36% for the natural soil to 18.34% for soil mixtures containing 20% fly ash which yielded dry unit weight of 17.2kN/m3 for the natural soil and 16.1kN/m3 for samples treated with 20% fly ash. From the study, useful data were obtained showing substantial and desirable changes in the properties of lateritic soil as a civil engineering material on application of fly ash.

  11. Effect of Lime Stabilization on Vertical Deformation of Laterite Halmahera Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saing, Zubair; Djainal, Herry

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the study was conducted to determine the lime effect on vertical deformation of road base physical model of laterite Halmahera soil. The samples of laterite soil were obtained from Halmahera Island, North Maluku Province, Indonesia. Soil characteristics were obtained from laboratory testing, according to American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM), consists of physical, mechanical, minerals, and chemical. The base layer of physical model testing with the dimension; 2m of length, 2m of width, and 1.5m of height. The addition of lime with variations of 3, 5, 7, an 10%, based on maximum dry density of standard Proctor test results and cured for 28 days. The model of lime treated laterite Halmahera soil with 0,1m thickness placed on subgrade layer with 1,5m thickness. Furthermore, the physical model was given static vertical loading. Some dial gauge is placed on the lime treated soil surface with distance interval 20cm, to read the vertical deformation that occurs during loading. The experimentals data was analyzed and validated with numerical analysis using finite element method. The results showed that the vertical deformation reduced significantly on 10% lime content (three times less than untreated soil), and qualify for maximum deflection (standard requirement L/240) on 7-10% lime content.

  12. ESR dating of laterite from Ban Tha Ta Suea, Kanchanaburi, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limsuwan, S.; Vichaidid, T.; Limsuwan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating was carried out on laterite samples collected from Ban Tha Ta Suea, the original deposit of the laterite used in the construction of Muang Sing Historical Park. Ban Tha Ta Suea is about 6 km east of Muang Sing Historical Park in Kanchanaburi province (181 km far from Bangkok). The dose response of the g=2.0028 ESR signal was found to be suitable for age determination. An exponential saturation function was fitted to the ESR signal growth on additional γ-irradiation. Extrapolation of this function resulted in the accumulated dose 144±5 Gy. Gamma spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used to determine concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in the samples from which the annual dose rate 16±2 mGy was calculated. In addition, the dose rate of cosmic rays was taken into account. The ESR age of laterite samples was found to be 9.0±0.9 ka. This age falls within the Holocene epoch of the Quaternary on the geological time scale. Samples from Muang Sing Historical Park were assigned to the same epoch. Both results agree with the geological map.

  13. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LATERITIC SOIL STABILIZED WITH SAWDUST ASH-LIME MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Segun Nnochiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the geotechnical characteristics of lateritic soil and sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixtures. Preliminary tests were carried out on the natural soil sample for identification and classification purposes. The sawdust was mixed with lime for stabilization in the ratio 2:1. This mixture was thereafter added to the lateritic soil in varying proportions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% by weight of soil. Addition of SDAL increased values of Optimum Moisture Content (OMC from 17.0% at 0% SDAL to 26.5% at 10% SDAL by weight of soil, also, values of Maximum Dry Density (MDD decreased from 2040 kg/m3 at 0% SDAL to 1415 kg/m3 at 10% SDAL. Values of Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS increased from 38.58 kN/m2 at 0% SDAL to highest value of 129.63 kN/m2 at 6% SDAL. The values of liquid limits and plasticity index of the soil were effectively reduced with the addition of the SDAL, from 54.0% at 0% SDAL to 49.0% at 10% SDAL and from 13.7% at 0% SDAL to 12.5% at 10% SDAL respectively. It was therefore concluded that the sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixture can serve as a cheap soil stabilizing agent for poor lateritic soil.

  14. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  15. Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez Iglesias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La región nororiental de Cuba, que abarca el norte de los territorios de las provincias Las Tunas, Holguín y Guantánamo, posee un potencial arqueológico de alrededor de 220 sitios, de ellos se posee información zooarqueológica de 35 localidades. Esta información se ha reunido en un sistema de información geográfica(SIG denominado Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba, que permite el manejo de los datos a través de entradas como: nombre del sitio, coordenadas, provincia, municipio, categoría, filiación, lista de taxones presentes (Moluscos, Crustáceos, Peces, Reptiles, Aves, Mamíferos, número de especies respectiva a cada taxón, fechado del sitio, persona y fecha en que fue trabajado. Este levantamiento zooarqueológico ofrece además, una aproximación del uso de los recursos faunísticos por parte de las comunidades aborígenes, en esta área geográfica, así como datos sobre el uso de especies extintas, variaciones en la distribución de especies en el pasado, cuestión tratada en el presente trabajo.

  16. Sistema de salud de Cuba The health system of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez-Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Cuba y el sistema cubano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, su gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, y las actividades de rectoría e investigación que desarrolla. También se discute la importancia de sus instituciones de investigación y se describe el papel de los usuarios de los servicios en la operación y evaluación del sistema, así como las actividades que en este sentido desarrollan la Federación de Mujeres Cubanas y los Comités de Defensa de la Revolución. La parte final de este trabajo se dedica a discutir las innovaciones más recientes dentro de las que destacan las redes de cardiología, la Misión Milagro y la Batalla de Ideas.This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas.

  17. Dating Amazonian laterites through the novel geochronometers kaolinite and iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Thierry; Bressan Riffel, Silvana; Gautheron, Cécile; Fernandes Soares, Bruna; Pinna-Jamme, Rosella; Morin, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Soils on Earth's surface are in constant interaction with climate. As a matter of fact, soils cannot only produce greenhouse effect gases, such as NO2 and CH4, but also behave as sinks for CO2, especially by silicate weathering. Major processes of silicate weathering are known and exhibit climatic zonation at the global scale. Laterites are particularly relevant because they are ancient and deeply weathered soils of major significance. They occupy 30 % of the continental surface and can keep records of past climates and landscape modifications (paleosurface) through specific mineral markers. These formations reach several tens of meters and are mainly composed of kaolinite, iron and aluminium oxides as well as relicts of parent minerals such as quartz and ancillary minerals. Once the major processes of laterite formation are known, their age will allow a growth of researches, owing to the implementation of various chronometers. Moreover, it is fundamental to date laterites in order to improve our understanding of soil formation related to paleoclimates, and to build predictive models of their evolution. In this study, we focus on comparing kaolinite ages with the still unknown ages of lateritic duricrusts from the central Amazon region (Brazil), where strong weathering processes were developed from the early Tertiary, after the Andean uplift. The central Amazon region displays flat areas and dissected plateaus (100-180 m a.s.l.) sustained by weathered clastic sedimentary rocks and latosols. The region contains horizons of duricrusts, relatively continuous layers of Fe-cuirasses, stratified lateritic profiles, and kaolin deposits. Here we employed two methods to date ubiquitous secondary minerals of laterite, which are consistent with geological time-scale. The corresponding geochronometers are the following: (i) radiation-induced defects in kaolinite (trapped in duricrusts) analysed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) (Balan et al., 2005), and (ii

  18. Cuba After Castro: Implications of Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullington, Johnny R

    2005-01-01

    .... In addition, the biological aging of Fidel Castro, as well as the downward spiral of the Cuban economy and well-being of Cuban citizens point to what may be a ripening chance for democracy in Cuba...

  19. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, U.S. policy toward Cuba under Fidel Castro has consisted largely of isolating the communist nation through comprehensive economic sanctions, which have been significantly tightened by the Bush Administration...

  20. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  1. The Curious Case of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    As health professionals in the United States consider how to focus health care and coverage to ensure better, more equitable patient and population health outcomes, the experience of Cuba’s National Health System over the last 5 decades may provide useful insights. Although mutual awareness has been limited by long-term political hostilities between the United States and Cuban governments, the history and details of the Cuban health system indicate that their health system merits attention as an example of a national integrated approach resulting in improved health status. More extensive analysis of the principles, practices, and outcomes in Cuba is warranted to inform health system transformation in the United States, despite differences in political-social systems and available resources. PMID:22698011

  2. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Comisión Cubana de Derechos Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba a Inicios del 2010: Continúa empeorando la situación de derechos humanos,” January 19...market-based economy. The report also outlined a series of preparatory steps in the areas of government organization, electoral preparation, and...Policy During the electoral campaign, President Obama had pledged to lift restrictions on family travel to Cuba as well as restrictions on Cuban

  3. Assessment of bauxite, clay, and laterite deposits in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Karine M.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2015-01-01

    Bauxite-bearing rocks are present in several regions of Afghanistan; specifically, the southeast segment of the North Afghanistan Platform, the eastern parts of South Afghanistan, and within the Afghanistan-North and -South Pamir Fold Regions. Bauxite-bearing rocks occur at various stratigraphic levels, in lithologically different sequences of sedimentary rocks. The bauxites are paleosols and represent previous, rather than recent, weathering events. Bauxites and bauxite-type horizons are most common at the base of carbonate rock units, where they form the basal horizons of sedimentary rock sequences separated by erosion and stratigraphic unconformity surfaces. Less common are zones in redeposited weathering developed on igneous rocks. At present there are five known stratigraphic intervals with significant bauxite and bauxite-type deposits and occurrences: the lower Permian, the upper Permian, the Upper Triassic, the Lower Jurassic, and the base of the Upper Jurassic.

  4. Pediatric Gastroenterology in Cuba: Evolution and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Guillot, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION This is a historical review based on document analysis. Institutional sources from the National Gastroenterology Institute and Ministry of Public Health were reviewed, as well as international and national literature on the history of pediatric gastroenterology and unpublished texts since its emergence in 1972. DEVELOPMENT Although pediatric gastroenterology has not been formally recognized as a medical specialty in Cuba, there have been important achievements in establishing a network of specialized health care services for digestive diseases of children and adolescents. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and other auxiliary diagnostic modalities have been introduced for children and play a major role in clinical trials and research. This article describes the international context that promoted the specialty's development in Cuba. Reference is made to specialized training from its initial stages in 1972, its consolidation as an emerging discipline in Cuban medicine, and its diffusion in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Professional development and specialized training to meet health human resource needs in pediatric hospitals are described, as well as Cuban participation in the Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. National and international milestones, publications, awards and recognitions that indicate advances despite difficulties are also

  5. Elementary and isotopic geochemistry of vein goethite in laterite-gossanic crusts from the Igarape Bahia gold mine (Carajas, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Marcondes Lima da; Schumann, Thomas; Poellmann, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    The lateritic crusts of the gold mine from the Igarape Bahia, in Carajas, situated at Para state, Brazil, present themselves frequently sectioned by the goethite sub-vertical veins. The veins have the following measures: until 10 cm of thickness and more than 6 m of length. This work aims to characterize the textural, mineralogical and chemical aspects of these veins, in order to understand its evolution, mainly the relation with the laterites and its geological importance, including the aspects referents to the mineral prospecting. (author)

  6. Morphology and composition of gold in a lateritic profile, Fazenda Pison “Garimpo”, Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larizzatti, J. H.; Oliveira, S. M. B.; Butt, C. R. M.

    2008-05-01

    This study describes the morphological evolution of gold grains in a lateritic weathering profile in an equatorial rainforest climate. Primary sources of gold are quartz veins associated with shallow granophyric intrusion. Gold grains were found in fresh ore, saprolite, transition zones, ferruginous duricrust, red latosol, and yellow latosol. Irregularly shaped grains predominate, with smaller proportions of dendritic and prismatic forms. Gold grains are weathered in the uppermost 10 m of the regolith. Mean gold grain size is maximum in the duricrust (>125 μm) and decreases progressively upward into the yellow latosol (duricrust formation may preserve some grains as large aggregates, but subsequent transformation into latosol further modifies them.

  7. Effect of hydrated lime on compressive strength mortar of fly ash laterite soil geopolymer mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsa, F. A.; Tjaronge, M. W.; Djamaluddin, A. R.; Muhiddin, A. B.

    2017-11-01

    This paper explored the suitability of fly ash, hydrated lime, and laterite soil with several activator (sodium hydroxide and sodium tiosulfate) to produce geopolymer mortar. Furthermore, the heat that released by hydrated lime was used instead of oven curing. In order to produce geopolymer mortar without oven curing, three variations of curing condition has been applied. Based on the result, all the curing condition showed that the hardener mortar can be produced and exhibited the increasing of compressive strength of geopolymer mortar from 3 days to 7 days without oven curing.

  8. Improved removal of iodine-125 from effluents by the soil column method using a laterite soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, S H [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1997-02-01

    The soil column experiments were conducted to treat the liquid wastes from hospitals containing {sup 125}I. Three sorbent samples of laterite clay materials with different content of iron oxides (geothite, {alpha}-FeOOH) and hydroxides were used to sorb anionic iodate. Post-treatment of the liquid wastes with sodium hypochlorite (redox reagent) oxidized the iodide to the desirable iodate ion. pH after treatment ranges between 4.8 to 5.8 that is not very much different from the initial value pH4.5. The results show that 90 to 97% sorption of iodine with the decontamination factor between 10-32 could be obtained after the first two hours of experiments. The concentration has decreased from an initial value of 10 Bq{center_dot}mL{sup -1} to the concentration ranges 0.3 to 0.9 Bq{center_dot}mL{sup -1}. For the soil at pH between 4.5 to 6.0, positive charges predominated on the kaolinite, geothite and aluminum hydroxides. The negative {sup 125}I anions were electrostatically held by the positive charges on the mineral components of the laterite clay materials. The treated effluents could be released to the environment safely after further dilution and decay. The storage period will decrease tremendously providing better management for the disposal of the wastes by generators. The batch experiments conducted using different sorbent masses of soils, show that there was a drop in sorption where the mass of soils falls below approximately between 0 to 0.25 g. The sorption remains constant with the soil mass above 0.25 g. Another batch experiment using different concentration, shows that adsorption capacity of the laterite soil was 1.1 {mu}Ci/g. The adsorption is about 96% with a distribution coefficient of 1170. The experiments conducted show that anionic iodate in the liquid wastes can be removed by the laterite soil material. The column treatment method was more effective, easy to handle, and has low a capital and maintenance cost. (author). 9 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. Uranium isotope composition of a laterite profile during extreme weathering of basalt in Guangdong, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Zhou, Z.; Gong, Y.; Lundstrom, C.; Huang, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rock weathering and soil formation in the critical zone are important for material cycle from the solid Earth to superficial system. Laterite is a major type of soil in South China forming at hot-humid climate, which has strong effect on the global uranium cycle. Uranium is closely related to the environmental redox condition because U is stable at U(Ⅳ) in anoxic condition and U(Ⅵ) as soluble uranyl ion (UO22+) under oxic circumstance. In order to understand the behavior of U isotopes during crust weathering, here we report uranium isotopic compositions of soil and base rock samples from a laterite profile originated from extreme weathering of basalt in Guangdong, South China. The uranium isotopic data were measured on a Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign using the double spike method. The δ238U of BCR-1 is -0.29±0.03‰ (relative to the international standard CRM-112A), corresponding to a 238U/235U ratio of 137.911±0.004. Our result of BCR-1 agrees with previous analyses (e.g., -0.28‰ in Weyer et al. 2008) [1]. U contents of the laterite profile decrease from 1.9 ppm to 0.9 ppm with depth, and peak at 160 - 170 cm (2.3 ppm), much higher than the U content of base rocks (~0.5 ppm). In contrary, U/Th of laterites is lower than that of base rock (0.27) except the peak at the depth of 160-170 cm (0.38), indicating significant U loss during weathering. Notably, U isotope compositions of soils show a small variation from -0.38 to -0.28‰, consistent with the base rock within analytical error (0.05‰ to 0.08‰, 2sd). Such small variation can be explained by a "rind effect" (Wang et al., 2015) [2], by which U(Ⅳ) can be completely oxidized to U(VI) layer by layer during basalt weathering by dissolved oxygen. Therefore, our study indicates that U loss during basalt weathering at the hot-humid climate does not change U isotope composition of superficial water system. [1] Weyer S. et al. (2008) Natural fractionation of 238U/235

  10. National Program of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Samper, J. L.; Dominguez Hung, L.; Morales Lopez, J. L.; Alfonso Laguardia, R.; Garcia Yip, F.

    2001-01-01

    It tries on the establishment of a Quality Assurance Nacional System, a Quality Assurance Committee implemented in Cuba, and a Quality Auditory National Program implemented in Cuba to control and assure radiotherapy quality

  11. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in Cuba...

  12. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  13. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  14. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.570 Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. (a) Family... older are authorized to make remittances to nationals of Cuba who are close relatives, as defined in...

  15. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...

  16. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13 of...

  17. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  18. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Loureiro

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%, mainly A2 (149, 60% but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%, with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7. Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  19. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  20. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  1. EFFECTS OF COMPACTIVE EFFORTS ON GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SPENT ENGINE OIL CONTAMINATED LATERITE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUREMI, J. ROTIMI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effects of compactive efforts and spent engine oil (SEO contamination on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soils was made. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing lateritic soil with up to 10 % SEO by dry weight of the soil in step concentration of 2 % and subjected to geotechnical tests. Results indicated a decrease in the fine content, decrease in liquid limit, maximum dry density (MDD and unconfined compressive strength (UCS with up to 10 % SEO content. No general trend was observed in the optimum moisture content (OMC with increasing SEO content. The MDD, OMC and UCS values increased with increase in the compactive effort. Regression analysis of the results showed that optimum moisture content, fine content and compactive effort significantly influence the soils UCS values. Analysis of variance showed that SEO and compactive effort has significant effect on the parameters with the exception in one case. The results of laboratory tests showed that geotechnical properties of the SEO contaminated soil were immensely impaired.

  2. Effects of Palm Kernel Shell Ash on Lime-Stabilized Lateritic Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnochiri, Emeka Segun; Ogundipe, Olumide M.; Oluwatuyi, Opeyemi E.

    2017-09-01

    The research investigated the effects of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) on lime-stabilized lateritic soil. Preliminary tests were performed on three soil samples, i.e., L1, L2 and L3 for identification; the results showed that L1 was A-7-6, L2 was A-7-6, and L3 was A-7-6. The optimum amount of lime for each of the soil samples was achieved. The optimum amount for L1 was 10%, for L2, 8% and for L3, 10%; at these values they recorded the lowest plasticity indexes. The further addition of PKSA was performed by varying the amount of PKSA and lime added to each of the soil samples. The addition of 4% PKSA+ 6% lime, the addition of 4% PKSA + 4% lime, and the addition of 4% PKSA + 6% lime increased the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) to the highest values for L1, L2 and L3 from 8.20%. It was concluded that PKSA can be a suitable complement for lime stabilization in lateritic soil.

  3. Mineralogical and geochemical aspects of nickeliferous laterite of Vermelho region, Serra dos Carajas (State of Para)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Correa, S.L. de.

    1982-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies were carried out on the nickeliferous laterite of Vermelho region (Serra of Carajas, state of Para). A total of 64 samples were analysed by X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption, spectrophotometry, including bed-rock specimens. The laterite is derived from ultramafic rocks (serpentinites) and there horizons were recognized towards the top: saprolitic horizon with a thickness of more than 4 meters, clay horizon 6,1 meters thick and limonitic horizon with a thickness of 8,3 meters. The process of weathering affected both major and trace elements which were bleached, transported and reprecipitated. This caused variations in the concentration of the elements with depth, except for magnesium which was extensively bleached. Nickel concentrations in the clay horizon probably was a result of ion exchange between smectite and Ni-bearing solutions, the source of this Ni being goethite. Cobalt and zinc were also strongly enriched during the process of laterization, although maximum concentrations of these elements are found in different horizons. (author)

  4. Effects of Density and Moisture Variation on Dynamic Deformation Properties of Compacted Lateritic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of repeated load triaxial tests were conducted in this study to investigate the influences of compaction density and postcompaction moisture variation on the dynamic elastic modulus (Ed and plastic permanent strain (PPS of compacted lateritic soil. Specimens were compacted at optimum moisture content (OMC and three degrees of compaction (90%, 93%, and 96%. Then the specimens were dried or wetted to different moisture contents (OMC, OMC±3%, OMC±6%, and OMC+9% prior to testing for Ed and PPS. Results show that moisture content has greater influence on the Ed and PSS than compaction degree, and the increase in moisture content leads to a decrease of Ed and an increase of PPS. Furthermore, an empirical relationship between Ed and applied cyclic stress (σd is developed that incorporates density and moisture variations. Three different evolution types of PPS with number of load cycles, plastic stable, plastic creep, and incremental collapse, are identified as the increase of moisture content. In addition, the critical dynamic stress (σdc separating stable and unstable deformation is determined based on the shakedown concept. The envelope curves of σdc-moisture of lateritic soil with different degrees of compaction are also determined to provide reference for the pavement design.

  5. Strength Performance Based on Flexibility from Laterite Soil Using Tire Powder and Micro Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Gordan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of environmental issues and human health, one of the advisable techniques to improve soil behavior is the use of scrap tires for soil structures. According to the literature, Tire-Derived Aggregates (TDA are one of the valuable materials in different field of Geotechnical that can be used. TDA properties correspond to some important factors such as high level of flexible, lightweight, high permeability and economic material comparing with sand. Strength performance based on increasing flexibility from laterite soil is the main goal of this study. For this purpose, tropical laterite soil was mixed using TDA and micro silica (MS. As a research method, unconfined tests were carried for thirteen samples based on different percentage of the additives. As a result, the significant reduction for elasticity modulus and strength was observed when soil mixed just using TDA. In addition, the rate of strain at the peak of the curve was dramatically increased. The best performance was found using 6% additives when the ratio was 3% MS and 3% TDA. In fact, the effect of MS was more to increase strength. To recommend, the seepage controlling will investigate at next.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of the reduction process of Colombian lateritic nickel ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, S. C.; Garces, A.; Restrepo, O. J.; Lara, M. A.; Camporredondo, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The Colombian nickeliferous laterites are minerals used for the nickel extraction by hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. In this work the thermodynamic behaviour of three Colombian lateritic mineral samples are described, with contents of 1.42%, 1.78% y 2.04% of nickel, when they are subjected to the calcination and reduction processes. The mineral was characterized using X Rays Diffraction and X Rays Fluorescence, giving evidence of the presence of mineralogical species such as nepouite (Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ), goethite (Fe 2 O 3 .H 2 O), silica (SiO 2 ), antigorite (Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ) and fosferite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ). The thermodynamic analysis was conducted using the software HSC Chemistry for Windows 5.1 and was focused in the quantitative determination of the chemical evolution of the mixture of these minerals with variable quantities of coal, in function of temperature. The results produced by the program showed, in the equilibrium, the feasibility of complete reduction of the nickel, and additionally, a considerable high percentage of reduction of iron oxides (up to 99%) using ratio C/O .1 at temperatures close to 1100 degree centigrade. (Author)

  7. The removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by a lateritic soil adsorption: Kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analia; Bruneel, Stijn P; Schenone, Nahuel; Cirelli, Alicia Fernández

    2018-03-01

    The use of natural sorbents to remove fluoride from drinking water is a promising alternative because of its low-cost and easy implementation. In this article, fluoride adsorption on a latosol soil from Misiones province (Argentina) was studied regarding kinetic and equilibrium aspects. Experiments were conducted in batch at room temperature under controlled conditions of pH 4-8) and ionic strength (1-10mM KNO 3 ). Experimental data indicated that adsorption processes followed a PSO kinetic where initial rates have showed to be influenced by pH solution. The necessary time to reach an equilibrium state had resulted approximately 30min. Equilibrium adsorption studies were performed at pH 8 which is similar to the natural groundwater. For that, fluoride adsorption data were successfully adjusted to Dubinin-Ataskhov model determining that the fluoride adsorption onto soil particles mainly followed a physical mechanism with a removal capacity of 0.48mgg -1 . Finally, a natural groundwater was tested with laterite obtaining a reduction close to 30% from initial concentration and without changing significantly the physicochemical properties of the natural water. Therefore, it was concluded that the use of lateritic soils for fluoride removal is very promising on a domestic scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Soil and Terrain Database for Cuba, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the

  9. Fascioliasis: can Cuba conquer this emerging parasitosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Lázara; Vazquez, Antonio; Domenech, Ingrid; Robertson, Lucy J

    2010-01-01

    Fascioliasis, an emerging parasitic infection, impacts significantly on both veterinary and human health worldwide. Endemic foci are not limited only to areas of extensive livestock farming, but owing to the parasite's abilities to colonise new intermediate hosts and adapt to new environments, also occur in other places, including Cuba. In Cuba, despite a high prevalence of fascioliasis in livestock, and the widespread occurrence of two potential intermediate hosts, human infection has decreased steadily over the past 10 years. In other parts of the world, human fascioliasis is apparently becoming more frequent. Problems in counteracting the spread of fascioliasis, and approaches used in Cuba to limit zoonotic transmission are discussed, with emphasis on diagnostic and treatment problems, malacological initiatives, and the importance of an integrated control programme. Such programmes may be of benefit in other countries where the prevalence of human fascioliasis is increasing, and lessons may perhaps be learned from the Cuban approach. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cuba's 100-year plan for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard

    2018-01-01

    On its deadly run through the Caribbean last September, Hurricane Irma lashed northern Cuba, inundating coastal settlements and scouring away vegetation. Irma lent new urgency to a Cuban national plan, called Tarea Vida, or Project Life, that bans construction of new homes in threatened coastal areas, mandates relocating people from communities doomed by rising sea levels, calls for an overhaul of the country's agricultural system to shift crop production away from saltwater-contaminated areas, and spells out the need to shore up coastal defenses, including by restoring degraded habitat. Project Life stands out for taking a long view: It intends to prepare Cuba for climatological impacts over the next century. Much of the initial funding could come from a $100 million proposal that Cuba plans to submit soon to the Global Climate Fund.

  11. International petroleum agreements : Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Foreign investment in the oil and gas sector has had a profound impact on the development of crude oil production in Cuba. In 1982, in order to encourage economic development, the Cuban government adopted a form of Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for international petroleum agreements. In 1990, the first PSC was negotiated with a consortium of European companies. This was followed in 1992 through 1994 with companies from Canada, Europe and Latin America. Then in 1995, a more comprehensive foreign investment law was enacted to further encourage foreign investment in Cuba. Onshore and shallow water regions of Cuba were divided into 45 blocks, 19 of which were under licence in 2001. In addition, in 1999 the government of Cuba offered 53 blocks in the deep water zones of the Cuban sector of the Gulf of Mexico to foreign investment, of which 6 are already under licence. Most exploration for oil and gas since 1991 has been carried out by foreign companies. Crude oil production in 1991 totalled 11,000 bopd of heavy oil production from the north coast of Cuba. By 2001, domestic crude oil production increased to more than 50,000 bopd, mostly due to foreign investment in exploration and development. This paper described the model form for Cuban Production Sharing Contracts with reference to parties, rights granted, terms, relinquishments, minimum exploration commitments, discovery of hydrocarbons and recovery of petroleum operation expenses. The paper also discussed gross production, cost recovery for contractors, and sharing of profits with contractors and the state oil company, CubaPetroleo. 1 fig

  12. Nickel distribution and isotopic fractionation in a Brazilian lateritic regolith: Coupling Ni isotopes and Ni K-edge XANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratié, G.; Garnier, J.; Calmels, D.; Vantelon, D.; Guimarães, E.; Monvoisin, G.; Nouet, J.; Ponzevera, E.; Quantin, C.

    2018-06-01

    Ultramafic (UM) rocks are known to be nickel (Ni) rich and to weather quickly, which makes them a good candidate to look at the Ni isotope systematics during weathering processes at the Earth's surface. The present study aims at identifying the Ni solid speciation and discussing the weathering processes that produce Ni isotope fractionation in two deep laterite profiles under tropical conditions (Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil). While phyllosilicates and to a lower extent goethite are the main Ni-bearing phases in the saprolitic part of the profile, iron (Fe) oxides dominate the Ni budget in the lateritic unit. Nickel isotopic composition (δ60Ni values) has been measured in each unit of the regolith, i.e., rock, saprock, saprolite and laterite (n = 52). δ60Ni varies widely within the two laterite profiles, from -0.10 ± 0.05‰ to 1.43 ± 0.05‰, showing that significant Ni isotope fractionation occurs during the weathering of UM rocks. Overall, our results show that during weathering, the solid phase is depleted in heavy Ni isotopes due to the preferential sorption and incorporation of light Ni isotopes into Fe oxides; the same mechanisms likely apply to the incorporation of Ni into phyllosilicates (type 2:1). However, an isotopically heavy Ni pool is observed in the solid phase at the bottom of the saprolitic unit. This feature can be explained by two hypotheses that are not mutually exclusive: (i) a depletion in light Ni isotopes during the first stage of weathering due to the preferential dissolution of light Ni-containing minerals, and (ii) the sorption or incorporation of isotopically heavy Ni carried by percolating waters (groundwater samples have δ60Ni of 2.20 and 2.27‰), that were enriched in heavy Ni isotopes due to successive weathering processes in the overlying soil and laterite units.

  13. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Housing and human capital in Cuba | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    Jan 10, 2011 ... Less than half the population had access to safe drinking water. ... talking about Cuba's recent efforts to restore its collapsing urban environment. ... by a team of international researchers, working directly with neighbourhood ...

  14. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma "Who Will Emerge as Cuba's Next Leader"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colmenares, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    .... The beliefs of communism has shaped the hearts and minds of thousands of cubans. This paper provides a future perspective on Cuba's transition as well as identifies potential actors who will emerge as potential leaders once Fidel Castro is gone...

  15. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 janv. 2011 ... ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ... Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) du Canada révèle ... Les ressources déjà limitées sont devenues encore plus rares. ... de l'Institut national pour l'hygiène, l'épidémiologie et la microbiologie (INHEM), ...

  16. Strontium isotopes reveal weathering processes in lateritic covers in southern China with implications for paleogeographic reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao; Wang, Shijie; Ji, Hongbing; Shi, Zhenhua

    2018-01-01

    The isotope ratios of Sr are useful tracers for studying parent material sources, weathering processes, and biogeochemical cycling. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two lateritic weathering covers, in an area close to the Tropic of Cancer (Guangxi Province, southern China), were undertaken to study the regional weathering processes and Sr isotopic sources. We found that weathering and decomposition of Rb- and Sr-bearing minerals change the Sr isotopic composition in weathering products (lateritic soils). Weathering of illite lowered the 87Sr/86Sr ratio whereas dissolving and leaching of carbonate minerals increased the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. An Fe nodular horizon is widely developed on the top of the weathering covers in the studied area and it differs from the lateritic soil horizon in mineral composition, construction, and elemental concentration. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and P2O5 (concentrations) are negatively correlated with the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, suggesting fixation of apatite by Fe oxides is a controlling factor of the Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The 87Sr/86Sr and Nb/Sr ratios imply the contents and proportions of Fe nodules and clay are critical in controlling the changes of Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The two stages of the weathering process of carbonate rocks are revealed by the87Sr/86Sr versus Nb/Sr diagram. The 87Sr/86Sr and Rb/Sr ratios suggest that Sr isotopes in the weathering covers within the studied area are derived mainly from parent rock weathering and that the contributions from allothogenic Sr isotopes are limited. A comparison of Sr isotopic composition signatures in the weathering covers of the studied area and Guizhou Province provided insight into the Sr isotopic source and paleogeographic evolution of southern China. From the Permian to the Triassic, the continental fragment sources of the South China sedimentary basin changed significantly. In the Permian, Southern China presented the

  17. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.T.G. de; Formoso, M.L.L.; Trescases, J.J.; Meunier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen samples from two lateritic profiles, each with five facies, were studied. These profiles occur on the old planation surface of the plateau basalts of the southern part of ParanáBasin, Brazil. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra were used to obtain information about the nature and chemical composition of each weathering facies. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and analyses of clay minerals were performed to detect microcrystalline environmental changes. Both profiles have two major parts: a loose red-clay latosol separated from an underlying mottled clay and an alterite facies; a stone line may or may not be present between the latosol and the underlying units. In both profiles the latosol consists principally of kaolinite, hematite and goethite. Two alterite facies, shaped by differential weathering, are also present in the lower profile: a halloysite–nontronite clayey matrix with a well developed fissure system occurs in the argillaceous alterite and a network of Al–goethite aggregates is typical of the highly porous cortex of the boulder alterite that is found in the stone line and below it. Gibbsite has crystallized in the large pores of porphyritic boulder alterite but is absent in the small pores of the subaphyric boulder alterite. Clay minerals observed in fissures include halloysite associated with goethite and manganese oxides. The basalt has hydrothermal green-clays (mixed layers and trioctahedral smectites) that formed between primary plagioclase, pyroxene and Ti–magnetite crystals while fresh corestones of the boulder alterite have cryptocrystalline iron-rich material. The study of these profiles shows one principal evolutionary trend for clay minerals. This trend is from smectite and mixed layers that form green clays in altered bedrock at the base of the profile to an intermediate association of nontronite and halloysite in the argillaceous

  18. Strontium isotopes reveal weathering processes in lateritic covers in southern China with implications for paleogeographic reconstructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wei

    Full Text Available The isotope ratios of Sr are useful tracers for studying parent material sources, weathering processes, and biogeochemical cycling. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two lateritic weathering covers, in an area close to the Tropic of Cancer (Guangxi Province, southern China, were undertaken to study the regional weathering processes and Sr isotopic sources. We found that weathering and decomposition of Rb- and Sr-bearing minerals change the Sr isotopic composition in weathering products (lateritic soils. Weathering of illite lowered the 87Sr/86Sr ratio whereas dissolving and leaching of carbonate minerals increased the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. An Fe nodular horizon is widely developed on the top of the weathering covers in the studied area and it differs from the lateritic soil horizon in mineral composition, construction, and elemental concentration. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and P2O5 (concentrations are negatively correlated with the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, suggesting fixation of apatite by Fe oxides is a controlling factor of the Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The 87Sr/86Sr and Nb/Sr ratios imply the contents and proportions of Fe nodules and clay are critical in controlling the changes of Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The two stages of the weathering process of carbonate rocks are revealed by the87Sr/86Sr versus Nb/Sr diagram. The 87Sr/86Sr and Rb/Sr ratios suggest that Sr isotopes in the weathering covers within the studied area are derived mainly from parent rock weathering and that the contributions from allothogenic Sr isotopes are limited. A comparison of Sr isotopic composition signatures in the weathering covers of the studied area and Guizhou Province provided insight into the Sr isotopic source and paleogeographic evolution of southern China. From the Permian to the Triassic, the continental fragment sources of the South China sedimentary basin changed significantly. In the Permian, Southern

  19. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Alexandra Sasa

    2013-01-01

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  20. Forest nursery pest management in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Alberto Lopez Castilla; Angela Duarte Casanova; Celia Guerra Rivero; Haylett Cruz Escoto; Natividad Triguero Issasi

    2002-01-01

    A systematic survey of methods to detect pests in forest nurseries before they damage plants was done. These surveys recorded the most important forest nursery pests during 18 years (from 1980 to 1998) and their geographical and temporal distribution in the principal enterprises in Cuba. Approximately a dozen insect species and three fungi species responsible for the...

  1. Cuba: Issues for 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-14

    Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow...park. On April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos

  2. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  3. The effect of smelting time and composition of palm kernel shell charcoal reductant toward extractive Pomalaa nickel laterite ore in mini electric arc furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihotang, Iqbal Huda; Supriyatna, Yayat Iman; Ismail, Ika; Sulistijono

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is a country that is rich in natural resources. Being a third country which has a nickel laterite ore in the world after New Caledonia and Philippines. However, the processing of nickel laterite ore to increase its levels in Indonesia is still lacking. In the processing of nickel laterite ore into metal, it can be processed by pyrometallurgy method that typically use coal as a reductant. However, coal is a non-renewable energy and have high enough levels of pollution. One potentially replace is the biomass, that is a renewable energy. Palm kernel shell are biomass that can be used as a reductant because it has a fairly high fix carbon content. This research aims to make nickel laterite ores become metal using palm kernel shell charcoal as reductant in mini electric arc furnace. The result show that the best smelting time of this research is 60 minutes with the best composition of the reductant is 2,000 gram.

  4. Historical Overview of Leprosy Control in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín-Chaple, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects the nervous system, skin, internal organs, extremities and mucous membranes. Biological, social and environmental factors influence its occurrence and transmission. The first effective treatments appeared in 1930 with the development of dapsone, a sulfone. The main components of a control and elimination strategy are early case detection and timely administration of multidrug therapy. OBJECTIVES Review the history of leprosy control in Cuba, emphasizing particularly results of the National Leprosy Control Program, its modifications and influence on leprosy control. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The historiological method was applied using document review, complemented by interviews with experts on leprosy and its control. Archived documents, medical records, disease prevalence censuses conducted since 1942, and incidence and prevalence statistics for 1960-2015 from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division were reviewed. Reports and scientific literature published on the Program and the history of leprosy in Cuba were also reviewed. DEVELOPMENT Leprosy has been documented in Cuba since 1613. In 1938, the Leprosy Foundation was created with ten dispensaries nationwide for diagnosis and treatment. The first National Leprosy Control Program was established in 1962, implemented in 1963 and revised five times. In 1972, leper colonies were closed and treatment became ambulatory. In 1977, rifampicin was introduced. In 1988, the Program instituted controlled, decentralized, community-based multidrug treatment and established the criteria for considering a patient cured. In 2003, it included actions aimed at early diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of contacts. Since 2008, it prioritizes actions directed toward the population at risk, maintaining five-year followup with dermatological and neurological examination. Primary health care carries out diagnostic and treatment

  5. Partition of rare-earths in phosphates laterites from Maicuru, Brazil - PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, V.P.; Costa, M.L. da.

    1987-01-01

    The phosphatic laterites of Maicuru-Para are formed of aluminium phosphates, mainly of the crandallite group, followed by wardite, augellite and senegallite. The crandallite group is represented in the form of the solid solution goyazite-florencite-crandallite, in variable proportions. In three samples, the florencite occurs as the predominant member, while in the others crandallite is the main mineral. The unit-cell dimension of florencites, in two samples, measured are the same as those of the florencites from other deposits. The rare earths occur mainly in this mineral group with predominance of the light rare earth elements. This is well observed in the condrite normalized REE patterns. These enrichments are not regular. The geochemical characteristics of the rare earth distribution in the crandallites of Maicuru, leads tho suggest this mineral was formed from distinct lithologies. (author) [pt

  6. Effects of Rice Husk Ash on Some Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis O. OKAFOR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is an investigation into the effect of RHA on some geotechnical properties of a lateritic soil classified as A-2-6 (0 or SW for sub-grade purposes. The investigation includes evaluation of properties such as compaction, consistency limits and strength of the soil with RHA content of 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 12.5% by weight of the dry soil. The results obtained show that the increase in RHA content increased the OMC but decreased the MDD. It was also discovered that increase in RHA content, reduced plasticity and increased volume stability as well as the strength of the soil. 10% RHA content was also observed to be the optimum content.

  7. Existing Versus Added Soil Organic Matter in Relation to Phosphorus Availability on Lateritic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadly Hairannoor Yusran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateritic soils (Ultisols and Oxisols are commonly characterised by high phosphate sorbing capacity due to the type of clay and present high content of aluminium (Al and iron (Fe oxides. Addition of fresh organic matter (OM may contribute to management of these soils by releasing more bicarbonate-extractable phosphorus (BP through organic phosphorus (OP transformation, or by the soluble component of OM additions desorbing phosphate by ligand exchange. It is not known, however, whether BP results solely from addition of new OM (by either mineralisation or desorption or from transformation of inherent or pre-existing in soil. We considered that removing the existing soil OM and replacing it with an equivalent amount of new OM may help to resolve this issue, especially with respect to P transformation after OM additions. Three lateritic soils of Western Australia (including a deep regolith material with very low inherent soil OM (SOM were used, and sub-samples of the three soils were combusted (450° C to obtain soils effectively free from existing OM. A further sub-sample of the soils was not combusted. Both soil groups, receiving the same amount of organic carbon (OC, from 80 ton ha-1 biomass + soil OM or biomass equal to soil OM from peat, wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L. and lucerne hay (Medicago sativa L., were incubated for nine months. Soil bicarbonate-extractable P as well as non-extractable P (NP, measured as Total-P (TP-BP increased due to new OM application in the order lucerne hay>peat>wheat straw. The correlation between BP with soil organic carbon (SOC became more positive over time. Microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP was not well correlated with the increase of NP content and phosphatase was not related to the increase in BP. Overall, freshly applied (new OM not only contributed to the increased level of P compared with the existing OM treatment.

  8. Concentration and Separation of Scandium from Ni Laterite Ore Processing Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerif Kaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a considerable amount of scandium in lateritic nickel-cobalt ores necessitates the investigation of possible processing alternatives to recover scandium as a byproduct during nickel and cobalt production. Therefore, in this study, rather than interfering with the main nickel-cobalt production circuit, the precipitation-separation behavior of scandium during a pH-controlled precipitation process from a synthetically prepared solution was investigated to adopt the Sc recovery circuit into an already existing hydrometallurgical nickel-cobalt hydroxide processing plant. The composition of the synthetic solution was determined according to the hydrometallurgical nickel laterite ore processing streams obtained from a HPAL (high-pressure sulphuric acid leaching process. In order to selectively precipitate and concentrate scandium with minimum nickel and cobalt co-precipitation, the pH of the solution was adjusted by CaCO3, MgO, Na2CO3, and NaOH. It was found that precipitation with MgO or Na2CO3 is more advantageous to obtain a precipitate containing higher amounts of scandium with minimum mass when compared to the CaCO3 route, which makes further processing more viable. As a result of this study, it is proposed that by a simple pH-controlled precipitation process, scandium can be separated from the nickel and cobalt containing process solutions as a byproduct without affecting the conventional nickel-cobalt hydroxide production. By further processing this scandium-enriched residue by means of leaching, SX (solvent extraction, and precipitation, an intermediate (NH42NaScF6 product can be obtained.

  9. Modeling thermal performance of exterior walls retrofitted from insulation and modified laterite based bricks materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, Elvis; Meukam, Pierre; Damfeu, Jean Claude

    2017-12-01

    Uninsulated concrete block walls commonly found in tropical region have to be retrofitted to save energy. The thickness of insulation layer used can be reduced with the help of modified laterite based bricks layer (with the considerably lower thermal conductivity than that of concrete block layer) during the retrofit building fabrics. The aim of this study is to determine the optimum location and distribution of different materials. The investigation is carried out under steady periodic conditions under the climatic conditions of Garoua in Cameroon using a Simulink model constructed from H-Tools (the library of Simulink models). Results showed that for the continuous air-conditioned space, the best wall configuration from the maximum time lag, minimum decrement factor and peak cooling transmission load perspective, is dividing the insulation layer into two layers and placing one at the exterior surface and the other layer between the two different massive layers with the modified laterite based bricks layer at the interior surface. For intermittent cooling space, the best wall configuration from the minimum energy consumption depends on total insulation thickness. For the total insulation thickness less than 8 cm approximately, the best wall configuration is placing the half layer of insulation material at the interior surface and the other half between the two different massive layers with the modified earthen material at the exterior surface. Results also showed that, the optimum insulation thickness calculated from the yearly cooling transmission (estimated only during the occupied period) and some economic considerations slightly depends on the location of that insulation.

  10. Hydrogeologic and hydraulic characterization of aquifer and nonaquifer layers in a lateritic terrain (West Bengal, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Sabinaya; Jha, Madan K.; Sharma, Shashi P.

    2018-02-01

    The hydrogeologic and hydraulic characteristics of a lateritic terrain in West Bengal, India, were investigated. Test drilling was conducted at ten sites and grain-size distribution curves (GSDCs) were prepared for 275 geologic samples. Performance evaluation of eight grain-size-analysis (GSA) methods was carried out to estimate the hydraulic conductivity (K) of subsurface formations. Finally, the GSA results were validated against pumping-test data. The GSDCs indicated that shallow aquifer layers are coarser than the deeper aquifer layers (uniformity coefficient 0.19-11.4). Stratigraphy analysis revealed that both shallow and deep aquifers of varying thickness exist at depths 9-40 and 40-79 m, respectively. The mean K estimates by the GSA methods are 3.62-292.86 m/day for shallow aquifer layers and 0.97-209.93 m/day for the deeper aquifer layers, suggesting significant aquifer heterogeneity. Pumping-test data indicated that the deeper aquifers are leaky confined with transmissivity 122.69-693.79 m2/day, storage coefficient 1.01 × 10-7-2.13 × 10-4 and leakance 2.01 × 10-7-34.56 × 10-2 day-1. Although the K values yielded by the GSA methods are generally larger than those obtained from the pumping tests, the Slichter, Harleman and US Bureau Reclamation (USBR) GSA methods yielded reasonable values at most of the sites (1-3 times higher than K estimates by the pumping-test method). In conclusion, more reliable aquifers exist at deeper depths that can be tapped for dependable water supply. GSA methods such as Slichter, Harleman and USBR can be used for the preliminary assessment of K in lateritic terrains in the absence of reliable field methods.

  11. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  12. An educator's perspective on the emerging Cuba and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Carla D

    2006-01-01

    Plagued by many years of frequent leadership changes, and influences from power brokers whose policies and politics were oftentimes detrimental to Cuba's emerging as an industrialized and diverse economy nation, Cuba is now attempting to move beyond the survival mode. After the symbiotic relationship between the Soviet Union was dismantled in the 90s, Cuba is now undergoing metamorphoses of growth and change, socially, politically and culturally, while still remaining a mixture of worlds both rural and urban. This narrative article describes the multicultural experiences that an American university professor recently experienced while visiting Cuba.

  13. Interfacial reactions between humic-like substances and lateritic clay: application to the preparation of "geomimetic" materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goure-Doubi, Herve; Martias, Céline; Lecomte-Nana, Gisèle Laure; Nait-Ali, Benoît; Smith, Agnès; Thune, Elsa; Villandier, Nicolas; Gloaguen, Vincent; Soubrand, Marilyne; Konan, Léon koffi

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms responsible for the strengthening of "geomimetic" materials, especially the chemical bonding between clay and humic substances. The mineral matter is lateritic clay which mainly consists in kaolinite, goethite, hematite and quartz. The other starting products are fulvic acid (FA) and lime. The preparation of these geomimetic materials is inspired from the natural stabilization of soils by humic substances occurring over thousands of years. The present process involves acidic and alkaline reactions followed by a curing period of 18days at 60°C under a water saturated atmosphere. The acceleration of the strengthening process usually observed in soils makes this an original process for treatment of soils. The consolidation of the "geomimetic" materials could result from two major phenomena: (i) chemical bonding at the interface between the clay particles and iron compounds and the functional groups of the fulvic acid, (ii) a partial dissolution of the clay grains followed by the precipitation of the cementitious phases, namely calcium silicate hydrates, calcium aluminate hydrates and mixed calcium silicum and aluminum hydrates. Indeed, the decrease of the BET specific area of the lateritic clay after 24 h of reaction with FA added to the structural reorganization observed between 900 and 1000°C in the "geomimetic" material, and to the results of adsorption measurements, confirm the formation of organo-ferric complexes. The presence of iron oxides in clay, in the form of goethite, appears to be another parameter in favor of a ligand exchange process and the creation of binding bridges between FA and the mineral matter. Indeed all faces of goethite are likely to be involved in complexation reactions whereas in lateritic clay only lateral faces could be involved. The results of the adsorption experiments realized at a local scale will improve our understandings about the process of adsorption of FA on lateritic

  14. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  15. Evaluation of Digital Classification of Polarimetric SAR Data for Iron-Mineralized Laterites Mapping in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber G. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the potential of C- and L-band polarimetric SAR data for the discrimination of iron-mineralized laterites in the Brazilian Amazon region. The study area is the N1 plateau located on the northern border of the Carajás Mineral Province, the most important Brazilian mineral province which has numerous mineral deposits, particularly the world’s largest iron deposits. The plateau is covered by low-density savanna-type vegetation (campus rupestres which contrasts visibly with the dense equatorial forest. The laterites are subdivided into three units: chemical crust, iron-ore duricrust, and hematite, of which only the latter two are of economic interest. Full polarimetric data from the airborne R99B sensor of the SIVAM/CENSIPAM (L-band system and the RADARSAT-2 satellite (C-band were evaluated. The study focused on an assessment of distinct schemes for digital classification based on decomposition theory and hybrid approach, which incorporates statistical analysis as input data derived from the target decomposition modeling. The results indicated that the polarimetric classifications presented a poor performance, with global Kappa values below 0.20. The accuracy for the identification of units of economic interest varied from 55% to 89%, albeit with high commission error values. In addition, the results using L-band were considered superior compared to C-band, which suggest that the roughness scale for laterite discrimination in the area is nearer to L than to C-band.

  16. Effect of pulp density and particle size on indirect bioleaching of Pomalaa nickel laterite using metabolic citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, H. B. T. M.; Wanta, K. C.; Setiawan, H.; Perdana, I.; Astuti, W.

    2018-01-01

    Nickel laterite ore contains oxide of iron, aluminum or both with nickel, cobalt and chromium which can be leached out using hydrometallurgical process. For the purpose of meeting the world’s increasing demand of nickel, there is a need to invent environmentally friendly process to efficiently leach nickel. This experiment used nickel laterite ore obtained from Pomalaa, South Sulawesi. The leaching agent is metabolic citric acid produced by Aspergillus niger under optimum condition. Leaching process was done in three-necked flask in atmospheric temperature and constant stirring speed of 200 rpm. The variable examined in the experiment was pulp density and particle size of nickel laterite ore. Samples were taken at 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 minutes and then filtered and diluted to be analyzed using ICP-AES. The result of the experiment showed the maximum recovery of metals increase with the decrease of the pulp density. The maximum recovery for varying pulp density were at 5% solid/liquid ratio and the recovery were Ni at 1.63%, Al at 0.47%, Fe at 0.23% and Mg at 1.09%. The effect of particle size on leaching process showed that the leaching process follows the shrinking core model. The maximum recovery of metals at particle size were at 100-120 mesh with Ni at 1.37%, Fe at 0.10%, Al at 0.72% and Mg at 0.62%.

  17. Inorganic polymers from laterite using activation with phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution: Mechanical and microstructural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzo Ferrari, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Enzo Ferrari, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy))" >Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena; Enzo Ferrari, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Enzo Ferrari, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy))" >Romagnoli, Marcello; Pollastri, Simone; Gualtieri, Alessandro F.

    2015-01-01

    Geopolymers from laterite, an iron-rich soil available in developing countries, have great potential as building materials. In this work, laterite from Togo (Africa) was used to prepare geopolymers using both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution. Microstructural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mercury porosimetry, whereas thermal properties were evaluated by thermal analyses. The local environment of iron was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XANES region). The mechanical properties were determined. Modulus of Rupture and Young's modulus fell in the ranges 3.3–4.5 MPa and 12–33 GPa, respectively, rendering the materials good candidates for construction purposes. Heating above 900 °C results in weight-gain, presumably due to iron redox reactions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy data evidence changes in the chemical and structural environments of iron following thermal treatment of geopolymers. These changes indicate interaction between the geopolymer structure and iron during heating, possibly leading to redox properties. -- Highlights: •Geopolymerization of laterite is promising for fabrication of building materials. •Both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution can be used for activation. •Thermally activated redox properties of the inorganic polymers were observed

  18. Inorganic polymers from laterite using activation with phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution: Mechanical and microstructural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria " Enzo Ferrari" , Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello [Dipartimento di Ingegneria " Enzo Ferrari" , Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Pollastri, Simone; Gualtieri, Alessandro F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19I, I-41121 Modena (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Geopolymers from laterite, an iron-rich soil available in developing countries, have great potential as building materials. In this work, laterite from Togo (Africa) was used to prepare geopolymers using both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution. Microstructural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mercury porosimetry, whereas thermal properties were evaluated by thermal analyses. The local environment of iron was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XANES region). The mechanical properties were determined. Modulus of Rupture and Young's modulus fell in the ranges 3.3–4.5 MPa and 12–33 GPa, respectively, rendering the materials good candidates for construction purposes. Heating above 900 °C results in weight-gain, presumably due to iron redox reactions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy data evidence changes in the chemical and structural environments of iron following thermal treatment of geopolymers. These changes indicate interaction between the geopolymer structure and iron during heating, possibly leading to redox properties. -- Highlights: •Geopolymerization of laterite is promising for fabrication of building materials. •Both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution can be used for activation. •Thermally activated redox properties of the inorganic polymers were observed.

  19. Co-reduction of Copper Smelting Slag and Nickel Laterite to Prepare Fe-Ni-Cu Alloy for Weathering Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Pan, Jian; Zhu, Deqing; Zhang, Feng

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a new technique was proposed for the economical and environmentally friendly recovery of valuable metals from copper smelting slag while simultaneously upgrading nickel laterite through a co-reduction followed by wet magnetic separation process. Copper slag with a high FeO content can decrease the liquidus temperature of the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system and facilitate formation of liquid phase in a co-reduction process with nickel laterite, which is beneficial for metallic particle growth. As a result, the recovery of Ni, Cu, and Fe was notably increased. A crude Fe-Ni-Cu alloy with 2.5% Ni, 1.1% Cu, and 87.9% Fe was produced, which can replace part of scrap steel, electrolytic copper, and nickel as the burden in the production of weathering steel by an electric arc furnace. The study further found that an appropriate proportion of copper slag and nickel laterite in the mixture is essential to enhance the reduction, acquire appropriate amounts of the liquid phase, and improve the growth of the metallic alloy grains. As a result, the liberation of alloy particles in the grinding process was effectively promoted and the metal recovery was increased significantly in the subsequent magnetic separation process.

  20. Nuclear cardiology in Cuba present and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peix González, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Heart Diseases represent the first cause of death worldwide (WHO, 2011); 80% of these deaths in developing countries (WHO, 2011); Coronary Heart Disease is responsible of 69% of all cardiovascular deaths. In Cuba, National programs have been developed to control the most important associated coronary risk factors; Research projects have been also carried out as part of the Ministry of Public Health’s program on non-transmissible chronic diseases; Strengthening of Nuclear Cardiology in Cuba, as well as its adequate integration in a diagnosis algorithm, focusing on improving the quality of medical care, in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Recommendations: Extend Nuclear Cardiology throughout the country; Conduct cost-effectiveness studies comparing different imaging techniques in cardiology; Develop coronary flow and metabolic studies with PET; Introducing studying adrenergic innervation; Develop hybrid imaging in cardiology; Set up committees of experts to analyze the value of different imaging techniques in cardiology in accordance with the possibilities and resources of Cuba, aimed at the implementation of a medicine individualized for patients. (author)

  1. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses-Ruiz, E.; Turtos-Carbonell, L.M.; Oviedo-Rivero, I.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  2. Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Cuba, 1983- 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio E. Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD is a worldwide health problem. In Cuba, vaccination against meningococcal B-C has been carried out since 1989. The study aimed at describing the epidemiology of IMD in Cuba from 1983 to 2006 and at contributing to the immunization strategy. A descriptive and analytical study was carried out. Epidemiological data was obtained from the National Surveillance System at the Institute "Pedro Kourí". More than 1 000 cases were reported in 1986 and the overall incidence was above 10/100 000 inhabitants. Since 1989 a remarkable and continuous decline in the incidence was observed. In the last nine years a strong association of IMD to boarding school students (OR=9.4; confidence interval 95%: 5.1-17.4, recluses (OR=5.9; CI 95%: 1.5 -24.3 and day students (OR=3.9; CI 95%: 2.8-5.6 was observed. Housewife (OR=4.9; CI 95%: 1.9-12.4 and pensioned (OR=4.5; CI 95%: 1.2-16.8 showed association with mortality. Previous vaccination was a protective factor against morbidity (OR=0.6; CI 95%: 0.4-1.0 and mortality (OR=0.4; CI 95%: 0.2-0.9 by IMD. Neisseria meningitidis B4:P1.15 was the main circulating strain. Incidence of IMD declined markedly in Cuba by using group BC strain-specific meningococcal vaccine.

  3. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  4. Understanding the residence of Co in ore minerals - towards the development of novel Co extraction strategies for laterite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybowska, Agnieszka; Norman, Rachel; Schofield, Paul; Herrington, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Cobalt has unique properties highly valued for many applications essential to the green economy. It has been classified as a critical raw material due to the particularly high risk of supply shortage and its importance for the value chain. Despite low crustal abundance (25ppm), Co is concentrated by various geological processes to concentrations suitable for mining, however the majority of Co is recovered as a by-product of Cu and Ni processing in three principal geological settings: hydrothermal, magmatic and lateritic. Cobalt-rich laterites, which provide 20% of the world's Co, are mainly processed using energy-inefficient pyrometallurgical techniques or high-pressure acid leaching technologies often optimised for extraction of other elements, which can leave between 50 and 80% of the Co unrecovered. In order to develop more efficient Co extraction strategies, understanding the residence of Co in ore minerals is essential. To this end, we are undertaking a detailed mineralogical, chemical and atomistic-scale characterization of Co in samples from a range of laterite deposits. Bulk samples representative of the average ore material were sourced from a variety of undeveloped laterite deposits: Shevchenko (Kazakhstan), Acoje (Philippines), Nkamouna (Cameroon) and Piauí (Brazil). Bulk chemical and mineralogical characterisation was undertaken with ICP-OES/MS and XRD, followed by spatially resolved chemical and mineralogical imaging at the micron scale using µXRD, EPMA, SEM and synchrotron-based µXRF. The chemical state and local environment of Co were determined using X ray spectroscopy (μXANES and μEXAFS). The total concentrations of Co ranged from 630 to 2780 mg/kg. The ore mineral assemblage in the various samples includes goethite, maghemite, hematite, quartz, talc, serpentines, chlorites, smectites, kaolinite and chromites. Manganese oxide minerals are present but, due to their poor crystallinity and low concentration, are not routinely detectable with bulk

  5. Diccionario del español de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Reinhold

    2000-01-01

    Diccionario del español de Cuba : español de Cuba - español de España / Günther Haensch ; Reinhold Werner. - Madrid : Gredos, 2000. - LVIII, 606 S. - (Diccionarios contrastivos del español de América)

  6. Perspectivas para la lexicografía especializada en Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    1995-01-01

    En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika......En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika...

  7. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : L'innovation agricole à Cuba | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 janv. 2011 ... La recherche de solutions de rechange viables. ... Ces observations résument bien une nouvelle approche et une nouvelle attitude à l'égard de la recherche agricole à Cuba, .... principal au CRDI, et Bob Stanley, rédacteur scientifique. ... voir le site de l'Institut international des ressources phytogénétiques ...

  8. Biocatalytic and chemical leaching of a low-grade nickel laterite ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Hasan; Atik, Suleyman; Gurbuz, Fatma

    2018-04-01

    Nickel and cobalt recovery from a low-grade nickel laterite ore, supplied from Çaldağ deposit (Manisa, Turkey) were investigated by bio and chemical leaching processes. The fungus, Aspergillus niger was used for biocatalytic leaching experiments. The effects of parameters (solid ratio and sucrose concentration) on the biocatalytic leaching of the ore were initially tested in flasks to obtain the optimum conditions for the A. niger. Then chemical leaching was applied as a comparison to bioleaching, using organic acids (citric, oxalic, acetic and gluconic acids) as well as a mixture of acids. According the results, the maximum dissolution yield of nickel, cobalt and iron were detected respectively as 95.3%, 74.3% and 50.0% by biocatalytic processes which containing 25% (w/v) sucrose and 1% (w/v) solids. The increase in the solid ratio adversely influenced the biocatalytic activity of A. niger. Finally, further tests in reactors (v = 1 and 10 L) were performed using the optimum conditions from the flask tests. The difference in metals recovery between biocatalytic and chemical leaching was significantly important. Bioleaching produced higher Ni and Co extractions (34.3-75.6%) than chemical process.

  9. Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-qin; Zhang, Jia-en; Ouyang, Ying; Lin, Ling; Quan, Guo-ming; Zhao, Ben-liang; Yu, Jia-yu

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the impact of simulated acid rain (SAR) on nutrient leaching, microbial biomass, and microbial activities in a lateritic red soil in South China. The soil column leaching experiment was conducted over a 60-day period with the following six SAR pH treatments (levels): 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 and one control treatment (pH = 7). Compared with the control treatment, the concentrations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and average well color density (AWCD) in the Ecoplates were all significantly decreased by leaching with SAR at different pH levels. The decrease in MBC and MBN indicated that acid rain reduced the soil microbial population, while the decrease in AWCD revealed that acid rain had a negative effect on soil bacterial metabolic function. Soil basal respiration increased gradually from pH 4.0 to 7.0 but decreased dramatically from pH 2.5 to 3.0. The decrease in soil nutrient was the major reason for the change of soil microbial functions. A principal component analysis showed that the major carbon sources used by the bacteria were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids.

  10. The distribution pattern of main and trace elements in phosphatic laterites from Pirocaua Plateau (MA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, N.V.M. de.

    1982-01-01

    The phosphate-laterite of Pirocaua (state of Maranhao) was studied with basis on several lines of evidence, namely, structure of the deposit, mineral distribution, variations in chemical composition and chemistry of ground waters in the region. The distribution of elements during the formation of the deposit is interpreted and the conditioning factors analysed. Air and water samples were studied respectively by X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results show that fluctuations of the hydrostatic level were important during the formation of the phosphate horizon. When the deposit was formed there was also a decrease of the activity of the silicic acid and a parallel increase of acidity towards the top of the cross-section studied. In these conditions, Fe sup(2+) migrated towards the top of the deposit and was precipitated as Fe sup(3+) in the oxidizing zone. Migration of phosphate was in part due to its affinities to clay minerals, in which mechanism ground water played a major role. Mass balance calculations indicate that of the parent-rock is a phyllite, it is necessary an extreme enrichment in P and Sr to give the composition of the phosphate horizon. With basis on these observations we conclude that: 1) the parent-rock must have contents of P and Sr higher than the average for phyllites; or 2) the phosphate has some other source. (author)

  11. Radurization of spices by irradiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gil, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, E.; Pino, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the research results that prove the technical feasibility according to the hygiene conditions existing in Cuba for irradiating different spices. The results show both the possibility and and the benefit of using a one irradiation application to these products. One global average doses of 5 KGy was enough for decontaminating black pepper, paprika, cumin, must meg and oregano without affecting either their chemical components or the quality of their taste. Sausages manufactured with irradiated spices did not irradiating spices is much higher that of fumigation, et has many important social and economic advantages

  12. Implementation of QUANUM in Cuba. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Lopez Diaz, A.; Torres Arocha, L.; Coca Perez, M. A.; Fernandez Herrera, A. O.

    2011-01-01

    Setting up quality management systems in nuclear medicine in Cuba has been an aim for medical physicists. In the last decade, we have walked with steady steps towards that direction, by setting up national standards and regulations, and carrying out research projects in order to ensure the improvement of quality assurance and management programs. In 2010 the IAEA's QUANUM document has been applied, as a methodology for quality management audits in nuclear medicine. Five audits have shown that most of class A regulatory items are guaranteed at nuclear medicine services. However, quality management system performing is still inappropriate. (Author) 13 refs.

  13. Nuclear law in Cuba. Utopia or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, Ivonne

    2009-01-01

    The present article is a summary review of the legal basis for the use of nuclear energy in Cuba. Background, historical evolution and the current concept of the Cuban legislation are approached by illustrating the reader on a topic that is practically unknown, in spite of its daily presence in places such as hospitals, factories or airports. The awareness, perception and acceptance of nuclear energy applications consequently should have an impact on the ignorance of their legal edges, the issue we approached presenting a group of weighing elements, in pursue of the answer. Utopia or Reality

  14. Sector profile: Petroleum sector in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The Cuban oil industry started in 1860 when an oil well was drilled in Matanzas province. About 200 wells were drilled up until 1959. In the past 30 years, the oil industry has become a priority sector; in 1985-1990, about US$500 million were invested in the industry, with increases in exploration and well drilling activity. Recently completed works include pipelines and a supertanker terminal. About 10 million tons of oil are imported annually and local production averages about 800,000 metric tons per year. Most of the oil found in Cuba so far is of the heavy type, as found in western Canada. There are about 10 small and medium-sized oil deposits, mainly located in the north. The most promising oil field is at Varadero, whose characteristics are similar to the Cold Lake field in Alberta. Cuban oil refining capacity is over 7.6 million metric tons per year, and additional capacity is being constructed. All imports of oil industry equipment are conducted via state trading agencies. Export opportunities of interest to Canadian companies are outlined, along with monetary constraints affecting imports to Cuba, financing and export insurance programs available to Canadian companies, and recommendations to Canadian exporters. A list of industry/government contacts is included

  15. Genesis of a mottled horizon by Fe-depletion within a laterite cover in the Amazon Basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolen , Vania; Lamotte , Mathieu; Boulet , René; Trichet , Jean; Rouer , Olivier; José Melfi , Adolpho

    2002-01-01

    A mottled horizon in a laterite cover (without any duricrust) was studied by microscopy and quantitative chemical microanalysis. Apart from the voids, light red spots consisting of Fe-rich particles (≈2 μm) are set in clayey plasma. Dark red spots consisted of concentrations of Fe-rich particles. These patterns are inherited. On the border of structural or biological voids, where Fe-depletion features are systematic, gray or yellow spots result from dissolution of the Fe-rich particles and im...

  16. Effect of the use nickeliferous laterite and pumice as additives in the performance and durability of the Portland cement

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda-Gualdrón, María Carolina; Vega-Nuñez, Karen Milena; Ríos-Reyes, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluated the pozzolanic behavior of the niqueliferous laterite of Cerromatoso (Córdoba) and the pumice of Cemex (Boyacá), based on the NTC standards for fine aggregates. The mortars were prepared with additions of 2.5%, 5% and 10% as substitutes of type I Portland cement, which tested to extreme environments (high temperatures and chemical attacks with H2SO4 y MgSO4). Results demonstrates how these alternative materials increase or decrease their puzolanic degree, as well as the ef...

  17. Moessbauer study of the evolution of a laterite iron mineral based catalyst: effect of the activation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubeiro, M.L.; Goldwasser, M.R.; Perez Zurita, M.J.; Franco, C.; Gonzalez-Jimenez, F.; Jaimes, E.

    1994-01-01

    The syngas reaction has been studied using a laterite iron mineral, promoted with K and Mn. In situ activation under syngas, as well as pre-treatment with H 2 followed by CO under mild and more severe conditions were tested. These activation procedures led to different iron phase compositions and to different catalytic selectivities. The C 2 -C 4 /CH 4 ratio was significantly lower for those catalysts which after reaction showed the presence of hexagonal carbide and magnetite compared to the solid, which showed the highest proportion of Haegg carbide. (orig.)

  18. Graham Greene and Cuba: Our man in Havana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hulme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Graham Greene’s novel Our Man in Havana was published on October 6, 1958. Seven days later Greene arrived in Havana with Carol Reed to arrange for the filming of the script of the novel, on which they had both been working. Meanwhile, after his defeat of the summer offensive mounted by the Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista, in the mountains of eastern Cuba, just south of Bayamo, Fidel Castro had recently taken the military initiative: the day after Greene and Reed’s arrival on the island, Che Guevara reached Las Villas, moving westwards towards Havana. Six weeks later, on January 1, 1959, after Batista had fled the island, Castro and his Cuban Revolution took power. In April 1959 Greene and Reed were back in Havana with a film crew to film Our Man in Havana. The film was released in January 1960. A note at the beginning of the film says that it is “set before the recent revolution.” In terms of timing, Our Man in Havana could therefore hardly be more closely associated with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. But is that association merely accidental, or does it involve any deeper implications? On the fiftieth anniversary of novel, film, and Revolution, that seems a question worth investigating, not with a view to turning Our Man in Havana into a serious political novel, but rather to exploring the complexities of the genre of comedy thriller and to bringing back into view some of the local contexts which might be less visible now than they were when the novel was published and the film released.

  19. Rare earth element mineralogy and geochemistry in a laterite profile from Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Alfons; Janots, Emilie; Gnos, Edwin; Frei, Robert; Bernier, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary REE-mineralogy depend on redox conditions inside a laterite. • Detailed mineralogy in different layers of a laterite is given. • A Gd-sulfate is described. • Change in bulk rock chemistry control REE mineralogy. - Abstract: In this study, rare earth element (REE) distribution has been investigated in a weathering profile from central Madagascar. Combination of bulk rock geochemical data (elements and isotopes) with mineral characterization reveals a remarkable evolution of the REE abundances and REE-minerals in the vertical weathering profile. In the fresh tonalite (bedrock), REE + Y concentrations are typical of granitoids (299–363 ppm) and the main REE-minerals are allanite and chevkinite. In the C-horizon (saprolite), primary REE-minerals disappear and REEs are transported via fluid to precipitate rhabdophane group minerals in cracks and pores. The presence of sulfate ligands, produced by sulfide oxidation, may be responsible for the REE speciation, as suggested by the composition of the secondary REE-minerals. Rhabdophane group minerals contain up to 9 wt% SO 3 and 7 wt% CaO, indicating a mixture between rhabdophane sensu stricto, (REE)PO 4 ·H 2 O, and tristamite, (Ca,U,Fe (III) )(PO 4 ,SO 4 )·2H 2 O. Due to intense Ca-leaching, rhabdophane disappears and Al-phosphates (alunite–jarosite group) are found in the soil. Cerianite (Ce (IV) O 2 ) also precipitates in the B-horizon of the soil. Mass transfer calculations based on immobile Ti indicate significant REE leaching in A-horizon with preferential leaching of the heavy REE. REEs accumulate partly in the B-horizon. The uniform Nd isotope compositions and the constant proportion of immobile elements do not reveal external input. In the B-horizon, total REE + Y reach 2194 ppm with high Ce concentrations (1638 ppm; 9 * Ce bedrock ) compared to other REE (3–4 * REE bedrock ). Tetravalent Ce state is dominant in the B-horizon and requires oxidizing conditions that likely

  20. Phosphorus runoff from sewage sludge applied to different slopes of lateritic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan Hui; Wang, Ming Kuang; Wang, Guo; Chen, Ming Hua; Luo, Dan; Ding, Feng Hua; Li, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) applied to sloping fields at rates that exceed annual forest nutrient requirements can be a source of phosphorus (P) in runoff. This study investigates the effects of different slopes (18, 27, 36, and 45%) on P in runoff from plots amended with SS (120 Mg ha). Lateritic soil (pH 5.2) was exposed to five simulated rainfalls (90 mm h) on outdoor plots. When sludge was broadcast and mixed with surface soils, the concentrations and loss in runoff of total P in the mixed sample (MTP), total P in the settled sample (STP), total particulate P (TPP), total suspended P (TSP), and total dissolved P (TDP) were highest at 1 or 18 d after application. Initially, pollution risks to surface waters generally increased to different degrees with steeper slopes, and then diminished gradually with dwindling differences between the slopes. The runoff losses coefficient of MTP increased in the order 36 > 45 > 27 > 18%. The initial event (1 and 18 d) accounted for 67.0 to 83.6% of total runoff P losses. Particulate fraction were dominant carriers for P losses, while with the lower slopes there was higher content of P per unit particulate fraction in runoff. Phosphorus losses were greatly affected by the interaction of sludge-soil-runoff and the modification of soil properties induced by sludge amendment. It is recommended to choose lower slopes (soils should be studied further in the field under a wider diversity of conditions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Biothechnology conferences held in Cuba. Cuba no biotechnology gakkai ni sankashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-04-25

    Three biotechnology conferences including Cuba International Interferon Conference were held at Havana in April 1989, and the author participated in them. The number of participants was about 3,000. Most of them were from the Middle and the Central America, but there were also those from Europe, the USSR and the USA. The three conferences were composed of 16 symposiums and they covered a wide range of field such as medical science, agriculture and industry. High leveled reports were read in the conferences: on the application of interferons to medical treatments, curing effects of infections caused by herpes virus and B type hepatitis virus, anti-tumor effects, and anti-virus effects against AIDS virus; on the production of protein and vaccini by gene engineering, large quantity production of interleukin and epithelium cell multiplication genes. Especially impressing were the efforts the whole nation of Cuba makes to promote biotechnology and its modern facilities. 3 figs.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TAX IN CUBA, CONTROL YOUR FUND IN SANTIAGO DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Vázquez-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By issuing the Law 73 of the Tax System in 1994, the taxation on the usage and exploitation of natural resources began to be applied to promote a rational usage of these resources on the protection of the environment. This article refers to the application of this tax in Cuba based on records of imprinted and digital bibliography containing considerations of environmental economists about the subject on a legal approach. It also offers the reader a general view of the application of this tax in the province of Santiago de Cuba as well as information for the specialists incharge of collecting its income which is used to encourage the protection of the environment. 

  3. Powering Cuba: A Possible Action Plan For Creating Cuba's Sustainable Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Brandon; Hess, Matt; Sloane, Taylor; Harris, Zach

    2017-01-01

    While Cuba enjoys a high rate of electrification, 82% of its electricity today is generated from oil with an overall estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of $0.27 per kWh. Moreover, Cuba is experiencing increased electricity demand driven by a burgeoning tourism industry and an emerging small-medium size business sector. If the current power mix persists until 2040, power generation costs and carbon emissions would nearly double to US$9.8B and 24M MT CO2 per year respectively. This paper presents an overall strategy for Cuba to ensure its energy security and provide the Cuban people with clean, affordable and reliable access to electricity. With a total estimated cost of $14.1B, our proposal aims to reduce the overall cost of electricity generation to $0.14 per kWh by 2040. We recommend: Implementing a comprehensive renewable energy strategy that includes an energy mix of: (1) community-solar for small cooperative business (8.5%); (2) long-term investments for utility-scale solar IPPs (8.5%); (3) development of wind farms by IPPs (17.5%); and (4) maintaining supplementary biomass generation (6%); Installing complementary reliable sources of grid power from natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCC) via domestic production and LNG imports from a floating storage regasification unit (FSRU), accounting for 35% of Cuba’s energy; Attracting $700 million in infrastructure investment necessary to decrease transmission and distribution (T&D) losses; and Enacting reforms that increase regulatory certainty, investor protection, and the ease of doing business in Cuba for foreign investors. (author)

  4. El Programa de Medicina Transfusional de Cuba The Transfusion Medicine Program in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Ballester Santovenia

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuba's Transfusion Medicine Program (TMP is a subsystem of the country's National Health System. The TMP's objective is to ensure hemotherapy with blood that is safe and sufficient for all the individuals who need it. The TMP subsystem is made up of the National Commission on Transfusion Medicine, the Institute of Hematology and Immunology, 37 clinical services, 44 blood banks, 120 collection centers, 19 mobile units, and 37 blood certification laboratories. Additional facilities include a laboratory for plasma separation, a laboratory that produces leukocyte interferon and transfer factor, and two laboratories that produce reagents for blood classification and blood diagnosis systems. In Cuba, blood donation is voluntary. Since 1997 approximately 5% of the population per year has donated blood, thus meeting the goal recommended by the Pan American Health Organization of one voluntary blood donation annually for every 20 persons. During 2002, 563 204 blood donations were received, and there were 445 898 transfusions of blood or blood components. All donations are individually screened for HIV 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis, thus meeting the country's current regulations. In 2002 these screening measures led to discarding, respectively, 0.12%, 0.60%, 0.71%, and 1.8% of the blood donations. Although the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and II in Cuba is very low, this test will soon be added to the screening process.

  5. Epidemic optic neuropathy in Cuba. Eye findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, A A; Martone, J F; Muci-Mendoza, R; Reyes, L; DuBois, L; Silva, J C; Roman, G; Caballero, B

    1994-05-01

    To characterize and establish a clinical definition of the optic neuropathy that appeared in epidemic form in Cuba in 1992 and 1993. At the invitation of the Cuban Ministry of Health, Havana, members of ORBIS International and the Pan American Health Organization, assembled teams that traveled to Cuba in May 1993. We were initially briefed by Cuban national experts in the areas of virology, nutrition, toxicology, ophthalmology, neurology, and public health. We then examined 20 patients on our own. Thirteen of these patients underwent a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic examination, including neurologic examination, ophthalmologic examination, visual fields, optic nerve function studies, contrast sensitivity studies, and funduscopy. We returned 4 months later to perform an additional 12 comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic and follow-up examinations. Only seven of the 13 patients who were alleged to have the optic form of the epidemic and who were rigorously and systematically examined on the first visit demonstrated a bilateral optic neuropathy. These seven patients had several features that included decreased visual acuity, poor color vision, central scotomas, decreased contrast sensitivity, saccadic eye movements, and most prominent and distinctive of all, nerve fiber layer wedge defects of the papillomacular bundle. Our clinical definition was then implemented by the Cuban ophthalmologists and epidemiologists. On returning 4 months later, we found that all newly presented patients were correctly diagnosed to have the epidemic disease. With the new case definition and the application of a few simple psychophysical tests, the false-positive rate of diagnosis became much lower. After vitamin therapy, we reexamined the patients seen on our initial visit, and all showed marked improvement. The Cuban epidemic was characterized by an optic neuropathy with features that were similar to those of tobacco/alcohol amblyopia and Leber's optic atrophy. Recent political

  6. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Parra, Esteban J; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole

    2014-07-01

    We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.

  7. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2003-01-01

    .... In March 2003, the Administration eased restrictions on those visiting close family members in Cuba, while at the same time it eliminated travel for people-to-people educational exchanges unrelated...

  8. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  9. Validity of using modified capillary column with larger diameter to study the Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsing-Hai Wang; National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Wen-Chun Yeh; Shih-Chin Tsai; Yi-Lin Jan; Shi-Ping Teng

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the working diameter of capillary columns with diameter of 5, 7, 10 and 20 mm. These modified capillary columns were carefully filled with local Taiwan laterite (LTL). The porosity and density of these packed columns was 0.51±0.02 g/g and 1.27±0.05 g/cm 3 , respectively. The diffusion experiments were then carried out in synthetic groundwater with Cs loading of 0.1mM at room temperature. Experimental results have shown that the diffusion profiles of modified capillary columns fit Fick's second law very well. This result revealed that the working diameter of a capillary column can be expanded to at least to 20 mm without affecting the validity of the derived diffusion coefficients. Among these columns, the ones with 5 mm diameter show the most consistent results of the derived K d , apparent and effective diffusion coefficients. Although the derived distribution and effective diffusion coefficients slightly decrease as the diameter of these columns increases due to the increase of the solid/liquid ratio. These values are still informative of the Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate the potential of using 'modified capillary method' to study the diffusion behaviors of concerned radionuclide because columns with large diameter enable the filling with more versatile geological substances. (author)

  10. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this. The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass. This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption.

  11. Radiological monitoring of food in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez V, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The appearing of the problem for protecting the environment from radioactive contamination is not an accidental matter. The introduction into the earth crust of radioactive material coming from nuclear weapons, accidents, wastes, etc, has caused, as a consequence, the contamination of the biosphere. The extensive trade of food in our country has made necessary the establishment of radiological monitoring in food, which was organized by the Department of Public Health. The structure, functions, characteristics and aspects related to radiological monitoring of food in Cuba are shown in the present paper. The organization and resources for performing the monitoring program, both for normal conditions and for nuclear and/or radiological emergency cases, are detailed. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs

  12. El final del Trotskismo organizado en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Arriba, Rafael Acosta de

    2018-01-01

    I El tema del trotskismo en Cuba es una de las asignaturas pendientes en nuestra historiografía. Cada día que transcurre se presenta como una injustificable omisión para las ciencias sociales del país. El carácter de tabú que cubrió al tema de Trotski y el trotskismo a partir de los setenta del pasado siglo, con la adscripción indócil pero definitiva de la Revolución Cubana al sistema del socialismo real, tuvo una muy larga duración. Por casi cinco décadas no se habló de este en las publicaci...

  13. Conditioning of Radium-226 sources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Navarro, Juan Carlos; Salgado Mojena, Mercedes; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Niurka; Castillo Gomez, Rafael; Berdellans Escobar, Ania; Otero Cabrera, Lazaro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The production and use of Ra-226 sealed sources was internationally recommended to be halted for health and safety reasons. Consequently, all Ra-226 sources in Cuba were collected, characterized and conditioned. The paper describes the safety and operational aspects related to the Ra-226 conditioning. For this, a Special Permission was granted by the Regulatory Body, as required. A radiological assessment, a safety report as well as an emergency plan were prepared and approved before the operations. The work was accomplished with due reliability following an established comprehensive Quality Management System. As a result of these operations, 188.5 GBq of Ra-226, contained in different types of radiation sources (brachytherapy needles and tubes, standard sources for calibration, etc.) were encapsulated and conditioned. The capsules with the sources were conditioned in a retrievable form within fi ve waste packages intended for long term storage.(author)

  14. Energy and sustainable development in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Hidalgo, Debrayan

    2015-01-01

    Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this.The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass.This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption. (author)

  15. Communicating astronomy with the public in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, O.

    2008-06-01

    Communicating astronomy with the public to produce attractive materials for a broad audience on TV is a difficult job in a third world country. One way of developing effective communication in fields like astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology whilst connecting the professional astronomer with a majority of the people is to combine the knowledge of the scientist with the most spectacular TV production methods of first world countries: integrating, through commentary and analysis, astronomy and science into the public debate of lay citizens. Here I present my ten years of experience of presenting a TV programme devoted to general science outreach. I also comment on the progress of the construction of the new planetarium, a cultural centre for science and technology, to be opened as part of the commemoration activities for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy. It is hoped to guide the interest of the people of Cuba towards basic science and astronomy in the most populated and frequented area of the country.

  16. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló González, Mauro; Pons Vásquez, Reinaldo; Rodriguez Bencomo, David; Choonara, Imti

    2016-01-01

    Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate. PMID:27763571

  17. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelló González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate.

  18. Oncology nursing in Cuba: report of the delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Leonard, Kathleen; Gross, Anne; Hartnett, Erin; Poage, Ellen; Squires, Jennifer; Ullemeyer, Vicki; Schueller, Mary; Stary, Susan; Miller, Mary Alice

    2012-08-01

    In December 2011, the first delegation of oncology nurses from the United States visited Havana, Cuba. The delegation included oncology nurses, educators, and leaders from across America and provided opportunities to learn about the healthcare system, cancer, and oncology nursing in Cuba. Delegation members attended lectures, toured facilities, and enjoyed Cuban culture. This exchange highlighted the similarities in cancer care and oncology nursing between countries and opened doors for future collaborations.

  19. The United States and Cuba: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Cooperativas Independenties: Medio Ambiente , Ecologia, y Su Impacto al Campesino Cubano, CubaNet, [article on- line accessed 4 May 2000], available from http...Independientes: Medio Ambiente , Ecologia y Su Impacto al Campesino Cubano.” CubaNet News. Available at http://www.cubanet.org/cooperativa...after his release. While in Mexico , Castro met Che Guevara with whom he collaborated in organizing the July 26 Movement named in commemoration of

  20. Birth planning in Cuba: a basic human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J M

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of birth planning in Cuba and strategies that are relevant to nurses in the communities of Cuba. Cuba reduced its crude birth rate by 40% from 1964-75 without formal family planning programs and resources. By 1975, Cuba had achieved the lowest birth rate in Latin America (21/1000) except Barbados (19/1000). By 1978, Cuba's crude birth rate declined to a low of 15.3/1000. The demographic transition in Cuba has been a process of equalization by: 1) community participation to ensure basic human rights for everyone, 2) increasing the status of women while providing child care centers, 3) providing equal availability of health care services including contraceptive services, sterilization, and abortion, and 4) focusing on individual birth choice, not on limiting population growth. Emphasis in Cuba for reducing fertility has been put on literacy, education, and infant mortality. The illiteracy rate in 1961 decreased from 20% to 4%. Infant mortality decreased from 38.8/1000 live births in 1970 to 22.3/1000 in 1978. 1/3 of Cuban women were participating fully in the labor force in 1978. Polyclinics have been established as preventive care medical centers throughout Cuba and health care is free. Family planning options are integrated into routine primary health care at polyclinics and assure equal access to the total Cuban population. Abortion is freely available and increased to 61/1000 in 1976. The implications for nursing are that: 1) the traditional work of nurses places them in a key position to help extend basic human rights beyond current levels, 2) nurses can initiate discussions of birth planning with women and men in a variety of settings, and 3) nurses can increase case-finding related to birth planning needs both in health care classes or within established groups in the community.

  1. Physics and Women: A Challenge Being Successfully Met in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia

    The history of physics in Cuba, like all the country's educational and scientific development, cannot be understood without taking into account its close relationship with the social changes that took place in Cuba during the five decades elapsed since 1959. This should include due consideration to the role played by women in this process, all the more since the link between science and gender is now generally regarded as a subject of growing special interest

  2. Lonely planet: affect and authenticity in guidebooks of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Record numbers of international visitors to Cuba in recent years amidst dramatic political and economic shifts have reinforced the island's reputation as a destination to visit urgently, ‘before it changes’. In foregrounding a normalised framework of affect and authenticity and directing tourists towards intimate experiences and encounters, bestselling English-language guidebooks contribute towards a selective interpretation of Cuba and of Cubans. However, their recommendations obscure the wo...

  3. Cuba y las fronteras de la utopía

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba.......Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba....

  4. soil loss estimation through usle and mmf methods in the lateritic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    relative comparison and suitability of both methods in the precise estimation of ... district, West Bengal and eastern Shikaripara ... the cartographic works, ranging from ... crop cover management factor; combines the C and P factors of USLE.

  5. Geochemical behaviour of U3O8, Mo, Y, Ga, V and Zr in laterite - bauxitic sequence of the ''Croanta-Paragominas''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraioli, R.N.M.; Ferreira, Z.C.A.

    1987-10-01

    Fifteen samples are studied, analyzed for U 3 O 8 (delayed neutrons), ThO 2 (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and Mo, Y, Ga, V and Zr (optical emission spectrography) in laterite - bauxitic sequence of the Paragominas, Brazil. Generical datas about the arrangements of thorium, uranium and zirconium are also presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  6. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  7. Evaluación inicial de sistemas integrados para la producción de alimentos y energía en Cuba Initial evaluation of integrated systems for food and energy production in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R Funes-Monzote

    2011-12-01

    performance of diversity, energy efficiency and productivity of 25 production systems in different conversion stages and distributed in the western, central and eastern regions of Cuba. The evaluated indicators (previously validated in Cuba for this type of study and the use of empirical calculation and multivariate statistical methods allowed identifying and characterizing three main types of integrated systems, which were termed BIOMAS-1A, BIOMAS-1B and BIOMAS-1C. The results of the indicators, as well as the analysis of similarities and differences among the different types constitute elements to be taken into consideration for further studies on integrated food and energy systems with a higher number of farms.

  8. Baculovirus potential for agricultural pests management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Ayala Sifontes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuba has an international reputation for implementing widespread biological control of pests, and microbial biocontrol is an integral component of most pest management programs. One class of microbial pesticides however, has not been developed in Cuba, bio-insecticides based on the Baculoviridae. This class of safe and environmentally protective microbial pesticides is used ever more commonly worldwide as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The characteristics of the viruses of this family, particularly their high host specificity, safety to non-target organisms, capacity to persist in nature and create epizootics, and the economy with which they can be produced "in vivo", all make them attractive for incorporation into pest management programs along with other pesticides developed in Cuba. The mass production technology is well understood in Cuba and biofactories already exist for a number of microbial biocontrol products. In the province of Sancti Spíritus, the Plant Protection Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, with the cooperation of the Institute for Sustainable Horticulture, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, are resuming the work which began in the 90´s to develop baculovirus products in support of sustainable agriculture in Cuba. This work is being carried out with the participation of young Canadian and Cuban students and professionals. The program includes research with the multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV and S. exigua (SeMNPV and the search for native isolates of Baculovirus in Plutella xylostella, three priority pests in Cuba. In other jurisdictions they are well controlled by baculoviruses, and the expectation is that this same result is possible in Cuba.

  9. Implementation of QUANUM in Cuba. Preliminary results; Resultados preliminares de la implementacion del QUANUM en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Lopez Diaz, A.; Torres Arocha, L.; Coca Perez, M. A.; Fernandez Herrera, A. O.

    2011-07-01

    Setting up quality management systems in nuclear medicine in Cuba has been an aim for medical physicists. In the last decade, we have walked with steady steps towards that direction, by setting up national standards and regulations, and carrying out research projects in order to ensure the improvement of quality assurance and management programs. In 2010 the IAEA's QUANUM document has been applied, as a methodology for quality management audits in nuclear medicine. Five audits have shown that most of class A regulatory items are guaranteed at nuclear medicine services. However, quality management system performing is still inappropriate. (Author) 13 refs.

  10. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 janv. 2011 ... Colin Campbell. Des projets communautaires améliorent la santé du cœur de La Havane. La vie en plein centre-ville peut mettre à rude épreuve la résistance des gens. Lorsque les quartiers périclitent, le dépérissement de la santé humaine suit de près. Un projet mené à Cuba avec l'appui du Centre de ...

  11. Nuclear safety. Concerns about the nuclear power reactors in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Jim; Aloise, Gene; Flaherty, Thomas J.; Fitzgerald, Duane; Zavala, Mario; Hayward, Mary Alice

    1992-09-01

    In 1976, the Soviet Union and Cuba concluded an agreement to construct two 440-megawatt nuclear power reactors near Cienfuegos on the south central coast of Cuba, about 180 miles south of Key West, Florida. The construction of these reactors, which began around 1983, was a high priority for Cuba because of its heavy dependence on imported oil. Cuba is estimated to need an electrical generation capacity of 3,000 megawatts by the end of the decade. When completed, the first reactor unit would provide a significant percentage (estimated at over 15 percent) of Cuba's need for electricity. It is uncertain when Cuba's nuclear power reactors will become operational. On September 5, 1992, Fidel Castro announced the suspension of construction at both of Cuba's reactors because Cuba could not meet the financial terms set by the Russian government to complete the reactors. Cuban officials had initially planned to start up the first of the two nuclear reactors by the end of 1993. However, before the September 5 announcement, it was estimated that this reactor would not be operational until late 1995 or early 1996. The civil construction (such as floors and walls) of the first reactor is currently estimated to be about 90 percent to 97 percent complete, but only about 37 percent of the reactor equipment (such as pipes, pumps, and motors) has been installed. The civil construction of the second reactor is about 20 percent to 30 percent complete. No information was available about the status of equipment for the second reactor. According to former Cuban nuclear power and electrical engineers and a technician, all of whom worked at the reactor site and have recently emigrated from Cuba, Cuba's nuclear power program suffers from poor construction practices and inadequate training for future reactor operators. One former official has alleged, for example, that the first reactor containment structure, which is designed to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material into

  12. Historia de la Puericultura en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Román Lafont

    Full Text Available En la Edad Media los niños eran tratados como adultos pequeños. A partir del Renacimiento surge mayor interés en la infancia. En 1722 aparece el término Pediatría en la Europa Central, y en 1865, por primera vez, es acuñado el término Puericultura por Alfred Pierre Caron, profesor en la Universidad de París. Realizar consultas de Puericultura en la primera mitad del siglo XX en Cuba era prácticamente un lujo. Con el sistema único de salud y cobertura total de la atención primaria a partir de 1959, se lograron establecer consultas de Pediatría (1960 y Puericultura (1963 en los policlínicos. El nuevo enfoque de la práctica médica preventivo-curativa influyó en el desarrollo de la Puericultura, con programas como: Atención integral al niño y la mujer, la normación de las especialidades, la reducción de la mortalidad infantil, la medición de indicadores de salud en la población cubana de 0 a 19 años, la dispensarización de niños y adolescentes, Puericultura prenatal, así como la evaluación de "Hospitales y policlínicos Amigos de la madre y el niño". En 2004 fue creado un grupo multidisciplinario para el rescate de la calidad de las consultas de Puericultura, y se inauguró el Centro de Referencia Nacional de Puericultura en el año 2007, con funciones docentes, de investigación, asistenciales-metodológicas y administrativas. Sorprende la búsqueda de cómo se introdujo en Cuba la Puericultura, a través de Infomed e Internet, visitas a bibliotecas especializadas y la Oficina del Historiador del Ministerio de Salud Pública.

  13. Preparing for Post-Embargo Cuba: Effects on Businesses and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nina M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a brief history of U.S. trade with Cuba, the current status of Cuba's role in world trade, and the effects the U.S. embargo has on American businesses and U.S. and Cuban citizens. The article presents suggestions on how U.S. businesses can prepare for an open Cuba and argues for the lifting of the U.S. embargo against Cuba. (84…

  14. Potential Transportation Impacts of Expanded U.S.-Cuba Trade, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Before 1960, the United States and Cuba were major trading partners. At that time, Cuba was the seventh largest export market for U.S. products. In the years since then, U.S. trade with Cuba has been highly regulated. Exports have been mostly prohibi...

  15. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  16. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically... place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or the purchase or provision of services, may enter a U.S...

  17. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  18. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  19. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in Sec. 740.18...

  20. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in section 740...

  1. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... [CBP Dec 11-05] RIN 1651-AA86 Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S... (DHS) regulations, direct flights between the United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one... Border Protection (CBP) to process authorized flights between the United States and Cuba. These...

  2. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  3. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  4. Mortalidad infantil en Cuba 1959-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Riverón Corteguera

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available De 1959 a 1999, con los datos estadísticos disponibles, la mortalidad infantil en Cuba disminuyó en 81,3 %, la mortalidad neonatal precoz se redujo el 73,4 %, la mortalidad neonatal tardía el 83,6 % y la posneonatal en 86,0 %. Las reducciones obtenidas en el período se distribuyeron uniformemente entre todas las provincias, aunque la mayor disminución se produjo en las provincias centrales y occidentales. Los rubros que más disminuyeron sus tasas fueron: enteritis y otras enfermedades diarreicas, infecciones respiratorias agudas, afecciones perinatales en general y las meningitis, aunque todas las causas reducen la mortalidad en el período. La natalidad descendió el 51,3 %, la fecundidad lo hizo en 30 %, el crecimiento demográfico bruto de la población disminuyó el 59,8 %, el parto institucional aumentó en 65,9 %, el bajo peso al nacer descendió el 36,9 %, la mortalidad perinatal se redujo el 67,2 %, los nacidos vivos disminuyeron el 21,1 % y la supervivencia infantil a los 5 años aumentó el 3,8 %. Esto ha sido posible debido principalmente a la decisión política de priorizar el sector de la salud y muy especialmente la salud maternoinfantil adoptada por nuestro Estado a principios de la década de los 60, lo que permitió alcanzar avances en la organización, calidad de la atención y una amplia cobertura de los servicios de salud. También fueron elementos importantes, el mejoramiento del nivel de vida y de la educación alcanzados por la población, las mejoras logradas en la situación sanitaria y epidemiológica, la distribución equitativa de los alimentos que prioriza a la madre y al niño. Un elemento fundamental en la última década ha sido el desarrollo del "médico de la familia" en la atención primaria y el mejoramiento de la atención hospitalaria. Por otra parte han contribuido de manera notable el establecimiento del Programa Nacional de Atención Maternoinfantil, que abarca las inmunizaciones, el control de las

  5. Las actuales transformaciones en Cuba y sus efectos en las relaciones Cuba-CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Laguardia Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2011 Cuba aprobó una nueva política económica con el objetivo de relanzar su economía sin comprometer los principales logros sociales asociados a su modelo socialista. La apuesta es lo suficientemente ambiciosa como para generar dudas sobre la posibilidad real de instrumentar con éxito una transformación socioeconómica de tales dimensiones. Lo cierto es que, a pesar de los temores y resistencias a la “actualización” del modelo económico cubano, los cambios internos son obligatorios con el fin de construir un socialismo “próspero y sostenible”, idea que el presidente Raúl Castro ha promovido como objetivo central de los cambios. El artículo analiza las relaciones de Cuba y los países del CARICOM en el contexto de la cambiante realidad cubana actual y examina las posibles modificaciones que esta relación podría experimentar en un futuro próximo como consecuencia de la actualización económica cubana.

  6. Fe-Ni-bearing serpentines from the saprolite horizon of Caribbean Ni-laterite deposits: new insights from thermodynamic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Domènech, Cristina; Tauler, Esperança; Galí, Salvador; Tassara, Santiago; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-10-01

    Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite horizon is the main Ni ores in hydrous silicate-type Ni laterites and formed by chemical weathering of partially serpentinized ultramafic rocks under tropical conditions. During lateritization, Mg, Si, and Ni are leached from the surface and transported downwards. Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+ and fixed as insoluble Fe-oxyhydroxides (mostly goethite) that incorporate Ni. This Ni is later leached from goethite and incorporated in secondary serpentine and garnierite. As a result, a serpentine-dominated saprolite horizon forms over the ultramafic protolith, overlapped by a Fe-oxyhydroxide-dominated limonite horizon. The serpentine from the protolith (serpentine I) is of hydrothermal origin and yields similar Ni (0.10-0.62 wt.% NiO) and lower Fe (mostly 1.37-5.81 wt.% FeO) concentrations than the primary olivine. In contrast, Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite (serpentine II) shows significantly higher and variable Fe and Ni contents, typically ranging from 2.23 to 15.59 wt.% Fe2O3 and from 1.30 to 7.67 wt.% NiO, suggesting that serpentine get enriched in Fe and Ni under supergene conditions. This study presents detailed mineralogical, textural, and chemical data on this serpentine II, as well as new insights by thermodynamic calculations assuming ideal solution between Fe-, Ni- and Mg-pure serpentines. The aim is to assess if at atmospheric pressure and temperature Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine can be formed by precipitation. Results indicate that the formation of serpentine II under atmospheric pressure and temperature is thermodynamically supported, and pH, Eh, and the equilibrium constant of the reaction are the parameters that affect the results more significantly.

  7. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  8. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  9. Cuba y el Socialismo del siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Porfirio Santos Víctores

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo trata acerca de cómo, después de la desaparición  del socialismo en la URSS y en Europa del Este, el llamado Socialismo del siglo XXI representa el desafío actual de reinventar o renovar el socialismo; tomando en cuenta las experiencias de los socialismos que se vivieron, aunque partiendo siempre de las condiciones y la realidad concreta y particular de cada país. Cuando se habla de Socialismo del Siglo XXI no se trata sobre algo definitivamente acabado, conceptualizado, sino precisamente sobre un constructo en desarrollo, el cual es la expresión actual de un abordaje renovado de la construcción del socialismo. Cuba, que inició su proceso revolucionario a mediados del siglo pasado, constituye, con su proyecto de actualización del socialismo, un ejemplo paradigmático donde, con sus características y particularidades históricas, encontramos lo que podríamos llamar una transición del socialismo clásico alternativo sui generis del siglo XX al  socialismo del siglo XXI, con la adopción de políticas públicas que estimulen la sostenibilidad del desarrollo económico y social del país mediante la consolidación de un socialismo próspero y sostenible, comprometido con los valores fundacionales  históricos del proyecto social cubano.

  10. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  11. Effects of reduction temperature to Ni and Fe content and the morphology of agglomerate of reduced laterite limonitic nickel ore by coal-bed method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Fakhreza; Pintowantoro, Sungging; Kawigraha, Adji; Nursidiq, Ahlidin

    2018-04-01

    As the current drop of nickel sulfide ore on earth, the attention to nickel laterite ore processing was inscreased in order to fulfill the future nickel demand needs. This research aims to optimized the process of nickel laterite ore extraction using coal bed method. This research was conducted by reducing low grade nickel laterite ore (limonitic) with nickel content of 1.25 %. The reduction process was carried out using CO gas which formed by the reaction of coal and dolomite. The Briquette of nickel ore, coal, Na2SO4 mixtures incorporated in the crucible with bed, then reduced for 6 hours at the temperature of 1200 °C. 1400 °C, and 1400 °C. The result of the research shown that the highest increase of Ni content and Ni recovery value was in the reduction temperature of 1400 °C with the increase of 3.44 %, and the recovery value of Ni equal to 86.75 %. While the highest increase of Fe content and Fe recovery value, respectively, was in the reduction temperature of 1300 °C with the increase of 22.67 % and 1200 °C with Fe recovery value of 89.41 %.

  12. Analysis of holding time variations to Ni and Fe content and morphology in nickel laterite limonitic reduction process by using coal-dolomite bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Fakhreza; Pintowantoro, Sungging; Yuwandono, Ridwan Bagus

    2018-04-01

    With the depletion of nickel sulfide ore resources, the nickel laterit processing become an attention to fulfill nickel world demans. Reducing laterite nickel by using a low cost carbonaceous reductan has proved produces high grade ferronickel alloy. In this research, reduction was carried out to low grade laterite nickel (limonite) with 1.25% nikel content by using CO gas reductant formed by reaction between coal and dolomite. Reduction process preceded by forming brickets mixture from limonit ore, coal, and Na2SO4, then the brickets placed inside crucible bed together with dolomit and reduced at temperature 1400 °C with holding time variations 4, 6, and 8 hours. EDX, XRD, and SEM test were carried out to find out the Ni and nickel grade after reduced, the phases that formed, and the morphology brickets after reduced. The reduction results shows that the highest increase on nickel grade was obtained by 8 hours holding time increasing 5.84 % from initial grade, and the highest recovery was obtained by 6 hours holding time with recovery 88.51 %. While the higest increase on Fe grade was obtained by 4 hours holding time, and the highest recovery Fe was obtained by 4 hours holding time with recovery 85.41%.

  13. Learning together: a Canada-Cuba research collaboration to improve the sustainable management of environmental health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Jerry; Garcia, Maricel; Bonet, Mariano; Yassi, Annalee

    2006-01-01

    To build a national Cuban capacity for training environmental health professionals directly linked to the needs of policy-makers and communities. The University of Manitoba and University of British Columbia collaborated with an established training centre in Cuba (the Instituto Nacional de Higiene y Epidemiologia--INHEM) and new centres in the Central (Santa Clara) and Eastern (Santiago) regions of the country. Cuba. In the mid-1990s, a comprehensive curriculum (masters and diploma programs) was collaboratively developed, applying interactive teaching methods, and was delivered through a series of workshops and other interactions in Cuba, and short-term visits to Canada by Cuban PhD students. The collaboration was successful in fulfilling capacity-building targets (over 50 Masters graduates, 467 Diploma graduates, over 30 trained core faculty in all regional centres as well as new curriculum and new accredited regional programs). Alongside this, a number of collaborative community-based research projects were undertaken in all three regions (drinking water in Santiago; housing and urban renewal, and dengue control in Havana; and tourism-related effects, and effective intersectoral management of population health determinants in Santa Clara). The collaboration led to adopting new strategies for challenges such as a dengue epidemic in 2002, and new research on the effectiveness of intersectoral management of risks of particular interest to both Cuban and Canadian policy-makers. It triggered an ambitious collaboration between the Canadian-Cuban team and colleagues in Ecuador in order to build a similar national network there, built on South-South and North-South links.

  14. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  15. Cuba's Strategy for Alzheimer Disease and Dementia Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Bayard, Rodolfo I; Llibre-Rodríguez, Juan J; Fernández-Seco, Alberto; Borrego-Calzadilla, Carmen; Carrasco-García, Mayra R; Zayas-Llerena, Tania; Moreno-Carbonell, Carmen R; Reymond-Vasconcelos, Ana G

    2016-10-01

    Dementia is a great challenge to public health in Cuba due to its impact on society and families. Cuba's National Intervention Strategy for Alzheimer Disease and Dementia Syndromes is designed to address this challenge. The Strategy includes working guidelines for primary and secondary care, education about rights of people with cognitive impairment, professional development, research, and health promotion and dementia prevention. An associated action plan, focused on primary care, includes proposals for creation of memory clinics, day centers and comprehensive rehabilitation services for cognitive stimulation. Short-term measures proposed include increasing early detection; creating a dementia morbidity and mortality registry; promoting professional training; providing support for families; and promoting basic and clinical research on dementia. Medium-term proposals aim to reduce dementia incidence and mortality by controlling risk factors and promoting healthy lifestyles, offering new treatment options and optimizing early detection. A set of indicators has been developed to evaluate strategy implementation. With this strategy, Cuba joins the small number of developing countries that have responded to WHO's call to improve care for patients with dementia and alleviate its impact on society and families. KEYWORDS Dementia, Alzheimer disease, aging, national health programs, social stigma, primary prevention, health promotion, civil rights, Cuba.

  16. The formation of means of agricultural family in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Eugenio León Hernández

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presen ts a historical outline about the formation of technical means in the Specialty Agriculture in Cuba , and shows how these characteristics are present in Pinar del Río province. It also make s an analysis of the current strategies of the formation of this personnel at international level.

  17. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  18. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515.563 Section 515.563 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... the research constitutes a full work schedule that could not be accomplished in a shorter period of...

  19. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its

  20. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  1. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  2. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly

  3. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  4. The potential use of rainwater as alternative source of drinking water by using laterite soil as natural adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Khairunnisa Fakhriah Mohd; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Adlan, Mohd Nordin; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Subramaniam, Ambarasi

    2017-10-01

    Generally, the rainwater has low concentration of pollutants, whereby it is applicable for domestic water supply. Due to the low concentration of pollutants, further treatment such as adsorption is necessary to treat the harvested rainwater as an alternative source of drinking water supply. Therefore, this research has been carried out to determine the quality of rainwater from different types of locations, which are; rural residential area, urban residential area, agricultural area, industrial area, and open surface. The rainwater sampling was carried out from September 2014 to December 2015. The parameters that have been analysed during the sampling process are chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, heavy metals, and Escherichia coli (E.coli). The sampling results show that the rainwater provides low concentration of contaminants. Thus, it has high potential to be used as alternative source of potable and non potable water supply with a suitable treatment. Due to that, an experimental work contained of 86 of designated experiments for a batch study has been carried out to determine the performance of laterite soil as an adsorbent to remove pollutants that present in the rainwater (i.e. zinc, manganese, and E.coli). The operating factors involved in the experimental works are pH, mass of adsorbents, contact time, initial concentration of zinc, manganese, and E.coli. In this study, the experimental data of the batch study was analysed by developing regression model equation and analysis of variance. Perturbation plots were analysed to determine the effectiveness of the operating factors by developing response surface model, resulting that the high removals of zinc, manganese, and E.coli are 95.8%, 94.05% and 100%, respectively. Overall, this research works found out that the rainwater has a good quality as alternative source of drinking water by providing a suitable treatment. The application of laterite soil as natural adsorbent shows that it has potential to be

  5. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  6. Una reflexión acerca de la notificación de lesiones laborales en Cuba A reflection on the notification of occupational lesions in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caristina Robaina Aguirre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo fundamental realizar un análisis cerca del comportamiento de la morbi-mortalidad por accidentes del trabajo notificada en Cuba en los años 1995-2004. Se puntualiza además en el concepto de lesión y no accidentes para resaltar el carácter preventivo de esta definición. Se destacan algunos sectores de la economía como la construcción, la industria, la agricultura y el transporte como los de mayor índice de incidencia y mortalidad en el período estudiado, y entre las provincias que presentan los indicadores más elevados en el país tenemos a Villa Clara, Cienfuegos y Sancti Spíritus, entre las centrales, y además Las Tunas y Granma en la región oriental del país. Se realiza un análisis crítico de la tendencia a la disminución de la incidencia de las lesiones en este período, aunque no se comportó así la mortalidad.The main objective of this article was to make an analysis of the behavior of morbimortality from occupational accidents reported in Cuba from 1995 to 2004. Emphasis was given to the concept of lesion and not of accidents to stress the preventive character of this definition. Construction, industry, agriculture and transportation were some of the economic sectors with the highest rate of incidence and mortality in the studied period. Villa Clara, Cienfuegos and Sancti Spiritus, in the centre of the country, and Las Tunas and Gramma, in the eastern region, were the provinces with the most elevated indicators at the national level. A critical analysis of the trend to the reduction of the incidence of the lesions in this period is made, although mortality had a different behavior.

  7. Discovery of Ni-smectite-rich saprolite at Loma Ortega, Falcondo mining district (Dominican Republic): geochemistry and mineralogy of an unusual case of "hybrid hydrous Mg silicate - clay silicate" type Ni-laterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauler, Esperança; Lewis, John F.; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Aiglsperger, Thomas; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Domènech, Cristina; Gallardo, Tamara; Longo, Francisco; Galí, Salvador

    2017-10-01

    Hydrous Mg silicate-type Ni-laterite deposits, like those in the Falcondo district, Dominican Republic, are dominated by Ni-enriched serpentine and garnierite. Recently, abundant Ni-smectite in the saprolite zone have been discovered in Loma Ortega, one of the nine Ni-laterite deposits in Falcondo. A first detailed study on these Ni-smectites has been performed (μXRD, SEM, EPMA), in addition to a geochemical and mineralogical characterisation of the Loma Ortega profile (XRF, ICP-MS, XRD). Unlike other smectite occurrences in laterite profiles worldwide, the Loma Ortega smectites are trioctahedral and exhibit high Ni contents never reported before. These Ni-smectites may be formed from weathering of pyroxene and olivine, and their composition can be explained by the mineralogy and the composition of the Al-depleted, olivine-rich parent ultramafic rock. Our study shows that Ni-laterites are mineralogically complex, and that a hydrous Mg silicate ore and a clay silicate ore can be confined to the same horizon in the weathering profile, which has significant implications from a recovery perspective. In accordance, the classification of "hybrid hydrous Mg silicate - clay silicate" type Ni-laterite deposit for Loma Ortega would be more appropriate.

  8. High calcium fly ash geopolymer stabilized lateritic soil and granulated blast furnace slag blends as a pavement base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phummiphan, Itthikorn; Horpibulsuk, Suksun; Rachan, Runglawan; Arulrajah, Arul; Shen, Shui-Long; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2018-01-05

    Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) was used as a replacement material in marginal lateritic soil (LS) while class C Fly Ash (FA) was used as a precursor for the geopolymerization process to develop a low-carbon pavement base material at ambient temperature. Unconfined Compression Strength (UCS) tests were performed to investigate the strength development of geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis were undertaken to examine the role of the various influencing factors on UCS development. The influencing factors studied included GBFS content, Na 2 SiO 3 :NaOH ratio (NS:NH) and curing time. The 7-day soaked UCS of FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends at various NS:NH ratios tested was found to satisfy the specifications of the Thailand national road authorities. The GBFS replacement was found to be insignificant for the improvement of the UCS of FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends at low NS:NH ratio of 50:50. Microstructural analysis indicated the coexistence of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH) and Sodium Alumino Silicate Hydrate products in FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends. This research enables GBFS, which is traditionally considered as a waste material, to be used as a replacement and partially reactive material in FA geopolymer pavement applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Co3O4 prepared from atmospheric pressure acid leach liquors of nickel laterite ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long; Guo, Zhan-cheng; Qu, Jing-kui; Qi, Tao; Guo, Qiang; Hou, Gui-hua; Dong, Peng-yu; Xi, Xin-guo

    2018-01-01

    A chemical precipitation-thermal decomposition method was developed to synthesize Co3O4 nanoparticles using cobalt liquor obtained from the atmospheric pressure acid leaching process of nickel laterite ores. The effects of the precursor reaction temperature, the concentration of Co2+, and the calcination temperature on the specific surface area, morphology, and the electrochemical behavior of the obtained Co3O4 particles were investigated. The precursor basic cobaltous carbonate and cobaltosic oxide products were characterized and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis, and electrochemical analysis. The results indicate that the specific surface area of the Co3O4 particles with a diameter of 30 nm, which were obtained under the optimum conditions of a precursor reaction temperature of 30°C, 0.25 mol/L Co2+, and a calcination temperature of 350°C, was 48.89 m2/g. Electrodes fabricated using Co3O4 nanoparticles exhibited good electrochemical properties, with a specific capacitance of 216.3 F/g at a scan rate of 100 mV/s.

  10. On the Origin of Bastnaesite-(La,Nd,Y in the Nissi (Patitira Bauxite Laterite Deposit, Lokris, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kalatha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed geochemical study and a thorough mineralogical description of the rare-earth elements (REE-minerals and associated minerals were carried out in two vertical profiles of approximately 4 m length, from the Nissi (Patitira bauxite laterite deposit, Lokris, Greece, characterized by the presence of goethite in small sizes resembling bacterial cell coated by goethite and a significant REE enrichment. The enrichment of the REE concentrated in bastnaesite-group minerals, the intergrowths between REE-minerals and Al–Ni–silicates with significant sulfur contents and their association with goethite microtextures interpreted as bacteriomorphic, indicate REE remobilization along with iron bio-leaching and re-precipitation on karstified limestone. In addition to the previous-reported hydroxylbastnaesites, a (La,Nd,Y(CO3F member of the bastnaesite-group associated with Al–Ni–silicates were identified, the stability of which may reflect the dependence on the source rocks and the local variations of pH-Eh. Interaction between downward percolating water and carbonate rocks seems to be a very effective mechanism for REE fluorocarbonates deposition under alkaline and reducing conditions.

  11. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  12. Estructura y daños en las comunidades de octocorales (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea de la Reserva Ecológica Siboney-Juticí, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunier Olivera Espinosa

    2010-12-01

    prevailing environmental conditions in the study area. For data collection, six sampling sites were located every 2-3km ranging from 12m to 17m depth along the spur-and-groove reefs. In each site, 22-26 1m² quadrants were zigzag arranged every 2m. The density of colonies was determined per site. The severity degree and predictability of environmental conditions were inferred by using the Heterogeneity and Equitability indexes, respectively. Hydrodynamic stress and the Comparative Pollution Index were also assessed. Current affectations of the octocoral communities were also determined and classified into four main categories: mechanical damage, diseases, predation and invertebrate and macroalgae overgrowth. As a result, 25 species represented by 752 colonies were recorded and Eunicea flexuosa and Gorgonia ventalina were the most abundant. The occurrence of Eunicea succinea forma succinea constituted the first report for Eastern Cuba. Site densities ranged from 3.58±1.84 to 7.58±2.16 colonies/m² and considered from moderate to low. The biggest densities were reported at both sides of the San Juan River mouth. Despite of the composition and structure of the octocoral communities, low to high hydrodynamic stress and low and moderate levels of contamination were inferred, it is likely that these indexes could have been overestimated due to the sensitivity of the indicator species to other factors such as sedimentation. The environmental conditions were mostly favorable and stable. In general, the number of dead colonies was low and mostly caused by the detachment of the substrate and overgrowth of Millepora alcicornis. Injuries were mainly brought about by mechanical damage, followed by coenenchyme loss, predation by Cyphoma gibbosum and macroalgae overgrowth. On the other hand, negative effects by Hermodice carunculata predation, bleaching, Red Band and Black Band Disease were not observed. Among sampled species, G. ventalina colonies were the most severely damaged within

  13. Cuba's transition to market-based energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lopez, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1960 the Soviet Union has been, for all practical purposes, Cuba's exclusive supplier of energy products. For certain time periods, Soviet sales of oil and oil products to Cuba were made at concessional prices; prior to 1991, they were priced using transferable rubles and were essentially bartered for Cuban goods, especially sugar. Effective January 1, 1991, the Soviet Union shifted to world market prices and convertible currency payments for all traded commodities, including energy products. The shift to market prices and convertible currencies in Cuban-Soviet energy trade has already brought - or is likely to bring - a number of adjustments in four areas: (1) the trade balance; (2) the ability to reexport oil and oil products; (3) energy consumption patterns; (4) and the structure of energy supplies. 33 refs., 8 tabs

  14. China, Global Governance and the Future of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H. Hearn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s deepening engagement with Latin America has been accompanied by concerns about the Chinese government’s regard for international conventions of economic governance. Critics claim that across Latin America and the Caribbean, Chinese aid and trade are characterised by excessive state intervention. This article argues that, for two reasons, the rationale for these misgivings is dissipating. First, since the onset of the global financial crisis, China has gained influence in multilateral institutions, prompting them toward greater acceptance of public spending in developing countries. Second, recent developments in Cuba show that China is actively encouraging the Western hemisphere’s only communist country to liberalise its economy. China sits at the crossroads of these local and global developments, prompting Cuba toward rapprochement with international norms even as it works to reform them.

  15. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E.F.; Cuesta Fuente, G.; Chavez Ardanza, A.

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  16. Anglicism in the press of Santiago de Cuba city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnel Tabares-Tabares

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary findings from an unfinished investigation having a synchronic approach are presented. The objective of this study is to analyze the English loanwords that appear in the press of Santiago de Cuba city at the beginning of the XX century. This analysis will allow to draw significant conclusions concerning the presence of anglicisms in the Spanish spoken in Cuba. The methodology is based on a random revision of “El Cubano Libre” newspaper, at the time it is counted some aspects, namely: how many anglicisms were found, their typology, grammatical category, their frequency of appearance, and the year they were published in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy.  Among the outstanding results is remarkable that few English loanwords were registered in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy, the topics more profitable to search were those of politics and sport, and the sort of anglicisms more frequent belong to the category of patent loanword.

  17. Calibration of F-18 activity for PET applications in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, Yecenia Moreno; Verdecia, Pilar Oropesa; Rodríguez, Lourdes García; Águila, Rolando A. Serra; Magaña, Yoel Jénez; Hechavarría, Ailec Bell; Pérez, Nayla; Cacero, Maray Dubalón; Ruiz, Javier Mas

    2016-01-01

    In the paper we present the results of the calibration of the concentration of F-18 dissolution activity in Cuba. Methods of measurement in a calibrated well ionization chamber, traceable to the UK national standard and gamma spectrometry yielded equivalent results within the limit of the associated uncertainties, respectively. The measurement uncertainties of the F-18 activity of the secondary standard activity activator, CAPINTEC CRCTM 15R, obtained from calibration of the instrument with the calibrated solutions of radionuclide, are also shown for the measurement of samples in the geometries of interest in Nuclear Medicine: glass jars and plastic syringes. The results presented in this paper constitute the necessary metrological support for the use of F-18 radiopharmaceuticals and the new PET and PET / CT technologies in medical practice in Cuba.

  18. Historical an insight into the teaching of philosophy in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lidia Beltrán-Marín

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of philosophy in Cuba has been related to events in economic and political life, which leads to the boundaries between the various stages of its teaching are linked to the transformations of its general historical evolution. This work aims to contribute to the training of educational professional’s specialties of history and marxism, and to expand cuban philosophical historiography. Among other methods, analysis and synthesis and logical history were used, complemented by an in-depth document analysis. We present the results of a project of the University of Sancti Spiritus which has led to the present approach to the history of the teaching of philosophy in Cuba which runs through the synthesis stages of colonial, republic and revolution; As well as the predominant philosophical currents at each stage: scholasticism, reformism, modernity, positivism, electivism, existentialism, marxism.

  19. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  20. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Diaz, Luis M.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent. PMID:21270024

  1. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  2. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  3. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferentes, las políticas de la UE y EEUU incluso han contribuido a mantener el régimen castrista en el poder: la UE por su reconocimiento diplomático y la cooperación económica; EEUU, al proporcionar una imagen de enemigo externo. Por ello, y ante el nuevo panorama que ofrece el cambio de gobierno en Cuba, la próxima revisión de la Posición Común de la UE y las elecciones presidenciales en EEUU, es necesario replantearse los objetivos y estrategias políticas para incentivar los derechos humanos en Cuba.

  4. Classification of the regional aborigine ceramic production and its distribution in the central region of Cuba based on NAA and EPMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla Lavarez, Roman; Celaya Gonzalez, Miriam; Godo Rodriguez, Pedro Pablo; Pla, Rita Rosa; Montoya Rossi, Eduardo; Van Espen, Pierr M.

    2001-01-01

    The archaeological researches in Cuba have been oriented mainly to the study of both the eastern and westerns territories of the island: the former province Oriente, considered as the location with the higher density of Agroalfarero communities; and the former provinces of Pinar del Rio, La Havana and Matanzas where mostly Archaic sites have been discovered. However, and in despite of the rich diversity and relevance of the central region of Cuba, this region has been only partially and incompletely studied. The variety in the developed of diverse social and economic structures located in the heart of the Cuban archipelago the central region was the centre of the confluence of communities arriving from the eastern territories herding strong agricultural and pottery traditions interacted with the Archaic already established centuries ago in these territories and successive transculturation and assimilation processes should take place. The classification of the aborigine pottery manufacture of the centro region in three major stylistic variations (Jagua, Yayabo and Yaguajay) is described in details on the lathes interpretations of Celaya and Godo, 1998 an the origin and format transformation of the themes represented in the pottery The suitable of combining Neutron Activation Analysis and electron Probe Microanalysis for the purposes of establishing compositional classification of archaeological pottery is in several compositional groups served as new evidence to the discussion of ceramic production and regional interaction between the Subtaino and Archaic settlements

  5. Historical an insight into the teaching of philosophy in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lidia Beltrán-Marín; Greten Lauren Blanco-Montesino; Lesly León-Montesino

    2018-01-01

    The teaching of philosophy in Cuba has been related to events in economic and political life, which leads to the boundaries between the various stages of its teaching are linked to the transformations of its general historical evolution. This work aims to contribute to the training of educational professional’s specialties of history and marxism, and to expand cuban philosophical historiography. Among other methods, analysis and synthesis and logical history were used, complemented by an in-d...

  6. An overview of sugarcane brown rust in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María La O

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Multiple pathogens affect sugarcane, among them Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of brown rust. This disease was first reported in Cuba in 1979 when it was responsible for a severe attack on the main sugarcane variety B4362. The aims of the present study were to give an overview of sugarcane brown rust in Cuba and show the current disease situation in the country. A retrospective analysis regard to sugarcane cultivar composition resistant to brown rust in Cuba was carried out. In addition 154 genotypes, including the most used progenitors in the breeding program and commercial varieties were evaluated under natural infection conditions. The identity of P. melanocephala was verified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and by sequencing the ITS1 region. After the introduction of P. melanocephala into Cuba, the susceptible variety, B4362, was replaced by Ja60-5 which remained resistant until 1998. Since 2002, a varietal policy supported by a governmental resolution establishing that any single cultivar cannot occupy more than 20 % of the production area for each production company, local area and province, has been applied. Out of the genotypes evaluated, 49 showed resistance to the disease and 35 intermediate behavior, while 39 were susceptible and 31, highly susceptible. P. melanocephala was detected by PCR in all symptomatic samples and its identify confirmed by sequencing the ITS1 region. The adopted measurement together with permanent phytosanitary monitoring and commercial release of resistant or intermediate cultivars succeeded in avoiding any new epidemic. Inoculum pressure was reduced, even on susceptible and highly susceptible varieties since, by resolution, they cannot occupy more than 10 % of the planted area.

  7. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  8. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  9. Nuclear instrumentation in Cuba and for osseous densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, M.; Lopez, B.; Bolanos, L.; Fernandez, J.L.; Cabal, A.; Medina, D.; Laria, J.; Alonso, D.

    1997-01-01

    The present job describes the technical characteristics and operation of two clinical equipment designed in Cuba, for the determination in vivo of the osseous mineral content in forearm, based on the of gamma absorption technique of a single photon. The development of these equipment and the measurements done with one of them are the first intents carried out in the country to diagnose osseous illnesses by means of this method. (author) [es

  10. Reconstruction of Post-Deccan topographies from mapping of relict lateritic paleosurfaces: Implications for long-term denudation of Peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Amandine; Beauvais, Anicet; Chardon, Dominique; Bonnet, Nicolas; Mudlappa, Jayananda; Janwari, Shazia; Mathé, Pierre-Etienne

    2017-04-01

    Cenozoic topographic rejuvenation of divergent continental margins and their cratonic hinterland is a matter of debate. For instance, continental scale tilt has been advocated as a cause of Late Cenozoic relief growth of the Indian Peninsula. Our work aims at providing independent geomorphological constraints to test such assertions. The western margin of the Peninsula bears the Western Ghats Escarpment (WGE), which carves both Precambrian rocks and 65 Ma old Deccan Traps. The escarpment separates a narrow coastal lowland plain drained to the Arabian Sea from a highland plateau drained towards the Bengal Sea. Alternating and coupled chemical weathering and erosion led to formation and dissection of lateritic paleolandscapes preserved both sides of the WGE. In the highland, the relicts of three distinctive lateritic surfaces are recognized. They formed successively from 53 Ma to 23 Ma on the basis of ages obtained by Ar-Ar dating of K-rich manganese oxides [1]. The first surface is topped by a duricrust rich in Al (bauxite) forming mesas at altitudes of 960 to 1400 m. The second surface called "Intermediate" is mantled by a ferricrete, whose relicts remain 100 m below the bauxite at altitudes of 850 to 1250 m. The third surface corresponds to the relicts of a lateritic pediment, which may be capped by a ferricrete at altitudes of 600 to 900 m. Three lateritic surfaces have been documented in the lowland. The Ar-Ar ages obtained indicate common lateritic weathering in both the highland and the lowland between at 53-45 Ma, then a divergence later on [1]. The oldest remnants of lateritic surface in the lowland are preserved at maximum elevation of 400-500 m close to the WGE and correspond to a pediment. This ancient landform was re-altered at 24-19 Ma to form residual hills of the "Intermediate" relief (ca. 350-200 m). A younger pediment formed around the residual hills and is preserved at ca. 150-50 m elevation. Relicts' elevations of the three surfaces have been

  11. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  12. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  13. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero-Fernández, S J; Suárez-Medina, R; Mora-Faife, E C; García-García, G; Valle-Infante, I; Gómez-Marrero, L; Abreu-Suárez, G; González-Valdez, J; Fabró-Ortiz, D Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H; Venn, A; Britton, J; Fogarty, A W

    2013-11-01

    Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 2032 children aged 12-15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60-2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48-2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24-2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19-1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health.

  14. In Defense of Clinical Autopsy and Its Practice in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo D; de Mendoza-Amat, José Hurtado

    2017-01-01

    There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive). These methods have been used in developed countries but never as effectively as the classic autopsy for identifying cause of death and potential medical errors. Although Cuba has also seen a decrease in its autopsy rates, they remain comparatively high. Between 1996 and 2015, there were 687,689 hospital deaths in Cuba and 381,193 autopsies, 55.4% of the total. These autopsies have positively affected medical care, training, research, innovation, management and society as a whole. Autopsies are an important tool in the National Health System's quest for safe, quality patient care based on the lessons learned from studying the deceased. KEYWORDS Autopsy, postmortem examination, postmortem diagnosis, quality of care, patient safety, medical error, Cuba.

  15. Results of the radiological environmental monitoring network in the Central Eastern region of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvan Estrada, O.; Brigido Flores, R.; Rosa Suarez, R.; Barreras Caballero, A.; Damera Martinez, A.

    1998-01-01

    The radiological environmental monitoring laboratory of Camaguey is a member of the Cuban radiological environmental network and it has been carried out a series of measures about radioactivity in the atmosphere: gamma-dose rate, gross-beta activities in fallout and in aerosols. The results show that this region has a low radiological background and it has been exposure contamination

  16. Assessing the 2D Models of Geo-technological Variables in a Block of a Cuban Laterite Ore Body. Part IV Local Polynomial Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Alejandro Legrá-Lobaina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The local polynomial method is based on assuming that is possible to estimate the value of a U variable in any of the P coordinate through local polynomials estimated based on approximate data. This investigation analyzes the probability of modeling in two dimensions the thickness and nickel, iron and cobalt concentrations in a block of Cuban laterite ores by using the mentioned method. It was also analyzed if the results of modeling these variables depend on the estimation method that is used.

  17. La drepanocitosis en Cuba. Estudio en niños: Study in children Drepanocytosis in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Svarch

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La drepanocitosis es la anemia hemolítica determinada genéticamente más frecuente en el mundo. En Cuba, la frecuencia del estado de portador es del 3,08 % en la población general. La fisiopatología de la oclusión vascular es muy compleja; involucra la polimerización de la Hb S, las alteraciones de la membrana del hematíe, las moléculas de adhesión, las citocinas inflamatorias, los factores de la coagulación y lesiones del endotelio vascular. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes son: las crisis vasooclusivas dolorosas, el síndrome torácico agudo, la crisis de secuestro esplénico, la crisis aplástica, la necrosis aséptica de la cabeza del fémur y la úlcera maleolar. El cuadro clínico es muy variable: desde niños que mueren temprano en la vida hasta pacientes que alcanzan la sexta década de la vida. En el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología existe un Programa de Atención Integral que incluye: seguimiento sistemático desde temprano en la vida en una consulta especializada, la administración de ácido fólico de forma permanente y de penicilina oral profiláctica los primeros 5 años de la vida; así como la educación del niño y de sus padres. Desde 1986 se realiza esplenectomía parcial en la crisis de secuestro esplénico con excelentes resultados. Entre 2004-2008 fallecieron solamente 16 enfermos en todo el país y en 397 adultos la sobrevida fue de 53 años en la anemia drepanocítica y de 58 en la hemoglobinopatía SC. Como resultado de este programa, en los últimos años la sobrevida ha aumentado, la calidad de vida del paciente ha mejorado y han disminuido los costos invertidos en el tratamiento de las complicaciones.Drepanocytosis is the hemolytic anemia more frequent genetically determined in the world. In Cuba, the frequency of carrier status is of 3,08% in general population. The pathophysiology of vascular occlusion is very complex; includes the polymerization of the Hb S, the alterations of red

  18. MÚSICA CAMPESINA Y CULTURA POPULAR EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radisbel Galán Rizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La música campesina en Cuba constituye la base fundamental para el estudio de la cultura del país. En ella confluye junto a escasos elementos de la población aborigen las culturas de diferentes etnias que conformaron el amplio mosaico cultural de la Isla siendo la música campesina síntesis inequívoca de este proceso. A través de un análisis crítico, se tomaron en consideración ideas planteadas por varios autores, lo que permite enriquecer los términos y la comprensión del tema. El estudio de la realidad posibilitó analizar la presencia de la música campesina en el contexto nacional a través de sus componentes étnicos, motivaciones, características, rasgos originales, evolución histórica y social como parte indisoluble en la conformación de la nación y su salvaguarda como reafirmación de identidad. De esta forma, el presente texto responde a la insuficiencia de información acerca de los esfuerzos para la salvaguarda y rescate de la tradición musical campesina en Cuba. PALABRAS CLAVE: Música campesina; cultura popular; identidad. THE CONTRY MUSIC AND POPULAR CULTURE IN CUBA ABSTRACT The country music in Cuba is the fundamental for the study of the country's culture base. It converges with few elements of Aboriginal people from different ethnic cultures that shaped the broad cultural mosaic of the island country music being unequivocal synthesis of this process. Through critical analysis, were taken into consideration ideas raised by several authors, allowing enrich the terms and understanding of the subject. The study of reality allowed analyze the presence of country music in the national context through its ethnic components, motivations, characteristics, original features, historical and social evolution as an indissoluble part in shaping the nation and its protection as a reaffirmation of identity. Thus, this text responds to insufficient information on efforts to safeguard and rescue of peasant musical

  19. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  20. Fibrous Platinum-Group Minerals in “Floating Chromitites” from the Loma Larga Ni-Laterite Deposit, Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Aiglsperger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reports on the observation of enigmatic fibrous platinum-group minerals (PGM found within a chromitite body included in limonite (“floating chromitite” from Ni-laterites in the Dominican Republic. Fibrous PGM have a Ru-Os-Ir-Fe dominated composition and are characterized by fibrous textures explained by grain-forming fibers which are significantly longer (1–5 µm than they are wide (~100 nm. Back-scattered electron (BSE images suggest that these nanofibers are platinum-group elements (PGE-bearing and form <5 µm thick layers of bundles which are oriented orthogonal to grains’ surfaces. Trace amounts of Si are most likely associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers. One characteristic fibrous PGM was studied in detail: XRD analyses point to ruthenian hexaferrum. However, the unpolished fibrous PGM shows numerous complex textures on its surface which are suggestive for neoformation processes: (i features suggesting growth of PGE-bearing nanofibers; (ii occurrence of PGM nanoparticles within film material (biofilm? associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers; (iii a Si-rich and crater-like texture hosting PGM nanoparticles and an Ir-rich accumulation of irregular shape; (iv complex PGM nanoparticles with ragged morphologies, resembling sponge spicules and (v oval forms (<1 µm in diameter with included PGM nanoparticles, similar to those observed in experiments with PGE-reducing bacteria. Fibrous PGM found in the limonite may have formed due to supergene (bio-weathering of fibrous Mg-silicates which were incorporated into desulphurized laurite during stages of serpentinization.

  1. A socio-economic study along with impact assessment for laterite based technology demonstration for arsenic mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sourav; Roy, Anirban; Mukherjee, Raka; Mondal, Mrinmoy; Karmakar, Sankha; Chatterjee, Somak; Mukherjee, Munmun; Bhattacharjee, Saikat; De, Sirshendu

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic contamination mitigation technologies have been adsorption-based, but the most widely-used and traditionally available adsorbents suffered inherent limitations, including cost infeasibility and problems associated with regeneration and disposal of the spent adsorbent. The present technology is based on indigenously developed activated laterite prepared from the naturally and abundantly available material, and can hence easily be scaled up for community usage and large scale implementation. The total arsenic removal capacity is 32.5mg/g, which is the highest among all naturally occurring arsenic adsorbents. A major issue in earlier adsorbents was that during regeneration, the adsorbed arsenic would be released back into the environment (leaching), and would eventually contaminate the groundwater again. But the adsorbent in this filter does not require regeneration during its five-year lifespan and does not leach upon disposal. An attempt is made to test and demonstrate the practical implementation of the technology - its effectiveness and viability in three community (primary schools - one in Malda and two in north 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India) and 20 household filters, catering to over 5000 people in different areas of West Bengal exposed to high arsenic contamination of groundwater (ranging from 0.05 to 0.5mg/l). The work also focuses on the social impact of the real life technological solution on the lives on the affected people in the worst hit arsenic affected communities, perhaps the greatest public health risk emergency of the decade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of wood saw dust ash admixed with treated sisal fibre on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Engbonye SANI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary investigation conducted on the lateritic soil collected at Shika, Zaria shows that it falls under A-7-6 (10 classification for AASHTO (1986 and CL according to unified soil classification system USCS (ASTM 1992. The soil was treated with both wood saw dust ash (WSDA and treated sisal fiber, in stepped concentration of 0,2,4,6, and 8% for WSDA and 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% treated sisal fibre by dry weight of soil using Standard proctor. The Sisal Fibre was treated with Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4 (1% wt/vol for 60 minutes at room temperature to remove the cellulose content present in the Fibre. Statistical analysis was carried out on the obtained results using XLSTART 2017 software and analysis of variance with the Microsoft Excel Analysis Tool Pak Software Package. The liquid limit (LL of the soil was found to be 48% while the plastic limit(PL is 21.27%. The maximum dry density(MDDhowever, decreases generally from a value of 1.85 Mg/m3 to 1.68Mg/m3 at 0.25% sisal fiber content/0% WSDA. It has its least value of 1.57Mg/m3 at 1% sisal fiber and 8% WSDA. The OMC increased from 18 % of the natural soil to 23.7% at 0.75% sisal fiber / 6% WSDA content. There was a general increase in the value of UCS of the soil-sisal fibre mixture with WSDA content from 100 kN/m2 of the natural soil to 696 kN/m2 at 0.75 % sisal fibre content / 6% WSDA. The UCS value met the standard of 687-1373 kN/m2 requirements of sub base for adequate lime and cement stabilization, respectively (Ingas and Metcalf 1972.

  3. 75 FR 8791 - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... February 23, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  4. 76 FR 11071 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the... Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  5. 78 FR 13207 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the... Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  6. Methodology applied in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository under safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbera, L.; Peralta, J.L.; Franklin, R.; Gil, R.; Chales, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The work presents the methodology used in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository safely. This methodology covers both the technical and socio-economic factors, as well as those of design and construction so as to have a safe siting for this kind of repository under Cuba especial condition. Applying this methodology will results in a safe repository

  7. Technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Torres Ten, Alonso; Fonseca Fonseca, Susana; Fuetes lombá, Osmanys; Massipe Hernández, J. Raúl; Gonzalez, Wagner Roberto

    2017-01-01

    It is presented the technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 20 Cabannas type tourism and a one of 2 square meter flat solar collector will be used, with a storage tank of 200 liters capacity, that is to say one system per cabin. (author)

  8. Mineralized lateritic profile in Sn, Zr, Th, Nb, Y and ETR (Serra do Madeira - Pitinga - AM): mineralogical characteristics and geochemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Costa, Marcondes L. da

    1997-01-01

    The Pitinga region is located in the north 250 km far from Manaus, in the Amazonas State, Brazil. The Serra do Madeira is the local name of one hill located in the Madeira granite with important primary and supergenic mineralizations of Sn (cassiterite), Zr (zircon), Th (thorite), Nb (columbite and pyroclore), Y and REE (xenotime). The Serra do Madeira was constituted by a lateritic profile with 20 m of thickness where were identified seven horizons: parent rock, saprolite, clayey, bauxitic, concretionary, coluvion and latosol. The lateritization promoted the chemistry instability of the parent-rock forming a clayey material where Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , Sn, Th and Nb were enriched as kaolinite, gibbsite, hematite, goethite, cassiterite, zircon, thorite and columbite; SiO 2 , FeO, CaO, Na 2 O, K 2 O, F, Pb, Rb, and U were leached as quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, riebeckite/arfvedsonite, biotite, and iron sulfides; Y, P and ETR were enriched and leached correlated to xenotime, bastnaesite, fluorcerite and probably churchite and ytriofluorite

  9. Leguminosas naturalizadas en el Valle del Cauto, Cuba Naturalized legumes in the Cauto Valley, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gómez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la dinámica de crecimiento de 24 accesiones del género Brachiaria spp., se desarrolló la presente investigación en la región de Barrancabermeja, Santander, Colombia. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, en 72 parcelas de 21 m2 cada una y tres réplicas (parcelas para cada tratamiento. Las accesiones fueron agrupadas según los hábitos de crecimiento en: estoloníferas, decumbentes y erectas, y se determinó la tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura del pasto. Las accesiones con mejor crecimiento durante la investigación fueron: de las estoloníferas, B. dictyoneura CIAT-6133; de las de hábito decumbente, B. decumbens CIAT-606; y de las de crecimiento erecto, B. brizantha CIAT-16113, CIAT-26110, CIAT-26318 y CIAT-16322. Algunas accesiones no tuvieron un buen comportamiento, al parecer por las condiciones edafoclimáticas a las que fueron sometidas. Entre ellas se encuentran B. dictyoneura CIAT-16871, B. ruziziensis CIAT-26180 y B. brizantha CIAT-16212, 26124 y 26427.With the objective of prospect and collect the naturalized legumes for livestock production usage in the Cauto Valley, Cuba, two searches were made in representative zones of the region. The first search was conducted in the territory located west of Bayamo city, where there are different soils and rainfall regimes, and the second one on soils affected by salinity. In prospection number 1 the presence of 17 genera was determined and within them a total of 22 species, among which the following prevailed: Galactia spiciformis, Centrosema molle, Desmodium triflorum and Teramnus uncinatum; the existence of an important number of species was also known on vertisol soils with deficient drainage, which edaphic grouping constitutes the most extended in the region, and on the other hand, the associability degree of each legume with other species of the spontaneous vegetation present in the search areas, was characterized. In

  10. Tuberculosis mortality trends in cuba, 1998 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Edilberto; Risco, Grisel E; Borroto, Susana; Perna, Abel; Armas, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and death throughout the world. The World Health Organization's Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 proposes that countries cut TB mortality by half compared to 1990 rates. In Cuba, TB mortality declined steadily throughout the 20th century, particularly after 1960. Objective Describe TB mortality distribution and trends in Cuba from January 1998 to December 2007 by infection site, sex, age and province, and determine progress towards the WHO's 2015 target for TB mortality reduction. Methods A time series ecological study was conducted. Death certificates stating TB as cause of death were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division, and population data by age group, sex, and province were obtained from the National Statistics Bureau. Crude and specific death rate trends and variation were analyzed. Results TB mortality declined from 0.4 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 0.2 (under half the 1990 rate) in 2007. Clinical forms of the disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, also declined. The highest mortality rates were found in males and in the group aged ≥ 65 years. Rates were also highest in the capital, Havana, with extreme values of 0.73 and 0.39 per 100,000 population at the beginning and end of the period, respectively. Conclusions Deaths from TB declined steadily compared to total deaths and deaths caused by infectious diseases. The Global Plan to Stop TB target was met well ahead of 2015. If this trend continues, TB is likely to become an exceptional cause of death in Cuba.

  11. Cuba-guatemala cooperation: building viable models for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2009-07-01

    The intertwined history of Cuba and Guatemala goes back almost five centuries. In 1536, Friar Bartolom� de las Casas sailed from Cuba to Guatemala with material for his book, A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, seared upon his conscience. Documenting atrocities against Cuba's indigenous populations, the book persuaded Guatemala's colonial powers to rewrite abusive labor laws that were killing the Maya; the book also earned De las Casas the nickname 'apostle of the Indians.' Over 300 years later, the apostle of Cuban independence, Jos� Mart�, cut his journalistic teeth in Guatemala, while Cuban poet Jos� Joaqu�n Palma authored Guatemala's national anthem. More recently, in the 1950s, Dr Ernesto ('Che') Guevara's time in the country solidified his belief in the need for radical social change a few years before he would join Fidel Castro's Rebel Army. And in 1998, Guatemala, like Cuba so many times before and since, was struck by a fierce, fatal hurricane, opening in its wake a new chapter in the countries' shared history. Hurricane Mitch took over 30,000 lives in Central America and is widely considered the deadliest hurricane to hit the Western Hemisphere in 200 years. The storm made landfall in Guatemala on October 26, 1998 killing 268 people and displacing 106,000. Losses were estimated at US$750 million, with 6,000 homes completely destroyed and another 20,000 damaged. Seven health centers and 48 rural health stations serving 50,000 people were affected.[1] Within days, a team of 19 Cuban doctors landed in Puerto San Jos� in the southern department of Escuintla to provide medical assistance. Working alongside Spanish, US, and Guatemalan relief workers, the Cuban contingent set broken bones, treated some 900 cases of cholera[2] and 14,000 of malaria,[3] evacuated pregnant women, and delivered babies. Implementing vector control, safeguarding food supplies, and providing potable water were other measures taken by the Cuban volunteers, who

  12. The right to health care for transsexual people in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Alberto; Rodríguez, R Mayra

    2012-04-01

    Gender identity is a sociocultural construct based (in nearly every society) on a binary norm: female and male. Transsexual individuals suffer from intense family and social discrimination because they express a dissident sexuality incongruent with this norm. They assert they feel trapped in a body that does not belong to them, so they seek help from health professionals to modify their bodies, to "adapt their bodies to their minds." This essay discusses health care for transsexual persons in Cuba from a human rights perspective that does not pathologize their gender identification.

  13. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  14. Training of professional interpreters in Cuba: Its main historic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Oliveros-Domínguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of interpreters in Cuba has as its main goal to train a professional who is able to mediate among Spanish speakers and not-Spanish speakers in our historic situation. This research article aims to analyze the main backgrounds of interpretation teaching at Universidad de Oriente, taking into account its dynamics and the didactic treatment of the cognitive factors involved in the interpretation process. This enables to deepen into the main characteristics of the process, through a study of short-term memory training and the didactic devices used for its improvement; and establish three main stages in the evolution.

  15. Uranium mineralization in the central region of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, M.G.; Olivera, J.; Fernandez, P.

    1995-01-01

    The present work shows different geological and geophysical index for uranium mineralization found at Loma Alta iron ore deposit, located in the central region of Cuba. In this deposit was carried out pull work of iron ore. The tunnels were radiometrically documented in the wall and the floor observing some anomalies of the gamma ray intensity (up to 1700 c.p.s.) associated with the poor iron ore. In those points were collected solid sample. The obtained results were very important (uranium concentrations values up to 3500 ppm)

  16. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott in Cuba

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    Yadelys Figueroa Águila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT, to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%, was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%. Increased temperature and relative humidity lasted until November, when inflorescence ends.

  17. General overview and perspectives of risk analysis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vilaragut, J.J.; Valhuerdi, C.

    1995-01-01

    This papers shows a general overview of the application of risk analysis techniques in some potentially dangerous industries in Cuba. This paper summarizes the experiences of these sectors in the risk analysis with different specification levels and different approaches. Some experiences in the application of these analyses in the nuclear and aeronautical industries are shown. Some analyses of consequences in cases of accidents in the chemical industries in order to work due and improve emergency plans for responding to accident situations are presented in a more succinct manner. Also the perspectives to develop some of these tendencies and cooperation forms between them are summarized

  18. Gr-50 values for vegetables useful in agriculture in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Talavera, S.; Labrada, A.

    1988-01-01

    For more than 15 years we have tried to use in Cuba ionizing radiations for the genetic improvement of plants without any encouraging results. This is so mainly because the dose values to be used were taken from reports which appeared in specialized literature most of it from countries in cold or temperature zones. Two Cuban researchers proved that cuban varieties are more resistant to radiations than the ones reported in literature, thus the need to make a radiosensitivity table which would allow improvers to use successfully the radio mutational method in cuban agriculture

  19. Isotopic hydrodynamic of the aquifer systems Jaruco and Aguacate, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moleiro Leon, L.F.; Guerra Oliva, M.G.; Maloszewski, P.; Arellano Acosta, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    An isotopic dispersive model is applied to the Jaruco and Aguacate karstic groundwater basins of Western Cuba. The best fit of the model was validated with stable ( 18 O and 2 H ) and radioactive ( 3 H) isotopes. Modeling showed an aquifer stratification in two basic levels with turnover times of three month to upper level and close to 100 years to the lower level. The last one mainly supplies the base flow of the Ojo de agua and Bello springs and therefore, controls the dry season exploitation yields of the aqueducts of El Gato and Bello. Model results introduces an important constraint in the exploitation of groundwater resource of both aquifer systems

  20. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte; Mirelys Rodríguez Alfaro; Alfredo Montero Álvarez; Juan Estévez Álvarez; Adriana M. de Aguiar Accioly; Clístenes W. Araujo Do Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    El contenido de Níquel (Ni) en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas real...

  1. Homosexualidad y homosexuales en Cuba: la verdad oculta

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo Díaz, Luis

    1998-01-01

    La homofobia en Cuba se ha venido construyendo sobre esta base y ha hecho suponer que el homosexual es inevitablemente un vicioso, inmoral y pervertidor de niños. El homosexual es extirpado del concepto de nación y luego de 1959 ya no solamente se llega a considerar como tal sino que bajo el juego de identidades de nación/patria/revolución/socialismo se le suma el de ser antipatriota, contrarrevolucionario y desviado política e ideológicamente. Al enlazarse la entereza física con una eticidad...

  2. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  3. Anatomic pathology in Cuba before 1959: a personal recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2016-04-01

    Reminiscing when reaching life's twilight is a human condition and hopefully leads to an objective self-evaluation of the past years. I have just done that with this recollection and now I can conclude that, in spite of the outcome of my professional life in Cuba, I remain convinced that one should not complete a journey just because it was started, that everything we learn in life will be sued in due time, and that we should always pursue our dreams because we become our best in the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Spanish Language textbook in Chile and Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcelo Ayzum Echeverría

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description and analysis of the content of textbook of Language and Communication (Spanish in Cuba considering the indispensable tasks for fostering a developmental learning. A comparative analysis of fourth year Cuban and Chilean textbook contents was carried following certain criteria that normally promote good learning practices. Once the textbooks were compared, the findings suggest that school textbooks should be selected on the basis of the criteria taken as reference, in the meantime, such criteria may lead teacher to design complementary tasks.

  5. El ingreso en el hogar y su costo directo en Cuba The direct costs of home care in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel M. Barroso Utra; Anai García Fariñas; Armando Rodríguez Salvá; Pol de Vos; Mariano Bonet Gorbea; Patrick Van Der Stuyft

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Analizar el tiempo de estadía en ingreso en el hogar (IH) y su costo diario y por paciente en Cuba, según el diagnóstico al ingreso y la zona donde se brinda el servicio. MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de los 837 pacientes en IH entre julio de 2001 y junio de 2002 en un área del municipio Playa, en Ciudad de La Habana (zona urbana metropolitana), una del municipio Cruces, en Cienfuegos (zona urbana no metropolitana), otra del Municipio Unión de Reyes, en Matanzas (zona rural) y...

  6. Late Quaternary uplift along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary: Evidence from the sea level record of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Schweig, Eugene S.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Halley, Robert B.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic setting of the North America-Caribbean plate boundary has been studied intensively, but some aspects are still poorly understood, particularly along the Oriente fault zone. Guantanamo Bay, southern Cuba, is considered to be on a coastline that is under a transpressive tectonic regime along this zone, and is hypothesized to have a low uplift rate. We tested this by studying emergent reef terrace deposits around the bay. Reef elevations in the protected, inner part of the bay are ∼11-12 m and outer-coast, wave-cut benches are as high as ∼14 m. Uranium-series analyses of corals yield ages ranging from ∼133 ka to ∼119 ka, correlating this reef to the peak of the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5. Assuming a span of possible paleo-sea levels at the time of the last interglacial period yields long-term tectonic uplift rates of 0.02-0.11 m/ka, supporting the hypothesis that the tectonic uplift rate is low. Nevertheless, on the eastern and southern coasts of Cuba, east and west of Guantanamo Bay, there are flights of multiple marine terraces, at higher elevations, that could record a higher rate of uplift, implying that Guantanamo Bay may be anomalous. Southern Cuba is considered to have experienced a measurable but modest effect from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) processes. Thus, with a low uplift rate, Guantanamo Bay should show no evidence of emergent marine terraces dating to the ∼100 ka (MIS 5.3) or ∼80 ka (MIS 5.1) sea stands and results of the present study support this.

  7. The role of popular energy education and diffusion in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Energy Revolution is a national program for developing renewable energy sources to conserve energy, promote sustainable development and address environmental concerns. It includes the Energy Saving Program by the Ministry of Education (PAEME), the Electricity Saving Program in Cuba (PAEC) by the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS) and the National Program for Energy Sustainable Culture developed by CUBASOLAR. The most important programs related to the use of renewable energy sources have been carried out in the field of biomass, hydropower, wind energy, water supply and solar photovoltaic energy in rural areas. This paper presented the Cuban experiences on education, diffusion and publication of energy themes. Mass communication including television, radio and magazines has been used to explain the rationale of using renewable energy, its efficiency and social impact. The positive results thus far indicate that these measures can be applied in other developing countries such as Latin America and Caribbean, and could also serve as a guide for other areas, including developed countries.

  8. Cuba, Canarias y la prensa, en el contexto del 98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Ileana Medina Hernández

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available 1898 es para España el año del Desastre, con mayúscula; 1898 es para Cuba el año de la independencia, quizá con minúscula. Canarias es la puerta de salida de Europa; Cuba es puerta la entrada de América. La migración canario - cubana ha sido un factor histórico decisivo en la formación de ambas nacionalidades. La prensa de masas naciente a fines del siglo XIX jugó un papel determinante en la guerra hispano-norteamericana y su desenlace. Conjugando esas cuatro sentencias aplastantes y archiconocidas, la investigación del reflejo del proceso independentista cubano en la prensa de canaria aporta sustanciosos elementos al conocimiento del papel de los procesos de comunicación en la historia y en la cultura de ambos archipiélagos, en el importante contexto del fin de siglo XIX.

  9. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Virtual Tour Environment of Cuba's National School of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, R. K.; Douglas, I. P.; Garlock, M. E.; Glisic, B.

    2017-08-01

    Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba's National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.

  11. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I.

    2006-01-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  12. Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Baquero, Andrea C.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Island organisms often have wider feeding niches than mainland organisms, and migratory birds breeding on continents often widen their niches when overwintering on islands. Cuba's low hummingbird richness has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, we show that the Cuban hummingbird fauna is less...... rich than expected based on Cuba's elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss...

  13. Data supporting the assessment of biomass based electricity and reduced GHG emissions in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume Gutiérrez, Alexis; Cabello Eras, Juan J; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Hens, Luc

    2018-04-01

    Assessing the biomass based electricity potential of developing nations like Cuba can help to reduce the fossil fuels dependency and the greenhouse gas emissions. The data included in this study present the evolution of electricity production and greenhouse gas emissions in Cuba. Additionally, the potentialities to produce biomass based electricity by using the most significant biomass sources in Cuba are estimated. Furthermore, estimations of the potential reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, resulting from implementing the biomass based electricity potential of the different sources discussed in the study, are included. Results point to the most promising biomass sources for electricity generation and their potential to reduce GHG emissions.

  14. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O; Capote F, E; Carrazana G, J A; Zerquera, J T; Ramos V, O; Alonso A, D; Fernandez, I M; Caveda R, C A; Madrazo M, S; Barroso P, I [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  15. Sobre la presencia de Cneorum (Cneoraceae en Cuba: ¿ejemplo de disyunción biogeográfica Mediterráneo-Caribe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brull, Gabriel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to shed light on the enigmatic world distribution of the Cneoraceae family, frequently, and until very recently, used as an example of the connection between the Mediterranean and the Caribbean floras. Specifically, we wanted to document the presence/absence of an endemic taxon, first collected in 1861 by Charles Wright from Cuba (Cneorum trimerum. During the last five years, we have visited all the localities where this taxon was originally collected, at Sierra Maestra in eastern Cuba, and revised all available herbarium material. Moreover, we checked all botanical and historical references, and also interviewed local people, to whom we showed pictures of the Mediterranean Cneorum. The conclusions of our survey are the following: i nowadays, there are no Cneorum plants growing in their type localities in Cuba; ii all the collected material from Cuba and deposited in herbaria by Wright, and also others studied by Carlquist, correspond unequivocally to C. tricoccon. The material collected by Ekman in 1922, and identified as C. trimerum, is sterile, and cannot be identified with certainty, however we think it is unlikely to be C. tricoccon; iii this plant was probably introduced during the mid 19th century from Southern France, although it never become naturalized. The presence of French colonist settlements in coffee plantations in those areas where Cneorum was collected, together with the fact that the plant has medicinal properties, lead us to suggest that the colonist themselves were those introducing the plant in Cuba. Lastly, iv Schoepfia stenophylla (Olacaceae has also been recently misidentified as Cneorum tricoccon due to the resemblance of their leaves. Schoepfia stenophylla is an endemic species currently threatened and for which there is an in situ conservation plan. Such confusion between these species has contributed to the maintenance and spreading of the mistakes through the long taxonomic history of

  16. El turismo como estrategia de desarrollo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Risco Yera, Yoel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an economic activity which is becoming more and more important, socially, economically and environmentally. This fact is especially relevant in the case of Cuba. The tourist activity is seen as a form of stabilising the balance of payments, a source of income and employment. However, in this times of economic and political uncertainty, the dangers of substituting the basic commodity of sugar for something else (tourism is very big and it may be necessary to revise the use of tourism as a way of future development.

    [es] El turismo se ha convertido en una actividad económica que, cada vez tiene mayor importancia en el desarrollo económico, social y medio ambiental. Este hecho adquiere una especial relevancia en el caso de Cuba. La actividad turística es vista como una forma de equilibrar la balanza de pagos, una fuente de divisas y de empleo. Sin embargo, en momentos de incertidumbre económica y política como son los actuales, los peligros de sustituir un monocultivo (del azúcar por otro (el turismo son muy grandes y se hace necesario revisar su utilización como vía para el desarrollo. [fr] Le tourisme est devenu une activité économique de plus en plus importante du point de vue économique, social et environnemental. Il s'agit là d'un fait tout particulièrement essentiel dans le cas de Cuba. L'activité touristique est abordée comme un moyen permettant d'équilibrer la balance des paiements, ainsi qu'une source de devises et d'emploi. Cependant, considérant la conjoncture actuelle d'incertitude économique et politique qui accroît les risques de remplacer une monoculture (celle du sucre par une autre (le tourisme, il est donc nécessaire de réétudier l'utilisation du tourisme en tant que voie de développement.

  17. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  18. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Informational Element of Power: The Role of Public Diplomacy in United States-Cuba Policy Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andujar, Roberto C

    2005-01-01

    THESIS: The United States should reassess its Public Diplomacy strategy toward Cuba and the key role that Public Diplomacy plays in preparing the Cuban people to transition to a free and democratic state. RATIONALE...

  20. Economic and Security Reasons Why the U.S. Should Normalize Relations with Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtain, Joseph W

    2008-01-01

    ...) that has occurred as a result. The thesis also shows how China, Venezuela and Iran continue to invest more money in the island and subsequently threaten to wield more influence over Cuba. The U.S...

  1. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  2. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  3. Masculinidades en Cuba: legitimación de una dimensión de los estudios de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Quaresma da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine some imagined meanings of masculinity among groups of men in Eastern Cuba. We first present a brief overview of how this subject has been addressed in the Cuban context, highlighting the relevant theoretical contributions to understand our case study. Our findings, which come from an analysis of discussion groups with self-identified heterosexual men, address the imagined meanings around masculine bodies, being a man and husband, and fatherhood. We suggest that, circulating in this culture, there are beliefs and assumptions about being a man that produce categories and rankings, and, as a result, articulate, stabilize, and authorize situations of discrimination, subordination, marginalization, or exclusion among men and in systems of social relations.

  4. La vacuna en Cuba durante el gobierno de Someruelos

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Cienfuegos, Sigfrido

    2004-01-01

    La Real Expedición Filantrópica de la Vacuna (1803-1806), dirigida por Francisco Javier de Balmis, se dirigió al Nuevo Mundo para paliar las epidemias de viruelas que habían venido asolando América desde casi el mismo momento del Descubrimiento. Para entonces en la isla de Cuba ya se había iniciado una labor con el mismo objetivo por el médico cubano Tomás Romay, apoyado en el fomento de la introducción y aplicación de la vacuna por el marqués de Someruelos gobernador y capitán general de la ...

  5. Cuba: mitigation policies and the Environmental Kuznets curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusimit Betancourt-Alayón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine whether there is for Cuba a growing non-monotonic relationship, known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, between emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2 in relation to income levels as a measure of the degree of development a basic model from 1970 to 2010. In addition to exploring an extended model involving product structure and trade on emissions. These gases by the importance of the intensification of global warming and therefore in strengthening the climate change are studied. A positive relationship of emissions of the three gases with GDP, although with evidence of an emerging virtuous development path of emissions is obtained, in any case it is possible without a comprehensive development policy which is prioritized design mitigation options.

  6. [Mortality in traffic accidents in Bayamo, Cuba 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Tornés, Arlines; González-Longoria, Lourdes; González-Pardo, Secundino; Acosta-González, Ariel; Vintimilla-Burgos, Patricio; Paspuel-Yar, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    With the objective of describing mortality from traffic accidents in Bayamo, Cuba, in 2011 a review was performed of injured and deceased patients due to traffic accidents, recorded in the Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Of the 1,365 injured patients treated in the emergency room, the predominant groups were individuals aged 25 to 44 years comprising 372 patients (27.3%) and men comprising 1,071 (78.5%). 46 people died, most from the same age group and male. Multiple traumatisms (52.6%) and craniofacial trauma (34.2%) were the predominant injuries. Motor vehicle-pedestrian accidents stood out with a mortality of 26.3%. In conclusion, mortality from traffic accidents predominately occurs in young male adults, whose fatal consequences are due to multiple traumatisms from road accidents.

  7. Ensuring quality while going local: IAEA helps Cuba produce radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Cancer and cardiovascular disease are health conditions Cuba will now be able to more readily diagnose and treat thanks to its newly built facility for producing key radiopharmaceuticals. Nuclear medicine requires a constant and reliable supply of these radioactive drugs, prepared according to what the industry calls good manufacturing practices (GMP), and there have so far been limitations in getting them to the island nation. “Through our work with the IAEA, we now have a dedicated GMP compliant facility and the expertise to meet most of our national needs for diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for helping patients,” said René Leyva Montaña, Director of Production at the Isotope Centre (CENTIS), Cuba’s centre dedicated to radiopharmaceutical production.

  8. Making Travel to Cuba Work for Health and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, a record-breaking 3.5 million visitors-1 million from Canada alone-traveled to Cuba to explore its history, culture, natural splendor, and visit family. That same year, US President Barack Obama relaxed travel restrictions, giving general authorization for a dozen categories of legal travel by US citizens and residents. As a result, US visitors to the island ballooned by 80% between January 2015 and June 2016. And the numbers keep growing: the latest data show that foreign arrivals reached 4 million in 2016.[1] The surge in visitors highlights the potential negative impact of tourism on a developing country's infrastructure, environment, cultural patrimony and local economy-all considered important social determinants of health.

  9. Santiago de Cuba: between july 1955 and november 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pevida-Pupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical context of the city of Santiago de Cuba in the months prior to November 30, 1956, when the armed uprising took place in support of the landing of the Granma yacht expedition led by Fidel Castro Ruz; The material and human assurances made by the 26th of July Revolutionary Movement (MR-26-7 to provide all possible assistance to those arriving at the coast of the country; Among this action is the making of uniforms and the location of medical kits. It also emphasizes the role played by young teacher Frank País García at the front of the plan drawn up months before 

  10. Inventory of land snails from Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jonathan Pereira-Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A census of mollusks in Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba was carried out. Biodiversity index were studied by vegetal formation, which are: Evergreen Forest, Semideciduous Forest and Mogote Vegetation Complex. The families best represented were Helicinidae, Annularidae, Urocoptidae and Subulinidae, taking the 97.6% of the species some degree of national endemism and being the 45.24% of these local endemic. The most widely distributed species was Farcimen camaguayanum Torre & Bartsch 1941 and the rarest was Euclastaria euclasta Shuttleworth 1852. The highest biodiversity values were observed in the Mogote Vegetation Complex being of 2,856 according to Shannon-Wiener (H´ index. So far species extinction events are not seen but not discarded for the future due to a decline in local rainfall during the last 15 years as well as human activities such as agriculture and local tourism.

  11. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba: diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lobo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba.

  12. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Algunos relatos sobre santería, magia y etnomedicina en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Carrascosa Palomera, Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una colección de relatos sobre santería, magia y etnomedicina en Cuba. Incluye información sobre ritos y prácticas de iniciación, de purificación, de curación. This paper offers a selection of stories about santería, magic and folk medicine in Cuba. Includes reports on iniciation, purification and curation rites and practices

  14. The tourism model in Post-Castro Cuba: Challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Helene; Velázquez, Mario

    2018-01-01

    This chapter explores tourism in Cuba within the framework of alternative economies to tap into the debate about the diversity of modes of exchange. Cuba is at a crossroad in the country’s transition from socialist to capitalist economy. The death of Fidel Castro and the steps taken by Raúl Castr...... increasing tourism, and since 1999 has been UNESCO World Cultural Landscape....

  15. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  16. The Cuba-United States Thaw: Building Bridges Through Science and Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Kouri, Vivian; Resik, Sonia; Acosta, Belsy; Guillen, Gerardo; Goraleski, Karen; Espinal, Marcos; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-06-01

    AbstractBeginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States.

  17. A New Look at U.S. Foreign Policy toward Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    profit. Stories abound that all the Burger King franchises are sold to Cuban exiles ( Burger King and McDonald Invasion). Many industries have granted...similar franchises in Cuba to those who have put money forth to attain those franchises .’ They also fear Cuban exiles will return ready to control the...the manufacturing of radios (FIGURE 22). 5. In the agricultural products area "sugar was not king ," largely due to Cuba’s failure to meet their 1990

  18. Occupational exposure in the production of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Z. H.; Soria, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the experiences in controlling occupational exposure production of radiopharmaceuticals in the Isotope Center (CENTIS) of the Republic of Cuba. data corresponding period 1996-2014 to 896 records are processed. The percentage distributions of the annual effective dose (E), the equivalent dose in the hands (Hp (0.07)) and the equivalent dose in crystalline (Hp (3)), are presented. The annual performance of the average values ​​of these dose quantities is plotted. The results of the internal dosimetry are processed. Annual activities manipulated radioisotopes greater contribution and its relation to the distribution of the collective dose directly linked S of staff, they are evaluated. The ALARA principle is implemented and maintained, based on qualitative and quantitative analysis, as appropriate. The (63-98)% of workers are monitored to E and the (80-100)% for Hp (0.07) and Hp (3), receives less than 10% of annual exposure limits. Groups of workers Radiopharmacy and Inspection and Testing are the greatest contribution to the collective dose, whose S to E equal to or greater than 2 mSv is the (9-62)% of total annual S. The maximum value of S is 98.3 mSv recorded man-1 and this occurs in 2011, however the highest value of 99Mo activity is handled in 2012 and a later year for 131I. They are identified as the most effective means for optimizing radiation safety the use of electronic dosimeters, internal shields process in hot cells and glove boxes and shields for collection of radioactive waste. a reduction in personnel exposure between (10-27)% is obtained. It is shown that exposure of workers in the production of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuba is acceptably low. (author)

  19. US-CUBA RELATIONS: A NEW WAVE OF CONFRONTATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С Перес Бенитес

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to analyze the role of the changes introduced by the administration of the former president Barack Obama in 2014-2016 into the bilateral US-Cuba relations; and the way in which the new presidential team are to reorganize this direction. The question on the attitude of Donald Trump towards currently existing policies aimed at solving the long-lasting problem with Cuban socialism is especially interesting since new US president has multiple times condemned the old ways practiced by the former establishment, but at the same time has shown readiness to act in a straight-forward and confrontational manner. One of contributors of the paper, Santiago Perez Benitez, deputy director of the Center for International Political Studies in Havana, is attempting to provide his professional expertise in granting an insider view from the Cuban side, evaluating the progress made since the 2014 and interpret the notion of the upcoming policy changes in Washington. The importance of the Cuban issue in the framework of US. policy in the Western hemisphere is explained by the fact that a solution in this sphere could help remake a negative image of Pan-American policies that haunts Washington. Cuban issue has also been long considered a possible key for reestablish-ment of trust between the United States and Latin American countries. For president Trump, quite unpopular judging by the polls, Cuban issue also has a potential to earn support of his own constituents, who strongly support lifting the embargo from Cuba. However now after certain decisions of Donald Trump the future of US-Cuban relations seems to get gloomier by the day.

  20. Goal Programming for the Optimization of the Harvest´s Structurein the Sugar Factory “Paquito Rosales” from Province Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio David Zaldívar-Linares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The organizational deficiencies impact negatively in the sugar sector in Cuba. The roots of these deficiencies arise from the activity that precedes it: the planning. The objective of this paper is to perfect the planning of the transportation of the cane like part of the process of production of the sugar. For this a model of Goal Programming will be built, in order to optimize the mentioned planning and the same one will be validated in the Managerial Unit of Base (MUB sugar station "Paquito Rosales" of the county Santiago de Cuba. This model will facilitate an improvement of the economic and industrial meters.

  1. Isotopic hydrodynamic of the aquifer systems Jaruco and Aguacate, Cuba; Hidrodinamica isotopica de los sistemas acuiferos Jaruco y Aguacate, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moleiro Leon, L F; Guerra Oliva, M G [Grupo de Aguas Terrestres, Instituto de Geofisica y Astronomia, La Habana (Cuba); Maloszewski, P [GSF, Institut fue Hydrologie, Munich (Germany); Arellano Acosta, D M [Agencia de Medio Ambiente, CITMA, La Habana (Cuba)

    2002-07-01

    An isotopic dispersive model is applied to the Jaruco and Aguacate karstic groundwater basins of Western Cuba. The best fit of the model was validated with stable ({sup 18}O and 2{sup H}) and radioactive ({sup 3}H) isotopes. Modeling showed an aquifer stratification in two basic levels with turnover times of three month to upper level and close to 100 years to the lower level. The last one mainly supplies the base flow of the Ojo de agua and Bello springs and therefore, controls the dry season exploitation yields of the aqueducts of El Gato and Bello. Model results introduces an important constraint in the exploitation of groundwater resource of both aquifer systems.

  2. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  3. Diversidad florística del Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores”, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Castell-Puchades

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores” se considera entre las áreas de mayor riqueza florística de la costa suroriental de Cuba, sin embargo, son insuficientes los estudios florísticos locales que les posibilite a técnicos y decisores locales contar con la información necesaria para emprender acciones adecuadas de conservación y manejo; con el objetivo de resolver este problema, realizamos un estudio de la diversidad florística que caracteriza el área protegida. Se desarrolló un muestreo preferencial, sin rumbo fijo, teniendo en cuenta en cada recorrido las características físico-geográficas del área, así como la ecología de las especies. El trabajo de campo se realizó según la metodología de los inventarios biológicos rápidos. Se identifican 266 especies de angiospermas para el Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores”, de las cuales 112 constituyen nuevos registros para el área protegida. Se registran 38 especies endémicas y seis especies amenazadas. El 48% de las angiospermas registradas presentan algún tipo de uso o valor para los comunitarios. Este trabajo muestra al Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores” como una de las reservas más importantes en diversidad de angiospermas de las terrazas costeras de Cuba, lo cual resalta su función como área de protección de la flora.

  4. Uptake, distribution and metabolic fate of 59Fe, 58Co, 54Mn and 65Zn in plants and their mobility and availability to crops in typical black and laterite soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were undertaken on typical soils of India. Nutrient culture experiments indicated that with identical plant growth periods the accumulation in aerial tissues of 65 Zn and 54 Mn was greater than that of 58 Co and 59 Fe. The distribution of 59 Fe, 58 Co and 65 Zn in the various aerial organs of bean plants was generally uniform whereas the distribution of 54 Mn followed an acropetal gradient. The chemical association of 59 Fe, 58 Co and 65 Zn in the edible bean pods was predominantly with lipids and ionic forms whereas 54 Mn association was mainly with ionic forms. The plant uptake of these radionuclides from typical black and laterite soils showed maximum accumulation of 54 Mn followed by 65 Zn, 59 Fe and 58 Co in both soil types and the uptake was greater from the laterite soil than from the black soil. Flooding treatment of rice, while showing a reduction of 59 Fe uptake, showed an increase in plant uptake of 58 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn in both soil types. Organic matter addition resulted in a significant reduction of 59 Fe and 58 Co in the laterite soil and of 65 Zn in the black soil. All the four nuclides were completely immobile in the two soil types when leached with rain water or irrigation waters or when treated with organic matter. However, leaching with 10 -2 M EDTA solution induced a rapid breakthrough of all the four radionuclides. (author)

  5. Gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  6. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. Presentation of the hypothesis By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. Testing of the hypothesis A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value < 0.0001. In Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value < 0.0001. The hypothesis may be tested by reconstruction of imports from the world markets to Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. Implications of the hypothesis If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations. PMID:23947741

  8. Corrupción, burocracia colonial y veteranos separatistas en Cuba, 1868-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz, Alfonso W.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative corruption in Cuba during the nineteenth century was a serious problem addressed both by Spanish authorities and the critics of the colonial system in Cuba. In the long run the fiscal, financial, institutional, and ideological costs of corruption undermined Spanish colonial control in Cuba. While the state and Cuban taxpayers had to pay for the increased costs of corruption, corrupt public officials and private contractors and financiers benefited. This study uses both archival manuscript administrative sources and published sources to assess the impact of corruption and its institutional bases during the final phase of Spanish colonialism in Cuba and the early period of post-colonial transition.

    La corrupción administrativa en Cuba durante el siglo XIX constituyó un problema reconocido como muy grave tanto por las autoridades españolas como por los críticos del sistema colonial cubano. Los costos fiscales, institucionales, e ideológicos de la corrupción contribuían a la erosión del dominio español en Cuba. A causa de la corrupción el Estado percibía menos ingresos y los contribuyentes cubanos se veían forzados a llevar a cuestas una creciente deuda pública. Los funcionarios corruptos y los contratistas y financistas privilegiados por el rígido sistema colonial, por el contrario, percibían los beneficios informales a que se creían acreedores por defender el dominio territorial español en Cuba. Utilizando fuentes administrativas manuscritas de archivos cubanos y españoles, así como fuentes públicas impresas, este trabajo evalúa el impacto de la corrupción y sus particulares bases institucionales en la fase final del colonialismo español en la isla y la transición post-colonial temprana.

  9. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Kusmierz, Ralf; Voigt, Kristina

    2013-08-15

    The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations.

  10. Case Study in International Cooperation: Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Roswell Park Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Reid, Mary; Segal, Brahm; Abrams, Scott I; Lee, Kelvin

    2018-04-01

    In 1961, the USA severed diplomatic relations with Cuba, and in 1962 an embargo was imposed on trade and financial relations with that country. It was not until five decades later that the USA and Cuba would reestablish relations. This opened the way for the New York State Trade Mission to Cuba in April 2015, during which Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Buffalo, New York's Roswell Park Cancer Institute signed a formal agreement that would set in motion biotechnology research collaboration to address one of the most important causes of death in both countries. Significant research from Cuba led to this groundbreaking collaboration. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this cooperation, from the Molecular Immunology Center's initial investigations, through the opening of a phase I clinical trial at Roswell Park Cancer Institute with therapies developed at the Center. This cooperation was responsible for the first clinical trial for CIMAvax-EGF involving advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients in the USA. A license was also approved by the US Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control authorizing a commercial partnership for development of biotechnology products, combining the cancer research efforts of both institutions. This unusual collaboration between Cuba and the USA-the US economic embargo and travel restrictions not withstanding-opens good prospects for expanded medical research between the two countries. While political and logistical challenges remain, the shared mission and dedication of these Cuban and US scientists points the way towards relationships that can lead to development, testing, approval and use of promising new therapies for cancer patients. KEYWORDS Biotechnology, clinical trials, cancer vaccines, cancer immunotherapy, non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC, Cuba, USA.

  11. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  12. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  13. Unraveling climatic changes from intra-profile variation in oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of goethite and kaolinite in laterites: An integrated study from Yaou, French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Jean-Pierre; Freyssinet, Philippe; Chazot, Gilles

    2000-02-01

    An integrated study of O and H isotopes in the lateritic profile of Yaou, French Guiana, was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of stable isotopes as tracers of climatic changes in continental environments. The studied profile is composed of a 27 m thick saprolite, mostly developed in the past under wet-and-dry tropical climate in association with a duricrust, overlain by a 3 m thick yellow latosol formed more recently under present equatorial hot and humid climate. δ 18O-δD values determined for weathering goethite (pseudomorphs after pyrite) and kaolinite (microcrystalline clay groundmass) throughout the 30 m deep profile reflect formation temperatures consistent with present (25°C) and realistic past climatic temperatures (20°C-30°C), indicating that weathering minerals formed in isotopic equilibrium with their genetic environment and were not subjected to significant isotope exchange after formation. A distinct shift downward (2‰ for δ 18O, 15‰ for δD) from low to high δ 18O-δD values occurs around 20 m depth in the saprolite. It is interpreted as recording the change from the past tropical to the present equatorial climate. Goethite and kaolinite in the 5-10 m thick saprolite interval immediately above the active basement weathering front are in isotopic equilibrium with modern water and must have formed under present equatorial-humid conditions. In contrast, goethite and kaolinite found higher up in the saprolite and in the duricrust formed in the past under tropical wet and dry climate from waters distinctly depleted in 18O and D relative to modern water. The marked depletion of paleo-meteoric water at Yaou most likely reflects a more contrasted or "monsoonal" character of the ancient tropical climate. The present study shows that ancient weathering minerals in lateritic profiles preserve their δ 18O-δD values and carry a time signal. The time signal is best expressed in minerals formed rapidly at the weathering front and not subjected

  14. 31 CFR 515.560 - Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction. 515.560 Section 515.560 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 515.560 Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S... guidelines with respect to Cuba or engaged in by U.S.-owned or -controlled foreign firms (general and...

  15. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  16. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 245.13 Section 245.13 Aliens and Nationality... PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.13 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public... section 241(a)(5) of the Act, if the alien: (1) Is a national of Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided...

  17. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  18. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  19. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeneida Teixeira Pinto

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%. The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva. The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50 of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  20. En el reino de la ambivalencia. La Cuba de Alejandro de Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lubrich

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in Spanish, Abstracts in English and German.In the Realm of Ambivalence.The Question of Cuba in Alexander von Humboldt’s American TravelogueCuba has a special role in Alexander von Humboldt’s American travel narrative: Humboldt’s experience of colonial slave economy drives his optimistic philosophy, inspired by European Enlightenment, into a crisis, and brings to surface the inherent contradictions of his discourse. This phenomenon is particularly interesting from the perspective of literary criticism: Alexander von Humboldt conceives Cuba as a poetic space, where contradictions and ambivalences coexist. Already on the boat to the island from Venezuela he creates destablizing effects of sensual perceptions. He stages his landing in Havana as a moment of oppositional impressions. Within the symbolic topography of his geographic fantasy, Cuba functions as an imaginary in-between space. And Humboldt’s philosophical and aesthetic terminology undergoes a semantic recoding in Cuba: what was once used in a philosophical and aesthetic sense, now has become charged with an economic and political meaning.

  1. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  2. Communicative intercultural competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Hernández Díaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of the investigation “Developing Communicative Intercultural Competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba through English”, a master´s degree thesis whose aim was to design a postgraduate course of English for Specific Purposes which would focus on the development of the communicative competence of doctors going to health missions in English-speaking countries or where English is spoken as a lingua franca.This course is based on Developmental Pedagogy, the Communicative Approach and Task-Based Learning. It emphasizes cultural and important intercultural issues to be kept in mind during doctor-patient interviews, doctor-doctor relationships and doctor-family exchanges in a professional context so as to make it possible to establish cultural differences and similarities between the students´ culture and the foreign country´s culture.This is an exploratory investigation with a fundamentally quantitative focus using resources of the qualitative one. This design is a curricular document with all its didactic components, aimed at the development of intercultural communicative competence that responds to the current needs of the participants. 

  3. Dangerous wastes management in Cuba. Current situation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Rossell, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    The appropriate handling of the dangerous waste has become a topic of high priority for all the countries and especially for those developing one that in general, they lack solid technical infrastructure, suitable technologies and human resources properly qualified to carry out this work without causing negative impacts on the environment. For these countries, this matter represents a true challenge, requiring you to have financial resources to create capacities and to acquire technologies, that which reality should be made with the support of the developed countries, but that up to now it doesn't stop to be a commitments without in the practice it is materialized in an effective way. The collaboration and the cooperation among the countries in development are also an useful road that should be increased. This work seeks to expose as Cuba it has faced this challenge, presenting the carried out actions, the confronted difficulties and the future actions that will be attacked so that the handling of dangerous waste doesn't constitute an environmental problem to solve

  4. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo; Escalante, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 ± 5 mBq.l -1 to 39 ±12 mBq.l -1 . The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 ± 8 mBq.l -1 . No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 ± 7 mBq.l -1 and 31 ± 9 mBq.l -1 , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 μSv.y -1 , and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 μSv.y -1 . (author)

  5. [Alagille's syndrome in Cuba. A report of 9 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, C; Fragoso, T; Gra, B; Guerra, L; Castellanos, O; Trujillo, M E

    1992-01-01

    Alagille's syndrome or arteriohepatic dysplasia has been described in Cuba in nine patients between nine months and 12 years of age (8 males and one female). Among the clinical features we found five major abnormalities: chronic cholestasis with neonatal jaundice (9/9), peculiar facies (9/9), peripheral pulmonary artery hypoplasia associated with cardiac murmur (6/9), butter-fly-like arch defects (4/9), and posterior embryotoxon (6/7). Two children had a severe xanthomatosis. Laparoscopy showed green hepatomegaly depending on the degree of cholestasis, and only one patient had incipient signs of micronodular cirrhosis. Liver histology showed a paucity of interlobular bile ducts. Survival was of 60%. One patient survived more than 30 years. Four patients died of liver carcinoma (unique report in infants), broncho-pneumonia, acute renal failure, and sudden death respectively. Among the minor features were mental retardation (5/9), a peculiar voice (3/9), growth retardation observed in some of our patients. This is the first report on Alagille's syndrome in Latin America, because so far reports have come only from Europe and North America.

  6. Promoting health in response to global tourism expansion in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, J M; Gonzalez, M; Cabrera, G J; Catasus, S; Vidal, C; Yassi, A

    2008-03-01

    The ability of communities to respond to the pressures of globalization is an important determinant of community health. Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and there is an increasing concern about its health impact on local communities. Nonetheless, little research has been conducted to identify potential mitigating measures. We therefore took advantage of the 'natural experiment' provided by the expansion of tourism in Cuba, and conducted four focus groups and key informants interviews in each of two coastal communities. Participants expressed concerns about psycho-social impacts as well as occupational and environmental concerns, and both infectious and chronic diseases. A wide array of programs that had been developed to mitigate potential negative were described. Some of the programs were national in scope and others were locally developed. The programs particularly targeted youth as the most vulnerable population at risk of addictions and sexually transmitted infections. Occupational health concerns for workers in the tourism sector were also addressed, with many of the measures implemented protecting tourists as well. The health promotion and various other participatory action initiatives implemented showed a strong commitment to address the impacts of tourism and also contributed to building capacity in the two communities. Although longitudinal studies are needed to assess the sustainability of these programs and to evaluate their long-term impact in protecting health, other communities can learn from the initiatives taken.

  7. Seven years of individual monitoring service in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Suarez, R.; Diaz Bernal, E.D.; Lopez Bejerano, G.M.; Jova Sed, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) has been carrying out from 1987 the individual monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to the ionizing radiations in the Republic of Cuba, excepting those that employ X-rays in diagnostic radiology. In this paper the results of the individual monitoring services during the period 1987-1993 are discussed. For all occupational practices the current system of dose limitation established in the country with 50 mSv as limit of annual dose is satisfied. The distribution in all occupational practices other than nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy is characterized by having more than 95% of the controlled personnel with an effective dose lower than 5 mSv. In the case of nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy more than 80% of the workers were below that dose value. For the practices evaluated in this paper the possibility of assuming the system of dose limitation recommended by ICRP is evident. The evaluations carried out for the introduction of operational quantities H p (0.07) and H p (10) in dose assessment procedure are presented. The expressions obtained during the characterization of the film badge dosemeter, in terms of operational quantities guarantees a deviation of response of the dosemeter with depending upon energies, lower than 20 %. (author)

  8. Introduction of Molecular Diagnosis of Hemochromatosis Type 1 in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Aramís Cervera García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: hemochromatosis type 1 is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, which should be diagnosed during its preclinical phase in order to prevent severe organ damage. Objective: to establish the diagnosis of hemochromatosis type 1 in Cuba, and calculate its frequencies in patients with hepatopathies. Methods: an analytic cross-sectional study was conducted including 65 patients with liver disease, who were referred to the laboratory of Molecular Biology of the National Medical Genetics Center by clinical geneticists. A PCR-RFLP analysis was used for detecting the C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene. Results: PCR-RFLP analysis was standardized for the detection of C282Y and H63D mutations. Frequencies of C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene in patients with hepatopathies were 6.3% and 18.2% respectively. Conclusions: molecular diagnosis of C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene causing hemochromatosis type 1 contributed to the identification of 28 carriers in the 65 patients who were studied, as well as a homozygous individual for the H63D mutation, which shows the high prevalence of these mutations in Cuban patients with liver disease.

  9. Proceedings of II Molecular Imaging Symposium Cuba - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In the Central Theater, University Hospital 'General Calixto Garcia' took place the II Symposium on Molecular Imaging Cuba Japan in the framework of the Scientific Convention for the 120th anniversary of the hospital. The event was organized by the hospital itself with the support of the Society of Medical Physics (medical physics section), CEADEN, the Embassy of Japan and the Theragnostic Compounds R&D Center Neuroscience Research Institute Gachon University, Incheon Korea. It was attended by 80 national scientific leaders and with the invaluable presence of Dr. Tatsuo IDO, Emeritus professor of Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) who presented the results of the scientific papers presented this year in national and international events , referring to the new technologies of molecular imaging and the importance of medical physics in its development. During the meeting the importance of the new technologies of molecular imaging, its undisputed diagnosis intake and medical treatment and the value of human capital struggled to deal with the new technologies, the view that these are only used best when it is understood that they are multidisciplinary systems where each specialist and technical personnel plays an indispensable role. The challenge has medical physics to address these new technologies and the need for changes in the theoretical and practical training in the specialty. These analyzes will be given continuity in the next symposia molecular imaging. (author)

  10. Notes on Mesocapromys sanfelipensis (Rodentia: Capromyidae) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÓpez, Lazaro W viÑola; Garrido, Orlando H; BermÚdez, Alberto

    2018-04-16

    The San Felipe Hutia, Mesocapromys sanfelipensis, is one of the most endangered species of rodents in the world, and little is known about its ecology, evolution, and ancient distribution. At present, this hutia has been found only in its type locality, Cayo Juan Garcia, a cay in the southwest Cuban insular platform. Here we report for the first time a well preserved fossil skull referred to this species, collected in Cueva del Indio, Mayabeque province, western Cuba. This specimen shows that the modern population of M. sanfelipensis is a marginal relic of its former distribution, a consequence of climatic, eustatic, and neotectonic changes in the last 8 ka years. Also, we reevaluate the cranial characters and measurements that correspond to M. sanfelipensis and found that two of the eight specimens referred to this species and deposited at the Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica belong to Mesocapromys auritus. Finally, we include six unpublished photos of specimens of M. sanfelipensis captured in 1970 during two expeditions to Cayo Juan Garcia.

  11. Critical discourse analysis of the arguments about Cuba present on the New York Times Editorial (2008-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyden Figueredo-Portuondo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen months after the proclamation of Fidel Castro in which the president of Cuba for almost half a century left her post due to an illness that placed him between life and death, the New York Times, published on its opinion page on February 20, 2008 editorial "Twilight of the Dictators: And a Chance for Cuba -and the US". This article is an argumentative discourse study of Cuba in New York Times editorials (2008-2015, whose main objective is to analyze the construction of journalistic discourse in this American newspaper about Cuba regarding diplomatic relations between the two countries. This work aims to take steps in order to articulate the historical-cultural approach in psychology to Discourse Analysis (AD, and from an integrated and holistic perspective plan a discourse analysis as a fulcrum to a better understanding of journalistic discourse about Cuba in Internet.

  12. Quality control to the service of diagnostic radiology in policlinics and hospitals of Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinnan Torres, Reinaldo; Parra Caboberde, Hector; Semanat Sanchez, Lino A.

    2002-01-01

    The work presents the results obtained in the Quality Control in diagnostic X-ray equipment accomplished in 33 clinics of Santiago de Cuba city. The performed test were, to the X-ray generator, X-ray tube, devices collimation and alignment, as well as to the light boxes, dark rooms, and radiographic screen-film combinations. Moreover the work presents the results of the Entrance Doses for a reference patient in radiographic projections of frequent use in clinics of Santiago de Cuba city (chest, lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis). For the evaluation of the verified technical parameters were used the tolerance criterions recommended by the Technical Guide elaborated by the State Control Centre of Medical of Cuba. In the case of the Entrance Dose were used the dose levels that recommended by the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for safety of radiation sources

  13. The Telephony in the City of Santiago of Cuba (1893 - 1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithe Sánchez-Garrido

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the substantial advantages which it specifically contributed the restoration of the telephone in Cuba and in the oriental locality, like an element of modernity that contributed to improve the form of life of the population, as well as the quality of mass media, the subject from its arrival to Santiago of Cuba is very little disclosed and/or not known, to grief that with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution considerably spread the use of the same one and some writings were published on the matter. The present research shows an analysis of the historical evolution of the telephony in the Island, but having like attention center the city of Santiago of Cuba. For it the antecedents of this phenomenon consider, the political, economic-social and cultural circumstances that influenced in their evolution and development, as well as their within the framework local incidence.

  14. Immigration, Galician and Santiago de Cuba: a Vision from the Notarial Protocols (1850-1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica García-Salgado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research intends to approach the topic of the Galician presence in the jurisdiction of Santiago de Cuba, declared as such from the year 1847. It includes a balance on the factors of attraction and repulsion that facilitate the Galician immigrant's establishment in Cuba and Santiago de Cuba in the period 1850-1898, as well as characteristic some of their main ones. The study has been carried out starting from the information that offers the Notarial Protocols among those that Manuel Caminero´s Clerkships, Heraclio García, José Knot, the Real one Public of Government and of Guerra, and those of Caney and Copper.

  15. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species. PMID:23794806

  16. Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931 (II

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    Orestes Gárciga Gárciga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En «Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931» se estudia el procesamiento de los datos estadísticos que, acerca de la actividad laboral de la población, presentaron los censos de 1846, 1862, 1899, 1907, 1919 y 1931. Debido a su extensión, la obra ha sido dividida en tres partes para ser publicada en Novedades en Población. El presente artículo examina la evolución de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba de 1846 a 1931, a través de diversas clasificaciones internacionales empleadas en estos estudios, y da continuidad a «Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931 (I», incluido en el número anterior de la revista (Año 9, Número 17, 2013. Abstract In «Dynamic of the workforce in Cuba 1846-1931» is studied the processing of statistical data showed by the 1846, 1862, 1899, 1907, 1919 and 1931 censuses about labor activity of the population. Due to its extension, this work has been divided in three parts so it can be published in Novedades en Población (News on Population. The current paper reviews the evolution of the work force in Cuba from 1846 to 1931, taking to account diverse international classifications used in this studies. It is the continuation of «Dynamic of the workforce in Cuba 1846-1931 (I», included in the previous number of this magazine.

  17. Especies nuevas de abejas de Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Megachilidae, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Genaro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cinco especies nuevas de abejas antillanas: Collectes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (República Dominicana; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba; C. (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae y Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (República Dominicana (ApidaeFive new species of Antillean bees are described and illustrated: Colletes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae is charaterized as follows: Head and mesosoma black, legs and metasoma brown. Dense brown hairs on head and mesosoma; white on frons and metasomal terga. Clypeus, frons and mesosoma with large punctures, lesser on vertex and metasoma. Malar space more wide than long. Male and female slightly similar, except in the apical margin of clypeus, supraclipeal area, and color of the pubescence on legs and sterna; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Dark metallic green, metasoma black with metallic green reflections. Pubescence light; body with large, closed punctures. Female with violet reflections in tergum III and mandible tridentate; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Female black, except basal area of mandibles, tegula, legs, lateral area of tergum I and sterna, reddish brown. Posterior margin of scutellum rounded. Apex of tergum VI with spine curved up. Sternum VI fringed with short, closed setae, and the apex with short spine; Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Black, except antenna and tegula brown; legs and sterna reddish brown. Clypeal margin straight in profile. Gradular grooves on metasomal terga II and III distinct medially. Fovea on metasomal tergum II of male deep and short, and Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Apidae is charaterized as follows: Dorsal pubescence (short and dense on mesosoma

  18. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  19. Validation and use of an ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandino, T.; Alonso, M.; Barrera, M.; Mendoza, E.

    1998-01-01

    Babesia bovis, the most important etiological agent causing bovine babesiosis, is widely distributed in Cuba and affects mainly adult cattle. A survey of the prevalence of the disease in cattle using an ELISA kit (FAO/IAEA) revealed that 34.2% of the animals between 6 and 18 months of age were positive to Babesia bovis, whereas 69.9% on the cattle older than 18 months were positive. Antibodies to Babesia bovis were detected in 96.9% of calves vaccinated with an attenuated Babesia bovis vaccine. A good correlation was found between the results of ELISA kit with those from indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests developed in Cuba. (author)

  20. La imagen del turismo cultural en Cuba percibida por el mercado español

    OpenAIRE

    Yamilé Pérez Guilarte

    2015-01-01

    El turismo cultural, percibido no solo como las visitas a sitios y monumentos históricos, sino ampliado al conocimiento de la forma de vida y tradiciones de las poblaciones locales, podría constituir una importante alternativa para Cuba. La presente investigación tiene como objetivos determinar si Cuba es apreciada como un destino cultural desde la perspectiva del mercado español e identificar cuáles son sus elementos distintivos. Por medio de un cuestionario realizado a 400 españoles, se eva...

  1. Reading the Revolution: Where Has the Literature Taken Us in Understanding Cuba?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Kapcia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available – Cuba. A New History, by Richard Gott. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004. – The Cuban Revolution. Past, Present and Future Perspectives, by Geraldine  Lievesley. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. – People’s Power. Cuba’s Experience with Representative Government, by Peter  Roman. (Updated edition Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford:  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.  – Cuba. A Revolution in Motion, by Isaac Saney. Black Point, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Books; London: Zed Books, 2003.

  2. Metrology positronic issuers for nuclear medicine in Cuba: current state and development prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa Verdecia, Pilar; Serra Águila, Rolando A.; García Rodríguez, Lourdes; Moreno León, Yecenia; Bell Hechavarría, Ailec; Jénez Magaña, Yoel

    2016-01-01

    At work the current state of metrology positronic issuers for nuclear medicine in Cuba is presented. the main achievements in the implementation of measurement standards and issues affecting the uncertainty of measurements at different levels of hierarchy of the existing chain of traceability for determinations of the activity of F-18 and Ga-68 is described, the main radionuclides expected to be used in the short term in PET and PET / CT applications in the country. Immediate prospects development of measurement standards positronic emitters for use in nuclear medicine in Cuba, in particular the possibilities of establishing equivalence between Cuban standards and national and international standards are also set. (author)

  3. Bichordites from the early Eocene of Cuba: significance in the evolutionary history of the spatangoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães

    2017-12-01

    The trace fossil Bichordites monastiriensis is found in early Eocene turbiditic sandstones of the upper-slope deposits from the Capdevila Formation in Los Palacios Basin, Pinar del Río region, western Cuba. The potential tracemakers of B. monastiriensis include fossil spatangoids from the family Eupatagidae. The record of Bichordites in the deposits from Cuba allows to suppose that Eupatagidae echinoids were the oldest potential tracemakers of Bichordites isp. and reinforce the hypothesis that the ichnological record are relevant in envisaging the evolutionary history of the spatangoids.

  4. Curvas de lactancia individuales en vacas Siboney de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Palacios Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue estudiar y modelar las curvas de lactancia individuales en vacas Siboney, comparando cuatro modelos matemáticos. En total, 31,631 registros de producción de leche del día de control (PDC de 3,697 lactancias (1 a 5 provenientes de 2,632 vacas Siboney de Cuba (5/8 Holstein 3/8 Cebú Cubano registrados mensualmente entre 1994 y 2003 se ajustaron mediante las funciones de Wood, Wilmink, Ali-Schaeffer y Polinomios de Legendre. Los parámetros se estimaron usando regresiones no lineales y la bondad de ajuste se midió mediante el coeficiente de determinación ajustado (R2A. Se obtuvieron valores de R2A > 0.75 en 23, 24, 28 y 36 % de las lactancias para los modelos de Wood, Wilmink, Ali-Schaeffer y Polinomios de Legendre, respectivamente. Los modelos de Wood y Wilmink describieron cuatro tipos de curvas; y los modelos de Ali-Schaeffer y los Polinomios de Legendre 17 y 20, de los 32 grupos teóricos posibles. Las correlaciones entre los parámetros para la función de Ali-Schaeffer fueron superiores a las estimadas para los polinomios de Legendre. Las funciones propuestas representaron las diferentes formas entre curvas de lactancia y en especial, los modelos de cinco parámetros detectaron mayor diversidad que el resto de las funciones. Esto apunta que, aunque formas adicionales pueden considerarse como derivaciones de los dos grupos clásicos de curvas típicas o atípicas, esta práctica podría comprometer la variabilidad entre curvas de lactancia en un hato, por lo que serán necesarios más estudios.

  5. Calibration of Ga-68 activity for PET applications in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Rodríguez, Lourdes; Oropesa Verdecia, Pilar; Serra Águila, Rolando A.; Moreno León, Yecenia; Jénez Magaña, Yoel; Pérez LoretdeMola, Nayla; Bell Hechavarría, Ailec; Mas Ruiz, Javier; Cassette, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A Ga-68 solution was used to calibrate the activity concentration using the double-triple coincidence ratio (TDCR) method of liquid scintillation for the first time in the country. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of the concentration of Ga-68 activity in the calibrated solution was equal to 2%. For measurements, the commercial liquid scintillation counter HIDEXTM was used. Samples were prepared by adding between 40 and 50 mg of the radioactive solution to 15 mL of ULTIMAGOLD ™ scintillating cocktail. For the estimation of Ga-68 counting efficiencies in the samples used for the calibration, a FORTRAN program developed by the National Institute of Metrology of France for the magnitudes of ionizing radiation, LNHB, was used. The validation of the method was carried out by the calibration of a standard solution of Na-22, also positronic emitter with similar disintegration scheme to Ga-68. The difference between the concentration of Na-22 activity measured using the TDCR method and the certified reference value traceable to the National Institute of Metrology of the United States (NIST) was 0.15%. With the solution of Ga-68 standardized by the TDCR method the calibration of the secondary standard activity meter, model CAPINTEC CRCTM 15R, was carried out for a geometry of 2R flask with 1mL of radioactive solution. Afterwards, this standard activity meter was calibrated for the measurement of Ga-68 in the geometries of interest in nuclear medicine: Flask 15R with 6 mL of radioactive solution, 2.5 mL syringe with 2 mL of radioactive solution and 5 mL syringe with 2 mL of radioactive solution. The results presented in this paper constitute the necessary metrological support for the introduction of new PET and PET / CT technologies into medical practice in Cuba.

  6. Emergency response during the radiological control of scraps in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Viltre, Enma O.; Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Caveda Ramos, Celia; Carrazana, Jorge; Barroso Perez, Idelisa

    2008-01-01

    In the last few years, in the international scene, incidents have been reported due to the presence of radioactive materials in the scrap. This reality has motivated the adoption of measures of radiological security, due to the implications that these incidents have for the public and the environment, as well as for the international trade. Among theses actions is the implementation of the radiological control of scrap, with the additional requirement that this control has to be implemented in the framework of a Quality Management Program.Taking into account the international experience, our institution designed and organized in 2002 a national service for the radiological monitoring of scrap, being the clients the main exporting and trading enterprises of this material in the country. During these years, several contaminated materials have been detected, causing incidents that activated the radiological emergency response system. In this sense, since some years ago, our country has been working in the implementation of a national and ministerial system for facing and mitigating the consequences of accidental radiological situations, conjugating efforts and wills from different national institutions with the leadership of the Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) and the Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN) in correspondence with the social responsibility assigned to the them. These incidents propitiate to have not only a system of capacity and quick response oriented to limit the exposure of people, to control the sources, to mitigate the consequences of the accident and to reestablish the conditions of normality, but also a previous adequate planning that guarantees the speed and effectiveness of it. In these work the experiences reached by the specialists of the CPHR from Cuba during the occurrence of an incident in the execution of the service of radiological monitoring of scraps are exposed. (author)

  7. Biogas potential in the meat installation of Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recio Recio, Angel Amado; Martinez Rotger, Jose Luis; Palacios Barrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Meat Processing Center of Santiago is located 13 kilometers from the city of the same name in the National Freeway. There, 61 heads of bovine livestock are sacrificed daily approximately around 325 Kg. of weight average and 197 pigs of 80 kg. of weight average, which has a demurrage average between 2 and 3 days in the corrals of the Meat Processing Center which generates a significant amount of excretes, rumen (food not digested by the bowels), bleed fluff, slops, meat residuals and fatty, as well as tripes, all that which constitutes a waste of a discharge at the present time loads pollutant that besides not taking advantage, for the maintenance of some appropriate norms of hygiene, the Meat Processing Center of meat by products is under the obligation of using big quantities of water, which constitutes an important factor of the elaboration cost. After that, the treatment in the plant and its final discharge in acceptable drains increase the general expenses. The big slaughterhouses can produce waste waters with a biochemical demand of oxygen of five days of 1300 ppm. The treatment of the waste and elimination of the waste waters coming from slaughterhouses and meat processing plants are an economic necessity and of public health. The main objectives of this work were: 1) To calculate the energy potentialities of the residuals of the productions pig, bovine and other residuals to transform them into energy and their effluents like organic fertilizer cleans of pathogen elements, by means of the process of anaerobic fermentation. 2) To Transform the Biomass into energy given by the different economic activities of the entity, taking advantage of the same one in the process. To achieve these results we have used the literature in this respect and the experience that exists in the province of Santiago from Cuba in this direction, as for the use of the residuals for the biogas production and to dedicate it to the cooking of food and the production of electric

  8. Radiological Surveillance in the Central Region of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartas Aguila, H. A.; Alonso Hernandez, C. M.; Martin Perez, J. A.; Sibello Hernandez, R. Y.; Guillen Arruebarrena, A.; Morera Gomez, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the results of the radiological surveillance of the environment, carried out by the Center of Environmental Studies from Cienfuegos province, in the central region of Cuba during 1994-2014. the environmental equivalent gamma dose rate was daily measured with a Gamma Tracer GF1588 probe. The activity concentrations of 40 K, 137 Cs and 226 Ra were determined in sugar, milk and bananas, and the activity concentrations and the activity fluxes of 7 Be, 40 K, 137 Cs and 210 Pb were determined in aerosols by means of high resolution gamma spectrometry. The environmental equivalent gamma dose rate showed a constant tendency with 89 nSvh -1 standard deviation; the activity concentrations of 40 K, 137 Cs and 226 Ra in sugar, milk and bananas were very below the action level for radionuclides in general consumption foods, dedicated to the international trade; the activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 226 Ra were below the detection limits. The existence of a fundamental pattern in the annual behavior of the radionuclides in aerosols was demonstrated by means of the multivariate statistical analysis. It was mainly determined by the rains, and it was characterized by a maximum of activity concentration and a minimum of activity flux in January-May; a minimum of activity concentration and a maximum of activity flux in June-October and by a transit period in November-December, with low values in both variables. The general decreasing tendency of the atmospheric 137 Cs and the quick decreasing behavior of the 131 I, coming from the Fukushima accident in Japan were demonstrated. (Author)

  9. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jaquelina A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Ferreira Júnior, Walnir G; Neri, Andreza V; Correa, Guilherme R; Enright, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite) island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl), and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm) soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological) factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga) in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  10. Los giros del comercio exterior y la inversión extranjera directa en Cuba. The turns of foreign trade and direct foreign investment in cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Santos, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Cuban economy has a high dependence on foreign trade. In this way, Cuban economy is very vulnerable to changes occurring in the international economy. The changes in domestic economic policy and in the international economic have a great influence in the structure of the trade balance and the positioning of the various products and services in the composition of exports and imports that Cuba needs for economic development. Hence, external financing and the foreign direct invest...

  11. Una rareza bibliográfica escrita en Cuba sobre fiebre amarilla A bibliography rarity on yelow fever written in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio López Espinosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda una síntesis biográfica del cirujano de origen escosés John Holliday Heragod (Juan Tomás José Agustín Domínguez, quien fue el autor de una de las primeras obras escritas en Cuba sobre la fiebre amarilla, y se ofrecen algunas observaciones en relación con el proceso de convalidación de su título ante el Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de La Habana. Se emiten varias consideraciones referentes a las circunstancias que rodearon la redacción en español del citado documento en 1794, su presentación en la Real Sociedad Patriótica de Amigos del País en 1796 y su publicación en inglés fuera de Cuba el mismo año, como elementos para ubicarlo en el lugar adecuado en el contexto de la historia de la bibliografía médica cubanaA brief bibliography on the Scoth surgeon John Holliday Heragod (Juan Tomás José Agustín Domínguez is given. Dr. Heragod was one of the first authors who wrote about the yellow fever in Cuba. Some observations are made concerning the process for validating his diploma at the Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de la Habana. Some considerations are made referring the Spanish equivalent of the document in 1794, its presentation at the Real Sociedad Patriótica Amigos del País in 1794, and its publication in the English languaje outside Cuba in the same year, as well as its palce in the history of the Cuban bibliography on Medicine

  12. Cuba y la transición política: tan cerca y... tan lejos. Reflexiones 2009 sobre el futuro político en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  13. CUBA Y LA TRANSICIÓN POLÍTICA: TAN CERCA Y... TAN LEJOS. REFLEXIONES 2009 SOBRE EL FUTURO POLÍTICO EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  14. El socialismo y el hombre en Cuba, tratado axiológico para el profesional de la salud El socialismo y el hombre en Cuba, an axiological treatise for health professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Yunexis Teresa Nobalbo Aguilera; Maritza Yuliet Téllez Cabrera; Yohaysa Pérez Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    El estudio del El socialismo y el hombre en Cuba, de Ernesto Guevara de la Serna, tiene una gran importancia para el análisis de la concepción del hombre nuevo. En este trabajo se brinda una nueva visión desde un enfoque axiológico. Asimismo, se divulga el sistema de valores presentes en la obra que contribuyen a la formación del profesional de la salud, a partir de la figura del Che.The study of El socialismo y el hombre en Cuba (Socialism and man in Cuba) of Ernesto Guevara de la Serna is o...

  15. Corrigendum to “Comparing activated alumina with indigenous laterite and bauxite as potential sorbents for removing fluoride from drinking water in Ghana” [Appl. Geochem. 56 (2015) 50–66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Laura; Stillings, Lisa; Decker, David L.; Thomas, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors regret that the application of the t-plot to determine the presence of micropores in the three sorbents needs the following corrections: (1) Fig. 1a, c, e are N2(g) adsorption and desorption isotherms” (remove “BET”). This correction applies to descriptions in the text as well. (2) Table 2, the column titled “Micropores” is mislabelled, and should be labelled “Film thickness”, which may not equal the pore width. The column titled “Micropore volume” is a correct description for laterite volume 0.0022 cm3 g−1 (t = 0.3–0.5 nm), but the other pore volumes listed cannot be identified as corresponding to micropores. They likely comprise both micropores and mesopores in laterite, while the presence of micropores in activated alumina is not clear. The positive y-intercept for the lowest linear portion of the laterite t-plot curve indicates micropores (Fig. 1f), and the shape of the t-plot curve suggests the presence of both micropores and mesopores. The shape of the activated alumina t-plot curve suggests the presence of micropores and mesopores, but the zero intercept for the lowest linear portion of the curve (Fig. 1b) creates uncertainty regarding the presence of micropores. Also see Storck et al., 1998; Hay et al. 2011 and references therein. (Additional note: analytical instrument Micromeritics® was misspelled as “Micrometrics”).The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  16. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.564 Professional.... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to the... simply interested in music but who do not research music as part of their careers may not engage in...

  17. Cuban Sugar Industry: Transnational Networks and Engineering Migrants in Mid-Nineteenth Century Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Technological innovation was central to nineteenth-century Cuba’s lead in world sugar manufacture. Along with steam-powered machinery came migrant engineers, indispensable aliens who were well rewarded for their efforts. These migrant engineers remained perennial outsiders, symbolic of Cuba's

  18. Slavery and Cinema in Cuba: The Case of Gutierrez Alea's The Last Supper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    "The Last Supper" deals with slavery and social stratification in late eighteenth century Cuba. In this article, the film is described in artistic and historical terms, and is discussed in relation to the larger body of theory on Latin American slavery. (EB)

  19. Land and building valuation in Cuba: from land without value to land as financial asset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Femández (Ricardo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn Cuba, the government authorities define the priorities for land and property distribution. One might expect that those official development programs would take account of the value of land and buildings. But that is not so, although there is a growing awareness of its importance. When

  20. Notes on the Herpetology of the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lando, R.V.; Williams, Ernest E.

    1969-01-01

    The present relative inaccessibility of Cuba to citizens of the United States has been particularly disappointing since very much still remains for the herpetologist to do in that country. In particular, the province of Oriente is very inadequately known; we know just enough to be aware how much

  1. Contribution to the study of the genus Helicopsyche (Trichoptera) from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Flint, O.S.

    1991-01-01

    Seven new species and one new subspecies of Helicopsyche von Sieboid are described from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico based on adults; additionally four species and one subspecies belonging to the fauna of these islands are redescribed. Both sexes are described when correct association of

  2. Turning Javanese: The Domination of Cuba's Sugar Industry by Java Cane Varieties (1880-1950)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, U.; Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth, two islands had come to dominate global cane-sugar production. For most of the sixty-year period between 1870 and 1930, around half of the world's internationally traded crop came from Cuba and Java. The two islands had many

  3. ER-E3 regulation. Minimal instrumentation that must operate nuclear medicine in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this regulation is to define the instrumentation that must exist in any institution conducting the practice of nuclear medicine in Cuba. This regulation emphasizes two aspects: The minimum equipment necessary to operate a nuclear medicine laboratory for use 'in vitro' and the minimum equipment required to operate a Nuclear Medicine use 'in vivo'

  4. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... These sanctions and U.S. attitudes and perceptions were based on objectives driven by the Cold War and as such are outdated and overtaken by events. The sanctions should be lifted and diplomatic ties once again established both to support United States goals in the region and for quality of life improvements for Cuba.

  5. Generation of a landslide risk index map for Cuba using spatial multi-criteria evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    his paper explains the procedure for the generation of a landslide risk index map at national level in Cuba, using a semiquantitative model with ten indicator maps and a cell size of 90× 90 m. The model was designed and implemented using spatial multi-criteria evaluation techniques in a GIS system.

  6. High proportion of mannosidosis and fucosidosis among lysosomal storage diseases in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Sainz, C; González-Quevedo, A; González-García, S; Peña-Sánchez, M; Giugliani, R

    2012-08-13

    Although lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are considered individually rare, as a group they present a non-negligible frequency. Few studies have been made of populational occurrence of LSDs; they have been conducted predominantly on Caucasian populations. We studied the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. Data from individuals who had been referred to the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Havana from hospitals all over the country between January 1990 and December 2005 were analyzed. This institute was the only laboratory to provide enzyme-based diagnostic testing for 19 LSDs in Cuba during this period. Occurrence rates were calculated by dividing the number of postnatal diagnoses by the number of births during the study period. The combined occurrence of LSDs in Cuba was 5.6 per 100,000, lower than that reported in other studies conducted on Caucasian populations. The most frequent individual LSDs were: mucopolysaccharidosis type I (1.01 per 100,000) and, surprisingly, alpha-mannosidosis (0.72 per 100,000) and fucosidosis (0.62 per 100,000). These findings may be related to specific genetic characteristics and admixture of the Cuban population. This is the first comprehensive study of the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. We conclude that the epidemiology of these diseases can vary regionally, and we stress the need for similar surveys in other Latin American countries.

  7. Lessons from Cuba: Using Sense of Place as a Tool to Connect Internationally and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Samantha; Sayle, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2010, 16 Recreation and Leisure Studies students from Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, travelled to Cuba to complete a fourth-year field class titled International Field Experiences in Recreation and Leisure. After a week spent in Havana, Brock University students engaged in a unique outdoor education experience. With…

  8. Four new species of Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Annery; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2017-12-07

    Four new species in the genus Phyllophaga Harris 1827, subgenus Cnemarachis Saylor 1942 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Cuba are described: Phyllophaga barroi new species, Phyllophaga guanahacabibensis new species, Phyllophaga pauli new species, and Phyllophaga sabanalamarensis new species. Each species is illustrated using photographs of the habitus, diagnostic features, and male aedeagi. A map is provided showing the geographical distributions of the new species.

  9. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  10. Cuba: The New Frontier of Study Abroad Programs for U.S. Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henthorne, Tony L.; Panko, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The growing reconciliation between the United States and Cuba has created a unique opportunity for U.S. business and hospitality students to observe and experience first-hand an economy in marked transition. Attempting to balance the tenets of socialism with a rapidly growing reliance on capitalism creates a rare learning environment for students.…

  11. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  12. HIV-1 Genetic Variability in Cuba and Implications for Transmission and Clinical Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Madeline; Machado, Liuber Y; Díaz, Héctor; Ruiz, Nancy; Romay, Dania; Silva, Eladio

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Serological and molecular HIV-1 studies in Cuba have shown very low prevalence of seropositivity, but an increasing genetic diversity attributable to introduction of many HIV-1 variants from different areas, exchange of such variants among HIV-positive people with several coinciding routes of infection and other epidemiologic risk factors in the seropositive population. The high HIV-1 genetic variability observed in Cuba has possible implications for transmission and clinical progression. OBJECTIVE Study genetic variability for the HIV-1 env, gag and pol structural genes in Cuba; determine the prevalence of B and non-B subtypes according to epidemiologic and behavioral variables and determine whether a relationship exists between genetic variability and transmissibility, and between genetic variability and clinical disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS Using two molecular assays (heteroduplex mobility assay and nucleic acid sequencing), structural genes were characterized in 590 people with HIV-1 (480 men and 110 women), accounting for 3.4% of seropositive individuals in Cuba as of December 31, 2013. Nonrandom sampling, proportional to HIV prevalence by province, was conducted. Relationships between molecular results and viral factors, host characteristics, and patients' clinical, epidemiologic and behavioral variables were studied for molecular epidemiology, transmission, and progression analyses. RESULTS Molecular analysis of the three HIV-1 structural genes classified 297 samples as subtype B (50.3%), 269 as non-B subtypes (45.6%) and 24 were not typeable. Subtype B prevailed overall and in men, mainly in those who have sex with men. Non-B subtypes were prevalent in women and heterosexual men, showing multiple circulating variants and recombinant forms. Sexual transmission was the predominant form of infection for all. B and non-B subtypes were encountered throughout Cuba. No association was found between subtypes and

  13. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP...... essentially replicated the main weaknesses of the European Neighbourhood Policy, by offering too little incentive and support to the partners, rendering both conditionality and soft power ineffective as tools for milieu shaping. In promoting the EaP as a policy of soft power, the EU has once again forgotten...

  14. [Effects of slopes on nitrogen transport along with runoff from sloping plots on a lateritic red soil amended with sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Hui; Chen, Ming-Hua; Wang, Guo; Chen, Wen-Xiang; Yang, Shun-Cheng; Chai, Peng

    2010-10-01

    The effects of different slopes on nitrogen transport along with runoff from sloping plots amended with sewage sludge on a lateritic red soil were studied under simulated rainfall conditions. When the sludge was broadcasted and mixed with surface soils (BM), the MTN (total nitrogen of mixing sample), STN (total nitrogen of settled sample), TPN (total particulate nitrogen), TSN (total suspended nitrogen), TDN (total dissolved nitrogen) and NH4(+) -N concentrations and nitrogen loss amounts in runoff of all treatments were highest at 1 day or 18 days after application. The highest concentrations and the loss amounts of MTN and STN in the slope runoff for the BM treatment increased with slope degree, showing increasing pollution risks to the surface waters. The STN concentration and loss amounts from the 25 degrees plots were 126.1 mg x L(-1) and 1788.6 mg x m(-2), respectively, being 4.6 times and 5.8 times of the corresponding values from the 10 degrees plots, respectively. Then the concentrations and the loss amounts of nitrogen (except NO3(-) -N) from the BM plots diminished rapidly first and then tended to be stable with dwindling differences between the slopes. The loss of MTN and STN in early runoff (1 day and 18 days) accounted for 68.6% -73.4% and 62.3% -66.7% of the cumulative loss amounts during the experimental period for all the broadcasted treatments. Runoff loss coefficients of MTN increased in the order of 20 degrees > 25 degrees > 15 degrees > 10 degrees. Nitrogen was largely lost in dissolved species while large portion of NH4(+) -N was lost with particulates.

  15. Estrategias para reducir la mortalidad infantil, Cuba 1959-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl L. Riverón Corteguera

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las estrategias utilizadas por el Ministerio de Salud Pública en las diferentes etapas del Programa de Atención Maternoinfantil, para reducir la mortalidad infantil en Cuba de 1959 a 1999. Este período se dividió para su comprensión en 4 decenios. Se hace referencia a las diferentes medidas utilizadas, desde la creación del Sistema Nacional de Salud, la formación de recursos humanos; el desarrollo de la Educación Médica, la edificación de Facultades de Ciencias Médicas y la capacitación del posgraduado, el incremento de hospitales y el aumento de las camas hasta los programas de inmunización, de lucha contra la gastroenteritis y para disminuir el bajo peso al nacer, el uso racional de los antimicrobianos; la presencia de la madre acompañante; la implantación del uso de las sales de rehidratación oral (SRO para prevenir y tratar la deshidratación por enfermedades diarreicas; el desarrollo de la Atención Primaria de Salud; los programas de tecnología avanzada para la detección de anomalías congénitas; la promoción de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME; la categorización, por UNICEF, de los hospitales "Amigos de la Madres y el Niño", el desarrollo de investigaciones que sirvieron de base al Programa de Atención Maternoinfantil; la edificación de hospitales; la construcción de las unidades de terapia intensiva con equipamiento moderno tanto en pediatría como en neonatología y otros muchos elementos puestos en prácticas durante estos 40 años. Esto ha contribuido a que la mortalidad infantil, a pesar de haberse incrementado en el primer decenio (1959-1969 en el 25,5 %, a partir del 2do. decenio (1970-1979 iniciara un descenso mantenido en el 50 %; en el 3er. decenio (1980-1989 del 43,4 % y en el 4to. decenio (1990-1999 del 40,2 %. Se concluye exponiendo las principales estrategias que contribuyeron a reducir la mortalidad infantil en los últimos años de este siglo.The strategies used by the Ministry of

  16. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  17. Insectos asociados con flores de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, con énfasis en Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Fernández T.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los insectos visitantes en flores de nueve especies de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Oriental, durante 1993 (marzo a junio, en primavera y 1994 (enero a marzo, final del invierno y comienzo de la primavera. Se contabilizaron unas 50 horas de recolecta en tres horarios diferentes (0900-0930 hr en 1993; 0900-0930 hr, 1200-1230 hr y 1500-1530 hr en 1994. Se identificaron más de 140 especies y por lo menos 37 familias; Hymenoptera fue el orden mejor representado (con más de la mitad de los individuos rerecolectados, seguido de Diptera, Coleoptera y Lepidoptera. Dentro de Hymenoptera las abejas (Apoidea fueron mayoritarias, especialmente Apis mellifera L.; seguidas de avispas (Vespidae, Pompilidae, Sphecidae e icneumónidos (Ichneumonidae; los microhimenópteros no se recolectaron. Se comparó la himenopterofauna en cuanto a diversidad, similitud, especies dominantes y subdominantes, preferencia de horarios, eficiencia de los muestreos, etc. Cada especie de planta sustentó una fauna característica. Casi un tercio de los himenópteros visitantes fueron controles biológicos de plagas agrícolas, y la mayoría pueden considerarse polinizadores. Especies afines filogenéticamente presentaron patrones de actividad diaria semejante. El horario 0900 -0930 hr fue el de mayor biodiversidad en cuanto a número de especies visitantes. Al analizar el número de especies con relación al número de especímenes rerecolectados, así como el total de especies y número de muestreos realizados, las funciones de mejor ajuste fueron polinomiales de segundo grado (r² = 0.9734 y r² = 0.9573 respectivamente, p The insect visitors of flowers in nine weeds species were studied in the Botanical Garden of Santiago de Cuba, Eastern Cuba, during 1993 (March - June, spring season and 1994 (January - March, end of winter and beginning of spring season. About 50 hours of collecting efforts were made at three times (0900-0930 hr in

  18. Lo público y lo privado en los escritos de Alexander Von Humboldt sobre Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to collect the comments and judgements that Humboldt makes about Cuba and evaluate their character. The resulting analysis and interpretation will be undertaken on two different levels: One refers to the information that can be found in his unofficial works, which means the letters Humboldt sent during or shortly after of his visits to Cuba, as well as the diaries he used during his expedition. The other is based on the official works, which include his travel description, his famous Essay on Cuba and his autobiographical text written in 1804. Constrasting these descriptions, we will compare the evaluations of this Prussian traveller elaborated in the moment he visited the island, with the works he wrote 22 years after his return to Europe.

    Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envió durante o poco tiempo después de sus visitas a Cuba, y en los diarios que utilizó a lo largo de su expedición. El otro se fundamenta en los escritos oficiales, que comprenden su narración del viaje, el famoso Ensayo sobre Cuba y la memoria autobiográfica escrita en 1804. Mediante el contraste de estas descripciones se pretende comparar las apreciaciones de este viajero prusiano elaboradas en el preciso momento que visita la isla, cotejándolas con las obras que redactó 22 años después de su vuelta a Europa. Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envi

  19. Slave resistance and the politics of slavery: Brazil and Cuba, 1791-1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parron, Tâmis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political impact of slave activism in Brazil and Cuba from 1790 to 1825, covering the period from the beginning of the Revolution of Saint-Domingue to the establishment of the Constitution of Brazil (1824 and the granting of absolute power to the captains general of Cuba (1825, in the immediate context of the end of the wars of independence on the continent. Instead of discussing and classifying the specific character of the different expressions of collective slave resistance in a typological order, this article tries to understand the effect of those actions on the macro-political dynamic of these two aspects by verifying to what extent they made up the political and institutional framework of slavery in Brazil and Cuba.

    El artículo examina el impacto político del activismo esclavo, en Brasil y Cuba, de 1790 a 1825, esto es, desde el inicio de la Revolución de Saint-Domingue al otorgamiento de la Constitución del Brasil (1824 y al decreto de facultades omnímodas para los capitanes generales de Cuba (1825, en el contexto inmediato del término de las guerras de independencia en el continente. En lugar de discutir y clasificar en un orden tipológico el carácter específico de las diversas expresiones de resistencia esclava colectiva, el artículo intenta comprender el efecto de esas acciones en la dinámica macropolítica de los dos espacios, verificando en qué medida aquéllas conformaron el cuadro político e institucional de la esclavitud en Brasil y en Cuba. [pt] O artigo examina o impacto político do ativismo escravo, no Brasil e Cuba, de 1790 a 1825, isto é, do início da Revolução de Saint-Domingue à outorga da Constituição do Brasil (1824 e à decretação das faculdades onímodas para os capitães generais de Cuba (1825, no contexto imediato do término das guerras de independência no continente. Ao invés de discutir e classificar em uma ordem tipológica o caráter específico das

  20. El ingreso en el hogar y su costo directo en Cuba The direct costs of home care in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Barroso Utra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar el tiempo de estadía en ingreso en el hogar (IH y su costo diario y por paciente en Cuba, según el diagnóstico al ingreso y la zona donde se brinda el servicio. MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de los 837 pacientes en IH entre julio de 2001 y junio de 2002 en un área del municipio Playa, en Ciudad de La Habana (zona urbana metropolitana, una del municipio Cruces, en Cienfuegos (zona urbana no metropolitana, otra del Municipio Unión de Reyes, en Matanzas (zona rural y una de Fomento, en Sancti Spiritus (zona rural montañosa. Se analizó la mediana del tiempo del IH mediante curvas de supervivencia Kaplan Meier y se evaluó el efecto del diagnóstico al ingreso (afecciones respiratorias, gastrointestinales, ginecobstétricas, egreso hospitalario precoz y otras causas, la zona del IH, el sexo y la edad, sobre la posibilidad de egresar del IH. Para cada municipio se calculó el costo directo del servicio, el costo por paciente y el costo por día de estadía. Se ajustaron modelos de regresión lineal múltiple para identificar el efecto que sobre el costo por paciente tienen el tiempo de estadía, el diagnóstico al ingreso y el área donde se presta el servicio de IH. RESULTADOS: La causa más frecuente de IH en los municipios estudiados fueron las afecciones respiratorias (31,4%, seguidas del egreso hospitalario precoz (15,5%, las afecciones ginecobstétricas (10,8% y los trastornos gastrointestinales (8,1%. La mediana del tiempo de estadía fue de 6 días (IC95%: 5,75 a 6,25. En Fomento los pacientes tuvieron 66% menos probabilidad de egresar que en Cruces y 30% menos que en Playa y Unión de Reyes. El costo directo del IH en los municipios estudiados medido en pesos cubanos ($ varió entre $3 983,54 y $9 624,87. El costo por día de estadía fue de $2,57 a $6,88, mientras el costo por paciente fue de $23,04 a $42,78. El tiempo de estadía tuvo un efecto intrínseco sobre el costo por paciente (P OBJECTIVE: To

  1. Platinum-Group Minerals in Chromitites of the Niquelândia Layered Intrusion (Central Goias, Brazil: Their Magmatic Origin and Low-Temperature Reworking during Serpentinization and Lateritic Weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Angeli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of platinum-group-minerals (PGM have been found to occur associated with the chromitite and dunite layers in the Niquelândia igneous complex. Two genetically distinct populations of PGM have been identified corresponding to phases crystallized at high temperatures (primary, and others formed or modified during post-magmatic serpentinization and lateritic weathering (secondary. Primary PGM have been found in moderately serpentinized chromitite and dunite, usually included in fresh chromite grains or partially oxidized interstitial sulfides. Due to topographically controlled lateritic weathering, the silicate rocks are totally transformed to a smectite-kaolinite-garnierite-amorphous silica assemblage, while the chromite is changed into a massive aggregate of a spinel phase having low-Mg and a low Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio, intimately associated with Ti-minerals, amorphous Fe-hydroxides, goethite, hematite and magnetite. The PGM in part survive alteration, and in part are corroded as a result of deep chemical weathering. Laurite is altered to Ru-oxides or re-crystallizes together with secondary Mg-ilmenite. Other PGM, especially the Pt-Fe alloys, re-precipitate within the altered chromite together with kaolinite and Fe-hydroxides. Textural evidence suggests that re-deposition of secondary PGM took place during chromite alteration, controlled by variation of the redox conditions on a microscopic scale.

  2. Evolution and classification of Elaphoglossum and Asplenium ferns on Cuba, and discovery of a Miocene Elaphoglossum in Dominican amber

    OpenAIRE

    Lóriga Piñero, Josmaily

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the systematics and evolution of Neotropical ferns of the genera Elaphoglossum and Asplenium, with particular focus on the species of Cuba and the West Indies. It also includes an analysis and description of an Elaphoglossum frond fragment preserved in Miocene Dominican amber. The worldwide genera Elaphoglossum with 600 species and Asplenium with 685 species are the most species-rich groups of leptosporangiate ferns. On Cuba, Elaphoglossum has 34 species and Asple...

  3. The plant biotechnology: An alternative for the confrontation to the impacts of the climatic change in Cuba?

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaldo F. Álvarez Brito

    2012-01-01

    The expected impacts of the climatic change on the agricultural and forest sectors in Cuba, derived from the evaluations carried out under the First and the Second National Communication of Cuba to the United Nations Frame Convention on Climatic Change, allowed to value how plant biotechnology can be inserted appropriately in the implementation of the Agrarian Program for Confrontation to the Climatic Change, in order to propitiate the protection of the security and alimentary sovereignty of ...

  4. Comparación de la corrosividad atmosférica del acero al carbono en Colombia y Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Lastra, Juan; Minotas Ruiz, Julio César; Arroyave Posada, Carlos Enrique; Mendoza Gómez, Antonio; Corvo Pérez, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    Samples of structural carbon steel were exposed to the atmosphere in a number of sites in Colombia and Cuba for periods of 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Corrosion rate was determined by mass loss measurements, and cause-effect relationship to exposure time and pollutants (deposited chloride and sulfur oxides) were calculated. Analysis let to adjust models by the multiple regression method. Also, comparison of atmospheric corrosion rates between Colombia and Cuba were done using covariance analys...

  5. Development and application of an instrument for analysis of iron in laterite ore with the characteristics needed for use in nickel production. Part of a coordinated programme on on-line X-ray and neutron techniques for industrial process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizoso, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This document describes the performance testing of an instrument for the analysis of iron laterite ore used in the production of nickel. It proved to give satisfactory results with an error less or equal to 1% under working conditions (20 0 C - 40 0 C, 80% - 85% relative humidity)

  6. Doctor Octavio Montoro y los primeros casos de diabetes tratados con insulina en Cuba Doctor Octavio Montoro and the first cases of diabetes treated with insulin in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Álvarez Aldana

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available El uso clínico de la insulina por Banting y Best representa un hito en la historia de las ciencias médicas. Los avances en este campo han sido espectaculares y nuestro país no está ajeno a ellos. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre los primeros trabajos realizados por los médicos cubanos en relación con la insulinoterapia, hecho trascendental en la historia de la endocrinología cubana, pero desconocido principalmente para las nuevas generaciones de endocrinólogos. Esta revisión tiene como objetivos destacar la introducción en la clínica moderna de la insulina como un importante suceso en la historiografía médica cubana y divulgar la evolución clínica y el esquema terapéutico aplicado a los primeros casos de diabetes mellitus tratados con insulina en Cuba, así como resaltar el empeño y la capacidad de los profesionales de la salud pioneros en el uso clínico de la insulina en aquellos años, entre los que se destaca el Doctor Octavio Montoro. Para realizar este trabajo fue consultada la bibliografía médica de la época, archivos y otras fuentes. Como resultado se obtuvo que en Cuba se introdujo la insulina en el tratamiento de los pacientes diabéticos en febrero de 1923, por el Doctor Montoro, quien fue reconocido por sus conocimientos médicos y por su vasta cultura. Desempeñó múltiples cargos y recibió numerosas condecoraciones. Se concluyó que Cuba fue uno de los primeros países en el mundo que contó con la insulina como arma terapéutica contra la diabetes. El Doctor Octavio Montoro hizo importantes aportes en la investigación sobre la diabetes, por lo que merece ser considerado, a nuestro juicio, como el padre de la diabetología en nuestro país.The clinical use of insulin by Banting and Best represents a hallmark in the history of medical sciences. The advances in this field have been amazing and our country was also involved in this development. However, little is known about the first works carried out by Cuban

  7. Distribución espacial de Ocypode quadrata (Decapoda: Ocypodidae en ocho playas de la zona norte oriental de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Ocaña

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los organismos más comunes en las playas arenosas son los miembros del género Ocypode conocidos como cangrejos fantasmas, están ampliamente distribuidos en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales; además tienen un importante papel en la transferencia de energía en diferentes niveles tróficos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es dar a conocer aspectos relacionados con la variación espacial de la densidad de O. quadrata en playas con diferente nivel de influencia humana en la costa norte oriental de Cuba. En mayo de 2010, fueron contadas un total de 355 galerías en 360 unidades de muestreo. La composición por clases de tallas fue de 237 galerías de jóvenes y 118 de adultos. Del total de galerías contadas el 74% ocuparon el nivel P1, 20% el nivel P2 y 6% el nivel P3. La densidad varió entre 0.06-0.52galerías/m2. A pesar del nivel de influencia humana, la mayoría de las playas no mostró diferencias significativas en la densidad de galerías (Scheffé, p>0.05. La densidad de individuos en la zona superior de resaca del oleaje es mayor (Scheffé, pSpatial distribution of Ocypode quadrata (Decapoda: Ocypodidae in eight beaches of NorthEastern Cuba. Studies on the ecology of Ocypode quadrata have been mostly carried out in the Northern and Southern part of its distribution range. In despite that this species is common in Cuban beaches, there are no quantitative studies regarding its abundance and spatial distribution. The aim of this study was to report some aspects about the spatial variation of O. quadrata density in sandy beaches, with different levels of human influence, in the North coast of Eastern Cuba. For this, on May 2010, eight beaches with different levels of human influence were surveyed. On each beach, the number of crabs burrows were counted in 45 quadrats of 4m2 located in three different strata (P1, P2 and P3. According to burrow opening diameter, crabs were separated into young and adults forms. To determine the

  8. El fluoruro en aguas de consumo y su asociación con variables geológicas y geográficas de Cuba Fluoride in drinking water in Cuba and its association with geological and geographical variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam Cuéllar Luna

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la asociación entre las diferentes concentraciones del ión fluoruro en aguas de consumo y algunas variables geológicas y geográficas de Cuba, mediante el empleo de un sistema de información geográfica. MÉTODOS: De noviembre de 1998 a octubre de 1999 se estudiaron las concentraciones de fluoruro en fuentes de abastecimiento de agua de consumo de 753 localidades cubanas de 1 000 habitantes o más. Para el análisis de la información se utilizó el sistema de información geográfica MapInfo Professional (v. 5.5 con el método de superposición. Las variables de estudio fueron la concentración del ión fluoruro en fuentes de abastecimiento de agua, las características geológicas del territorio, los alineamientos, los tipos de fuente y las categorías de relieve (llanura o montaña. Los resultados se agruparon por localidad y municipio. RESULTADOS: En 83,1% de las localidades, las muestras de agua fueron recolectadas en pozos y manantiales y en el 16,9% restante, en presas y ríos. De las 753 localidades estudiadas, 675 (89,6% presentaron concentraciones de fluoruro bajas o medias (OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between different concentrations of the fluoride ion in drinking water and some geological and geographical variables in Cuba, by using a geographic information system. METHODS: From November 1998 to October 1999 we studied the fluoride concentration in the sources of drinking water for 753 Cuban localities that had at least 1 000 inhabitants. For the information analysis we utilized the MapInfo Professional version 5.5 geographic information system, using the overlaying method. The study variables were the concentration of the fluoride ion in the water sources, the geological characteristics of the area, the alignments (geological characteristics that were found together, the types of water sources, and whether an area was a plain or mountainous. The results were grouped by locality and municipality

  9. Cambio climático, afectaciones y oportunidades para la ganadería en Cuba Climate change, affectations and opportunities for livestock production in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Milagros de la C Milera

    2011-01-01

    Los fenómenos de la desertificación y la degradación de las tierras, la contaminación de las aguas, los suelos y la atmósfera, la pérdida de la diversidad biológica, el agotamiento de la capa de ozono, la deforestación, el recalentamiento del planeta y otros, han conducido a una encrucijada de la existencia humana. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la adecuación de los principales sistemas de producción ante las afectaciones del cambio climático en Cuba y los resultados de fincas d...

  10. Algoritmo de manejo del trauma craneoencefálico leve: Una necesidad social en Cuba Algorism for mild craneo - encephalic trauma management social necessity in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Varela Hernández

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El tema del traumatismo craneoencefálico leve ha sido poco estudiado es Cuba por lo que se presenta este artículo con el objetivo de demostrar la necesidad social de la aplicación de un algoritmo de manejo de estos pacientes que se adapte al contexto social cubano. Se ofrecen conceptos actualizados sobre la importancia de la ciencia y la tecnología en la sociedad moderna y se aborda la significación de la innovación tecnológica para el desarrollo de la tecnociencia en Cuba. Se trata, basado en una epistemología compleja, las relaciones que se establecen entre el desarrollo social y los servicios de salud, así como entre la evolución de la tecnociencia y el trauma craneoencefálico. Se argumenta la relevancia social del traumatismo craneoencefálico leve tanto a nivel mundial como local, así como el impacto favorable de la aplicación de un algoritmo de manejo de estos enfermos, realizado sobre una base científica, el cual permite un empleo óptimo y racional de las tecnologías imagenológicas de avanzada con que se cuenta.The topic about mild cranium-encephalic traumatism has been little studied in Cuba, that is why this article is presented with the objective to demonstrate the social necessity to apply an algorism for these patient's handling adapted to the Cuban social context. The article offers present-day concepts about the importance of science and technology in modern society and the significance of the technological innovation in the development of the techno-science in Cuba. The relationships between the social development and health services, as well as between the evolution of the techno-science and the cranium-encephalic trauma is treated, based on a complex apistemiology. The article argues the social relevance of the mild cranium-encephalic traumatism in the world and in the country, and the favourable impact of the application of an algorism of these sick persons' handling, carried out upon a scientific base which

  11. Vigilancia de la resistencia a los fármacos antituberculosos en Cuba, 2000-2009 Surveillance of resistance to antitubercular drugs in Cuba, 2000-2009

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    Ernesto Montoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de la resistencia a los fármacos antituberculosos en Cuba en el decenio 2000-2009. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal. El universo de trabajo estuvo constituido por un total de 2 285 aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtenidos de todo el país en el período comprendido entre el 1 de enero de 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2009. Se empleó el método de las proporciones en medio Löwenstein-Jensen con los fármacos de primera línea: isoniazida, estreptomicina, etambutol y rifampicina. RESULTADOS: La resistencia entre los casos nuevos y los pacientes con antecedente de tratamiento previo fue de 8,5% y 37,0%, respectivamente; para estas mismas categorías de caso, la multirresistencia fue de 0,4% y 8,8%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: El presente estudio muestra baja prevalencia de cepas multirresistentes en Cuba. Estos resultados reflejan los avances logrados por el programa nacional de control, que trabaja en la actualidad hacia la eliminación de la tuberculosis como problema de salud pública en el país.OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of resistance to antitubercular drugs in Cuba in the 2000-2009 decade. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted. The sample group consisted of 2  285 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from throughout the country in the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009. The proportion method was used in Löwenstein-Jensen media with the first-line drugs: isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol, and rifampicin. RESULTS: In the new cases and patients with a history of previous treatment, resistance was 8.5% and 37.0%, respectively. In these case categories, multidrug resistance was 0.4% and 8.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows low prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains in Cuba. The results reflect the progress made by the national control program, which is currently working on the elimination of

  12. Prediction of electric energy consumption in Cuba for the period 2000-2015; Pronostico del consumo de electricidad en Cuba durante el periodo 2000-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rodirguez, B [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-06-01

    This paper consists on a prediction of the growth in electric energy consumption in Cuba, for the period 2000-2015 and with respect to 1990, it also considers the specific features of the National Electroenergetic System. Validated Guidelines in accordance with the Delphi method, which incorporates the basis characteristics considered by international programs for these predictions, were used for this purpose. From the analysis of the behaviour in power consumption of the different consumers and of the expected changes in them according to the expected scenarios, a prediction on the growth in the demand of electric energy is made.

  13. Presencia y perspectivas de los búfalos en Cuba Presence and perspective of buffaloes in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los búfalos fueron introducidos en el país a principios de la década de los 80, con el objetivo de producir alimentos para el consumo humano. Los criterios para su introducción fueron: su rusticidad y el aprovechamiento de alimentos de baja calidad nutritiva, sus posibilidades para la cría extensiva en lugares donde los bovinos y otras especies no podían producir, además de las cualidades nutritivas e industriales de sus productos. Las razas que se encuentran en el país son el Buffalypso y el de pantano o Carabao, este último utilizado para la producción de carne por su pobre rendimiento lechero, por lo que se realiza un programa genético de cruzamiento entre ellos para mejorar sus características lecheras. Se ha demostrado que pueden disipar el calor a la sombra de los árboles de los potreros y mantener una elevada tasa de natalidad (más del 80% que supera la de los bovinos; no obstante, su producción de leche resulta extensiva por las bajas cargas (0,6-0,8 UGM/ha que hay que emplear en pastoreo, debido a su hábito alimentario y a la capacidad productiva de los Buffalypsos (700 y 1 000 kg de leche por lactancia. Por ello el mejoramiento lechero mediante cruzamientos con razas de mayor potencial y la transformación de la base alimentaria en los lugares que se encuentren, podrían aportar positivamente en la intensificación de su producción y hacerlos más competitivos con los bovinos en producción de leche.Buffaloes were introduced in the country in the early 80's, in order to produce food for human consumption. The criteria followed for their introduction were their rusticity and utilization of feedstuffs with low nutritional quality, their possibilities for extensive rearing in places where cattle and other species could not produce, in addition to the nutritional and industrial qualities of their products. The breeds present in Cuba are Buffalypso and the swamp buffalo or Carabao, the latter used for meat production due to

  14. Eastern Europe's market role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, trade in nuclear fuel between market economy countries and those with planned economies was limited. The exception to this was in the enrichment market across Western Europe during the 1970s. Most of the nuclear generating plants in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe are light water reactors needing enriched uranium. Under the fuel supply agreements with Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has provided all of the regions' enrichment services, and therefore it has developed the only enrichment facilities. Techsnabexport (TENEX), the USSR foreign trade organization for the nuclear fuel cycle, first appeared in the early 1970s. It was as an alternative supplier to the US government, which had a monopoly in the West regarding enrichment. In 1986 the USSR entered and soon dominated the spot market for enrichment. Political changes in Eastern Europe at the end of 1989 and throughout 1990 opened the nuclear fuel market even wider. In 1990 the USSR began allowing exports of concentrates, as well as enriched product, and a free flow of trade to the Western market is now developing for both enrichment and uranium. (author)

  15. Unraveling climatic changes from intraprofile variation in oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of goethite and kaolinite in laterites: An integrated study from Yaou, French Guiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, J.P.; Freyssinet, P.; Chazot, G.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated study of O and H isotopes in the latertic profile of Yaou, French Guiana, was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of stable isotopes as tracers of climatic changes in continental environments. The studied profile is composed of a 27 m thick saprolite, mostly developed in the past under wet-and-dry tropical climate in association with a duricrust, overlain by a 3 m thick yellow latosol formed more recently under present equatorial hot and humid climate. {delta}{sup 18}O-{delta}D values determined for weathering goethite (pseudomorphs after pyrite) and kaolinite (microcrystalline clay groundmass) throughout the 30 m deep profile reflect formation temperatures consistent with present (25 C) and realistic past climatic temperatures (20 C--30 C), indicating that weathering minerals formed in isotopic equilibrium with their genetic environment and were not subjected to significant isotope exchange after formation. A distinct shift downward from low to high {delta}{sup 18}O-{delta}D values occurs around 20 m depth in the saprolite. It is interpreted as recording the change from the past tropical to the present equatorial climate. Goethite and kaolinite in the 5--10 m thick saprolite interval immediately above the active basement weathering front are in isotopic equilibrium with modern water and must have formed under present equatorial-humid conditions. In contrast, goethite and kaolinite found higher up on the saprolite and in the duricrust formed in the past under tropical wet and dry climate from waters distinctly depleted in {sup 18}O and D relative to modern water. The marked depletion of paleo-meteoric water at Yaou most likely reflects a more contrasted or monsoonal character of the ancient tropical climate. The present study shows that ancient weathering minerals in lateritic profiles preserve their {delta}{sup 18}O-{delta}D values and carry a time signal. The time signal is best expressed in minerals formed rapidly at the weathering front and

  16. Evaluation of Mercury Contamination in Fungi Boletus Species from Latosols, Lateritic Red Earths, and Red and Yellow Earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Falandysz

    Full Text Available For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter, and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter. Soil samples of the 0-10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from

  17. Evaluation of Mercury Contamination in Fungi Boletus Species from Latosols, Lateritic Red Earths, and Red and Yellow Earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Saba, Martyna; Krasińska, Grażyna; Wiejak, Anna; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg) have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter). Soil samples of the 0-10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from Yunnan can

  18. Vodú Chic: Haitian Religion and the Folkloric Imaginary in Socialist Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Viddal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the first three decades of the twentieth century, hundreds of thousands of Haitian agricultural laborers arrived in Cuba seeking employment in the expanding sugar industry. Historically, Haitian cane cutters were marginal and occupied the lowest socio-economic status in Cuban society. Until relatively recently, the maintenance of Haitian spiritual beliefs, music, dance, and language in Cuba were associated with rural isolation and poverty. Today however, the continuation of Haitian customs is no longer linked with isolation, but exactly the opposite: performance troupes, heritage festivals, art exhibitions, the circulation of religious specialists, collaborations with research centers and academia, endorsement by music promoters, and the tourism industry. Cubans of Haitian heritage have found innovative ways to transform the abject into the exotic, and are currently gaining a public voice in cultural production, particularly through folkloric performance.

  19. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  20. [Trophic webs of reef fishes in northwestern Cuba. I. Stomach contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ivet; Aguilar, Consuelo; González Sanón, Gaspar

    2008-06-01

    Trophic webs of reef fishes in northwestern Cuba. I. Stomach contents. Studies on the reef fishes of Cuba are not rare, but most have two basic limitations: small sample sizes and exclusion of small species. Our study sampled more species and larger samples in the sublitoral region of Havana city (23 degrees 7.587' N, 82 degrees 25.793' W), 2-18 m deep. We collected fish weekly from October 2004 through February 2006 with traps and harpoon. Overfishing has modified the fish communities. We used the relative importance index to describe the diets of carnivore and omnivore species, and a modification of the relative abundance method for the herbivores and sponge-eating species. The main food items are benthonic crustaceans (crabs, shrimp, copepods) and bony fish (mainly demersal species). Most species are eurifagous and thus, less affected by anthropic disturbance than specialist feeders.

  1. CAMBIOS TEMPORALES DE LA LLUVIA EN EL OCCIDENTE DE LA ISLA DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa López Deulofeu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo surge de la necesidad de conocer en el tiempo, el comportamiento de la lluvia, asi como también en su distribución espacial en el occidente de Cuba. Se analiza la estacionalidad, tendencia, variabilidad y ciclícidad. Se comprobó que por lo menos en el período 1961-1993, no existe diferencia de las estaciones lluviosa y poco lluviosa. Se encontró que la ruptura de la tendencia ocurrió fuertemente en 1975, y una menor en 1973. Se han manifestado 4 ciclos aperíodicos. Se manifiesta el mismo comportamiento de la lluvia en todo el occidente de Cuba.

  2. Radioactive waste disposal system for Cuba. Safety assessment for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Mirta Torrez, B.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is performed within the frame of evaluating the radiological impact of the post-closure stage of the facility for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated in Cuba, including a description of the waste disposal systems defined in the country, and taking account of significant elements of their long term safety. The Methodology for Safety Assessment includes: the definition of possible scenarios for evaluation, the identification of principal present uncertainties, the model simulating the release of the radionuclides of the facility, their transport through the geosphere, and their final access to man, evaluating ultimately the radiological impact of the disposal system considering the dose for a critical group. The results obtained allow to demonstrate the radiological safety of the nominative barrier in the design of the system for the particular conditions of Cuba. (author)

  3. Una batalla ganada: la eliminación de la poliomielitis en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Beldarraín Chaple

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La poliomielitis fue introducida en Cuba a finales del siglo XIX por norteamericanos residentes en Isla de Pinos. Las primeras epidemias ocurrieron en 1906 y 1909, aumentaron en intensidad entre 1930-1958. El objetivo del artículo es reconstruir la historia de la enfermedad y sus epidemias en Cuba hasta 1961, de la primera Campaña Nacional de Vacunación Antipolio (1962 y de sus resultados, bien como analizar la continuidad de las campañas anuales de vacunación hasta la certificación de su eliminación (1994. Se siguió el método histórico lógico; se revisaron documentos de archivos, las estadísticas del Ministerio de Salud Pública sobre morbilidad y mortalidad hasta el 2000. Se calcularon tasas brutas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Se realizaron entrevistas a personajes claves.

  4. Automation of the Distillation of Alcohol from the RUM Distillery UEB Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mónica Mulet-Hing

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the current situation and prospects for solutions to the lack of automation in the plant belonging to the rum distillery UEB Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Ron, that leads to limited productivity of your process; also do a survey of its operational status, and seeks to transform the instrumentation and control form. It defines the structure and control system variables, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed solution. The key result of the work consists in presenting a proposal for automation of the structure consists of a control algorithm to the distillation process, taking into account the requirements, technical means for their execution, the variables that must be observed and processed and final action items proposed to the respective field instrumentation and purchase of the PLC to perform satisfactorily the control with the minimum possible investment.

  5. Una llamada de “urgencia” para tutela cautelar en la justicia administrativa en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El régimen jurídico de la tutela cautelar que rige hoy por hoy para la justicia administrativa en Cuba, se basa en el principio de ejecutabilidad de los actos administrativos, y por tanto, en la regla de la no suspensión de las decisiones de la administración pública. El modelo construido tomó como referencia el sistema de justicia cautelar administrativa del derecho franco-español de finales del siglo xix. En el siguiente trabajo se parte del presupuesto de la necesidad de un cambio de paradigma en torno a la ordenación jurídica de la tutela cautelar administrativa en Cuba; para la cual se aportan argumentos teóricos que justifican una modificación en pos de ampliar y reforzar el rol de la tutela cautelar en la jurisdicción contencioso-administrativa.

  6. The discipline of ergonomics in Cuba within the occupational health framework: background and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Yaniel; Rodríguez, Yordán; Viña, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ergonomics was introduced in Cuba at the beginning of the 1970s. More than 40 years later, the prevailing approach to workers' health is still generally reactive rather than proactive, despite the commitment of the government to the subject. A factor influencing this issue is, generally, lack of recognition of the benefits of establishing ergonomic principles within most occupational activities. Recent progress to move occupational health practice toward a more preventive approach has been conducted, frequently with international support. The introduction of a set of Cuban standards proposing the necessity of ergonomic evaluations is an example of this progress. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics. The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.

  7. Enhancement of the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock in a ferralsol from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Herrera, J.A.; Garcia, A.; Nuviola, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Ferralsols from Ciego de Avila, Cuba, have a pH near neutrality and very low exchangeable acidity, thus, they are not suitable for direct application of phosphate rock. In laboratory and greenhouse experiments, different P fertilizers were tested in order to assess their agronomic effectiveness through the use of nuclear and conventional methods. The phosphate rocks (PRs) came from different deposits (Higuanojo, La Pimienta and Trinidad de Guedes from Cuba; Riecito, Baja California and North Carolina from other countries). Partial acidulation (PA) of some of these rocks was also evaluated. Trinidad de Guedes PAPRs were found to be highly effective compared to their natural PR when evaluated through dry matter production, P uptake and isotopic parameters. Further field experiments are needed to validate the greenhouse results to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of the local Trinidad de Guedes PR through partial acidulation. (author)

  8. National viewpoints: Views on strengthened safeguards from Australia, Cuba and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, I.; Saburido, E.F.; Mxakato-Diseko, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents views of Australia, Cuba and South Africa concerned with strengthened safeguards regime. Australia has been involved with the IAEA safeguards system since the first plenary meeting of the Conference on the IAEA Statute in 1956, joined the NPT in 1973 and began concluding bilateral safeguards agreements in 1977. Australia has the greatest respect for the IAEA coordinated efforts started in 1998 to strengthen and integrate the safeguards system. Cuba has always attached special importance to nuclear safeguards activities, recognizing their high priority as well as the important role they have in respect to international disarmament and security. South Africa supports the efforts in strengthening the safeguards activities and remains hopeful that the international community will address the challenges posed by the Trilateral Initiative between Russian federation, USA and IAEA in a mature and cooperative way

  9. Safeguarding musical heritage. Memories of the rescue of the Hymn of Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daylenis Blanco-Lobaina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The musicality that highlights Santiago de Cuba as one of its fundamental attractions motivated one of the lines of work of the Escalinata project, focused on communication and promotion of Santiago's heritage. The city treasures several hymns composed in different periods and historical contexts, among them some dedicated to the Virgin of the Charity of the Copper and Santiago Apostle, patron of the city. However, dedicated to the city, Santiago's musical history has revealed the existence of a single anthem, which is why a process of restoration and digitization of its scores began in function of the rescue of this musical composition of the early nineteenth century. This work reveals the process of safeguarding and enhancing the value of this piece of music, considered to be the city's cultural heritage, just 88 years after it was premiered in the Municipal Government of Santiago de Cuba.

  10. Useful trees in reforestation planning at the Biosphere Reserve «Buenavista», Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Herrera Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba, Biosphere Reserves protect and keep natural areas of variable size including one or several forest, scrub or grassland vegetation units, either primary or secondary, also taking into account the various kinds of complex vegetation and communities. The Biosphere Reserve Buenavista, located in Central Cuba, includes several primary vegetation units such as the mangrove forest, sandy coast and rocky coast vegetation, littoral scrub and the dry semi-deciduous, semi-deciduous and gallery forests. Ferns and their allies, gimnosperms and angiosperms were determined and listed in the Reserve and dominant or dominated tree taxa were selected, also listing their standard heights with the ultimate purpose of using them in future reforestation planning if deforestation in some zones occurs.

  11. Racial Geographies, Imperial Transitions: Property Ownership and Race Relations in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1894–1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Lucero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores race relations in the provincial city of Cienfuegos, Cuba, during a time of immense political change from 1894 to 1899. In those five years, Cuba was transformed from a Spanish colony struggling for independence to an occupied territory of the United States. This political transformation brought into direct confrontation two models of race relations: one Spanish, characterized by racial integration, and the other American, renowned for Jim Crow segregation. This essay examines the lived significance of this political transformation through interracial property transactions recorded in the notarial protocols of Cienfuegos. The findings suggest that the final war of independence provided opportunities for Afro-descendants to purchase prime properties within the official city bounds. Yet, with US intervention in 1898, a subtle but increasing marginalization of men and women of color from the market in urban property is evident. Lucero contends that this marginalization reflects a shift in race relations due to the American imperial presence.

  12. First record of natural vertical transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Bugallo, Gladys; Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Díaz, Gisell; Vázquez, Antonio A; Alvarez, Mayling; Rodríguez, Magdalena; Bisset, Juan A; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-10-01

    While horizontal transmission (human-mosquito-human) of dengue viruses largely determines the epidemiology of the disease, vertical transmission (infected female mosquito- infected offspring) has been suggested as a mechanism that ensures maintenance of the virus during adverse conditions for horizontal transmission to occur. The purpose of this study was to analyze the natural infection of larval stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) with the dengue virus (DENV) in Cuba. Here, we report vertical transmission of DENV-3 genotype III in natural populations of Ae. aegypti through RT-PCR detection and serotyping plus sequencing. Our report constitutes the first record of vertical transmission of DENV in Ae. aegypti from Cuba with details of its serotype and genotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Economic analysis for the electricity production in isolated areas in Cuba using different renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Salas, Joel; Moreno Figueredo, Conrado; Briesemeister, Ludwig; Arzola, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Despite the effort and commitment of the Cuban government in more of 50 year, there are houses without electricity in remote areas of the Electricity Network. These houses or communities have the promise and commitment of the local and national authorities to help them in improve his life quality. How the houses and communities are remote of the electricity network, the cost to extend the network is considerably high. For that reason, the use of renewable sources in these areas is an acceptable proposal. This article does an analysis to obtain different configurations depending to the number of houses. It do a proposal with the use of the Hydrothermal Carbonization process in the cases where is not feasible introduce different renewable source; a technology new in Cuba, and advantageous taking into consideration the kind of biomass that exist in Cuba. The study of the chemical process of the Hydrothermal Carbonization with the Cuban biomass should be further researched. (full text)

  15. Multielemental analysis by neutron activation of sediments in the Ana Maria Gulf, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Gandarias, D.; Calzavilla, R.; Garcia, G.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper general samples of marine sediments taken from six control stations of the Ana Maria Gulf (Cuba) were analyzed. For this purpose the thermal neutron activation analysis method was used. 18 elements were determinated. They are: Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Mo, Mn, Rb, Sc, Ta, Th, Yb and Zn. The accuracy varied between 5 and 30% for all elements. 10 refs

  16. Applicability assessment of concrete with recycled coarse aggregates in Havana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Pavón, E.; Etxeberria, M.; Díaz, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The recent viability studies carried out in Havana, Cuba, according to natural or recycled aggregates, exhibited high volume production of construction and demolition waste (CDW). The last well-known data of concrete waste generation reached to 1800 m3/month. This situation, together with the depletion of the quarry aggregates closed to the capital, requires the use of such debris as aggregate for concrete production. In this work, four origin recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) were produced ...

  17. Comparing environmental issues in Cuba before and after the Special Period: balancing sustainable development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maal-Bared, Rasha

    2006-04-01

    Following the Earth Summit in 1992, Cuba designed and implemented a variety of programs, administrative structures, and public awareness activities to promote sound environmental management and sustainable development. This came shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union and the strengthening of the US blockade in 1990, which resulted in a 35% drop in Cuban GDP. This period, referred to as the Special Period, witnessed a decrease in many environmentally damaging activities both by choice and by necessity, but also resulted in many decisions to resuscitate the Cuban economy. The purpose of this work was to compare and rank the environmental risks Cuba faced before and during the Special Period (1990-2000) using two Comparative environmental risk assessments (CERAs). To do so, an ecosystem integrity risk assessment matrix was constructed with 42 risk end points. The matrix assessed the risk posed by 17 problem areas including air pollution, water contamination, solid waste sites, pesticides and ecosystem degradation. The risks were calculated using five criteria: area affected, vulnerability of affected population, severity of impact, irreversibility of effect and uncertainty. To construct this matrix, both literature reviews and expert interviews in Cuba were conducted in 2000. The results showed a general decrease in risk scores during the Special Period. Before the Special Period, high risks were posed by: terrestrial degradation and industrial wastewater and sludge, followed by freshwater degradation, surface water stressors, and pesticides. After the Special Period, industrial wastewater and sludge and pesticides were no longer high-risk areas, but municipal wastewater and marine coastal degradation ranked higher than previously. Also, the risk endpoints most stressed after 1990 were affected by activities controlled by the government, such as mining and tourism, and lack of infrastructure. Therefore, the claims that public environmental education is the main

  18. Cuba "updates" its economic model: perspectives for cooperation with the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Schmieg, Evita

    2017-01-01

    Following the thawing of relations with the United States under Obama, Cuba is now seeking closer integration into the global economy through a programme of "guidelines" for updating the country’s economic model adopted in 2011. The central goals are increasing exports, substituting imports and encouraging foreign direct investment in order to improve the country’s hard currency situation, increase domestic value creation and reduce dependency on Venezuela. The guidelines also expand the spac...

  19. Cuba | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nous finançons des recherches à Cuba depuis 1974 et travaillons avec des chercheurs cubains depuis cette époque, principalement dans les secteurs de la santé et de l'agriculture, et plus récemment dans les secteurs des changements climatiques et de la gestion durable de l'eau. Amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire ...

  20. Technical economical study for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, G. Chales; Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R. Gil; Franklin Saburido, R.; Rodriguez Reyes, A.; Castillo Gomez, R. [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1997-12-31

    The wastes characteristics, the design of the repository, package of the radioactive wastes, as well as, the studies for sitting, conditioning and performance assessment in a preliminary stage are presented considering the perspectives to conclude and operate the Juragua Nuclear Power Station and development of nuclear application in Cuba. The practice and international experience, as well as, the recommendation from the IAEA[1-4] to perform these studies have been analysed 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. An eighteenth-century community in exile : the 'floridanos' in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Landers

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available History of the evacuation of 1763, when Floridians had to move away after the English seized the colony from Spain. Most of the migrants settled in Cuba. Several hundred families of Spanish descent and their slaves made new lives in Havana. Author focuses on the Florida Africans and Indians and the history of a new multi-ethnic settlement named San Agustín de la Nueve Florida.

  2. Une solution aux problèmes hydriques de Cuba | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    À Santiago de Cuba, dans la partie orientale du pays, les pénuries d'eau ont fait les .... d'eau non traitée, la désagrégation des infrastructures de traitement et ... tels que les rejets d'eaux usées en raison de la détérioration des conduites, ont ...

  3. IAEA Director General welcomes Cuba's intention to join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed Cuba's announcement to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and to ratify the Treaty of Tlatelolco establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Latin America and the Caribbean. He expressed the hope that Cuba will conclude soon a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the Agency, as required under Article III of the NPT. 'With Cuba's intention to become party to the NPT, we have come a step closer to a universal nuclear non-proliferation regime,' Mr. ElBaradei said. Only three countries worldwide with significant nuclear activities now remain outside the NPT. With 188 countries party to the Treaty, the NPT is the most adhered to international agreement after the United Nations Charter and the most widely adhered to multilateral arms control treaty. The NPT makes it mandatory that all non-nuclear-weapon States conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus put all of their nuclear material under IAEA safeguards. The Director General also welcomed Cuba's ratification of the Tlatelolco Treaty, which completes the process of having all countries in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean as members of the nuclear-weapon-free zone in that region. Mr. ElBaradei said that, 'the Tlatelolco Treaty provides a good model for other regional nuclear-weapon-free zones to follow'. He added that 'universal adherence of all countries in regions having nuclear-weapon-free zone arrangements is important to further strengthen the non-proliferation regime'. (IAEA)

  4. Public Information on the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technology Agency of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Izquierdo, Marta Alicia

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technology Agency of Cuba is the promoting and controlling of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and radiation application; additionally, they have to inform the general public about those technologies. The main of this work is to expose the methodology and results of the studies of the attitudes toward the nuclear applications of the users of the nuclear techniques

  5. The January 2014 Northern Cuba Earthquake Sequence - Unusual Location and Unexpected Source Mechanism Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunmiller, J.; Thompson, G.; McNutt, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    On 9 January 2014, a magnitude Mw=5.1 earthquake occurred along the Bahamas-Cuba suture at the northern coast of Cuba revealing a surprising seismic hazard source for both Cuba and southern Florida where it was widely felt. Due to its location, the event and its aftershocks (M>3.5) were recorded only at far distances (300+ km) resulting in high-detection thresholds, low location accuracy, and limited source parameter resolution. We use three-component regional seismic data to study the sequence. High-pass filtered seismograms at the closest site in southern Florida are similar in character suggesting a relatively tight event cluster and revealing additional, smaller aftershocks not included in the ANSS or ISC catalogs. Aligning on the P arrival and low-pass filtering (T>10 s) uncovers a surprise polarity flip of the large amplitude surface waves on vertical seismograms for some aftershocks relative to the main shock. We performed regional moment tensor inversions of the main shock and its largest aftershocks using complete three-component seismograms from stations distributed throughout the region to confirm the mechanism changes. Consistent with the GCMT solution, we find an E-W trending normal faulting mechanism for the main event and for one immediate aftershock. Two aftershocks indicate E-W trending reverse faulting with essentially flipped P- and T-axes relative to the normal faulting events (and the same B-axes). Within uncertainties, depths of the two event families are indistinguishable and indicate shallow faulting (<10 km). One intriguing possible interpretation is that both families ruptured the same fault with reverse mechanisms compensating for overshooting. However, activity could also be spatially separated either vertically (with reverse mechanisms possibly below extension) or laterally. The shallow source depth and the 200-km long uplifted chain of islands indicate that larger, shallow and thus potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes could occur just

  6. España y Cuba. Cien años de relaciones financieras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés ROLDÁN DE MONTAUD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Desde la pérdida del imperio continental americano, Cuba se convierte en el territorio colonial de mayor importancia para la metrópoli. Mercado preferencial para la producción española y fuente de capitales que ayudó a paliar el déficit del Tesoro peninsular, las páginas siguientes se dedican a estudiar las diferentes etapas por las que atravesaron las relaciones financieras entre metrópoli y colonia a lo largo del siglo XIX. Estudio centrado en el aspecto institucional, es decir, en las relaciones entre los Tesoros y por tanto en la especial configuración de la Hacienda colonial y la concepción y estructura del sistema presupuestario. Palabras Clave: España, Cuba, Siglo XIX, Relaciones financieras, Hacienda colonial, Presupuestos. ABSTRACT: After metropolis lost its empire on the American continent, Cuba became its most important colonial territory and a preferential market for Spanish production as well as a source of capital which helped to mitigate the deficit in the Spanish Treasury. The pages that follow study the different stages through which the financial relations between the metropolis and the colony passed during the 19th century. This study focuses on the institutional aspect, i.e., on the relations between the treasuries and therefore on the special configuration of the colonial Treasuty and the conception and structure of the budgetary system. Key words: Spain, Cuba 19th Century, Financial Relation, Colonial Treasury, Budgets.

  7. Impact assessment of foreign hotels chains technology through hotel management contract in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    D’Meza Pérez, Gustavo; Zaldívar Puig, Martha María; Martín Fernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    El sector hotelero en Cuba se clasifica en cadenas hoteleras nacionales, entidades mixtas y alojamientos en casas particulares. Dentro de ellas, las cadenas hoteleras nacionales son de propiedad pública y gestionan sus hoteles directamente (llamados de marcas propias) o mediante contratos de administración con otras cadenas extranjeras. Las empresas mixtas siempre contratan a una entidad extranjera para administrar sus hoteles, mientras que los alojamientos privados son administrados por sus ...

  8. HIV/AIDS among women in Havana, Cuba: 1986-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Dinorah C; Viñas, Arturo L; Saavedra, Clarivel; Oliva, Maritza; González, Ciro; de la Torre, Caridad

    2013-10-01

    Women are being diagnosed with HIV infection in increasing numbers, and now account for 50% of cases worldwide. In Cuba, HIV is more frequent in men, but in recent years, a growing number of women have been diagnosed. Describe patterns of HIV among women in Havana, Cuba, 1986-2011. Descriptive study of women with HIV aged >14 years, residents of Havana, Cuba, who were diagnosed with HIV from 1 January 1986 through 31 December 2011. Information was obtained from the limited-access HIV/AIDS database of Cuba's Ministry of Public Health. Data were studied from all reported cases, a total of 1274 women. Variables selected were age at diagnosis, education, municipality of residence, screening group, year of HIV diagnosis, late presentation, AIDS-defining condition, year of diagnosis as AIDS case, vital status at the end of 2011, and year of death (if applicable). Incidence of HIV and AIDS, cumulative incidence by municipality of residence, and case fatality rates were calculated. Those aged 20-29 years were most affected by HIV. Almost half (46.7%) the women had completed middle school, and a further 35.4% had completed high school or middle-level technical studies. HIV incidence began to increase more steeply starting in 1998, as did AIDS incidence by year of diagnosis, though to a lesser extent. Central Havana and Old Havana municipalities had the highest cumulative incidence. Late presentation was seen in 7.4% of cases; mean age of those diagnosed late was 38.9 years. Wasting syndrome and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were the most frequent AIDS-defining conditions. Case fatality rates started to decline in 1998. HIV infection in women is occurring in a predominantly young, relatively well-educated population. Increasing rates of HIV and AIDS in the past decade are a warning sign of the possible expansion of HIV infection in women, even though mortality is declining.

  9. Ecology of the Scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate. PMID:21870972

  10. The U.S. Embargo on Cuba: A time for Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-06

    to protect intellectual property rights. This is tantamount to Cuba producing an American product like Coke or Pepsi and selling it as a Cuban product...intended audience . Primarily because the Cuban Government jams the signal and secondly because it is transmitted between the hours of 0330 and 0800...Cuban broadcast transmissions during prime time hours. Radio Marti’s listening audience has declined to an estimated five percent of the

  11. El largo compromiso de Canadá con Cuba: paradojas y posibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros «actores» es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales

  12. Evolución y perspectivas del registro de medicamentos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste A Sánchez González

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación de las autoridades sanitarias a cargo de la autorización para la comercialización de medicamentos en Cuba desde 1959 hasta el 2001 y de su nivel de subordinación. Se describió la evolución de los documentos normativos y legales que dan la base al Registro de Medicamentos en Cuba y a su evaluación, con lo que se caracterizó el enfoque nacional de los requerimientos y procedimientos exigidos para registrar un medicamento. Se identificaron etapas en la evolución de las autoridades y se enumeraron los aspectos que han marcado saltos de calidad en la espiral de desarrollo de la actividad. Se identificó la situación actual y perspectivas para garantizar la elevación del nivel normativo y legal del Sistema Regulador de Medicamentos.The health authorities in charge of authorizing the commercialization of drugs in Cuba from 1959 to 2001, as well as their subordination level were evaluated. The evolution of the normative and legal documents, which are the basis of the Drug Registry in Cuba and of its evaluation, was described in order to characterize the national approach of the requirements and procedures demanded to register a drug. Some stages in the evolution of the authorities were identified and those aspects considered as quality leaps in the development spiral of this activity were approached. Emphasis was made on the present situation and on the outlooks to guarantee the improvement of the normative and legal level of the Drug Control System.

  13. Legal verification of the dosimetric instrumentation using for radiation protection in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walwyn, A.; Morales, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    By April of 1998 the Decree law 183 of Metrology was published at the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Cuba. It establishes the principles and general regulations for the organisation and juridical system of the metrological activity in Cuba. In the radiation protection field this legislation promote the establishment of a verification service of radiation measuring instruments used in the practices with radiation sources in the country. The limitations of old Cuban standards of verification related to dosimetric quantities and to the types of instruments for those which these standards are applicable; and in addition, the publication of new international standards that includes the operational quantities used for the measurement of instruments, led to the elaboration of the X and Gamma Radiation Meters Used in Radiation Protection standard. The requirements of metrological aptitude are taken from some test procedures described in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards on photon monitoring equipment. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centre for Radiation Protection and Higiene will start the verification service of Radiation Protection instruments. The beginning of the service is an essential element in the improvement of the accuracy of ionisation radiation metrology in Cuba, and have an evident impact in the protection of the occupationally exposed workers, because having the instruments in good technical condition became a legal exigency to the users of ionisation radiation

  14. Factors That Condition the Attitude Toward Living Related Kidney Donation Among Santiago of Cuba's Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    Living kidney donation is currently the most important kidney donor source in Latin America, and it is necessary to further increase its rates. To analyze the attitude toward living kidney donation among the Santiago de Cuba's population and to determine the sociopersonal factors with which it is associated. The population over 15 years old residing in Santiago de Cuba, stratified by sex and age, was screened. The "PCID-LKD Ríos" attitude questionnaire toward living kidney donation was administered to a random selection of the people surveyed according to the stratification and the census data. The completion was anonymized and self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained. The study was completed by 445 people, of whom the 86% (n = 389) were in favor of living related kidney donation. This attitude is associated with the level of education (P donation (P = .006); attitude toward cadaveric organ donation (P donation (P = .001); religious beliefs (P = .001); and assessment of the risk of living kidney donation (P donation; (3) carrying out of prosocial activities; and (4) risk assessment of living donation. Living related donation is very well accepted among the Santiago de Cuba's population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective dissemination of health information: Bulletins of the National Medical Library of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Santana Arroyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Medical Library of Cuba (BMN has the mission to ensure the provision of scientific and technology information to the community of professionals that make up the healthcare sector in the country, primarily the Ministry of Public Health, identified as prioritized user of BMN, in order to elevate the quality of care, research, management and teaching, as well as to encourage the finding of new solutions that enable to face health problems in Cuba and in the world. This article aims to describe the making process of the bulletins: Bibliomed, Bibliomed Supplemento, BiblioDir and Factográfico de Salud, which are offered by specialists from Selective Dissemination of Information Service that resides in the BMN area of Customer Service, in order to support the decision making of health managers of Cuba Ministry of Public Health. For this purpose, the paper details scope, content, sections, team responsibility, procedures for preparing and processing the bulletins. Most used sources of information and skills of staff are also presented. Such Informative scientific work strengthen BMN as a paradigm of the cuban medical libraries network, transforming the pattern of a traditional library into a modern library, characterized by an effective knowledge management and development processes in virtual environments.

  16. Salud pública y propiedad intelectual en Cuba: mapa conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Delgado

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:El objetivo de este estudio es el análisis del marco legal de salud y propiedad intelectual en Cuba y su incidencia en las condiciones de acceso de la población a los recursos de salud y el papel de los diferentes actores sociales. METODOLOGÍA: Se utilizó la metodología desarrollada por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud para la ejecución del Proyecto Mapa Conceptual sobre Salud Pública y Propiedad Intelectual. RESULTADOS: La información recobrada en específico sobre el marco legal y su evolución en el tiempo en Cuba relacionado con el Sistema Nacional de Salud, el Sistema de Propiedad Intelectual y el fortalecimiento de la industria biofarmacéutica del país, fue procesada y analizada generando el Mapa Conceptual sobre Salud Pública y Propiedad Intelectual de Cuba. CONCLUSIONES: El análisis de la experiencia cubana en la adecuación de su marco legal y la evaluación de la interrelación de los actores sociales permite observar cómo la voluntad política existente a lo largo de varias décadas ha impactado de manera positiva en el acceso a la salud de la población.

  17. Adolescent fertility in Cuba: some reflections on its behavior by provinces and areas of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daylin Rodríguez Javiqué

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the adolescent fertility in Cuba during the period 2010-2014 and analyze its proximate determinants both nationally and by territory. Based on the data published in Demographic Yearbook, Studies and Data of the Population and birth databases of the National Bureau of Statistics and Information (ONEI, adolescent fertility rates in Cuba are calculated according to the groups 10-14 and 15-19, by province and area of residence. In addition, data on family formation, contraception and abortion of Cuban adolescents are shown. These elements could allow hypothesizing about the behavior of adolescent fertility in Cuba. The first important result is that fertility among 15-19 years group had a slight decrease in the period; however, the 10-14 years group has increased its level. On the other hand, the analysis by area of residence shows that urban fertility has gained prominence in the Cuban provinces, with an increase between 2010 and 2012 in more than half of them. Similarly, about a third of the provinces analyzed show higher levels of adolescent fertility in urban areas than in rural areas. High rates of abortion in adolescence, which exceeds fertility rates in ten provinces of the country; early onset of sexual intercourse and first marriage, and improper use of contraceptive methods, are elements worth looking into in order to find explanations to the reproductive behavior of Cuban adolescents.

  18. La imagen del turismo cultural en Cuba percibida por el mercado español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilé Pérez Guilarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El turismo cultural, percibido no solo como las visitas a sitios y monumentos históricos, sino ampliado al conocimiento de la forma de vida y tradiciones de las poblaciones locales, podría constituir una importante alternativa para Cuba. La presente investigación tiene como objetivos determinar si Cuba es apreciada como un destino cultural desde la perspectiva del mercado español e identificar cuáles son sus elementos distintivos. Por medio de un cuestionario realizado a 400 españoles, se evalúan los dos componentes de la imagen de un destino: el cognitivo y el afectivo. El estudio revela una preferencia por el turismo cultural y señala a la gente, la música, al Centro Histórico de La Habana y el estilo de vida como los elementos distintivos de Cuba. Estos resultados contribuyen a un diseño más efectivo de la promoción turística en el mercado español, aunque se recomienda ampliar el estudio a otros mercados potenciales.

  19. CUBA: socialismo de mercado ou planificação socialista?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dias Carcanholo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuba, a small caribbean island, located a few kilometers from United States coast, insist on preserving socialism. During a catastrophic crisis that they had gone through between 1989-1993, the cubans have deepened the development of a long series of economic reforms as to answer to the new international scenery. Despite of crises depth, north american pressions, globalization advances and neoliberal policies, which have taken almost ali Latin American couritries to submit to american imperialism, Cuba has searched its replace in world system, protecting its sovereignty and going ahead with the struggle to socialism. The question is: up to which moment Cuba wili manage? In this article it is mainly discussed the market and the money roles and also the socialism planned role in the relorms developed in 1990 decade. We had evaluated which are the money and market functions that have helped in the planning and which are incompatible with socialists ideas. In doing so we will be abie to acquire a brief notion of which are the Iimits and difticulties of this transition period.

  20. Genomics as public health? Community genetics and the challenge of personalised medicine in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2009-08-01

    Making use of a comparative perspective on the emergence of 'breast cancer genetics' in the different cultural context of the UK and Cuba, this article examines the tensions between the modern promise of genomics as personalised medicine and a commitment to public health. Focusing primarily on the Cuba context and drawing on ethnographic research as part of a collaborative project working with genetic professionals and publics, the article examines the particular technologies, identities and socialities at stake in an emerging and evolving field of genetic medicine. It highlights how long-standing continuities in the commitment to the equitable provision of public health, particularly as this relates to 'family medicine', are central to understanding the scope and expansion of 'community genetics' interventions, even when at the level of local practice, public health is also now subject to the unequal dynamics of economic necessity through the working out of 'lo informal'. Illuminating the different ways agency, risk, responsibility, citizenship and activism get configured by and between publics and health professionals in Cuba, the article reveals the challenges and opportunities posed by predictive genomic medicine in relation to the dynamic and shifting terrain of public health.