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Sample records for east west fuzzy

  1. East West Fuzzy colloquium 2000. 8. Zittau Fuzzy colloquium. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenknecht, M.; Chaker, N.; Hampel, R. [comps.

    2000-07-01

    The Zittau Colloquium is organized annually with the objective to stimulate contacts between scientists in academic research, industrial development and university teaching from Eastern and Western European countries and from other parts of the world. A further aim of the colloquium is the exchange of information about the state-of-the-art in the field of Fuzzy Logic basic investigation and application in connection with other theories, for example Neuronal Networks. Therefore, we want to stimulate the discussion about proposals for common national, bilateral and international supported projects to incite research, teaching, as well as mobility of students and teachers. (orig.)

  2. Discourse Between East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first Chinese-hosted cultural dialogue between the East and the West was held in Nishan, Shandong Province The first Nishan Forum on World Civilizations kicked off on September 26 at Nishan Mountain, 25 km southeast

  3. Politeness: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Джеффри Лич

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was planned for this issue of our journal, which Geoffrey Leech and I intended to devote to Politeness phenomena across cultures. It is based on his article titled “Politeness: Is there an East-West Divide?” (2005 which he suggested as a theoretical framework and includes results of our discussions held during our personal meetings and our epistolary exchange. Unfortunately the final version of the paper was never read by Geoffrey Leech for the reasons we all sadly know. Nevertheless I decided to publish it as a tribute to him in the knowledge that the result was not going to have the degree of excellence it would have had if he were still with us today. I therefore apologise for any mistakes or misinterpretations of his thoughts that might be found in the paper. The aim of this article is to sum up the main ideas of Politeness Theory presented earlier in Leech 1983, 2003, 2005, and other publications and discuss how that theory applies (or fails to apply to other languages, with the main emphasis on the Russian language and culture. The term ‘maxim’ used in Principles of Pragmatics (Leech 1983 is avoided here as much as possible, as it implies some kind of moral imperative, rather than a pragmatic constraint. Instead, a single constraint, which comprehends all the maxims (the Maxims of Tact, Generosity, Approbation, Modesty, Agreement, Sympathy, and is called the Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP, is used. The GSP says: In order to be polite, S expresses or implies meanings which place a high value on what pertains to O- his/her wants, qualities, obligation, opinion, feelings (O = other person[s], [mainly the addressee, i.e. H = hearer] or place a low value on what pertains to S (S = self, speaker. The essential point is that these are not separate, independent constraints or maxims: they are instances of the operation of the GSP as ‘super-maxim’ which is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness

  4. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  5. WEST AND EAST REGIONS OF GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mobilisation and saving as well as records keeping in PMCS in the Upper West and. East Regions. 1. ..... money to meet the maintenance of pump facilities including pump site .... are given some incentives as motivation, the data show that the.

  6. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012). Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  7. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kuo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  8. Unrealistic Optimism: East and West?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mary Sissons; Carter, Wakefield

    2013-01-01

    Following Weinstein’s (1980) pioneering work many studies established that people have an optimistic bias concerning future life events. At first, the bulk of research was conducted using populations in North America and Northern Europe, the optimistic bias was thought of as universal, and little attention was paid to cultural context. However, construing unrealistic optimism as a form of self-enhancement, some researchers noted that it was far less common in East Asian cultures. The current study extends enquiry to a different non-Western culture. Two hundred and eighty seven middle aged and middle income participants (200 in India, 87 in England) rated 11 positive and 11 negative events in terms of the chances of each event occurring in “their own life,” and the chances of each event occurring in the lives of “people like them.” Comparative optimism was shown for bad events, with Indian participants showing higher levels of optimism than English participants. The position regarding comparative optimism for good events was more complex. In India those of higher socioeconomic status (SES) were optimistic, while those of lower SES were on average pessimistic. Overall, English participants showed neither optimism nor pessimism for good events. The results, whose clinical relevance is discussed, suggest that the expression of unrealistic optimism is shaped by an interplay of culture and socioeconomic circumstance. PMID:23407689

  9. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  10. East-West cooperation at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    From left to right: H. Bokemeyer, in charge of physics for INTAS, J. Sinnaeve, INTAS' general secretary and R. Landua, ATHENA spokesman, visit the ATHENA experiment installations. Heads of INTAS (International Association for the promotion and cooperation of the new independent states of the former Soviet Union) visited CERN on 11 October. This association is in charge of preserving and promoting the scientific potential of the former Soviet Union countries through a cooperation between East and West. In recents years, a certain number of projects related to the LHC experiments have been co-financed by INTAS. The support for young researchers coming from these countries is also a big success.

  11. The German East-West Divide in Knowledge Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patuelli, Roberto; Vaona, Andrea; Grimpe, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , in particular between the East and the West. Based on analyses at the NUTS 3 regional level, we find different knowledge production functions for the East and the West. Moreover, we investigate how our results are affected by the adoption of alternative aggregation levels. Overall, our findings suggest...

  12. A comparative analysis of the influence of economic culture on East and West German consumers' subjective product meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1993-01-01

    Executive summary: 1. Consumers in central planning economies have developed different skills from consumers in market economies: while the former have developed skills in locating products, the latter have developed skills in comparing and deciding between products. Even now, some...... of products is the same as in the West, and there are considerable price differences. 3. Differences between East and West German consumers were analysed by comparing samples of consumers in Kiel and Rostock. It was analysed how they perceive food products (frozen ready meals and cheese), and how they relate...... them to values (means-end approach). 4. While product perceptions are more focussed in the West and more fuzzy in the East, the basic perceptual dimensions are the same: they are based on concrete product attributes. 5. An analysis of the fundamental life values of East and West German consumers (using...

  13. K-East and K-West Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hanford's "sister reactors", the K-East and the K-West Reactors, were built side-by-side in the early 1950's. The two reactors went operational within four months of...

  14. BP Announces Withdrawal from West-to-East Gas Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 31, 2001, BP announced that BP would not participate in the bidding launched by PetroChina for the West-to-East gas transmission project,China's landmark project for West Development that is valued billions of US dollars.

  15. Bridging East and West Educational Divides in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prem

    2013-01-01

    In Asia, we are witnessing an era where the pendulum of power is swaying towards the East with the rising economic strength of China and India. Singapore is at the "crossroads" between the East and West of these most populous nations on earth. Although Singapore may appear the most Westernised country in Asia, she is nevertheless a multicultural…

  16. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012).Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  17. Cold war, quantum foundations, and East-West collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaar-Jacobsen, Anja [Niels Bohr Archive, Copenhagen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    It is well-known that the cultural cold war changed the ideological line in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s and that this had serious implications for the autonomy of research in genetics and quantum foundations in the East bloc. However, besides the more narrow concern from the point of view of research in quantum foundations, I suggest that the ideological impact on quantum foundations also constituted an obstacle for attempts by Western physicists to bring about a rapprochement between physics in the east and west in general. In connection with re-establishing East-West co-operation between physicists after Stalin's death in 1953 this obstacle needed to be cleared away. In my talk I discuss these issues and how the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen came to be an important meeting place for physicists from the East and West from the mid-1950s.

  18. East-West Couples: Distribution, Characteristics and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche Beiträge.SOEP data were used to examine relationships consisting of one partner socialised in West Germany and one in East Germany and who presently reside in the “old” (former West German or “new” (newly formed East German federal states. The estimated share of east-west couples among all marriages or cohabiting couples rises continuously within the observed period reaching approximately two and eleven percent respectively by 2009. The specific characteristics of east-west couples are that their employment-related division of labour is relatively egalitarian, above-average the partners are of different confessions and practice different religions, at least one of the partners is frequently divorced and there is also a strong tendency towards unmarried cohabitation. Besides the place of socialisation, the present place of residence has an independent impact on the economic situation, division of labour and marriage propensity. Analyses of relationship stability reveal that east-west couples exhibit a relatively high risk of separation. This is partly due to religious differences between the partners, but primarily to the low marriage propensity and the overrepresentation of divorced persons within this type of relationship.

  19. Hangzhou:EAST CITY,WEST LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ View over West Lake,Hangzhou is in Zhejiang Province,eastern coast area of China.It is one of the most important tourism cities here,famous for its natural beauty and historical and cultural heritages,and the political,economic and cultural center of Zhejiang province as well.

  20. West-to-East Pipeline Entirely Comes under Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhicheng

    2002-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West-to-East Pipleline Company announced at a press conference held in February that the Chinese Government has formally approved the feasibility study report of the nation-crossing pipeline, marking that the 4200-kilometer pipeline project was brought under construction.

  1. Education and Happiness: Perspectives of the East and the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relations between education and happiness from the perspectives of the West and the East, especially Buddhism and Christianity as well as classical Greek and Chinese great thinkers. In order to examine this study systematically, three research questions are addressed as follows: First, what are…

  2. Humanistic Traditions, East and West: Convergence and Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Morimichi

    2016-01-01

    The term "humanism" is Western in origin. It denotes the tradition that places special emphasis on cultivation of letters for education. In the West, this tradition was originated with sophists and Isocrates, established by Cicero, and was developed by Renaissance humanists. East Asia, however, also has its own humanistic traditions with…

  3. China Greatly Benefits from the West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Statistics of the relevant department of China show that the West-East Gas Pipeline has boosted the rate of natural gas in China's primary energy mix from 2.2% to 3%, thus improving the safety of China's energy supply.

  4. Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Kymlicka

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

  5. Optimal for difficult roofs. East-west orientation; Optimal fuer schwierige Daecher. Ost-West-Ausrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouattour, Mohamed Ali [Solar Frontier Europe GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    With the help of CIS solar modules the unfavorable east-west roofs can be also use efficiently and profitably, since the good weak-light performance almost compensates the weak light components characterized irradiation conditions. [German] Mit Hilfe der CIS-Solarmodule lassen sich auch die unguenstige Ost-West-Daecher effizient und profitabel nutzen, da das gute Schwachlichtverhalten die hier von schwachen Lichtanteilen gepraegten Einstrahlungsverhaeltnisse nahezu kompensiert.

  6. Welding technique studies on the "West-East" pipeline project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Yongli; Du Zeyu; Huang Fuxiang; Qi Lichun

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the work of welding process design for the "West-East" pipeline project, which is high pressure, large diameter and heavy wall thickness. According to the different geographical situation, climate, culture and the flexibility of the welding methods, this work recommended the semi-automatic process at the east and middle sections and automatic process at the west section of the pipeline project. The manual process is recommended on the tie-in joints and repairs. The double joint pipe and the 3 joint pipe are recommended at the water net place and some in-ditch welding place to reduce the welding volume. Also the special redesigned bevels are recommended for the automatic process and the semiautomatic process. Through all destructive tests, the results shows the welds are meet the requirements of related standards,specifications and design documents.

  7. Looking east, looking west: Penang as a knowledge hub

    OpenAIRE

    Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Penang has always been a focal point, absorbing knowledge (and popular culture) from civilizations to the East and West. In modern Penang the pattern of cultural contacts has changed over time. Research institutes and universities in Penang cooperate with foreign partners to produce research papers and reports. Based on an analysis of joint research output, the changing international position of Penang as an emerging research hub will be analysed. The paper will show that international cooper...

  8. Turkey`s Harmless Tango Between East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Mujanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey got actively involved in world politics and international relations after AKP came to power in early 2000s. Turkey`s foreign policy since AKP came to power, has the theoretical basis in Davutoglu`s Strategic Depth. New doctrines rely on historical right inherited from the Ottoman Empire, which contributed towards Turkish pro-active and multi-dimensional foreign policy. Without forgetting traditional Western allies, Turkey has established itself as a regional power in the Balkans, Middle East and Central Asia with significant success. This paper attempts to analyze how Turkey has been playing a harmless tango between its traditional allies in the West and regions in the near abroad which had made Turkey a global player in the international relations. Then, it is important to analyze Turkey's transformation and its approved role by the Western powers as a strong Islamic country with secular governance in the Middle East and Central Asia.

  9. West-East Gas Project Locates Two Large Consumers in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The gigantic west-east gas pipeline is well on the way to begin delivering gas by October, despite a delay to the project's joint venture with foreign partners including ExxonMobil and Royal/Dutch Shell. PetroChina, the major Chinese backer of the project, is also expected to sign the long-awaited gas supply contracts in the next few weeks with two gas buyers, including a large petrochemical venture of German firm BASF.

  10. East is East and West is West - a literary and historical view from the perspective of Madame Butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Nick

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I will look at aspects of cultural difference as well as commercial and political relationships between East and West in a literary and historical context. These aspects have become evident during research for my PhD by practice, which involves creating a contemporary, gay, screen adaptation of the story of Madame Butterfly. I will demonstrate how the story, by American author John Luther Long, emerged in response to the fashion of ‘Japonisme’, which was prompted by the opening ...

  11. Western and Eastern Culture Comparison-Compare the First Photogra-phers between West and East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-wei

    2016-01-01

    The nineteenth century was a period when the visual arts, growing in both the West and the East, flourished. It wit-nessed the beginning of photography, the great innovation which posed questions of the blurred distinctions between art and sci-ence. The nineteenth century was also the era of collisions of numerous technology and cultures between the West and the East.

  12. GLOBAL SELECTED AS PARTNER TO SUPERVISE WEST-TO-EAST GAS PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 3, PetroChina West-to-East Gas Pipeline Company and US-based Global Engineering Service Company signed ìAdvisory Service Contract for Engineering Supervision of West-to-East Gas Pipeline(1) in Beijing.Signature of this contract marks the start of engineering supervision business for thepipeline project.

  13. Application of fuzzy logic approach for landslide susceptibility mapping in Garuwa sub-basin, East Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabin KAYASTHA

    2012-01-01

    Landslide is one of the major natural disasters which cause extensive loss of life and property.During the last three decades,different researchers have developed different methodologies to prepare landslide susceptibility mapping and hazard assessment in the world.The main goal of this paper is to apply a fuzzy logic approach to landslide susceptibility mapping in the Garuwa sub-basin area,East Nepal.Eight different causative factors are considered:slope angle,slope aspect,slope shape,relative relief,distance from drainage,land use,geology,and distance from active faults.Likelihood ratios are obtained for each class of causative factors by comparison with past landslide occurrences.Then,the likelihood ratios are normalized between zero and one to obtain fuzzy membership values.Next,different fuzzy operators are applied to generate landslide susceptibility maps.Comparison with the landslide inventory map reveals that the fuzzy gamma (γ) operator with a γ-value of 0.70 yields the best prediction accuracy which is then used to produce the final landslide susceptibility zonation map.

  14. East-west faults due to planetary contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Contraction, expansion and despinning have been common in the past evolution of Solar System bodies. These processes deform the lithosphere until it breaks along faults. The type and orientation of faults are usually determined under the assumption of a constant lithospheric thickness, but lithospheric thinning can occur at the equator or at the poles due either to latitudinal variation in solar insolation or to localized tidal dissipation. Using thin elastic shells with variable thickness, I show that the equatorial thinning of the lithosphere transforms the homogeneous and isotropic fault pattern caused by contraction/expansion into a pattern of faults striking east-west, preferably formed in the equatorial region. By contrast, lithospheric thickness variations only weakly affect the despinning faulting pattern consisting of equatorial strike-slip faults and polar normal faults. If contraction is added to despinning, the despinning pattern first shifts to thrust faults striking north-south and then to thrus...

  15. The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases from West to East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Lakatos, Peter

    2017-01-19

    The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) show considerable variation over time and across geographic regions. The first studies on the epidemiology of IBD were available mainly from traditionally high-incidence areas, as North America and Northern and Western Europe. In the last two decades, more and more data have been reported from Eastern European and Asian counties with increasing incidence rates from some regions. According to recent studies, the high incidence and prevalence of IBD in some Western countries is plateauing and in some Eastern countries increasing incidence rates have been reported. In the era of "new", multicenter epidemiological studies with common methodology the direct comparison of incidence and prevalence rates became possible. In the present review we would like to summarize the currently available literature on the West-East differences in the incidence and prevalence rates of IBD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Politeness: Is There an East-West Divide?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoffrey Leech

    2005-01-01

    The theory of politeness of Brown and Levinson (1978, 1987) has remained the most seminal and influential starting point for cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contrastive pragmatics. Yet is has also provoked countervailing arguments from Ide (1989, 1993), Matsumoto (1989), Gu (1990), Mao (1994) and others, pointing out a Western bias in Brown and Levinson's theory, particularly in their individualistic and egalitarian motivations, as opposed to the more group-centred hierarchy-based ethos of Eastern societies. This leads to the question in thetitle of this article: Is there an East-West divide in politeness?The following argument will be presented. There is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness phenomena in communication: a common principle of politeness (Leech, 1983,2002) and a Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP), which is evident in common linguistic behaviour patterns in the performance of polite speech acts such as requests, offers, compliments, apologies,thanks, and responses to these. The GSP says simply: In order to be polite, a speaker communicates meanings which (a) place a high value on what relates to the other person (typically the addressee),(MAJOR CONSTRAINT) and (b) place a low value on what relates to the speaker. (MINOR CONSTRAINT). It is clear from many observations that constraint (a) is more powerful than constraint (b). The following hypothesis will be put forward, and supported by very limited evidence: that the GSP provides a very general explanation for communicative politeness phenomena in Eastern languages such as Chinese,Japanese and Korean, as well as in Western languages such as English. This is not to deny the importance of quantitative and qualitative differences in the settings of social parameters and linguistic parameters of politeness in such languages. A framework such as the GSP provides the parameters of variation within which such differences can be studied.Hence this article argues in favour of the

  17. From West to East and Back Again: Faith, Doubt and Education in Hermann Hesse's Later Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines Hermann Hesse's penultimate novel, "The Journey to the East", from an educational point of view. Hesse was a man of the West who turned to the idea of "the East" in seeking to understand himself and his society. While highly critical of elements of Western modernism, Hesse nonetheless viewed "the East" through Western lenses…

  18. Podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%. 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15-64 years. On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7% or third (36.1% clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; χ(2 = 11.6 p = 0.001. At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions.

  19. The integration of two health systems: social stratification, work and health in East and West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüschen, G; Niemann, S; Apelt, P

    1997-03-01

    This is an analysis of system integration, social stratification and work for health status and health care in East and West Germany. It is based on aggregate data and representative survey data of random samples of 2554 adults in both subsystems. Findings show that there were marked differences in life-expectancy prior to unification. The integration of the two systems, which occurred almost totally with regard to terms of West German health care organization, shows adjustment problems in the East for the public Health-Care-Funds and few if any for ambulatory care. The work situation has an impact on health, but there are no significant differences for East versus West. Social stratification variables show an influence on subjective health status for education (East) and for income, social status (West), while physician utilization (despite a preference of specialists by those with higher status) is not significantly determined by stratification variables in either East or West Germany. Beyond the central focus on work and stratification determinants a major finding pertains to a comparatively worse health situation for the aged and for women in what was the former East Germany. System models of Capitalism versus Socialism fit the results and recent history of the two systems to only a limited degree, as the West German corporate health system shows clear limits in following free market principles. The East German system, regardless of its centralized organization and move towards a socialist system, never fully abandoned the traditional model of German health care. Unlike the East German health system, that of West Germany, with its general expansion to 92% of the population, shows an increasing effect for social redistribution. The latter may be a reason why standard indicators of social stratification show less of an impact on health and health care than expected, while conditions at work clearly determine the health of people-the latter being the case in both

  20. WEST AND EAST PALISADES ROADLESS AREAS, IDAHO AND WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriel, Steven S.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the West and East Palisades Roadless Areas, which lie within the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt, document structures, reservoir formations, source beds, and thermal maturities comparable to those in producing oil and gas field farther south in the belt. Therefore, the areas are highly favorable for the occurrence of oil and gas. Phosphate beds of appropriate grade within the roadless areas are thinner and less accessible than those being mined from higher thrust sheets to the southwest; however, they contain 98 million tons of inferred phosphate rock resources in areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential. Sparsely distributed thin coal seams occur in the roadless areas. Although moderately pure limestone is present, it is available from other sources closer to markets. Geochemical anomalies from stream-sediment and rock samples for silver, copper, molydenum, and lead occur in the roadless areas but they offer little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. A possible geothermal resource is unproven, despite thermal phenomena at nearby sites.

  1. West Nile virus surveillance in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Mackay, Andrew J; Roy, Alma; Yates, Mathew M; Vaeth, Randy H; Faget, Guy M; Folsom, Alex E; Augustine, William F; Wells, Roderick A; Perich, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected for the first time in Louisiana in the fall of 2001. Surveillance data collected from East Baton Rouge Parish in 2002 were examined to establish baseline data on WNV activity, to support the current design of disease surveillance programs, and to target vector control efforts in the parish. The first indications of WNV activity were from a dead Northern Cardinal collected in February and from a live male cardinal sampled on 14 March. In mosquito pools, WNV was first detected on June 11. The onset of the first human case and the first detection of WNV in sentinel chickens occurred concurrently on June 24. The number of reported human cases and minimum infection rates in mosquitoes peaked in July. WNV prevalence in wild birds increased in late August and was highest in December. WNV-positive wild birds and mosquito pools were detected an average of 31 and 59 days in advance of the onset date of reported human cases, respectively, within 5 km of the residence of a human case. Antibodies to WNV were detected in sera from 7 (Northern Cardinal, House Sparrow, Northern Mockingbird, Blue Jay, Hermit Thrush, Yellow-rumped Warbler, and White-throated Sparrow) of the 42 wild bird species tested. Wild bird serology indicated WNV activity during the winter. Out of 18 mosquito species tested, the only species found positive for WNV was Culex quinquefasciatus, a result suggesting that this species was the primary epizootic/epidemic vector.

  2. X-rays from Cepheus A East and West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, Steven H.; Tsuboi, Yohko

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of X-rays from both components of Cepheus A, East and West, with the XMM-Newton observatory. HH 168 joins the ranks of other energetic Herbig-Haro objects that are sources of T ≥ 10(6) K X-ray emission. The effective temperature of HH 168 is T = 5.8(-2.3)(+3.5) x 10(6) K, and its unabsorbed luminosity is 1: 1; 10(29) ergs s(-1), making it hotter and less luminous than other representatives of its class. We also detect prominent X-ray emission from the complex of compact radio sources believed to be the power sources for Cep A. We call this source HWX, and it is distinguished by its hard X-ray spectrum, T = 1.2(-0.5)(+1.2) 10(8) K, and its complex spatial distribution. It may arise from one or more protostars associated with the radio complex, the outflows, or a combination of the two. We detect 102 X-ray sources, many presumed to be pre-main-sequence stars on the basis of the reddening of their optical and IR counterparts.

  3. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetland Restoration Rank (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Over the past five years, the East-West Gateway Council of Governments has facilitated creation of data layers to enhance conservation and transportation planning in...

  4. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetland Restoration Rank (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Over the past five years, the East-West Gateway Council of Governments has facilitated creation of data layers to enhance conservation and transportation planning in...

  5. Cultural Conflicts and Compatibility between the East and the West in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾

    2007-01-01

    Via a study of The Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan's first effort, this essay discusses the cultural conflicts and compatibility between the East and the West as manifested by the conflicts and compatibility between two generations of Chinese Americans in the novel. The paper argues that different living environments, different cultural heritages of the East and the West as well as different values are the main causes of the mother-daughter conflicts in the novel. The paper concludes that these causes could also be regarded as the root of the cultural conflicts between the East and the West in general. More importantly, after a series of efforts, the two generations are in harmony, which stands for the cultural compatibility between the East and the West.

  6. Social and Economic Benefits of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiangyang

    2002-01-01

    @@ On July 4 2002, a project attracting world attention, i.e., the West-East Gas Pipeline Project was declared in full-scale commencement. The project will write history with its enormous social and economic benefits.

  7. On the differences of the associative meaning of the word EAST and WEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金秀

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the associative meanings of nouns of locality east and west in English and Chinese respectively and discusses the different cultural psychology reflected by their different associative meanings.

  8. Distribution of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Nair, V.R.

    Distribution and abundance of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India is carried out based on zooplankton collections (on board FORV Sagar Sampada) during the period 1985-1990. The 661 samples collected...

  9. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries.The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians.Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference,this alone cannot fully explain the-lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries,nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States.Soy food consumption,more popular in Asian populations,is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer.Prostatespecific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status.Other biomarkers,such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA,may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone.Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West,and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genomewide association studies.Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity.Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions,respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione Stransferase Pi (GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene.However,the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis,aggressiveness,and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown.Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned.In this review,the differences in PSA screening practice,reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer,and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are discussed.

  10. Study on Capability of Power Transmission from West to East in China Southern Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Tong Mingdong; Zhang Lin; Xu Dongjie; Lin Feng; Li Xin; Zuo Zhengmin

    2007-01-01

    @@ The uneven distribution of economic development and energy resources in the Southern Power Grid, yet with stronger complementary superiority has determined the necessity to actively push forward power transmission from west to east in the Southern Power Grid and realize optimal disposition in even greater scope. To further promote transmission capability and operational security from west to east, measures including power sources disposition, unit starting schemes, power grid configuration, DC modulation and application of new transmission technologies are analyzed in this paper.

  11. When West Meets East: Generalizing Theory and Expanding the Conceptual Toolkit of Criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Steven F

    2015-06-01

    This paper considers the ways in which established criminological theories born and nurtured in the West might need to be transformed to be applicable to the context of East Asian societies. The analyses focus on two theoretical perspectives-Situational Action Theory and Institutional Anomie Theory-that are located at opposite ends of the continuum with respect to levels of analysis. I argue that the accumulated evidence from cross-cultural psychology and criminological research in East Asian societies raises serious questions about the feasibility of simply transporting these perspectives from the West to the East. Instead, my analyses suggest that the formulation of theoretical explanations of crime that are truly universal will require criminologists to create and incorporate new concepts that are more faithful to the social realities of non-Western societies, societies such as those in East Asia and Asia more generally.

  12. When West Meets East: Generalizing Theory and Expanding the Conceptual Toolkit of Criminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the ways in which established criminological theories born and nurtured in the West might need to be transformed to be applicable to the context of East Asian societies. The analyses focus on two theoretical perspectives—Situational Action Theory and Institutional Anomie Theory—that are located at opposite ends of the continuum with respect to levels of analysis. I argue that the accumulated evidence from cross-cultural psychology and criminological research in East Asian societies raises serious questions about the feasibility of simply transporting these perspectives from the West to the East. Instead, my analyses suggest that the formulation of theoretical explanations of crime that are truly universal will require criminologists to create and incorporate new concepts that are more faithful to the social realities of non-Western societies, societies such as those in East Asia and Asia more generally. PMID:27087864

  13. Different Family Values of the East and the West in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付梦玲; 张辉

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the different family values of the east and the west in The Joy Luck Club from the view of cross-culture communication. The paper first gives a brief introduction to the structure and content of The Joy Luck Club. Then it analyzes family values from three parts:attitudes towards marriage, relationships among family members and the educa-tion of children. The paper provides several examples to explain the different family values of the east and the west in The Joy Luck Club.

  14. Moral Self-Cultivation East and West: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Moral Self-Cultivation plays an important, even a central role, in the Confucian philosophical tradition, but philosophers in the West, most notably Aristotle and Kant, also hold that moral self-cultivation or self-shaping is possible and morally imperative. This paper argues that these traditions are psychologically unrealistic in what they say…

  15. PRI Play Important Role in West-East Project · Interview with PIR Director Xue Zhenkui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lu

    2002-01-01

    @@ Pipeline Research Institute of CNPC (PRI) is playing a more and more important role in the oil and natural gas pipeline industrial development in the present-day China. The pipeline technology and equipment developed by PRI have proven costeffective and extremely useful in the country's WestEast gas transmission pipeline project

  16. The Delay of Grandparenthood: A Cohort Comparison in East and West Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, T.; Skopek, J.

    2015-01-01

    This research explored the delay of grandparenthood in East and West Germany, investigating how the timing and life-course context of this transition have changed across cohorts. The authors estimated the timing of passages into the grandparent role as well as demographic overlap with worker, parent

  17. Time and space variations of monsoonal upwelling along the west and east coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; RameshKumar, M.R.; RameshBabu, V.

    The study of monthly mean local temperature anomaley (LTA defined as the difference between coastal and mid-ocean sea surface temperature), and Ekman transport along the west and east coasts of India based on 60-year data set of Hastenrath and Lamb...

  18. Social Welfare in East and West – A Tranquilizer for Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    definite conclusions or policy prescriptions. As a matter of fact, in terms of social welfare, equity and labor market policies the pre-crisis model of East Asia might offer lessons for the West and vice versa. Mutual learning and dialogue must be the key for future understanding and cooperation....

  19. Research & Development of Grade X70 LSAW Steel Pipes for West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXiaoxiang; SunQi

    2004-01-01

    In this article the research and development of X70 large diameter longitudinal seam submerged arc welded (LSAW) steel pipes for West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline project (WEGTP) in China are introduced, including the key technique, fabrication of pipe production line, mass production and the latest progress of LSAW steel pipe technique.

  20. The Technical Specification and Physical Performance Level of Line Pipes for West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengBin; WangMaotang; LiuFangming; XiaoLiming

    2004-01-01

    The west-east gas transmission engineering is an important project attracting domestic and foreign attention. The gas pipeline used in this project is a gas pipeline with the longest distance, largest pipe diameter and highest transmission pressure in the history of petroleum pipeline construction of China. For the construction of top-rank gas pipeline in the world with high standard, high speed and high benefit, the key of specifying production of metallurgical and pipe-making enterprises and ensuring quality performance of the steel and steel pipe is to research and formulate a feasible and satisfactory technical Specification for engineering steel and steel pipe with international level. In this paper the author introduces the establishment of the technical specification for West-East gas pipeline project, and lays emphasis on the analysis and discussion of principle and method determining major technical indexes related to line pipes for West-East gas pipeline. The author also introduces actual material selection of gas pipeline home and abroad, and presents examination and application of the technical specification for West-East gas pipeline.

  1. East-West gradient in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, J; Pedersen, Natalia; Čuković-Čavka, S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in Eastern Europe. The reasons for these changes remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an East-West gradient in the incidence of IBD in Europe exists. DESIGN: A prospective, uniformly diagnosed, ...

  2. East-West Epistemological Convergence of Humanism in Language, Identity, and Education: Confucius-Makiguchi-Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming Fang

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author explores an East-West epistemological convergence of humanism illuminated in three main themes in the works of Confucius (551-479 BC), Makiguchi Tsunesaburo (1871-1944), and John Dewey (1859-1952): "human-nature interconnection," "associated self-cultivation," and "value creation." She contends that these thinkers'…

  3. The Studies of the Welding Processes and Procedures on the West-East Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuiYongli; HuangFuxiang; ZhaoHaihong; YinChanghua

    2004-01-01

    The West-East pipeline project attracted the attention from all over the world for its long distance, huge diameter, complex geographic conditions, and diversified welding techniques being applied. In this paper the detail welding process and procedures used in the project are discussed and the distinguished achievements on welding techniques of China pipeline construction are described.

  4. Cultural differences between East and West Germany after 1991 : Communist values versus economic performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, A.A.J.; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Two decades after reunification substantial economic disparities between East and West Germany remain. With formal institutions being equalized, a typical explanation is that the partition of Germany created differences in economic values and attitudes that continue to feed differences in economic

  5. East-West Epistemological Convergence of Humanism in Language, Identity, and Education: Confucius-Makiguchi-Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming Fang

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author explores an East-West epistemological convergence of humanism illuminated in three main themes in the works of Confucius (551-479 BC), Makiguchi Tsunesaburo (1871-1944), and John Dewey (1859-1952): "human-nature interconnection," "associated self-cultivation," and "value creation." She contends that these thinkers'…

  6. Malaria control strategies in the Kassena-Nankana East and West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria control strategies in the Kassena-Nankana East and West Districts of Ghana. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The cost and treatment of insecticide treated nets must also be added to the National Health ...

  7. East-West Cultural Bias and Creativity: We Are Alike and We Are Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, James C.; Lan, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Persson (2012a) correctly raises the question of how cultural biases may impact giftedness research. He alludes to East-West differences in perceptions of creativity and ways that the collectivist-individualistic approaches may lead to differences in creativity perception. In this commentary, the authors discuss different approaches, and attempt…

  8. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  9. Was East German Education a Victim of West German "Colonisation" after Unification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that during German unification reform structures and ideas were not forced on the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Notes that a divided secondary school structure replaced the GDR unified school, but that was by request. Reveals that the East German's well-developed, pre-school education and childcare system was copied by West Germany.…

  10. SAFE AND EFFICIENT OPERATION OF THE WEST-EAST GAS PIPELINE FOR FIVE YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The West-East gas pipeline in China has been operated for five years since the commencement of operation on Oct.1st,2003,Over the past five years the pipeline has maintained its safe,stable and high efficint status and brought favorable economic ,social and environmental effects.

  11. Trends in East-West German Migration from 1989 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show recent trends in regional migration from East to West Germany by combining data from the Statistisches Bundesamt from 1991 to 2002 with data from the Zentrales Einwohnerregister der DDR from 1989 to 1990. We document that annual gross outmigration rates peaked at the time of the Reunification, fell sharply thereafter, but rose steadily from the 1997 until 2001 to reach levels obtained prior to the Reunification. While Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Brandenburg experienced less outmigration before the Reunification compared to Thueringen, Sachsen, and Sachsen-Anhalt, they are the regions that have experienced the highest pace of outmigration since then. With the exception of the increasing popularity of the Berlin region, the distribution of East to West migrants across West Germany is fairly stable over time: migrants continue to favor the large industrial provinces of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Nordrhein-Westfalen, and Niedersachsen.

  12. Manufacturing Technology Research and Appraisal of Large-Diameter SSAW Pipe Applied to the West-East Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DingXiaojun; YangZhongwen; XiaXianhua; LiXiaobo

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the research and development of large-diameter SSAW pipes applied to West-East Pipeline project as well as domestic acicular ferrite pipeline steel of X70 grade. Its microstructure analysis was performed in comparison with the pipeline steel of a foreign steel plant (SPC). This paper introduced the research of welding procedures prior to SSAW pipe making and some new procedures and technologies used for West-East Pipeline Project, and appraised the practical level of Large-diameter SSAW pipe applied to the West-East Pipeline Project.

  13. East Versus West: Differences in Surgical Management in Asia Compared with Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tomio; Iida, Michihisa; Yoshino, Shigefumi; Takeda, Shigeru; Kubota, Hisako; Higashida, Masaharu; Oka, Yasuo; Tsuruta, Atushi; Matsumoto, Hideo; Nagano, Hiroaki

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, there has been considerable worldwide progress in the treatment of gastric cancer. Gastrectomy with a modified D2 lymphadenectomy (sparing the distal pancreas and spleen) has increasingly gained acceptance as a preferable standard surgical approach among surgeons in the East and the West. Despite growing consensus significant differences still exist in surgical techniques in clinical trials and clinical practices secondary to variations in epidemiology, clinicopathologic features, and surgical outcomes among geographic regions. In addition, Western physicians tend to prefer adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy after surgery instead of using S-1 chemotherapy, as is the preference in the East. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cultural junctions West-East: Nikos Kazantzakis and Nagai Kafū

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica FRENŢIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study, titled Cultural junctions West-East: Nikos Kazantzakis and Nagai Kafū, tries to approach two writers who, despite coming from cultural spaces set at great geographical distance, could be compared in terms of both biographical details and the aesthetic program of their works. We therefore read from a hermeneutical perspective Nikos Kazantzakis’ Report to Greco and Nagai Kafū’s last novel, A Strange Tale from East of the River, proposing a new code of reading, close to the labyrinth of the creative act and to the mystery of creation by which the two given texts could be joined.

  15. Where East meets West: in the house of individuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murray

    2017-02-01

    The psychological process of individuation as experienced in Jungian work may lead to states of consciousness that resemble advanced spiritual developments across religious traditions and cultures. This is where Westerners may reach a common ground with the East. In the essentials and with respect to the final goal there is little difference among the many ways to the self, even if the cultural features in the landscape are disparate. In late stage Jungian analysis and individuation and in what Erich Neumann calls 'centroversion', the personal and the impersonal aspects of the personality accumulate around the ego-self axis to form a composite identity. In this complex structure the ego does not vanish but is joined to the impersonal archetypal levels of the psyche and identity thus becomes at once individual and archetypal. This is the third stage of conjunction as described by Jung in Mysterium Coniunctionis and it is identical to the type of consciousness depicted in the final scenes of Zen Buddhism's Ten Ox-Herding Pictures. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  16. On the East-West Longitudinally Asymmetric Distribution of Solar Proton Events

    CERN Document Server

    He, H -Q

    2016-01-01

    A large data set of 78 solar proton events observed near the Earth's orbit during 1996-2011 is investigated. An East-West longitudinal (azimuthal) asymmetry is found to exist in the distribution of flare sources of solar proton events. With the same longitudinal separation between the flare sources and the magnetic field line footpoint of observer, the number of the solar proton events originating from solar sources located on the eastern side of the nominal magnetic footpoint of observer is larger than the number of the solar proton events from solar sources located on the western side. We emphasize the importance of this statistical investigation in two aspects. On the one hand, this statistical finding confirms our previous simulation results obtained by numerically solving five-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation of solar energetic particle (SEP) transport. On the other hand, the East-West longitudinally (azimuthally) asymmetric distribution of solar proton events accumulated over a long time period provid...

  17. Persistence of coral assemblages at East and West Flower Garden Banks, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michelle A.; Embesi, John A.; Eckert, Ryan J.; Nuttall, Marissa F.; Hickerson, Emma L.; Schmahl, George P.

    2016-09-01

    Since 1989 a federally supported long-term coral reef monitoring program has focused on two study sites atop East and West Flower Garden Banks in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. We examined 25 yr of benthic cover data to provide a multi-decadal baseline and trend analysis of the community structure for this coral reef system. Despite global coral reef decline in recent decades, mean coral cover at East and West Flower Garden Banks was above 50% for the combined 25 yr of continuous monitoring, and represented a stable coral community. However, mean macroalgal cover increased significantly between 1998 and 1999, rising from approximately 3 to 20%, and reaching a maximum above 30% in 2012. In contrast to many other shallow water reefs in the Caribbean region, increases in mean macroalgal cover have not been concomitant with coral cover decline at the Flower Garden Banks.

  18. Foreign Cooperation Plays Important Role in West-East Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ West-to-East gas pipeline project is the largest project undertaken by PetroChina since the company issued IPO at international capital markets in 1999.Construction of West-East gas pipeline is of great strategic significance to secure PetroChina's leading position in the domestic natural gas market, turn the company's advantage in resources into benefits and make the natural gas business a new growth point for the company. Meanwhile, the project will benefit the economic development in China's western region,Xinjiang area in particular, improve the energy structure in the natural gas consuming regions and atmospheric environment in the areas along the pipeline and raise the general living standards.

  19. Application of New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DongXu

    2004-01-01

    With the application of new techniques, materials and technologies in West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline (WEGTP) project, the design concept of domestic pipeline industrial construction has been updated, speeding up the development and improvement of the strength as a whole in aspects of smelting industry, pipe fabrication, pipeline construction and equipment manufacture, making China's pipeline industry catch up with the trend of development of the world advanced level.

  20. [Rheumatologic patient management and research in Berlin at the intersection between East and West].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieper, J

    1995-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, there was an immediate need for collaboration between rheumatologists from East- and West-Berlin from the very beginning, which could be taken as an example for the rest of Germany. This was achieved through different activities in patient care and research. The "Regionales Rheumazentrum Berlin" which was started at about that time played a special role in making this enterprise a success.

  1. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  2. Giovanni Arrighi’s Tapestry of East & West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gulick

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What a difference a year makes. While Giovanni Arrighi’s Adam Smith in Beijing is a complicated tapestry, threaded with multiple strands and sub-themes, if it offers any single master thesis, it is this: over the last four or so decades, the fading of US primacy and China’s precipitous ascent are dialectically interconnected, structured processes abetting one another. And, for good measure: China’s ascent just might culminate in the formation of a qualitatively novel, world community of market-linked states orbiting around East Asia, but without a dominant center (pp. 7-9. Were I putting together this review in mid-2008, I would express profound skepticism about both theses. Certainly, such skepticism would issue not from the conviction that US global power is invincible, but rather from an evidence-based belief that Arrighi habitually underestimates the extent to which China’s ongoing rise in the world order will be traumatically disrupted by the inevitable wipeout of highly leveraged paper assets on Wall Street (and the City of London, for that matter. Well, in the wake of the planetary financial crisis and economic slump, the early returns on China’s coping capacity are in. The ways in which China is responding to and weathering the storm vindicate more than a few of the claims and insights Arrighi advances in Adam Smith in Beijing, including some that I would have regarded with raised eyebrows a year ago. The thrust of this review is a critical assessment of Adam Smith in Beijing from the standpoint of how well or poorly its theoretical maneuvers and key arguments allow us to make sense of the current shake-up in the global system, with a focus on the interdigitated destinies of China and the US. In this evaluation I will take a page out of Arrighi’s own playbook and try to bear in mind the crucial distinction between geo-economic and geopolitical ebbs and flows of the moment and longer-term hegemonic ruptures and transformations.

  3. Unexpected East-West effect in mesopause region SABER temperatures over El Leoncito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisin, Esteban R.; Scheer, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    We find that mesopause region temperatures determined by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite during nocturnal overpasses at El Leoncito (31.8°S, 69.3°W) are several kelvins higher when SABER observes from the East than when it observes from the West. We distinguish between altitudes corresponding to the nominal emission heights of the OH and O2 airglow layers. The East-West temperature differences of 4.5 K obtained for OH-equivalent height, and of 3.5 K for O2-equivalent height are surprising, because an effect of the South Atlantic Anomaly on SABER temperature is unexpected. However, the ground-based data obtained with our airglow spectrometer at El Leoncito show that such a SABER artifact can be ruled out. Rather, the phenomenon is explained as a consequence of the temporal sampling of the nocturnal variation, which is mostly due to the semidiurnal tide. The monthly mean tide is strongest from April to September with a mean amplitude of 6.9 K for OH, and of 10.5 K for O2 rotational temperature, but the contribution to the East-West effect varies strongly from month to month because of differences in the temporal sampling. This mechanism should be active at other sites, as well.

  4. Review: Ingrid Miethe, Claudia Kajatin & Jana Pohl (Eds. (2004. Geschlechterkonstruktionen in Ost und West. Biografische Perspektiven [Gender Constructions in East and West. Biographical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Döring

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This reader contains analyses of gender constructions in East and West Germany from biographical perspectives. It is based on narrative interviews with women and men living in the former East and West. By means of case reconstructions and case comparisons the authors reveal how individuals deal actively with specific societal gender roles. Historical differences between women's movement and feminism in East Germany versus West Germany are knowledgeably described. The book offers a very complex and multilayered theoretical and empirical construction of gender in its diverse dimensions, but men's biographies and men's studies remain marginalized. Men's movements as well as the gay rights movement are blind spots. The gendering of work and the context of European unification are emphasized. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602353

  5. PIRACY AROUND AFRICA’S WEST AND EAST COASTS: A COMPARATIVE POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Neethling

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of politics, or political science, focuses on both the abstract theories andpractical operation of government and politics. The phenomenon of piracy on theeast and west coasts of Africa brings an important scholarly issue to the fore, namelythe significant roles of non-state actors in national, regional and global issues andpolitics. The phenomenon of maritime piracy along Africa’s coastal areas is indeedof great strategic and political-economic interest − specifically since globalisationand maritime trade show a close interface. This article examines the similarities anddifferences relating to the phenomenon of piracy on the east and west coasts ofAfrica from a Political Science perspective by assessing, interpreting and appraisingthe phenomenon, and ascribing meaning to recent events and developments. It alsoexplains the current insecurity off the west and east African coasts and closes with abrief comparison between the two regions under review. It concludes with the pointthat most security challenges confronting Africa have their origin in the lack orfailure of governance as states are the primary actors and agents of good order atsea. Thus the required good order at sea should be viewed as a function of howstates, such as Somalia and Nigeria, exercise their jurisdiction at sea to secure busysea lanes and also to protect the safe harvesting and extraction of resources.

  6. The Myth of Central Europe in the East-West Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Zelenka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies different conceptions of Central Europe in the literary and historical discourse of the 20th century, and at the same time, compares how the concept of Central Europe is defined in the works of Havel, Kundera, Konrád and others. Central Europe has always been a cultural and geographical crossroads between the East and the West, with shifting centres and peripheries, overlapping ethnic groups, cultures and religions. For simplicity, two conceptions of Central Europe can be distinguished: minimalist and maximalist. The minimalist conception regards Central Europe as part of the West, because of analogous historical structures and cultural values. It partly overlaps the original Habsburg Empire and is opposed to the Balkans and Russia. The maximalist conception applies an axiological approach, regarding Central Europe as a set of historically established ideas, connected with the traditions of Christian civilisation, i.e. it includes the eastern and southern corners of Europe as well. Central Europe then is geographically identified with the symbolism of the Danube, as both a dividing and unifiying feature. According to Kundera, it is the Jewish people who have made the greatest contribution to the multicultural character of Central Europe, which after 1945 was politically aligned with the East, although historically it had been part of the West.

  7. Preconceptional factors associated with very low birthweight delivery in East and West Berlin: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiher Horst

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birthweight, i.e. a birthweight Methods In 1992, two years after the German unification, we started to recruit two cohorts of very low birthweight infants and controls in East and West Berlin for a long-term neurodevelopmental study. The present analysis was undertaken to compare potential preconceptional risk factors for very low birthweight delivery in a case-control design including 166 mothers (82 East vs. 84 West Berlin with very low birthweight delivery and 341 control mothers (166 East vs. 175 West. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of various dichotomous parental covariates and their interaction with living in East or West Berlin. After backward variable selection, short maternal school education, maternal unemployment, single-room apartment, smoking, previous preterm delivery, and fetal loss emerged as significant main effect variables, together with living in West Berlin as positive effect modificator for single-mother status. Conclusion Very low birthweight has been differentially associated with obstetrical history and indicators of maternal socioeconomic status in East and West Berlin. The ranking of these risk factors is under the influence of the political framework.

  8. Comparison of HIV infection risk behaviors among injection drug users from East and West Coast US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfein, Richard S; Monterroso, Edgar R; Tong, Tony C; Vlahov, David; Des Jarlais, Don C; Selwyn, Peter; Kerndt, Peter R; Word, Carl; Fernando, M Daniel; Ouellet, Lawrence J; Holmberg, Scott D

    2004-06-01

    This study assessed whether behavioral differences explained higher human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among injection drug users (IDUs) in three East Coast versus two West Coast cities in the United States. Sociodemographic, sexual, and injecting information were collected during semiannual face-to-face interviews. Baseline data from New York City; Baltimore, Maryland; and New Haven, Connecticut, were compared with data from Los Angeles, California, and San Jose, California. Among 1,528 East Coast and 1,149 West Coast participants, HIV sero-prevalence was 21.5% and 2.3%, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 11.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9-17.8). HIV risk behaviors were common among IDUs on both coasts, and several were more common among West Coast participants. Adjusting for potential risk factors, East (vs. West) Coast of residence remained highly associated with HIV status (adjusted OR 12.14; 95% CI 7.36-20.00). Differences in HIV sero-prevalence between East and West Coast cities did not reflect self-reported injection or sexual risk behavior differences. This suggests that other factors must be considered, such as the probability of having HIV-infected injection or sexual partners. Prevention efforts are needed on the West Coast to decrease HIV-associated risk behaviors among IDUs, and further efforts are also needed to reduce HIV incidence on the East Coast.

  9. Internal Migration, Regional Labour Market Dynamics and Implications for German East-West Disparities – Results from a Panel VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Mitze, Timo; Untiedt, Gerhard

    :That is, along with a second wave of East-West movements around 2001 net flows out of East Germany were much higher than expected after controlling for its weak labour market and macroeconomic performance. Since this second wave is also accompanied by a gradual fading out of economic distortions......This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through...... impulseresponse functions.We also use the model to track the evolution of the particular East-West migration since re-unification aiming to shed more light on the East German “empirical puzzle”, characterized by lower migration responses than expected from the regional labour market position relative to the West...

  10. Combined effect of the East Atlantic/West Russia and Western Pacific teleconnections on the East Asian winter monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyoeun; Jhun, Jong-Ghap; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the individual effects of the East Atlantic/West Russia (EATL/WRUS) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection patterns and their combined effect on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The contributions of the respective EATL/WRUS and WP teleconnection patterns to the EAWM are revealed by removing the dependence on the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using a linear regression, which are named as N_EATL/WRUS and N_WP, respectively. This is because the EATL/WRUS (WP) is closely linked to the Arctic (tropics) region. A significant increase (decrease) in temperature over East Asia (EA) corresponding to a weak (strong) EAWM is associated with the N_EATL/WRUS and N_WP teleconnection patterns during the positive (negative) phases. In order to examine impacts of these two teleconnections on the EAWM, three types of effects are reconstructed on the basis of ± 0.5 standard deviation: 1) Combined effect, 2) N_EATL/WRUS effect, and 3) N_WP effect. The positive N_EATL/WRUS teleconnection induces to a weakened Siberian High and a shallow EA trough at the mid-troposphere through wave propagation, leading to the weak EAWM. During the positive N_WP pattern, warm air from the tropics flows toward the EA along western flank of an anomalous anticyclone over the North Pacific that is relevant to the meridional shift of the Aleutian Low. When the two mid-latitude teleconnections have the in-phase combination, the increase in temperature over EA appears to be more pronounced than the individual effects by transporting warm air from tropics via strong southeasterly wind anomalies induced by anomalous zonal pressure gradient between the Siberian High and Aleutian Low. Therefore, the impact of the mid-latitude teleconnections on the EAWM becomes robust and linearly superimposed, unlike a nonlinear in-phase combined effect of the AO and ENSO.

  11. On the east-west longitudinally asymmetric distribution of solar proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H.-Q.; Wan, W.

    2017-01-01

    A large data set of 78 solar proton events observed near the Earth's orbit during 1996-2011 is investigated. An east-west longitudinal (azimuthal) asymmetry is found to exist in the distribution of flare sources of solar proton events. With the same longitudinal separation between the flare sources and the magnetic field line footpoint of observer, the number of the solar proton events originating from solar sources located on the eastern side of the nominal magnetic footpoint of observer is larger than the number of the solar proton events from solar sources located on the western side. We emphasize the importance of this statistical investigation in two aspects. On the one hand, this statistical finding confirms our previous simulation results obtained by numerically solving five-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation of solar energetic particle (SEP) transport. On the other hand, the east-west longitudinally (azimuthally) asymmetric distribution of solar proton events accumulated over a long time period provides an observational evidence for the effects of perpendicular diffusion on the SEP propagation in the heliosphere. We further point out that, in the sense of perpendicular diffusion, our numerical simulations and statistical results of SEP events confirm each other. We discuss in detail the important effects of perpendicular diffusion on the formation of the east-west azimuthal (longitudinal) asymmetry of SEP distribution in two physical scenarios, i.e. `multiple SEP events with one spacecraft' and `one SEP event with multiple spacecraft'. A functional relation Imax(r) = kr-1.7 quantifying the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities is obtained and utilized in the analysis of physical mechanism. The relationship between our results and those of Dresing et al. is also discussed.

  12. Study on Environment Characteristics for Mining Management at East Pit 3 West Banko Coal Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Neny Rochyani; Eddy Ibrahim; M. Faizal; Ngudiantoro Ngudiantoro

    2014-01-01

    The management on mining environment is closely related to the environmental characteristics and the condition of mining itself.  In East PIT 3 West Banko Coal Mine Tanjung Enim mine drainage system has been developed which refers to the open pit method employed by the company. The observation and analysis showed that the sludge settling ponds have been constructed as well as adequate catchment area. To discharge water into the channel at 0.3016 m 3 / sec can still be accommodated due to the ...

  13. The shadow, the tyrant and the insane: the east and west dualism in the visual journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Klein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the East and West dualism considering three images: the shadow, the tyrant and the insane, respectively linked to Osama Bin Laden, Saddam Hussein and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. These representations, given their occurrence in the media, appear as stereotypes in the visual journalism, being in total opposition to western values, such as illuminism, democracy and reason. From the perspective of the concept of Orientalism, the text also analyzes semiotic procedures which constitute the process of demonization, according to the contribuitions of Ivan Bystrina, Gilbert Durand and Stuart Clark.

  14. Between East and West: Kazakhstan and China’s new Silk Road

    OpenAIRE

    Ryskeldi Satke; Franco Galdini

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses Kazakhstan’s vision of long-term development and its ambitious goals. After revising the history of the infrastructure projects in the country during the tsarist period and the Soviet era, it sets out the plans of the Kazakh president, Nursultan Nazarbayev, to turn the country into a logistical hub between East and West by 2050. Later, the paper puts Nazarbayev’s vision in the context of the political and economic reality of Kazakhstan, focussing, specifically, on how th...

  15. Reproductive toxicity of seafood contaminants: Prospective comparisons of Swedish east and west coast fishermen's families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rignell-Hydbom Anna

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cohorts comprising fishermen's families on the east coast of Sweden have been found to have a high consumption of contaminated fish as well as high body burdens of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs. Their west coast correspondents are socio-economically similar, but with considerably lower POP exposure since the fish caught on the west coast is far less contaminated. The rationale for this was that the cohorts residing on the east coast of Sweden have been found to have a high consumption of contaminated fish as well as high body burdens of POPs, whereas their west coast correspondents are socio-economically similar, but with considerably lower POP exposure since the fish caught on the west coast is far less contaminated. Among the reproductive outcomes investigated are included both male and female parameters, as well as couple fertility and effects on the fetus. A range of exposure measures, including both questionnaire assessments of fish consumption and biomarkers, have been used. The most consistent findings of the studies are those related to the fetus, where a decreased birth weight was found across all measures of exposure, which is in agreement with studies from other populations. Some markers for male reproduction function, i.e. sperm motility, sperm chromatin integrity, and Y:X chromosome ratio, were associated with POP exposure, whereas others, such as sperm concentration and semen volume, were not. With respect to couple fertility and female reproductive parameters, no support was given for associations with POP exposure. Although some associations may have been affected by beneficial effects of essential nutrients in seafood, the overall findings are meaningful in the context of reproductive toxicity and support the usefulness of the epidemiological design.

  16. What can reunification of East and West Germany tell us about the cause of the allergy epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, U; Schmitz, R; Ring, J; Behrendt, H

    2015-01-01

    The increase of allergies in East Germany--reaching West German prevalence shortly after the reunification--is considered a model for the allergy epidemic in the western world. Whether such a pattern was observed in all comparison studies and for all allergic manifestations is not known because a complete overview is missing. Hints about possible causal factors for the allergy epidemic could be gained by identifying known risk factors, which explain the observed pattern of allergy development in Germany. Again, an overview about these efforts is missing. We identified 14 cross-sectional studies conducted after 1989 and calculated prevalence ratios (West/East) for asthma, hayfever, eczema and allergic sensitization. Additionally, a tabular overview about the explanatory power of risk factors hypothesized in the nineties and covering outdoor exposure, indoor factors, early childhood influences, nutrition as well as awareness is given. At the time of the German reunification, the prevalence ratio West/East was largest for hayfever and sensitization to birch pollen, less pronounced for the other phenotypes and even less than one for atopic eczema. Hayfever and sensitization to birch pollen also showed the steepest increase in East Germany afterwards. Single-room heating with fossil fuels and living as only child in a family were identified as explaining up to 23.5% of the excess trend in East compared to the trend in West. Hayfever as most typical atopic disease showed the difference in allergy pattern between East and West Germany clearest. Risk factors identified for these phenotypes are completely different (single child) or even act in the opposite direction (single-room heating) from classical risk factors for airway diseases. This might be the most important lesson from the West/East German experience. It already stimulated many other studies focussing on protective factors such as microbial stimulation.

  17. Chlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in migrating and resident seabirds from East and West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2011-11-01

    The unhatched eggs of the following seabirds were analyzed to quantify PCBs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-, β-, γ-, δ-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), o,p' and p,p' isomers of DDT, DDD and DDE: resident Adèlie (Pygoscelis adèliae, ADPE) and Emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri, EMPE) penguins, migrating snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea, SNPT) and South Polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki, SPSK) from the Ross Sea (East Antarctica); and migrating Brown skua (Catharacta antartica, BRSK) and resident ADPE from the Brainsfield Strait (West Antarctica). The general aims were to evaluate the contaminant accumulation in eggs of migrating and resident species in the two study areas, and to compare levels in penguins and skuas nesting in East and West Antarctica. PCB congener and HCH and DDT isomer profiles were also assessed. Comparisons were evaluated using seven PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118+149, 138, 153, and 180), p,p'-DDE, ΣDDTs, and ΣHCHs. Higher contaminant concentrations were detected in migrating seabirds (South polar skua and brown skua)>sub-Antarctic species (snow petrel)>Antarctic species (penguins) from both the sampling sites, suggesting contamination events at lower latitudes for those birds migrating northward. HCHs showed the lowest concentrations in all species (from 0.03±0.03 ng/g wet wt in SPSK to 1.81±1.23 ng/g wet wt in ADPE from West Antarctica), and PCBs were the most abundant contaminants (from 4.34±2.15 ng/g wet wt. in EMPE to 53.41±19.61 ng/g wet wt. in brown skua). Among pesticides, it is relevant the detection of p,p'-DDT in Adèlie penguin from West Antarctica and in both species of skua; the detection of this pesticide can confirm its actual use in certain malaria-endemic countries from where it is transferred through the long range transport to the polar regions. Contaminants did not show any significant temporal trend during a ten year time span, from 1994/95 to 2004/05, in organisms collected in East Antarctica and they did not

  18. Former east, former west: Post-socialist nostalgia and feminist genealogies in today’s Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonfiglioli Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper connects current studies of post-socialist nostalgia to the issue of feminist genealogies in the contemporary European context. Studies of post-socialist nostalgia can prove significant not only for the former socialist East - to which they have traditionally been limited - but also for the “former West”, that is post-Cold War Western Europe. In the first part of my paper I draw a connection between feminist genealogies and post-socialist nostalgia in the former East, looking in particular at the phenomenon of Yugonostalgia from a gendered and feminist perspective, and taking my research on the 1978 Belgrade feminist conference Drugarica Zena/Comrade Woman as a point of departure. The narrative about Yugoslavia being closer to Western Europe and to Western European feminist movements in the 1970s, in comparison to today’s marginalization of post-Yugoslav successor states, indicates that changes in gender regimes are deeply connected to shifts in ideological and geopolitical relations, including the shifting boundaries of Europe after 1989. In the second part of this essay I transpose the study of post-socialist nostalgia to the former West. When looking more closely at Western European countries, particularly at those who had significant communist parties such as Italy and France, it is clear that even in the West certain articulations of post-socialist nostalgia for radical pasts have emerged, helping us to unravel women’s and feminist movements’ genealogies that have been made invisible. I take the case of the recent Italian movie Cosmonauta as a symptom of post-socialist nostalgia in the former West.

  19. Internal Migration, Regional Labour Market Dynamics and Implications for German East-West Disparities – Results from a Panel VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Mitze, Timo; Untiedt, Gerhard

    This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through...... impulseresponse functions.We also use the model to track the evolution of the particular East-West migration since re-unification aiming to shed more light on the East German “empirical puzzle”, characterized by lower migration responses than expected from the regional labour market position relative to the West......, this supports the view of “repressed” migration flows for that period....

  20. Mortality of Testicular Cancer in East and West Germany 20 Years after Reunification: A Gap Not Closed Yet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Bray, Freddie; Dieckmann, Klaus-Peter; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Rusner, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    The decline of testicular cancer mortality in East Germany began in the 1980s, about 10 years later than that recorded in West Germany. We aimed at providing up-to-date time trends of testicular cancer mortality rates in Germany. Mortality data from East Germany (1971-2010) and West Germany (1954-2010) were provided by the Federal Bureau of Statistics. We estimated age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates using the World Standard Population. Despite the declining trend in the 2000s, the mortality rates of testicular cancer remained higher in East than in West Germany. These rates were 5.5 and 2.6 per million person-years in 2010, respectively. Age-specific mortality trends by period and birth cohort showed that the mortality decline was larger among younger (15-44 years) than elderly men. The mortality of testicular cancer is still higher in East than West Germany. Despite very similar densities of hospital beds, urologists and oncologist per million male population in both parts of Germany, we hypothesized that a paucity of centers of expertise for treating testicular cancers in the East could account for this particular pattern. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Hydrochemical framework of the aquifer in and around East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.

    2008-08-01

    The area lies between Hugli river in the northwest and Bidyadhari river in the east and includes the East Kolkata Wetlands. The East Kolkata Wetlands is included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance (“Ramsar List”), as per the Convention on Wetlands signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971. This wetland has been declared as a Ramsar site on the 19th August 2002 (Ramsar site no. 1208) and therefore has acquired an international status. The area is a part of the lower deltaic plain of the Bhagirathi Ganga river system and is generally flat in nature. The sub-surface geology of the area is completely blanketed by the Quaternary fluviatile sediments comprising a succession of clay, silty clay, sand and sand mixed with occasional gravel. The Quaternary aquifer is sandwiched between two clay sequences. The confined aquifer is made up of moderately well sorted sand and reflects fluviatile environment of deposition. The regional groundwater flow direction is from east to west. Detailed geochemical investigations of 40 groundwater samples along with statistical analysis (for example, correlation and principal component analysis) on these chemical data reveal: (i) four types of groundwater quality, for example, good, poor, very poor and water unsuitable for drinking purpose, (ii) four hydrochemical facies which may be assigned to three broad types such as “fresh”, “blended”, and “brackish” waters, (iii) the evolution of the “blended” water is possibly due to hydraulic mixing of “fresh” and “brackish” waters within the aquifer matrix and/or in well mixing, and (iv) absence of Na Cl facies indicates continuous flushing of the aquifer.

  2. Between East and West: polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Dora

    2014-01-01

    In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.

  3. Between East and West: Kazakhstan and China’s new Silk Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryskeldi Satke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Kazakhstan’s vision of long-term development and its ambitious goals. After revising the history of the infrastructure projects in the country during the tsarist period and the Soviet era, it sets out the plans of the Kazakh president, Nursultan Nazarbayev, to turn the country into a logistical hub between East and West by 2050. Later, the paper puts Nazarbayev’s vision in the context of the political and economic reality of Kazakhstan, focussing, specifically, on how the government’s multivector foreign policy fluctuates between Russia’s regional integration projects and the Chinese push westwards to develop Xinjiang province along the new Silk Road. As a conclusion, it identifies the multiple goals that may put the future of this plan in doubt.

  4. Temperature regime of upper layer of the glacier East Grönfjordbreen (West Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Chernov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of thermometry performed in boreholes of the glacier East Grönfjordbreen situated in West Svalbard are presented. The measurements were made within the ice upper layer down to 20 m in spring and summer of 2012–2014. Basing on the temperature distribution in the boreholes the following heat balance elements of the active ice layer were calculated: winter storage of cold, heat losses for thawing and warming of snow and ice. It was found that the main influence on storage of cold in the upper ice layer is exerted by thickness of the snow cover and the summer ablation. Comparison between winter and summer storages of the cold allows drawing the conclusion that the most intensive cooling takes place in central part of the glacier where the snow accumulation is small and the ablation is moderate.

  5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis-What is the difference between east and west?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Shorbagi; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2008-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, progressive, cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrotic obliteration of the hepatic biliary tree. It is commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A number of complications can occur which require special consideration, the most important of which is the development of cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC). Unfortunately, no medical therapy is currently available for the underlying liver disease. Liver transplantation is an effective, life-extending option for patients with advanced PSC. Geographical variations between East and West include a second peak for age with a lower association with IBD in a Japanese population and female predominance in a lone study from Turkey. The clinical and biochemical Mayo criteria may not be universally applicable, as different patients show variations regarding the initial presentation and natural course of the disease. Directing research towards explaining these geographical differences and understanding the pathogenesis of PSC is required in order to develop better therapies for this devastating disease.

  6. PROSPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN THE EAST-WEST DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł DROŹDZIEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the assets of building broad-gauge lines in Europe. The delivery time for international transport of goods affects international business in terms of the capital put into goods and subsequently affects its turnover rate. The current disproportion of different line gauges in Europe causes significant problems in the transport of goods especially in commodity streams in the East - West direction. Based on previous research of commodity streams in international trade and a comprehensive analysis of all performed studies for building broad gauge lines, the assets of building these lines included the development of employment, increasing the transport capacity and the building of transshipment stations in Slovakia. The current geopolitical developments have also a significant impact on international transport and important transport links, therefore diversifying these risks is a logical consideration to ensure the smooth delivery of goods and thus the development of international trade.

  7. Patients’ perceptions of podoconiosis causes, prevention and consequences in East and West Gojam, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molla Yordanos B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a form of non-filarial elephantiasis that affects barefoot individuals in highland tropical areas. The disease presents with bilateral, asymmetric swelling of the legs, usually confined to below the knee. This study aimed to assess podoconiosis patients’ perceptions of prevention, control, causes and familial clustering of the disease, and to document physical, social and economic impairments associated with the disease, with the ultimate aim of enabling development of tailored interventions in this region. Methods This descriptive study is part of the largest cross-sectional community-based household survey yet conducted on podoconiosis. It was completed in November and December, 2011, in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha Woredas of East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia, and consisted of a house-to-house census by community health workers followed by interviews of identified patients using a structured questionnaire. Results In the 17,553 households surveyed, 1,319 patients were identified. More male as compared to female patients were married (84.6% vs. 53.6%, χ2 = 157.1, p 2 = 102.3, p  Conclusion This study shows that podoconiosis has strong psychosocial, physical and economic impacts on patients in East and West Gojam Zones of northern Ethiopia. Concerns related to familial clustering, poor understanding of the causes and prevention of podoconiosis all add to the physical burden imposed by the disease. Strategies that may ease the impact of podoconiosis include delivery of tailored health education on the causes and prevention of disease, involving patients in intervention activities, and development of alternative income-generating activities for treated patients.

  8. Who Is Overeducated and Why? Probit and Dynamic Mixed Multinomial Logit Analyses of Vertical Mismatch in East and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Christina; Leppin, Julian Sebastian; Schömann, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Overeducation potentially signals a productivity loss. With Socio-Economic Panel data from 1984 to 2011 we identify drivers of educational mismatch for East and West medium and highly educated Germans. Addressing measurement error, state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity, we run dynamic mixed multinomial logit models for three different…

  9. Exploring an East~West Epistemological Convergence of Embodied Democracy in Education through Cultural Humanism in Confucius~Makiguchi~Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming Fang

    2016-01-01

    This article explores an East~West epistemological convergence of embodied democracy in education through cultural humanism illuminated in five main themes in the works of John Dewey (1859-1952), Confucius (551-479 B.C.), and Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944): "human-nature interconnection," "self-cultivation," "value…

  10. Exploring an East~West Epistemological Convergence of Embodied Democracy in Education through Cultural Humanism in Confucius~Makiguchi~Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming Fang

    2016-01-01

    This article explores an East~West epistemological convergence of embodied democracy in education through cultural humanism illuminated in five main themes in the works of John Dewey (1859-1952), Confucius (551-479 B.C.), and Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944): "human-nature interconnection," "self-cultivation," "value…

  11. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Early and Late Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study-the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU-encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources.

  12. Distinct crustal isostasy trends east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front

    KAUST Repository

    Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-12-14

    © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Seismic structure beneath the contiguous U.S. was imaged with multimode receiver function stacking and inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion and ellipticity measurements. Crust thickness and elevation are weakly correlated across the contiguous U.S., but the correlation is ∼3-4 times greater for separate areas east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front (RMF). Greater lower crustal shear velocities east of the RMF, particularly in low-elevation areas with thick crust, are consistent with deep crustal density as the primary cause of the contrasting crust thickness versus elevation trends. Separate eastern and western trends are best fit by Airy isostasy models that assume lower crust to uppermost mantle density increases of 0.18 g/cm3 and 0.40 g/cm3, respectively. The former value is near the minimum that is plausible for felsic lower crust. Location of the transition at the RMF suggests that Laramide to post-Laramide processes reduced western U.S. lower crustal density.

  13. Characterising and quantifying vegetative drought in East Africa using fuzzy modelling and NDVI data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulinda, C.; Rulinda, Coco M.; Dilo, Arta; Bijker, W.; Bijker, Wietske; Stein, A.

    This study aims at improving the characterisation and quantification of vegetative drought as a vague spatial phenomenon. 10-day NOAA-AVHRR NDVI images of East Africa from September 2005 to April 2006 are used. Vegetative drought is characterised using a membership function to model the gradual

  14. Characterising and quantifying vegetative drought in East Africa using fuzzy modelling and NDVI data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulinda, Coco M.; Dilo, Arta; Bijker, Wietske; Stein, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at improving the characterisation and quantification of vegetative drought as a vague spatial phenomenon. 10-day NOAA-AVHRR NDVI images of East Africa from September 2005 to April 2006 are used. Vegetative drought is characterised using a membership function to model the gradual tran

  15. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Quanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Results Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K, whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

  16. The Clinical Evaluation of East-West Medical Management for Central Poststroke Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Byung-Shik

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Central poststroke pain(CPSP can occur as a result of lesion or dysfunction of the brain from stroke and may cause many difficulty in the social activities and daily life. In this study, we evaluate the clinical effectiveness of east-west medical management for CPSP through VAS(visual analogue scale, infrared themography, MBI(Moderfied Barthel Index and Rankin scale. Methods : We treated thirty patients with oriental medical treatment method and western & oriental medical treatment method. Each group has fifteen patients of the CPSP. We evaluated their pain(characterizes tingling and burning sensation, aching, hyperalgesia, and allodynia through VAS(visual analog scale pain score, the skin temperature of pain site by infrared thermography and assessed their mobility & rehabilitation ability through MBI(Moderfied Barthel Index, Rankin scale before and after pain treatment. Results : The skin temperature of pain site was lower than non-pain site. The difference of skin temperature improved from 0.65±0.45℃ to 0.39±0.25℃ after oriental medical treatment and 0.68±0.54℃ to 0.27±0.24℃ after western & oriental medical treatment VAS scores improved from 7.9±1.4℃ to 4.7±1.6℃ after oriental medical treatment and 8.1±1.3℃ to 4.6±1.2℃ after western & oriental medical treatment. MBI scores improved from 61.40±13.58℃ to 85.00±13.85℃ after oriental medical treatment and to after western & oriental medical treatment. And Rankin scale scores improved from 3.33±0.72℃ to 2.46±0.74℃ after oriental medical treatment and 3.06±0.82℃ to 2.66±0.81℃ after western & oriental medical treatment Conclusion : The difference of skin temperature and Rankin scale scores more significantly improved after western & oriental medical treatment than oriental medical treatment. According to the results, we thought east-west medical management is very useful treatment for CPSP and rehabilitation of the patients with stroke.

  17. Fuzzy Boundary and Fuzzy Semiboundary

    OpenAIRE

    Athar, M.; Ahmad, B.

    2008-01-01

    We present several properties of fuzzy boundary and fuzzy semiboundary which have been supported by examples. Properties of fuzzy semi-interior, fuzzy semiclosure, fuzzy boundary, and fuzzy semiboundary have been obtained in product-related spaces. We give necessary conditions for fuzzy continuous (resp., fuzzy semicontinuous, fuzzy irresolute) functions. Moreover, fuzzy continuous (resp., fuzzy semicontinuous, fuzzy irresolute) functions have been characterized via fuzzy-derived (resp., fuzz...

  18. A review of ethylphenidate in deaths in east and west Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Claire; McKeown, Denise; Torrance, Hazel J

    2015-12-01

    known to the authors, this is the first review of post-mortem cases involving the use of ethylphenidate in East and West Scotland. This study can be used as a guide for toxicologists and pathologists when interpreting cases which are positive for ethylphenidate.

  19. HIV/AIDS mortality in a south east European country versus a west European country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dragovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretroviral (ARV treatment available in low-middle income countries differs as suggested in international HIV-treatment guidelines. Thus, we compared ARV regimens introduced as a first-line therapy, time of initiation, frequency of making combination antiretroviral therapy (cART switches, frequency of viral and immunological monitoring and treatment outcome in south east European (SEE country (i.e. HIV Centre in Belgrade, Serbia, (HCB and west European country (i.e. Royal Free Centre for HIV Medicine at the Royal Free Hospital London, UK (RFH. Materials and Methods: ARV naïve patients starting cART from 2003 to 2012 were included. Comparisons of the two cohorts were made using a chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and a Mann-Witney U test for continuous variables. Kaplan Meier survival curves were compared using the log rank test. Results: Of 597 patients from HCB, 361 (61% initiated cART with prior AIDS diagnosed, while 337 (19% of 1763 patients from RFH. Average baseline CD4+ T cell counts were significantly lower in Serbia than in UK (177 cells/mm3 vs 238 cells/mm3. The total (mediana, IQR CD4+ T cell count measurements in the first year of cART was 2 (1, 2 at the HCB, while it was statistically significant higher at the RFH 5 (3, 7, respectively (p<0.0001. At the RFH, it appeared that the cART switching is due to patient's preference or toxicity (46%, while the lack of supply and toxicity (37% were the most important reasons for treatment change in HCB, within the same period of time (p<0.05. Mortality rates were higher at the HCB versus RFH (p<0.0001. After 12, 24 and 36 months of cART, 3%, 5% and 8% of patients died in HCB, whereas 2%, 3% and 4% of patients died in RFH, respectively (Figure 1. Conclusions: In south European countries, as a consequence of low testing rate, ARV treatment is introduced at an advanced stage of disease, having a high mortality rate as a consequence. Switching

  20. [Do daily newspapers of former West and East Germany cover crime in a different way?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Karlhans

    2007-01-01

    The question investigated in the presented paper is whether crime is discussed differently in the media of former East and West Germany, how it is weighted and whether the real crime situation provides an explanation for any differences in press coverage. The study showed that there are no significant differences in the press coverage and that violent crime is not overrepresented. Coverage of offences like robbery, damage to property, sexual assaults or bodily injury, which are also categorized as violent crime, was of average frequency, so that again there was no overrepresentation in the newspapers of the two cities compared in this study (Stuttgart and Dresden). Surprisingly, sexual offences such as rape or sexual abuse played a minor role in the daily newspapers. Further interesting results of the analysis were that offences in the field of "intelligent crime" (e. g. white-collar crime) were of no importance in the print media, whereas the number of reports on crimes for which the general public assumes a higher probability to become a victim itself (e. g. burglary and robbery) was disproportionately high in relation to the recorded number of cases. Reports on drug offences played a more important role in the newspapers analyzed by us than violent crime.

  1. Geology and Stratigraphy of the East and West Firing Areas Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehman, K D

    2006-05-10

    The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of the stratigraphy and geologic structure of the East and West Firing Areas, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (Figure 1). This analysis is designed to help better delineate hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) in order to enhance the understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. Specific objectives of the investigation include: (1) Evaluation of the stratigraphic relationships between the units that contain tritium in ground water that originates from Pit 7 and the Building 850 area in the vicinity of Doall Ravine; (2) The correlation of these units across the Elk Ravine Fault Zone; and (3) The correlation of these units between the Building 865, Pit 1, Pit 2, and Building 812 areas. These issues were raised by regulators at the Regional Water Quality Control Board in the review of the Pit 7 RI/FS (Taffet and others, 2005). The results of this investigation will assist Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrogeologists to conduct work in a more focused and cost-effective manner. This document is submitted to fulfill contract obligations for subcontract B539658.

  2. Link between environmental air pollution and allergic asthma: East meets West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Zhiming; Chung, Kian Fan; Huang, Shau-Ku

    2015-01-01

    With the levels of outdoor air pollution from industrial and motor vehicle emissions rising rapidly in the fastly-industrializing countries of South East Asia, the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has also been increasing to match those in the West. Epidemiological and experimental exposure studies indicate a harmful impact of outdoor air pollution from vehicles and factories both on the development of allergic diseases and asthma and the increase in asthma symptoms and exacerbations. The level of outdoor pollution in Asia is much higher and more diverse than those encountered in Western countries. This may increase the impact of outdoor pollution on health, particularly lung health in Asia. This review discusses the constituents of air pollution in Asia with a special focus on studies in mainland China and Taiwan where the levels of pollution have reached high levels and where such high levels particularly in winter can cause a thick haze that reduces visibility. The onus remains on regulatory and public health authorities to curb the sources of pollution so that the health effects on the population particularly those with lung and cardiovascular diseases and with increased susceptibility can be mitigated.

  3. From consensus to conflict: the domestic political economy of East-West energy trade policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentleson, B.W.

    Changes in the domestic politics of East-West energy trade policy indicate a more general transformation of the domestic politics of American foreign policy. In the postwar period the basic, consensual pattern of congressional bipartisanship, executive-branch unity, interest-group collaboration, and a supportive public has been replaced by the conflictual pattern of an assertive Congress, a fragmented executive branch, antagonistic interest groups, and a divided public. These contrasting patterns are manifestations of structural changes in the domestic political economy. Along both political and economic dimensions, and differentiated according to whether the locus of pressure was group-specific or more general, what had been basic foundations of consensus became by the early 1970s fissures of conflict. Of particular significance were the weakening of the macropolitical foundations (the basic accord on foreign-policy objectives and strategies) in the wake of both Vietnam and detente and the increased marginal value of the economic costs, both diffuse (macroeconomic) and particularistic (microeconomic), to be paid for economic coercion. In this transformed context, the state's support-building instruments of ideology and economic compensation were insufficient to build consensus. As a result, in this issue area and perhaps more generally, high levels of domestic constraints on the conduct of American foreign policy have become the rule rather than the exception. 98 references, 3 figures.

  4. Study on Environment Characteristics for Mining Management at East Pit 3 West Banko Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neny Rochyani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The management on mining environment is closely related to the environmental characteristics and the condition of mining itself.  In East PIT 3 West Banko Coal Mine Tanjung Enim mine drainage system has been developed which refers to the open pit method employed by the company. The observation and analysis showed that the sludge settling ponds have been constructed as well as adequate catchment area. To discharge water into the channel at 0.3016 m 3 / sec can still be accommodated due to the dimensions of the channel that can accommodate an intake capacity of 1,639 m 3 / sec. While the use of lime made in the settling ponds  with the ratio of 0.7 g: 1 liter of water indicates the water quality test results that meet the environmental quality standards that the pH is 6.7 with a TSS of 12mg / l Fe content was 2.1580 mg / l and Mn content of 1.3 mg / l.

  5. Structure and regeneration status of Komto Afromontane moist forest,East Wollega Zone, west Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fekadu Gurmessa; Teshome Soromessa; Ensermu Kelbessa

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study in Komto Forest in East Wollega Zone,Oromia National Regional State,West Ethiopia for determining vegetation structure and regeneration status in this forest.We systematically sampled 53 quadrats (20 m × 20 m) along line transects radiating from the peak of Komto Mountain in eight directions.Vegetation parameters such as DBH,height,seedling and sapling density of woody species,and location and altitude of each quadrat were recorded.In total,103 woody plant species of 87 genera and 45 families were identified.Analysis of selected tree species revealed different population structures.Generally,the forest was dominated by small trees and shrubs characteristic of secondary regeneration.Observations on the regeneration of the forest indicated that there are woody species that require urgent conservation measures.Based on the results of this study,we recommend detailed ecological studies of various environmental factors such as soil type and properties,and ethnobotanical studies to explore indigenous knowledge on uses of plants.

  6. East and West on the Finnish Screen. Early Transnational Television in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Pajala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on Finnish television history has so far emphasized Western influences. However, the Finnish television environment was also in many ways shaped by contacts with socialist television cultures. This article analyses the first volume (1960 of the television magazine Katso to trace the various transnational relations which shaped the early Finnish television environment and to discuss the cultural meanings of socialist television in this environment. Nearly every issue of Katso in 1960 discusses television in a transnational context. Transnational themes fall into four categories: (1 learning about television in other countries; (2 the Eurovision and Nordvision networks; (3 watching television across national borders (Swedish and Tallinn television but also television across surprising distances; and (4 visions of world television. Katso’s understanding of television emphasises the literal meaning of television, to see far. The magazine sets no clear limits to what television could do in terms of overcoming physical distance and ideological borders. The magazine avoids overt politics in discussing television from both the West and the East and represents Tallinn television as a potential source of popular television for Finnish audiences.

  7. West-east contrast of phenology and climate in northern Asia revealed using a remotely sensed vegetation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Rikie; Nomaki, Tomoyuki; Yasunari, Tetsuzo

    2003-05-01

    The phenology of the vegetation covering north Asia (mainly Siberia) and its spatial characterstics were investigated using remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. The analysis used the weekly averaged NDVI over 5 years (1987-1991) using the second-generation weekly global vegetation index dataset (0.144 degrees x 0.144 degrees spatial resolution). In the seasonal NDVI cycle, three phenological events were defined for each pixel: green-up week (NDVI exceeds 0.2), maximum week, and senescence week (NDVI drops below 0.2). Generally there was a west-early/east-late gradient in the three events in north Asia. In the zonal transect between 45 degrees and 50 degrees N, the timing of green-up, maximum, and senescence near 60 degrees E (Kazakh) was about 3.4, 8.7, and 13.4 weeks earlier than near 110 degrees E (Mongolia) respectively. It has been suggested that vegetation near Kazakh only flourishes during a short period when water from snow melt is available from late spring to early summer. In Mongolia, abundant water is available for the vegetation, even in midsummer, because of precipitation. In the 50-60 degrees N zonal transect, the green-up and maximum near 40 degrees E were about 3.8 and 3.9 weeks earlier than near 115 degrees E, respectively. As for the week of senescence, there was no clear west-east trend. This west-to-east phenological gradient was related to the weekly cumulative temperature (over 0 degrees C). Weeks in which the cumalative temperature exceeded 40 degrees C and 140 degrees C had a similar west-east distribution to green-up and maximum NDVI.

  8. When East meets West: a longitudinal examination of the relationship between group relative deprivation and intergroup contact in reunified Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschate, Miriam; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Schmitt, Manfred

    2012-06-01

    Intergroup contact and group relative deprivation have both been shown to play a key role in the understanding of intergroup relations. Nevertheless, we know little about their causal relationship. In order to shed some light on the directionality and causality of the relationship between intergroup contact and group relative deprivation, we analysed responses by East and West Germans from k= 97 different cities, collected 6 (N(T)(1) = 1,001), 8 (N(T)(2) = 747), and 10 years (N(T)(3) = 565) after reunification. Multi-level cross-lagged analyses showed that group relative deprivation at T1 led to more (rather than less) intergroup contact between East and West Germans 2 years as well as 4 years later. We found no evidence for the reverse causal relationship, or moderation by group membership. Furthermore, admiration mediated the positive effect of relative deprivation on intergroup contact for both East and West Germans. This intriguing finding suggests that intergroup contact may be used as a proactive identity management strategy by members of both minority and majority groups. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, August 2003 (NCEI Accession 0127072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  10. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, November 2004 (NCEI Accession 0127073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  11. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, June 2006 (NCEI Accession 0127075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  12. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, June and November 2005 (NCEI Accession 0127074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  13. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2002 (NCEI Accession 0127071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  14. Siim Nestor soovitab : Acid Mothers Temple. Dzhäss ja "tõsidus" NYYD Ensemble ilt. Garage, this is paradise. East-West / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Jaapani megaorkestri AMT esinemisest Linnakultuurifestivali üritusel "Operation B" Von Krahlis 8. nov. Estonia kontserdisaalis toimuvast ansambli NYYD kontserdist 11. nov. Klubis Wimbledon 8. nov. toimuvast peost "Garage, this is paradise". Saku Suurhallis toimuvast peost "East West"

  15. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2007-2008 (NCEI Accession 0070125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks 2007-2008 dataset includes biological and oceanographic measurements collected to satisfy the...

  16. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006, (NODC Accession 0012632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  17. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2002-2006 (NODC Accession 0012632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  18. Siim Nestor soovitab : Acid Mothers Temple. Dzhäss ja "tõsidus" NYYD Ensemble ilt. Garage, this is paradise. East-West / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Jaapani megaorkestri AMT esinemisest Linnakultuurifestivali üritusel "Operation B" Von Krahlis 8. nov. Estonia kontserdisaalis toimuvast ansambli NYYD kontserdist 11. nov. Klubis Wimbledon 8. nov. toimuvast peost "Garage, this is paradise". Saku Suurhallis toimuvast peost "East West"

  19. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  20. Neonatal mortality in East Africa and West Africa: a geographic analysis of district-level demographic and health survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue C. Grady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Under-five child mortality declined 47% since 2000 following the implementation of the United Nation’s (UN Millennium Development Goals. To further reduce under-five child mortality, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs will focus on interventions to address neonatal mortality, a major contributor of under-five mortality. The African region has the highest neonatal mortality rate (28.0 per 1000 live births, followed by that of the Eastern Mediterranean (26.6 and South-East Asia (24.3. This study used the Demographic and Health Survey Birth Recode data (http://dhsprogram.com/data/File-Types-and-Names.cfm to identify high-risk districts and countries for neonatal mortality in two sub-regions of Africa – East Africa and West Africa. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were estimated to capture the spatially varying relationships between neonatal mortality and dimensions of potential need i care around the time of delivery, ii maternal education, and iii women’s empowerment. In East Africa, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with home births, mothers without an education and mothers whose husbands decided on contraceptive practices, controlling for rural residency. In West Africa, neonatal mortality was also significantly associated with home births, mothers with a primary education and mothers who did not want or plan their last child. Importantly, neonatal mortality associated with home deliveries were explained by maternal exposure to unprotected water sources in East Africa and older maternal age and female sex of infants in West Africa. Future SDG-interventions may target these dimensions of need in priority high-risk districts and countries, to further reduce the burden of neonatal mortality in Africa.

  1. Environmental risk factors for respiratory and skin atopy: results from epidemiological studies in former East and West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, J; Krämer, U; Schäfer, T; Abeck, D; Vieluf, D; Behrendt, H

    1999-01-01

    The fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 offered the unique opportunity to compare populations of a similar genetic and geographic background which had been living under quite different environmental exposure conditions for over 40 years. Since 1990 comparative epidemiological studies were performed between various regions in former East and West Germany with yearly questionnaires and 3 years' physical, dermatological, allergological and exposure examination in a total of about 30,000 preschool children. There were striking differences between the various German regions with higher prevalence rates of respiratory atopy (hay fever, asthma) and atopic sensitization (prick test, RAST) in West Germany, while atopic eczema was significantly higher in East Germany (17.5 vs. 11.4% in West Germany). Total serum IgE levels were markedly higher in children in the east of Germany, similarly to the prevalence of parasitic infestation (questionnaire data as well as positive ascaris RAST). In multivariate logistic regression analysis the following factors were significantly associated with atopic eczema: animal contact (odds ratio, OR 2.9), animal furs in the bedroom (OR 2.2), use of gas without ventilation (OR 1.7) and living near road with heavy traffic (OR 1.7). Furthermore, socioeconomic factors measured as parental educational status (university vs. elementary school) were significantly associated (OR 2.3) with atopy. Respiratory tract infections and irritant responses decreased together with decreasing SO2 and suspended particulate air pollution in East Germany from 1991 to 1997. It is concluded that environmental factors from the physical, chemical, biological, and psychological environment (characteristic of a 'modern' or 'western' society) do influence the development of atopic sensitization and disease.

  2. Phylogeography of the Afromontane Prunus africana reveals a former migration corridor between East and West African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadu, C A C; Schueler, S; Konrad, H; Muluvi, G M M; Eyog-Matig, O; Muchugi, A; Williams, V L; Ramamonjisoa, L; Kapinga, C; Foahom, B; Katsvanga, C; Hafashimana, D; Obama, C; Geburek, T

    2011-01-01

    Scattered populations of the same tree species in montane forests through Africa have led to speculations on the origins of distributions. Here, we inferred the colonization history of the Afromontane tree Prunus africana using seven chloroplast DNA loci to study 582 individuals from 32 populations sampled in a range-wide survey from across Africa, revealing 22 haplotypes. The predominant haplotype, HT1a, occurred in 13 populations of eastern and southern Africa, while a second common haplotype, HT1m, occurred in populations of western Uganda and western Africa. The high differentiation observed between populations in East Africa was unexpected, with stands in western Uganda belonging with the western African lineage. High genetic differentiation among populations revealed using ordered alleles (N(ST) = 0.840) compared with unordered alleles (G(ST) = 0.735), indicated a clear phylogeographic pattern. Bayesian coalescence modelling suggested that 'east' and 'west' African types likely split early during southward migration of the species, while further more recent splitting events occurred among populations in the East of the continent. The high genetic similarity found between western Uganda and west African populations indicates that a former Afromontane migration corridor may have existed through Equatorial Africa.

  3. Home-Bias-in-Consumption Based on Different Brand Preferences in the East and the West of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bahles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In international macroeconomics, there is a specific concept explaining deviations in international trade relations showing that countries have a bias and a strong preference for the consumption of their home-country goods. This article presents an application of the concept on brand preferences in West and East Germany, where a home-bias-inconsumption has been observed for the East of Germany. It is the first application of the concept on the territory of brand preference that explains the strong rootedness of the Eastern German consumers to their regionally known and familiar brands. The goal of the article is to elaborate more deeply the differences in attitudes towards brands between Eastern and Western German consumers. The main research method is secondary analysis of the data collected in two large research studies: (1 “West-East brand study”, and (2 “Consumer Analysis”. The results of the presented study have interesting managerial implications in brand management, showing that brands should utilize their local rootedness.

  4. A Crossroad Between West, East and Orient – The Case of Albanian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sawicka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Crossroad Between West, East and Orient – The Case of Albanian Culture Albania is a unique example of authentic mentally-coded multiculturalism. The influence of a certain type of culture on believes shared by all Albanians is connected with either a specific period in history or specific territory. Modern Albania inherits various influences. As a unique European society Albanians do not define their identity through affiliation to a specific cultural (religious circle. Nowadays Albanian national identity is devoid of religious context. It is based on the idea of Illyrian origin, great figures of Albanian history, mythology, language separateness. Religious components make up a surface of purely ethnographic character. Albanians attach greater importance to traditional values connected with the medieval clan law (besa ‘a word, a promise of keeping the word, commitment’, honor, the cult of a visitor, clan vengeance, the institution of a sworn virgin and so on.   Kultura albańska – zderzenie Zachodu, Wschodu i Orientu Albania jest unikalnym przykładem prawdziwej, zakodowanej mentalnie multikulturowości. Wpływ określonego typu kultury na poglądy wspólne wszystkim Albańczykom związany jest bądź z określonym okresem historycznym, bądź z określonym terytorium. Dzisiejsza Albania dziedziczy różne wpływy i, jako unikalne w Europie społeczeństwo, Albańczycy nie określają swojej tożsamości poprzez przynależność do określonego kręgu kulturowego (religijnego. Współcześnie tożsamość narodowa Albańczyków zbudowana jest więc bez kontekstu religijnego. Opiera się na koncepcji pochodzenia od Ilirów, wielkich postaciach historii albańskiej, mitologii, odrębności językowej. Elementy religijne stanowią warstwę powierzchowną, czysto etnograficzną. Większą wagę przywiązują Albańczycy do wartości tradycyjnych, związanych ze średniowiecznym prawem rodowym (besa ‘słowo, obietnica, zobowi

  5. Phylogeographic reconstruction of African yellow fever virus isolates indicates recent simultaneous dispersal into east and west Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Beck

    Full Text Available Yellow fever virus (YFV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is a major public health problem in tropical areas of Africa and South America. There have been detailed studies on YFV ecology in West Africa and South America, but current understanding of YFV circulation on the African continent is incomplete. This inadequacy is especially notable for East and Central Africa, for which the unpredictability of human outbreaks is compounded by limitations in both historical and present surveillance efforts. Sparse availability of nucleotide sequence data makes it difficult to investigate the dispersal of YFV in these regions of the continent. To remedy this, we constructed Bayesian phylogenetic and geographic analyses utilizing 49 partial genomic sequences to infer the structure of YFV divergence across the known range of the virus on the African continent. Relaxed clock analysis demonstrated evidence for simultaneous divergence of YFV into east and west lineages, a finding that differs from previous hypotheses of YFV dispersal from reservoirs located on edges of the endemic range. Using discrete and continuous geographic diffusion models, we provide detailed structure of YFV lineage diversity. Significant transition links between extant East and West African lineages are presented, implying connection between areas of known sylvatic cycling. The results of demographic modeling reinforce the existence of a stably maintained population of YFV with spillover events into human populations occurring periodically. Geographically distinct foci of circulation are reconstructed, which have significant implications for studies of YFV ecology and emergence of human disease. We propose further incorporation of Bayesian phylogeography into formal GIS analyses to augment studies of arboviral disease.

  6. Short communication: East-West European farm investment behaviour - The role of financial constraints and public support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Fertő

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated farm investment behaviour among East (Hungarian and Slovenian and West (French European Union farms using individual farm accountancy panel data for the 2003-2008 period. Despite differences in farm structures, except for the presence of capital market imperfections evidenced in the East, farms’ investment behaviour was not substantially different. Farm gross investment was positively associated with real sales’ growth. In addition, it was positively associated with public investment subsidies which can mitigate capital market imperfections in the short-term. On the long run, the farm’s ability to successfully compete in the output market by selling produce and securing a sufficient cash flow for investment is crucial.

  7. Positive and negative flashbulb memories of the fall of the Berlin Wall among East- and West Germans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2006-01-01

    Flashbulb memories for the fall of the Berlin Wall were examined among 103 East and West Germans who considered the event as either highly positive or highly negative. Participants in the positive group rated their memories higher on measures of reliving and sensory imagery, whereas memory for fa......, rehearsal and the centrality of the memory to the person's identity and life story correlated positively with memory qualities. The results suggest that positive versus negative emotions have different effects on the processing and long-term retention of flashbulb memories....

  8. Changing theory, changing role of Coriolis effect - The East-West asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff seismic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    It is a long history the tale of the recognized asymmetries of the Earth. In 1600 William Gilbert (1544-1603) published De Magnete in which the North and South geomagnetic pole are described. In 1620 Francis Bacon (1561-1628) in the XXVIIth aphorism of the Novum Organum (second part) describes the southern tips of the continents, and many other asymmetries were later described. In 1975 Samuel Warren Carey (1911-2002) stated: Neither north and south, nor east and west are tectonically equivalent. A non exhaustive list of asymmetries of the Earth is: The magnetic polarity; The land-hemisphere and the water-hemisphere; Southern tips of the continents; Larger extension of expanding mid-oceanic ridges on the southern hemisphere; South-eastward trend of younger ages in the long Pacific seafloor volcanic chains; A larger width of the seafloor isochrones bands on the Nazca region; A pear-shaped Earth; etc. It is a few decades that the different slopes of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards the east and west has been enclosed in the list. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30 degrees, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper (Luyendyk, 1970; Isacks & Barazangi, 1977; and many others). The cause of this difference has been identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west - the so called westward drift (Bostrom, 1971; Stevenson & Turner, 1977; among others). This solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction (Jordan, 1974; Ranalli, 2000; Caputo & Caputo, 2012). Moreover, a simplistic evaluation of the regime of the convective motion in the mantle and of the order of magnitude of the involved forces (viscous, buoyancy, inertial) hastily judges as negligible the role of the Coriolis effect in producing the observed slope differences of the Wadati-Benioff regions. Instead, it is possible to show that changing

  9. Research and Development of X70 with an Acicular Ferrite Microstructure for West-East Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengLei; GaoShan

    2004-01-01

    It is introduced in this paper that a high strength and high toughness X70 pipeline steel with an ultra-low acicular ferrite microstructure has been researched and developed at Baosteel according to the requirements of the West-East Gas Pipeline(WEGTP) project. The developed steel has higher strength, higher toughness, lower ductile-brittle transition temperature and higher dynamic tear-resistance than the conventional X70 with ferrite and pearlite microstructure. The excellent properties of the steel are benefited from ultralow carbon acicular ferrite consisting of interaction of very fine precipitated particles and high-density dislocation. And the steel has been applied on the WEGTP in China.

  10. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site

  11. Military Exercises and the Dangers of Misunderstandings: the East-West Crisis of the Early 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Heuser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the risks of mutual misunderstanding caused by NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO large-scale military command-and-staff exercises in 1983. The problem of mutual misunderstanding is analyzed in the context of the classic «Security Dilemma» elaborated in 1951 by J. Gertz and adapted to military exercise issues by D. Adamski. In spite of all the available knowledge, analysis, intelligence and other forms of communication between the West and the East, a problem of mutual misunderstanding appeared between two blocs. This was highlighted during the command and staff exercises of the NATO countries «Able Archer 83» when the world was put on the brink of nuclear war. Given that the Western countries have considered exercises as a deterrence of possible attack by the WTO, the Eastern Bloc countries considered such activities directly threatening their military security. According to the author, these were military exercise carried out by both sides, which represented the most important factor of the sharp deterioration in relations between the West and the East in the early 1980s following the period of détente in the 1970s. The article is based on a large empirical data, archives data, personal interviews by the author of the participants of these events.

  12. WindSat satellite comparisons with nearshore buoy wind data near the U.S. west and east coasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; SHI Hanqing; YU Hong; YI Xin

    2016-01-01

    Nearshore wind speeds retrieved by WindSat are validated by a comparison with the moored buoy observations near the U.S. west and east coasts. A 30 min and 25 km collection window is used for the WindSat wind data and buoy measurements from January 2004 to December 2014. Comparisons show that the overall root-mean-square error is better than 1.44 m/s near the U.S. coasts, and the result for the east coast is better than that for the west coast. The retrieval accuracy of the descending portions is slightly better than that of the ascending portions. Most buoy-to-buoy variations are not significantly correlated with the coastal topography, the longitude and the distance from the shore or satellite-buoy separation distance. In addition, comparisons between a polarimetric microwave radiometer and a microwave scatterometer are accomplished with the nearshore buoy observations from 2007 to 2008. The WindSat-derived winds tend to be lower than the buoy observations near the U.S. coasts. In contrast, the QuikSCAT-derived winds tend to be higher than the buoy observations. Overall, the retrieval accuracy of WindSat is slightly better than that of QuikSCAT, and these satellite-derived winds are sufficiently accurate for scientific studies.

  13. East-West differences in perception of brain death. Review of history, current understandings, and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Miller, Geoffrey

    2015-06-01

    The concept of brain death as equivalent to cardiopulmonary death was initially conceived following developments in neuroscience, critical care, and transplant technology. It is now a routine part of medicine in Western countries, including the United States. In contrast, Eastern countries have been reluctant to incorporate brain death into legislation and medical practice. Several countries, most notably China, still lack laws recognizing brain death and national medical standards for making the diagnosis. The perception is that Asians are less likely to approve of brain death or organ transplant from brain dead donors. Cultural and religious traditions have been referenced to explain this apparent difference. In the West, the status of the brain as home to the soul in Enlightenment philosophy, combined with pragmatism and utilitarianism, supports the concept of brain death. In the East, the integration of body with spirit and nature in Buddhist and folk beliefs, along with the Confucian social structure that builds upon interpersonal relationships, argues against brain death. However, it is unclear whether these reasoning strategies are explicitly used when families and medical providers are faced with acknowledging brain death. Their decisions are more likely to involve a prioritization of values and a rationalization of intuitive responses. Why and whether there might be differences between East and West in the acceptance of the brain death concept requires further empirical testing, which would help inform policy-making and facilitate communication between providers and patients from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.

  14. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NESDIS GOES EAST-WEST Composite Imagery (Time Enabled)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-enabled map service provides maps depicting visible, infrared, and water vapor imagery composited from NOAA/NESDIS GOES-EAST and...

  15. Surface circulation over the shelf off the east coast of India during the south west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sastry, J.S.

    upwelling in the southern regions off the East Coast of India. Vertical temperature and salinity structures north of Visakhapatnam show a predominant estuarine character and upwelling is not evident. In the northern regions, the flow is directed south...

  16. Microcnemum coralloides (Chenopodiaceae- Salicornioideae: an example of intraspecific East-West disjunctions in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadereit, Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Microcnemum is a monotypic genus of Salicornioideae comprising rare, annual, hygrohalophytic herbs growing in hypersaline inland lagoons and salt pans. Microcnemum coralloides shows an East-West disjunction in the Mediterranean region: M. coralloides subsp. coralloides occurs in central and eastern Spain while M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum grows in Turkey, Syria, Armenia and Iran. We studied the phylogeny, biogeography and morphological differentiation of M. coralloides. Molecular analyses, using five western and eight eastern accessions of the species, were based on three different markers (nuclear ITS and plastid atpB-rbcL spacer and trnT/F region analysed with Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood. Estimates of divergence times were calculated using a Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT and the Penalized Likelihood (PL method. The two subspecies can be clearly distinguished by their different seed testa surface. Other diagnostic characters were not found. The molecular data (ITS and ML analysis of the trnT/F region indicate that M. coralloides subsp. coralloides originated from within M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum which implies an East Mediterranean origin and subsequent westward dispersal. Age estimates for the split of the two subspecies range from 2.8–0.5 million years ago. Considering the relatively low genetic differentiation and the low crown group age (0.7–0.1 mya of M. coralloides subsp. coralloides in comparison to M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum we favour the hypothesis that the Iberian part of the species range was established during cold periods of the Early Pleistocene and that the range of the species was fragmented during a warmer period soon after its arrival in Iberia.Microcnemum es un género monotípico de Salicornioideae que consiste en hierbas higrohalófilas, anuales, raras, que crecen en cuencas endorréicas hipersalinas del interior y salares. Microcnemum coralloides muestran una disyunción Este

  17. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  18. Trans-border (south-east Serbia/west Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic sediments: Infra-Getic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Infra-Getic Unit is a palaeogeographic unit, predestined by palaeotectonics. From the point of view of geological heritage, it represents a geosites framework. For the purpose of the correlation, the Serbian sections of Lukanja, Bogorodica Monastery, Rosomač and Senokos, as well as the Bulgarian sections of Komshtitsa, Gintsi, and Stanyantsi were used. The Jurassic sediments of the Infra-Getic Unit crop out on the southern slops of the Stara Planina Mountain in east Serbia and west Bulgaria. The Lower Jurassic started with continental and continental-marine sediments (clays and sandstones (Lukanja clastics and Lukanja coal beds in Serbia and the Tuden Formation in Bulgaria and continue with Lukanja quartz sandstones (Serbia and the Kostina Formation (Bulgaria. These sediments are covered by Lukanja brachiopod beds and Lukanja limestones (Serbia and the Romanov Dol, Ravna and Dolni Loukovit Members of the Ozirovo Formation (Bulgaria predominantly consist of bioclastic limestones. The sedimentations follow with Lukanja belemnites-gryphaea beds (marls and clayey limestones, which in Bulgaria correspond to the Bukorovtsi Member (also marls and clayey limestones of the Ozirovo Formation. The Middle Jurassic sedimentation started with black shales with Bossitra alpine. These sediments are individualized in Serbia as Senokos aleurolites and clays and in Bulgaria they are known as the Etropole Formation. In Serbia the section continues with sandstones called Vodenički sandstones of Bajocian age, known in Bulgaria as the Dobrogled Member of the Polaten Formation. However, in Bulgaria, the age is Upper Bajocian-Lower Bathonian, and it cover the marls of the lower member (Gornobelotintsi Member of the Bov Formation and is covered by the upper member - alternation of marls and clayey limestones - the Verenitsa Member of the Bov Formation. The Vodenički sandstones-Dobrogled Member which ended their distribution in the section of Komshtitsa, to the

  19. Foramgeographical affinities of the west and east coasts of India: An approach through cluster analysis and comparison of taxonomical, environmental and ecological parameters of Recent foraminiferal thanatotopes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Katha, P.K.; Bhalla, S.N.; Nigam, R.

    -Pacific province, and have been widely reported from Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan and other countries. Similarly Spiroloculina communis and Quinqueloculina tropicalis of the east coast occur rarely at one or two places along the West Coast of India... and east coasts of India shows that there are two distinct faunal provinces? the western covering the major part of the Arabian Sea and the eastern covering the Bay of Bengal and the coast along Thailand, Malaysia and Sumatra. Also that the major part...

  20. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: a focus on contralateral testicular cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961-1989 and 1996-2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970-2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups.

  1. Oroclinal Bending and Slab-Break-Off Causing Coeval East-West Extension and East-West Contraction in the Pamir-Nanga Parbat Syntaxis in the Past 10 m.y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Robinson, A.; Manning, C. E.

    2001-12-01

    Active deformation of the Pamir-Nanga Parbat syntaxis system is dominated by east-west contraction in the south and east-west extension in the north on map view and a narrow zone of deep earthquakes up to 200 km beneath central Pamir and the Hindu Kush region on cross-sectional view. The deep seismicity shows a prominent gap between 15 and 70 km. E-W contractional tectonics is exemplified by the development of the north-trending Nanga Parbat synform and north-striking thrusts, while E-W extension is expressed by the Karakul rift in the north-central Pamirs of Tajikistan and the Kongur Shan normal fault in the eastern Pamir of China. Recent geochronologic and structural studies by several research groups show that east-west contraction in the Nanga Parbat region initiated at about 10 Ma, associated with extensive crustal melting. Our own investigations along the Kongur Shan normal fault indicate that extension across this system initiated between 10 and 8 Ma, coeval with the initiation of the Nanga Parbat contractional structure. The concentration of extensional and contractional strain along the north-south axis of the Pamir arc and location of extension in the outer arc and contraction in the inner arc of the ayntaxis system lead us to suggest that the coeval extension and contraction are controlled by oroclinal bending of the Pamir arc caused by torque exerted by the left-slip Cheman fault during the northward indentation of India. However, this explanation raises the question of why coeval extension and contraction occurred so late in the past 10 m.y. while the Indo-Asian collision and northward indentation of the Pamir promontory started at least 60 m.y. ago. One possible explanation is that the aseismic gap in the northern Pamir and Hindu Kush region represents a zone of ductile deformation along which a subducted oceanic (?) slab of either the Indian or Asian (Tadjik) plate was detached into the mantle. This slab break-off event may have occurred as a

  2. Fuzzy contractibility

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNER, Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper, .rstly some fundamental concepts are included re- lating to fuzzy topological spaces. Secondly, the fuzzy connected set is intro- duced. Finally, de.ning fuzzy contractible space, it is shown that X is a fuzzy contractible space if and only if X is fuzzy homotopic equivalent with a fuzzy single-point space.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. King

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance of the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only NFI

  4. Constitutive Interplay midst Discourse of East and West: Modernity & Postmodernity Renderings in Adult & Continuing Education. Proceedings of the International Adult & Continuing Education Conference (Seoul, Korea, May 27-28, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 17 papers, organized in three sections, presented at a conference on Eastern and Western adult and continuing education. The following papers are included in Section I, "Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education: Views of East and West": "Imagineries of 'East and West': Slippery Curricular Signifiers in Education" (Ted T. Aoki);…

  5. Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

  6. Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

  7. Future energy consumption and emissions in East-, Central- and West-China: Insights from soft-linking two global models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Hancheng; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    China's role in the global economy and energy markets is expanding, however many uncertainties with regards to the country's future energy consumption and emissions remain. Large regional disparities between China's provinces exist. Scenario analysis for different sub-regions of China will be use......China's role in the global economy and energy markets is expanding, however many uncertainties with regards to the country's future energy consumption and emissions remain. Large regional disparities between China's provinces exist. Scenario analysis for different sub-regions of China...... will be useful for an improved understanding of China's potential future development and associated global impacts. This study soft-links a global dynamic CGE model and a global technology-rich energy system model. Both models are expanded to include East-, Central-, and West-China. This study shows that soft...

  8. When East meets the West: differences in approach and mentality between old and new EU member countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, Liviu

    2017-04-01

    There are marked differences in the management and system of research across various EU member countries. While older member states have gradually learn their differences in research systems, approach and mentality, they generally know very little on marked differences with EU13 that have a very strong impact in the design, organisation, evaluation and implementation of collaborative or European programmes. Such differences result from the organisation of the national research system, funding agencies, supervision and methods of evaluation. In particular the latter impose a markedly different career management by the promotion of local or regional journals, institutes and faculty organisation, system of promotion and management of research. In this contribution, I share my experiences in crossing the east-west mentality border, in particular discussing pre-conceived mentalities, underlying differences and suggesting better ways of promoting integrated research across European systems.

  9. Connecting the East and the West, the Local and the Universal: The Methodological Elements of a Transcultural Approach to Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao; Fitzgerald, Ruth P

    From the outset, cross-cultural and transglobal bioethics has constituted a potent arena for a dynamic public discourse and academic debate alike. But prominent bioethical debates on such issues as the notion of common morality and a distinctive "Asian" bioethics in contrast to a "Western" one reveal some deeply rooted and still popular but seriously problematic methodological habits in approaching cultural differences, most notably, radically dichotomizing the East and the West, the local and the universal. In this paper, a "transcultural" approach to bioethics and cultural studies is proposed. It takes seriously the challenges offered by social sciences, anthropology in particular, towards the development of new methodologies for comparative and global bioethics. The key methodological elements of "transculturalism" include acknowledging the great internal plurality within every culture; highlighting the complexity of cultural differences; upholding the primacy of morality; incorporating a reflexive theory of social power; and promoting changes or progress towards shared and sometimes new moral values.

  10. Positive and negative flashbulb memories of the fall of the Berlin Wall among East- and West Germans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2006-01-01

    Flashbulb memories for the fall of the Berlin Wall were examined among 103 East and West Germans who considered the event as either highly positive or highly negative. Participants in the positive group rated their memories higher on measures of reliving and sensory imagery, whereas memory...... for facts was less accurate than in the negative group. Participants in the negative group had higher ratings on amount of consequences, but had talked less about the event and considered it less central to their personal and national identity than participants in the positive group. In both groups......, rehearsal and the centrality of the memory to the person's identity and life story correlated positively with memory qualities. The results suggest that positive versus negative emotions have different effects on the processing and long-term retention of flashbulb memories....

  11. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms in east and west Guangdong coastal regions, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-30

    Heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As) concentrations, distribution and bioaccumulation were studied in marine organisms in Guangdong coastal regions. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in organisms showed characteristics according to areas and species. Heavy metal concentrations in most organisms were higher in west than in east, tightly related to the local industry structure and the disequilibrium of metal discharge. Generally, high heavy metal concentrations were detected in molluscs and low concentrations were detected in fish. Bioaccumulation factor was used to assess the accumulation level of marine organisms to heavy metals, of which Cd, Cu and As were the most accumulated elements. Accumulation abilities to heavy metals varied among organism species, such as Distorsio reticulate accumulating Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Loligo beka Sasaki accumulating Pb, Cu, Cr, and Turritella bacillum Kiener accumulating Zn, Cd, As. By comparison, Johnius belengeri, Argyrosomus argentatus, Cynoglossus sinicus Wu had relatively low accumulation abilities.

  12. The East-West Method: An Exposure-independent Method to Search for Large-scale Anisotropies of Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, R.; Alekseenko, V. V.; Deligny, O.; Ghia, P. L.; Grigat, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lyberis, H.; Mollerach, S.; Over, S.; Roulet, E.

    2011-09-01

    The measurement of large-scale anisotropies in cosmic ray arrival directions at energies above 1013 eV is performed through the detection of extensive air showers (EAS) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. The observed anisotropies are small, so accurate measurements require small statistical uncertainties, i.e., large data sets. These can be obtained by employing ground detector arrays with large extensions (from 104 to 109 m2) and long operation time (up to 20 years). The control of such arrays is challenging and spurious variations in the counting rate due to instrumental effects (e.g., data taking interruptions or changes in the acceptance) and atmospheric effects (e.g., air temperature and pressure effects on EAS development) are usually present. These modulations must be corrected very precisely before performing standard anisotropy analyses, i.e., harmonic analysis of the counting rate versus local sidereal time. In this paper we discuss an alternative method to measure large-scale anisotropies, the "East-West method." It was originally proposed in the 1940s to study asymmetries in the flux of solar cosmic rays and later applied by Nagashima et al. to EAS at higher energies. It is a differential method, as it is based on the analysis of the difference of the counting rates in the east and west directions. Besides explaining the principle, we present here its mathematical derivation, showing that the method is largely independent of experimental effects, that is, it does not require corrections for acceptance and/or for atmospheric effects. We explain the use of the method to derive the amplitude and phase of the anisotropy and demonstrate its power under different conditions of detector operation.

  13. The history of literary exchange between east and west in hagiographical genre in the works by literary critics of the XIX centur

    OpenAIRE

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the works by some of the literary critics of the 21 century, such as F.I. Buslayev, A.N. Pynin. A.N. Veselovskiy, who made a substantial contribution to the research of literary exchange between East and West based on hagiographical genre.

  14. Book review of Cristian Nünlist and David Svarin (eds.) Overcoming the East-West Divide: Perspectives on the Role of the OSCE in the Ukraine Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraft van Ermel, Nicolaas

    2014-01-01

    In 2014 Europe’s security configuration had to deal with a severe crisis. Events in Ukraine led to a situation of civil war in Ukraine and a further development of the East-West Divide between (Western) Europe and Russia. During 2014 most attention was given to international actors like the North At

  15. Unification of Theoretical Models of Academic Self-Concept/Achievement Relations: Reunification of East and West German School Systems after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Koller, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal data (five waves) from large cohorts of 7th grade students in East Germany ("n"=2,119) and West Germany ("n"=1,928) were collected from the start of the reunification of the school systems following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Here we integrate the two major theoretical models of relations between academic…

  16. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  17. Stratigraphy and Tectonics of the East Ketungau Basin, West Kalimantan during Palaeogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyono Suyono

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i4.170East Ketungau Basin is one of frontier basins in Indonesia. Some of these basins, especially those in eastern Indonesia, have been identified to possess potential of oil and gas. The existing publications of geological fieldworks and extensive exploration in the East Ketungau Basin are limited. The detailed sedimentological and biostratigraphical studies of the sedimentary succession will be used to reconstruct the tectonic and palaeogeographical history of the basin. The sedimentary Mandai Group consists of three facies such as mudstone facies, clean sand facies and alternation between thinly coal seam, coaly shale, and claystone facies. However, each facies characterizes depositional environment of barrier- island and associated strand-plain systems.

  18. East meets West: The influence of language and culture in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyshewsky, Richard

    1996-01-01

    The marketing of education in South East Asia has become big business for Australian Universities. Physiotherapy programs are not exempt from this marketing push, with increases in foreign student enrollment becoming commonplace. This raises numerous opportunities and dilemmas for those involved in physiotherapy clinical education. This action research project investigated the influence of language and culture on clinical education practices. Nine South East Asian undergraduate physiotherapy students and 11 clinical instructors were involved in this qualitative research project. A variety of issues were identified which have important ramifications for academics and clinical instructors. Cultural membership, issues of authority and respect, and language proficiency were identified as having a direct influence on the clinical education process. Strategies for dealing with these cross cultural teaching and learning challenges are discussed.

  19. West European and East Asian Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy. Volume 1. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    strategists in Spain has been incorporated into the Plan Estrategico Conjunto (PEC, Joint Strategic Plan ), which is the centerpiece around which revolves the...China yields the following major conclusions relevant to U.S. defense policy and force structure planning . %.4 .4.. WEST EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVES i" Doubts...confronts security dilemmas that hold major implications for U.S. defense planning . These include: 0 A perceived need to raise the conventional

  20. Differences in Fertility Patterns between East and West German Women. Disentangling the roles of cultural background and of the transformation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Nauck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares parity-specific fertility patterns of West and East German women (from birth cohorts 1970 and younger after German re-unification using panel data from the GSOEP (waves 1990 through 2006. Whereas the transition rate for the birth of the first child tends to be higher in the East German than in the West German sub-sample, the likelihood of second births remains considerably higher among West German women across time. The analyses presented comprise a detailed comparative test of different intervening mechanisms, represented by sociocultural orientations and social inequalities resulting from the societal transformation process. Although the transition rate to first births among East German women is lowered by their higher education and work aspirations, their higher degree of family orientation promotes their propensity to start a family. Surprisingly, the higher proportion of persons without a denomination in East Germany promotes the transition to parenthood because it accelerates both the engagement in and the consolidation of intimate relationships. The lower transition rate to second births among East German women is partly accounted for by the higher work aspirations, by the lower religiosity and by the lower general life satisfaction in this subgroup.

  1. East and West, Past and Present: Rekindle Old Principles for New Management Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Connie Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the sayings and stories of the ancient Chinese philosophers Guanzi, Hanfeizi, Xunzi and Yanzi. Their way of ruling the state and managing the people are analysed and discussed in line with thoughts from the mainstream and modern Western management gurus, such as Warren Bennis, Peter Drucker, Mary Parker Follett, Douglas McGregor, Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Elton Mayo, and Jeffrey Pfeffer. Striking similarities call for addressing key issues in human resource management. East an...

  2. Facilitating Settlement at the Arbitration Table: Comparing Views on Settlement Practice Among Arbitration Practitioners in East Asia and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a cross cultural examination of how international arbitrators in East Asian and Western countries view the goal of settlement in international arbitration. The result of a 115 person survey and 64 follow up interviews shed light on the underlying cultural attitudes and approaches to settlement in international arbitration as practiced in diverse regions. The findings indicate that arbitration practitioner’s perceptions of the frequency of compromise decision in international arbitration demonstrate a high degree of convergence across regions. At the same time, cultural and socio-economic distinctions are reflected in varying arbitrator perceptions regarding the arbitrators’ role in settlement, whether settlement is regarded as a goal in arbitration and the types of efforts made pre-arbitration to settle disputes. In particular, arbitrators working in the East Asian region regard the goal of facilitating voluntary settlement in the context of international arbitration with greater importance and generally make greater efforts pre-arbitration to settle disputes as compared with counterparts in the West.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1934138

  3. Development of renewable energy.. Experiences and perspectives of regional actors in East and West; Erneuerbare Energien ausbauen.. Erfahrungen und Perspektiven regionaler Akteure in Ost und West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppler, Dorothee; Walk, Heike; Toepfer, Eric; Dienel, Hans-Liudger (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    The authors of the book under consideration discuss research results and experiences from East German, West German and Austrian regions regarding to the development of renewable energies. The book consists of the following contributions: (a) Promoting and restraining factors of the development of the renewable energy in the Niederlausitz as well as in the Ruhrgebiet (Dorothee Keppler); (b) The development of renewable energy from the view of the inhabitants of the Niederlausitz (Dorothee Keppler); (c) Renewable energies as a chance of development in Eastern Germany (Benjamin Noelting); (d) Renewable energy in own production - how a multidimensional 'Return on Initiative' becomes possible by means of municipal projects (Hans Thie); (e) Energy regions in Austria (Gotelind Alber); (f) Methods of the partizipative and activating acceptance research within the range of renewable energies (Heike Walk, Hans-Liudger Dienel); (g) Activating education meetings concerning to renewable energy in peripheric rural areas using the region Lausitz-Spreewald as an region (Ute Doering); (h) Computer games as an instrument for environment communication: Experiences with the simulation 'Energiemanager Lausitz 2020' (Eric Toepfer); (i) Citizen exhibitions as an instrument for the shaping and activation of consciousness for renewable energies (Dorothee Keppler); (j) Exhibitions as a generator for acceptance: conception and efficiency of the exhibition 'Energieland Lausitz' (Hans-Liudger Dienel, Soeren Marotz).

  4. The metallogenic role of east-west fracture zones in South America with regard to the motion of lithospheric plates (with an example from Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutina, J.; Carter, William D.; Lopez, F.X.

    1978-01-01

    The role of east-west fracture zones in South America is discussed with regard to global fracturing and the motion of lithospheric plates. A set of major NW-trending lineaments has been derived which show a tendency to be spaced equidistantly and may correspond to a set of east-west fractures in the "pre-drift" position of the South American plate. Statistical analysis of linears in the ERTS-mosaics shows that NW-fractures are also among the most important ones in the Andes region, suggesting that the above major lineaments extend into the basement of the Andes. Some of the old major fractures, trending east-west in the present orientation of South America, are discussed and their NE orientation in the pre-drift position of the plate is considered. An example of structural control of ore deposition in the Brazilian Shield is presented, using the maps of the RADAM Project. It is concluded that the small tin-bearing granitic bodies concentrated in the region of Sao Felix do Xingu in the state of Para represent upper parts of an unexposed granitoid massif which is controlled by the intersection of a major east-west fracture zone probably represents westward extension of the Patos Lineament of the easternmost part of Brazil, connected with the east-west fracture zone of the Para state through the basement of the Maranhao Basin (Sineclise do Maranhao-Piaui). It is expected that the proposed "Patos-Para Lineament" extends further westward and may similarly control, at intersections with fractures of other trends, some mineralization centers in the western part of the state of Para and in the state of Amazonas.

  5. Laibach and the NSK: Aestheticising the East/West Nexus in Post-Totalitarian Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects a study in how the Slovenian art collective the NSK (Neue Slowenische Kunst, and more specifically its sub-group Laibach, interrogate the representation of Central and Eastern European cultural memory in the context of post-Socialism, and operate as a nexus between Eastern Europe and the West. Emerging in the wake of Tito's death and shaped by the break-up of Yugoslavia, the NSK were founded in 1984, in Ljubljana (northern Slovenia.  The NSK is a multi-disciplinary collective primarily comprised of three groups: IRWIN (visual arts, Noordung (theatre, and its most influential delivery system, Laibach (music.  Brought to academic scrutiny in the West by Slavoj Žižek for their subversive strategy of over-identification with the totalitarian spectacle, Laibach are Slovenia’s most famous cultural export, with a global following, and an international and domestic history of controversy. With the strategy of Retrogardism, Laibach and the NSK re-mythologise totalitarian iconography associated with Nazi Kunst and Socialist Realism.  Through this process of re-mythologisation Laibach explore the unfinished narrative of Communism and the legacy of the European traumatic historical in the context of a ‘post-ideological’ age.

  6. An early history of human breast cancer:West meets East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-He Yan

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a global issue. This is especially true in countries like China, where cancer incidence has increased likely because of changes in environment and lifestyle. However, cancer is not a modern disease; early cases have been recorded in ancient medical books in the West and in China. Here, we provide a brief history of cancer, focusing on cancer of the breast, and review the etymology of ai, the Chinese character for cancer. Notable findings from both Western and Chinese traditional medicine are presented to give an overview of the most important, early contributors to our evolving understanding of human breast cancer. We also discuss the earliest historical documents to record patients with breast cancer.

  7. Religion, spirituality and mental health in the West and the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G; Zaben, Faten Al; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Research on religion, spirituality and mental health has been rapidly accumulating from Western countries and now increasingly from the Middle East. We review here the latest research on this topic from these two areas of the world, one largely Christian and the other largely Muslim, after discussing similarities and differences in these faith traditions. Contrary to popular thought, there is considerable overlap between these religious groups in beliefs, practices of worship, moral beliefs and values, and emphasis on family life (although also some distinct differences). Because of the similarity in belief and practice, it is not surprising that research on mental health and devout religious involvement in both these religious traditions has tended to produce similar results. Religious psychotherapies within these faith traditions have been developed and are now being refined and used in clinical trials to determine if integrating patients' religious resources into therapy is more or less effective than conventional therapies in relieving the symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  8. Control of barrier island shape by inlet sediment bypassing: East Frisian Islands, West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, D.M.; Penland, S.; Nummedal, D.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the East Frisian Islands has shown that the plan form of these islands can be explained by processes of inlet sediment bypassing. This island chain is located on a high wave energy, high tide range shoreline where the average deep-water significant wave height exceeds 1.0 m and the spring tidal range varies from 2.7 m at Juist to 2.9 m at Wangerooge. An abundant sediment supply and a strong eastward component of wave power (4.4 ?? 103 W m-1) have caused a persistent eastward growth of the barrier islands. The eastward extension of the barriers has been accommodated more by inlet narrowing, than by inlet migration. It is estimated from morphological evidence that a minimum of 2.7 ?? 105 m3 of sand is delivered to the inlets each year via the easterly longshore transport system. Much of this sand ultimately bypasses the inlets in the form of large, migrating swash bars. The location where the swash bars attach to the beach is controlled by the amount of overlap of the ebb-tidal delta along the downdrift inlet shoreline. The configuration of the ebbtidal delta, in turn, is a function of inlet size and position of the main ebb channel. The swash bar welding process has caused preferential beach nourishment and historical shoreline progradation. Along the East Frisian Islands this process has produced barrier islands with humpbacked, bulbous updrift and bulbous downdrift shapes. The model of barrier island development presented in this paper not only explains well the configuration of the German barriers but also the morphology of barriers along many other mixed energy coasts. ?? 1984.

  9. Husbands as decision-makers in relation to family size: East-West regional differentials in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulu, I

    1990-01-01

    Fertility studies usually gather information from women only. This sex-bias present in the research fails to take into account the contribution that men make in forming fertility patterns. This study examines the role of Turkish husbands in the decision-making regarding family size and the use of family planning methods. The historic and cultural background in Turkey is based upon a male-dominant structure. This dominant role of men is present on individual, family, community, and national levels. The differences between the Eastern and Western regions, in regard to socio-economic factors is fully explored. The data used in this study comes from a 1988 national health survey. Three questionnaires were applied in 6,552 households in 5 regions. One questionnaire was for the household, one for ever-married women, and one for ever-married men. This paper focuses on the data generated by the husband's questionnaires (a sub-sample of 2,264 respondents). Several factors are identified that maintain an authoritarian, male-dominated system. These factors include type of marriage, arranged marriages, the payment of bride-price, and participation in the labor force. Both men in the East and West expect their wives to fulfill a traditional sex-role. Women are expected to be wives and mothers, and to obey their husbands. Most men do not approve of married women working outside of the home. Traditional values continue to shape the style of relating between men and women in both regions, despite the modernization that has taken place in the West. "Higher socioeconomic development does not necessarily imply the automatic acquisition of modern values." The author does establish that practices that subjugate women are more prevalent and are deeply rooted in the East. In keeping with the cultural practices of the society, male attitudes and values strongly influence family planning practices. One-fourth of the women in a national survey stated that the reason they did not use a

  10. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of centre, East and West Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. METHODOLOGY: Parasitological surveys were conducted in April-May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72% and S. guineensis (0.14%. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86-7.77%. The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93-12.04%, Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56-18.90% and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35-1.78%, with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36-24.85% across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41-48.75% in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10-26.17% and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57-11.51% regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an

  11. Contrasting rainfall declines in northern and southern Tanzania: Potential differential impacts of west Pacific warming and east Pacific cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Pedreros, D. H.; Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Here, we present analysis of a new 1900-2014 rainfall record for the Greater Horn of Africa with high station density (CenTrends), and evaluate potential climate change "hot spots" in Tanzania. We identify recent (1981-2014) downward trends in Tanzanian rainfall, use CenTrends to place these in a longer historical context, and relate rainfall in these regions to decadal changes in global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). To identify areas of concern, we consider the potential food security impacts of the recent rainfall declines and also rapid population growth. Looking forward, we consider what the links to SSTs might mean for rainfall in the next several decades based on SST projections. In addition to CenTrends, we use a variety of geographic data sets, including 1981-2014 rainfall from the Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPSv2.0), simulated crop stress from the USGS Geospatial Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (GeoWRSI) model, NOAA Extended Reconstructed SSTs (ERSST v4), SST projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), and land cover and population maps from SERVIR, WorldPOP, and CIESIN's Gridded Population of the World. The long-term CenTrends record allows us to suggest an interesting dichotomy in decadal rainfall forcing. During the March to June season, SSTs in the west Pacific appear to be driving post-1980 rainfall reductions in northern Tanzania. In the 2000s, northern Tanzania's densely populated Pangani River, Internal Drainage, and Lake Victoria basins experienced the driest period in more than a century. During summer, negative trends in southern Tanzania appear linked to a negative SST trend in the Nino3.4 region. Since the SST trend in the west (east) Pacific appears strongly influenced by global warming (natural decadal variability), we suggest that water resources in northern Tanzania may face increasing challenges, but that this will be less the case in southern Tanzania.

  12. Threat of land subsidence in and around Kolkata City and East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sahu; P K Sikdar

    2011-06-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the possible rate of land subsidence of Kolkata City including Salt Lake City and the adjoining East Kolkata Wetlands located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal basin. Demand of groundwater for drinking, agricultural and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid urbanization. The subsurface geology consists of Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of clay, silty clay and sand of various grades. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to the scouring action of past channels. Currently, the piezometric head shows a falling trend and it may be accelerated due to further over-withdrawal of groundwater resulting in land subsidence. The estimated mean land subsidence rate is 13.53 mm/year and for 1 m drop in the piezometric head, the mean subsidence is 3.28 cm. The surface expression of the estimated land subsidence is however, cryptic because of a time lag between the settlement of the thick low-permeable aquitard at the top and its surface expression. Therefore, groundwater of the cities and wetland areas should be developed cautiously based on the groundwater potential to minimize the threat of land subsidence.

  13. Eye contact perception in the West and East: a cross-cultural study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Uono

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether eye contact perception differs in people with different cultural backgrounds. Finnish (European and Japanese (East Asian participants were asked to determine whether Finnish and Japanese neutral faces with various gaze directions were looking at them. Further, participants rated the face stimuli for emotion and other affect-related dimensions. The results indicated that Finnish viewers had a smaller bias toward judging slightly averted gazes as directed at them when judging Finnish rather than Japanese faces, while the bias of Japanese viewers did not differ between faces from their own and other cultural backgrounds. This may be explained by Westerners experiencing more eye contact in their daily life leading to larger visual experience of gaze perception generally, and to more accurate perception of eye contact with people from their own cultural background particularly. The results also revealed cultural differences in the perception of emotion from neutral faces that could also contribute to the bias in eye contact perception.

  14. Beyond the 'east-west' dichotomy: Global variation in cultural models of selfhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Becker, Maja; Smith, Peter B; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; González, Roberto; Didier, Nicolas; Carrasco, Diego; Cadena, Maria Paz; Lay, Siugmin; Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Villamar, Juan A; Gavreliuc, Alin; Zinkeng, Martina; Kreuzbauer, Robert; Baguma, Peter; Martin, Mariana; Tatarko, Alexander; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Courtois, Marie; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B; Harb, Charles; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Prieto Gil, Paula; Lorente Clemares, Raquel; Campara, Gabriella; Nizharadze, George; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Jalal, Baland; Bourguignon, David; Zhang, Jianxin; Lv, Shaobo; Chybicka, Aneta; Yuki, Masaki; Zhang, Xiao; Espinosa, Agustín; Valk, Aune; Abuhamdeh, Sami; Amponsah, Benjamin; Özgen, Emre; Güner, E Ülkü; Yamakoğlu, Nil; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Pyszczynski, Tom; Kesebir, Pelin; Vargas Trujillo, Elvia; Balanta, Paola; Cendales Ayala, Boris; Koller, Silvia H; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Gausel, Nicolay; Fischer, Ronald; Milfont, Taciano L; Kusdil, Ersin; Çağlar, Selinay; Aldhafri, Said; Ferreira, M Cristina; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Wang, Qian; Fülöp, Márta; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Lemos, Flávia Cristina Silveira; Fritsche, Immo; Möller, Bettina; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Bond, Michael Harris

    2016-08-01

    Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals in 2 large-scale multinational surveys, using improved methods for cross-cultural research. We developed (Study 1: N = 2924 students in 16 nations) and validated across cultures (Study 2: N = 7279 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations) a new 7-dimensional model of self-reported ways of being independent or interdependent. Patterns of global variation support some of Markus and Kitayama's predictions, but a simple contrast between independence and interdependence does not adequately capture the diverse models of selfhood that prevail in different world regions. Cultural groups emphasize different ways of being both independent and interdependent, depending on individualism-collectivism, national socioeconomic development, and religious heritage. Our 7-dimensional model will allow future researchers to test more accurately the implications of cultural models of selfhood for psychological processes in diverse ecocultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. The language attitude of border peoples Insular Riau, West Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, and the Eastern Sunda Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dendy Sugono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at describing (1 the language use of border area societies (Insular Riau, West Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, and the Eastern Sunda Islands in terms of local language (BD, Indonesian (BI, and foreign language (BA in the domains of family, society, and occupation, (2 language activity of border area societies relating to news observation, language attention, and language constraints in mass media, (3 language attitude of border area societies towards BD, BI, and BA. The findings are as follows. First, within the family and society at large, BD is more frequently used than BI and BA. This shows that BD functions in non-formal situations. In the professional field, however, BI is more frequently used than BD. Second, people in border provinces widely observe mass media, whether printed or electronic. They also often pay attention to the language the mass media uses. Third, border societies have a positive attitude towards BD as is shown (agree/totally agree by the answers to eight questions relating to BD. The language attitude of border societies towards BI is positive based on the answers (agree/totally agree to seven questions concerning BI. This also means that BI is prestigious for border people, especially in formal communication. The language attitude of border societies towards BA is mixed. In as far as it is negative it implies a positive evaluation of BD and BI because people appreciate them as part of their local and national identities.

  16. Minutes of “Health Care, East and West, Moving into the 21st Century”Traditional/Complementary Medicine Session

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The conference of “Health Care, East and West, Moving into the 21st Century” sponsored by Chinese Medical Association (CMA) and Harvard Medical School (HMS) was convened at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston, USA on June 24-29, 2001. Around 600 participants from different well-known units of patient care, research, education and administration in China, and more than 600 medical specialists from health care societies in USA participated in this conference, including Prof. WU Jie-ping (Honorary President of CMA and Vice-Chairman of Standing Committee of Chinese People's Congress), Prof. ZHANG Wen-kang (President of CMA and Minister of Chinese Ministry of Health), Mr. John Kerry (American Federal Senator from Massachusetts), Prof. Lawrence Summers (President of Harvard University), and Prof. Joseph Martin (Dean of Harvard Medical School). This conference was a historic pageant of academic exchange with the largest scale between health systems in both China and USA. The scale of Chinese delegation was only next to that of Chinese gymnastic delegation in Olympic Games. This delegation consisted of experts from over 40 specialties in Chinese medical societies including 10 academicians from Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering, and academic leader of different specialties as well as well-known experts in the world.

  17. The importance of father's and own education for self-assessed health across Europe: an East-West divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan W S; de Graaf, Nan Dirk

    2013-09-01

    How are one's own education, father's education, and especially the combination of the two, related to self-assessed health across European societies? In this study, we test hypotheses about differences in self-assessed health between 16 post-socialist countries in Central and Eastern Europe and 17 Western European countries. We find substantial cross-national variation in the (relative) importance of own and father's education for self-assessed health. Over 65 per cent of this cross-national variation is accounted for by the East-West divide. This simple dichotomy explains cross-national differences better than gross domestic product or income inequality. An individual's father's education is more important, both in absolute and relative terms, for self-assessed heath in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe. Intergenerational mobility moderates the relative effects of one's own and one's father's education. In Eastern Europe the relative importance of one's father's education is greater than it is in Western Europe--particularly for those who are downwardly mobile and have a father with tertiary education. The results are sometimes contradictory to initial expectations; the theoretical implications are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/JohnWiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comparison of glacial isostasy contribution to the sea level changes during the Holocene in West and East Antarctic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshchuk, Ksenia; Verkulich, Sergey; Pushina, Zina

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica as geographically completed and tectonically compound continent is an interesting object for study of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and sea level changes in the Holocene. The analysis of relative sea level curves is one of the most indicative approaches for glacio-isostasy estimation. The present study focuses on two different regions of Antarctic margin which sea-level changes are well researched. We compare our relative sea-level curves for Bunger Oasis (East Antarctica) and King George Island (West Antarctica) that were obtained from new geomorphological, paleogeographical and micropaleontological data. The results showed notable difference: the maximum relative water altitude had occurred between 8 000 - 6 000 yr BP and had reached 12 m a. s. l. in the Bunger Oasis and 18-20 m a. s. l. in King George Island. Furthermore, the research of other Antarctic regions revealed significant differences in sea-level altitudes. Following analysis of constructed curves and computative GIA models allow us to estimate the possible extent of glacial isostatic adjustment. Besides, this observation has indicated the importance of deglaciation rates and local tectonic features. The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project No. 16-35-00346 mol_a.

  19. Trans-border (east Serbia/west Bulgaria correlation of the Jurassic sediments: Main Jurassic paleogeographic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the region across the Serbian/Bulgarian state border, there are individualized 5 Jurassic paleogeographic units (from West to East: (1 the Thracian Massif Unit without Jurassic sediments; (2 the Lužnica-Koniavo Unit - partially with Liassic in Grsten facies and with deep water Middle Callovian-Kimmeridgian (p. p sediments of the type "ammonitico rosso", and Upper Kimmeridgian-Tithonian siliciclastics flysch; (3 The Getic Unit subdivided into two subunits - the Western Getic Sub-Uni - without Lower Jurassic sediments and the Eastern Getic Sub-Unit with Lower Jurassic continental and marine sediments, which are followed in both sub-units by carbonate platform limestones (type Stramberk; (4 the Infra (Sub-Getic Unit - with relatively deep water Liassic and Dogger sediments (the Dogger of type "black shales with Bossitra alpine" and Middle Callovian-Tithonian of type "ammonitico rosso"; (5 the Danubian Unit - with shallow water Liassic, Dogger and Malm (Miroč-Vrška Čuka Zone, deep water Dogger and Malm (Donjomilanovačko-Novokoritska Zone.

  20. Maternal and Child Health Determinants in West Manggarai District East Nusa Tenggara Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Wadu Willa

    2015-03-01

    kesehatan yang sulit, ibu hamil yang memeriksa ke dukun dan tidak tersedianya rumah sakit di kabupaten serta penyakit infeksi malaria dan diare. Solusinya adalah bidang harus aktif dengan melibatkan kepala desa dalam memantau ibu hamil, perlu disediakan perahu motor dan pembangunan rumah sakit daerah.Kata kunci:kematian ibu dan anak, Manggarai BaratABSTRACTBackground: West Manggarai district in period January until July 2012. Infant mortality rate were 34 cases, stillbirths were 33 cases and maternal mortality rate was 9 cases. Methods:This research is qualitative study using Focus Group Discussion (FGD desain, cooperation with head of public health center, midwife, nutrition program manager, and public health at health department. Results:Maternal and infant mortality in Labuan Bajo public health center caused by maternal nutritional deficiency, infectious diseases such as malaria and typhoid fever, mother less attention to the baby when the baby’s ill and difficult access to health services. The problem solution is pregnant women should be regularly having antenathal care, using of mosquito nets. Need to be provided cheaper sea transport. Causes of malnutrition and undernourishment is knowledge, parenting skill and infectious diseases such as diarrhea and malaria. To overcome this problem midwife should be proactive giving counseling to families with malnutrition children under five. Maternal and infant mortality in Winekang public health center caused by not availability of hospital at district, pregnant women still seeking treatment to traditional healers, the implementation of government regulations are less strict and families often late in taking decision to be referred. The solution is health officers must always giving counseling to pregnant women and cross-sector approach to monitoring. Whereas the main cause nutritional problems is parenting behavior, infectious diseases, and not enough healthy food. Conclusion:Maternal and infant mortality caused by difficult

  1. Possible triggering of solar activity to big earthquakes (Ms ≥ 8) in faults with near west-east strike in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Yanben; GUO; Zengjian; WU; Jinbing; MA; Lihua

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between solar activity and big earthquakes (Ms≥8) that occurred in China and western Mongolia. It is discovered that the occurrence dates of most of the big earthquakes in and near faults with west-east strike are close to the maximum years of sunspot numbers, whereas dates of some big earthquakes which are not in such faults are not close to the maximum years. We consider that it is possibly because of the appearance of many magnetic storms in the maximum years of solar activity. The magnetic storms result in anomalies of geomagnetic field and then produce eddy current in the faults gestating earthquake with near west-east strike. Perhaps the gestated big earthquakes occur easily since the eddy current heats the rocks in the faults and therefore decreases the shear resistant intensity and the static friction limit of the rocks.

  2. East-west thrusting and anomalous magnetic declinations in the Sierra Gorda, Betic Cordillera, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzman, E. S.

    1994-01-01

    Structural and palaeomagnetic studies in the Sierra Gorda (Sierra de Loja), located in the External zone of the Betic Cordillera, indicate that westward-directed thrusting is not associated with significant rotations about a vertical axis. Detailed mapping and slip vector analysis show that the Sierra Gorda is a thrust complex composed of three thrust sheets. The uppermost thrust places Early Jurassic pelagic carbonates on top of Jurassic to Oligocene sediments that form a large doubly-plunging footwall syncline. The eastern limb of this syncline has been overturned and is tectonically thinned as a result of the overthrusting. Palaeomagnetic results from Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments both within and around the perimeter of the Sierra Gorda indicate that: (1) the average remanence vector of the seven Late Jurassic localities sampled within the Sierra Gorda has a direction (D = 328° and I = 38°) that is not significantly different from the expected declination for the Upper Jurassic of stable Iberia; and (2) there is no significant difference between the remanences in the two upper thrust sheets indicating that differential rotation did not occur during the initiation and displacement on the thrusts. In contrast, the one Late Jurassic site that was sampled to the west of the Sierra Gorda is rotated, like the rest of the Subbetics, 60° clockwise of the reference direction. The unrotated directions obtained in the Sierra suggest, either that it has rotated in a clockwise sense concordant with the rest of the Subbetic zone and has then been backrotated, or that it has never rotated relative to stable Iberia. In the latter, simpler hypothesis the unrotated declinations may be explained in terms of orthogonal convergence along an irregular continental margin.

  3. ‘Between East and West: The Vienna School and the idea of Czechoslovak art’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Filipova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the formation of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 could be regarded in certain respects as a historical caesura, in others, there was continuity with the Habsburg past particularly in intellectual life. Czech art history between the wars was under strong influence of the Vienna school, especially Riegl and Dvořák’s theories, which their followers in Prague developed and adapted to the new political context. The question whether Czech or Czechoslovak art had historic links with the “East or West” was especially pertinent to many Czech art historians in this period, as it indicated western or eastern affiliation of art as well as art historical scholarship. Extending Riegl’s legacy, Czech art historians held discussions about mediaeval architecture in Bohemia but also about more contemporary art and folk art in Czechoslovakia. The politically motivated idea of “Czechoslovak identity” that was born in this time to validate the existence of a joint state of the Czechs and Slovaks gave rise to attempts to define “Czechoslovak art” and its place within European art history. The western preference of the Czech followers of the Vienna school, however, was contested by several local scholars and by Josef Strzygowski, the infamous antipode to Riegl and Dvořák, who emphasised the historical importance of “eastern” art in this geographical context. This article therefore focuses on the extent of dissemination of influential ideas from Vienna across Central Europe in the early twentieth century and on the way these ideas were adapted to specific political circumstances.

  4. Access to Risk Mitigating Weather Forecasts and Changes in Farming Operations in East and West Africa: Evidence from a Baseline Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable weather currently ranks among the major challenges facing agricultural development in many African countries. Impact mitigation through access to reliable and timely weather forecasts and other adaptive mechanisms are foremost in Africa’s policy dialogues and socio-economic development agendas. This paper analyzed the factors influencing access to forecasts on incidence of pests/diseases (PD and start of rainfall (SR. The data were collected by Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS and analyzed with Probit regression separately for East Africa, West Africa and the combined dataset. The results show that 62.7% and 56.4% of the farmers from East and West Africa had access to forecasts on start of rainfall, respectively. In addition, 39.3% and 49.4% of the farmers from East Africa indicated that forecasts on outbreak of pests/diseases and start of rainfall were respectively accompanied with advice as against 18.2% and 41.9% for West Africa. Having received forecasts on start of rainfall, 24.0% and 17.6% of the farmers from East and West Africa made decisions on timing of farming activities respectively. Probabilities of having access to forecasts on PD significantly increased with access to formal education, farm income and previous exposure to climatic shocks. Furthermore, probabilities of having access to forecasts on SR significantly increased (p < 0.05 with access to business income, radio and perception of more erratic rainfall, among others. It was recommended that promotion of informal education among illiterate farmers would enhance their climatic resilience, among others.

  5. Parasites as biological tags to track an ontogenetic shift in the feeding behaviour of Gadus morhua off West and East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Julian; Klimpel, Sven; Fock, Heino O; MacKenzie, Ken; Kuhn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Parasites, being an integral part of every ecosystem and trophically transmitted along the food webs, can provide detailed insights into the structure of food webs and can close the information gap between short-term stomach content analyses and long-term fish otolith analyses. They are useful for tracking ontogenetic shifts in the host's diet, the occurrence of specific organisms or migratory behaviour of their hosts, even in inaccessible environments. In the present study, stomach content analyses and parasitological examinations were performed on 70 Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, one of the most important high-level predators of small fish in the North Atlantic, caught during one research vessel cruise from West and East Greenlandic waters. Analyses revealed significant differences in fish size with higher values for East Greenland (average total length (TL) of 50.5 cm) compared to West Greenland (average TL of 33.3 cm). Clear differences were also present in prey and parasite composition. Crustacea was the main food source for all fish (IRI = 10082.70), while the importance of teleosts increased with fish size. With a prevalence of 85 % in West Greenland and 100 % in East Greenland, Nematoda were the most abundant parasite group. The results indicate an ontogenetic shift in the diet, which are discussed in the context of the common distribution theory, stock dynamics and migratory behaviour.

  6. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 March 2000 to 31 March 2000 (NODC Accession 0000150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes. Data...

  7. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 April 2000 to 30 April 2000 (NODC Accession 0000156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes. Data...

  8. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 February 2001 to 28 February 2001 (NODC Accession 0000415)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coast of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected from...

  9. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 December 2001 to 31 December 2001 (NODC Accession 0000685)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were...

  10. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 October 2001 to 31 October 2001 (NODC Accession 0000682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were...

  11. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 April 2001 to 30 April 2001 (NODC Accession 0000460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coast of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes and other locations. Data were...

  12. Wind Wave Spectra and meteorological data from NOAA environmental moored buoys in the Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes. East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 June 2001 to 30 June 2001 (NODC Accession 0000530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coast of US, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected from NOAA...

  13. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 January 2002 to 31 January 2002 (NODC Accession 0000686)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were...

  14. Environmental contaminants, species identifiers and characteristics, and other variables from the east and west US coasts for the National Status and Trends Program (NSTP) from 19840101 to 19880405 (NODC Accession 8900125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains 1986-1989 Mussel Watch Data collected under National Status and Trends Program. The samples were collected along the east, west, gulf coast...

  15. Wind Wave Spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes from 01 March 2001 to 31 March 2001 (NODC Accession 0000437)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected...

  16. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 November 2001 to 30 November 2001 (NODC Accession 0000683)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were...

  17. Wind Wave Spectra and other data from buoy casts in the East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 October 2000 to 31 October 2000 (NODC Accession 0000348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected at fixed platforms in Gulf of Mexico, East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, and Great Lakes from October 1, 2000...

  18. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 February 2000 to 29 February 2000 (NODC Accession 0000140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes. Data...

  19. East-West gradient in cardio-vascular mortality in Austria: how much can we explain by following the pattern of risk factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Katharina V

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various studies show major regional differences in the prevalence of cardio-vascular disease morbidity and mortality, both in Europe and within European countries. In Austria, these differences are documented by an East-West gradient with declining morbidity and mortality rates when moving from the East to the West of the country. It was the aim of this study to analyse if, and to what extent, socio-demographic and socio-economic determinants, social resources and health behaviour can contribute to the clarification of this East-West gradient by conducting secondary analyses of an existing Austrian health dataset. Results The data were analysed using bivariate analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. These analyses revealed significant East-West gradients for various risk factors, as well as socio-demographic and socio-economic health determinants. There was a gradual decrease of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and psycho-social discomfort in both sexes, with the highest prevalences in those Austrian regions with the highest cardio-vascular mortality and a stepwise decrease to the regions with the lowest cardio-vascular mortality. Controlling for educational level significantly raised the odds for diabetes, hypertension and obesity. In the results of the multivariate analyses, factors that significantly and independently predicted diabetes mellitus were geographic location, psycho-social discomfort, lack of physical exercise, and age in both sexes. For women these factors additionally included a low educational level, lack of social support, and being born abroad. Conclusions Our study shows a clear gradual decline of cardio-vascular mortality and some of its risk factors from East to West in Austria. Concerning these risk factors, the geographic region and psycho-social discomfort showed the greatest association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity. Hence, they

  20. West-east transition from underplating to steep subduction in the India-Tibet collision zone revealed by receiver-function profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Danian; Zhao, Wenjin; Klemperer, Simon L.; Wu, Zhenhan; Mechie, James; Shi, Jianyu; Xue, Guangqi; Su, Heping

    2016-10-01

    Closely-spaced receiver-function profiles in the east-central India-Tibet collision zone reveal drastic west-east changes of the crustal and upper mantle structure. West of ∼91.5°E, we show the Indian crust-mantle boundary (Moho) extending subhorizontally from ∼50 km depth below sea level under the High Himalaya to ∼90 km under the central Lhasa terrane. Further north, this boundary transitions to become the top of the Indian lithospheric mantle and, becoming faint but still observable, it can be tracked continuously to ∼135 km depth near ∼31.5°N. The top of the Indian lithospheric mantle is clearly beneath the Tibetan Moho that is also a conspicuous boundary, undulatory at 60-75 km depth from the central Lhasa terrane to the north end of our profile at ∼34°N. This geometry is consistent with underthrusting of Indian lower crust and underplating of the Indian plate directly beneath southern Tibet. In contrast, east of ∼91.5°E, the Indian Moho is only seen under the southernmost margin of the Tibetan plateau, and eludes imaging from ∼50 km south of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture to the north. The Indian lower crust thins greatly and in places lacks a clear Moho. This is in contrast to our observation west of ∼91.5°E, that the Indian lower crust thickens northwards. A clear depression of the top of the Indian lower crust is also observed along west-east oriented profiles, centered above the region where the Indian Moho is not imaged. Our observations suggest that roll-back of the Indian lithospheric mantle has occurred east of ∼91.5°E, likely due to delamination associated with density instabilities in eclogitized Indian lower crust, with the center of foundering beneath the southern Lhasa terrane slightly east of 91.5°E.

  1. Fuzzy Set Field and Fuzzy Metric

    OpenAIRE

    Gebru Gebray; B. Krishna Reddy

    2014-01-01

    The notation of fuzzy set field is introduced. A fuzzy metric is redefined on fuzzy set field and on arbitrary fuzzy set in a field. The metric redefined is between fuzzy points and constitutes both fuzziness and crisp property of vector. In addition, a fuzzy magnitude of a fuzzy point in a field is defined.

  2. East meets West: cross-cultural perspective in end-of-life decision making from Indian and German viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Simon, Alfred

    2008-06-01

    Culture creates the context within which individuals experience life and comprehend moral meaning of illness, suffering and death. The ways the patient, family and the physician communicate and make decisions in the end-of-life care are profoundly influenced by culture. What is considered as right or wrong in the healthcare setting may depend on the socio-cultural context. The present article is intended to delve into the cross-cultural perspectives in ethical decision making in the end-of-life scenario. We attempt to address the dynamics of the roles of patient, family and physician therein across two countries from East and West, namely, India and Germany. In India, where illness is more a shared family affair than an individual incident, a physician is likely to respect the family's wishes and may withhold the [Symbol: see text]naked truth' about the diagnosis of a fatal disease to the patient. In Germany, a physician is legally required to inform the patient about the disease. In India, advance directive being virtually non-existent, the family acts as the locus of the decision-making process, taking into account the economic cost of available medical care. In Germany, advance directive is regarded as mandatory and healthcare is covered by insurance. Family and the physician appear to play larger roles in ethical decision making for patients in India than for those in Germany, who place greater emphasis on autonomy of the individual patient. Our study explicates how culture matters in ethical decision-making and why the bioethical discourse is necessary in the concrete realities of the socio-cultural context. To explore the possibility of finding a common ground of morality across different cultures while acknowledging and respecting cultural diversity, thus remains a formidable challenge for the bioethicists.

  3. Between East And West: Garcia de Orta’s Colloquies and the Circulation of Medical Knowledge in the Sixteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes da Costa, Palmira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the importance of Garcia de Orta’s Colloquies on the simples and drugs of India (Goa, 1563 in the construction and circulation of Asian botanical and medical knowledge in the sixteenth century. It begins by examining the combined importance of experience and testimony in Orta’s assessment of materia medica from India. It then considers the relevance of interaction and exchange of medical systems between the West and the East in the Portuguese physician’s understanding of medical knowledge and practices. Finally, it analyses how medical and botanical information provided by this work was reframed by Carolus Clusius and circulated in new forms in Europe.En este artículo se analiza la importancia de los Coloquios sobre los medicamentos simples y drogas de la India [Colóquios sobre os simples e drogas da Índia] (Goa, 1563 de Garcia de Orta en la construcción y circulación del conocimiento médico y botánico en Asia en el siglo XVI. Se comienza examinando la importancia combinada de la experiencia y el testimonio en la evaluación de Orta sobre la materia medica de la India. A continuación se examina la importancia de la interacción y el intercambio de los sistemas médicos entre Occidente y Oriente en la comprensión del médico portugués sobre las prácticas y conocimientos médicos. Por último, se analiza como la información médica y botánica que ofrece este trabajo fue reformulada por Carolus Clusius y distribuida en una nueva forma en Europa.

  4. When East Meets West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A New York music festival bridges gap between Western and Chinese music cultures Audience members at the Isaac Stern Auditorium of Carnegie Hall in New York City could not help but respond with thunderous applause and shouts of "Gorgeous! Unbelievable! What a kungfu

  5. Perspectives East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Sasaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to elucidate the sense of space peculiar to Japanese sensibility. To accomplish this task I consult not only paintings but also waka, distinctively Japanese poetry. I also compare the structures of Japanese and Western perspective in order to highlight the distinctive features of the Japanese sense of space. In China and Japan, traditional landscape painting was called sansui painting, literally, painting of “mountains and waters,” unlike fūkei painting, which is a modern adaptation of the Western notion of landscape. Landscape as sansui is characterized by its vitalistic conception: the cosmic space is filled with ki, a vital and spiritual element. This view is reflected in the Japanese notion of keshiki (literally, color of ki, another word meaning landscape, to which I pay particular attention because it is a vernacular word and expresses the genuine Japanese sense of space, differentiated even from the Chinese perspective found in Sansui paintings. Such a space as keshiki was to be felt rather than seen. The notion of the picturesque was associated in Japan with a spatial extent. It is a concept closely related to a humid climate that produces much fog or haze. A typical description is found in the Tale of Genji. It is in waka, from the thirteenth century, that we find the first expression of Japanese perspective, which consists the combination of a tactile, sometimes auditory close range with the visual, distant range, yet without a middle range (which is obscured by fog. This is very different from Western geometrical perspective, which is essentially constituted by the middle range relating the close continuously to the distant. In painting, this Japanese perspective was realized for the first time in ukiyo-e, particularly in the work of Hokusai and Hiroshige. I assume that this composition was transplanted to the Western world during the fashion for “japonisme,” and now determines the basic composition of the landscape photograph.

  6. When West Meets East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulfelt, Flemming; Smith, Irene Skovgaard; Christensen, Kåre G.

    2014-01-01

    The paper explores how a Scandinavian management consulting firm entered the Indian market and how this process of international expansion set in motion a significant change in organisational identity. The purpose of the article is to explore and reflect on how a medium-sized consulting firm...... and ideas. A different firm emerged from the experience: one that is not only more international but which is also now becoming more clearly differentiated in the Scandinavian market. The phenomenon observed is termed 'reverse consulting' and is emerging as a new driver in the internationalisation...... managed its transition to the new context of India and the resulting implications for practising consulting in a new environment. In this case, the experience in India changed the firm and challenged preconceptions about the process of globalisation being a one-way export of Western products, knowledge...

  7. East Plays West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    A chamber ensemble fuses traditional Chinese instruments,with modern,Western compositions The ethereal, haunting sounds of Chinese traditional music can instantly transport a person to placid mountain lakes or back in time

  8. Comparing East and West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razeto, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the archaeological and literary evidence for marketplaces and urban forms connected to the manufacturing of bricks and metalworking in the capital cities of the contemporary empires of Rome and Han China (ca. 200 BC-200 AD). The comparative analysis of the physical aspects...... of these urban structures and the following discussion of the impact of the political, practical, ideological and economic circumstances of the two empires on the distribution and features of the architecture and industries presented, will highlight the extent to which the urban architecture of the capitals...

  9. Knowledge and Adherence to Medications among Palestinian Geriatrics Living with Chronic Diseases in the West Bank and East Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Anas; Amro, Yazan; Kitaneh, Islam; Abu-Sharar, Salam; Sawalha, Maryam; Jamous, Abrar; Qiq, Muhannad; Makharzeh, Enas; Subb Laban, Bayan; Amro, Wafa; Amro, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate patient knowledge about medications is essential for appropriate drug taking behavior and patient adherence. This study aims to assess and quantify the level of knowledge and adherence to medications among Palestinian geriatrics living with chronic diseases and to investigate possible associated socio-demographic characteristics. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study during June 2013 and January 2014 among Palestinian geriatrics ≥60 years old living with chronic disease in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. A stratified random sample was selected and a questionnaire-assisted interview was applied for data collection. T-test was applied for bivariate analyzing and one-way ANOVA test was applied for multivariate analyses. Results A total of 1192 Palestinian geriatrics were studied. The average age was 70.3 (SD=8.58) years and ranged from 60-110 years. The sample comprised 659 (55.3%) females and 533 (44.7%) males. The global knowledge and global adherence scores were (67.57%) and (89.29%), respectively. Adequate levels of knowledge were 71.4%, and of adherence 75%, which were recorded for 705 (59.1%) and 1088 (91.3%) participants, respectively. Significant higher levels of global knowledge and global adherence were recorded for males, and for participants who hold a Bachelor’s degree, those who live on their own, and did physical activity for more than 40 hours/week (p-value <0.05). Furthermore, workers, participants with a higher monthly income, and non-smokers have a higher knowledge level with (p-value <0.05). We found positive correlation between participants’ global adherence and global knowledge (r=0.487 and p-value <0.001). Negative correlation was found between participants’ global knowledge and adherence with age (r= -0.236, p-value <0.001 and r= -0.211 and p-value <0.001, respectively. Negative correlation between global knowledge and the number of drugs taken (r= -0.130, p-value <0.001) was predicted

  10. Knowledge and Adherence to Medications among Palestinian Geriatrics Living with Chronic Diseases in the West Bank and East Jerusalem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Najjar

    Full Text Available Adequate patient knowledge about medications is essential for appropriate drug taking behavior and patient adherence. This study aims to assess and quantify the level of knowledge and adherence to medications among Palestinian geriatrics living with chronic diseases and to investigate possible associated socio-demographic characteristics.We conducted a cross-sectional study during June 2013 and January 2014 among Palestinian geriatrics ≥ 60 years old living with chronic disease in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. A stratified random sample was selected and a questionnaire-assisted interview was applied for data collection. T-test was applied for bivariate analyzing and one-way ANOVA test was applied for multivariate analyses.A total of 1192 Palestinian geriatrics were studied. The average age was 70.3 (SD = 8.58 years and ranged from 60-110 years. The sample comprised 659 (55.3% females and 533 (44.7% males. The global knowledge and global adherence scores were (67.57% and (89.29%, respectively. Adequate levels of knowledge were 71.4%, and of adherence 75%, which were recorded for 705 (59.1% and 1088 (91.3% participants, respectively. Significant higher levels of global knowledge and global adherence were recorded for males, and for participants who hold a Bachelor's degree, those who live on their own, and did physical activity for more than 40 hours/week (p-value < 0.05. Furthermore, workers, participants with a higher monthly income, and non-smokers have a higher knowledge level with (p-value < 0.05. We found positive correlation between participants' global adherence and global knowledge (r = 0.487 and p-value < 0.001. Negative correlation was found between participants' global knowledge and adherence with age (r = -0.236, p-value < 0.001 and r = -0.211 and p-value < 0.001, respectively. Negative correlation between global knowledge and the number of drugs taken (r = -0.130, p-value < 0.001 was predicted.We concluded that patients with a

  11. Knowledge and Adherence to Medications among Palestinian Geriatrics Living with Chronic Diseases in the West Bank and East Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Anas; Amro, Yazan; Kitaneh, Islam; Abu-Sharar, Salam; Sawalha, Maryam; Jamous, Abrar; Qiq, Muhannad; Makharzeh, Enas; Subb Laban, Bayan; Amro, Wafa; Amro, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Adequate patient knowledge about medications is essential for appropriate drug taking behavior and patient adherence. This study aims to assess and quantify the level of knowledge and adherence to medications among Palestinian geriatrics living with chronic diseases and to investigate possible associated socio-demographic characteristics. We conducted a cross-sectional study during June 2013 and January 2014 among Palestinian geriatrics ≥ 60 years old living with chronic disease in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. A stratified random sample was selected and a questionnaire-assisted interview was applied for data collection. T-test was applied for bivariate analyzing and one-way ANOVA test was applied for multivariate analyses. A total of 1192 Palestinian geriatrics were studied. The average age was 70.3 (SD = 8.58) years and ranged from 60-110 years. The sample comprised 659 (55.3%) females and 533 (44.7%) males. The global knowledge and global adherence scores were (67.57%) and (89.29%), respectively. Adequate levels of knowledge were 71.4%, and of adherence 75%, which were recorded for 705 (59.1%) and 1088 (91.3%) participants, respectively. Significant higher levels of global knowledge and global adherence were recorded for males, and for participants who hold a Bachelor's degree, those who live on their own, and did physical activity for more than 40 hours/week (p-value < 0.05). Furthermore, workers, participants with a higher monthly income, and non-smokers have a higher knowledge level with (p-value < 0.05). We found positive correlation between participants' global adherence and global knowledge (r = 0.487 and p-value < 0.001). Negative correlation was found between participants' global knowledge and adherence with age (r = -0.236, p-value < 0.001 and r = -0.211 and p-value < 0.001, respectively. Negative correlation between global knowledge and the number of drugs taken (r = -0.130, p-value < 0.001) was predicted. We concluded that patients with a higher

  12. Socio-economic impacts of Parthenium hysterophorus L. in East Shewa and West Arsi zones of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niguse Hundessa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium hysterophorus L. is non-native invasive plant species belongs to the family Asteraceae. Currently it is a notorious weed in Ethiopia. Socio-economic impacts as well as the local people’s perception towards P. hysterophorus are poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to generate information for a better understanding of the means of dispersal, source introduction and socio-economic impacts, of P. hysterophorus in East shewa and West arsi Zones of the Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. The study revealed that parthenium was introduced mainly by following vehicles road and railways. This weed grows throughout the year. This results in its fast dispersal. Many mechanisms were assumed by respondents for fast distribution of P. hysterophorus in the study zones. Among these vehicles and wind are the major agents, which proliferate the seeds of the weed. Based on the study it grows in roadsides, grazing land, cropland, village sides and wastelands. Most of respondents also indicated that the weed first appeared on roadside and propagated to other habitats. This finding indicated that the weed high in disturbed habitats. Control methods, which are mostly practiced by local people, were tillage and hand weeding. However, these methods were not an efficient to control the weed distribution; rather it is expanding from time to time since its invasions. P. hysterophorus has a number of socioeconomic impacts that include effect on crop and livestock production, human health, soil fertility and biodiversity. This finding showed that it competes and suppress the growth of crops due its allelopathic nature. Seeds of this weed changes the normal flavor of food when mix with it. It also colonized grazing fields, thus causing animal food scarcity, animals’ health defect. This finding also reported that P. hysterophorus has health hazards on human being, which include allergic, skin itching (irritation, cough and hemorrhage. Generally, P

  13. Mobile assessment of on-road air pollution and its sources along the East-West Highway in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Tenzin; Knibbs, Luke D.; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-10-01

    Human exposures in transportation microenvironments are poorly represented by ambient stationary monitoring. A number of on-road studies using vehicle-based mobile monitoring have been conducted to address this. Most previous studies were conducted on urban roads in developed countries where the primary emission source was vehicles. Few studies have examined on-road pollution in developing countries in urban settings. Currently, no study has been conducted for roadways in rural environments where a substantial proportion of the population live. This study aimed to characterize on-road air quality on the East-West Highway (EWH) in Bhutan and identify its principal sources. We conducted six mobile measurements of PM10, particle number (PN) count and CO along the entire 570 km length of the EWH. We divided the EWH into five segments, R1-R5, taking the road length between two district towns as a single road segment. The pollutant concentrations varied widely along the different road segments, with the highest concentrations for R5 compared with other road segments (PM10 = 149 μg/m3, PN = 5.74 × 104 particles/cm-3, CO = 0.19 ppm), which is the final segment of the road to the capital. Apart from vehicle emissions, the dominant sources were road works, unpaved roads and roadside combustion activities. Overall, the highest contributions above the background levels were made by unpaved roads for PM10 (6 times background), and vehicle emissions for PN and CO (5 and 15 times background, respectively). Notwithstanding the differences in instrumentation used and particle size range measured, the current study showed lower PN concentrations compared with similar on-road studies. However, concentrations were still high enough that commuters, road maintenance workers and residents living along the EWH, were potentially exposed to elevated pollutant concentrations from combustion and non-combustion sources. Future studies should focus on assessing the dispersion patterns of

  14. Supporting documentation for requested exceptions to standing orders 96-36 (East) and 96-34 (West)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, J.S.

    1997-01-16

    On November 1, 1996 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) approved the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Wagoner 1996). The Tank Waste Remediation System issued (Hall 1996) two standing orders (96-36 East; and 96-34 West) to implement the requirements and authorization for continued operations included in the RL letter (Wagoner 199E). These standing orders included several requirements for the control of ignition sources (Appendix B, Section 7.0 ``Ignition Source Controls``) that include requirements for the design and operation of ``...equipment and materials used in the conduct of work...`` in Tank Farms. A verbatim compliance review of these ignition source controls identified several pieces of equipment and materials which have been used routinely in Tanks Farms for many years in support of safe operation that either could not: meet the equivalent design or safety provisions included in the standing orders (Hall 1996), or 21. be modified in a timely manner to meet safety and programmatic commitments. When the standing order was prepared it was anticipated that there would be a need to approve temporary exceptions. Appendix B, Section 7.0 of the standing order (Hall 1996) reads in part as follows: ``For activities where compliance will require modification to equipment or new materials, any temporary exceptions specifically allowed by RL until full compliance with the standing order is accomplished, are listed in Table 3.`` This document provides a specific listing of the items of equipment or material that could not meet the above two criteria. Also included in a table for each item is the following information: 1. the applicable control in the standing orders that could not be met, 2. under what conditions (when) the control could not be met, 3. a discussion of the applicability of the standing order, 4. a discussion of the risk associated with continued use of the equipment or material, and 5. a discussion of the

  15. North African dust deposition and hydroclimate over the last 60 ka: A combined view from the east and west of the continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsley, C. W.; McGee, D.; Bradtmiller, L. I.; Tierney, J. E.; Winckler, G.; Stuut, J. B. W.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    Past changes in atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate over North Africa can be explored by reconstructing eolian dust accumulation in both East and West African margin sediments. Recent high-resolution reconstructions of dust deposition from West Africa (1) indicate dramatic changes in North African dust emissions over the last 20 ka, with comparable results to those found in the terrigenous accumulation rates at nearby ODP Hole 658C (2). A high-resolution record of aridity from East Africa using δDwax indicates dramatic changes in hydroclimate over the past 40 ka (3). The records show similar trends with arid conditions/high dust emissions seen during the Last Glacial Maximum, the Younger Dryas and Heinrich Event 1 (H1), and the wettest conditions of the past 40,000 years with accompanying low dust emissions during the African Humid Period. This study has two goals: 1) Extend the dust flux and terrigeneous accumulation records from West Africa back to 35 ka and 60 ka respectively, to provide quantitative estimates of the magnitude of eolian deposition changes associated with previous Heinrich Stadials (H2 to H6) and summer insolation minima/maxima; 2) Construct a high-resolution record of eolian dust accumulation rates off the East African margin over the past 20 ka using the same sample material as (3) allowing quantitative estimates of the magnitude of dust flux changes associated with abrupt changes in hydroclimate and provide a direct comparison of dust flux and δDwax. The combination of these study areas from both sides of the African continent, and comparison of the dust and leaf wax proxies promises to provide a more complete picture of hydroclimate changes accompanying orbital- and millennial-scale climate changes in North Africa over the last 60,000 years. 1. EPSL 371-372, 163-176. 2. Paleoceanography 21, PA4203. 3. Science 342, 843-846.

  16. Fuzzy Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    the world of logic than friction in mechanics. — Charles Sanders Peirce 1 Rational deterrence theory rests on the foundation that...4 Kosko, Fuzzy Thinking, 4-17. 5 Daniel McNeill and Paul Freiberger, Fuzzy Logic: The Revolutionary Computer Technology That Is Changing Our...1 McNeill and Freiberger, Fuzzy Logic, 174. 2 Yarger, Little Book on Big Strategy, 16. 3 Mukaidono, Fuzzy Logic for

  17. Fuzzy Cores and Fuzzy Balancedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; Norde, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    We study the relation between the fuzzy core and balancedness for fuzzy games. For regular games, this relation has been studied by Bondareva (1963) and Shapley (1967). First, we gain insight in this relation when we analyse situations where the fuzzy game is continuous. Our main result shows that a

  18. Fuzzy Cores and Fuzzy Balancedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; Norde, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    We study the relation between the fuzzy core and balancedness for fuzzy games. For regular games, this relation has been studied by Bondareva (1963) and Shapley (1967). First, we gain insight in this relation when we analyse situations where the fuzzy game is continuous. Our main result shows that

  19. 中西文化的冲突与交融%The Collision and Integration of the West-East Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄爱琼; 罗雨青

    2011-01-01

    全球化趋势不断加快,国家和地区间不同文化之间的频繁交流。毋庸置疑,东西方文化交流不可避免地会产生碰撞与融合。此外,东西方文化应该互相交流,并融合在一起,以促进不同的文化间进行有效地沟通,推动不同文化之间的相互发展。跨文化交际这个术语就应时而生了。%The trend of globalization has been increasingly accelerating frequent cultural exchange among countries in the world.Undoubtedly,the East cultures would have inevitable collision and integration with the West cultures;in addition,the West exchange their cultures with the East so as to promote effective communication and development.The term of Intercultural communication is therefore born.

  20. Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Indonesian freshwater fish Rasbora lateristriata species complex (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae): Cryptic species and west-to-east divergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Wahyu Endra; Ratmuangkhwang, Sahat; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2016-12-01

    Rasbora lateristriata is a primary freshwater fish described from Java Island of Indonesia but its taxonomy, phylogeny, and distributional boundary have not been fully studied. Rasbora baliensis was described as a species endemic to Balinese lakes but its taxonomic status has been controversial in relation to R. lateristriata. Here, we collected Rasbora fishes from various freshwater localities of Java Island, as well as five neighboring islands to conduct molecular and morphological analyses on their phylogenetic relationships. Both molecular analyses using two mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences and morphological analyses featuring the body color pattern consistently support that the currently recognized R. lateristriata forms a species complex including at least four major lineages that possibly represent different species. In one of the major lineages, Balinese individuals cluster with those from East Javanese, Lombok and Sumbawa localities, calling for taxonomic revision on R. baliensis. The other three major lineages occur in distinct regions of central, west-central, and western Java and they can be clearly distinguished by the combination of pigmentation patterns in the basicaudal blotch and the supra anal pigment. Our molecular phylogeny suggests west-to-east divergences of the R. lateristriata species complex in Java Island from the late Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene before it finally crossed Wallace's Line, colonizing Lombok and Sumbawa Islands very recently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Breast Cancer Phenotypes in African American, White American, and West Versus East African patients: Correlation Between African Ancestry and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiagge, Evelyn; Jibril, Aisha Souleiman; Chitale, Dhananjay; Bensenhaver, Jessica M; Awuah, Baffour; Hoenerhoff, Mark; Adjei, Ernest; Bekele, Mahteme; Abebe, Engida; Nathanson, S David; Gyan, Kofi; Salem, Barbara; Oppong, Joseph; Aitpillah, Francis; Kyei, Ishmael; Bonsu, Ernest Osei; Proctor, Erica; Merajver, Sofia D; Wicha, Max; Stark, Azadeh; Newman, Lisa A

    2016-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is more common among African American (AA) and western sub-Saharan African breast cancer (BC) patients compared with White/Caucasian Americans (WA) and Europeans. Little is known about TNBC in east Africa. Invasive BC diagnosed 1998-2014 were evaluated: WA and AA patients from the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan; Ghanaian/west Africans from the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana; and Ethiopian/east Africans from the St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu expression was performed in Michigan on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from all cases. A total of 234 Ghanaian (mean age 49 years), 94 Ethiopian (mean age 43 years), 272 AA (mean age 60 years), and 321 WA (mean age 62 years; p = 0.001) patients were compared. ER-negative and TNBC were more common among Ghanaian and AA compared with WA and Ethiopian cases (frequency ER-negativity 71.1 and 37.1 % vs. 19.8 and 28.6 % respectively, p < 0.0001; frequency TNBC 53.2 and 29.8 % vs. 15.5 and 15.0 %, respectively, p < 0.0001). Among patients younger than 50 years, prevalence of TNBC remained highest among Ghanaians (50.8 %) and AA (34.3 %) compared with WA and Ethiopians (approximately 16 % in each; p = 0.0002). This study confirms an association between TNBC and West African ancestry; TNBC frequency among AA patients is intermediate between WA and Ghanaian/West Africans consistent with genetic admixture following the west Africa-based trans-Atlantic slave trade. TNBC frequency was low among Ethiopians/East Africans; this may reflect less shared ancestry between AA and Ethiopians.

  2. Geoologic controls on the architecture of the Antarctic Ice Sheet's basal interface: New results from West and East Antarctica from long range geophysics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Richter, T.; Aitken, A.; Siegert, M. J.; Roberts, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The ice-rock interface underlying the Antarctic Ice Sheet was shaped by interactions between underlying gondwanan geology and the overlying ice sheet. The ice sheet now preserves from sedimentary infill an incredibly rugged terrain which now plays a critical role in shaping subglacial hydrology, and thus shape ice sheet behavior. This terrain can by imaged through aerogeophysical means, in particular through ice penetrating radar, while airborne potential fields measurements provide insight into the geological framework that controlled erosion. Over the post IPY era, the density of airborne coverage is only now reaching the point where small scale structure can be identified and placed in context. Of particular importance is understanding the formation of focused erosional valleys, 30-50 km wide, representing now buried subglacial fjords. After initial data from the GIMBLE project in West Antarctica, and five years of sustained long range ICECAP surveys over East Antarctica , we now have a better view of the diversity of these features. The local erosion of these valleys, often cutting through significant topographic barriers, irregularly samples the underlying geology, provided a complex story in the sediment to the Antarctic margin. These valleys now provide the subglacial conduits for significant ice sheet catchments, in particular for subglacial water, including the inland catchments of DeVicq, Thwaites, and Pine Island Glaciers in West Antarctica, and Denman Glacier, Totten Glacier, Byrd Glacier and Cook Ice Shelf in East Antarctica. We find that these features, now sometimes hundreds of kilometers inland of the modern grounding line, often nucleate on or are aligned with structure inherited from the assembly of the Antarctic continent. While many of these features currently host active outlet glaciers or their tributaries, some do not, implying avenues for ice sheet change. In West Antarctica, we find a new deep connection between the coast and interior basin

  3. Fuzzy Ideals and Fuzzy Distributive Lattices%Fuzzy Ideals and Fuzzy Distributive Lattices*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.H.Dhanani; Y. S. Pawar

    2011-01-01

    Our main objective is to study properties of a fuzzy ideals (fuzzy dual ideals). A study of special types of fuzzy ideals (fuzzy dual ideals) is also furnished. Some properties of a fuzzy ideals (fuzzy dual ideals) are furnished. Properties of a fuzzy lattice homomorphism are discussed. Fuzzy ideal lattice of a fuzzy lattice is defined and discussed. Some results in fuzzy distributive lattice are proved.

  4. Were West Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding events in the Ross Sea a consequence of East Antarctic Ice Sheet expansion during the middle Miocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Philip J.

    2003-11-01

    Seismic correlation of glacial unconformities from the Ross Sea outer continental shelf to chronostratigraphic control at DSDP sites 272 and 273 indicates that at least two West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) expansions occurred during the early part of the middle Miocene (i.e. well before completion of continental-scale expansion of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) inferred from δ 18O and eustatic shifts). Therefore, if the volume of the EAIS was indeed relatively low, and if the Ross Sea age model is valid, then these WAIS expansions/contractions were not a direct consequence of EAIS expansion over the Transantarctic Mountains onto West Antarctica. An in-situ development of the WAIS during the middle Miocene suggests that either West Antarctic land elevations were above sea level and/or that air and water temperatures were sufficiently cold to support a marine-based ice sheet. Additional chronostratigraphic and lithologic data are needed from Antarctic margins to test these speculations.

  5. On Fuzzy Simplex and Fuzzy Convex Hull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong QIU; Wei Quan ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we discuss fuzzy simplex and fuzzy convex hull,and give several representation theorems for fuzzy simplex and fuzzy convex hull.In addition,by giving a new characterization theorem of fuzzy convex hull,we improve some known results about fuzzy convex hull.

  6. The Fuzzy Set by Fuzzy Interval

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Pranita Goswami

    2011-01-01

    Fuzzy set by Fuzzy interval is atriangular fuzzy number lying between the two specified limits. The limits to be not greater than 2 and less than -2 by fuzzy interval have been discussed in this paper. Through fuzzy interval we arrived at exactness which is a fuzzymeasure and fuzzy integral

  7. The PST Project, Willie Herron's Street Mural Asco East of No West (2011 and the Mural Remix Tour: Power Relations on the Los Angeles Art Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zetterman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article departs from the huge art-curating project Pacific Standard Time: Art in L.A., 1945-1980, a Getty funded initiative running in Southern California from October 2011 to April 2012 with a collaboration of more than sixty cultural institutions coming together to celebrate the birth of the L.A. art scene. One of the Pacific Standard Time (PST exhibitions was Asco: Elite of the Obscure, A Retrospective, 1972-1987, running from September to December 2011 at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA. This was the first retrospective of a conceptual performance group of Chicanos from East Los Angeles, who from the early 1970s to the mid 1980s acted out critical interventions in the politically contested urban space of Los Angles. In conjunction with the Asco retrospective at LACMA, the Getty Foundation co-sponsored a new street mural by the Chicano artist Willie Herron, paying homage to his years in the performance group Asco. The PST exhibition program also included so-called Mural Remix Tours, taking fine art audiences from LACMA to Herron's place-specific new mural in City Terrace in East Los Angeles. This article analyze the inclusion in the PST project of Herron's site-specific mural in City Terrace and the Mural Remix Tours to East Los Angeles with regard to the power relations of fine art and critical subculture, center and periphery, the mainstream and the marginal. As a physical monument dependent on a heavy sense of the past, Herron's new mural, titled Asco: East of No West, transforms the physical and social environment of City Terrace, changing its public space into an official place of memory. At the same time, as an art historical monument officially added to the civic map of Los Angeles, the mural becomes a permanent reminder of the segregation patterns that still exist in the urban space of Los Angeles.

  8. 两汉疾疫及其应对机制初探%Infectious Diseases in the West and East Han Dynasties and Their Coping Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明娟; 王社教

    2012-01-01

    China suffered rather serious infectious diseases in the West and East Han Dynasties.These diseases occurred extensively,ranging from the prairie region in the north to the Five Ridges in the south,and frequently,mostly in spring and summer.An analysis of historical records of infectious diseases in the West and East Han Dynasties is necessary to recover the general situation of those diseases,reveal the current perception of binding elements to the rise of infectious diseases,mainly including restrictions of climate and phenology in lunar months,environmental disasters and supernatural powers by heaven-man interactions.Meanwhile,a complete coping mechanism to infectious diseases was already established in the periods,including medical treatment and disease-prevention.Therefore,a study of the coping mechanisms to infectious diseases in the West and East Han Dynasties is of great significance to our current practice of coping with infectious diseases.%两汉时期疫情较为严重,从地域分布来看,北至草原地带,南至岭南,均有疾疫。从发病时间来看,以春、夏两季居多。分析正史中关于两汉疾疫的记载,复原两汉疾疫概况,揭示两汉时人对疾疫产生的制约因素的认识,主要包括月令气候制约、环境灾害制约、天人感应鬼神怪物的制约等三个因素。同时,两汉时期已经建立了较为完善的疾疫应对机制,包括医药治疗和禳疫两种形式。研究两汉时期的疾疫应对机制对我们现在应对流行性传染病有着重要意义。

  9. Fuzzy Riesz subspaces, fuzzy ideals, fuzzy bands and fuzzy band projections

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Liang

    2015-01-01

    Fuzzy ordered linear spaces, Riesz spaces, fuzzy Archimedean spaces and $\\sigma$-complete fuzzy Riesz spaces were defined and studied in several works. Following the efforts along this line, we define fuzzy Riesz subspaces, fuzzy ideals, fuzzy bands and fuzzy band projections and establish their fundamental properties.

  10. Between company and state : The dutch east and west india companies as brokers between war and profit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandon, Pepijn; Baars, Grietje; Spicer, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Early modern chartered companies like the Dutch East India Company (VOC) are widely seen as the precursors of the modern corporation. However, the relation between the two remains mired in confusion. While writers working in a Neo-Classical or New Institutional Economics framework highlight the

  11. Study and Application of Internal Coating Technique to Drag Reduction of the Trunk Pipeline for the West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuShixin; QuShenyang; LinZhu

    2004-01-01

    Coverage layer coated in the internal wall of pipeline enables the friction drag to be reduced, the throughput and the gas transmission efficiency to be increased, the frequency of pigging and the number of the intermediate compressor station to be reduced, and the power consumption of the compressor to be decreased etc. The drag reduction is a high advanced scientific technique with outstanding economical benefit. The study and application of internal coating technique for drag reduction of 4000km trunk pipeline in West-East gas transmission pipeline (WEGTP) project are described, in which the main points are the drag reduction principle, coating process and the indoor study of this technique with own-decided knowledge property right at home.

  12. Pleasantness bias in flashbulb memories: positive and negative flashbulb memories of the fall of the Berlin Wall among East and West Germans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dornhe

    2007-04-01

    Flashbulb memories for the fall of the Berlin Wall were examined among 103 East and West Germans who considered the event as either highly positive or highly negative. The participants in the positive group rated their memories higher on measures of reliving and sensory imagery, whereas their memory for facts was less accurate than that of the participants in the negative group. The participants in the negative group had higher ratings on amount of consequences but had talked less about the event and considered it less central to their personal and national identity than did the participants in the positive group. In both groups, rehearsal and the centrality of the memory to the person's identity and life story correlated positively with memory qualities. The results suggest that positive and negative emotions have different effects on the processing and long-term retention of flashbulb memories.

  13. On the Fuzzy Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hameed Q. A. Al-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the fuzzy neighborhood, the limit fuzzy number, the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence on the base which is adopted by Abdul Hameed (every real number r is replaced by a fuzzy number r¯ (either triangular fuzzy number or singleton fuzzy set (fuzzy point. And then, we will consider that some results respect effect of the upper sequence on the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence.

  14. Fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.

  15. Fuzzy promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Kappel, Klemens; Eadie, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This article clarifies the commonplace assumption that brands make promises by developing definitions of brand promise delivery. Distinguishing between clear and fuzzy brand promises, we develop definitions of what it is for a brand to deliver on fuzzy functional, symbolic, and experiential...

  16. Seroprevalence of West Nile virus antibodies in equids in the North-East of Algeria and detection of virus circulation in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; Prat, Christine M; Bitam, Idir; Gravier, Patrick; Besbaci, Mohamed; Zeroual, Fayçal; Ben-Mahdi, Meriem Hind; Davoust, Bernard; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle

    2017-02-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral disease of wild birds transmitted by mosquitoes. Humans and equids can also be affected and suffer from meningoencephalitis. In Algeria, since the 1994 epidemic, no data on WNV circulation was available until 2012. In September 2012, a fatal human case of WNV neuro-invasive infection occurred in Jijel province. This study describes the first seroprevalence study of West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies conducted in the equine population in Algeria. During 2014, serum samples were collected from 293 equids (222 donkeys and 71 horses) asymptomatic and unvaccinated for WNV in three localities in Northeastern wetlands of Algeria. Antibodies against WNV were found in 51 samples (seroprevalence 17.4%) of sampled equids, distributed as follows: 19 (seroprevalence 26.8%) horses and 32 (seroprevalence 14.4%) donkeys. Moreover 7 horses coming from Blida, in the center of Algeria, were tested before and after an 8-months stay in North-East Algeria. We observe a seroconversion in 2 horses, showing WNV circulation in 2014 in this specific region of Algeria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Genetic heterogeneity in a cyclical forest pest, the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is differentiated into east and west groups in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Natalie M; Schrey, Aaron W; Heist, Edward J; Reeve, John D

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an economically important pest species throughout the southeastern United States, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Previous research identified population structure among widely distant locations, yet failed to detect population structure among national forests in the state of Mississippi. This study uses microsatellite variation throughout the southeastern United States to compare the southern pine beetle's pattern of population structure to phylogeographic patterns in the region, and to provide information about dispersal. Bayesian clustering identified east and west genetic groups spanning multiple states. The east group had lower heterozygosity, possibly indicating greater habitat fragmentation or a more recent colonization. Significant genetic differentiation (θ(ST) = 0.01, p < 0.0001) followed an isolation-by-distance pattern (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) among samples, and a hierarchical AMOVA indicated slightly more differentiation occurred between multi-state groups. The observed population structure matches a previously identified phylogeographic pattern, division of groups along the Appalachian Mountain/Apalachicola River axis. Our results indicate that the species likely occurs as a large, stable metapopulation with considerable gene flow among subpopulations. Also, the relatively low magnitude of genetic differentiation among samples suggests that southern pine beetles may respond similarly to management across their range.

  18. 寒冷地区东西向住宅演进及户型布局研究%Study on evolution and layout of the east-west residence in cold area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝晖; 鲁晓喆; 刘甦

    2011-01-01

    适度发展东西向住宅是推进住宅建设集约化发展的重要途径,本文探讨寒冷地区东西向住宅的实践价值及设计规律,以为贯彻国家节能省地住宅产业策略提供思路.论文探讨了东西向住宅的节地可行性、气候适应性和市场适应性;结合对该类住宅发展演进的研究,指出东西向住宅已成为当今住宅区建设的重要组成部分;进而,通过对住宅户型五种典型布局形式的总结,提出了寒冷地区东西向住宅的适应性设计模式.%Moderate development of east-west residence is an important way of promoting intensive development of housing construction. In order to implement national energy-saving and land-saving residential industry strategies, the paper has studied the adaptive design of east-west residence in cold area. It discusses the land-saving feasibility, the climate adaptability and the market adaptability of this kind of house. Secondly, with the research on the evolution of east-west residence, the conclusion is drawn that the east-west residence is one of the most important ways of housing construction now. Finally , we put forward the adaptive design mode of east-west residence in cold area through summarizing five kinds of typical layout.

  19. 教育收益率的地区差异研究%The Difference of the Returns to Education between East and Mid-West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵显洲

    2015-01-01

    The returns to education have great impact on the growth of economy in different areas and the regional economic imbalance. This paper conducts the research on the regional difference of the returns to education from the perspective of the regional economic growth and the results show that the returns to education in east China, measured whether in general or in different gender, is higher than that in mid-west China. The returns to higher education are higher than that to primary and middle school in east China. The returns to primary and middle school are higher than that to higher education in mid-west China. Women's returns to education, whether measured in general or in different educational levels, are higher than that of man both in east China and mid-west China. The implications of the conclusions above are that the returns to education, especially to higher education must be improved in mid-west china. The financial input to higher education must be kept sustainable growth , meanwhile the cost for higher education must be decreased. The educational rights of women must be guaranteed and the women in special group must be insured that they can receive , at least, the education from primary and middle school.%教育收益率的高低对不同地区的经济增长速度和地区经济差异有着重要的影响。文章从区域经济增长的角度出发,对教育收益率的区域差异进行研究,研究结果显示:无论是从总体上看还是从性别看来,东部地区的教育收益率普遍高于中西部地区;在东部地区,高等教育的收益率高于中小学教育的收益率;在中西部地区,高等教育收益率低于中小学教育收益率。无论在东部还是在西部,从总体上看还是从教育层次看,女性的教育收益率均高于男性。上述结论的政策启示是:中西部地区要夯实提高教育收益率特别是高等教育的收益率的产业基础和市场基础;必须保持对高等

  20. Industrious peasants in east and west: markets, technology, and family structure in Japanese and Western European agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Jan de Vries engages with Osamu Saito's discussion of Tokugawa Japan, in particular, his exploration of de Vries's concept of an industrious revolution for East Asia, which was published in this journal in 2010. The discussion bears on the ongoing debate over the timing and character of the Great Divergence, when advanced parts of Europe pulled ahead of Asia. de Vries argues that the constraint on the Japanese rural household to acquire and shed labour delayed the shift from supply-side industriousness to demand-motivated industriousness, which in turn meant that the Great Divergence was already in place before 1800.

  1. How many sutures in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Insights from East Xinjiang–West Gansu (NW China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiao Xiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How ophiolitic mélanges can be defined as sutures is controversial with regard to accretionary orogenesis and continental growth. The Chinese Altay, East Junggar, Tianshan, and Beishan belts of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB in Northwest China, offer a special natural laboratory to resolve this puzzle. In the Chinese Altay, the Erqis unit consists of ophiolitic mélanges and coherent assemblages, forming a Paleozoic accretionary complex. At least two ophiolitic mélanges (Armantai, and Kelameili in East Junggar, characterized by imbricated ophiolitic mélanges, Nb-enriched basalts, adakitic rocks and volcanic rocks, belong to a Devonian–Carboniferous intra-oceanic island arc with some Paleozoic ophiolites, superimposed by Permian arc volcanism. In the Tianshan, ophiolitic mélanges like Kanggurtag, North Tianshan, and South Tianshan occur as part of some Paleozoic accretionary complexes related to amalgamation of arc terranes. In the Beishan there are also several ophiolitic mélanges, including the Hongshishan, Xingxingxia–Shibangjing, Hongliuhe–Xichangjing, and Liuyuan ophiolitic units. Most ophiolitic mélanges in the study area are characterized by ultramafic, mafic and other components, which are juxtaposed, or even emplaced as lenses and knockers in a matrix of some coherent units. The tectonic settings of various components are different, and some adjacent units in the same mélange show contrasting different tectonic settings. The formation ages of these various components are in a wide spectrum, varying from Neoproterozoic to Permian. Therefore we cannot assume that these ophiolitic mélanges always form in linear sutures as a result of the closure of specific oceans. Often the ophiolitic components formed either as the substrate of intra-oceanic arcs, or were accreted as lenses or knockers in subduction-accretion complexes. Using published age and paleogeographic constraints, we propose the presence of (1 a major

  2. How many sutures in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt:Insights from East XinjiangeWest Gansu (NW China)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjiao Xiao; Jun Luo; Chunming Han; Wei Liu; Bo Wan; Ji’en Zhang; Songjian Ao; Zhiyong Zhang; Dongfang Song; Zhonghua Tian

    2014-01-01

    How ophiolitic mélanges can be defined as sutures is controversial with regard to accretionary orogenesis and continental growth. The Chinese Altay, East Junggar, Tianshan, and Beishan belts of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Northwest China, offer a special natural laboratory to resolve this puzzle. In the Chinese Altay, the Erqis unit consists of ophiolitic mélanges and coherent assemblages, forming a Paleozoic accretionary complex. At least two ophiolitic mélanges (Armantai, and Kelameili) in East Junggar, characterized by imbricated ophiolitic mélanges, Nb-enriched basalts, adakitic rocks and volcanic rocks, belong to a DevonianeCarboniferous intra-oceanic island arc with some Paleozoic ophiolites, superimposed by Permian arc volcanism. In the Tianshan, ophiolitic mélanges like Kanggurtag, North Tianshan, and South Tianshan occur as part of some Paleozoic accretionary complexes related to amalgamation of arc terranes. In the Beishan there are also several ophiolitic mélanges, including the Hongshishan, XingxingxiaeShibangjing, HongliuheeXichangjing, and Liuyuan ophiolitic units. Most ophiolitic mélanges in the study area are characterized by ultramafic, mafic and other components, which are juxtaposed, or even emplaced as lenses and knockers in a matrix of some coherent units. The tectonic settings of various components are different, and some adjacent units in the same mélange show contrasting different tectonic settings. The formation ages of these various com-ponents are in a wide spectrum, varying from Neoproterozoic to Permian. Therefore we cannot assume that these ophiolitic mélanges always form in linear sutures as a result of the closure of specific oceans. Often the ophiolitic components formed either as the substrate of intra-oceanic arcs, or were accreted as lenses or knockers in subduction-accretion complexes. Using published age and paleogeographic con-straints, we propose the presence of (1) a major early Paleozoic

  3. Review and protection possibilities of some trans-border (East Serbia-West Bulgaria stratigraphic/palaeontological geosites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Velimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stratigraphic/palaeontological geosites of Stara Planina Mountain in east Serbia are well developed in the area of Serbian/Bulgarian state border, where with this occassion, three sections of exeptional geological and scientific interest are selected: Jelovica, Rosomač and Senokos. These geosites represent the important localities for study of Triassic and Jurassic terrigene-carbonate deposits, for which the scientific value from the domains of palaeontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology is widely known. The aim of this work is to represent the main scientific arguments for inventory and protection of detached transborder geological sites that are unique according to their composition and content.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  4. Detection of the East and West African kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis from Uganda using a new assay based on FRET/Melt Curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backeljau Thierry

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate monitoring of vector resistance to insecticides is an integral component of planning and evaluation of insecticide use in malaria control programmes. The malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides as a result of a mechanism conferring reduced nervous system sensitivity, better known as knockdown resistance (kdr. In An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, two different substitutions in the para-type sodium channel, a L1014F substitution common in West Africa and a L1014S replacement found in Kenya, are linked with kdr. Two different allele-specific polymerase chain reactions (AS-PCR are needed to detect these known kdr mutations. However, these AS-PCR assays rely on a single nucleotide polymorphism mismatch, which can result in unreliable results. Methods Here, a new assay for the detection of knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/Melt Curve analysis (FRET/MCA is presented and compared with the existing assays. Results The new FRET/MCA method has the important advantage of detecting both kdr alleles in one assay. Moreover, results show that the FRET/MCA is more reliable and more sensitive than the existing AS-PCR assays and is able to detect new genotypes. By using this technique, the presence of the East African kdr mutation (L1014S is shown for the first time in An. arabiensis specimens from Uganda. In addition, a new kdr genotype is reported in An. gambiae s.s. from Uganda, where four An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes possess both, the West (L1014F and East (L1014S African kdr allele, simultaneously. Conclusion The presence of both kdr mutations in the same geographical region shows the necessity of a reliable assay that enables to detect both mutations in one single assay. Hence, this new assay based on FRET/MCA will improve the screening of the kdr frequencies in An. gambiae s

  5. Significant impact of the East Asia monsoon on ozone seasonal behavior in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y. J.; Uno, I.; Wang, Z. F.; Pochanart, P.; Li, J.; Akimoto, H.

    2008-12-01

    The impact of the East Asia monsoon on the seasonal behavior of O3 in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region was analyzed for 2004-2006 by means of full-year nested chemical transport model simulations and continuous observational data obtained from three inland mountain sites in central and eastern China and three oceanic sites in the west Pacific region. The basic common features of O3 seasonal behaviors over all the monitoring sites are the pre- and post-monsoon peaks with a summer trough. Such bimodal seasonal patterns of O3 are predominant over the region with strong summer monsoon penetration, and become weaker or even disappear outside the monsoon region. The seasonal/geographical distribution of the pre-defined monsoon index indicated that the East Asia summer monsoon is responsible for the bimodal seasonal O3 pattern, and also partly account for the differences in the O3 seasonal variations between the inland mountain and oceanic sites. Over the inland mountain sites, the O3 concentration increased gradually from the beginning of the year, reached a maximum in June, decreased rapidly to the summer valley in July or August, and then peaked in September or October, thereafter decreased gradually again. Over the oceanic sites, O3 abundance showed a similar increasing trend beginning in January, but then decreased gradually from the end of March, followed by a wide trough with the minimum in July and August and a small peak in October or November. A sensitivity analysis performed by setting China-emission to zero revealed that the chemically produced O3 from China-emission contributed substantially to the O3 abundance, particularly the pre- and post-monsoon O3 peaks, over China mainland. We found that China-emission contributed more than 40% to total boundary layer O3 during summertime (60-70% in July) and accounted for about 40 ppb of each peak value over the inland region if without considering the effect of the nonlinear chemical

  6. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  7. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  8. East and West: Orientalism, war and the colonial present Este e Oeste: Orientalismo, guerra e a contemporaneidade colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Assayag

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available For at least two hundred years, Western countries have exercized a "benevolent" violence through colonization. Advocated in the name of the "civilizing mission" of the West and inspired by eschatology, this calling held the promise of redemption, both for the colonizer and for the colonized. The "war declared on terrorism" after the massacre of 9/11 in New York, with the subsequent military operations in Afghanistan and in Iraq, revives this tradition of ameliorative interventionism by carrying on the old orientalist-related topoi. Far from effacing the Great Divide between the West and the Rest, the wars of a putatively new type reinforce and polarize the division between "civilized" and "barbaric" in the era of "globalization". The unfolding ideology of the American, according to which there would no longer be "outside" or "inside", because no country would now be exempt from terrorism, obscures at little cost, but not ineffectually, the "colonial present". What now prevails is a sombre vision of globalization, that of a fight to the death between two worlds, extending over all continents, between the "Empire of the Good", incarnated by America, and the "Empire of Evil", incarnated by Islamic terrorism. But this novelty goes back to schemas that are as old as the United States itself, insofar as this self-proclaimed "exceptional", "unilateral" and "providential" "imperial republic" has an idealistic or utopian component qualified as "indispensable". Welcome the the "Wilsonism in boots"!Ao longo de pelo menos duzentos anos, os países ocidentais exercitaram uma violência "benevolente" através do colonialismo. Advogado, à época, em nome de uma "missão civilizadora" do Ocidente e inspirado na escatologia, este chamamento invocava a promessa da redenção, tanto para o colonizador como para o colonizado. A declaração de "guerra ao terrorismo" depois do massacre de 11 de Setembro em Nova Iorque, e as subsequentes operações militares no

  9. Petrology and geochemistry of intrusive body of iron deposit of Sarab-3, east of Takab-north west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sarab-3 intrusive bodyis located in the NW of Iran, in Sanandaj-Sirjan zone and in the east of Takab city. Based on field observations as well as petrographic features, the lithologic composition of intrusion (Miocene age ranges within the diorite-leucodiorite, monzodiorite, quartz monzodiorite, granodiorite and granite. In terms of geochemical characteristics, the rocks studied, are I-type, with calc-alkaline affinity and meta-aluminous character. Enrichment of LILE (K, U, Sr, Ce, Th, Pb, Ba and LREE relative to HFSE (Zr, Y, Ti, P, Nb and HREE, low Ce / Pb and Nb / U ratios and high Ba / Nb reveal that the rocks under study were originated in an active continental margin subduction-related tectonic setting. The negative anomalies of Ti, Nb and P on the spider diagram also confirm this fact. Low ratios of (Na2O + K2O / (FeOt + MgO + TiO2 and (Al2O3 / FeOt + MgO + TiO2 along with low Rb/Sr concentration (< 0.6 propose that the Sarab-3 intrusive rock is derived from a meta-basaltic source.

  10. First course in fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hung T

    2005-01-01

    THE CONCEPT OF FUZZINESS Examples Mathematical modeling Some operations on fuzzy sets Fuzziness as uncertainty Exercises SOME ALGEBRA OF FUZZY SETS Boolean algebras and lattices Equivalence relations and partitions Composing mappings Isomorphisms and homomorphisms Alpha-cuts Images of alpha-level sets Exercises FUZZY QUANTITIES Fuzzy quantities Fuzzy numbers Fuzzy intervals Exercises LOGICAL ASPECTS OF FUZZY SETS Classical two-valued logic A three-valued logic Fuzzy logic Fuzzy and Lukasiewi

  11. A comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radition 2. East-west asymmetry in the radiation belts as a functon of Jovian longitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pater, Imke

    1981-05-01

    On the basis of comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiaton the 'hot region' or east-west asymmetry in the planet's radiation belts is proposed to be due to the combined effect of an overabundance of electrons at jovicentric longitudes λJ~240°-360° and the existence of a dusk dawn directed electric field over the inner magnetosphere, generated by the wind system in the upper atmosphere. The model calculations were based upon the magnetic field configurations derived from the Pioneer data by Acuna and Ness [1976] (the O4 model) and Davis, Jones and Smith (quoted in Smith and Gulkis [1979]) (the P11 (3,2)A model), with an electron distribution derived in the first paper of this series [de Pater, this issue]. We would infer from the calculations that the O4 model gives a slightly better fit to the data; the relatively large number density at λJ~240°-360°, however, might indicate the presence of even higher order moments in the field.

  12. The Historical Shift of East-West Dialogue of Thoughts%东西方思想对话的历史转型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁子江

    2014-01-01

    the eastern and western ideas.The western“Orientalism” and eastern“Occidentalism” have also experienced some crises and challen-ges.Consequently neither of them can have the fully monistic position of monopoly. With the broadened new horizon, the researchers of East-West thoughts should adopt the critically diverse and constructive ideas to create multi-dimensional, mulit-layered, multi-referenced research methods and models, and simultaneously make the theoretical inves-tigation from the perspectives of interdisciplinary and cross-cultural methods in the context of globalization.And thus we can make the fusion of western, eastern and non-western ideas possible, and share the pluralism, constructionism, creativity, proactivity and critical quality in worldly ideas.By making the macro-leveled thinking investigation, we can help rebuild an internationalized vision of thoughts with unity, tolerance and interactivity.However, currently China's rise in overall power brings itself to forfront of the conflicts of East-West civilization conflicts.Since the 17th century, there have been two thinking tendencies concerning the attitudes toward Chinese:Sinophilia and Sinophobia, which is interpreted as two outlooks concerning China in the new world order.Taking the new historical pe-riod into account, this paper tries to explore how the East-West dialogue of thought leads to the development of a pluralistic society, and how the dilemmas , crises and challenges produced from the east-west ideological dialogue bring out more academic renaissance and op-portunities.%在世界史上,物质与精神的双重文明经过东西方不断的撞击与融合而得到发展,人类精神文明的正能量就是最终以各种形式和维度的“思想对话”得以互动、共存和发展。自然与人文社会各种领域的任何研究上升到最高度就是思想的研究。几乎所有人类之间任何行为的交往和沟通都是一种广义的“对话”,而只

  13. Gender inequality and the 'East-West' divide in contraception: An analysis at the individual, the couple, and the country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereuddre, Rozemarijn; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2016-07-01

    Despite generally low fertility rates in Europe, contraceptive behavior varies to a substantial extent. The dichotomy between Western, and Central and Eastern European countries is particularly relevant. Whereas the former are characterized by the widespread use of modern contraception, the latter show a high prevalence of traditional methods to control fertility. The current study aims to examine whether these differences can be attributed to differences in women's individual status, and in gender inequality at the couple and the country level. We combine data from the Generations and Gender Survey (2004-2011) and the Demographic Health Survey (2005-2009), covering seventeen European countries, to perform multinomial multilevel analyses. The results confirm that higher educated and employed women, and women who have an equal occupational status relative to their partner are more likely to use modern reversible contraception instead of no, traditional, or permanent methods. Absolute and relative employment are also positively related to using female instead of male methods. Furthermore, it is shown that higher levels of country-level gender equality are associated with a higher likelihood of using modern reversible and female methods, but not sterilization. Particularly country levels of gender equality are linked to the East-West divide in type of contraceptive method used. Our findings underscore that women's higher status is closely related to their use of effective, female contraception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Geochemical background and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments from the west Zhoushan Fishing Ground of East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Hu, Gang; Kong, Xianghuai

    2015-12-01

    Surface sediment grain size as well as the spatial distribution, pollution status, and source identification of heavy metals in the west Zhoushan Fishing Ground (ZFG) of the East China Sea were analyzed to study the geochemical background concentrations of heavy metals and to assess their potential ecological risk. Our results show that surface sediments in the eastern part of study area were mainly composed of sand-sized components. Spatial distributions of heavy metals were mainly controlled by grain size and terrigenous materials, and their concentrations in the coarsest grain sediments formed primarily during the Holocene transgressive period could represent the element background values of our study area. Contamination factor suggests that there was no pollution of Pb, Zn, and Cr generally in our study area and slight pollution of Cu, Cd, and As (especially Cu) at some stations. In addition, ecological harm coefficient indicates that the ecological risk of each heavy metal, except for Cd, at two stations was low as well. These results are consistent with the pollution load index and ecological risk index, which suggest both the overall level of pollution and the overall ecological risk of six studied metals in sediment were relatively low in our study area. Enrichment factor indicates that the heavy metals came mostly from the natural source. Summarily, the quality level of sediment in our study area was relatively good, and heavy metals in sediments could not exert threat to aquatic lives in the ZFG until now.

  15. Fuzzy Set Approximations in Fuzzy Formal Contexts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingwen Shao; Shiqing Fan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of multi-level formal concept is introduced. Based on the proposed multi-level formal concept, we present a pair of rough fuzzy set approximations within fuzzy formal contexts. By the proposed rough fuzzy set approximations, we can approximate a fuzzy set according to different precision level. We discuss the properties of the proposed approximation operators in detail.

  16. Trans-border (north-east Serbia/north-west Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic lithostratigraphic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, correlations of the Jurassic sediments from NE Serbia with those of NW Bulgaria are made. The following Jurassic palaeogeographic units: the Eastern Getic, the Infra-Getic and the Moesian Platform are included in the study. The East Getic was studied in the outcrops near Rgotina, where the sedimentation started in the Hettangian and continued during the Callovian-Late Jurassic and is represented by platform carbonates. The Infra-Getic is documented by the sections of Dobra (Pesača and the allochtonous sediments near the Štubik. Very important for the Infra-Getic are the Late Jurassic volcano-sedimentary deposits of the Vratarnica Series, which crop out near Vratarnica Village. The Jurassic Moesian platform was studied in the sections near D. Milanovac and Novo Korito (Serbia and in their prolongation in NW Bulgaria into the Gornobelotintsi palaeograben. Very important are the correlation in the region of Vrška Čuka (Serbia and Vrashka Chuka (Bulgaria - Rabisha Village (Magura Cave. A revision of the Jurassic sediments on the Vidin palaeohorst, which were studied in the Belogradchik palaeohorst, Gorno-Belotintsi palaeograben, Belimel palaeohorst and the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben, is made. The sedimentation on the Vidin palaeohorst started during different parts of the Middle Jurassic, and in the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben during the Hettangian (Lower Jurassic where the sediments were deposited in relatively deeper water conditions. To south, the relatively shallow water sediments deposited on the Jurassic Vratsa palaeohorst on the southern board of the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben are described.

  17. Prospects for Channel Construction of Sending Power from West to East in the Next 10 Years%未来十年西电东送通道建设展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张运洲; 葛旭波

    2003-01-01

    介绍西电东送将通过三个主要通道进行.三个通道的特点和建设这三个通道目前需要解决的问题.%This paper describes the planned power transmission from west to east through three channels. It presents the main characteristics of these three channels and the problems need to be solved.

  18. Investigation of the relationship between drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components and landform classes using fuzzy AHP (case study: south of Firozabad, west of Fars province, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, Marzieh; Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to study the relationship between drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components and landform classes in the south of Firozabad, west of Fars province, Iran. For determination of drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components, parameters of calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), thorium (TH), sodium (Na), electrical conductivity (EC), sulfate (SO4), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were used. It was found that 8.29 % of the study area has low water quality; 64.01 %, moderate; 23.33 %, high; and 4.38 %, very high. Areas with suitable drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components are located in parts of the south-eastern and south-western parts of the study area. The relationship between landform class and drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components shows that drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components is high in the stream, valleys, upland drainages, and local ridge classes, and low in the plain small and midslope classes. In fact we can predict water quality using extraction of landform classes from a digital elevation model (DEM) by the Topographic Position Index (TPI) method, so that streams, valleys, upland drainages, and local ridge classes have more water quality than the other classes. In the study we determined that without measurement of water sample characteristics, we can determine water quality by landform classes.

  19. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A symptom is a condition indicating the presence of a disease, especially, when regarded as an aid in diagnosis.Symptoms are the smallest units indicating the existence of a disease. A syndrome on the other hand is an aggregate, set or cluster of concurrent symptoms which together indicate...... and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c......-mean clustering is an easy and well improved tool, which has been applied in many medical fields. We used c-mean fuzzy clustering after feature extraction from an aphasia database. Factor analysis was applied on a correlation matrix of 26 symptoms of language disorders and led to five factors. The factors...

  20. Fuzzy jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Lester [Department of Statistics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stansbury, Conrad [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  1. The Partial Fuzzy Set

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Pranita Goswami

    2011-01-01

    The Partial Fuzzy Set is a portion of the Fuzzy Set which is again a Fuzzy Set. In the Partial Fuzzy Set the baseline is shifted from 0 to 1 to any of its α cuts . In this paper we have fuzzified a portion of the Fuzzy Set by transformation

  2. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-08-01 to 2002-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0000785)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  3. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-03-01 to 2002-03-31 (NCEI Accession 0000716)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  4. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 01 September 2002 to 31 September 2002 (NODC Accession 0000799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  5. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-06-01 to 2002-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0000771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  6. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-07-01 to 2002-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0000773)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  7. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 01 November 2002 to 31 November 2002 (NCEI Accession 0000835)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  8. NOAA marine environmental buoy data from moored buoys from the US East/West coasts, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes of US and other locations from 2001-07-01 to 2001-07-31 (NODC Accession 0000587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the US East/West coasts, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes and other locations. Data were...

  9. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-04-01 to 2002-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0000726)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  10. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-05-01 to 2002-05-31 (NODC Accession 0000752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  11. Eastern Culture Gone West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    THE implication of one of British 19th century writer Rudyard Kipling's most famous quotations: “East is East,West is West and never the twain shall meet” is endorsed by contemporary scholar Dr Samuel Huntington in his work The Clash of Civilizations, in which he asserts that future wars will not be between individual states and political unions but between differing civilizations.

  12. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Proxy Waste Lot Profile 6.999 for Building K-25 West Wing, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby V.P.

    2009-02-12

    In 1989, the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) National Priorities List. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (DOE 1992), effective January 1, 1992, now governs environmental restoration activities conducted under CERCLA at the ORR. Following signing of the FFA, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the state of Tennessee signed the Oak Ridge Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement on June 18, 2002. The purpose of this agreement is to define a streamlined decision-making process to facilitate the accelerated implementation of cleanup, resolve ORR milestone issues, and establish future actions necessary to complete the accelerated cleanup plan by the end of fiscal year 2008. While the FFA continues to serve as the overall regulatory framework for remediation, the Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement supplements existing requirements to streamline the decision-making process. Decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities of Bldg. K-25, the original gaseous diffusion facility, is being conducted by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) on behalf of the DOE. The planned CERCLA action covering disposal of building structure and remaining components from the K-25 building is scheduled as a non-time-critical CERCLA action as part of DOE's continuous risk reduction strategy for ETTP. The K-25 building is proposed for D&D because of its poor physical condition and the expense of surveillance and maintenance activities. The K-25/K-27 D&D Project proposes to dispose of the commingled waste listed below from the K-25 west side building structure and remaining components and process gas equipment and piping at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) under waste disposal proxy lot (WPXL) 6.999: (1) Building structure (e.g. concrete floors [excluding basement

  13. Properties of fuzzy hyperplanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong; LI Chuandong; WU Deyin

    2004-01-01

    Some properties of closed fuzzy matroid and those of its hyperplanes are investigated. A fuzzy hyperplane property,which extends the analog of a crisp matroid from crisp set systems to fuzzy set systems, is proved.

  14. Pb-concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David B.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Flem, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    Analytical results for Pb-concentrations and isotopic ratios from ca. 150 samples of soil A horizon and ca. 145 samples of soil C horizon collected along a 4000-km east–west transect across the USA are presented. Lead concentrations along the transect show: (1) generally higher values in the soil A-horizon than the C-horizon (median 21 vs. 16.5 mg/kg), (2) an increase in the median value of the soil A-horizon for central to eastern USA (Missouri to Maryland) when compared to the western USA (California to Kansas) (median 26 vs. 20 mg/kg) and (3) a higher A/C ratio for the central to eastern USA (1.35 vs. 1.14). Lead isotopes show a distinct trend across the USA, with the highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios occurring in the centre (Missouri, median A-horizon: 1.245; C-horizon: 1.251) and the lowest at both coasts (e.g., California, median A-horizon: 1.195; C-horizon: 1.216). The soil C-horizon samples show generally higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios than the A-horizon (median C-horizon: 1.224; A-horizon: 1.219). The 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in the soil A horizon show a correlation with the total feldspar content for the same 2500-km portion of the transect from east-central Colorado to the Atlantic coast that shows steadily increasing precipitation. No such correlation exists in the soil C horizon. The data demonstrate the importance of climate and weathering on both Pb-concentration and 206Pb/207Pb-isotope ratios in soil samples and natural shifts thereof in the soil profile during soil-forming processes.

  15. Simultaneous lidar observations of a polar stratospheric cloud on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains and microphysical box model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blum

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC for polar ozone depletion is well established. Lidar experiments are well suited to observe and classify polar stratospheric clouds. On 5 January 2005 a PSC was observed simultaneously on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains by ground-based lidars. This cloud was composed of liquid particles with a mixture of solid particles in the upper part of the cloud. Multi-colour measurements revealed that the liquid particles had a mode radius of r≈300 nm, a distribution width of σ≈1.04 and an altitude dependent number density of N≈2–20 cm−3. Simulations with a microphysical box model show that the cloud had formed about 20 h before observation. High HNO3 concentrations in the PSC of 40–50 weight percent were simulated in the altitude regions where the liquid particles were observed, while this concentration was reduced to about 10 weight percent in that part of the cloud where a mixture between solid and liquid particles was observed by the lidar. The model simulations also revealed a very narrow particle size distribution with values similar to the lidar observations. Below and above the cloud almost no HNO3 uptake was simulated. Although the PSC shows distinct wave signatures, no gravity wave activity was observed in the temperature profiles measured by the lidars and meteorological analyses support this observation. The observed cloud must have formed in a wave field above Iceland about 20 h prior to the measurements and the cloud wave pattern was advected by the background wind to Scandinavia. In this wave field above Iceland temperatures potentially dropped below the ice formation temperature, so that ice clouds may have formed which can act as condensation nuclei for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles observed at the cloud top above Esrange.

  16. Stunting Is Associated with Food Diversity while Wasting with Food Insecurity among Underfive Children in East and West Gojjam Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achenef Motbainor

    Full Text Available Food insecurity has detrimental effects in protecting child undernutrition.This study sought to determine the level of child undernutrition and its association with food insecurity.A community based comparative cross-sectional study design involving multistage sampling technique was implemented from 24th of May to 20th of July 2013. Using two population proportion formula, a total of 4110 randomly selected households were included in the study. Availability of the productive safety net programme was used for grouping the study areas. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the association between food insecurity and child malnutrition. Clustering effects of localities were controlled during analysis.Stunting (37.5%, underweight (22.0% and wasting (17.1% were observed in East Gojjam zone, while 38.3% stunting, 22.5% underweight, and 18.6% wasting for the West Gojjam zone. Food insecurity was significantly associated with wasting (β = - 0.108, P < 0.05.Food diversity and number of meals the child ate per day significantly associated with stunting (β = 0.039, P < 0.01 and underweight (β = 0.035, P < 0.05 respectively. Residential area was the significant predictor of all indices.The magnitude of child undernutrition was found to be very high in the study areas. Food insecurity was the significant determinant of wasting. Food diversity and number of meals the child ate per day were the significant determinants of stunting and underweight respectively. Child nutrition intervention strategies should take into account food security, dietary diversity, and carefully specified with regard to residential locations. Addressing food insecurity is of paramount importance.

  17. Who is at risk for diagnostic discrepancies? Comparison of pre- and postmortal diagnoses in 1800 patients of 3 medical decades in East and West Berlin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wittschieber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autopsy rates in Western countries consistently decline to an average of <5%, although clinical autopsies represent a reasonable tool for quality control in hospitals, medically and economically. Comparing pre- and postmortal diagnoses, diagnostic discrepancies as uncovered by clinical autopsies supply crucial information on how to improve clinical treatment. The study aimed at analyzing current diagnostic discrepancy rates, investigating their influencing factors and identifying risk profiles of patients that could be affected by a diagnostic discrepancy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of all adult autopsy cases of the Charité Institute of Pathology from the years 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008, the pre- and postmortal diagnoses and all demographic data were analyzed retrospectively. Based on power analysis, 1,800 cases were randomly selected to perform discrepancy classification (class I-VI according to modified Goldman criteria. The rate of discrepancies in major diagnoses (class I was 10.7% (95% CI: 7.7%-14.7% in 2008 representing a reduction by 15.1%. Subgroup analysis revealed several influencing factors to significantly correlate with the discrepancy rate. Cardiovascular diseases had the highest frequency among class-I-discrepancies. Comparing the 1988-data of East- and West-Berlin, no significant differences were found in diagnostic discrepancies despite an autopsy rate differing by nearly 50%. A risk profile analysis visualized by intuitive heatmaps revealed a significantly high discrepancy rate in patients treated in low or intermediate care units at community hospitals. In this collective, patients with genitourinary/renal or infectious diseases were at particularly high risk. CONCLUSIONS: This is the current largest and most comprehensive study on diagnostic discrepancies worldwide. Our well-powered analysis revealed a significant rate of class-I-discrepancies indicating that autopsies are still of value. The identified risk

  18. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  19. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Cycles and Intuitionistic Fuzzy Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, N. O.

    2014-01-01

    Connectivity has an important role in neural networks, computer network, and clustering. In the design of a network, it is important to analyze connections by the levels. The structural properties of intuitionistic fuzzy graphs provide a tool that allows for the solution of operations research problems. In this paper, we introduce various types of intuitionistic fuzzy bridges, intuitionistic fuzzy cut vertices, intuitionistic fuzzy cycles, and intuitionistic fuzzy trees in intuitionistic fuzzy graphs and investigate some of their interesting properties. Most of these various types are defined in terms of levels. We also describe comparison of these types. PMID:24701155

  20. East Meets West--Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Nanyang University (Singapore) and a university in the People's Republic of China have made arrangements with MIT's Sloan School of Management to launch a graduate level business administration (MBA) program that uses the Internet. The project centers on combining videoconferencing with asynchronous communications tools. A sidebar provides names…

  1. Russia Between West and East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    well-being is alien to the Russian people, whose deep-rooted spiritual requirement, according to Fyodor Dostoyevsky , “is the requirement of suffering, an...Moscow, 1961), p. 105. 14. F. Dostoyevsky , A Writer’s Diary, 1873, p. 256. 19 As long as we are moved, just like Russian philosopher Konstantin Leontiev

  2. Discourse Between East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The first Nishan Forum on World Civilizations kicked off on Seutember 26 at Nishan Mountain.25km southeast of Qufu.the birthplace of Confucius.As the first of its kind held by the Chinese.the Nishan Fontm presented a dialogue between Confucian civilization and Christian civilization. "Confucian civilization and Christian civilization are the two civilizations with great influence around the world,"said Xu Jialu,Chairman of the Organizing Committee of the Nishan Forum on World Civilizations.

  3. Some Additions to the Fuzzy Convergent and Fuzzy Bounded Sequence Spaces of Fuzzy Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Şengönül, M.; Z. Zararsız

    2011-01-01

    Some properties of the fuzzy convergence and fuzzy boundedness of a sequence of fuzzy numbers were studied in Choi (1996). In this paper, we have consider, some important problems on these spaces and shown that these spaces are fuzzy complete module spaces. Also, the fuzzy α-, fuzzy β-, and fuzzy γ-duals of the fuzzy module spaces of fuzzy numbers have been computeded, and some matrix transformations are given.

  4. Introduction to fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guanrong

    2005-01-01

    Introduction to Fuzzy Systems provides students with a self-contained introduction that requires no preliminary knowledge of fuzzy mathematics and fuzzy control systems theory. Simplified and readily accessible, it encourages both classroom and self-directed learners to build a solid foundation in fuzzy systems. After introducing the subject, the authors move directly into presenting real-world applications of fuzzy logic, revealing its practical flavor. This practicality is then followed by basic fuzzy systems theory. The book also offers a tutorial on fuzzy control theory, based mainly on th

  5. Contribution of Nutrient-enriched Groundwater to Excessive Algal Growth along a Select Reach of the East Fork Carson River, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, N. L.; Pahl, R. A.; Rosen, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    A study during the summers of 2010 and 2012 was conducted to determine if nutrient-enriched groundwater discharge contributed to excessive algal growth observed along a 5,800-foot reach of the East Fork Carson River in Carson Valley, west-central Nevada. Groundwater discharge to the river was determined using flow-net analysis, chloride-mass balance, and differences in measured streamflow. Water samples were collected from the river and shallow groundwater wells located in the river and along the banks for determination of nutrient concentrations and sources; algae samples were collected from the 5,800-foot river reach. Groundwater was found to be discharging to the river from both banks along a 405-foot sub-reach in the middle of the 5,800-foot study reach. High nitrate concentrations (2-3 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) were found in the groundwater along the right bank of the sub-reach. Within this sub-reach, river nitrate loads ranged from 1.3 to 7.9 pounds of nitrogen (N) per day; groundwater nitrate loads were estimated to be 0.07 pounds of N per day. Dissolved orthophosphate river loads ranged from 0.12 to 0.20 pounds of phosphorus (P) per day; groundwater orthophosphate loads were estimated to be 0.005 pounds of P per day. This sub-reach had the highest average algal biomass within the study reach. The data suggest that nutrient rich groundwater discharging to the river may create a favorable microenvironment for periphyton that assimilate available nutrients before the groundwater mixes with overlying river water. The source of nitrate in groundwater is likely anthropogenic as groundwater nitrate concentrations above background concentrations were only found along the right bank of the river adjacent to a housing development. Organic-wastewater compounds detected in groundwater samples collected from wells along the right bank within this sub-reach offer independent support that the elevated nitrate concentrations were human-derived.

  6. P-T path and timing of crustal thickening during amalgamation of East and West Gondwana: A case study from the Hafafit Metamorphic Complex, Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Enen, Mahrous M.; Abu-Alam, Tamer S.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Ali, Kamal A.; Okrusch, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The southeastern sector of the Hafafit Metamorphic Complex, southern Eastern Desert of Egypt comprises infrastructural orthogneisses of tonalite and syenogranite parentage, amphibolites, and a volcano-sedimentary association. These are overthrust by an obducted suprastructural ophiolite nappes via the Nugrus thrust. The protolith of the biotite-hornblende-gneisses was formed during island-arc accretion, while that of the garnet-biotite gneisses were formed in a within-plate regime, consistent with a transition to a post-collisional setting. The volcano-sedimentary association comprises interbedded and intercalated highly foliated metapelitic schists, metabasites, and leucocratic gneisses, deposited in a back-arc basin. The metapelites and the leucocratic gneisses originated from immature Fe-shales and arkoses derived from intermediate-mafic and acidic igneous rocks, respectively, via weak chemical weathering in a tectonically active island arc terrane. The intercalated amphibolites were derived from tholeiitic basalts generated in a back-arc setting. The volcano-sedimentary association was metamorphosed under upper-amphibolite facies conditions with pressures of 9-13 kbar and temperatures of 570-675 °C, as derived from conventional geothermobarometry and pseudosection calculation. A steep, tight clockwise P-T path is constrained and a geothermal gradient around 20 °C/km is estimated for the peak metamorphism. We assume that deformation and metamorphism are due to crustal thickening during the collision of East and West Gondwana, where peak metamorphism took place in the middle to lower crust at 33 km average crustal depth. This was followed by a subsequent quasi-isothermal decompression due to rapid exhumation during wrench tectonics. Sinistral transcurrent shearing with extensional denudation resulted in vertical ductile thinning that was accompanied by heat input from magmatism, as indicated by a higher geothermal gradient during retrograde metamorphism and

  7. Modeling the distribution of the West Nile and Rift Valley Fever vector Culex pipiens in arid and semi-arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Amy K; Fuller, Douglas O; Haddad, Nabil; Hassan, Ali N; Gad, Adel M; Beier, John C

    2014-06-24

    The Middle East North Africa (MENA) region is under continuous threat of the re-emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), two pathogens transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens. Predicting areas at high risk for disease transmission requires an accurate model of vector distribution, however, most Cx. pipiens distribution modeling has been confined to temperate, forested habitats. Modeling species distributions across a heterogeneous landscape structure requires a flexible modeling method to capture variation in mosquito response to predictors as well as occurrence data points taken from a sufficient range of habitat types. We used presence-only data from Egypt and Lebanon to model the population distribution of Cx. pipiens across a portion of the MENA that also encompasses Jordan, Syria, and Israel. Models were created with a set of environmental predictors including bioclimatic data, human population density, hydrological data, and vegetation indices, and built using maximum entropy (Maxent) and boosted regression tree (BRT) methods. Models were created with and without the inclusion of human population density. Predictions of Maxent and BRT models were strongly correlated in habitats with high probability of occurrence (Pearson's r=0.774, r=0.734), and more moderately correlated when predicting into regions that exceeded the range of the training data (r=0.666,r=0.558). All models agreed in predicting high probability of occupancy around major urban areas, along the banks of the Nile, the valleys of Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan, and southwestern Saudi Arabia. The most powerful predictors of Cx. pipiens habitat were human population density (60.6% Maxent models, 34.9% BRT models) and the seasonality of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) (44.7% Maxent, 16.3% BRT). Maxent models tended to be dominated by a single predictor. Areas of high probability corresponded with sites of independent surveys or previous disease outbreaks. Cx

  8. Analysis on Harmfulness of Salty Soil Disease in West to East Gas Pipeline Project%西气东输管道工程盐渍土病害危害性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪世亮; 易丽云

    2011-01-01

    The overall length of West-to-East Gas Pipeline Project which east from Lunnan in xinjiang tarim, west to Baihe in western shanghai is over 3,800 km, by the way of 9 provinces, cities and autonomous regions.The Salty Soil which is widely distribution in Xinjiang Province, Gansu Province, Ningxia Province and Shanxi Province takes a long-term and unneglectable influence to gas pipes.Based on disease situation and engineering properties of Salty Soil along the West to East Gas Pipeline Project line, the author has classified Salty Soil and evaluated harmfulness of gas pipes due to Salty Soil disease.%西气东输工程干线西起新疆塔里木的轮南,东迄于上海西郊的白鹤镇,途经9个省、市、自治区,全长逾3800km.工程通过的新疆段、甘肃段、宁夏段和陕西段分布有较多的盐渍土,盐渍土病害对输气管道的影响是长期的、不可忽视的,笔者根据西气东输工程沿线的盐渍土病害情况,对盐渍土进行分类,并且根据盐渍土的工程特性,评价了盐渍土病害对西气东输管道的危害性.

  9. Analysis of Financial Exclusion in the Easte and West SME%我国东、西部中小企业金融排斥状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏维力; 郭霖麟

    2012-01-01

    从金融排斥的角度研究中小企业融资难的问题,通过选取2002年至2011年相关数据,根据金融排斥维度的不同分别构建了东、西部中小企业金融排斥综合指数,在此基础上对东、西部中小企业受金融排斥状况进行区域对比,研究结果发现,东部地区中小企业金融排斥程度总体上高于西部地区,西部地区地理排斥和评估排斥强于东部地区。%The paper analyzes the difficulties in domestic Small and Medium Enterprises(SEM) financing in a view of financial exclusion, According to the different dimensions, we build a suitable measure of financial exclusion index based on the SEM data from 2002 -201 l.on that basis, we compares the extent of SEM financial exclusion in regional contrast, the results show that the problem in the east is more serious than in the west, but physical access exclusion and assessing exclusion in the west are more serious than in the east, we explain the financial vision ,Acconting to different characteristics of east and west, different measures were taken to solve the problem of financial exclusion.

  10. Fuzziness in Chang's fuzzy topological spaces

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    It is known that fuzziness within the concept of openness of a fuzzy set in a Chang's fuzzy topological space (fts) is absent. In this paper we introduce a gradation of openness for the open sets of a Chang jts (X, $\\mathcal{T}$) by means of a map $\\sigma\\;:\\; I^{x}\\longrightarrow I\\left(I=\\left[0,1\\right]\\right)$, which is at the same time a fuzzy topology on X in Shostak 's sense. Then, we will be able to avoid the fuzzy point concept, and to introduce an adeguate theory f...

  11. Representation Theorems for Fuzzy Random Sets and Fuzzy Stochastic Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The fuzzy static and dynamic random phenomena in an abstract separable Banach space is discussed in this paper. The representation theorems for fuzzy set-valued random sets, fuzzy random elements and fuzzy set-valued stochastic processes are obtained.

  12. Fuzzy associative memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosko, Bart

    1991-01-01

    Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

  13. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  14. 不一样的恐惧——论东西方恐怖片的差异%Fear not the same - on the East-West differences horror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓静

    2015-01-01

    Film is a special cultural carrier to express thoughts and emotions, the horror film as a unique type of movie, with its own distinct brand of Western culture. From the early twentieth century so far, the main source of this Western-type film after nearly a century of development, in particular under the influence and spread of Western cultural environment to grow increasingly. The horror movie in recent decades spread from the West to the East, due to the East-West cultural differences and other factors, Horror oriental unique way of thinking has been given new oriental. Articles based on the origin and development is the horror, the horror film of the performance characteristics of the East and West for a more detailed study, showing no fear of the same between them, so that readers can feel the horror of the East and the West have different charm.%电影是一种特殊的表达思想和情绪的文化载体,恐怖电影作为一种独特的类型电影,其自身带有明显的西方文化的烙印.从二十世纪初至今,这一以西方为主要发源地的类型电影经过近百年的发展,在西方特殊文化环境的熏陶和传播下愈发发展壮大.而恐怖电影在近几十年由西方传播到东方后,由于东西方文化差异等因素,恐怖片以东方独有的思维方式被赋予了崭新的东方特色.文章正是立足于恐怖片的起源和发展,对东西方恐怖片表现特点进行了较为具体的研究,展现了它们之间不一样的恐惧,使读者能够感受到东西方恐怖片所具有的不同魅力.

  15. “They looked German, albeit with even tighter pants and uglier shoes, but there was something different about them”: The Function of East and West Germany and the Fall of the Berlin Wall in Paul Beatty’s Slumberland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweinfurth, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines Paul Beatty’s novel Slumberland (2008 as representative for a still neglected field of American literary expression: American literary representations of Germany after 1989 which address issues of Germany’s former division into East and West, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and German reunification. It argues that the function of the German setting is not used to affirm a U.S. American identity through the othering of Germany but that it critically addresses controversial issues in the United States through the use of displacement.

  16. Doğu Batı Algısında Attilâ Atillâ In East West's Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ADIGÜZEL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two different life, two different culture, two different World andtwo opposite perceptiveness: Settled life and nomadic life style, whichare accepted as the same period with human history. This situationcontinues as local in some places, the same situation goes in on ourmodern era. The current orld haven’t had both settled society andnomadic society. Settled people of slient World have done these twoopposite perceptivenes as defender and representative. The process thehuman have had approches more these two opposite sides withevolution, humanity and natural disasters. Meanwhile, the the bridgesare built fort he loig gap. Even when we look at the human period, theunderstanding and thoughts are on the way from illumination era tillthe current. With this perceptiveness dualism thoughts start to appairin both east and West.İn this article, however much I mentiond about as the reflection ofAttilâ’s the east and the West literacy and art, I also tried to benefitfrom history books. The king of Hun, Attilâ: Was he a barbarian orhero? Attilâ who was the hero of the Europa Hun, expanded not onlyhis country’s borders but also was accepted a legend by Europeans. We need to investigate Attilâ the West’s and the East’s perceptiveness the claims in the history light. İki yaşam tarzı, iki farklı kültür, iki ayrı dünya ve iki zıt anlayış: yerleşik hayat ve göçebe yaşam tarzı, insanlık tarihi ile eş zamanlı kabul edilebilir bu durum insanlık tarihinin başlamasıyla ortaya çıkar. Aynıdurum lokal da olsa hala çok az yerde devam ediyor. Lokal olmayanaynı hal modern çağımızda da devam etmektedir. Eylemsel olarakgünümüz dünyası bir yerleşik bir de göçebe toplum unsurubarındırmamaktadır. Sakin dünyanın yerleşik insanları bu iki zıtanlayışın temsilciliğini ve savunuculuğunu, miras olarak gördüklerigeçmişlerini uygarlıkları adına sahiplenmektedirler.İnsanlığın geçirdiği süreç, evrimle, be

  17. Intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, S.E. E-mail: sabbas73@yahoo.com

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, We introduce an intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and investigate the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces and intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure spaces. Moreover, we can obtain intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space. We study the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and the intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space.

  18. Fuzzy logic in management

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, Christer; Fullér, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy Logic in Management demonstrates that difficult problems and changes in the management environment can be more easily handled by bringing fuzzy logic into the practice of management. This explicit theme is developed through the book as follows: Chapter 1, "Management and Intelligent Support Technologies", is a short survey of management leadership and what can be gained from support technologies. Chapter 2, "Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic", provides a short introduction to fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, the extension principle, fuzzy implications and linguistic variables. Chapter 3, "Group Decision Support Systems", deals with group decision making, and discusses methods for supporting the consensus reaching processes. Chapter 4, "Fuzzy Real Options for Strategic Planning", summarizes research where the fuzzy real options theory was implemented as a series of models. These models were thoroughly tested on a number of real life investments, and validated in 2001. Chapter 5, "Soft Computing Methods for Reducing...

  19. Hesitant fuzzy sets theory

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the readers with a thorough and systematic introduction to hesitant fuzzy theory. It presents the most recent research results and advanced methods in the field. These includes: hesitant fuzzy aggregation techniques, hesitant fuzzy preference relations, hesitant fuzzy measures, hesitant fuzzy clustering algorithms and hesitant fuzzy multi-attribute decision making methods. Since its introduction by Torra and Narukawa in 2009, hesitant fuzzy sets have become more and more popular and have been used for a wide range of applications, from decision-making problems to cluster analysis, from medical diagnosis to personnel appraisal and information retrieval. This book offers a comprehensive report on the state-of-the-art in hesitant fuzzy sets theory and applications, aiming at becoming a reference guide for both researchers and practitioners in the area of fuzzy mathematics and other applied research fields (e.g. operations research, information science, management science and engineering) chara...

  20. Late Triassic paleomagnetic result from the Baoshan Terrane, West Yunnan of China: Implication for orientation of the East Paleotethys suture zone and timing of the Sibumasu-Indochina collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Huang, Baochun; Yan, Yonggang; Zhang, Donghai

    2015-11-01

    In order to better understand the paleogeographic position of the Baoshan Terrane in the northernmost part of the Sibumasu Block during formation of the Pangea supercontinent, a paleomagnetic study has been conducted on Late Triassic basaltic lavas from the southern part of the Baoshan Terrane in the West Yunnan region of Southwest China. Following detailed rock magnetic investigations and progressive thermal demagnetization, stable characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRMs) were successfully isolated from Late Triassic Niuhetang lava flows. The ChRMs are of dual polarity and pass fold and reversal tests with magnetic carriers dominated by magnetite and subordinate oxidation-induced hematite; we thus interpret them as a primary remanence. This new paleomagnetic result indicates that the Baoshan Terrane was located at low paleolatitudes of ∼15°N in the Northern Hemisphere during Late Triassic times. Together with available paleomagnetic data from the Baoshan Terrane and surrounding areas, a wider paleomagnetic comparison supports the view that the East Paleotethys Ocean separated the Sibumasu and Indochina blocks and closed no later than Late Triassic times. We argue that the currently approximately north-to-south directed Changning-Menglian suture zone is very likely to have been oriented nearly east-to-west at the time of the Sibumasu-Indochina collision.

  1. Present Management Situations of Huoqiu East-West Lake Wetland and Conservation Strategies%霍邱东西湖湿地管理现状及保护对策浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永敏

    2012-01-01

    东西湖湿地属省级自然保护区,蕴含了丰富的生物、水、土地以及生态旅游等资源,是我国淮河流域重要的生态功能区和生物多样性保护区。但由于不合理的开发利用,湿地生态功能正受到影响和威胁。本文分析了东西湖湿地的自然资源优势和保护管理中存在的问题,提出了东西湖自然保护区湿地资源的保护对策。%East-West Lake Wetland is a provincial nature reserve rich in biological, water, land and ecological tourism resources. It is an important biological function area and biodiversity reserve in the Huaihe basin in China. The biological function of the wetland is being affected and threatened due to irrational exploitation and utilization. In this paper the advantages of the wetland in natural resources and the existing problems in conservation and management were analyzed. Some coping strategies were put forward for the conservation of wetland resources in East-West Lake Wetland Nature Reserve.

  2. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-10-15

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10

  3. From east to west across the Palearctic: Phylogeography of the invasive lime leaf miner Phyllonorycter issikii (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and discovery of a putative new cryptic species in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Triberti, Paolo; Ohshima, Issei; Haran, Julien; Byun, Bong-Kyu; Li, Houhun; Augustin, Sylvie; Roques, Alain; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the phylogeographic structure of invasive species is important for understanding the underlying processes of invasion. The micromoth Phyllonorycter issikii, whose larvae damage leaves of lime trees Tilia spp., was only known from East Asia. In the last three decades, it has been recorded in most of Europe, Western Russia and Siberia. We used the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region to compare the genetic variability of P. issikii populations between these different regions. Additionally, we sequenced two nuclear genes (28S rRNA and Histone 3) and run morphometric analysis of male genitalia to probe for the existence of cryptic species. The analysis of COI data of 377 insect specimens collected in 16 countries across the Palearctic revealed the presence of two different lineages: P. issikii and a putative new cryptic Phyllonorycter species distributed in the Russian Far East and Japan. In P. issikii, we identified 31 haplotypes among which 23 were detected in the invaded area (Europe) and 10 were found in its putative native range in East Asia (Russian Far East, Japan, South Korea and China), with only two common haplotypes. The high number of haplotypes found in the invaded area suggest a possible scenario of multiple introductions. One haplotype H1 was dominant (119 individuals, 67.2%), not only throughout its expanding range in Europe and Siberia but, intriguingly, also in 96% of individuals originating from Japan. We detected eight unique haplotypes of P. issikii in East Asia. Five of them were exclusively found in the Russian Far East representing 95% of individuals from that area. The putative new cryptic Phyllonorycter species showed differences from P. issikii for the three studied genes. However, both species are morphologically undistinguishable. They occur in sympatry on the same host plants in Japan (Sendai) and the Russian Far East (Primorsky krai) without evidence of admixture. PMID:28187126

  4. Penetrated system' or normal' state An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a normal' state.

  5. Transformation and entropy for fuzzy rough sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new method for translating a fuzzy rough set to a fuzzy set is introduced and the fuzzy approximation of a fuzzy rough set is given.The properties of the fuzzy approximation of a fuzzy rough set are studied and a fuzzy entropy measure for fuzzy rough sets is proposed.This measure is consistent with similar considerations for ordinary fuzzy sets and is the result of the fuzzy approximation of fuzzy rough sets.

  6. Boolean Operator Fuzzy Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叙华; 邓安生

    1994-01-01

    A new approach of operator fuzzy logic, Boolean operator fuzzy logic (BOFL) based on Boolean algebra, is presented. The resolution principle is also introduced into BOFL. BOFL is a natural generalization of classical logic and can be applied to the qualitative description of fuzzy knowledge.

  7. Paired fuzzy sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we want to stress the relevance of paired fuzzy sets, as already proposed in previous works of the authors, as a family of fuzzy sets that offers a unifying view for different models based upon the opposition of two fuzzy sets, simply allowing the existence of different types...

  8. Fuzzy Linguistic Topological Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Amal, K

    2012-01-01

    This book has five chapters. Chapter one is introductory in nature. Fuzzy linguistic spaces are introduced in chapter two. Fuzzy linguistic vector spaces are introduced in chapter three. Chapter four introduces fuzzy linguistic models. The final chapter suggests over 100 problems and some of them are at research level.

  9. Fuzzy Logic Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ayanna

    2005-01-01

    The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.

  10. Water-power resources in upper Carson River basin, California-Nevada, A discussion of potential development of power and reservoir sites on east and west forks, Carson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumphrey, Harold L.

    1955-01-01

    West Fork Carson River offers the best opportunity for power development in the Carson River basin. The Hope Valley reservoir site could be developed to provide adequate storage regulation and concentration of fall would permit utilization of 1,400 feet of head in 51h miles below the clam site, or 1,900 feet of head in about 972 miles below the dam site; however, the average annual runoff susceptible of development is only about 70,000 acre-feet which limits the power that could be developed continuously in an average year with regulation to about 8,700 kilowatts utilizing 1,400 feet of head, or 12,000 kilowatts utilizing 1,900 feet of head. The method and degree of development will be determined to large extent by the method devised to supplement regulated flows from the Hope Valley reservoir to supply the water already appropriated for irrigation. If the Hope Valley site and the Watasheamu site on East Fork Carson River were developed coordinately water could be transferred to the West Fork for distribution through canals leading from that stream thus satisfying the deficiency due to regulation at Hope Valley and release of stored water on a power schedule. This would permit utilization of the entire 1,900 feet of fall. Independent development of the West Fork for optimum power production would require re-regulation of releases from Hope Valley reservoir and storage of a considerable part of the fall and winter flow for use during the irrigation season. Adequate storage capacity is apparently not available on the West Fork below Hope Valley; but offstream storage may be available in Diamond Valley which could be utilized by diversion from the West Fork near Woodfords. This would limit the utilization of the stream for power purposes to the development of the 1,400 feet of head between the Hope Valley dam site and Wood fords. In a year of average discharge East Fork Carson River and three of its principal tributaries could be developed to produce about 13

  11. Some weakly mappings on intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Guo Xu; Fu-Gui Shi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we shall introduce concepts of fuzzy semiopen set, fuzzy semiclosed set, fuzzy semiinterior, fuzzy semiclosure on intuitionistic fuzzy topological space and fuzzy open (fuzzy closed) mapping, fuzzy irresolute mapping, fuzzy irresolute open (closed) mapping, fuzzy semicontinuous mapping and fuzzy semiopen (semiclosed) mapping between two intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces. Moreover, we shall discuss their some properties.

  12. Countable Fuzzy Topological Space and Countable Fuzzy Topological Vector Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apu Kumar Saha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with countable fuzzy topological spaces, a generalization of the notion of fuzzy topological spaces. A collection of fuzzy sets F on a universe X forms a countable fuzzy topology if in the definition of a fuzzy topology, the condition of arbitrary supremum is relaxed to countable supremum. In this generalized fuzzy structure, the continuity of fuzzy functions and some other related properties are studied. Also the class of countable fuzzy topological vector spaces as a generalization of the class of fuzzy topological vector spaces has been introduced and investigated.

  13. 西气东输二线电驱压缩机组驱动方式比选%Comparison and selection of drive mode of electric-driven compressor unit for the Second West-to-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林森; 董昭旸; 康焯; 陈俊; 彭晶

    2012-01-01

    There will be three types of compressor configuration available for electricity-driven compressor stations of in the eastern section pipeline of Second West-to-East Gas Pipeline, that is, 27 MW high-speed direct-connected VF motor scheme (2+1 configuration), 27 MW low- speed motor+gear box scheme (2+lconfiguration) and 18 MW high-speed direct-connected VF motor scheme (3+1 configuration). For the purpose of determining the drive mode of compressor units, the paper carries out a comparison on the special features of 3 configurations in combination with the characteristics of the Second West-to-East Gas Pipeline and running of compressor stations. Comparison and analysis are made on the compressor property, design capacity and manufacturing period and other comprehensive abilities of suppliers for large power inverters and explosion-proof motors. In view of technological and economical aspects, this paper conducts comparison and selection on drive mode of electric-driven compressor units, and the 18 MW high-speed direct-connected VF motor drive mode is the finally determined unit for electric-driven compressor stations in the eastern section pipeline of Second West-to-East Gas Pipeline.%西气东输二线东段电驱站可采用的机组配置方式有3种:27 MW高速直连变频电机方案(2+1配置)、27 MW低速电机+齿轮箱方案(2+1配置)和18 MW高速直连变频电机方案(3+1配置).为了确定采用何种方式驱动压缩机组,结合西气东输二线管道特点和站场的实际运行情况,对3种配置方式的特性进行分析.通过对大功率变频器、防爆电机供货厂家的产品状况、设计水平、制造周期等综合能力分析对比,从技术和经济两个方面对电驱机组的几种驱动方式进行比选,最终确定在西气东输二线东段电驱站采用18 MW高速直连变频的驱动方式.

  14. Mathematics of Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bede, Barnabas

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a mathematically-based introduction into the fascinating topic of Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic and might be used as textbook at both undergraduate and graduate levels and also as reference guide for mathematician, scientists or engineers who would like to get an insight into Fuzzy Logic.   Fuzzy Sets have been introduced by Lotfi Zadeh in 1965 and since then, they have been used in many applications. As a consequence, there is a vast literature on the practical applications of fuzzy sets, while theory has a more modest coverage. The main purpose of the present book is to reduce this gap by providing a theoretical introduction into Fuzzy Sets based on Mathematical Analysis and Approximation Theory. Well-known applications, as for example fuzzy control, are also discussed in this book and placed on new ground, a theoretical foundation. Moreover, a few advanced chapters and several new results are included. These comprise, among others, a new systematic and constructive approach for fuzzy infer...

  15. How we pass from fuzzy $po$-semigroups to fuzzy $po$-$\\Gamma$-semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Kehayopulu, Niovi

    2014-01-01

    The results on fuzzy ordered semigroups (or on fuzzy semigroups) can be transferred to fuzzy ordered gamma (or to fuzzy gamma) semigroups. We show the way we pass from fuzzy ordered semigroups to fuzzy ordered gamma semigroups.

  16. STATISTICS OF FUZZY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy sets are the special form of objects of nonnumeric nature. Therefore, in the processing of the sample, the elements of which are fuzzy sets, a variety of methods for the analysis of statistical data of any nature can be used - the calculation of the average, non-parametric density estimators, construction of diagnostic rules, etc. We have told about the development of our work on the theory of fuzziness (1975 - 2015. In the first of our work on fuzzy sets (1975, the theory of random sets is regarded as a generalization of the theory of fuzzy sets. In non-fiction series "Mathematics. Cybernetics" (publishing house "Knowledge" in 1980 the first book by a Soviet author fuzzy sets is published - our brochure "Optimization problems and fuzzy variables". This book is essentially a "squeeze" our research of 70-ies, ie, the research on the theory of stability and in particular on the statistics of objects of non-numeric nature, with a bias in the methodology. The book includes the main results of the fuzzy theory and its note to the random set theory, as well as new results (first publication! of statistics of fuzzy sets. On the basis of further experience, you can expect that the theory of fuzzy sets will be more actively applied in organizational and economic modeling of industry management processes. We discuss the concept of the average value of a fuzzy set. We have considered a number of statements of problems of testing statistical hypotheses on fuzzy sets. We have also proposed and justified some algorithms for restore relationships between fuzzy variables; we have given the representation of various variants of fuzzy cluster analysis of data and variables and described some methods of collection and description of fuzzy data

  17. On generalized fuzzy strongly semiclosed sets in fuzzy topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Bedre Ozbakir

    2002-01-01

    semiclosed, generalized fuzzy almost-strongly semiclosed, generalized fuzzy strongly closed, and generalized fuzzy almost-strongly closed sets. In the light of these definitions, we also define some generalizations of fuzzy continuous functions and discuss the relations between these new classes of functions and other fuzzy continuous functions.

  18. EXTENSION OF THE PROJECTION THEOREM ON HILBERT SPACE TO FUZZY HILBERT SPACE OVER FUZZY NUMBER SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. DEEPA; Dr.S.Chenthur Pandian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the projection theorem on Hilbert space to its fuzzy version over fuzzy number space embedded with fuzzy number mapping. To prove this we discuss the concepts of fuzzy Hilbert space over fuzzy number space with fuzzy number mapping. The fuzzy orthogonality, fuzzy orthonormality, fuzzy complemented subset property etc. of fuzzy Hilbert space over fuzzy number space using fuzzy number mapping also been discussed.

  19. On fuzzy weakly-closed sets

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanta, J.; P. K. Das

    2012-01-01

    A new class of fuzzy closed sets, namely fuzzy weakly closed set in a fuzzy topological space is introduced and it is established that this class of fuzzy closed sets lies between fuzzy closed sets and fuzzy generalized closed sets. Alongwith the study of fundamental results of such closed sets, we define and characterize fuzzy weakly compact space and fuzzy weakly closed space.

  20. Compactness in intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Abbas

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce fuzzy almost continuous mapping, fuzzy weakly continuous mapping, fuzzy compactness, fuzzy almost compactness, and fuzzy near compactness in intuitionistic fuzzy topological space in view of the definition of Å ostak, and study some of their properties. Also, we investigate the behavior of fuzzy compactness under several types of fuzzy continuous mappings.

  1. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  2. Special functions in Fuzzy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of Fuzzy Logic an useful tool appears: the membership function, with the information about the degree of completion of a condition which defines the respective Fuzzy Set or Fuzzy Relation. With their introduction, it is possible to prove some results on the foundations of Fuzzy Logic and open new ways in Fuzzy Analysis.

  3. Vector-valued fuzzy multifunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismat Beg

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the properties of vector-valued fuzzy multifunctions are studied. The notion of sum fuzzy multifunction, convex hull fuzzy multifunction, close convex hull fuzzy multifunction, and upper demicontinuous are given, and some of the properties of these fuzzy multifunctions are investigated.

  4. Approximate Reasoning with Fuzzy Booleans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces, in analogy to the concept of fuzzy numbers, the concept of fuzzy booleans, and examines approximate reasoning with the compositional rule of inference using fuzzy booleans. It is shown that each set of fuzzy rules is equivalent to a set of fuzzy rules with singleton crisp ante

  5. Fuzzy Sets and Mathematical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, C.; Trillas, E.

    1991-01-01

    Presents the concept of "Fuzzy Sets" and gives some ideas for its potential interest in mathematics education. Defines what a Fuzzy Set is, describes why we need to teach fuzziness, gives some examples of fuzzy questions, and offers some examples of activities related to fuzzy sets. (MDH)

  6. Albedo of a cucumber culture in polyethylene greenhouses in the North-South and East-West orientations; Albedo da cultura do pepino (Cucumis sativus) em estufas de polietileno, nas orientacoes norte-sul e leste-oeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Simone V. de [Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Meteorologia; Escobedo, Joao F. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas

    1998-12-31

    The calculation of albedo on a complete cycle of a cucumber culture was obtained in two polyethylene greenhouses with different orientations (north-south and east-west) and outside. The area of the greenhouse was 35 m{sup 2} and outside 80 cm longer than the surface. They were built in the Solar Radiometer Station, in Botucatu, SP. They are formed by central body, two glasses dome and two glasses dome and two sensors (thin film thermopiles). The sensors are positioned on the up and down part of the instrument. Th up sensor is used to measure global solar radiation and the down sensor is used to measure reflected solar radiation. The signs received from albedo meters were sent to a system of the data acquisition Datalogger 21 XL - CAMPBELL. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. A comparison of the radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. I - The high energy electron distribution in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. II - East-west asymmetry in the radiation belts as a function of Jovian longitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pater, I.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison has been made between detailed model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation and the radio data at wavelengths of 6, 21, and 50 cm. The calculations were performed for a Jovian longitude of 200 deg and were based on the multipole field configurations as derived from the Pioneer data. The electron distribution in the inner magnetosphere was derived as a function of energy, pitch angle, and spatial coordinates. In addition, the hot region or east-west asymmetry in the radiation belts is investigated. It is suggested that this asymmetry is due to the combined effect of an overabundance of electrons at jovicentric longitudes of 240-360 deg and the existence of a dusk-to-dawn directed electric field over the inner magnetosphere generated by the wind system in the upper atmosphere.

  8. Phylogentic Relationship among Limnonectes (Ranidae: Amphibia found in West Sumatra with Other Species from South East Asia based on the based on the 16S rRNA Gen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko T. Iskandar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research to study the phylogenetic relationship among Limnonectes species found in West Sumatra and with other species from South East Asia based on the partial DNA sequences16S rRNA sequences. DNA sequences were aligned using ClustalX version 1.64b, and the phylogenetic relationship within samples were analyzed using PHYLIP version 3.5c program. The alignment showed that, from 805 sites, there are 250 parsimony informative polymorphism sites. The phylogenetic tree showed that all of the Limnonectes spesies were divided in two clusters, the L. blythii complex and L. kuhlii complex. L. kuhlii and L. sp1 clustered into L. kuhlii complex and L. shomponerum and L. macrodon were clustered to L. blythii complex.. This result showed that L. kuhlii and L. blythii are species complexes that are actually constituted of several species.

  9. Invigorating West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The once-poor west China is growing at a faster rate than the east. The trend is set to continue over the next few years. This is good news for China as the country gears up to shrink the economic divide between eastern and western regions.

  10. On fuzzy almost continuous convergence in fuzzy function spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Aggour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the fuzzy almost continuous convergence of fuzzy nets on the set FAC(X, Y of all fuzzy almost continuous functions of a fuzzy topological space X into another Y. Also, we introduce the notions of fuzzy splitting and fuzzy jointly continuous topologies on the set FAC(X, Y and study some of its basic properties.

  11. A New Type Fuzzy Module over Fuzzy Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Yetkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of fuzzy module over a fuzzy ring is introduced by generalizing Yuan and Lee’s definition of the fuzzy group and Aktaş and Çağman’s definition of fuzzy ring. The concepts of fuzzy submodule, and fuzzy module homomorphism are studied and some of their basic properties are presented analogous of ordinary module theory.

  12. West European and East Asian Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy. Volume 2. Western European Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    supports George Kennan’s proposal for an immediate 50 percent reduction of U.S. and Soviet nuclear arsenals, stating, "If you have massive overkill...die Freie Welt.’ Text of speech before the West German Bundestag, Bonn, January 17, 1980. (Bonn: Bundesgeschaftstelle der CDU, 1980). 35. Leber, Georg ...34 International Defense Review, Vol. 12, No. 3 (1979). 82. Geneste, Colonel Marc. ’La Bataille Terrestre Nuc1~aire,5 Strategie, (July-September 1976). 83.t, u

  13. Water quality assessment for Ulansuhai Lake using fuzzy clustering and pattern recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Water quality assessment of lakes is important to determine functional zones of water use. Considering the fuzziness during the partitioning process for lake water quality in an arid area, a multiplex model of fuzzy clustering with pattern recognition was developed by integrating transitive closure method, ISODATA algorithm in fuzzy clustering and fuzzy pattern recognition. The model was applied to partition the Ulansuhai Lake, a typical shallow lake in arid climate zone in the west part of Inner Mongolia, China and grade the condition of water quality divisions. The results showed that the partition well matched the real conditions of the lake, and the method has been proved accurate in the application.

  14. Decision making with fuzzy probability assessments and fuzzy payoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Yexin; Yin Di; Chen Mianyun

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for decision making with fuzzy probability assessments and fuzzy payoff is presented. The consistency of the fuzzy probability assessment is considered. A fuzzy aggregate algorithm is used to indicate the fuzzy expected payoff of alternatives. The level sets of each fuzzy expected payoff are then obtained by solving linear programming models. Based on a defuzzification function associated with the level sets of fuzzy number and a numerical integration formula (Newton-Cotes formula), an effective approach to rank the fuzzy expected payoff of alternatives is also developed to determine the best alternative. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed method.

  15. Experiencing the New Geography in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Uli; Burpee, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Considers the difficulties experienced by the East German School system adjusting to a more progressive educational philosophy. Specifically, contrasts the traditional East German geography instruction (focused solely on physical geography) with the West German emphasis on social issues and problem solving. Many East German instructors distrust…

  16. Generation of fuzzy mathematical morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology aims to extend the binary morphological operators to grey-level images. In order to define the basic morphological operations fuzzy erosion, dilation, opening and closing, we introduce a general method based upon fuzzy implication and inclusion grade operators, including as particular case, other ones existing in related literature In the definition of fuzzy erosion and dilation we use several fuzzy implications (Annexe A, Table of fuzzy implic...

  17. Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosko, Bart

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to fuzzy set theory is described. Topics covered include: neural networks and fuzzy systems; the dynamical systems approach to machine intelligence; intelligent behavior as adaptive model-free estimation; fuzziness versus probability; fuzzy sets; the entropy-subsethood theorem; adaptive fuzzy systems for backing up a truck-and-trailer; product-space clustering with differential competitive learning; and adaptive fuzzy system for target tracking.

  18. The fuzzy space construction kit

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy spaces like the fuzzy sphere or the fuzzy torus have received remarkable attention, since they appeared as objects in string theory. Although there are higher dimensional examples, the most known and most studied fuzzy spaces are realized as matrix algebras defined by three Hermitian matrices, which may be seen as fuzzy membrane or fuzzy surface. We give a mapping between directed graphs and matrix algebras defined by three Hermitian matrices and show that the matrix algebras of known two-dimensional fuzzy spaces are associated with unbranched graphs. By including branchings into the graphs we find matrix algebras that represent fuzzy spaces associated with surfaces having genus 2 and higher.

  19. Fuzzy Model for Trust Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shibin; He Dake

    2006-01-01

    Based on fuzzy set theory, a fuzzy trust model is established by using membership function to describe the fuzziness of trust. The trust vectors of subjective trust are obtained based on a mathematical model of fuzzy synthetic evaluation. Considering the complicated and changeable relationships between various subjects, the multi-level mathematical model of fuzzy synthetic evaluation is introduced. An example of a two-level fuzzy synthetic evaluation model confirms the feasibility of the multi-level fuzzy synthesis evaluation model. The proposed fuzzy model for trust evaluation may provide a promising method for research of trust model in open networks.

  20. Intuitionistic fuzzy calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Qian

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive and systematic review of the latest research findings in the area of intuitionistic fuzzy calculus. After introducing the intuitionistic fuzzy numbers’ operational laws and their geometrical and algebraic properties, the book defines the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy functions and presents the research on the derivative, differential, indefinite integral and definite integral of intuitionistic fuzzy functions. It also discusses some of the methods that have been successfully used to deal with continuous intuitionistic fuzzy information or data, which are different from the previous aggregation operators focusing on discrete information or data. Mainly intended for engineers and researchers in the fields of fuzzy mathematics, operations research, information science and management science, this book is also a valuable textbook for postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students alike.

  1. Foundations Of Fuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    as any PID controller. In the nonlinear domain, the stability of four standard control surfaces is analysed by means of describing functions and Nyquist plots. The self-organizing controller (SOC) is shown to be a model reference adaptive controller. There is a possibility that a nonlinear fuzzy PID......The objective of this textbook is to acquire an understanding of the behaviour of fuzzy logic controllers. Under certain conditions a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Using that equivalence as a link, the book applies analysis methods from...... linear and nonlinear control theory. In the linear domain, PID tuning methods and stability analyses are transferred to linear fuzzy controllers. The Nyquist plot shows the robustness of different settings of the fuzzy gain parameters. As a result, a fuzzy controller is guaranteed to perform as well...

  2. Foundations Of Fuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    linear and nonlinear control theory. In the linear domain, PID tuning methods and stability analyses are transferred to linear fuzzy controllers. The Nyquist plot shows the robustness of different settings of the fuzzy gain parameters. As a result, a fuzzy controller is guaranteed to perform as well......The objective of this textbook is to acquire an understanding of the behaviour of fuzzy logic controllers. Under certain conditions a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Using that equivalence as a link, the book applies analysis methods from...... as any PID controller. In the nonlinear domain, the stability of four standard control surfaces is analysed by means of describing functions and Nyquist plots. The self-organizing controller (SOC) is shown to be a model reference adaptive controller. There is a possibility that a nonlinear fuzzy PID...

  3. Metamathematics of fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Hájek, Petr

    1998-01-01

    This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.

  4. Fuzzy Control Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotoli, M.; Jantzen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The tutorial concerns automatic control of an inverted pendulum, especially rule based control by means of fuzzy logic. A ball balancer, implemented in a software simulator in Matlab, is used as a practical case study. The objectives of the tutorial are to teach the basics of fuzzy control......, and to show how to apply fuzzy logic in automatic control. The tutorial is distance learning, where students interact one-to-one with the teacher using e-mail....

  5. Fuzzy Control Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotoli, M.; Jantzen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The tutorial concerns automatic control of an inverted pendulum, especially rule based control by means of fuzzy logic. A ball balancer, implemented in a software simulator in Matlab, is used as a practical case study. The objectives of the tutorial are to teach the basics of fuzzy control, and t......, and to show how to apply fuzzy logic in automatic control. The tutorial is distance learning, where students interact one-to-one with the teacher using e-mail....

  6. Design of Fuzzy Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Design of a fuzzy controller requires more design decisions than usual, for example regarding rule base, inference engine, defuzzification, and data pre- and post processing. This tutorial paper identifies and describes the design choices related to single-loop fuzzy control, based...... on an international standard which is underway. The paper contains also a design approach, which uses a PID controller as a starting point. A design engineer can view the paper as an introduction to fuzzy controller design....

  7. Intuitionistic fuzzy logics

    CERN Document Server

    T Atanassov, Krassimir

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of intuitionistic fuzzy logics. By reporting on both the author’s research and others’ findings, it provides readers with a complete overview of the field and highlights key issues and open problems, thus suggesting new research directions. Starting with an introduction to the basic elements of intuitionistic fuzzy propositional calculus, it then provides a guide to the use of intuitionistic fuzzy operators and quantifiers, and lastly presents state-of-the-art applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The book is a valuable reference resource for graduate students and researchers alike.

  8. AUV fuzzy neural BDI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The typical BDI (belief desire intention) model of agent is not efficiently computable and the strict logic expression is not easily applicable to the AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) domain with uncertainties. In this paper, an AUV fuzzy neural BDI model is proposed. The model is a fuzzy neural network composed of five layers: input ( beliefs and desires) , fuzzification, commitment, fuzzy intention, and defuzzification layer. In the model, the fuzzy commitment rules and neural network are combined to form intentions from beliefs and desires. The model is demonstrated by solving PEG (pursuit-evasion game), and the simulation result is satisfactory.

  9. RANDOM VARIABLE WITH FUZZY PROBABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕恩琳; 钟佑明

    2003-01-01

    Mathematic description about the second kind fuzzy random variable namely the random variable with crisp event-fuzzy probability was studied. Based on the interval probability and using the fuzzy resolution theorem, the feasible condition about a probability fuzzy number set was given, go a step further the definition arid characters of random variable with fuzzy probability ( RVFP ) and the fuzzy distribution function and fuzzy probability distribution sequence of the RVFP were put forward. The fuzzy probability resolution theorem with the closing operation of fuzzy probability was given and proved. The definition and characters of mathematical expectation and variance of the RVFP were studied also. All mathematic description about the RVFP has the closing operation for fuzzy probability, as a result, the foundation of perfecting fuzzy probability operation method is laid.

  10. Relations Among Some Fuzzy Entropy Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿铭

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy entropy has been widely used to analyze and design fuzzy systems, and many fuzzy entropy formulae have been proposed. For further in-deepth analysis of fuzzy entropy, the axioms and some important formulae of fuzzy entropy are introduced. Some equivalence results among these fuzzy entropy formulae are proved, and it is shown that fuzzy entropy is a special distance measurement.

  11. Results on fuzzy soft topological spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, J

    2012-01-01

    B. Tanay et. al. introduced and studied fuzzy soft topological spaces. Here we introduce fuzzy soft point and study the concept of neighborhood of a fuzzy soft point in a fuzzy soft topological space. We also study fuzzy soft closure and fuzzy soft interior. Separation axioms and connectedness are introduced and investigated for fuzzy soft topological spaces.

  12. Some properties of fuzzy soft proximity spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities.

  13. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  14. Philosophical Interactions between "East and West": China, Korea, Europe and the Case of Dasan (Jeong Yak-yong, 1762–1836

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S. ROŠKER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Though the Confucian system of thought, society, and government has a long history in Korea, Chinese Confucian scholars, preoccupied with the urgency of “saving the Confucian essence” used only Japan as a reference in Asia. Therefore, the present article aims to introduce Dasan 茶山 (Jeong Yak-yong 정약용, 1762–1836, who was one of the main representatives of Korean Confucian philosophy. It exposes his significance for the full-range understanding of the landscape of this important traditional East Asian stream of thought as well as for the intellectual syntheses between Confucian teachings and the Christian religion. The author analyses Dasan’s thought from the Sinological perspective and exposes several elements which represent an elaboration and an upgrading of traditional Chinese Neo-Confucian philosophy.

  15. Assessment of total mercury level in fish collected from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Subarna; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Dutta, Siddartha; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2010-05-01

    Total mercury levels were quantified in Tilapia mossambicus, Cirrhinus mrigela and Labio rohita, captured from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture ponds. The bioconcentration factor of collected fish was assessed. Total mercury level ranged from 0.073 to 0.94 microg/g in both pre and post monsoon season. T. mossambicus in both season and C. mrigela at pre monsoon, cross the Indian recommended maximum limit (0.50 microg/g wet weight) for food consumption and according to World Health Organization guidelines all fish were not recommended for pregnant women and individuals under 15 years ages. A significant correlation was observed between mercury content of aquaculture pond water and fish muscle tissue. Total mercury concentration in experimental sites were higher than the control area (Wilcoxon Ranked-Sum test p > 0.05), which suggested the connection between mercury bioaccumulation and sewage fed aquaculture.

  16. On Intuitionistic Fuzzy Filters of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Coframes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Thumbakara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frame theory is the study of topology based on its open set lattice, and it was studied extensively by various authors. In this paper, we study quotients of intuitionistic fuzzy filters of an intuitionistic fuzzy coframe. The quotients of intuitionistic fuzzy filters are shown to be filters of the given intuitionistic fuzzy coframe. It is shown that the collection of all intuitionistic fuzzy filters of a coframe and the collection of all intutionistic fuzzy quotient filters of an intuitionistic fuzzy filter are coframes.

  17. mHealth for mental health in the Middle East: Need, technology use, and readiness among Palestinians in the West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fathy, Cherie; Jonathan, Geneva; Abuharb, Batoul; Brian, Rachel M; Kesbeh, Lana; Abdelkader, Samer

    2017-06-01

    Palestinians in the West Bank are at heightened risk for mental health problems. Limited availability of clinicians and a host of geopolitical, topographical, and infrastructural challenges create significant regional barriers to clinic-based care. The objective of this study was to examine whether mHealth approaches that leverage mobile phones for remote mental health treatment may be viable alternatives. We surveyed 272 Palestinian adults in urban, rural, and refugee camp settings. Most participants (93.4%) reported owning mobile phones. The penetration of mobile devices was high across all study sites. Males and females did not differ in their access to this resource. Among mobile phone owners, 79.9% had smartphones, 32.2% had basic mobile phones, and 12.2% owned both. Respondents reported having reliable access to electricity (99.6%) and Wi-Fi (80.9%). Almost all mobile phone owners (99.6%) reported using social media such as Facebook, WhatsApp, or Twitter. When asked to estimate the prevalence of mental health problems in the region, 61.4% of participants reported that over half of the people in their communities struggled with depression, posttraumatic stress, or auditory hallucinations. Most participants indicated that they would personally be interested in mHealth for Mental Health options such as bi-directional texting with clinicians (68.8%), smartphone applications (66.5%), unidirectional support texts (64.7%), or web-based interventions (64.0%). Given the Palestinian populations' broad access to technology and technological infrastructure, need for care, and openness to engage in mobile interventions, mHealth should be considered a promising strategy for mental health services in the West Bank. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Properties of Bipolar Fuzzy Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    M. Akram; Dudek, W. A.; Sarwar, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to hypergraphs and investigate some properties of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs. We introduce the notion of $A-$ tempered bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs and present some of their properties. We also present application examples of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs.

  19. Fuzzy Markov chains: uncertain probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We consider finite Markov chains where there are uncertainties in some of the transition probabilities. These uncertainties are modeled by fuzzy numbers. Using a restricted fuzzy matrix multiplication we investigate the properties of regular, and absorbing, fuzzy Markov chains and show that the basic properties of these classical Markov chains generalize to fuzzy Markov chains.

  20. Achieving of Fuzzy Automata for Processing Fuzzy Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Lan; WU Qing-e

    2005-01-01

    At present, there has been an increasing interest in neuron-fuzzy systems, the combinations of artificial neural networks with fuzzy logic. In this paper, a definition of fuzzy finite state automata (FFA) is introduced and fuzzy knowledge equivalence representations between neural networks, fuzzy systems and models of automata are discussed. Once the network has been trained, we develop a method to extract a representation of the FFA encoded in the recurrent neural network that recognizes the training rules.

  1. Entropy of Fuzzy Partitions and Entropy of Fuzzy Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Markechová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we define three kinds of entropy of a fuzzy dynamical system using different entropies of fuzzy partitions. It is shown that different definitions of the entropy of fuzzy partitions lead to different notions of entropies of fuzzy dynamical systems. The relationships between these entropies are studied and connections with the classical case are mentioned as well. Finally, an analogy of the Kolmogorov–Sinai Theorem on generators is proved for fuzzy dynamical systems.

  2. Tutorial On Fuzzy Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    A logic based on the two truth values True and False is sometimes inadequate when describing human reasoning. Fuzzy logic uses the whole interval between 0 (False) and 1 (True) to describe human reasoning. As a result, fuzzy logic is being applied in rule based automatic controllers, and this paper...

  3. Extended Fuzzy Clustering Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Kaymak (Uzay); M. Setnes

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFuzzy clustering is a widely applied method for obtaining fuzzy models from data. It has been applied successfully in various fields including finance and marketing. Despite the successful applications, there are a number of issues that must be dealt with in practical applications of fuz

  4. 东中西部中学生国际理解观比较%Comparing Secondary School Students’ Sense of International Understanding in East China, middle China and West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉; 杨春燕

    2014-01-01

    The essay has compared secondary school students’ sense of international understanding in East China, Middle China and West China. The results show that the students of East China have higher sense of international understanding, female students show stronger open consciousness than male students, secondary school juniors have stronger sense of international understanding, students with more experience of using computer have stronger awareness of international understanding. In three regions, students’ sense of international understanding are immature, and there are problems in international understanding education. China should enhance education for international understanding.%通过对东中西部中学生国际理解观的调查比较发现:东部地区学生的国际理解观水平要高于中西部地区;东中西部地区学生国际理解观的性别差异相似,女生的开放意识均强于男生,男生的国际理解能力意识强于女生;东中西部地区中学生国际理解观的年级差异相似,初中生的国际理解观高于高中生;东中西部地区学生使用计算机的时间与其国际理解观之间均存在正相关关系。东中西部地区学生国际理解观的成熟度及学校国际理解教育的开展方面还存在一些问题,中国需加强学校国际理解教育活动。

  5. Statistical Methods for Fuzzy Data

    CERN Document Server

    Viertl, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Statistical data are not always precise numbers, or vectors, or categories. Real data are frequently what is called fuzzy. Examples where this fuzziness is obvious are quality of life data, environmental, biological, medical, sociological and economics data. Also the results of measurements can be best described by using fuzzy numbers and fuzzy vectors respectively. Statistical analysis methods have to be adapted for the analysis of fuzzy data. In this book, the foundations of the description of fuzzy data are explained, including methods on how to obtain the characterizing function of fuzzy m

  6. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Pre-Nagssugtoqidian crustal evolution in West Greenland: geology, geochemistry and deformation of supracrustal and granitic rocks north-east of Kangaatsiaq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watt, Gordon R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The area north-east of Kangaatsiaq features polyphase grey orthogneisses, supracrustal rocks and Kangaatsiaq granite exposed within a WSW–ENE-trending synform. The supracrustal rocks are comprised of garnet-bearing metapelites, layered amphibolites and layered, likewise grey biotite paragneisses. Their association and geochemical compositions are consistent with a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary basin (containing both tholeiitic and calc-alkali lavas and is similar to other Archaean greenstone belts. The Kangaatsiaq granite forms a 15 × 3 km flat, subconcordant body of deformed,pink, porphyritic granite occupying the core of the supracrustal synform, and is demonstrably intrusive into the amphibolites. The granite displays a pronounced linear fabric (L or L > S. Thepost-granite deformation developed under lower amphibolite facies conditions (400 ± 50°C, and is characterised by a regular, NE–SW-trending subhorizontal lineation and an associated irregular foliation, whose poles define a great circle; together they are indicative of highly constrictional strain. The existence of a pre-granite event is attested by early isoclinal folds and a foliation within the amphibolites that is not present in the granite, and by the fact that the granite cuts earlier structures in the supracrustal rocks. This early event, preserved only in quartz-free lithologies, resulted in high-temperature fabrics being developed under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions.

  7. Axiomatic of Fuzzy Complex Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Garrido

    2012-01-01

    Fuzzy numbers are fuzzy subsets of the set of real numbers satisfying some additional conditions. Fuzzy numbers allow us to model very difficult uncertainties in a very easy way. Arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers have also been developed, and are based mainly on the crucial Extension Principle. When operating with fuzzy numbers, the results of our calculations strongly depend on the shape of the membership functions of these numbers. Logically, less regular membership functions may lead ...

  8. Application of a degree-day model of West Nile virus transmission risk to the East Coast of the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A geographical information systems model that identifies regions of the United States of America (USA susceptible to West Nile virus (WNV transmission risk is presented. This system has previously been calibrated and tested in the western USA; in this paper we use datasets of WNV-killed birds from South Carolina and Connecticut to test the model in the eastern USA. Because their response to WNV infection is highly predictable, American crows were chosen as the primary source for model calibration and testing. Where crow data are absent, other birds are shown to be an effective substitute. Model results show that the same calibrated model demonstrated to work in the western USA has the same predictive ability in the eastern USA, allowing for a continental-scale evaluation of the transmission risk of WNV at a daily time step. The calibrated model is independent of mosquito species and requires inputs of only local maximum and minimum temperatures. Of benefit to the general public and vector control districts, the model predicts the onset of seasonal transmission risk, although it is less effective at identifying the end of the transmission risk season.

  9. Study on Leishmania infection in cats from Ahar,East Azerbaijan Province and North West Iran by parasitological,serological and molecular methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taher; Nemati; Majid; Khanmohammadi; Ahad; Bazmani; Nasrin; Mirsamadi; Mohammad; Hassan; Kohansal; Koshki; Mehdi; Mohebali; Mohammad; Fatollahzadeh; Esmail; Fallah

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study Leishmania infection in cats and its potential role in triuismission of the disease to human by parasitological,serological and molecular methods in Ahar District,East Azerbaijan Province.Methods:In this study,65 cats from different parts of Ahar Province were trapped.The cats were anesthetized with chloroform and blood samples were taken from jugular vein and tested by direct agglutination lest.Spleen and liver smear samples were prepared in order to microscopically examine these organs,and also cultured in Novy-MucNeal-Nicolle and Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1 641) media.Finally,spleen tissue DNA was extracted to perform polymerase chain reaction analysis.Results:In direct agglutination test,4(6%) cats had a positive titer,while 14(22%) cats had a titer of 1:80 which was suspected for an infection and 47(729c) cats were negative.Culture results were negative and ill polymerase chain reaction no amplification was observed.Conclusions:Wc found no case of feline visceral leishmaniasis.It needs more extensive studies by using a larger number of cats to firmly establish leishmaniasis in this area.

  10. MODELING FUZZY GEOGRAPHIC OBJECTS WITHIN FUZZY FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To improve the current GIS functions in describing geographic objects w ith fuzziness,this paper begins with a discussion on the distance measure of sp atial objects based on the theory of sets and an introduction of dilation and er osion operators.Under the assumption that changes of attributes in a geographic region are gradual,the analytic expressions for the fuzzy objects of points,l ines and areas,and the description of their formal structures are presented.Th e analytic model of geographic objects by means of fuzzy fields is developed.We have shown that the 9-intersection model proposed by Egenhofer and Franzosa (19 91) is a special case of the model presented in the paper.

  11. Determination of interrill soil erodibility coefficient based on Fuzzy and Fuzzy-Genetic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Palizvan Zand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the fuzzy logic science has been used successfully in various sudies of hydrology and soil erosion, but in literature review no article was found about its performance for estimating of interrill erodibility. On the other hand, studies indicate that genetic algorithm techniques can be used in fuzzy models and finding the appropriate membership functions for linguistic variables and fuzzy rules. So this study was conducted to develop the fuzzy and fuzzy–genetics models and investigation of their performance in the estimation of soil interrill erodibility factor (Ki. Materials and Methods: For this reason 36 soil samples with different physical and chemical properties were collected from west of Azerbaijan province . soilsamples were also taken from the Ap or A horizon of each soil profile. The samples were air-dried , sieved and Some soil characteristics such as soil texture, organic matter (OM, cation exchange capacity (CEC, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, EC and pH were determined by the standard laboratory methods. Aggregates size distributions (ASD were determined by the wet-sieving method and fractal dimension of soil aggregates (Dn was also calculated. In order to determination of soil interrill erodibility, the flume experiment performed by packing soil a depth of 0.09-m in 0.5 × 1.0 m. soil was saturated from the base and adjusted to 9% slope and was subjected to at least 90 min rainfall . Rainfall intensity treatments were 20, 37 and 47 mm h-1. During each rainfall event, runoff was collected manually in different time intervals, being less than 60 s at the beginning, up to 15 min near the end of the test. At the end of the experiment, the volumes of runoff samples and the mass of sediment load at each time interval were measured. Finally interrill erodibility values were calculated using Kinnell (11 Equation. Then by statistical analyses Dn and sand percent of the soils were selected as input variables and Ki as

  12. Analysis of the Income Gap between Peasants in the East, Middle and West Areas%东中西部地区农民收入差距分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王来栓; 朱润喜

    2013-01-01

      本文选取1978-2011年数据,采用人均纯收入、工资性收入、家庭经营收入、财产性收入、转移性收入的总量、速度、结构、差额、比值、离散系数、贡献率等指标对我国东中西部地区农民收入差距作了系统分析,提出了缩小收入差距的建议。%  select 1978-2011 data in this article, per capita net income, income from wages, family business income, property income, transfer income amount, speed, structure, balance, ratio, dispersion coefficient, contribution rates and other indicators on the income gap of Chinese peasants in the East, middle and West areas for system analysis, recommendations made narrowing the income gap.

  13. Archive of Digital Boomer Sub-bottom Data Collected During USGS Field Activities 97LCA01, 97LCA02, and 97LCA03, West-Central and East Coast Florida, February through July 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metz, Patricia A.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    From February through July of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys of several Florida water bodies as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. These areas include Lakes Dosson, Halfmoon and Round in west-central Florida and Sebastian Inlet and Indian River Lagoon on the east coast of the State. Field activity 97LCA01 was conducted in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), and field activities 97LCA02 and 97LCA03 were conducted in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer sub-bottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  14. RAISING AWARENESS ABOUT SOCIAL ECONOMY – INFORMATION CAMPAIGN DEVELOPED IN THE SOUTH-WEST, SOUTH-EAST AND CENTRE REGIONS OF ROMANIA – EXPERIENCES THROUGH THE “SOCIAL ECONOMY – A REAL CHANCE FOR A BETTER LIFE” PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Georgeta Corman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article continues the description of the implementation of the “Social Economy – a real chance for a better life!” POSDRU project, started in the second volume/ no 1 – February 2012 of the “Social Economy Magazine”, and it offers information about the campaign developed in the South-West, South-East and Centre Region of Romania. The purpose of the campaign was to empower and involve the local communities in the process of social inclusion, to mobilize disadvantaged groups and to encourage collaboration and partnership between all the relevant actors in the community. The beneficiaries of the campaign were professionals from the public sector – social welfare area, the non-profit sector, representatives of the clerk who works on social work projects, as well as representatives of the business sector, interested in collaboration opportunities in the area of active social inclusion for disadvantaged people. The results of the campaign can be considered starting points in different analysis and diagnoses in the social economy and social work field.

  15. Flood-Inundation Maps for the North River in Colrain, Charlemont, and Shelburne, Massachusetts, From the Confluence of the East and West Branch North Rivers to the Deerfield River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Lombard, Pamela J.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2015-10-27

    A series of 10 digital flood-inundation maps were developed for a 3.3-mile reach of the North River in Colrain, Charlemont, and Shelburne, Massachusetts, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The coverage of the maps extends from the confluence of the East and West Branch North Rivers to the Deerfield River. Peak-flow estimates at the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities were computed for the reach from updated flood-frequency analyses. These peak flows were routed through a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic model to obtain the corresponding peak water-surface elevations and to place the tropical storm Irene flood of August 28, 2011, into historical context. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the current [2015] stage-discharge relation at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage North River at Shattuckville, MA (station number 01169000), and from documented high-water marks from the tropical storm Irene flood, which had a peak flow with approximately a 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability.

  16. Discussion on Needham Problem from the Aspect of Different Ways of Thinking between the East and the West%从东西方思维方式的差异方面谈李约瑟难题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗曼予

    2011-01-01

    英国科学史家李约瑟就近代科技的发展问题提出了"李约瑟难题",各国学者从科学史、社会学、文化学等方面进行了探讨,得出了不同的解决方案。本文拟从东西方思维方式的差异出发谈谈对这一问题的一些思考。%British science historian Joseph Needham asked the "Needham problem" which is about the different development ways of modern science and technology.Scholars from various countries from the history of science,sociology,cultural studies and other aspects of the study,reached different solution about the "Needham problem".From different ways of thinking,this paper talks about Needham problem from different thinking styles between the east and the west.

  17. Detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in organs of chicken affected by higly pathogenic avian infuenza in East and West Java by using immunohistochemical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Damayanti

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to detect antigen H5N1 of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI virus in various farms in East and West Java. The immunohistochemical technique was applied due to Hematoxilin-eosin (H&E staining was impossible to visualize the antigen in tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was applied for some visceral organs collected from the areas where the outbreaks occurred in September-October 2003. The specimens were processed as histopathological paraffin blocks using standard method. The blocks that were suspected to have antigen H5N1 were cut and rabbit antisera to H5N1 produced from the local isolate was applied as the primary antibody. Biotinylated secondary antibody and avidin biotin peroxidase from a commercial kit were administered. The antigen present in the tissues were visualized by adding a substrate called Amino Ethyl Carbazole (AEC resulting in reddish brown colour. This immunostaining proved to be accurate and reliably quick method to detect H5N1 antigen present in the avian tissues. In conclusion, the outbreak of bird flu was caused by H5N1 strain and the antigen could be found in wattles, combs, brain, trachea, lungs, heart, proventriculus, liver, spleen, kidney and ovary.

  18. Super Fuzzy Matrices and Super Fuzzy Models for Social Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Amal, K

    2008-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of fuzzy super matrices and operations on them. This book will be highly useful to social scientists who wish to work with multi-expert models. Super fuzzy models using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Fuzzy Relational Maps, Bidirectional Associative Memories and Fuzzy Associative Memories are defined here. The authors introduce 13 multi-expert models using the notion of fuzzy supermatrices. These models are described with illustrative examples. This book has three chapters. In the first chaper, the basic concepts about super matrices and fuzzy super matrices are recalled. Chapter two introduces the notion of fuzzy super matrices adn their properties. The final chapter introduces many super fuzzy multi expert models.

  19. East-west coastal asymmetry in the summertime near surface wind speed and its projected change in future climate over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Upal; Chakraborty, Rohit; Maitra, Animesh; Singh, A. K.

    2017-05-01

    The behaviors of various meteorological parameters during 1981-2010 are investigated to obtain any asymmetric variability of summertime near surface wind over Indian coastal boundaries. No significant changes were obtained in the trends of surface pressure, surface relative humidity, 2-metre temperature and surface precipitation; although, near surface wind speed is found to have significantly declined on the eastern coast with respect to the western coast during this period. Summertime surface wind speed on the eastern coast have decreased from 3.5 to 2.5 m s- 1 (7 to 5 knots) whereas 4.5 to 4 m s- 1 (9 to 8 knots) during the last three decades (statistical significance level 95%). A decrease in the atmospheric instability may serve as the potential reason for the suppression of severe convective occurrences manifested by a parallel decrease in surface wind speeds over these regions. The local heating up of middle atmosphere (300-500 hPa pressure level) due to increased humidity and the difference in net heat flux over Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal due to the variance of temperature gradient (1000-925 hPa) along the coastal boundaries might be responsible for this climatic disparity between the coastal regions of India since the last three decades. Summertime near surface wind speed projections for Indian sub-continent based on 7 best climate models, for RCP8.5 scenarios, has been calculated to show a mean increase by 10-15% on the eastern coast (Eastern Ghats), 1-2% on the western coasts (Western Ghats), 1-5% decrease in the Indo-Gangetic Basin and 3% decrease in the Gangetic West Bengal and adjoining Bangladesh.

  20. Iconoclasmo e iconodulia entre oriente y occidente (siglos VIII-IX Iconoclasm and iconoduly between east and west (8th-9th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Hernández Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo trata acerca de la recepción en el occidente carolingio de la crisis iconoclasta. Reflexiona sobre la forma en que ambas cristiandades trataron el problema que las imágenes representan para las prácticas religiosas y las consecuencias políticas del culto de los iconos. El escrito afirma también que durante los siglos VIII y IX la crisis iconoclasta permitió la aparición de una tradición cristiana latina consciente de sí misma. Por lo tanto, se trató del momento que puso en evidencia el nacimiento de dos formas divergentes de piedad cristiana y la alienación de una respecto de la otra. La cristiandad occidental centrada en el edificio eclesiástico y que privilegiaba la ubicación de lo sagrado en el rito eucarístico, y la oriental cuyo centro era la adoración de las imágenes, con la consecuente multiplicación de los espacios sagrados.The following paper deals with the reception in the Carolingian west of the Byzantine Iconoclast Crisis. It considers the way both Christianities dealed with the problem that images presented to religious practices and the political consequences of iconic worship. The paper also states that during the VIII and IX centuries the iconoclast crisis allowed the emergence of a self conscious Latin Christian tradition. Consequently it was the moment that showed the beginning of two differing ways of Christian piety and the alienation of one towards the other. Western Christianity focused its religion practice in church building and the idea of Sacrality in the Eucharistic Rite. The oriental church, moreovers, centered its practices and theology on icon worship.

  1. Penerapan Logika Fuzzy pada Penilaian Mutu Teh Hitam Orthodox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Kastaman

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In testing quality process of the orthodox black tea by using tea organoleptic expert, there is often found a problem of tester sensoric restriction. Based on this conditon the research has been carried out by using fuzzy modelling technique, which aimed to explore ruther more about how fuzzy method can concordance with fuzzy range value on black olthodox tea assesment. So that, it could be more objective on quality evalualion. The research has beld on May to June 2005 in tea plantation facility of PTPN Vlll Malabar. Pangalengan, and Tea and Cinchona Research Center (Pusat Penelitian Ten dan Kina -PPTK Gembung, Cieidey, West Java. This fuzzy method can keep a record experience of the orthodox black tea tester and also correct the result of the determination done by the tester, Based on the parametrik LSD test and non-parametrik Mann-Whitney, there is no significant value diference In the result of the determination done by the tester and by using the fuzzy logic. So that the fuzzy logic method can be used as a method in orthodox black tea quality determination. But The method can not be used if there is a far diference in the tea determination between one tester to the others. Tbe best defuzzification method for tea quality detemination in this occasion is Smallest of Maximum (SOM method.

  2. Fuzzy Dot Structure of BG-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Senapati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the notions of fuzzy dot subalgebras is introduced together with fuzzy normal dot subalgebras and fuzzy dot ideals of BG-algebras. The homomorphic image and inverse image are investigated in fuzzy dot subalgebras and fuzzy dot ideals of BG-algebras. Also, the notion of fuzzy relations on the family of fuzzy dot subalgebras and fuzzy dot ideals of BG-algebras are introduced with some related properties.

  3. Structural Holes in Directed Fuzzy Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Renjie Hu; Guangyu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The structural holes have been a key issue in fuzzy social network analysis. For undirected fuzzy social networks where edges are just present or absent undirected fuzzy relation and have no more information attached, many structural holes measures have been presented, such as key fuzzy structural holes, general fuzzy structural holes, strong fuzzy structural holes, and weak fuzzy structural holes. There has been a growing need to design structural holes measures for directed fuzzy social net...

  4. The Fuzzy Supersphere

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Harald; Grosse, Harald; Reiter, Gert

    1998-01-01

    We introduce the fuzzy supersphere as sequence of finite-dimensional, noncommutative $Z_{2}$-graded algebras tending in a suitable limit to a dense subalgebra of the $Z_{2}$-graded algebra of ${\\cal H}^{\\infty}$-functions on the $(2| 2)$-dimensional supersphere. Noncommutative analogues of the body map (to the (fuzzy) sphere) and the super-deRham complex are introduced. In particular we reproduce the equality of the super-deRham cohomology of the supersphere and the ordinary deRham cohomology of its body on the "fuzzy level".

  5. A fuzzy disaggregation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Polli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a problem of time series disaggregation in presence of broad information lack. In this framework it is not possible to follow standard methodologies, like those stemming from the Chow and Lin algorithm and based on probabilistic assumptions. In general terms, when information sets are limited, instead of referring to probabilistic measures it could be more appropriate to adopt an uncertainty measure satisfying only some general properties, like the fuzzy one. After a synthetic survey about fuzzy aggregation operators, we introduce a fuzzy disaggregation technique, based on Choquet capacity theory and characterized by De Finetti coherence.

  6. A Novel Weak Fuzzy Solution for Fuzzy Linear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Salahshour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a novel weak fuzzy solution for the fuzzy linear system. As a matter of fact, we define the right-hand side column of the fuzzy linear system as a piecewise fuzzy function to overcome the related shortcoming, which exists in the previous findings. The strong point of this proposal is that the weak fuzzy solution is always a fuzzy number vector. Two complex and non-complex linear systems under uncertainty are tested to validate the effectiveness and correctness of the presented method.

  7. Fuzzy Modeling for Uncertainty Nonlinear Systems with Fuzzy Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Jafari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertain nonlinear systems can be modeled with fuzzy equations by incorporating the fuzzy set theory. In this paper, the fuzzy equations are applied as the models for the uncertain nonlinear systems. The nonlinear modeling process is to find the coefficients of the fuzzy equations. We use the neural networks to approximate the coefficients of the fuzzy equations. The approximation theory for crisp models is extended into the fuzzy equation model. The upper bounds of the modeling errors are estimated. Numerical experiments along with comparisons demonstrate the excellent behavior of the proposed method.

  8. Axiomatic of Fuzzy Complex Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy numbers are fuzzy subsets of the set of real numbers satisfying some additional conditions. Fuzzy numbers allow us to model very difficult uncertainties in a very easy way. Arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers have also been developed, and are based mainly on the crucial Extension Principle. When operating with fuzzy numbers, the results of our calculations strongly depend on the shape of the membership functions of these numbers. Logically, less regular membership functions may lead to very complicated calculi. Moreover, fuzzy numbers with a simpler shape of membership functions often have more intuitive and more natural interpretations. But not only must we apply the concept and the use of fuzzy sets, and its particular case of fuzzy number, but also the new and interesting mathematical construct designed by Fuzzy Complex Numbers, which is much more than a correlate of Complex Numbers in Mathematical Analysis. The selected perspective attempts here that of advancing through axiomatic descriptions.

  9. Homomorphic Properties of Fuzzy Rough Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Ke-yun; ZHANG Xiao-hua

    2012-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the discussion of homomorphic properties of fuzzy rough groups.The fuzzy approximation space was generated by fuzzy normal subgroups and the fuzzy rough approximation operators were discussed in the frame of fuzzy rough set model.The basic properties of fuzzy rough approximation operators were obtained.

  10. Some Results on Fuzzy Soft Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gunduz (Aras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some important properties of fuzzy soft topological spaces. Furthermore, fuzzy soft continuous mapping, fuzzy soft open and fuzzy soft closed mappings, and fuzzy soft homeomorphism for fuzzy soft topological spaces are given and structural characteristics are discussed and studied.

  11. Fuzzy Rough Ring and Its Prop erties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Bi-jun; FU Yan-ling

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the theories of fuzzy rough ring and its properties. The fuzzy approximation space generated by fuzzy ideals and the fuzzy rough approximation operators were proposed in the frame of fuzzy rough set model. The basic properties of fuzzy rough approximation operators were analyzed and the consistency between approximation operators and the binary operation of ring was discussed.

  12. Some Weaker Forms of Fuzzy Faintly Open Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Hakeem A. Othman

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to introduce and investigate some weak forms of fuzzy open mappings, namely fuzzy faintly semi open (fuzzy faintly semi closed), fuzzy faintly preopen (fuzzy faintly preclosed), fuzzy faintly $\\alpha$-open (fuzzy faintly $\\alpha$-closed), fuzzy faintly semi preopen (fuzzy faintly semi preclosed) and fuzzy faintly $sp$- open (fuzzy faintly $sp$- closed) mappings and their fundamental properties are obtained. Moreover, their relationship with other types of fuzzy open (clo...

  13. Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy S-Open and S-Closed Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, B; Athar Kharal

    2009-01-01

    Several properties of fuzzy semiclosure and fuzzy semi-interior of fuzzy sets defined by Yalvac (1988), have been established and supported by counterexamples. We also study the characterizations and properties of fuzzy semi-open and fuzzy semi-closed sets. Moreover, we define fuzzy s-open and fuzzy s-closed mappings and give some interesting characterizations.

  14. Extended Fuzzy Logic Programs with Fuzzy Answer Set Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Emad

    This paper extends fuzzy logic programs [12, 24] to allow the explicit representation of classical negation as well as non-monotonic negation, by introducing the notion of extended fuzzy logic programs. We present the fuzzy answer set semantics for the extended fuzzy logic programs, which is based on the classical answer set semantics of classical extended logic programs [7]. We show that the proposed semantics is a natural extension to the classical answer set semantics of classical extended logic programs [7]. Furthermore, we define fixpoint semantics for extended fuzzy logic programs with and without non-monotonic negation, and study their relationship to the fuzzy answer set semantics. In addition, we show that the fuzzy answer set semantics is reduced to the stable fuzzy model semantics for normal fuzzy logic programs introduced in [42]. The importance of that is computational methods developed for normal fuzzy logic programs can be applied to the extended fuzzy logic programs. Moreover, we show that extended fuzzy logic programs can be intuitively used for representing and reasoning about actions in fuzzy environment.

  15. Fuzziness and Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grace Qiao Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how the phenomenon of fuzzy language, such as `many' in `Mary has many friends', can be explained by Relevance Theory. It is concluded that fuzzy language use conforms with optimal relevance in that it can achieve the greatest positive effect with the least processing effort. It is the communicators themselves who decide whether or not optimal relevance is achieved, rather than the language form (fuzzy or non-fuzzy) used. People can skillfully adjust the deployment of different language forms or choose appropriate interpretations to suit different situations and communication needs. However, there are two challenges to RT: a. to extend its theory from individual relevance to group relevance; b. to embrace cultural considerations (because when relevance principles and cultural protocols are in conflict, the latter tends to prevail).

  16. Sobre multifunciones Fuzzy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato César Scarparo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan y demuestran algunos resultados de D.T. Luc y C, Vargas referentes a multifunciones con dominio y blanco en espacios vectoriales topológicos de Hausdorff sobre R, como así mismo se explícita el concepto de multifunción fuzzy de acuerdo a Papageogiou, y se demuestran dos teorema de S. S. Chag, con respecto a las multifunciones fuzzy, proposiciones todas estas, que integran una línea de resultados necesarios para la demostración de desigualdades variacionales para multifunciones fuzzy, a su vez necesarias, para la extensión fuzzy de conocido teorema de Walras.

  17. Fuzzy data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bandemer, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Fuzzy data such as marks, scores, verbal evaluations, imprecise observations, experts' opinions and grey tone pictures, are quite common. In Fuzzy Data Analysis the authors collect their recent results providing the reader with ideas, approaches and methods for processing such data when looking for sub-structures in knowledge bases for an evaluation of functional relationship, e.g. in order to specify diagnostic or control systems. The modelling presented uses ideas from fuzzy set theory and the suggested methods solve problems usually tackled by data analysis if the data are real numbers. Fuzzy Data Analysis is self-contained and is addressed to mathematicians oriented towards applications and to practitioners in any field of application who have some background in mathematics and statistics.

  18. Fuzzy stochastic multiobjective programming

    CERN Document Server

    Sakawa, Masatoshi; Katagiri, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    With a stress on interactive decision-making, this work breaks new ground by covering both the random nature of events related to environments, and the fuzziness of human judgements. The text runs from mathematical preliminaries to future research directions.

  19. Fuzziness in abacus logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhas, Othman Qasim

    1993-10-01

    The concept of “abacus logic” has recently been developed by the author (Malhas, n.d.). In this paper the relation of abacus logic to the concept of fuzziness is explored. It is shown that if a certain “regularity” condition is met, concepts from fuzzy set theory arise naturally within abacus logics. In particular it is shown that every abacus logic then has a “pre-Zadeh orthocomplementation”. It is also shown that it is then possible to associate a fuzzy set with every proposition of abacus logic and that the collection of all such sets satisfies natural conditions expected in systems of fuzzy logic. Finally, the relevance to quantum mechanics is discussed.

  20. Dialectic operator fuzzy logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓春; 姜云飞; 刘叙华

    1996-01-01

    Dialectic operator fuzzy logic (DOFL) is presented which is relevant,paraconsistent and nonmonotonic.DOFL can vividly describe the belief revision in the cognitive process and can infer reasonably well while the knowledge is inconsistent,imprecise or incomplete.

  1. On Fuzzy Regular-I-Closed Sets, Fuzzy Semi-I-Regular Sets, Fuzzy ABI-Sets and Decompositions of Fuzzy Regular-I-Continuity, Fuzzy AI - Continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Cemil; ABBAS, Fadhil

    2011-01-01

     The concepts of fuzzy regular-I-closed set and fuzzy semi-I-regular set in fuzzy ideal topological spaces are investigated and some of their properties are obtained. Key words: Topological, Spaces, Fuzzy, Regular, Sets

  2. Fuzzy forecasting based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyi-Ming; Wang, Nai-Yi

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to predict the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups (FTLRGs). The proposed method divides fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs based on the trend of adjacent fuzzy sets appearing in the antecedents of fuzzy logical relationships. First, we apply an automatic clustering algorithm to cluster the historical data into intervals of different lengths. Then, we define fuzzy sets based on these intervals of different lengths. Then, the historical data are fuzzified into fuzzy sets to derive fuzzy logical relationships. Then, we divide the fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs for forecasting the TAIEX. Moreover, we also apply the proposed method to forecast the enrollments and the inventory demand, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed method gets higher average forecasting accuracy rates than the existing methods.

  3. 我国西部冬季扰动源涡与东部夏季雨带分布%Relationship of Winter Disturb-Source-Vortex over West and Summer Rain-Belt over East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳艳香; 汤懋苍

    2001-01-01

    In summer, the distribution of rain-belt over East was controlledby the last winter position of Disturb-source-vortex over West China, during 85°E to 105°E latitude. The vortex is to the north of 35°N longitude, the belt is occurred in Yellow River reaches and to the north (first rainfall pattern-Ⅰ) in summer; between 32°N and 35°N longitude, the belt is appeared in Huaihe River basin (second pattern-Ⅱ); and the vortex is down to the south of 35°N, the belt is in Yangtze River basin and/or Jiangnan area ( third pattern-Ⅲ ). In the hotspot region over south-east of Tibet, the stronger geothermal pulse in winter has more important influence for climate disaster in next summer over Yangtze River, Huaihe River reaches and Sichuan, Guizhou area of China.%我国西部(85°~105°E)冬季“扰动源涡”的位置对夏季东部雨带的配置具有支配作用。当西部“源涡”位于35°N以北时,东部雨带多出现在黄河流域及其以北(Ⅰ类雨型);源涡位于32°~35°N之间时,夏季雨带多出现在淮河流域(Ⅱ类雨型);当源涡位于32°N以南时,雨带多出现在长江流域或江南(Ⅲ类雨型)。藏东南热点区冬季的中强地热脉冲对我国夏季江淮和川黔的大水具有很强的指示作用。

  4. Fuzzy variable linear programming with fuzzy technical coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanwar Uddin Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Fuzzy linear programming is an application of fuzzy set theory in linear decision making problems and most of these problems are related to linear programming with fuzzy variables. In this paper an approximate but convenient method for solving these problems with fuzzy non-negative technical coefficient and without using the ranking functions, is proposed. With the help of numerical examples, the method is illustrated.

  5. Intuitionistic fuzzy alpha-continuity and intuitionistic fuzzy precontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung Kon Jeon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of intuitionistic fuzzy α-open set is given, and conditions for an IFS to be an intuitionistic fuzzy α-open set are provided. Characterizations of intuitionistic fuzzy precontinuous (resp., α-continuous mappings are given.

  6. On fuzzy points in semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Kim

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the semigroup S¯ of the fuzzy points of a semigroup S, and discuss the relation between the fuzzy interior ideals and the subsets of S¯ in an (intra-regular semigroup S.

  7. 陡坡溜管施工在西二线管道工程中的应用%Technique of steep slope pipe-slipping construction in the 2nd West-to-East Gas Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志川; 刁凤东; 霸磊; 杨明

    2012-01-01

    The main process for the pipe-slipping construction method is as main pipe prefabrication and pipe end preparation, anticorrosion layer protection, pipe slipping construction, pipe connection on the slope top. This paper describes construction technology requirements, introduces quality requirements and safety protection measures for steep-slope pipe-slipping construction, and puts forward the following recommendations, including slope ratio experiments before trench excavation, measuring the depth of the trench and slope in a timely manner after beginning to excavate the trench, and determining practical safety measures for cross-operation. This method has been successfully applied in Bid Section 13B, 15B of eastern section in the 2nd West-to-East Gas Pipeline Project, and can be a reference for steep slope section construction for large-diameter long-distance pipelines.%溜管施工工艺主要包括降坡开挖、主管道预制与管端处理、防腐层保护、溜管施工、坡顶连头.阐述了各工艺的施工技术要求,介绍了施工的质量要求与安全保证措施,提出建议:管沟开挖前进行坡比试验,管沟开挖后及时测量管沟深度和坡度,并制定切实可行的交叉作业安全措施.该方法已成功应用于西气东输二线部分管段的施工,可为大口径长输管道工程陡坡段施工提供参考.

  8. East German Teacher Reactions to Reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that reunification allowed teacher unions of the former West Germany to move into the former East Germany, filling a structural void left by the dissolution of the Communist Party. Specifically examines the reactions of newly elected teacher union leaders from the former East Germany to subsequent events in the education and political…

  9. Shapley's value for fuzzy games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Alvarado Sibaja

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the continuation of a previous article titled "Fuzzy Games", where I defined a new type of games based on the Multilinear extensions f, of characteristic functions and most of standard theorems for cooperative games also hold for this new type of games: The fuzzy games. Now we give some other properties and the extension of the definition of Shapley¨s Value for Fuzzy Games Keywords: game theory, fuzzy sets, multiattribute decisions.

  10. Compactness theorems of fuzzy semantics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship among diverse fuzzy semantics vs. the corresponding logic consequence operators has been analyzed systematically. The results that compactness and logical compactness of fuzzy semantics are equivalent to compactness and continuity of the logic consequence operator induced by the semantics respectively have been proved under certain conditions. A general compactness theorem of fuzzy semantics have been established which says that every fuzzy semantics defined on a free algebra with members corresponding to continuous functions is compact.

  11. Fuzzy Group Ideals and Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharatti Lal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This section define a level subring or level ideals obtain a set of necessary and sufficient condition for the equality of two ideals and characterizes field in terms of its fuzzy ideals. It also presents a procedure to construct a fuzzy subrings (fuzzy ideals from any given ascending chain of subring ideal. We prove that the lattice of fuzzy congruence of group G (respectively ring R is isomorphic to the lattice of fuzzy normal subgroup of G (respectively fuzzy ideals of R.In Yuan Boond Wu wangrning investigated the relationship between the fuzzy ideals and the fuzzy congruences on a distributive lattice and obtained that the lattice of fuzzy ideals is isomorphic to the lattice of fuzzy congruences on a generalized Boolean algebra. Fuzzy group theory can be used to describe, symmetries and permutation in nature and mathematics. The fuzzy group is one of the oldest branches of abstract algebra. For example group can be used is classify to all of the forms chemical crystal can take. Group can be used to count the number of non-equivalent objects and permutation or symmetries. For example, the number of different is switching functions of n, variable when permutation of the input are allowed. Beside crystallography and combinatory group have application of quantum mechanics.

  12. Possibility Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruah Bashir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft set and its operations are introduced, and a few of their properties are studied. An application of possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making is investigated. A similarity measure of two possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets has been discussed. An application of this similarity measure in medical diagnosis has been shown.

  13. Fuzzy Soft Compact Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied compactness in fuzzy soft topological spaces which is a generalization of the corresponding concept by R. Lowen in the case of fuzzy topological spaces. Several basic desirable results have been established. In particular, we have proved the counterparts of Alexander’s subbase lemma and Tychonoff theorem for fuzzy soft topological spaces.

  14. Two-Point Fuzzy Ostrowski Type Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amer Latif

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequalities are proved for fuzzy Hölder and fuzzy differentiable functions. The two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequality for M-lipshitzian mappings is also obtained. It is proved that only the two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequality for M-lipshitzian mappings is sharp and as a consequence generalize the two-point fuzzy Ostrowski type inequalities obtained for fuzzy differentiable functions.

  15. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    volumes: China, East Europe, Soviet Union, East Asia, Near East & South Asia, Sub- Saharan Africa, Latin America , and West Europe. Supplements to...Foreign Aid, Corporate Acceptance of Land Reform Law [WEEKLY AGRIBUSINESS 18-24 Nov] ... 9 10 THAILAND Commerce Ministry Official Views...Land Reform Law 42000042 Manila WEEKLY AGRIBUSINESS in English 18-24 Nov 88 p 15 [Article under the rubric "ON THE BEAT" by Jake Espino] [Text

  16. Metamorphic Rocks in West Irian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegen, van der G.

    1971-01-01

    Low-grade metamorphics of West Irian occur to the east of Geelvink Bay associated with two narrow belts of basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks which represent ophiolitic suites of an eugeosynclinical development beginning in Early Mesozoic time. In both of these belts there are indications of regiona

  17. Bifundamental Fuzzy 2-Sphere and Fuzzy Killing Spinors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horatiu Nastase

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We review our construction of a bifundamental version of the fuzzy 2-sphere and its relation to fuzzy Killing spinors, first obtained in the context of the ABJM membrane model. This is shown to be completely equivalent to the usual (adjoint fuzzy sphere. We discuss the mathematical details of the bifundamental fuzzy sphere and its field theory expansion in a model-independent way. We also examine how this new formulation affects the twisting of the fields, when comparing the field theory on the fuzzy sphere background with the compactification of the 'deconstructed' (higher dimensional field theory.

  18. Characteristics of sap flow of east and west trunks of Haloxylon ammodendron in Minqin oasis-desert ecotone and correlation analyses%民勤绿洲荒漠过渡带梭梭东、西方位树干液流特征及相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓艳; 褚建民; 孟平; 姚增旺; 王鹤松; 姜生秀

    2016-01-01

    均有一定关系。%Sap flow rate of east and west trunks of Haloxylon ammodendron ( C. A. Mey.) Bunge in Minqin oasis-desert ecotone was continuously determined by Grainer thermal diffusion probe method ( TDP) from June to November, and related environmental factors were determined simultaneously. On the basis, diurnal change of sap flow rate of east and west trunks on sunny, cloudy and rainy days and changes of sap flow rate of east and west trunks and environmental factors during experimental period were analyzed, and correlations between sap flow rate of east and west trunks and correlations of them with some environmental factors in different weather and time scales were analyzed. The results show that during vigorous growth period ( from June to August ) , diurnal change of sap flow rate of east and west trunks of H. ammodendron on sunny day both appears obviously“broad peak type” curve. During whole observation period, there is a certain difference in trunk sap flow rate in different weather, and also a certain difference in sap flow rate between east and west trunks and their difference in the nighttime is more obvious than that in the daytime. On the whole, sap flow rate of east trunk is higher than that of west trunk. The correlation analysis results show that there are extremely significantly positive correlations between sap flow rate of east and west trunks of H. ammodendron in different weather and time scales, their correlation coefficients are all above 0. 90 with a little difference. On the whole, correlation between sap flow rate of east and west trunks on sunny day is higher than that on cloudy and rainy days, and that in day scale is the strongest. Correlation of sap flow rate of east and west trunks with environmental factors on sunny day is higher than that on cloudy and rainy days, and that in hour scale is higher than that in day scale. Correlation of sap flow rate of west trunk with environmental factors is slightly higher than that of east trunk, meaning that

  19. Multiple Fuzzy Classification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Rafał

    2012-01-01

    Fuzzy classifiers are important tools in exploratory data analysis, which is a vital set of methods used in various engineering, scientific and business applications. Fuzzy classifiers use fuzzy rules and do not require assumptions common to statistical classification. Rough set theory is useful when data sets are incomplete. It defines a formal approximation of crisp sets by providing the lower and the upper approximation of the original set. Systems based on rough sets have natural ability to work on such data and incomplete vectors do not have to be preprocessed before classification. To achieve better performance than existing machine learning systems, fuzzy classifiers and rough sets can be combined in ensembles. Such ensembles consist of a finite set of learning models, usually weak learners. The present book discusses the three aforementioned fields – fuzzy systems, rough sets and ensemble techniques. As the trained ensemble should represent a single hypothesis, a lot of attention is placed o...

  20. Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiatichai Treerattanapitak; Chuleerat Jaruskulchai

    2013-01-01

    Generally,abnormal points (noise and outliers) cause cluster analysis to produce low accuracy especially in fuzzy clustering.These data not only stay in clusters but also deviate the centroids from their true positions.Traditional fuzzy clustering like Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) always assigns data to all clusters which is not reasonable in some circumstances.By reformulating objective function in exponential equation,the algorithm aggressively selects data into the clusters.However noisy data and outliers cannot be properly handled by clustering process therefore they are forced to be included in a cluster because of a general probabilistic constraint that the sum of the membership degrees across all clusters is one.In order to improve this weakness,possibilistic approach relaxes this condition to improve membership assignment.Nevertheless,possibilistic clustering algorithms generally suffer from coincident clusters because their membership equations ignore the distance to other clusters.Although there are some possibilistic clustering approaches that do not generate coincident clusters,most of them require the right combination of multiple parameters for the algorithms to work.In this paper,we theoretically study Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering (PXFCM) that integrates possibilistic approach with exponential fuzzy clustering.PXFCM has only one parameter and not only partitions the data but also filters noisy data or detects them as outliers.The comprehensive experiments show that PXFCM produces high accuracy in both clustering results and outlier detection without generating coincident problems.

  1. A comparative analysis between fuzzy topsis and simplified fuzzy topsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sharifah Aniza Sayed; Mohamad, Daud

    2017-08-01

    Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making plays an important role in solving problems in decision making under fuzzy environment. Among the popular methods used is the fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) where the solution is based on the shortest distance from its positive ideal solution and the farthest distance from its negative ideal solution. The fuzzy TOPSIS method was first introduced by Chen (2000). At present, there are several variants of fuzzy TOPSIS methods and each of them claimed to have its own advantages. In this paper, a comparative analysis is made between the classical fuzzy TOPSIS method proposed by Chen in 2000 and the simplified fuzzy TOPSIS proposed by Sodhi in 2012. The purpose of this study is to show the similarities and the differences between these two methods and also elaborate on their strengths and limitations as well. A comparison is also made by providing numerical examples of both methods.

  2. A neural fuzzy controller learning by fuzzy error propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Detlef; Kruse, Rudolf

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a procedure to integrate techniques for the adaptation of membership functions in a linguistic variable based fuzzy control environment by using neural network learning principles. This is an extension to our work. We solve this problem by defining a fuzzy error that is propagated back through the architecture of our fuzzy controller. According to this fuzzy error and the strength of its antecedent each fuzzy rule determines its amount of error. Depending on the current state of the controlled system and the control action derived from the conclusion, each rule tunes the membership functions of its antecedent and its conclusion. By this we get an unsupervised learning technique that enables a fuzzy controller to adapt to a control task by knowing just about the global state and the fuzzy error.

  3. -Fuzzy Ideals in Ordered Semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Khan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of 𝒩-fuzzy left (right ideals in ordered semigroups and characterize ordered semigroups in terms of 𝒩-fuzzy left (right ideals. We characterize left regular (right regular and left simple (right simple ordered semigroups in terms of 𝒩-fuzzy left (𝒩-fuzzy right ideals. The semilattice of left (right simple semigroups in terms of 𝒩-fuzzy left (right ideals is discussed.

  4. Tuning of Fuzzy PID Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Since fuzzy controllers are nonlinear, it is more difficult to set the controller gains compared to proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. This research paper proposes a design procedure and a tuning procedure that carries tuning rules from the PID domain over to fuzzy single......-loop controllers. The idea is to start with a tuned, conventional PID controller, replace it with an equivalent linear fuzzy controller, make the fuzzy controller nonlinear, and eventually fine-tune the nonlinear fuzzy controller. This is relevant whenever a PID controller is possible or already implemented....

  5. The foundations of fuzzy control

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Harold W

    1997-01-01

    Harold Lewis applied a cross-disciplinary approach in his highly accessible discussion of fuzzy control concepts. With the aid of fifty-seven illustrations, he thoroughly presents a unique mathematical formalism to explain the workings of the fuzzy inference engine and a novel test plant used in the research. Additionally, the text posits a new viewpoint on why fuzzy control is more popular in some countries than in others. A direct and original view of Japanese thinking on fuzzy control methods, based on the author's personal knowledge of - and association with - Japanese fuzzy research, is also included.

  6. Fuzzy Multiresolution Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Li; Qigang, Shang; Na, Lei

    A fuzzy multi-resolution neural network (FMRANN) based on particle swarm algorithm is proposed to approximate arbitrary nonlinear function. The active function of the FMRANN consists of not only the wavelet functions, but also the scaling functions, whose translation parameters and dilation parameters are adjustable. A set of fuzzy rules are involved in the FMRANN. Each rule either corresponding to a subset consists of scaling functions, or corresponding to a sub-wavelet neural network consists of wavelets with same dilation parameters. Incorporating the time-frequency localization and multi-resolution properties of wavelets with the ability of self-learning of fuzzy neural network, the approximation ability of FMRANN can be remarkable improved. A particle swarm algorithm is adopted to learn the translation and dilation parameters of the wavelets and adjusting the shape of membership functions. Simulation examples are presented to validate the effectiveness of FMRANN.

  7. WHY FUZZY QUALITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Parchami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Such as other statistical problems, we may confront with uncertain and fuzzy concepts in quality control. One particular case in process capability analysis is a situation in which specification limits are two fuzzy sets. In such a uncertain and vague environment, the produced product is not qualified with a two-valued Boolean view, but to some degree depending on the decision-maker strictness and the quality level of the produced product. This matter can be cause to a rational decision-making on the quality of the production line. First, a comprehensive approach is presented in this paper for modeling the fuzzy quality concept. Then, motivations and advantages of applying this flexible approach instead of using classical quality are mentioned.

  8. (L,M-Fuzzy σ-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Gui Shi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of (L,M-fuzzy σ-algebras is introduced in the lattice value fuzzy set theory. It is a generalization of Klement's fuzzy σ-algebras. In our definition of (L,M-fuzzy σ-algebras, each L-fuzzy subset can be regarded as an L-measurable set to some degree.

  9. Fuzzy Supervisory Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Control problems in the process industry are dominated by non-linear and time-varying behaviour, many inner loops, and much interaction between the control loops. Fuzzy controllers have in some cases nevertheless mimicked the control actions of a human operator. For high level control and supervi......Control problems in the process industry are dominated by non-linear and time-varying behaviour, many inner loops, and much interaction between the control loops. Fuzzy controllers have in some cases nevertheless mimicked the control actions of a human operator. For high level control...

  10. Fuzzy OPF incorporating UPFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, B.; George, M.K. [Multimedia University (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering and Technology; Gooi, H.B. [Nanyang Technological University (Singapore). School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

    2004-09-01

    A new optimal reactive power flow (ORPF) method is proposed which considers the inclusion of unified powerflow controllers (UPFC). The modelling and inclusion of UPFC in the solution of power flow equations is presented. The ORPF problem is formulated as a fuzzy optimisation problem considering the objectives of minimising system transmission loss and obtaining the best voltage profile. The fuzzy formulation of the ORPF problem is solved using an EP algorithm. The proposed method is applied on the 6-bus and 57-bus IEEE test systems and on a 191-bus Indian electric power system. The results demonstrate the applicability of the method. (author)

  11. Fuzzy CP2

    CERN Document Server

    Alexanian, G G; Immirzi, G; Ydri, B

    2001-01-01

    Regularization of quantum field theories (QFT's) can be achieved by quantizing the underlying manifold (spacetime or spatial slice) thereby replacing it by a non-commutative matrix model or a ``fuzzy manifold''. Such discretization by quantization is remarkably successful in preserving symmetries and topological features, and altogether overcoming the fermion-doubling problem. In this paper, we report on our work on the ``fuzzification'' of the four-dimensional CP2 and its QFT's. CP2 is not spin, but spin${}_c$. Its Dirac operator has many unique features. They are explained and their fuzzy versions are described.

  12. Fuzzy Topological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Syropoulos, Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    Dialectica categories are a very versatile categorical model of linear logic. These have been used to model many seemingly different things (e.g., Petri nets and Lambek's calculus). In this note, we expand our previous work on fuzzy petri nets to deal with fuzzy topological systems. One basic idea is to use as the dualizing object in the Dialectica categories construction, the unit real interval [0,1], which has all the properties of a {\\em lineale}. The second basic idea is to generalize Vickers's notion of a topological system.

  13. A Fuzzy Commitment Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Al-saggaf, Alawi A

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempt has been made to explain a fuzzy commitment scheme. In the conventional Commitment schemes, both committed string m and valid opening key are required to enable the sender to prove the commitment. However there could be many instances where the transmission involves noise or minor errors arising purely because of the factors over which neither the sender nor the receiver have any control. The fuzzy commitment scheme presented in this paper is to accept the opening key that is close to the original one in suitable distance metric, but not necessarily identical. The concept itself is illustrated with the help of simple situation.

  14. Mexico East-West Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  15. Alaska East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 millionterrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  16. Advertising and Adulation:East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, Americans are constantly focusing their attention and admiration on successful people. Everyone avidly reads about and talks about popular stars, musicians and heroes. Michael Phelps, Madonna, and President Barack

  17. Painted Beauties-East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Chinese painting, specifi-cally painting with ink or watercolors, has a different perspective from the way Western artists create images:" said my friend Ting Ting. She's a professional editor and she loves classical Chinese art. Ting Ting often invites me to attend gallery openings around Beijing.

  18. Pedagogy: East and West, Then and Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This is the first of six commentaries discussing Zongjie Wu's essay, "Interpretation, autonomy, and transformation". Wu's analyses of pedagogy have opened a new window for looking at the essence of education. The comparison of Confucius's pedagogy with contemporary teaching in China provides a striking contrast. However, perhaps it is…

  19. Flax Complex When West Meets East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yuan

    2007-01-01

    @@ At the end of November, representatives from the CELC, who represent the top quality of European Linen Industry, arrived in Beijing to meet their biggest customers, Chinese factories who produce linen yarns. The two sides met under the organization of China Bastand Leaf Fiber Association,and the meeting was held in the China National Textile and Apparel Council.

  20. Blending East and West for Holistic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ranjani Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Education is under pressure to respond to the changing modern world. Education system worldwide aims to develop students into well-rounded citizens and help them become creative problem-solvers. Several theories have been proposed in the research literature which emphasizes the importance of social and cultural context to creativity. Eastern and…

  1. EAST OR WEST,NOTHING IS PERFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Tiger mom sheds light on two countries’ self-reflection on their education and momentum for improvement In her new bestseller,Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother,Amy Chua,Yale law professor,recounts her adventures in Chinese parenting and reveals the secrets

  2. Whither Unified Korea? East, West or Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    States, the ROK, Japan, the PRC and Russia, share a common desire to prevent nuclear proliferation and for the denuclearization of the Peninsula.30 US...least to a position of favorable neutrality. The denuclearization of the Peninsula is more likely to result from unification; therefore the US support

  3. Archive of single-beam bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 07CCT01 nearshore of Fort Massachusetts and within Camille Cut, West and East Ship Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, July 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Reynolds, B.J.; Hansen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS) is composed of a series of barrier islands along the Mississippi - Alabama coastline. Historically these islands have undergone long-term shoreline change. The devastation of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 prompted questions about the stability of the barrier islands and their potential response to future storm impacts. Additionally, there was concern from the National Park Service (NPS) about the preservation of the historical Fort Massachusetts, located on West Ship Island. During the early 1900s, Ship Island was an individual island. In 1969 Hurricane Camille breached Ship Island, widening the cut and splitting it into what is now known as West Ship Island and East Ship Island. In July of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was able to provide the NPS with a small bathymetric survey of Camille Cut using high-resolution single-beam bathymetry. This provided GUIS with a post-Katrina assessment of the bathymetry in Camille Cut and along the northern shoreline directly in front of Fort Massachusetts. Ultimately, this survey became an initial bathymetry dataset toward a larger USGS effort included in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project (http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/). This report serves as an archive of the processed single-beam bathymetry. Data products herein include gridded and interpolated digital depth surfaces and x,y,z data products. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, geographic information system (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten FACS logs and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for description of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report or hold the cursor over an acronym for a pop-up explanation. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique

  4. Vibration Comfort Analysis on the Pedestrian Bridge Between East Plaza and West Plaza of Shenzhen North Railroad Station%深圳北站东西广场人行天桥舒适度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟美莉; 吴兵; 傅学怡

    2012-01-01

    深圳北站东西广场人行天桥位于深圳火车北站站房北侧.针对人行天桥大跨度桥面的振动舒适度问题,建立天桥的整体有限元模型,以IABSE建议的单人步行激励为基础,人行步频1.6~2.4Hz,考虑行人起步相位随机分布,通过多点输入时程分析方法求得结构的加速度响应,并参考ATC给出天桥的人行舒适度性能水准对该天桥进行人行走舒适度分析.分析研究表明该天桥具有适宜的人行舒适度,计算分析找到结构响应较大处,结构设计据此进行了针对性的加强,可更有效地提高其舒适度.%The pedestrian bridge between east plaza and west plaza lies in the north of Shenzhen North Railroad Station. The vibration comfort of large-span bridge is studied. A finite element model of a large-span bridge is established. Based on the single walking force of IABSE (International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineer), with the walking frequency 1.6 ~ 2.4 Hz, a method is proposed considering the random distribution of persona' s initial phase angle. Then the vibration comfort of the bridge is analyzed by a multi-support excitation and time history analysis method. The comfort performance level is given according to ATC (Applied Technology Council). The results show that the bridge has right comfort. The structures which have the maximum response under the crowd-induced loads are strengthened to increase the comfort.

  5. 深圳北站东西广场联系人行天桥舒适度分析%Vibration Comfort Analysis on the Pedestrian Bridge between East Plaza and West Plaza of Shenzhen North Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兵; 傅学怡; 曲家新

    2012-01-01

    该广场联系人行天桥位于深圳火车北站站房北侧,联系北站东、西广场.本文针对联系人行天桥大跨度桥面的振动舒适度问题,建立天桥的整体有限元模型,以IABSE建议的单人步行激励为基础,人行步频1.6Hz~ 2.4Hz之间,考虑行人起步相位随机分布,通过多点输入时程分析方法求得结构的加速度响应.据此,对该天桥进行了人行走舒适度分析,并参考ATC给出了天桥的人行舒适度性能水准.分析研究表明,该天桥具有适宜的人行舒适度,结构设计对结构响应较大处进行了针对性的加强,可更有效地提高舒适度.所采用的计算分析方法及天桥人行舒适度性能水准对同类型大跨天桥结构设计具有一定的参考价值.%The pedestrian bridge between east plaza and west plaza lies in the north of Shenzhen North Railway Station. A finite element model of a large-span bridge is established to study the problem about vibration comfort of large-span bridge. Based on the single walking force of IABSE (International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineer) and the walking frequency of 1.6Hz ~ 2.4Hz, a method is proposed to get the acceleration response of structure considering the random distribution of crowd initial phase angle. Then the vibration comfort of the bridge is analyzed by a multi-support excitation and time history analysis method. The comfort performance level is given according to ATC ( Applied Technology Council). The results show that the bridge has right comfort. Some structural position of maximum response under the crowd-induced loads are strengthened to increase the comfort. The calculating method and comfort performance level could be referred by the vibration comfort analysis of the same kind of large-span bridge structure design.

  6. [Integrated fuzzy evaluation of water eutrophication based on GIS in the Taihu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shao-Qi; Huang, Jia-Zhu; Li, Yun-Mei; Wei, Yu-Chun; Gu, Zheng-Fan

    2005-09-01

    Supported by geographic information system and geostatistics, the application of fuzzy mathematics and analytic hierarchy process for water eutrophication evaluation was discussed. Taking Taihu Lake as an example, the research selected total phosphorus, total nitrogen, chlorophyll a, COD, BOD5, DO and transparence as evaluation index. After geostatistical analysis of the datum of monitoring site, the values of evaluation indices were estimated in the whole research area. Given that, the different dependence functions were developed for these indices and the function values were calculated. Furthermore, according to the principle of analytic hierarchy process, the weight of every index was calculated, then integrated evaluation value was obtained for the whole research area and the evaluation map for water eutrophication was drawn. The result shows that the level of nutrition is the highest in the north and north-west of lake, which is hypertrophic, that is meso-eutrophic in the middle and that is the lowest in the south-east of lake, which is mesotrophic.

  7. The fuzzy WOD model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    for decision support and multidimensional interval analysis. First, the original approach is extended using fuzzy set theory which makes it possible to handle both non-interval and interval data. Second, we re-examine the ranking procedure based on semi-equivalence classes and suggest a new complementary...

  8. FUZZY PREFERENCES IN CONFLICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubarak S. AL-MUTAIRI; Keith W. HIPEL; Mohamed S. KAMEL

    2008-01-01

    A systematic fuzzy approach is developed to model fuzziness and uncertainties in the preferences of decision makers involved in a conflict. This unique fuzzy preference formulation is used within the paradigm of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution in which a given dispute is modeled in terms of decision makers, each decision maker's courses of actions or options, and each decision maker's preferences concerning the states or outcomes which could take place. In order to be able to determine the stability of each state for each decision maker and the possible equilibria or resolutions, a range of solution concepts describing potential human behavior under conflict are defined for use with fuzzy preferences. More specifically, strong and weak definitions of stability are provided for the solution concepts called Nash, general metarational, symmetric metarational, and sequential stability. To illustrate how these solution concepts can be conveniently used in practice, they are applied to a dispute over the contamination of an aquifer by a chemical company located in Elmira, Ontario, Canada.

  9. Fuzzy efficiency without convexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Balezentis, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    approach builds directly upon the definition of Farrell's indexes of technical efficiency used in crisp FDH. Therefore we do not require the use of fuzzy programming techniques but only utilize ranking probabilities of intervals as well as a related definition of dominance between pairs of intervals. We...

  10. Fuzziness at the horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batic, Davide, E-mail: dbatic@uniandes.edu.c [Departamento de Matematica, Universidad de los Andes, Cra 1E, No. 18A-10, Bogota, Colombia Department of Mathematics, University of West Indies, Kingston (Jamaica); Nicolini, Piero, E-mail: nicolini@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.d [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-08-16

    We study the stability of the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole interior by analysing the propagation of a massless scalar field between the two horizons. We show that the spacetime fuzziness triggered by the field higher momenta can cure the classical exponential blue-shift divergence, suppressing the emergence of infinite energy density in a region nearby the Cauchy horizon.

  11. Fuzzy knowledge management for the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zongmin; Yan, Li; Cheng, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    This book goes to great depth concerning the fast growing topic of technologies and approaches of fuzzy logic in the Semantic Web. The topics of this book include fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontologies, queries of fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontology knowledge bases, extraction of fuzzy description logics and ontologies from fuzzy data models, storage of fuzzy ontology knowledge bases in fuzzy databases, fuzzy Semantic Web ontology mapping, and fuzzy rules and their interchange in the Semantic Web. The book aims to provide a single record of current research in the fuzzy knowledge representation and reasoning for the Semantic Web. The objective of the book is to provide the state of the art information to researchers, practitioners and graduate students of the Web intelligence and at the same time serve the knowledge and data engineering professional faced with non-traditional applications that make the application of conventional approaches difficult or impossible.

  12. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graphs with Categorical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rashmanlou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to show the rationality of some operations, defined or to be defined, on intuitionistic fuzzy graphs. Firstly, three kinds of new product operations (called direct product, lexicographic product, and strong product are defined in intuitionistic fuzzy graphs, and some important notions on intuitionistic fuzzy graphs are demonstrated by characterizing these notions and their level counterparts graphs such as intuitionistic fuzzy complete graph, cartesian product of intuitionistic fuzzy graphs, composition of intuitionistic fuzzy graphs, union of intuitionistic fuzzy graphs, and join of intuitionistic fuzzy graphs. As a result, a kind of representations of intuitionistic fuzzy graphs and intuitionistic fuzzy complete graphs are given. Next, categorical goodness of intuitionistic fuzzy graphs is illustrated by proving that the category of intuitionistic fuzzy graphs and homomorphisms between them is isomorphic-closed, complete, and co-complete.

  13. Probability representations of fuzzy systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongxing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the probability significance of fuzzy systems is revealed. It is pointed out that COG method, a defuzzification technique used commonly in fuzzy systems, is reasonable and is the optimal method in the sense of mean square. Based on different fuzzy implication operators, several typical probability distributions such as Zadeh distribution, Mamdani distribution, Lukasiewicz distribution, etc. are given. Those distributions act as "inner kernels" of fuzzy systems. Furthermore, by some properties of probability distributions of fuzzy systems, it is also demonstrated that CRI method, proposed by Zadeh, for constructing fuzzy systems is basically reasonable and effective. Besides, the special action of uniform probability distributions in fuzzy systems is characterized. Finally, the relationship between CRI method and triple I method is discussed. In the sense of construction of fuzzy systems, when restricting three fuzzy implication operators in triple I method to the same operator, CRI method and triple I method may be related in the following three basic ways: 1) Two methods are equivalent; 2) the latter is a degeneration of the former; 3) the latter is trivial whereas the former is not. When three fuzzy implication operators in triple I method are not restricted to the same operator, CRI method is a special case of triple I method; that is, triple I method is a more comprehensive algorithm. Since triple I method has a good logical foundation and comprises an idea of optimization of reasoning, triple I method will possess a beautiful vista of application.

  14. Hierarchical type-2 fuzzy aggregation of fuzzy controllers

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the fields of fuzzy logic, granular computing and also considering the control area. These areas can work together to solve various control problems, the idea is that this combination of areas would enable even more complex problem solving and better results. In this book we test the proposed method using two benchmark problems: the total flight control and the problem of water level control for a 3 tank system. When fuzzy logic is used it make it easy to performed the simulations, these fuzzy systems help to model the behavior of a real systems, using the fuzzy systems fuzzy rules are generated and with this can generate the behavior of any variable depending on the inputs and linguistic value. For this reason this work considers the proposed architecture using fuzzy systems and with this improve the behavior of the complex control problems.

  15. Neuro-fuzzy system modeling based on automatic fuzzy clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuangang TANG; Fuchun SUN; Zengqi SUN

    2005-01-01

    A neuro-fuzzy system model based on automatic fuzzy clustering is proposed.A hybrid model identification algorithm is also developed to decide the model structure and model parameters.The algorithm mainly includes three parts:1) Automatic fuzzy C-means (AFCM),which is applied to generate fuzzy rules automatically,and then fix on the size of the neuro-fuzzy network,by which the complexity of system design is reducesd greatly at the price of the fitting capability;2) Recursive least square estimation (RLSE).It is used to update the parameters of Takagi-Sugeno model,which is employed to describe the behavior of the system;3) Gradient descent algorithm is also proposed for the fuzzy values according to the back propagation algorithm of neural network.Finally,modeling the dynamical equation of the two-link manipulator with the proposed approach is illustrated to validate the feasibility of the method.

  16. Generalised Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Set

    OpenAIRE

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh; Abdul Razak Salleh

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the concept of generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set and its operations and study some of their properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft sets and discuss its application in a medical diagnosis problem: fuzzy set; soft set; fuzzy soft set; generalised fuzzy soft set; generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set; interval-valued fuzz...

  17. On Intuitionistic Fuzzy Magnified Translation in Semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Sardar, Sujit Kumar; Mandal, Manasi; Majumder, Samit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. S.K Sardar and S.K. Majumder unified the idea of fuzzy translation and fuzzy multiplication of Vasantha Kandasamy to introduce the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in groups and semigroups. The purpose of this paper is to intuitionistically fuzzify(by using Atanassov's idea) the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in semigroups. Here among other results we obtain some ...

  18. Lower and Upper Fuzzy Topological Subhypergroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irina CRISTEA; Jian Ming ZHAN

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a new connection between algebraic hyperstructures and fuzzy sets.More specifically,using both properties of fuzzy topological spaces and those of fuzzy subhypergroups,we define the notions of lower (upper) fuzzy topological subhypergroups of a hypergroup endowed with a fuzzy topology.Some results concerning the image and the inverse image of a lower (upper) topological subhypergroup under a very good homomorphism of hypergroups (endowed with fuzzy topologies) are pointed out.

  19. The squashed fuzzy sphere, fuzzy strings and the Landau problem

    CERN Document Server

    Andronache, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the squashed fuzzy sphere, which is a projection of the fuzzy sphere onto the equatorial plane, and use it to illustrate the stringy aspects of noncommutative field theory. We elaborate explicitly how strings linking its two coincident sheets arise in terms of fuzzy spherical harmonics. In the large N limit, the matrix-model Laplacian is shown to correctly reproduce the semi-classical dynamics of these charged strings, as given by the Landau problem.

  20. The squashed fuzzy sphere, fuzzy strings and the Landau problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronache, Stefan; Steinacker, Harold C.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the squashed fuzzy sphere, which is a projection of the fuzzy sphere onto the equatorial plane, and use it to illustrate the stringy aspects of noncommutative field theory. We elaborate explicitly how strings linking its two coincident sheets arise in terms of fuzzy spherical harmonics. In the large N limit, the matrix-model Laplacian is shown to correctly reproduce the semi-classical dynamics of these charged strings, as given by the Landau problem.

  1. Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Determining Fuzzy Measures from Fuzzy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals have been successfully used in many real applications. How to determine fuzzy measures is a very difficult problem in these applications. Though there have existed some methodologies for solving this problem, such as genetic algorithms, gradient descent algorithms, neural networks, and particle swarm algorithm, it is hard to say which one is more appropriate and more feasible. Each method has its advantages. Most of the existed works can only deal with the data consisting of classic numbers which may arise limitations in practical applications. It is not reasonable to assume that all data are real data before we elicit them from practical data. Sometimes, fuzzy data may exist, such as in pharmacological, financial and sociological applications. Thus, we make an attempt to determine a more generalized type of general fuzzy measures from fuzzy data by means of genetic algorithms and Choquet integrals. In this paper, we make the first effort to define the σ-λ rules. Furthermore we define and characterize the Choquet integrals of interval-valued functions and fuzzy-number-valued functions based on σ-λ rules. In addition, we design a special genetic algorithm to determine a type of general fuzzy measures from fuzzy data.

  2. GENERALIZED FUZZY FILTERS OF BL-ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The concept of quasi-coincidence of a fuzzy interval value with an interval valued fuzzy set is considered. In fact, this is a generalization of quasi-coincidence of a fuzzy point with a fuzzy set. By using this new idea, the notion of interval valued (∈, ∈∨q)-fuzzy filters in BL-algebras which is a generalization of fuzzy filters of BL-algebras, is defined, and related properties are investigated. In particular, the concept of a fuzzy subgroup with thresholds is extended to the concept of an interval valued fuzzy filter with thresholds in BL-algebras.

  3. On the intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadati, Reza [Department of Mathematics, Azad University, Amol, P.O. Box 678 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] e-mail: rsaadati@eml.cc; Park, Jin Han [Division of Mathematical Sciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyeon, 3-Dong Nam-Gu, Pusan 608 737 (Korea, Republic of)] e-mail: jihpark@pknu.ac.kr

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we define precompact set in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces and prove that any subset of an intuitionistic fuzzy metric space is compact if and only if it is precompact and complete. Also we define topologically complete intuitionistic fuzzy metrizable spaces and prove that any G{sub {delta}} set in a complete intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces is a topologically complete intuitionistic fuzzy metrizable space and vice versa. Finally, we define intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces and fuzzy boundedness for linear operators and so we prove that every finite dimensional intuitionistic fuzzy normed space is complete.

  4. On the intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Reza; Park, Jin Han

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we define precompact set in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces and prove that any subset of an intuitionistic fuzzy metric space is compact if and only if it is precompact and complete. Also we define topologically complete intuitionistic fuzzy metrizable spaces and prove that any $G_{\\delta }$ set in a complete intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces is a topologically complete intuitionistic fuzzy metrizable space and vice versa. Finally, we define intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces and fuzzy boundedness for linear operators and so we prove that every finite dimensional intuitionistic fuzzy normed space is complete.

  5. Stochastic Optimal Estimation with Fuzzy Random Variables and Fuzzy Kalman Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yu-hu

    2005-01-01

    By constructing a mean-square performance index in the case of fuzzy random variable, the optimal estimation theorem for unknown fuzzy state using the fuzzy observation data are given. The state and output of linear discrete-time dynamic fuzzy system with Gaussian noise are Gaussian fuzzy random variable sequences. An approach to fuzzy Kalman filtering is discussed. Fuzzy Kalman filtering contains two parts: a real-valued non-random recurrence equation and the standard Kalman filtering.

  6. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  7. Fuzzy pharmacology: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Beth A; Naranjo, Claudio A; Türksen, I Burhan

    2002-09-01

    Fuzzy pharmacology is a term coined to represent the application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory to pharmacological problems. Fuzzy logic is the science of reasoning, thinking and inference that recognizes and uses the real world phenomenon that everything is a matter of degree. It is an extension of binary logic that is able to deal with complex systems because it does not require crisp definitions and distinctions for the system components. In pharmacology, fuzzy modeling has been used for the mechanical control of drug delivery in surgical settings, and work has begun evaluating its use in other pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic applications. Fuzzy pharmacology is an emerging field that, based on these initial explorations, warrants further investigation.

  8. Intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the clustering algorithms for intuitionistic fuzzy values, the latest research results in intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation techniques, the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments, and their applications in multi-attribute decision making, such as supply chain management, military system performance evaluation, project management, venture capital, information system selection, building materials classification, and operational plan assessment, etc.

  9. Phase structures in fuzzy geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R; Gupta, K S; Martin, X

    2012-01-01

    We study phase structures of quantum field theories in fuzzy geometries. Several examples of fuzzy geometries as well as QFT's on such geometries are considered. They are fuzzy spheres and beyond as well as noncommutative deformations of BTZ blackholes. Analysis is done analytically and through simulations. Several features like novel stripe phases as well as spontaneous symmetry breaking avoiding Colemen, Mermin, Wagner theorem are brought out. Also we establish that these phases are stable due to topological obstructions.

  10. COMPATIBLE EXTENSIONS OF FUZZY RELATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irina GEORGESCU

    2003-01-01

    In 1930 Szpilrajn proved that any strict partial order can be embedded in a strict linear order.This theorem was later refined by Dushnik and Miller (1941), Hansson (1968), Suzumura (1976),Donaldson and Weymark (1998), Bossert (1999). Particularly Suzumura introduced the important concept of compatible extension of a (crisp) relation. These extension theorems have an important role in welfare economics. In particular Szpilrajn theorem is the main tool for proving a known theorem of Richter that establishes the equivalence between rational and congruous consumers. In 1999 Duggan proved a general extension theorem that contains all these results. In this paper we introduce the notion of compatible extension of a fuzzy relation and we prove an extension theorem for fuzzy relations. Our result generalizes to fuzzy set theory the main part of Duggan's theorem. As applications we obtain fuzzy versions of the theorems of Szpilrajn, Hansson and Suzumura. We also prove that an asymmetric and transitive fuzzy relation has a compatible extension that is total, asymmetric and transitive.Our results can be useful in the theory of fuzzy consumers. We can prove that any rational fuzzyconsumer is congruous, extending to a fuzzy context a part of Richter's theorem. To prove that acongruous fuzzy consumer is rational remains an open problem. A proof of this result can somehowuse a fuzzy version of Szpilrajn theorem.

  11. Fuzzy-Contextual Contrast Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan

    2017-02-08

    This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.

  12. A New View on Fuzzy Hypermodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ming ZHAN; Bijan DAVVAZ; K. P. SHUM

    2007-01-01

    We describe the relationship between the fuzzy sets and the algebraic hyperstructures.In fact,this paper is a continuation of the ideas presented by Davvaz in (Fuzzy Sets Syst.,117: 477-484,2001) and Bhakat and Das in (Fuzzy Sets Syst.,80: 359-368,1996).The concept of the quasi-coincidence of a fuzzy interval value with an interval-valued fuzzy set is introduced and this is a naturalgeneralization of the quasi-coincidence of a fuzzy point in fuzzy sets.By using this new idea,the conceptof interval-valued (α,β)-fuzzy sub-hypermodules of a hypermodule is defined.This newly definedinterval-valued (α,β)-fuzzy sub-hypermodule is a generalization of the usual fuzzy sub-hypermodule.We shall study such fuzzy sub-hypermodules and consider the implication-based interval-valued fuzzysub-hypermodules of a hypermodule.

  13. New Closeness Coefficients for Fuzzy Similarity Based Fuzzy TOPSIS: An Approach Combining Fuzzy Entropy and Multidistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Collan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new closeness coefficients for fuzzy similarity based TOPSIS. The new closeness coefficients are based on multidistance or fuzzy entropy, are able to take into consideration the level of similarity between analysed criteria, and can be used to account for the consistency or homogeneity of, for example, performance measuring criteria. The commonly known OWA operator is used in the aggregation process over the fuzzy similarity values. A range of orness values is considered in creating a fuzzy overall ranking for each object, after which the fuzzy rankings are ordered to find a final linear ranking. The presented method is numerically applied to a research and development project selection problem and the effect of using two new closeness coefficients based on multidistance and fuzzy entropy is numerically illustrated.

  14. Fuzzy dot ideals and fuzzy dot H-ideals of BCH-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jia-yin

    2008-01-01

    The notions of fuzzy dot ideals and fuzzy dot H-ideals in BCH-algebras are intro duced,several appropriate examples are provided,and their some properties are investigated.The relations among fuzzy ideal,fuzzy H-ideal,fuzzy dot ideal and fuzzy dot H-ideals in BCH algebras are discussed,several equivalent depictions of fuzzy dot ideal are obtained. How to deal with the homomorphic image and inverse image of fuzzy dot ideals (fuzzy dot H-ideals) are studied. The relations between a fuzzy dot ideal (fuzzy dot H-ideal) in BCH-algebras and a fuzzy dot ideal (fuzzy dot H-ideal) in the product algebra of BCH-algebras are given.

  15. Fuzzy Perfect Mappings and Q-Compactness in Smooth Fuzzy Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kalaivani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We point out that the product of two fuzzy closed sets of smooth fuzzy topological spaces need not be fuzzy closed with respect to the the existing notion of product smooth fuzzy topology. To get this property, we introduce a new suitable product smooth fuzzy topology. We investigate whether F1×F2 and (F,H are weakly smooth fuzzy continuity whenever F1, F2, F and H are weakly smooth fuzzy continuous. Using this new product smooth fuzzy topology, we define smooth fuzzy perfect mapping and prove that composition of two smooth fuzzy perfect mappings is smooth fuzzy perfect under some additional conditions. We also introduce two new notions of compactness called Q-compactness and Q-α-compactness; and discuss the compactness of the image of a Q-compact set (Q-α-compact set under a weakly smooth fuzzy continuous function ((α,β-weakly smooth fuzzy continuous function.

  16. Spinning the fuzzy sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenstein, David [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara,Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Dzienkowski, Eric; Lashof-Regas, Robin [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara,Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-08-27

    We construct various exact analytical solutions of the SO(3) BMN matrix model that correspond to rotating fuzzy spheres and rotating fuzzy tori. These are also solutions of Yang Mills theory compactified on a sphere times time and they are also translationally invariant solutions of the N=1{sup ∗} field theory with a non-trivial charge density. The solutions we construct have a ℤ{sub N} symmetry, where N is the rank of the matrices. After an appropriate ansatz, we reduce the problem to solving a set of polynomial equations in 2N real variables. These equations have a discrete set of solutions for each value of the angular momentum. We study the phase structure of the solutions for various values of N. Also the continuum limit where N→∞, where the problem reduces to finding periodic solutions of a set of coupled differential equations. We also study the topology change transition from the sphere to the torus.

  17. Fuzzy controllers based on some fuzzy implication operators and their response functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongxing; YOU Fei; PENG Jiayin

    2004-01-01

    The fuzzy controllers constructed by 23 fuzzy implication operators based on CRI algorithm and their response functions are discussed.The conclusions show that the fuzzy controllers constructed by 9 fuzzy implication operators are universal approximators to continuous functions and can be used in practical fuzzy control systems.And these 9 fuzzy implication operators except for Einstein operator intersection are all the adjoint pairs of some fuzzy implication operators.Besides, there are 3 other fuzzy controllers formed by fuzzy implication operators being regarded approximately as fitted functions.

  18. Fuzzy controlofanylonpolymerizationsemi-batchreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Wakabayashi, C; Embiruçu, Marcelo; Fontes, Cristiano; Kalid, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 537-553 Batch and semi-batch polymerization reactors with specified trajectories for certain process variables present challenging control problems. This work reports, results and procedures related to the application of PI (proportional and integral) fuzzy control in a semi-batch reactor for the production of nylon 6. Closed loop simulation results were based on a phenomenological model adjusted for a commercial reactor and they attest to the potential ...

  19. FUZZY REASONING IN CYCLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立明

    1990-01-01

    By the similarity between the syllogism in logic and a path proposition in graph theory,a new concept,fuzzy reasoning graph G has been given in this paper. Transitive closure has been studied and used to do reasoning related to self-loop in G,and an algorithm has been designed to cope with reasoning in other cycles in G. Both approaches are applicable and efficient.

  20. Fuzzy recurrence plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T. D.

    2016-12-01

    Recurrence plots display binary texture of time series from dynamical systems with single dots and line structures. Using fuzzy recurrence plots, recurrences of the phase-space states can be visualized as grayscale texture, which is more informative for pattern analysis. The proposed method replaces the crucial similarity threshold required by symmetrical recurrence plots with the number of cluster centers, where the estimate of the latter parameter is less critical than the estimate of the former.