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Sample records for east franklin mountains

  1. Application of geochemical exploration in the Kap Franklin Area, Northern East Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzendorf, H.; Friedrich, G.H.W.; Koensler, W.; Steenfelt, A.

    1978-02-01

    More than 800 stream sediments, soil, seepage soil and water samples collected during the field seasons of 1974 and 1975 in the Kap Franklin area, northern East Greenland, were analysed for K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe by radioisotope energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and for U by delayed-neutron counting. Samples were also analysed for V, Cu, Zn and Pb by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Areas with known mineralization are outlined by anomalous Zn and Pb contents in stream sediments and soils. A predominantly mechanical dispersion mechanism is deduced from the similarity in the chemistry of bedrock, stream sediments and soils. Narrow dispersion halos following from this observation suggest that dense sampling procedures are required. The usefulness of Cu, Zn and Pb water geochemistry is not proved. There is reasonable agreement between a reconnaissance study and detailed investigations carried out in 1974 and 1975, respectively. The distribution patterns for Cu, Zn, Pb, and U were more clearly displayed by means of the detailed sampling, and the metal contents in stream sediments were found to decrease rapidly downstream. Soil and seepage soil sampling between tributaries was shown to be advantageous. A test of daily and weekly variations of Cu, Zn, and Pb in stream sediments of selected sampling sites demonstrated changes in the metal contents of generally less than 10 per cent. Data from soil samples in the Randboeldal clearly outline the extent of U mineralisation. There is good correlation between U, and Zn and Pb in both stream sediments and soil. (author)

  2. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  3. Biodiversity surveys in the East Usambara Mountains: Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiversity surveys were initiated in the East Usambara Mountains in 1995 to provide baseline information on the biological values of the forests for management planning and monitoring, and to train field staff in the use of biological inventory techniques. They were conducted in ten-week field phases. Vegetation plots ...

  4. Glaciological studies near the Soer Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Motoyama

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In the area west of Mizuho Plateau, outflow of the ice sheet is hindered by a chain of mountains (Sor Rondane, Belgica and Yamato Mountains etc. lying along the coast of the continent and ice shelves are developing at the margin of the ice sheet. Therefore the ice sheet geomorphology and dynamical behavior in this area are quite different from those on the Mizuho Plateau. In order to describe the response of the East Antarctic ice sheet to climatic change, we need to know the influence of the presence of mountains on stability of the ice sheet. This glaciological study aims to investigate whether the ice sheet and the ice shelf in this area are now increasing or decreasing in size possibly, in response to atmospheric warming, how far this part of the ice sheet departs from a steady state, and how the influence of climatic change is left inside the ice sheet and the ice shelf. For this purpose the following studies were performed in 1988 and 1989. 1 A series of shallow drillings along a selected flow line upstream of the Sor Rondane Mountains to Breid Bay. 2 Surface flow velocity, strain and mass balance measurements on the flow line. 3 Monitoring of a valley glacier in the Sor Rondane Mountains.

  5. East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, Carol A.; Jordan, Tom A.; Bell, Robin E.; Anderson, Lester M.; Damaske, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are the least understood tectonic feature on Earth, because they are completely hidden beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Their high elevation and youthful Alpine topography, combined with their location on the East Antarctic craton, creates a paradox that has puzzled researchers since the mountains were discovered in 1958. The preservation of Alpine topography in the Gamburtsevs may reflect extremely low long-term erosion rates beneath the ice sheet, but the mountains’ origin remains problematic. Here we present the first comprehensive view of the crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the Gamburtsevs, derived from radar, gravity and magnetic data. The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the Gamburtsevs, and a thick crustal root beneath the range. We propose that the root formed during the Proterozoic assembly of interior East Antarctica (possibly about 1 Gyr ago), was preserved as in some old orogens and was rejuvenated during much later Permian (roughly 250 Myr ago) and Cretaceous (roughly 100 Myr ago) rifting. Much like East Africa, the interior of East Antarctica is a mosaic of Precambrian provinces affected by rifting processes. Our models show that the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response to fluvial and glacial erosion explains the high elevation and relief of the Gamburtsevs. The evolution of the Gamburtsevs demonstrates that rifting and preserved orogenic roots can produce broad regions of high topography in continental interiors without significantly modifying the underlying Precambrian lithosphere.

  6. Ben Franklin's Scientific Amusements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Dudley

    2003-04-01

    As an American icon, Benjamin Franklin is often portrayed as wise and canny in business and politics, earnestly pursuing and extolling diligence, sensible conduct, pragmatism, and good works. Also legendary are some of his inventions, particularly the lightning rod, bifocals, and an efficient wood-burning stove. The iconic image is misleading in major respects. Today, surprisingly few people appreciate that, in the 18th century, Franklin was greatly esteemed throughout Europe as a scientist (termed then a "natural philosopher.") He was hailed as the "Newton of Electricity." Indeed, until Franklin, electricity seemed more mysterious than had gravity in Newton's time, and lightning was considered the wrath of God. By his own account, Franklin's studies of electricity and many other phenomena were prompted not by practical aims, but by his playful curiosity--which often became obsessive. Also not generally appreciated is the importance of Franklin's scientific reputation in enhancing his efforts to obtain French support for the American Revolution.

  7. Weathering and genesis of Soils from Ellsworth Mountains, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoline Delpupo Souza, Katia; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Monari, Julia; Machado, Vania

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on Antarctic soils from the Ellsworth Mountains (EM) are patchy comparatively with Dry Valleys soils from the Transantartic Mountains, and could help understand the genesis of cryogenic soils under extreme dry, cold desert conditions. The EM are a slightly arcuate 350-km-long north-northwest-trending mountain chain is bordered on the west by the polar plateau of West Antarctica and on the east by Ronne Ice Shelf. The range is as much as 90 km wide and constitutes one of the largest areas of exposed bedrock in West Antarctica. The stratigraphic succession in the EM includes strata from Cambriam to Permian in age. The objective of this study is to analyze the properties of soils from EM in order to identify the main factors and processes involved in soil formation under cold desert conditions in Antarctica. The sampling design aimed to represent the different geological substrates (marble-clast conglomerate, graywacke, argillite, conglomerate, black shale, marble and quartzite) as well as altitudinal levels and landforms within the same substrate. We characterized soils from EM regarding their morphological, physics and chemical properties. Soil samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieves. After removal of water soluble salts, the samples were submitted to chemical and physical analyses such as: pH in water, potential acidity (H + Al), exchangeable bases, total organic carbon, electric conductivity, soil texture and color. The soils classify, for the most part, in weathering stages 1 to 2. Only in the upper parts of ridges were there traces of soils at weathering stage 3. This indicates that much of the present icefree topography has been overridden by ice within the last few hundred thousand years. Cryoturbation is a widespread phenomenon in this area resulting in intense cryoclastic weathering and patterned ground, forming sorted circles, stripes and gelifluxion lobes. The soil show low horizontation, discrete patches of salt on the surface, and

  8. Interview with Christine Franklin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…

  9. EAST93: Geophysical traverse from the Transantarctic Mountains to the Wilkes Basin, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Bannister, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The East Antarctic Seismic Traverse (EAST93) was a geophysical traverse designed to image the bedrock under the East Antarctic ice cap. The traverse started 10 km west of the Taylor Dome drill site and 25 km west of the exposed bedrock of the Transantarctic Mountains at Lashly Mt. and ended 323 km west of the drill site over the Wilkes subglacial basin (Fig. 1). The traverse was located subparallel to latitude 78° S starting 30-50 km north of the Victoria Land Traverse (1958-1959). It was carried out jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and Stanford University, U.S.A., together with the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, and Victoria University, New Zealand, during December 1993 and January 1994. The geophysical traverse included 236 km of multichannel seismic reflection data at 150 m shot intervals, 312.5 km of gravity data collected at intervals of 2.1 km, 312.5 km of magnetic data (total field intensity) collected at average intervals of 0.5 km, and 205 km of ground penetrating radar at intervals of 77 m. Relative locations and elevations of the entire traverse were measured at intervals of 150 m by traditional surveying methods, and tied to three absolute locations measured by the Global Positioning System (GPS). EAST93 is the first large-scale geophysical traverse on the polar plateau to our knowledge since the early 1960s. As such, the experiment presented several logistical challenges: (1) how to collect regional seismic profiles during the short Antarctic summer; (2) how to keep the scientific instruments running with minimal protection in harsh conditions; and (3) how to combine daily moves of camp with full days of work. The scientific and logistical aspects of the project proceeded, in general, according to plan despite the harsh conditions and our lack of previous experience on the polar plateau. Two unanticipated problems affected the progress of the work: the strong wind which slowed seismic acquisition, and the break-down of one of the

  10. Franklin Elementary PTA's "Sweet Success"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Just a few short years ago, Franklin Elementary in Glendale, California, was in danger of closing its doors because enrollment was so low. The school district decided to put into place a series of language immersion programs at the site. It currently houses Spanish, Italian, and German immersion programs. These programs have boosted Franklin's…

  11. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake Playa, Inyo County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system in southern Nevada and adjacent California. Yucca Mountain, Nevada, located within this flow system, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy to determine its suitability as a potential site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository. To assist the US Department of Energy with its evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site, the US Geological Survey developed a parameter-estimation model of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system. Results from sensitivity analyses made using the parameter-estimation model indicated that simulated rates of evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa had the largest effect on the calculation of transmissivity values at Yucca Mountain of all the model-boundary conditions and, therefore, that evapotranspiration required careful definition. 72 refs., 59 figs., 26 tab.

  12. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake Playa, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system in southern Nevada and adjacent California. Yucca Mountain, Nevada, located within this flow system, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy to determine its suitability as a potential site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository. To assist the US Department of Energy with its evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site, the US Geological Survey developed a parameter-estimation model of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system. Results from sensitivity analyses made using the parameter-estimation model indicated that simulated rates of evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa had the largest effect on the calculation of transmissivity values at Yucca Mountain of all the model-boundary conditions and, therefore, that evapotranspiration required careful definition. 72 refs., 59 figs., 26 tab

  13. Extremely low long-term erosion rates around the Gamburtsev Mountains in interior East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. E.; Thomson, S. N.; Reiners, P. W.; Hemming, S. R.; van de Flierdt, T.

    2010-11-01

    The high elevation and rugged relief (>3 km) of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) have long been considered enigmatic. Orogenesis normally occurs near plate boundaries, not cratonic interiors, and large-scale tectonic activity last occurred in East Antarctica during the Pan-African (480-600 Ma). We sampled detrital apatite from Eocene sands in Prydz Bay at the terminus of the Lambert Graben, which drained a large pre-glacial basin including the northern Gamburtsev Mountains. Apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He cooling ages constrain bedrock erosion rates throughout the catchment. We double-dated apatites to resolve individual cooling histories. Erosion was very slow, averaging 0.01-0.02 km/Myr for >250 Myr, supporting the preservation of high elevation in interior East Antarctica since at least the cessation of Permian rifting. Long-term topographic preservation lends credence to postulated high-elevation mountain ice caps in East Antarctica since at least the Cretaceous and to the idea that cold-based glaciation can preserve tectonically inactive topography.

  14. Weathering process in Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamaru, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Oiwane, H.; Miura, M.; Okuno, J.; Hayakawa, H.

    2016-12-01

    Weathering process under the hyper-arid and hypothermal environment is a key to understand the geomorphogic process and landscape evolution in Antarctica and on Mars. A nunber of studies have focused on weathering process of basaltic rocks in Antarctica, however, the nature of the weathering process of plutonic type rock, a common rock type on the Earth, have been less focused and remain unclear. Here, we report the physical/chemical weathering process of the granitic rocks obtained from Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica based on a multiplicity of petrological approaches. Loss on Ignition (LOI) and major element composition of the crust and core of the rock samples indicate that chemical weathering process in this area seems to be very limited. The microscopic observations and laser-Raman micro spectroscopy for thin sections from the crust and core indicate that goethite grains are formed mainly in the vein around the crust, which is consistent with the higher Fe3+/Fe2+ contrast from the core to crust. A negative correlation between the rock hardness and color strength index (CSI) values also indicate that crust of rock samples tend to less hard than core due to cracking of the rock samples and following goethite formation. On the other hand, EPMA analysis indicates that original Fe-Ti oxide grains in the core of rock samples are damaged by weathering, and altered to hematite, and to non-stoichiometric Fe-Ti compound associated with ilmenite grans in case of the higher relative height samples. These reveal that the weathering process of the plutonic rocks under the hyper-cold and hypothermal environment are mainly controlled by oxidation, including iron hydroxide formation in the veins formed by mechanical distraction, and Fe-Ti oxide alteration in rock interior.

  15. Glimpses of East Antarctica: Aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic view from the central Transantarctic Mountains of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Goodge, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic data provide glimpses of the crustal architecture within the Ross Sea sector of the enigmatic, ice-covered East Antarctic shield critical for understanding both global tectonic and climate history. In the central Transantarctic Mountains (CTAM), exposures of Precambrian basement, coupled with new high-resolution magnetic data, other recent aeromagnetic transects, and satellite magnetic and seismic tomography data, show that the shield in this region comprises an Archean craton modified both by Proterozoic magmatism and early Paleozoic orogenic basement reactivation. CTAM basement structures linked to the Ross Orogeny are imaged 50–100 km farther west than previously mapped, bounded by inboard upper crustal Proterozoic granites of the Nimrod igneous province. Magnetic contrasts between craton and rift margin sediments define the Neoproterozoic rift margin, likely reactivated during Ross orogenesis and Jurassic extension. Interpretation of satellite magnetic and aeromagnetic patterns suggests that the Neoproterozoic rift margin of East Antarctica is offset by transfer zones to form a stepwise series of salients tracing from the CTAM northward through the western margin of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin to the coast at Terre Adélie. Thinned Precambrian crust inferred to lie east of the rift margin cannot be imaged magnetically because of modification by Neoproterozoic and younger tectonic events.

  16. Tectonic and erosion-driven uplift in the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jordan, Tom; Watts, Tony; Bell, Robin; Jamieson, Stewart; Finn, Carol; Damaske, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms leading to intraplate mountain building remains a significant challenge in Earth Sciences compared to ranges formed along plate margins. The most enigmatic intraplate mountain range on Earth is the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) located in the middle of the Precambrian East Antarctic Craton. During the International Polar Year, the AGAP project acquired 120,000 line km of new airborne geophysical data (Bell et al., 2011, Science) and seismological observations (Hansen et al., 2010, EPSL) across central East Antarctica. Models derived from these datasets provide new geophysical perspectives on crustal architecture and possible uplift mechanisms for the enigmatic GSM (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long Paleozoic to Mesozoic rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the GSM. A thick high-density lower crustal root is partially preserved beneath the range and has been interpreted as formed during the Proterozoic assembly of East Antarctica. Rifting could have triggered phase/density changes at deep crustal levels, perhaps restoring some of the latent root buoyancy, as well as causing rift-flank uplift. Permian rifting is well-established in the adjacent Lambert Rift, and was followed by Cretaceous strike-slip faulting and transtension associated with Gondwana break-up; this phase may have provided a more recent tectonic trigger for the initial uplift of the modern GSM. The Cretaceous rift-flank uplift model for the Gamburtsevs is appealing because it relates the initiation of intraplate mountain-building to large-scale geodynamic processes that led to the separation of Greater India from East Antarctica. It is also consistent with several geological and geophysical interpretations within the Lambert Rift. However, recent detrital thermochrology results from Oligocene-Quaternary sediments in Prydz Bay (Tochlin et al., 2012, G3) argue against the requirement for major Cretaceous rift

  17. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the bedrock beneath the East Antarctic ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Hackney, R.I.; Bannister, S.; Stern, T.A.; Makovsky, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), the largest noncontractional mountain belt in the world, have become the focus of modelers who explained their uplift by a variety of isostatic and thermal mechanisms. A problem with these models is a lack of available data to compare with model predictions. We report here the results of a 312-km-long geophysical traverse conducted in 1993/1994 in the hinterland of the TAM. Using detailed subglacial topography and gravity measurements, we confirm the origin of the TAM as a flexural uplift of the edge of East Antarctica. Using an elastic model with a free edge, we can jointly fit the topography and the gravity with a plate having an elastic thickness of 85 ?? 15 km and a preuplift elevation of 700 ?? 50 m for East Antarctica. Using a variety of evidence, we argue that the uplift is coincident with a relatively minor tectonic event of transtensional motion between East and West Antarctica during the Eocene rather than the Late Cretaceous rifting event that created the Ross Embayment. We suggest that this transtensional motion caused the continuous plate to break, which created an escarpment that significantly increased the rates of erosion and exhumation. Results from the geophysical traverse also extend our knowledge of the bedrock geology from the exposures within the TAM to the ice covered interior. Our interpretation suggests that the Ferrar flood basalts extend at least 100 km westward under the ice. The Beacon Supergroup of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments thins gradually under the ice and its reconstructed thickness is reminiscent of profiles of foreland basins. Finally, there is no indication in the gravity field for an incomplete rebound due to significant melting of the East Antarctic ice sheet since the last glacial period.

  18. Epiphytic orchids and host trees diversity at Gunung Manyutan Forest Reserve, Wilis Mountain, Ponorogo, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINA DWI YULIA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yulia ND, Budiharta S (2011 Epiphytic orchids and host trees diversity at Gunung Manyutan Forest Reserve, Wilis Mountain, Ponorogo, East Java. Biodiversitas 12: 22-27. Natural forests in Wilis Mountain have been destroyed by forest fires, landslides and illegal logging. As a consequence, biological diversity in this area is threatened by local extinctions, particularly of orchid species. This study was aimed to explore, document and analyze the diversity of epiphytic orchids at Gunung Manyutan Forest Reserve, a natural forest area in Wilis Mountain. Purposive sampling on 1 hectare (50 x 200 m2 contiguous plot was used. This plot was divided into eight subplots (25 x 50 m2. All data on orchid species were recorded including its number, host trees and zone of the host tree where the orchid attached. The results showed that there were 29 epiphytic orchid species recorded. Flickingeria angulata was the most abundant species (Relative Abundance of orchids/ %Fo = 38.74, continued by Appendicula sp. (%Fo = 10.91 and Eria hyacinthoides (%Fo = 6.57. The three most important host trees were Pinus merkusii, Schima wallichii and Engelhardia spicata. Zone 3 (bottom part of the branches was revealed as the most favorable part at the host tree (281 individuals, while Zone 1 (bottom part of the main stem was the least preferable one.

  19. Remote sensing for environmental site screening and watershed evaluation in Utah Mine lands - East Tintic mountains, Oquirrh mountains, and Tushar mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McDougal, Robert R.; Gent, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy-a powerful remote-sensing tool for mapping subtle variations in the composition of minerals, vegetation, and man-made materials on the Earth's surface-was applied in support of environmental assessments and watershed evaluations in several mining districts in the State of Utah. Three areas were studied through the use of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data: (1) the Tintic mining district in the East Tintic Mountains southwest of Provo, (2) the Camp Floyd mining district (including the Mercur mine) and the Stockton (or Rush Valley) mining district in the Oquirrh Mountains south of the Great Salt Lake, and (3) the Tushar Mountains and Antelope Range near Marysvale. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data were used for initial site screening and the planning of AVIRIS surveys. The AVIRIS data were analyzed to create spectrally defined maps of surface minerals with special emphasis on locating and characterizing rocks and soils with acid-producing potential (APP) and acid-neutralizing potential (ANP). These maps were used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for three primary purposes: (1) to identify unmined and anthropogenic sources of acid generation in the form of iron sulfide and (or) ferric iron sulfate-bearing minerals such as jarosite and copiapite; (2) to seek evidence for downstream or downwind movement of minerals associated with acid generation, mine waste, and (or) tailings from mines, mill sites, and zones of unmined hydrothermally altered rocks; and (3) to identify carbonate and other acid-buffering minerals that neutralize acidic, potentially metal bearing, solutions and thus mitigate potential environmental effects of acid generation. Calibrated AVIRIS surface-reflectance data were spectrally analyzed to identify and map selected surface materials. Two maps were produced from each flightline of AVIRIS data: a map of iron-bearing minerals and water having absorption features in the

  20. The potential drivers in forming avian biodiversity hotspots in the East Himalaya Mountains of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fumin; Qu, Yanhua; Song, Gang; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon

    2015-03-01

    Little has been published to describe or interpret Asian biodiversity hotspots, including those in the East Himalayan Mountains of Southwest China (HMSC), thus making necessary a review of the current knowledge. The Pliocene and Pleistocene geological and glacial histories of the Asian continent differ from those of Europe and North America, suggesting different mechanisms of speciation and extinction, and, thus, different responses to climate changes during the Quaternary glaciations. This short review summarizes potential drivers in shaping and maintaining high species richness and endemism of birds in the HMSC. The geographical location at the junction of different biogeographical realms, the wide range of habitats and climates along the extensive elevational range, the complex topography and the distinct geological history of this region have probably contributed to the evolution of an exceptionally species-rich and endemic-rich, specialized montane avian fauna. The Mountain systems in the HMSC may have provided refugia where species survived during the glacial periods and barriers for preventing species dispersal after the glacial periods. More studies are required to further test this refugia hypothesis by comparing more cold-tolerent and warm-tolerent species. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Distinct subspecies or phenotypic plasticity? Genetic and morphological differentiation of mountain honey bees in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Karl; Schöning, Caspar; Otte, Marianne; Kinuthia, Wanja; Hasselmann, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the forces shaping intraspecific phenotypic and genotypic divergence are of key importance in evolutionary biology. Phenotypic divergence may result from local adaptation or, especially in species with strong gene flow, from pronounced phenotypic plasticity. Here, we examine morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the western honey bee Apis mellifera in the topographically heterogeneous East African region. The currently accepted "mountain refugia hypothesis" states that populations living in disjunct montane forests belong to a different lineage than those in savanna habitats surrounding these forests. We obtained microsatellite data, mitochondrial sequences, and morphometric data from worker honey bees collected from feral colonies in three montane forests and corresponding neighboring savanna regions in Kenya. Honey bee colonies from montane forests showed distinct worker morphology compared with colonies in savanna areas. Mitochondrial sequence data did not support the existence of the two currently accepted subspecies. Furthermore, analyses of the microsatellite data with a Bayesian clustering method did not support the existence of two source populations as it would be expected under the mountain refugia scenario. Our findings suggest that phenotypic plasticity rather than distinct ancestry is the leading cause behind the phenotypic divergence observed between montane forest and savanna honey bees. Our study thus corroborates the idea that high gene flow may select for increased plasticity.

  2. Age-related environmental gradients influence invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Paul; White, Duanne; Clarke, Laurence; McKay, Alan; Cooper, Alan; Stevens, Mark I

    2016-12-01

    The potential impact of environmental change on terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems can be explored by inspecting biodiversity patterns across large-scale gradients. Unfortunately, morphology-based surveys of Antarctic invertebrates are time-consuming and limited by the cryptic nature of many taxa. We used biodiversity information derived from high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and invertebrate biodiversity in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica. Across 136 analysed soil samples collected from Mount Menzies, Mawson Escarpment and Lake Terrasovoje, we found invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains significantly influenced by soil salinity and/or sulfur content. Phyla Tardigrada and Arachnida occurred predominantly in low-salinity substrates with abundant nutrients, whereas Bdelloidea (Rotifera) and Chromadorea (Nematoda) were more common in highly saline substrates. A significant correlation between invertebrate occurrence, soil salinity and time since deglaciation indicates that terrain age indirectly influences Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity, with more recently deglaciated areas supporting greater diversity. Our study demonstrates the value of HTS metabarcoding to investigate environmental constraints on inconspicuous soil biodiversity across large spatial scales.

  3. Distinct crustal isostasy trends east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front

    KAUST Repository

    Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-12-14

    © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Seismic structure beneath the contiguous U.S. was imaged with multimode receiver function stacking and inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion and ellipticity measurements. Crust thickness and elevation are weakly correlated across the contiguous U.S., but the correlation is ∼3-4 times greater for separate areas east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front (RMF). Greater lower crustal shear velocities east of the RMF, particularly in low-elevation areas with thick crust, are consistent with deep crustal density as the primary cause of the contrasting crust thickness versus elevation trends. Separate eastern and western trends are best fit by Airy isostasy models that assume lower crust to uppermost mantle density increases of 0.18 g/cm3 and 0.40 g/cm3, respectively. The former value is near the minimum that is plausible for felsic lower crust. Location of the transition at the RMF suggests that Laramide to post-Laramide processes reduced western U.S. lower crustal density.

  4. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    1999-06-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the

  5. Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina M. Rochefort; Laurie L. Kurth; Tara W. Carolin; Robert R. Mierendorf; Kimberly Frappier; David L. Steenson

    2006-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on subalpine parklands and alpine meadows of southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and western Montana. These areas lie on the flanks of several mountain ranges including the Olympics, the Cascades of Oregon and Washington, and the Coast Mountains in British Columbia.

  6. Intraflow structures of the Cohassett flow at east Sentinel Gap and Sentinel Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Fairchild, K.R.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of outcrop intraflow structure studies in the Cohassett flow at east Sentinel Gap and Sentinel Mountain on the northwestern margin of the Pasco Basin. This study is the first of several Cohassett outcrop studies. The studies will aid in characterizing intraflow structures of the Cohassett flow to support design and construction and to aid in assessing the performance of a possible high-level nuclear waste repository in the subsurface of the reference repository location at the Hanford Site. A total of twenty-four intraflow structure sections of the Cohassett flow were measured at two, adjacent study areas. The measured sections provide positions, thicknesses, and descriptions of every intraflow structure encountered within the Cohassett flow. Graphic logs of each section display the sequence of intraflow structures per measured section. Correlation diagrams depict interpretations of the lateral continuity and thickness variations of each intraflow structure across the total of 6 km of the two study areas. Consistencies of intraflow structures are observed across the study area. The Cohassett flow interior in outcrop is consistently thick and never thins to less than 51 m. The flow interior is interpreted as laterally continuous across the study areas, and no features are observed to interrupt its horizontal extent. Based on the field observations, there is interpreted lateral continuity of packets of intraflow structures within the flow interior. 20 refs., 24 figs

  7. Neoproterozoic collision tectonics in the Mozambique Belt of East Africa: evidence from the Uluguru mountains, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhongo, Sospeter

    1994-10-01

    The fault-bounded Proterozoic metamorphic terranes lying to the E of the Tanzanian craton make up the Usagara tectonic domain and are a part of the transcontinental Mozambique Orogenic Belt (MB). The lithotectonic units in the MB of the East Africa consist of comparable rock assembles which underwent the same complex deformational history and are thought to represent large thrust sheets or nappes. Their shelf- and fore-deep terranes border the Tanzanian craton and make up the foreland terranes of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt. Granulite-gneiss nappes are ubiquitous in the orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism, associated with recumbent folds, was due to crustal thickening, which took place during the collision between Gondwana fragments. Isotope data suggest a collision (and concomitant granulite-facies metamorphism) age of between 700 and 550 Ma. The orientations of planar and linear fabrics in the granulite-facies rocks of the Uluguru mountains are used to infer the relative crustal block motions during this collisional event. This Pan-African collisional event was characterized by NW-directed movements, oblique to the N-S trend of the orogen, and involved SE-directed backthrusting. The Ubendian Belt of Tanzania and the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda and Kenya, which both bifurcate around the Tanzania craton, accommodated the tectonically thickened crust, created by the collisional event, through NW-SE sinistral strike-slip movements.

  8. Aerogeophysical survey over Sør Rondane Mountains and its implications for revealing the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Matthias; Steinhage, Daniel; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Jokat, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    We are presenting new magnetic and gravity data of a high-resolution aerogephysical survey over the area of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the eastern Dronning Maud Land (DML). The aircraft survey is part of the joint geological and geophysical GEA campaign (Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica) of the Federal Agency for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), in cooperation with the Universities of Ghent, Bremen and Bergen. It was completed during the Antarctic summer season 2012/13, covering an area of more than 100000 square kilometer with a line spacing of 5 km. The data will be correlated with geological structures exposed in the mountain range as well as matched and merged with the data sets of the eastern and southern DML (acquired by AWI during the last decade) for comparison and discussion in the greater context of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica. Preliminary results show that the magnetic anomaly pattern over the Sør Rondane Mountains differs from the pattern found over the central DML mountains as well as from the low amplitude pattern in between both regions, indicating a significant difference in the evolution of this region, which is in accordance with latest geological findings in this region.

  9. Analysis of Knickzones over a Coastal Mountain Range of the Korean Peninsula Implies Intensive Uplifts during the Opening of the East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, J.; Paik, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula jutting out from the Eurasia Continent is bordered to the east by the East Sea (or Sea of Japan), a back-arc sea behind the Japan Islands Arc. Along the eastern margin of the peninsula, a coastal mountain range over 800 km long including peaks reaching up to ca 2,500 m develops with great escarpments facing the East Sea. Compared to the substantial studies related to drifting of the Japanese Islands from the peninsula and consequent the opening of the East Sea as back-arc basin (23 12 Ma), the development of the coastal mountain range assumed to be associated with the East Sea opening is poorly understood. In particular, no consensus has been made regarding the timing of the coastal mountain range: Continuous uplift from the Early Tertiary over the Pliocene versus intensive uplift during the Early Miocene near ca 22 Ma. Addressing this problem could help reveal the relation between the formation of the coastal mountain range and the East Sea opening. In this study, to figure out the timing of the formation of the coastal mountain range, we extracted quantitatively the knickzones in a drainage basin over the coastal mountain range and attempted to analyze the spatial distribution of potential transient knickzones which were induced by the development of the coastal mountain range and then would migrate upstream. According to our analysis, all the identified knickzones (n=19) are revealed as steady-state responses to 1) different lithologies, 2) coarse bed material inputs from tributaries, and 3) more resistant rock patch or local faults. Non-existence of the potential transient knickzones suggests that the transient knickzones due to the coastal mountain range building had already propagated up to each watershed boundary. Sequent analysis on the time spent for knickzone migration up to the boundary reveals that the time when the coastal mountain range had formed back to at least 6 8 Ma. Therefore, it becomes evident that the development of the

  10. Vegetation Diversity Quality in Mountainous Forest of Ranu Regulo Lake Area, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Ramdani Hariyati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study vegetation diversity quality in mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo Lake area in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (TNBTS, East Java. Field observation was carried out by vegetation analysis using sampling plots of 25x25 m2 for trees, 5x5 m2 for poles, 1x1 m2 for ground surface plants. Community structure of each lake side was determined by calculating vegetation's density, basal area, frequency, important value and stratification of species. While vegetations diversity was estimated by taxa richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and rate of endemism. Each lake side forests were compared by Morisita community similarity index. Data were tabulated by Microsoft Excel 2007. The result showed that based on existed vegetation, mountainous forest surrounding Ranu Regulo Lake consisted of four ecosystems, i.e. heterogenic mountainous forest, pine forest, acacia forest and bushes. Bushes Area has two types of population, edelweiss and Eupatorium odoratum invaded area. Vegetation diversity quality in heterogenic mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo TNBTS was the highest, indicated by its multi-stratification to B stratum trees of 20-30m high. Heterogenic mountainous forest’s formation was Acer laurinum and Acmena accuminatissima for trees, Chyatea for poles. Taxa richness was found 59 species and 30 families, while the others were found below 28 species and 17 families. Diversity Index of heterogenic mountainous forest is the highest among others for trees is 2.31 and 3.24 for poles and second in bushes (H=3.10 after edelweiss ecosystem (H=3.39. Highest rate of endemism reached 100% for trees in heterogenic mountainous forest, 87% for poles in edelweiss area and 89% for bushes also in heterogenic mountainous forest. Trees, poles and herbs most similarity community showed by pine and acacia forest. Based on those five characters, vegetation diversity quality in Ranu Regulo Lake area was medium for heterogenic mountainous

  11. Exploration of Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, East Antarctica: Background and Plans for the Near Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zhao, Yue; Li, Yuansheng; Cao, Pinlu; Xu, Huiwen; Zheng, Zhichuan; Wang, Rusheng; Zhang, Nan; Markov, Alexey; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Gong, Da; Hong, Jialing; Liu, Chunpeng; Han, Junjie; Yu, Chengfeng; Wang, Lili

    2014-05-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM), located in the central part of East Antarctica, were discovered by the Soviet team of the 3rd Complex Antarctic Expedition in 1958-1959. The GSM has highly dissected Alpine topography reaching maximum elevations of 3000 m and are completely covered by over 600 m of ice and snow. The mechanism driving uplift of the young-shaped GSM in the middle of the old East Antarctic Shield is unknown. With only limited constraints available on the topography, geology, and lithospheric structure, the origin of the GSM has been a matter of considerable speculation. The latest interpretation suggested that the GSM were formed during Permian and Cretaceous (roughly 250-100 Ma ago) due to the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response. Later on, the Antarctic Ice Sheet covered the range and protected it from erosion. However, this theory cannot explain lack of erosion process during many millions years in between uplifting and beginning of glaciation. The next step of the GSM exploration focuses on the direct observation of ice sheet bed by drilling. In order to penetrate into subglacial bedrock in the GSM region the development activity already has been started in China. Drilling operations in Antarctica are complicated by extremely low temperature at the surface and within ice sheet, by ice flow, the absence of roads and infrastructures, storms, winds, snowfalls, etc. All that are the reasons that up to the present moment bedrock cores were never obtained at inland of Antarctica. It is proposed to use cable-suspended drilling technology in which an armored cable with a winch is used instead of a pipe-string to provide power to the down-hole motor system and to retrieve the down-hole unit. It is assumed to choose the drill site with the ice thickness at most of 1000 m and to pierce into the mountain slope to a depth of few meters. Proposed borehole construction includes five following steps: (1) dry core

  12. Quaternary sediment thickness and bedrock topography of the glaciated United States east of the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2018-01-26

    Beginning roughly 2.6 million years ago, global climate entered a cooling phase known as the Pleistocene Epoch. As snow in northern latitudes compacted into ice several kilometers thick, it flowed as glaciers southward across the North American continent. These glaciers extended across the northern United States, dramatically altering the landscape they covered. East of the Rocky Mountains, the ice coalesced into continental glaciers (called the Laurentide Ice Sheet) that at times blanketed much of the north-central and northeastern United States. To the west of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, glaciers formed in the mountains of western Canada and the United States and coalesced into the Cordilleran ice sheet; this relatively smaller ice mass extended into the conterminous United States in the northernmost areas of western Montana, Idaho, and Washington. Throughout the Pleistocene, landscape alteration occurred by (1) glacial erosion of the rocks and sediments; (2) redeposition of the eroded earth materials in a form substantially different from their source rocks, in terms of texture and overall character; and (3) disruption of preexisting drainage patterns by the newly deposited sediments. In many cases, pre-glacial drainage systems (including, for example, the Mississippi River) were rerouted because their older drainage courses became blocked with glacial sediment.The continental glaciers advanced and retreated many times across those areas. During each ice advance, or glaciation, erosion and deposition occurred, and the landscape was again altered. Through successive glaciations, the landscape and the bedrock surface gradually came to resemble their present configurations. As continental ice sheets receded and the Pleistocene ended, erosion and deposition of sediment (for example in stream valleys) continued to shape the landscape up to the present day (albeit to a lesser extent than during glaciation). The interval of time since the last recession of the glaciers

  13. Hydrologic response across a snow persistence gradient on the west and east slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, G. A.; Hammond, J. C.; Kampf, S. K.; Moore, C. D.; Eurich, A.

    2017-12-01

    Snowpack trend analyses and modeling studies suggest that lower elevation snowpacks in mountain regions are most sensitive to drought and warming temperatures, however, in Colorado, most snow monitoring occurs in the high elevations where snow lasts throughout the winter and most streamflow monitoring occurs at lower elevations. The lack of combined snow and streamflow monitoring in watersheds along the transition from intermittent to persistent snow creates a gap in our understanding of snowmelt and runoff within the intermittent-persistent snow transition. Expanded hydrologic monitoring that spans the gradient of snow conditions in Colorado can help improve streamflow prediction and inform land and water managers. This study established hydrologic monitoring watersheds in intermittent, transitional, and persistent snow zones on the east slope and west slope of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, and uses this monitoring network to improve understanding of how snow accumulation and melt affect soil moisture and streamflow generation under different snow conditions. We monitored six small watersheds (three west slope, three east slope) (0.8 to 3.9 km2) that drain intermittent, transitional, and persistent snow zones. At each site, we measured: streamflow, snow depth, soil moisture, precipitation, air temperature, and snow water equivalent (SWE). In our first season of monitoring, the west slope persistent and transitional sites had more mid-winter melt and infiltration, shorter snowpack duration, and lower peak SWE than the east slope sites. Snow cover remained at the east slope persistent site into June, whereas much of the snow at the persistent site on the west slope had already melted by early June. The difference in soil water input likely has consequences for streamflow response that we will continue to examine in future years. At the west slope intermittent site, the stream did not flow during the entire first year of monitoring, while at the east slope

  14. Utilization of Medicinal Plants by Waluguru People in East Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahonge, C.P.I.; Nsenga, J.V.; Mtengeti, E.J.; Mattee, A.Z.

    2006-01-01

    A study was done to assess utilization of medicinal plants in Nyachilo village situated in eastern Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered and informal discussions conducted to traditional healers and midwives. The respondents were selected from Changa, Mselelo,

  15. The Franklin Institute: Diverse As Its Namesake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Art

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the history and functions of Philadelphia's Franklin Institute and outlines prospects for the Institute's library with respect to services, programs, and financial support under the direction of Leonard Freiser, the recently-appointed head librarian. The Institute's museum and library collections, especially those concerned with science,…

  16. Preliminary isostatic residual gravity map of the Newfoundland Mountains 30' by 60' quadrangle and east part of the Wells 30' by 60' quadrangle, Box Elder County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria; Athens, N.D.; Churchel, B.A.; Willis, H.; Knepprath, N.E.; Rosario, Jose J.; Roza, J.; Kraushaar, S.M.; Hardwick, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    A new isostatic residual gravity map of the Newfoundland Mountains and east of the Wells 30×60 quadrangles of Utah is based on compilation of preexisting data and new data collected by the Utah and U.S. Geological Surveys. Pronounced gravity lows occur over Grouse Creek Valley and locally beneath the Great Salt Lake Desert, indicating significant thickness of low-density Tertiary sedimentary rocks and deposits. Gravity highs coincide with exposures of dense pre-Cenozoic rocks in the Newfoundland, Silver Island, and Little Pigeon Mountains. Gravity values measured on pre-Tertiary basement to the north in the Bovine and Hogup Mountains are as much as 10mGal lower. Steep, linear gravity gradients may define basin-bounding faults concealed along the margins of the Newfoundland, Silver Island, and Little Pigeon Mountains, Lemay Island and the Pilot Range.

  17. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance.

  18. An Introduction to camptonite lamprophyric dikes at Misho Mountains (Almas area - East Azarbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen moayyed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Almas area in NW of the East Azarbaijan Province, is a part of the Soltaniye-Misho zone. The lamprophyric dikes crosscut the Kahar Formation. The principal minerals of these rocks are amphibole (amphibole phenocrysts are longer than 3 cm, biotite, pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, apatite, calcite and chlorite with porphyritic texture. According to mineralogical and geochemical evidences, the studied lamprophyres are camptonite with alkaline nature. The plotted spider diagrams indicate that the studied lamprophyres are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE and incompatible elements in comparison to heavy rare earth elements (HREE. The parent magma is probably generated from spinel lherzolite mantle with low rate partial melting.

  19. Phylogeny and diversification of mountain vipers (Montivipera, Nilson et al., 2001) triggered by multiple Plio-Pleistocene refugia and high-mountain topography in the Near and Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stümpel, Nikolaus; Rajabizadeh, Mehdi; Avcı, Aziz; Wüster, Wolfgang; Joger, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    The Near and Middle East is a hotspot of biodiversity, but the region remains underexplored at the level of genetic biodiversity. Here, we present an extensive molecular phylogeny of the viperid snake genus Montivipera, including all known taxa. Based on nuclear and mitochondrial data, we present novel insights into the phylogeny of the genus and review the status of its constituent species. Maximum likelihood methods revealed a montane origin of Montivipera at 12.3Mya. We then analyzed factors of mountain viper diversity. Our data support substantial changes in effective population size through Plio-Pleistocene periods. We conclude that climatic oscillations were drivers of allopatric speciation, and that mountain systems of the Near and Middle East have strongly influenced the evolution and survival of taxa, because climatic and topographical heterogeneities induced by mountains have played a crucial role as filters for dispersal and as multiple refugia. The wide diversity of montane microhabitats enabled mountain vipers to retain their ecological niche during climatic pessima. In consequence the varied geological and topographical conditions between refugia favoured genetic isolation and created patterns of species richness resulting in the formation of neoendemic taxa. Our data support high concordance between geographic distributions of Montivipera haplotypes with putative plant refugia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Anaximander Mountains linkages with the Florence Rise in the east and the Pliny-Strabo Trench in the west, eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Melanie; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; Çifçi, Günay

    2014-05-01

    Interpretation of ~4500 km of high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection profiles and correlation with complex multibeam bathymetric features allows us to assess the Neogene tectonics of this area of the Anaximander Mountains at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs. Three seiusmic stratigraphic units are observed in this region and are correlated with exploration wells drilled onland in the Antalya and Kasaba Basins, and DSDP holes 375 and 376: The uppermost Unit (1, Pliocene-Quaternary) is a strongly reflective laterally continuous package of high frequency reflections which extends from the seabed to the M-reflector. Beneath this, Unit 2 (Messinian) is a weakly reflective package displaying complex internal architecture with weak, discontinuous and often chaotic reflections bounded at their top and base by the M- and N-reflectors, respectively. Unit 3 (pre-Messinian Miocene) is a strongly reverberatory, high reflective package of low amplitude reflections with significant lateral continuity. The structural architecture of the Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato) at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs is characterised by two phases of deformation. A protracted interval of contraction in the Miocene created a series of broadly east-west trending and predominantly south-verging structures across the entire eastern Mediterranean. This phase culminated in the latest Miocene and was followed in the Pliocene-Quaternary by an interval of spatially-partitioned strain which resulted in the development of discrete domains characterized by extensional, contractional, transpressional and transtensional structures. The Anaximenes and Anaxagoras Mountains in the east and southeast exhibit contractional/transpressional deformation and form the linkage with the Florence Rise to the southeast. An arcuate and extensively faulted and folded region immediately northwest of the Anaximenes and Anaxagoras Mountains (i.e., the Sırrı Erinç Plateau) forms a 30-40 km

  1. Revised stratigraphy of the Permian Bainmedart coal measures, northern Prince Charles Mountains, east Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLoughlin, S.; Drinnan, A.N. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. (Australia). School of Botany

    1997-05-01

    The Bainmedart Coal Measures constitute the middle portion of the Permian-Triassic Amery Group, which represents the only substantial Palaeozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary succession exposed in eastern Antarctica outside the Transantarctic Mountains. The coal measures overlie alluvial fan deposits of the Radok Conglomerate and are conformably overlain by the dominantly fluviatile Flagstone Bench Formation. The coal measures were deposited within alluvial settings dominated by north to northeasterly flowing, low-sinuosity rivers chiefly confined to broad, fault-bounded, valleys of the Lambert Graben, a major late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic failed rift system. Both climatic and local tectonic factors are considered to have been the major influences on the pattern of coal measure sedimentation. Recent mapping has identified a much greater thickness of sediments within the coal measures than had been inferred previously. The Bainmedart Coal Measures are formally subdivided into six members. In ascending stratigraphic order these are: Dart Fields Conglomerate Member ({lt} 3m thick), Toploje Member (300 m thick), Dragons Teeth Member (15-25 m thick), Glossopteris Gully Member (670 m thick), Grainer Member (350 m thick), acid McKinnon Member (530 m thick).

  2. Genetic structure and evolutionary history of three alpine sclerophyllous oaks in East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and adjacent regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM region has a high biodiversity and harbours numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Q. spinosa, Q. aquifolioides and Q. rehderiana using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs, and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography. Our results indicate there were mixed genetic structure and asymmetric contemporary gene flow within them. The ENMs revealed a similar demographic history for the three species expanded their ranges from the last interglacial (LIG to the last glacial maximum (LGM, which was consistent with effective population sizes changes. Effects of genetic drift and fragmentation of habitats were responsible for the high differentiation and the lack of phylogeographic structure. Our results support that geological and climatic factors since Miocene triggered the differentiation, evolutionary origin and range shifts of the three oak species in the studied area and also emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach combining molecular markers, ENMs and population genetics can yield deep insights into diversification and evolutionary dynamics of species.

  3. Genetic Structure and Evolutionary History of Three Alpine Sclerophyllous Oaks in East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Zheng, Qi-Jian; Qian, Zeng-Qiang; Yang, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM) region has a high biodiversity and harbors numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Quercus spinosa, Quercus aquifolioides , and Quercus rehderiana ) using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs), and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography. Our results indicate there were mixed genetic structure and asymmetric contemporary gene flow within them. The ENMs revealed a similar demographic history for the three species expanded their ranges from the last interglacial (LIG) to the last glacial maximum (LGM), which was consistent with effective population sizes changes. Effects of genetic drift and fragmentation of habitats were responsible for the high differentiation and the lack of phylogeographic structure. Our results support that geological and climatic factors since Miocene triggered the differentiation, evolutionary origin and range shifts of the three oak species in the studied area and also emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach combining molecular markers, ENMs and population genetics can yield deep insights into diversification and evolutionary dynamics of species.

  4. Genetic adaptation of giant lobelias (Lobelia aberdarica and Lobelia telekii to different altitudes in East African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ying eZhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The giant lobelias in East African mountains are good models for studying molecular mechanisms of adaptation to different altitudes. In this study, we generated RNA-seq data of a middle-altitude species Lobelia aberdarica and a high-altitude species L. telekii, followed by selective pressure estimation of their orthologous genes. Our aim was to explore the important genes potentially involved in adaptation to different altitudes. About 9.3 Gb of clean nucleotides, 167,929 – 170,534 unigenes with total lengths of 159,762,099 – 171,138,936 bp for each of the two species were generated. OrthoMCL method identified 3,049 1:1 orthologous genes (each species was represented by one ortholog. Estimations of non-synonymous to synonymous rate were performed using an approximate method and a maximum likelihood method in PAML. 85 orthologous genes were under positive selection. At least 8 of these genes are possibly involved in DNA repair, response to DNA damage and temperature stimulus, and regulation of gene expression, which hints on how giant lobelias adapt to high altitudinal environment that characterised by cold, low oxygen and strong ultraviolet radiation. The negatively selected genes are over-represented in Gene ontology terms of hydrolase, macromolecular complex assembly among others. This study sheds light on understanding the molecular mechanism of adaptation to different altitudes, and provides genomic resources for further studies of giant lobelias.

  5. Isolation and characterization of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs from exposed soils from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahon, Guillaume; Willems, Anne

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the culturable aerobic phototrophic bacteria present in soil samples collected in the proximity of the Belgian Princess Elisabeth Station in the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica. Until recently, only oxygenic phototrophic bacteria (Cyanobacteria) were well known from Antarctic soils. However, more recent non-cultivation-based studies have demonstrated the presence of anoxygenic phototrophs and, particularly, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in these areas. Approximately 1000 isolates obtained after prolonged incubation under different growth conditions were studied and characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Representative strains were identified by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. More than half of the isolates grouped among known aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic taxa, particularly with Sphingomonadaceae, Methylobacterium and Brevundimonas. In addition, a total of 330 isolates were tested for the presence of key phototrophy genes. While rhodopsin genes were not detected, multiple isolates possessed key genes of the bacteriochlorophyll synthesis pathway. The majority of these potential aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic strains grouped with Alphaproteobacteria (Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, Brevundimonas and Polymorphobacter). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Water runoff vs modern climatic warming in mountainous cryolithic zone in North-East Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, V. E.; Glotova, L. P.

    2018-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying the effects of current climatic warming for both surface and subsurface water runoffs in North-East Russia, where the Main Watershed of the Earth separates it into the Arctic and Pacific continental slopes. The process of climatic warming is testified by continuous weather records during 80-100 years and longer periods. Over the Arctic slope and in the northern areas of the Pacific slope, climatic warming results in a decline in a total runoff of rivers whereas the ground-water recharge becomes greater in winter low-level conditions. In the southern Pacific slope and in the Sea of Okhotsk basin, the effect of climatic warming is an overall increase in total runoff including its subsurface constituents. We believe these peculiar characters of river runoff there to be related to the cryolithic zone environments. Over the Arctic slope and the northern Pacific slope, where cryolithic zone is continuous, the total runoff has its subsurface constituent as basically resulting from discharge of ground waters hosted in seasonally thawing rocks. Warmer climatic conditions favor growth of vegetation that needs more water for the processes of evapotranspiration and evaporation from rocky surfaces in summer seasons. In the Sea of Okhotsk basin, where the cryolithic zone is discontinuous, not only ground waters in seasonally thawing layers, but also continuous taliks and subpermafrost waters participate in processes of river recharges. As a result, a greater biological productivity of vegetation cover does not have any effect on ground-water supply and river recharge processes. If a steady climate warming is provided, a continuous cryolithic zone can presumably degrade into a discontinuous and then into an island-type permafrost layer. Under such a scenario, there will be a general increase in the total runoff and its subsurface constituent. From geoecological viewpoints, a greater runoff will have quite positive effects, whereas some

  7. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Silver, and China.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Milton

    1992-01-01

    The silver purchase program, initiated by Franklin Roosevelt in late 1933 in response to the economically small but politically potent silver bloc, gave a large short-run subsidy to silver producers at the cost of destroying any long-run monetary role for silver. More important, it imposed severe deflation on China, the only major country still on a silver standard, and forced it off the silver standard and on to a fiat standard, which brought forward in time and increased in severity the sub...

  8. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Dr. John Hope Franklin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; Levering-Lewis, David; French, John D.; Wharton, Clifton R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. John Hope Franklin chronicled the experiences of African-Americans like no one before him, forcing America to recognize Black history as American history. His contributions were innumerable and his impact was abiding. In celebration of his life and legacy, the authors profile the celebrated scholar and activist, Dr. John Hope Franklin.

  9. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in Central East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 and TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mountain Tai (MT (1534 m a.s.l. in spring 2006/2007 and summer 2006 to investigate the characteristics of aerosols over central eastern China. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected at Tazhong, Urumqi, and Tianchi in Xinjiang in northwestern China, Duolun and Yulin in northern China, and two urban sites in the megacities, Beijing and Shanghai, in 2007. Daily mass concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 39.6–287.6 μg m−3 and 17.2–235.7 μg m−3 respectively at the summit of MT. Averaged concentrations of PM2.5 showed a pronounced seasonal variation with higher concentration in summer than spring. 17 water-soluble ions (SO42−, NO3, Cl, F, PO43−, NO2, CH3COO, CH2C2O42−, C2H4C2O42−, HCOO, MSA, C2O42−, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, and 19 elements of all samples were measured. SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ were the major water-soluble species in PM2.5, accounting for 61.50 % and 72.65 % of the total measured ions in spring and summer, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TSP was 0.37(2006 and 0.49(2007 in spring, while up to 0.91 in summer, suggesting that aerosol particles were primarily comprised of fine particles in summer and of considerable coarse particles in spring. Crustal elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, etc. showed higher concentration in spring than summer, while most of the pollution species (SO42−, NO3, K

  10. Obituary: Kenneth L. Franklin, 1923-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Joe; Degrasse Tyson, Neil

    2007-12-01

    Renowned astronomer and astronomy popularizer Kenneth L. Franklin died early Monday morning, June 18, 2007, in Boulder, Colorado, two weeks after undergoing heart surgery. He was 84 years old. Kenneth Linn Franklin, the only child of Myles and Ruth (Houston) Franklin, was born March 25, 1923 in Alemeda, California. Ken obtained his Ph.D. in astronomy in 1953 at the University of California, Berkeley. From 1954 to 1956 he was a research fellow in radio astronomy at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC. While there, he and Bernard F. Burke discovered radio emissions from the planet Jupiter. They announced their find on April 6, 1955, at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS). In 1956 Ken joined the staff of the American Museum-Hayden Planetarium, where he later served as chairman and chief scientist. Over the course of thirty years he wrote and/or presented innumerable sky shows for the planetarium sky theater, taught popular and technical courses in astronomy, and answered questions from the public. Ken was frequently consulted by local industries engaged in the space program, as well as by the news media and publishers. He was often interviewed on local and national radio and television, especially when a celestial event of special interest was due to occur. On the first page of the November 1966 issue of Sky & Telescope, in comments about the upcoming Leonid meteor shower, Franklin stuck his neck out. Based on some calculations that he'd made, he said he felt we were going to be in for a "interesting display." His was one of the few forecasts that suggested the '66 Leonids might be memorable. As it turned out, he was right — that year observers experienced the now-legendary Leonid meteor storm. From 1973 to 1979, Ken was the AAS's public-affairs officer. For two decades he also served in the society's Harlow Shapley Visiting Lecturer Program, speaking at one or two colleges each year. Ken was an active

  11. Franklin Delano Roosevelt: a famous patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Curtis W

    2014-08-01

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt is arguably one of the greatest of American Presidents. His encounter with the polio that crippled him at an early age and its transformative impact upon him are here discussed with particular reference to his relationship with his physician, Dr. George Draper. This transformation liberated energy in Roosevelt to lead and to show empathy for others in ways that both challenged the political and social status quo in the U.S.A. as well as helped save the world from the threat of Fascism in World War II. This essay seeks to demonstrate how an investigation of the life and struggles of this famous patient is one avenue for relating the study of the humanities to medical education. An earlier version of this paper was presented as the Heberden Lecture in the History of Medicine at the New York Academy of Medicine in 2012.

  12. The role of dispersal and vicariance in the Pleistocene history of an East African mountain rodent, Praomys delectorum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, J.; Mikula, Ondřej; Patzenhauerová, H.; Oguge, N. O.; Šumbera, R.; Verheyen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2014), s. 196-208 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Cytochrome b * Eastern Arc Mountains * microsatellites Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.590, year: 2014

  13. 76 FR 2145 - International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Railserve, Franklin, VA..., applicable to workers and former workers of International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Franklin... follows: All workers International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, including on-site leased...

  14. Distribution of PCBs and PBDEs in soils along the altitudinal gradients of Balang Mountain, the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaoyan; Liu Xiande; Jiang Guibin; Wang Yawei; Zhang Qinghua; Cai Yaqi; Cong Zhiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Surface soils were collected in Balang Mountain to explore the environmental process of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during air transport. The average concentrations of ∑ 25 PCBs and ∑ 13 PBDEs in soils were 163 pg/g and 26 pg/g, respectively. The significant correlations between the concentrations of pollutants and total organic carbon (TOC) indicated the importance of TOC in accumulation potential of POPs. The slopes from fitted curves of PCBs were highly related with logK oa , demonstrating that TOC dominates the soil-air exchange of PCBs. The TOC-normalized concentrations of contaminants in samples from below-treeline were higher than those from alpine meadow, probably due to the forest filter effect. The increasing trends of the concentrations with altitude from the alpine meadow samples, could be attributed to the mountain cold-trapping effect. And the weak cold-trapping effect of POPs might be due to the less precipitation in 2008 when comparing with those in 2006. - Highlights: ► Total organic carbon plays an important role in accumulation potential of POPs. ► Forest filter effect might enhance the chemical levels for below-treeline soils. ► Precipitation was the key factor of mountain cold-trapping effect in this area. ► The reduction of precipitation might lead to a weak cold-trapping effect of POPs. ► Higher level of BDE-153 at Site 7 probably resulted from the human disturbance. - The concentrations of POPs in soils in the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau were mainly influenced by forest filter effect and mountain cold-trapping.

  15. Size-distributions of n-alkanes, PAHs and hopanes and their sources in the urban, mountain and marine atmospheres over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated (9 stages n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and hopanes in the urban (Baoji city in inland China, mountain (Mt. Tai in east coastal China and marine (Okinawa Island, Japan atmospheres over East Asia were studied using a GC/MS technique. Ambient concentrations of n-alkanes (1698±568 ng m−3 in winter and 487±145 ng m−3 in spring, PAHs (536±80 and 161±39 ng m−3, and hopanes (65±24 and 20±2.4 ng m−3 in the urban air are 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than those in the mountain aerosols and 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than those in the marine samples. Mass ratios of n-alkanes, PAHs and hopanes clearly demonstrate coal-burning emissions as their major source. Size distributions of fossil fuel derived n-alkane, PAHs and hopanes were found to be unimodal in most cases, peaking at 0.7–1.1 μm size. In contrast, plant wax derived n-alkanes presented a bimodal distribution with two peaks at the sizes of 0.7–1.1 μm and >4.7 μm in the summer mountain and spring marine samples. Among the three types of samples, geometric mean diameter (GMD of the organics in fine mode (<2.1 μm was found to be smallest (av. 0.63 μm in spring for the urban samples and largest (1.01 μm for the marine samples, whereas the GMD in coarse mode (≥2.1 μm was found to be smallest (3.48 μm for the marine aerosols and largest (4.04 μm for the urban aerosols. The fine mode GMDs of the urban and mountain samples were larger in winter than in spring and summer. Moreover, GMDs of 3- and 4-ring PAHs were larger than those of 5- and 6-ring PAHs in the three types of atmospheres. Such differences in GMDs can be interpreted by the repartitioning of organic compounds and the coagulation and hygroscopic growth of particles during a long-range transport from the inland continent to the marine area, as well as the difference in their sources among the three regions.

  16. The role of dispersal and vicariance in the Pleistocene history of an East African mountain rodent, Praomys delectorum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Mikula, Ondřej; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Oguge, N. O.; Šumbera, R.; Verheyen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2014), s. 196-208 ISSN 0305-0270 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cytochrome b * Eastern Arc Mountains * microsatellites * montane forests * Pleistocene climate changes * Praomys delectorum * Muridae * Southern Rift Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.590, year: 2014

  17. Tritium dating of underground water from the Jian River valley and Houjialiang loess platform in the basin side-band of the East-Mountain Region of Taiyuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Songsheng; Wu Qinghua

    1991-01-01

    The tritium content is measured in underground water from the basin side-band of the East-Mountain Region of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and hence the age, i.e. resident time, of underground water is estimated. The region belongs to deep water-poor zone in a long loess ridge situated in a loess hill plateau. The level of underground water is 40-80 m deep hidden. In the runway and the scouring channel the aqueous bed is of river pebble and cobble, with a level of 2-10 m in depth. The age of underground water from different wells were determined to be 23a, 14a, 25a, 41a and 53a respectively

  18. Les modalités du temps chez Benjamin Franklin

    OpenAIRE

    Marienstras, Elise

    2010-01-01

    La renommée multiséculaire de Benjamin Franklin tient surtout à sa qualité d'homme des Lumières. Cet article s'intéresse à l'extrême complexité de sa pensée sur le temps comme concept, comme mode de vie, comme outil pour s'enrichir, et comme vision générale du progrès du genre humain.The long-lasting fame of Benjamin Franklin rests principally on his characteristics as a scientist and a philosopher of the Enlightenment. This article raises the question of Franklin's conception of time and exa...

  19. Les modalités du temps chez Benjamin Franklin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Marienstras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La renommée multiséculaire de Benjamin Franklin tient surtout à sa qualité d'homme des Lumières. Cet article s'intéresse à l'extrême complexité de sa pensée sur le temps comme concept, comme mode de vie, comme outil pour s'enrichir, et comme vision générale du progrès du genre humain.The long-lasting fame of Benjamin Franklin rests principally on his characteristics as a scientist and a philosopher of the Enlightenment. This article raises the question of Franklin's conception of time and examines his numerous uses of « time » as a concept, as a way of living, as a means to obtain wealth, as a general vision of the progress of mankind.

  20. 76 FR 9636 - Franklin Financial Corporation, Inc., Glen Allen, VA; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-59: OTS No. H-4761] Franklin Financial... 11, 2011, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Franklin Financial Corporation MHC and Franklin Federal Savings Bank, Glen Allen, Virginia, to convert to the stock form of...

  1. 77 FR 76305 - Franklin Advisers, Inc., et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 30312; 812-14042] Franklin Advisers, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application December 19, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application for an order under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act...

  2. Obituary: Franklin Kamney (1925-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Richard

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Franklin E. Kameny died October 11, 2011, at the age of 86 of cardiac arrest. Kameny observed RV Tau stars and yellow semiregular variables from 1952 to1954, and his photoelectric measurements served as the basis of his Harvard Ph.D. thesis. After receiving his Ph.D. in 1956, Kameny taught astronomy for a year at Georgetown University. A US Army veteran during World War II, he was hired as an astronomer by the US Army Mapping Service in 1957. His astronomical career was terminated when he was fired from this position due to the discovery of his sexual orientation. Denied his first occupation as an astronomer, Kameny became a pioneer in the struggle for equal rights and was involved in many issues leading to just and equitable treatment of all people. One of his most most notable achievements was working for the removal of homosexuality from the American Psychiatric Association's manual of mental disorders. One of his most recent achievements was helping to push through the Washington, DC, marriage equality act. After a lonely 40-year struggle, Kameny recently began to receive recognition for all his work. In June of 2009, the Office of Personnel Management formally apologized for Kameny's firing and issued him their highest award. The apology letter, in Kameny's estimation, left open the possibility he'd never actually been fired. In his acceptance of the apology he sent the Office a letter, tongue-in-cheek, requesting that the Office let him know what his back pay was! Kameny was present in the Oval Office for the signing of the repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" in 2010 and was thanked for his work by both President Obama and Vice President Biden. 17th Street in Washington, DC, between P and R Streets was named "Frank Kameny Way," and Kameny's house is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Kameny's astronomical career, as short as it may have been, has not been forgotten. In the summer of 2009, his dissertation was "rediscovered" by AAVSO

  3. 75 FR 26794 - International Paper Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On-Site Leased Workers From Railserve, Franklin, VA; Amended... workers of International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Franklin, Virginia. The notice was... Pulp & Paper Mill. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the control...

  4. Interim fiscal profile, Benton and Franklin counties, Washington: Working draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, F.B.; Dugan, M.K.; Clark, D.C.

    1988-02-01

    This report presents a fiscal profile of Benton and Franklin counties, and of the cities of Richland, Kennewick, and Pasco. Overall, changes in operating revenues and expenditures in these jurisdictions have corresponded with changes in the local economy. The combined operating expenditures of Benton County, Franklin County, Kennewick, Pasco, and Richland, expressed in current dollars, tripled between 1975 and 1985, increasing from $18.1 million to $55.0 million, an annual average increase of 11.8 percent. During this time, the population of the Benton-Franklin MSA increased from 100,000 to 140,900 people, and the national all-items price index for urban consumers doubled, increasing from 161.2 to 322.2. Adjusted for inflation, per capita expenditures by these governments increased only slightly during this period, from $361.8 in 1975 to $390.3 in 1985. Employment in the Benton-Franklin MSA rose from 40,080 workers in 1970 to a peak of 75,900 in 1981 before declining to 61,100 in 1985, primarily due to the loss of 9,928 jobs in the Washington Public Power Supply System after 1981. The MSA's population followed a similar trend, with a slight lag. In 1970, total population in the Benton-Franklin MSA was 93,356 people. The MSA's population grew rapidly during the late 1970s, reached a peak of 147,900 persons in 1982, and then declined to 139,300 in 1986. 23 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. K-Ar age of molybdenum mineralization in the east-central Kitakami Mountains, northern Honshu, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Shunso; Shibata, Ken; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    Three K-Ar ages were determined on rocks and minerals from the mineralized areas in the east-central part of the Kitakami Cretaceous granitic terrain, where a Paleogene mineralization age was reported recently on molybdenite by the Re-Os method. The present result showed an early Cretaceous age of 114±4 Ma for the same molybdenite deposit. A rather large discrepancy was found between the Re-Os ages for molybdenite and the K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages for silicate minerals from the same ore deposits of Mesozoic-Cenozoic ages in the Circum-Pacific region, indicating that the Re-Os method needs further examination. (author)

  6. Seismic hazard characterization of 69 nuclear plant sites east of the Rocky Mountains: Results and discussion for the Batch 4 sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Savy, J.B.; Mensing, R.W.; Chen, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The EUS Seismic Hazard Characterization Project (SHC) is the outgrowth of an earlier study performed as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The objectives of the SHC were: (1) to develop a seismic hazard characterization methodology for the region east of the Rocky Mountains (EUS), and (2) the application of the methodology to 69 site locations, some of them with several local soil conditions. The method developed uses expert opinions to obtain the input to the analyses. An important aspect of the elicitation of the expert opinion process was the holding of two feedback meetings with all the experts in order to finalize the methodology and the input data bases. The hazard estimates are reported in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 5% damping velocity response spectra (PSV). A total of eight volumes make up this report which contains a thorough description of the methodology, the expert opinion's elicitation process, the input data base as well as a discussion, comparison and summary volume (Volume 6). Consistent with previous analyses, this study finds that there are large uncertainties associated with the estimates of seismic hazard in the EUS, and it identifies the ground motion modeling as the prime contributor to those uncertainties. This document, Volume 5, provides the seismic hazard estimates for the 17 sites in ''Batch 4''

  7. PENN neurodegenerative disease research - in the spirit of Benjamin Franklin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowski, John Q

    2008-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was entrepreneur, statesman, supporter of the public good as well as inventor, and his most significant invention was the University of Pennsylvania (PENN). Franklin outlined his plans for a college providing practical and classical instruction to prepare youth for real-world pursuits in his 'Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania' (1749), and Franklin's spirit of learning to serve society guides PENN to the present day. This is evidenced by the series of articles in this special issue of Neurosignals, describing research conducted by seasoned and newly recruited PENN faculty, addressing consequences of the longevity revolution which defines our epoch at the dawn of this millennium. While aging affects all organ systems, the nervous system is most critical to successful aging. Thus, the articles in this special issue of Neurosignals focus on research at PENN that is designed to prevent or ameliorate aging-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This research could enhance our chances of aging successfully in the continuing longevity revolution, and the essay here provides context and background on this research.

  8. Simultaneous lidar observations of a polar stratospheric cloud on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains and microphysical box model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blum

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC for polar ozone depletion is well established. Lidar experiments are well suited to observe and classify polar stratospheric clouds. On 5 January 2005 a PSC was observed simultaneously on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains by ground-based lidars. This cloud was composed of liquid particles with a mixture of solid particles in the upper part of the cloud. Multi-colour measurements revealed that the liquid particles had a mode radius of r≈300 nm, a distribution width of σ≈1.04 and an altitude dependent number density of N≈2–20 cm−3. Simulations with a microphysical box model show that the cloud had formed about 20 h before observation. High HNO3 concentrations in the PSC of 40–50 weight percent were simulated in the altitude regions where the liquid particles were observed, while this concentration was reduced to about 10 weight percent in that part of the cloud where a mixture between solid and liquid particles was observed by the lidar. The model simulations also revealed a very narrow particle size distribution with values similar to the lidar observations. Below and above the cloud almost no HNO3 uptake was simulated. Although the PSC shows distinct wave signatures, no gravity wave activity was observed in the temperature profiles measured by the lidars and meteorological analyses support this observation. The observed cloud must have formed in a wave field above Iceland about 20 h prior to the measurements and the cloud wave pattern was advected by the background wind to Scandinavia. In this wave field above Iceland temperatures potentially dropped below the ice formation temperature, so that ice clouds may have formed which can act as condensation nuclei for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles observed at the cloud top above Esrange.

  9. Simultaneous lidar observations of a polar stratospheric cloud on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains and microphysical box model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blum

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC for polar ozone depletion is well established. Lidar experiments are well suited to observe and classify polar stratospheric clouds. On 5 January 2005 a PSC was observed simultaneously on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains by ground-based lidars. This cloud was composed of liquid particles with a mixture of solid particles in the upper part of the cloud. Multi-colour measurements revealed that the liquid particles had a mode radius of r≈300 nm, a distribution width of σ≈1.04 and an altitude dependent number density of N≈2–20 cm−3. Simulations with a microphysical box model show that the cloud had formed about 20 h before observation. High HNO3 concentrations in the PSC of 40–50 weight percent were simulated in the altitude regions where the liquid particles were observed, while this concentration was reduced to about 10 weight percent in that part of the cloud where a mixture between solid and liquid particles was observed by the lidar. The model simulations also revealed a very narrow particle size distribution with values similar to the lidar observations. Below and above the cloud almost no HNO3 uptake was simulated. Although the PSC shows distinct wave signatures, no gravity wave activity was observed in the temperature profiles measured by the lidars and meteorological analyses support this observation. The observed cloud must have formed in a wave field above Iceland about 20 h prior to the measurements and the cloud wave pattern was advected by the background wind to Scandinavia. In this wave field above Iceland temperatures potentially dropped below the ice formation temperature, so that ice clouds may have formed which can act as condensation nuclei for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles observed at the cloud top above Esrange.

  10. FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT, FEDERAL SPENDING, AND THE POSTWAR SOUTHERN ECONOMIC REBOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Bateman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Franklin Roosevelt publicly stated his devotion to the American South and pledged to help reform the region’s laggard economy. However, Southern states received significantly fewer federal expenditures per capita, both during the New Deal of the 1930s and the military emergency of the 1940s. This article investigates economic, political, and strategic reasons for this result. Additionally, we apply a public goods perspective to New Deal and World War II spending and propose that lower levels of per capita spending in the South do not necessarily translate into a smaller impact of that spending.

  11. 76 FR 2148 - Specialty Minerals, Inc., Franklin, VA; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,057] Specialty Minerals, Inc...) applicable to workers of Specialty Minerals, Inc., Franklin, Virginia (the subject firm). The Notice was... workers of Specialty Minerals, Inc., Franklin, Virginia, who are engaged in employment related to the...

  12. Claim on memory : a political biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., 1914-1988

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Erik Eduard Willem van den

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the political life of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., the third surviving son of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Eleanor Roosevelt. The key question of this study emphasizes how FDR, Jr. interpreted the Roosevelt name and legacy during his life and political career. This book

  13. A prolonged Cenozoic erosional period in East Kunlun (Western China): Constraints of detrital apatite (U-Th)/He ages on the onset of mountain building along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenbei; Wang, Fei; Wu, Lin; Yang, Liekun; Zhang, Weibin; Wang, Yinzhi

    2018-01-01

    The timing of the development of the highland topography along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is the key to understanding the manner of Tibetan growth and the far-field effects of the collision between India and Eurasia. Although various studies have investigated the exhumation and uplift of the basement rocks, thermochronological studies on the detritus from a continuous depositional sequence inan intermontane basin are lacking but might shed light on this issue. In this study, a set of detrital apatites from an upper Eocene to Pliocene depositional sequence in the Kumukol Basin, the largest intermontane basin in the East Kunlun, were dated by using the (U-Th)/He technique. The detrital apatites had consistent ages of ∼40 Ma for all deposit formations from bottom to top, which were older than the depositional ages. The ages and their consistency suggested that these detrital apatites were not reset and that the ages represented the original ages in the provenance region. These detrital apatite ages from the upper Eocene to Pliocene formations strongly suggested that the high mountains surrounding the Kumukol Basin formed at or before ∼40 Ma and have remained high since then. The process of mountain building resulted in a prolonged period of erosion from ∼40 to 2.6 Ma. The coupling of mountain and basin at ∼40 Ma was widespread along the East Kunlun. Our present results constrain the time of onset of the mountain building along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, which may represent a rapid response to the India-Eurasian collision.

  14. [Carbon storage of forest vegetation and allocation for main forest types in the east of Da-xing'an Mountains based on additive biomass model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Dong, Li Hu; Li, Feng Ri

    2016-12-01

    Based on the biomass investigation data of main forest types in the east of Daxing'an Mountains, the additive biomass models of 3 main tree species were developed and the changes of carbon storage and allocation of forest community of tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and litter layer from different forest types were discussed. The results showed that the carbon storage of tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and litter layer for Rhododendron dauricum-Larix gmelinii forest was 71.00, 0.34, 0.05 and 11.97 t·hm -2 , respectively. Similarly, the carbon storage of the four layers of Ledum palustre-L. gmelinii forest was 47.82, 0.88, 0, 5.04 t·hm -2 , 56.56, 0.44, 0.04, 8.72 t·hm -2 for R. dauricum-mixed forest of L. gmelinii-Betula platyphylla, 46.21, 0.66, 0.07, 6.16 t·hm -2 for L. palustre-mixed forest of L. gmelinii-B. platyphylla, 40.90, 1.37, 0.04, 3.67 t·hm -2 for R. dauricum-B. platyphylla forest, 36.28, 1.12, 0.18, 4.35 t·hm -2 for L. palustre-B. platyphylla forest. The carbon storage of forest community for the understory vegetation of R. dauricum was higher than that of the forest with L. palustre. In the condition of similar circumstances for the understory, the order of carbon storage for forest community was L. gmelinii forest > the mixed forest of L. gmelinii-B. platyphylla > B. platyphylla forest. The carbon storage of different forest types was different with the order of R. dauricum-L. gmelinii forest (83.36 t·hm -2 )> R. dauricum-mixed forest of L. gmelinii-B. platyphylla (65.76 t·hm -2 ) > L. palustre-L. gmelinii forest (53.74 t·hm -2 )> L. palustre-mixed forest of L. gmelinii-B. platyphylla (53.10 t·hm -2 )> R. dauricum-B. platyphylla forest (45.98 t·hm -2 ) > L. palustre-B. platyphylla forest (41.93 t·hm -2 ). The order of carbon storage for the vertical distribution in forest communities with diffe-rent forest types was the tree layer (85.2%-89.0%) > litter layer (8.0%-14.4%) > shrub layer (0.4%-2.7%) > herb layer (0-0.4%).

  15. Glacial survival east and west of the 'Mekong-Salween Divide' in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region as revealed by AFLPs and cpDNA sequence variation in Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhai, Sheng-Nan; Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Guo, Yan-Ping; Ge, Xue-Jun; Comes, Hans Peter

    2011-05-01

    Molecular phylogeographic studies have recently begun to elucidate how plant species from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent regions responded to the Quaternary climatic oscillations. In this regard, however, far less attention has been paid to the southern and south-eastern declivities of the QTP, i.e. the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) region. Here, we report a survey of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence variation in the HHM endemic Sinopodophyllum hexandrum, a highly selfing alpine perennial herb with mainly gravity-dispersed berries (105 individuals, 19 localities). We specifically aimed to test a vicariant evolutionary hypothesis across the 'Mekong-Salween Divide', a known biogeographic and phytogeographic boundary of north-to-south trending river valleys separating the East Himalayas and Hengduan Mts. Both cpDNA and AFLPs identified two divergent phylogroups largely congruent with these mountain ranges. There was no genetic depauperation in the more strongly glaciated East Himalayas (AFLPs: H(E)=0.031; cpDNA: h(S)=0.133) compared to the mainly ice-free Hengduan Mts. (AFLPs: H(E)=0.037; cpDNA: h(S)=0.082), while population differentiation was consistently higher in the former region (AFLPs: Φ(ST)=0.522 vs. 0.312; cpDNA: Φ(ST)=0.785 vs. 0.417). Our results suggest that East Himalayan and Hengduan populations of S. hexandrum were once fragmented, persisted in situ during glacials in both areas, and have not merged again, except for a major instance of inter-lineage chloroplast capture identified at the MSD boundary. Our coalescent time estimate for all cpDNA haplotypes (c. 0.37-0.48 mya), together with paleogeological evidence, strongly rejects paleo-drainage formation as a mechanism underlying allopatric fragmentation, whereas mountain glaciers following the ridges of the MSD during glacials (and possible interglacials) could have been responsible. This study thus indicates an important role

  16. Draw the lightning down Benjamin Franklin and electrical technology in the age of enlightenment

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffer, Michael Brian; Bell, Carrie L

    2006-01-01

    Most of us know--at least we've heard--that Benjamin Franklin conducted some kind of electrical experiment with a kite. What few of us realize--and what this book makes powerfully clear--is that Franklin played a major role in laying the foundations of modern electrical science and technology. This fast-paced book, rich with historical details and anecdotes, brings to life Franklin, the large international network of scientists and inventors in which he played a key role, and their amazing inventions. We learn what these early electrical devices--from lights and motors to musical and medical i

  17. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  18. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2007 Digital Orthophotos - Franklin, Gadsden, Liberty Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — RGB digital orthophotos covering Franklin, Liberty and Gadsden Counties, Florida Tiles were cut to pre-determined 5000' x 5000' windows as supplied by the Florida...

  19. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 Digital Orthophotos - Franklin County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This metadata describes the digital ortho imagery covering Franklin County, FL. This 1"=200' scale imagery is comprised of natural color orthophotography with a GSD...

  20. Benjamin Franklin's risk factors for gout and stones: from genes and diet to possible lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Stanley; Hagemann, Ian S

    2008-06-01

    Benjamin Franklin's medical history shows that he suffered from repeated attacks of gout and a large bladder stone. These conditions caused him considerable pain, markedly decreased his mobility, and likely contributed in indirect ways to his decline and eventual death from a pulmonary disorder. This article examines Franklin's risk factors for gout and stones, both as Franklin understood them and as we know them today. Significantly, both of these disorders are associated with high blood levels of uric acid, a metabolic by-product. Franklin's risk factors included his gender, genetics, diet, drinking, advanced age, psoriasis, and exposure to lead. Although it is impossible to assign a weight to each of these factors, it can be shown that a number of factors, each capable of raising uric acid levels, converged and conspired against him.

  1. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Airspace Changes for Paradise East and Paradise West Military Operations Areas (MOAs) at Mountain Home Air Force Base (MHAFB) Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    Force requires that installations associated with MOAs prepare Mid-Air Collision Avoidance ( MACA ) programs and encourages the installations to brief...civilian pilots on this information. MHAFB participates in MACA briefings at local area airports within 100 NM of the Mountain Home Range Complex...MHAFB has developed Wing MACA Plan 9601-05, updated every 18 months, a 23-page MACA pamphlet, and a two-page MACA handout. The March 2006 issue of

  2. Ética e ideologia na ciência de Nollet e Franklin Ethics and ideology in the science of Nollet and Franklin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Pyenson

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A controvérsia sobre a natureza da eletricidade, surgida em meados do século XVIII entre Jean Antoine Nollet e os seguidores de Benjamin Franklin, é utilizada para investigar até que ponto a fé católica e a protestante desempenharam um papel, quanto ao discurso, no âmbito da filosofia natural. O católico Nollet e o protestante Franklin compartilharam vários atributos em comum, porém o prazer do debate intelectual não era um deles.The controversy over the nature of electricity, conducted in the middle of the eighteenth century by Jean Antoine Nollet and supporters of Benjamin Franklin, is used to investigate the extent to which Catholic and Protestant faith played a role in discourse in the realm of natural philosophy. Catholic Nollet and Protestant Franklin shared a number of attributes, but the delight in controversy was not one of them.

  3. Interim housing conditions profile, Benton and Franklin Counties, Washington: BWIP Repository Project: Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, P.A.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes the housing stock and its availability in Benton and Franklin counties. Depending on the specific measures, data are presented for the entire MSA, for Benton and Franklin counties separately, for incorporated and unincorporated areas within the counties, and for specific incorporated areas. The most detailed data are available for the two counties and for the major cities of Kennewick and Richland in Benton County and Pasco in Franklin County. In 1986, 64 percent of the population of Benton County and 66 percent of the housing units were in Kennewick and Richland. Seventy-three percent of the population and 75 percent of the housing were in the incorporated area of Benton County. In Franklin County, Pasco accounted for 52 percent of the county's 1986 population and 57 percent of its housing. Fifty-nine percent of the population and 63 percent of the housing were in the incorporated areas of Franklin County. More detailed data are needed to fully describe the housing conditions in the jurisdictions described here. 13 refs., 9 tabs

  4. 76 FR 56381 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Franklin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... distributions of any bumble bee in the world (Williams 1998, as cited in the petition (p. 6)). The original... To List the Franklin's Bumble Bee as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Franklin's bumble bee (Bombus...

  5. Benjamin Franklin, 1706-2008 : anatomie d’un tricentenaire transatlantique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Rossignol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse le Tricentenaire de Benjamin Franklin, qui eut lieu de 2006 à 2008. A l’occasion de cette date anniversaire, de nombreux livres furent publiés, des colloques et expositions organisés aux Etats-Unis. Ces travaux et manifestations ont produit un nouveau regard, critique, sur Franklin, père fondateur assez extraordinaire. L’exposition principale est venue à Paris, au cours de l’hiver 2007-2008, clairement dans le cadre d’une volonté de rapprocher les deux pays à la suite des controverses suscitées par la Guerre en Irak. Cette commémoration franco-américaine a eu comme objectif principal de souligner la diplomatie et la collaboration transatlantiques, et non de présenter Franklin sous toutes ses facettes, et de l’intégrer au contexte de son époque dans son pays. Un symposium fut donc organisé à l’Université Paris – Diderot afin de mettre en valeur les travaux scientifiques sur Franklin, français, mais aussi étrangers. Les principales communications sont présentées dans ce dossier.This paper offers reflections on the Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary, which took place from 2006 to 2008. This anniversary was celebrated by many publications, conferences and exhibitions in the United States, producing a renewed and critical understanding of Franklin, “not your usual founding father”. The main exhibition travelled to France (2007-2008, clearly as part of an attempt to patch up relationships between the two countries in the wake of the Iraq war controversy. The main focus in this Franco-American commemoration was on transatlantic diplomacy and collaboration, not really on Franklin in his multiple capacities, in his time and country of birth. The conference organized at Université Paris-Diderot in January 2008 was by contrast a scholarly affair, highlighting work on Franklin conducted by French and foreign specialists. Most of the papers are presented here.

  6. Environmental geochemistry at Red Mountain, an unmined volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit in the Bonnifield district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Dusel-Bacon, C.; Giles, S.A.; Gough, L.P.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Hubbard, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    The unmined, pyrite-rich Red Mountain (Dry Creek) deposit displays a remarkable environmental footprint of natural acid generation, high metal and exceedingly high rate earth element (REE) concentrations in surface waters. The volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit exhibits well-constrained examples of acid-generating, metal-leaching, metal-precipitation and self-mitigation (via co-precipitation, dilution and neutralization) processes that occur in an undisturbed natural setting, a rare occurrence in North America. Oxidative dissolution of pyrite and associated secondary reactions under near-surface oxidizing conditions are the primary causes for the acid generation and metal leaching. The deposit is hosted in Devonian to Mississippian felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. Water samples with the lowest pH (many below 3.5), highest specific conductance (commonly >2500 ??S/cm) and highest major- and trace-element concentrations are from springs and streams within the quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zone. Aluminum, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Y, Zn and, particularly, the REEs are found in high concentrations, ranging across four orders of magnitude. Waters collected upstream from the alteration zone have near-neutral pH, lower specific conductance (370 to 830 ??S/cm), lower metal concentrations and measurable alkalinities. Water samples collected downstream of the alteration zone have pH and metal concentrations intermediate between these two extremes. Stream sediments are anomalous in Zn, Pb, S, Fe, Cu, As, Co, Sb and Cd relative to local and regional background abundances. Red Mountain Creek and its tributaries do not, and probably never have, supported significant aquatic life. ?? 2007 AAG/ Geological Society of London.

  7. Eastern Arc Mountains and their national and global importance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Arc Mountains comprise a chain of separate mountain blocks running from southern Kenya through Tanzania in a crescent or arc shape. In Tanzania, the Eastern Arc consists of North and South Pare, East and West Usambaras, Nguru, Ukaguru, Rubeho, Uluguru, Udzungwa and Mahenge Mountains.

  8. 75 FR 52989 - Specialty Minerals, Inc., Franklin, VA; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,057] Specialty Minerals, Inc., Franklin, VA; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By applications dated July 9, 2010 and July 16, 2010 (filed by a company official and a worker, respectively...

  9. Education through cinema. Franklin Delano Roosevelt's polio on the movies (I: Warm Springs (2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique GARCÍA MERINO

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, in accordance with educational purposes, analyzes acute paralytic poliomyelitis, its evolution and the rehabilitation of its sequels. All these aspects of the disease are reflected in the film Warm Springs, through the figure of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his life between 1921 and 1928. Clinical, psychological, epidemiological, rehabilitative, family and social aspects of polio infection are examined. 

  10. Rosalind Franklin: The Woman Scientist of DNA It is fifty years since ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    milind1

    awarded the Nobel Prize as it is not given posthu- mously. ... photographs are among the most beautiful of any substance ... during World War II, and Franklin investigated why some ... fered her only a three-year fellowship, with nei- ther rank ...

  11. Interview with Dr. Charles Nolan: Dean of Admissions, Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Robin Matross

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Charles Nolan, the former Dean of Admission at the Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering, in Needham, Massachusetts. Chartered in 1997, Olin College has taken a new approach to undergraduate engineering education by providing its students with both a solid engineering background and knowledge in the…

  12. Ben Franklin, America’s Postage Stamp Star — on the Wane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brunet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an assessment of Ben Franklin’s evolving figure in U.S. postage stamps, focusing especially on the contrast between the 2006 tercentennial Franklin 4-stamp panel, a rather high-brow representation of Franklin as an intellectual, and his traditional image as a homely, common face. The singular history of U.S. postage stamps, with their innovative choice of historical figures as subject matter and their broader emphasis on commemoration, is briefly summarized. The evolution of the Franklin figure — the most common postal image, along with George Washington — is then detailed, showing how the traditional image prevailed until the 1950s, before being progressively displaced by a more cultural and, lately, intellectual image of the nation’s “electrizer”.Cet article vise à interpréter l’évolution de la figure de Benjamin Franklin dans les timbres-poste des Etats-Unis, en se fondant notamment sur le contraste entre le bloc de quatre timbres émis lors du tricentenaire en 2006, qui représente Franklin dans les différents métiers d’un intellectuel des Lumières, et son image traditionnelle d’Américain simple et moyen. On retrace tout d’abord l’histoire singulière des timbres américains, caractérisée par le choix innovant de figures historiques comme sujets et plus généralement par la prééminence de la fonction commémorative. Puis on étudie en détail l’évolution de la figure de Franklin — sujet le plus fréquent des timbres américains avec George Washington — en montrant que l’image traditionnelle s’est perpétuée jusqu’aux années 1950, avant de céder progressivement à une image plus culturelle et, récemment, plus intellectuelle.

  13. PRESSURE - WATER and Other Data from FRANKLIN and Other Platforms from 19900706 to 19921018 (NODC Accession 9500079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature (XBT) and Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) data were collected from R/V FRANKLIN, between July 6, 1990 and october 18, 1992...

  14. An Exploration of Canadian Identity in Recent Literary Narratives of the Franklin Expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kennedy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sir John Franklin’s three expeditions to the high Arctic in 1819, 1825, and 1845 have become the stuff of Canadian legend, enshrined in history books, songs, short stories, novels, and web sites. Franklin set out in 1845 to discover the Northwest Passage with the most advanced technology the British Empire could muster, and disappeared forever. Many rescue explorations found only scant evidence of the Expedition, and the mystery was finally solved only recently. This paper will explore four recent fictional works on Franklin’s expeditions, Stan Rogers’ song “Northwest Passage”, Margaret Atwood’s short story “The Age of Lead”, Rudy Wiebe’s A Discovery of Strangers, and John Wilson’s North with Franklin: the Lost Journals of James Fitzjames, to see how Franklin’s ghost has haunted the hopes and values of nineteenth-century, as well as modern, Canada.

  15. Mountaineering Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountaineering Tourism Edited by Ghazali Musa, James Higham, and Anna Thompson-Carr. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2015. xxvi + 358 pp. Hardcover. US$ 145.00. ISBN 978-1-138-78237-2.

  16. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max

    2009-01-01

    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described...... demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone....

  17. After the double helix: Rosalind Franklin's research on Tobacco mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H; Morgan, Gregory J

    2008-06-01

    Rosalind Franklin is best known for her informative X-ray diffraction patterns of DNA that provided vital clues for James Watson and Francis Crick's double-stranded helical model. Her scientific career did not end when she left the DNA work at King's College, however. In 1953 Franklin moved to J. D. Bernal's crystallography laboratory at Birkbeck College, where she shifted her focus to the three-dimensional structure of viruses, obtaining diffraction patterns of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) of unprecedented detail and clarity. During the next five years, while making significant headway on the structural determination of TMV, Franklin maintained an active correspondence with both Watson and Crick, who were also studying aspects of virus structure. Developments in TMV research during the 1950s illustrate the connections in the emerging field of molecular biology between structural studies of nucleic acids and of proteins and viruses. They also reveal how the protagonists of the "race for the double helix" continued to interact personally and professionally during the years when Watson and Crick's model for the double-helical structure of DNA was debated and confirmed.

  18. The Black Mountain tectonic zone--a reactivated northeast-trending crustal shear zone in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska: Chapter D in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Day, Warren C.; Alienikoff, John N.; Saltus, Richard W.; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Mountain tectonic zone in the YukonTanana terrane of east-central Alaska is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can been traced across Black Mountain in the southeast corner of the Big Delta 1°×3° degree quadrangle. Geologic mapping in the larger scale B1 quadrangle of the Big Delta quadrangle, in which Black Mountain is the principal physiographic feature, has revealed a continuous zone of normal and left-lateral strikeslip high-angle faults and shear zones, some of which have late Tertiary to Quaternary displacement histories. The tectonic zone includes complexly intruded wall rocks and intermingled apophyses of the contiguous mid-Cretaceous Goodpaster and Mount Harper granodioritic plutons, mafic to intermediate composite dike swarms, precious metal mineralization, early Tertiary volcanic activity and Quaternary fault scarps. These structures define a zone as much as 6 to 13 kilometers (km) wide and more than 40 km long that can be traced diagonally across the B1 quadrangle into the adjacent Eagle 1°×3° quadrangle to the east. Recurrent activity along the tectonic zone, from at least mid-Cretaceous to Quaternary, suggests the presence of a buried, fundamental tectonic feature beneath the zone that has influenced the tectonic development of this part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The tectonic zone, centered on Black Mountain, lies directly above a profound northeast-trending aeromagnetic anomaly between the Denali and Tintina fault systems. The anomaly separates moderate to strongly magnetic terrane on the northwest from a huge, weakly magnetic terrane on the southeast. The tectonic zone is parallel to the similarly oriented left-lateral, strike-slip Shaw Creek fault zone 85 km to the west.

  19. Virtude, trabalho e riqueza: a concepção de sociedade civil em Benjamin Franklin

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Brito Sanches

    2006-01-01

    Neste trabalho examinamos a concepção de sociedade civil no pensamento social e político de Benjamin Franklin, cujas idéias exerceram grande influência na formação da mentalidade do homem do Novo Mundo. Essa mentalidade inaugura um novo modo de conceber a vida em sociedade, exaltando tudo o que se opõe aos valores da velha ordem. Contra o princípio da honra, os títulos de nobreza e a posição social dos indivíduos, ela exalta a virtude republicana, celebra o trabalho e reclama o respeito à dig...

  20. Presidents and health reform: from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, James A

    2010-06-01

    The health care reforms that President Barack Obama signed into law in March 2010 were seventy-five years in the making. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt, U.S. presidents have struggled to enact national health care reform; most failed. This article explores the highly charged political landscape in which Obama maneuvered and the skills he brought to bear. It contrasts his accomplishments with the experiences of his Oval Office predecessors. Going forward, implementation poses formidable challenges for Democrats, Republicans, and the political process itself.

  1. AHP 35: An Abandoned Mountain Deity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limusishiden (Li Dechun 李得春

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lasizi are cairns where mountain deities dwell, and the same word also refers to the deities that dwell in these cairns. There are many lasizi in Tu areas in Huzhu Tu Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province. The most famous are: Chileb, located in the north part of both Danma Town and Donggou Township Durizang, located in the northern part of Wushi Town Lawa, located atop a mountain on the border between Danma Town and Wushi Town. The mountain is referred to as Lawa Lasizi. Lawa Village is located at the foot of Lawa Lasizi's west side, which is within Danma Town territory. Tughuan Village is located at the foot of Lawa Lasizi's east side, which belongs is within Wushi Town jurisdiction. Sughua, located atop a mountain on the border between Danma Town and Dongshan Township. The mountain is locally known as Sughua Lasizi. Qighaan Dawa Village is located at the foot of Sughua Lasizi's west side, which is part of Dongshan Township. Sughua Village is located at the foot of Sughua Lasizi's east side, which is part of belongs Danma Town. Walighuan, located atop a mountain in Hongyazigou Township and Sunduu, located on the border between Songduo and Bazha (two autonomous Tibetan townships in Huzhu County and Ledu Region. ...

  2. Franklin Medal and Bower prize awarded to C.N. Yang. On the Yang-Mills gauge field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongqi

    1995-01-01

    C.N. Yang was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal and 1995 Bower Prize mainly for his fundamental work on nonabelian gauge field theory. A brief introduction to this theory and its important role in the development of physics is given

  3. "The Way We Found Them to Be": Remembering E. Franklin Frazier and the Politics of Respectable Black Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Hilton

    2010-01-01

    Given the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of E. Franklin Frazier's award-winning "Black Bourgeoisie", this article reconsiders the political nature of a respectability discourse among black teachers in the Jim Crow South. Writing against Frazier's image of a materialistic and status-addicted black middle class, I argue that the…

  4. BWIP [Battelle Waste Isolation Program] Repository Project: Interim fiscal profile, Benton and Franklin counties, Washington: Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, F.B.; Dugan, M.K.; Clark, D.C.

    1988-02-01

    This report presents a fiscal profile of Benton and Franklin counties, and of the cities of Richland, Kennewick, and Pasco. Overall, changes in operating revenues and expenditures in these jurisdictions have corresponded with changes in the local economy. The combined operating expenditures of Benton County, Franklin County, Kennewick, Pasco, and Richland, expressed in current dollars, tripled between 1975 and 1985, increasing from $18.1 million to $55.0 million, an annual average increase of 11.8 percent. During this time, the population of the Benton-Franklin MSA increased from 100,000 to 140,900 people, and the national all-items price index for urban consumers doubled, increasing from 161.2 to 322.2. Adjusted for inflation, per capita expenditures by these governments increased only slightly during this period, from $361.8 in 1975 to $390.3 in 1985. Employment in the Benton-Franklin MSA rose from 40,080 workers in 1970 to a peak of 75,900 in 1981 before declining to 61,100 in 1985, primarily due to the loss of 9,928 jobs in the Washington Public Power Supply System after 1981. The MSA's population followed a similar trend, with a slight lag. In 1970, total population in the Benton-Franklin MSA was 93,356 people. The MSA's population grew rapidly during the late 1970s, reached a peak of 147,900 persons in 1982, and then declined to 139,300 in 1986. 23 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs

  5. Oceanographic data collected from the Sir John Franklin in the Beaufort Sea, September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, R W; Carmack, E C; O' Brien, M C; McLaughlin, F A; Minkley, B G; Berger-North, K

    1989-09-01

    The data reported here were collected from the Canadian Coast Guard ship Sir John Franklin during a cruise to the Canadian Beaufort Sea from August 21 to Sept 5, 1989. The cruise had two broad objectives: to collect chemical and conductivity temperature depth (CTD) data at a deep station in the Canadian Basin, and to survey intensively the shelf break with the Mackenzie Canyon as a focus. Conductivity temperature depth was measured using a CTD guideline system. Water samples consisting of hydrocast for 6 shelf edge stations at 200 m depth and one deep station at 3200 m depth were tested for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and chlorophyll a. In addition, samples were collected for analysis of tritium, C-14, and oxygen isotope composition and acoustic profiles were run. Isotope composition and acoustic profile data are not included in this report.

  6. Interim economic and demographic profile, Benton and Franklin Counties, Washington: Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.C.

    1987-11-01

    This report is organized into five sections. Section 2 summarizes the methods used to compile and analyze the data presented in the report. It includes a discussion of the Qualilty Assurance context within which the data were collected, analyzed, and stored; a definition of the variables and time period included in the profile; description of the secondary and primary data collection, compilation, and analysis procedures used in preparing the report; and a summary of the database management system that will be used to store and provide access to the data presented in the the report. Section 3 contains the profile information, organized by topic. A combination of tables, figures, and text are used to describe the economic and demographic conditions in Benton and Franklin counties. Section 4 summarizes outstanding technical issues and data requirements, and Section 5 provides a bibliography of the documents and personal communications from which the data in this report were obtained. 27 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  7. Floristic analysis of the wanda mountain in north eastern china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Xu, L.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The plants of the Wanda Mountain area were investigated between 2009 to 2013. The results show that Wanda Mountain has 95 families of seed plants distributed in 334 genera and 705 species. A geographical component analysis shows that in addition to a small number of cosmopolitan species, cold, temperate and tropical species account for 14.9%, 77.3% and 4.4% of the total species, respectively, indicating that the flora of the Wanda Mountains exhibits a significant temperate nature and includes a small number of tropical components and certain cold components. In addition, the Wanda Mountains show a remarkable level of endemism and are geographically related to other regions in East Asia, particularly Japan. Furthermore, the Wanda Mountains present a complicated species composition, with a total of 14 distribution patterns and 10 variants. The coefficient of similarity between the flora of the Wanda Mountain area and the flora of the Changbai Mountain area is 43.1%, and the coefficient of similarity between the flora of the Wanda Mountain area and the flora of the Lesser Xingan Mountain area is 49.2%, indicating that the plants of the Wanda Mountain area are more common to those of the Lesser Xingan Mountain area. (author)

  8. Geology of Gable Mountain-Gable Butte Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.

    1978-09-01

    Gable Mountain and Gable Butte are two ridges which form the only extensive outcrops of the Columbia River Basalt Group in the central portion of the Pasco Basin. The Saddle Mountains Basalt and two interbedded sedimentary units of the Ellensburg Formation crop out on the ridges. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Asotin Member (oldest), Esquatzel Member, Selah Interbed, Pomona Member, Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed, and Elephant Mountain Member (youngest). A fluvial plain composed of sediments from the Ringold and Hanford (informal) formations surrounds these ridges. The structure of Gable Mountain and Gable Butte is dominated by an east-west-trending major fold and northwest-southeast-trending parasitic folds. Two faults associated with the uplift of these structures were mapped on Gable Mountain. The geomorphic expression of the Gable Mountain-Gable Butte area resulted from the comlex folding and subsequent scouring by post-basalt fluvial systems

  9. Ben Franklin stilled the waves an informal history of pouring oil on water with reflections on the ups and downs of scientific life in general

    CERN Document Server

    Tanford, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin, the 18th-century American statesman and scientist, watched the calming effect of a drop of oil on the waves and ripples of a London pond, and began to investigate exactly what was happening to cause this strange phenomenon. Following Franklin's lead, a motley crowd of scientists over the next two centuries and more chose to investigate the nature of atoms and molecules through the interaction of fluid membranes. Building on Franklin's originalexperiments, their work has culminated in the discovery of the structure of cell membranes, research that continues to bear fruit today. Ben Franklin Stilled the Waves is far more than the story of oil on water; it is a voyage into the very nature of science and its place in our history.

  10. Archaeological Investigations on the East Fork of the Salmon River, Custer County, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    coniferous environment in addition to pine marten (Martes americana), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), porcupine (Erithizon dorsatum), mountain vole...can be seen in small herds throughout the East Fork valley from the Salmon River to Big Boulder Creek. Two bands of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep...utilize the Challis Planning Unit, one on the East Fork and the other in the Birch Creek area. The East Fork herd is comprised of approximately 50-70

  11. Für das Spielen lernen wir – Konzept und Evaluation des internationalen Medizinstudierendenwettbewerbs "Benjamin Franklin Contest" [Learning for the game – concept and evaluation of the international medical student competition "Benjamin Franklin Contest"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolxdorff, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: In 1998 an international contest for medical students called “Benjamin Franklin Contest” was initiated by the former university hospital of Freie Universität Berlin on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of its foundation in 1968. Since then, seven teams from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland have been competing against each other every year. Five medical students per team match up in paper cases, diagnosis of medical images, multiple choice tests, and practical skills.Methods: All participants of the 11th Benjamin Franklin Contest (2009 were asked about their motivation, preparation strategy, and experience with the contest. Results: In total 92% (32 of 35 participated in the evaluation study. We show that improvement of medical knowledge is one of the key motivating factors behind participation in the competition. The teams were trained by self-study, tutorials, and learning groups. Remarkably, students invested 54.2 hours (SD 32 hours of their free time to prepare for the contest. Conclusions: The Benjamin Franklin Contest is an innovative approach to facilitate self-directed learning and develope medical competencies. [german] Zielsetzung: Im Jahr 1998 wurde am damaligen Universitätsklinikum Benjamin Franklin der Freien Universität (FU in Berlin der internationale Medizinstudierendenwettbewerb „Benjamin Franklin Contest“ (BFC initiiert. Anlass war damals der 30. Jahrestag der Gründung der Universitätsmedizin an der FU. Seitdem findet jedes Jahr ein Wettbewerb zwischen sieben Teams von medizinischen Fakultäten aus Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz statt. Jeweils fünf Studierende messen sich in den Kategorien Papierfälle, Blickdiagnosen, Auswahlfragen und praktische Fähigkeiten.Methodik: Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Beschreibung des Projektes BFC und eine erste Evaluation der Erfahrung von Teilnehmenden. Dazu wurden alle Teilnehmenden des 11. BFC (2009 mittels eines selbst entwickelten Fragebogens

  12. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  13. Laboratory demonstration of lightning strike pattern on different roof tops installed with Franklin Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Irshad; Baharom, MNR; Ahmed, H.; Luqman, HM.; Zainal, Zainab

    2017-11-01

    Protection against lightning is always a challenging job for the researcher. The consequences due to lightning on different building shapes needs a comprehensive knowledge in order to provide the information to the common man. This paper is mainly concern with lightning pattern when it strikes on the building with different shape. The work is based on the practical experimental work in high voltage laboratory. Different shapes of the scaled structures have been selected in order to investigate the equal distribution of lightning voltage. The equal distribution of lightning voltage will provide the maximum probability of lightning strike on air terminal of the selected shapes. Building shapes have a very important role in lightning protection. The shapes of the roof tops have different geometry and the Franklin rod installation is also varies with changing the shape of the roof top. According to the ambient weather condition of Malaysia high voltage impulse is applied on the lightning rod installed on different geometrical shape. The equal distribution of high voltage impulse is obtained as the geometry of the scaled structure is identical and the air gap for all the tested object is kept the same. This equal distribution of the lightning voltage also proves that the probability of lightning strike is on the corner and the edges of the building structure.

  14. Indoor radon levels in Columbus and Franklin county, Ohio residences, commercial buildings, and schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafton, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper data is presented for 2 residential radon surveys, one survey of city-owned buildings, and survey of Columbus Public Schools. The first residential survey used volunteer participants and employed a 48 hour activated carbon measurement: 4425 measurements in the data. The second survey consisted of 120 randomly selected residences in which alpha track detectors were placed for from 60 to 120 days. A survey of 52 city-owned buildings in which screening measurements were obtained using activated carbon, alpha track, and E-PERM radon detectors is included in the data. Also a survey of 25 Columbus Public Schools in which E-PERM radon monitors were used to obtain measurements is detailed in the data. More than 72% of the volunteer survey residences showed screening measurements of 4.0 pCi/L or greater while the random survey revealed 92% of the residences with radon levels of 4.0 pCi/L or higher. Schools tested in the survey also showed elevated radon levels with 20% of the tested structures with an average radon level of 4.0 pCi/L. Work is still in progress on city-owned buildings and Columbus Schools. The authors conclude that any owner or lessor of occupied buildings in Franklin County, Ohio should perform screening measurements and should be prepared to also perform follow-up measurements

  15. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  16. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  17. Investigation of Microphysical Parameters within Winter and Summer Type Precipitation Events over Mountainous [Complex] Terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalker, James R.; Bossert, James E.

    1997-10-01

    In this study we investigate complex terrain effects on precipitation with RAMS for both in winter and summer cases from a microphysical perspective. We consider a two dimensional east-west topographic cross section in New Mexico representative of the Jemez mountains on the west and the Sangre de Cristo mountains on the east. Located between these two ranges is the Rio Grande Valley. In these two dimensional experiments, variations in DSDs are considered to simulate total precipitation that closely duplicate observed precipitation

  18. HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FAULTS AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.P. Dickerson

    2000-01-01

    Yucca Mountain comprises a series of north-trending ridges composed of tuffs within the southwest Nevada volcanic field, 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These ridges are formed of east-dipping blocks of interbedded welded and nonwelded tuff that are offset along steep, mostly west-dipping faults that have tens to hundreds of meters of vertical separation. Yucca Mountain is currently under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. To this end, an understanding of the behavior of ground-water flow through the mountain in the unsaturated zone and beneath the mountain in the saturated zone is critical. The percolation of water through the mountain and into the ground-water flow system beneath the potential repository site is predicated on: (1) the amount of water available at the surface as a result of the climatic conditions, (2) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the volcanic strata that compose the mountain. and (3) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the structures, particularly fault zones and fracture networks, that disrupt these strata. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located

  19. Mountain Plover [ds109

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  20. Petrography, palynology, and paleoecology of the Lower Pennsylvanian Bon Air coal, Franklin County, Cumberland Plateau, southeast Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Stephen A.; Saussy, Frederick L. [Department of Forestry and Geology, University of the South, Sewanee, TN 37383 (United States); Eble, Cortland F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, 228 MMRB, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0107 (United States); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511-8433 (United States)

    2006-05-03

    Stratigraphy, palynology, petrography, and geochemistry of the Bon Air coal from the Armfield, Dotson, Rutledge, and Shakerag mine sites of Franklin County, Tennessee suggest that Bon Air seams at all sites were small (=1.0 mile, 1.6 km), spatially distinct paleomires that evolved from planar to domed within the fluviodeltaic Lower Pennsylvanian Raccoon Mountain Formation. Of observed palynoflora, 88?97% are from lycopsids prevalent in the Westphalian. Densosporites palynomorphs of small lycopsids (e.g., Omphalophloios) dominate at the shale-hosted Armfield site, while Lycospora palynoflora of large arboreous lycopsids (especially Lepidodendron, with lesser Lepidophloios harcourtii and Lepidophloios hallii) dominate where intercalated siltstone/sandstone/shale hosts the coal (all other sites). Palynoflora of other lycopsids (Sigillaria and Paralycopodites), tree ferns, seed ferns, small ferns, calamites, and cordaites are generally minor. Genera of clastic-associated Paralycopodites are most common in Shakerag's coal (=10%), yet quite rare in Rutledge or Dotson coals. Overall, the palynomorph assemblages suggest that the Bon Air paleomires were forest swamps, and Early Pennsylvanian in age (Westphalian A, Langsettian). Dominant macerals at all sites are vitrinites, with fine collodetrinite (from strongly decomposed plant debris) more common than coarser collotelinite (from well-preserved plant fragments), and with lesser inertinites (fusinite and semifusinite) and liptinites (dominantly sporinite). Shakerag's coal has greatest abundance (mineral-matter-free) of collotelinite (up to 47%) and total vitrinite (74?79%) of any sites, but lowest liptinite (12?14.5%) and inertinite (7?11%). The Dotson and Rutledge seams contain moderate liptinite (21?23%) and highest inertinite (36?37%), lowest vitrinite (=41%), and lowest collotelinite (13?15%). Armfield's seam has relatively high liptinite (26?28%) and vitrinite (56.5?62%), but rather low inertinite (12

  1. Elevated indoor radon levels and elevated incidence of lung cancer in Columbus and Franklin County, Ohio: Cause or coincidence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafton, H.E.; West, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Columbus, and Franklin County, Ohio, have been identified as having elevated residential radon levels. Research by the Columbus Health Department, the Ohio Department of Health, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has shown that average screening measurements for the county range from 63% to 73% above 148 Bq m -3 , 23% to 27% above 370 Bq m -3 , and 1% above 1850 Bq m -3 , for both males and females, respectively. The observed cancer rate per 100,000 persons for the period 1979-1986 for the City of Columbus was 62.8 and for the State of Ohio, 49.3, for the bronchi, lungs, and trachea. The reliability of residential radon data, the effect of smoking, mobility of residents, and other confounding factors are referenced. We suggest that while current evidence is insufficient to demonstrate a causal or coincidental relationship between elevated radon levels and higher-than-average rates of lung cancer, the measurement data suggest that Franklin County, Ohio, is an appropriate site for such research

  2. The mountain Cer: Potentials for tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In northwest of Serbia in the meridians directions an elongated mountain range of Cer with Iverak and Vlašić stretches itself. On the north it goes down to Mačva and Posavina, on the west to Podrinje, on the east to the valley of Kolubara, on the south to the basins and valleys of Jadar and upper Kolubara, which separate it from the mountains of Valjevo and Podrinje area. Cer mountain offers extremely good condition for development of eco-tourism. The variety of relief with gorgeous see-sites, natural rarities, convenient bio-climatic conditions, significant water resources, forest complexes, medieval fortresses, cultural-historic monuments, richness of flora and fauna, preserved rural environment, traditions and customs of local population, were all neglected as strategic factors in the development of tourism. This mountain’s potentials are quite satisfactory for the needs of eco-tourism, similar to the National Park of Fruška Gora, but it has lacked an adequate ecotourist strategy so far. This study aims to pointing to the potential and possibilities of ecotourist valorization of this mountain.

  3. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  4. A SPECIAL FOEHN CASE IN NORTH-EASTERN APUSENI MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. TUDOSE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case study for the 9-10 January 2015 period, when foehn processes were occurred on the eastern slope of the Apuseni Mountains. With a view to establishing the synoptic context in which the phenomenon was manifested, an analysis of the atmospheric fields was used, while for determining the intensity of the process several meteorological parameters (temperature, wind and relative humidity were analyzed along three west-east profiles across the Apuseni Mountains. The analysis points out the presence of foehn processes on the eastern part of the Apuseni Mountains, the highest thermal and hygric differences being recorded on the north-eastern part of the mountains. The most important effect of this synoptic situation was the reduction of the snow cover depth.

  5. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-26

    all forces having an interest m the solution and an interest in society there is an alliance and partnership to confront the danger overtaking the...must be partnership and consensus in order to reach a solution. I doubt that President al-Jumayyil can at this stage settle affairs in East Beirut by...mountains, followed by another, in 1977 in Dhofar. ! Three conservation projects were undertaken, with the sup- port of the WWF and IUCN, which

  6. Detection of land-use and land cover changes in Franklin, Gulf, and Liberty Counties, Florida, with multitemporal landsat thematic mapper images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufen Pan; Guiying Li

    2007-01-01

    Florida Panhandle region has been experiencing rapid land transformation in the recent decades. To quantify land use and land-cover (LULC) changes and other landscape changes in this area, three counties including Franklin, Liberty and Gulf were taken as a case study and an unsupervised classification approach implemented to Landsat TM images acquired from 1985 to 2005...

  7. Advances in global mountain geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaymaker, Olav; Embleton-Hamann, Christine

    2018-05-01

    Three themes in global mountain geomorphology have been defined and reinforced over the past decade: (a) new ways of measuring, sensing, and analyzing mountain morphology; (b) a new emphasis on disconnectivity in mountain geomorphology; and (c) the emergence of concerns about the increasing influence of anthropogenic disturbance of the mountain geomorphic environment, especially in intertropical mountains where population densities are higher than in any other mountain region. Anthropogenically induced hydroclimate change increases geomorphic hazards and risks but also provides new opportunities for mountain landscape enhancement. Each theme is considered with respect to the distinctiveness of mountain geomorphology and in relation to important advances in research over the past decade. The traditional reliance on the high energy condition to define mountain geomorphology seems less important than the presence of unique mountain landforms and landscapes and the distinctive ways in which human activity and anthropogenically induced hydroclimate change are transforming mountain landscapes.

  8. Yucca Mountain digital database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudt, C.R.; Hinze, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Yucca Mountain Digital Database (DDB) which is a digital, PC-based geographical database of geoscience-related characteristics of the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository site of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It was created to provide the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) and its staff with a visual perspective of geological, geophysical, and hydrological features at the Yucca Mountain site as discussed in the Department of Energy's (DOE) pre-licensing reports

  9. Seasonal dynamics of bacterial biomass and production in a coastal arctic ecosystem: Franklin Bay, western Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Marie-Ã. Ve; Roy, SéBastien; Lovejoy, Connie; Gratton, Yves; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2008-07-01

    The Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES) included the overwintering deployment of a research platform in Franklin Bay (70°N, 126°W) and provided a unique seasonal record of bacterial dynamics in a coastal region of the Arctic Ocean. Our objectives were (1) to relate seasonal bacterial abundance (BA) and production (BP) to physico-chemical characteristics and (2) to quantify the annual bacterial carbon flux. BA was estimated by epifluorescence microscopy and BP was estimated from 3H-leucine and 3H-thymidine assays. Mean BA values for the water column ranged from 1.0 (December) to 6.8 × 105 cells mL-1 (July). Integral BP varied from 1 (February) to 80 mg C m-2 d-1 (July). During winter-spring, BP was uncorrelated with chlorophyll a (Chl a), but these variables were significantly correlated during summer-autumn (rs = 0.68, p winter, late winter-late spring, and summer. A baseline level of BB and BP was maintained throughout late winter-late spring despite the persistent cold and darkness, with irregular fluctuations that may be related to hydrodynamic events. During this period, BP rates were correlated with colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) but not Chl a (rs BP.CDOM∣Chl a = 0.20, p < 0.05, N = 176). Annual BP was estimated as 6 g C m-2 a-1, implying a total BP of 4.8 × 1010 g C a-1 for the Franklin Bay region. These results show that bacterial processes continue throughout all seasons and make a large contribution to the total biological carbon flux in this coastal arctic ecosystem.

  10. Dust emission at Franklin Lake Playa, Mojave Desert (USA): Response to meteorological and hydrologic changes 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Bogle, Rian; Vogel, John; Goldstein, Harland L.; Yount, James

    2009-01-01

    Playa type, size, and setting; playa hydrology; and surface-sediment characteristics are important controls on the type and amount of atmospheric dust emitted from playas. Soft, evaporite-rich sediment develops on the surfaces of some Mojave Desert (USA) playas (wet playas), where the water table is shallow (monitored between March 2005 and April 2008. The dust record, based on day-time remote digital camera images captured during high wind, and compared with a nearby precipitation record, shows that aridity suppresses dust emission. High frequency of dust generation appears to be associated with relatively wet periods, identified as either heavy precipitation events or sustained regional precipitation over a few months. Several factors may act separately or in combination to account for this relation. Dust emission may respond rapidly to heavy precipitation when the dissolution of hard, wind-resistant evaporite mineral crusts is followed by the development of soft surfaces with thin, newly formed crusts that are vulnerable to wind erosion and (or) the production of loose aggregates of evaporite minerals that are quickly removed by even moderate winds. Dust loading may also increase when relatively high regional precipitation leads to decreasing depth to the water table, thereby increasing rates of vapor discharge, development of evaporite minerals, and temporary softening of playa surfaces. The seasonality of wind strength was not a major factor in dust-storm frequency at the playa. The lack of major dust emissions related to flood-derived sediment at Franklin Lake playa contrasts with some dry-lake systems elsewhere that may produce large amounts of dust from flood sediments. Flood sediments do not commonly accumulate on the surface of Franklin Lake playa because through-going drainage prevents frequent inundation and deposition of widespread flood sediment.

  11. A fossil subduction zone in the East Greenland Caledonides revealed by a Receiver Function analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Jacobsen, B. H.; Balling, N.

    Subsequent to their formation the East Greenland and Scandinavian Caledonides formed a major coherent mountain range. The understanding of the European Caledonides therefore naturally involves also the East Greenland Caledonides. The present-day topography and crustal and upper mantle structure i...

  12. Education and Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamont, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines a middle school social studies curriculum taught in Nevada. The curriculum was designed to educate students about issues related to the Yucca Mountain project. The paper focuses on the activities used in the curriculum

  13. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect.

  14. Landforms of High Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Landforms of High Mountains. By Alexander Stahr and Ewald Langenscheidt. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015. viii + 158 pp. US$ 129.99. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-53714-1.

  15. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Acute mountain sickness URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  16. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  17. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  18. Geophysical Characterization of the Quaternary-Cretaceous Contact Using Surface Resistivity Methods in Franklin and Webster Counties, South-Central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeple, Andrew; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2009-01-01

    To help manage and understand the Platte River system in Nebraska, the Platte River Cooperative Hydrology Study (COHYST), a group of state and local governmental agencies, developed a regional ground-water model. The southern boundary of this model lies along the Republican River, where an area with insufficient geologic data immediately north of the Republican River led to problems in the conceptualization of the simulated flow system and to potential problems with calibration of the simulation. Geologic descriptions from a group of test holes drilled in south-central Nebraska during 2001 and 2002 indicated a possible hydrologic disconnection between the Quaternary-age alluvial deposits in the uplands and those in the Republican River lowland. This disconnection was observed near a topographic high in the Cretaceous-age Niobrara Formation, which is the local bedrock. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the COHYST, collected surface geophysical data near these test holes to better define this discontinuity. Two-dimensional imaging methods for direct-current resistivity and capacitively coupled resistivity were used to define the subsurface distribution of resistivity along several county roads near Riverton and Inavale, Nebraska. The relation between the subsurface distribution of resistivity and geology was defined by comparing existing geologic descriptions of test holes to surface-geophysical resistivity data along two profiles and using the information gained from these comparisons to interpret the remaining four profiles. In all of the resistivity profile sections, there was generally a three-layer subsurface interpretation, with a resistor located between two conductors. Further comparison of geologic data with the geophysical data and with surficial features was used to identify a topographic high in the Niobrara Formation near the Franklin Canal which was coincident with a resistivity high. Electrical properties of the Niobrara

  19. Geology of the Saddle Mountains between Sentinel Gap and 119030' longitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.

    1978-09-01

    Members and flows of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group were mapped in the Saddle Mountains between Sentinel Gap and the eastern edge of Smyrna Bench. The Grande Ronde Basalt consists of the Schwana (low-MgO) and Sentinel Bluffs (high-MgO) members (informal names). The Wanapum Basalt consists of the aphyric and phyric units of the Frenchman Springs Member, the Roza-Like Member, and the Priest Rapids Member. The Saddle Mountains Basalt consists of the Wahluke, Huntzinger, Pomona, Mattawa, and Elephant Mountain basalts. The Wanapum and Saddle Mountains basalts are unevenly distributed across the Saddle Mountains. The Wanapum Basalt thins from south to north and across a northwest-southeast-trending axis at the west end of Smyrna Bench. The Priest Rapids, Roza-Like, and aphyric Frenchman Springs units are locally missing across this zone. The Saddle Mountains basalt has a more irregular distribution and, within an area between Sentinel Gap and Smyrna Bench, is devoid of the basalt. The Wahluke, Huntzinger, and Mattawa flows are locally present, but the Pomona is restricted to the southern flank west of Smyrna Bench, and the Elephant Mountain Basalt only occurs on the flanks and in three structurally controlled basins on the northwest side. The structure of the Saddle Mountains is dominated by an east-west trend and, to a lesser degree, controlled by a northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest trend. The geomorphological expression of the Saddle Mountains results from the east-west fold set and the Saddle Mountains fault along the north side. The oldest structures follow the northwest-southeast trend. The distribution of the flows, combined with the structural features, indicates a complex geologic history for the Saddel Mountains

  20. Upper mantle and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    The East Greenland and Scandinavian Caledonides once formed a major coherent mountain range, as a consequence of the collision of the continents of Laurentia and Baltica. The crustal and upper mantle structure was furthermore influenced by several geodynamic processes leading to the formation of ...

  1. MOUNTAIN NATURAL BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Tishkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High biodiversity and degree of endemism of mountain biota strengthen the mountain regions’ status for the territorial nature conservation. Analysis of the protected areas’ representativeness in various mountain regions of Russia shows some discrepancy between their quantity, square and regional biodiversity originality. The biggest divergences are marked for the Northern Caucasus. The main problems: small area of the protected territories and also cluster character of their spatial distribution, mostly in the high mountains are not supposed to conform with the highest values of the regional flora’s and fauna’s uniqueness, to compensate representativeness of the protected biota and, in anyway, to correspond with the purpose of nature protection frame—the protected territories ecologic network’s forming. The situation in the Urals, Siberia and the Far East seems to be better. The large areas of the protected territories are in general agreement with the high originality of the nature ecosystems. Nevertheless each concrete case needs analysis of the regional biota’s and ecosystems’ biodiversity distribution within the protected areas, including character and (or unique elements of the regional biodiversity to be held. The development of the effectual territorial conservation of mountain regions needs differential approach. The creation of the large representative parcels of nature landscapes in the key-areas has the considerable meaning in the low-developed regions, difficult to access. And well-developed regions have the necessity of nature protected territories’ network development and the planning of the ecological frame’s forming. The territorial biodiversity conservation, including the system of federal, regional and local levels with protective conservation of the rare species has to be combined with ecosystem’s restoration, especially in the zones disturbed by erosion, recreation and military actions. Also it is

  2. East African Cenozoic vegetation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    The modern vegetation of East Africa is a complex mosaic of rainforest patches; small islands of tropic-alpine vegetation; extensive savannas, ranging from almost pure grassland to wooded savannas; thickets; and montane grassland and forest. Here I trace the evolution of these vegetation types through the Cenozoic. Paleogene East Africa was most likely geomorphologically subdued and, as the few Eocene fossil sites suggest, a woodland in a seasonal climate. Woodland rather than rainforest may well have been the regional vegetation. Mountain building started with the Oligocene trap lava flows in Ethiopia, on which rainforest developed, with little evidence of grass and none of montane forests. The uplift of the East African Plateau took place during the middle Miocene. Fossil sites indicate the presence of rainforest, montane forest and thicket, and wooded grassland, often in close juxtaposition, from 17 to 10 Ma. By 10 Ma, marine deposits indicate extensive grassland in the region and isotope analysis indicates that this was a C 3 grassland. In the later Miocene rifting, first of the western Albertine Rift and then of the eastern Gregory Rift, added to the complexity of the environment. The building of the high strato-volcanos during the later Mio-Pliocene added environments suitable for tropic-alpine vegetation. During this time, the C 3 grassland was replaced by C 4 savannas, although overall the extent of grassland was reduced from the mid-Miocene high to the current low level. Lake-level fluctuations during the Quaternary indicate substantial variation in rainfall, presumably as a result of movements in the intertropical convergence zone and the Congo air boundary, but the impact of these fluctuations on the vegetation is still speculative. I argue that, overall, there was an increase in the complexity of East African vegetation complexity during the Neogene, largely as a result of orogeny. The impact of Quaternary climatic fluctuation is still poorly understood

  3. The Geologic Story of the Uinta Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1969-01-01

    The opening of the West after the Civil War greatly stimulated early geologic exploration west of the 100th Meridian. One of the areas first studied, the Uinta Mountains region, gained wide attention as a result of the explorations of three Territorial Surveys, one headed by John Wesley Powell, one by Clarence King, and one by Ferdinand V. Hayden. Completion of the Union Pacific Railroad across southern Wyoming 100 years ago, in 1869, materially assisted geologic exploration, and the railheads at Green River and Rock Springs greatly simplified the outfitting of expeditions into the mountains. The overlap of the Powell, King, and Hayden surveys in the Uinta Mountains led to efforts that were less concerted than competitive and not without acrimony. Many parts of the area were seen by all three parties at almost the same time. Duplication was inevitable, of course, but all three surveys contributed vast quantities of new knowledge to the storehouse of geology, and many now-basic concepts arose from their observations. Powell's area of interest extended mainly southward from the Uinta Mountains to the Grand Canyon, including the boundless plateaus and canyons of southern Utah and northern Arizona. King's survey extended eastward from the High Sierra in California to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and encompassed a swath of country more than 100 miles wide. Hayden's explorations covered an immense region of mountains and basins from Yellowstone Park in Wyoming southeast throughout most of Colorado. Powell first entered the Uinta Mountains in the fall of 1868, having traveled north around the east end of the range from the White River country to Green River, Wyoming, then south over a circuitous route to Flaming Gorge and Browns Park, and finally back to the White River, where he spent the winter. In 1869, after reexamining much of the area visited the previous season, Powell embarked on his famous 'first boat trip' down the Green and Colorado Rivers. This trip was more exploratory

  4. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 1996-05-07 to 1996-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0143942)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143942 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 1996-05-07 to 1996-05-31. These data include...

  5. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 1995-09-13 to 1995-10-14 (NCEI Accession 0143397)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143397 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 1995-09-13 to 1995-10-14 and retrieved during...

  6. Slingram survey at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanigan, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) data presented in this report is part of study by the US Geological Survey aimed at evaluating the Miocene and Pliocene Yucca Mountain Member of various units of the Paintbrush Tuff in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain as a possible repository for nuclear wastes. The survey area is located about 97 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada on the Nevada Test Site. Data contained in this report were taken along the eastern edge of Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of this survey was to determine with EM methods, whether or not northwest-trending valleys in the Yucca Mountain area were fault controlled. Fault and fracture zones in the tuff units were expected to have a somewhat higher conductivity than the unfractured tuff. This is due to the greater porosity, clay and moisture content expected in the fault zones than in unfaulted rock. Depending upon a number of factors, such as the conductivity contrast between fault zones and unfaulted rock, and the depth and conductivity of the overburden, it may be possible to recognize fault zones from surface EM measurements. Several EM methods were tested to determine which one gave the best results in this environment. The methods tried included slingram, Turam and VLF (very low frequency). Slingram data proved to be most diagnostic in delineating a mapped fault on the east edge of Yucca Mountain, and hence was used in the survey traverses crossing the northwest valleys cutting into Yucca Mountain

  7. Floristic study of Khargushan Mountain, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was plant identification, introduction to the flora, determination of life forms and geographical distribution in Khargushan Mountain. This Mountain, with 6000 hectares, situated on the east of Poldokhtar and south-west of Khorramabad. The maximum altitude of this mountain is thought 2329 m. Plant specimens were collected from different parts of the area during two growing seasons 2013-2014. The plant biological spectrum of the area was plotted by means of life forms results. The position of the area within Iran’s phytogeography classification was studied based on geographical distribution data and references. From 211 identified species in the studied area, 3 Pteridophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 176 dicotyledons and 31 monocotyledons were presented. These species belong to 50 families and 150 genera. The important families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae with 12.79%, 10.42%, 8.05% and 7.58%, respectively. Life forms of the plant species include Therophytes 36.49%, Hemicryptophytes 31.28%, Cryptophytes 18.96%, Phanerophytes 8.06%, and Chamaephytes 5.21%. 138 species (65.4% were endemics of Irano-Turanian region; 32 species of them were endemics of Iran which among them, distribution of 4 species (Astragalus lurorum, Dionysia gaubae, Hedysarum gypsophilum and Phlomis lurestanica limited to Lorestan province.

  8. Benjamin Franklin a Jay Gatsby: Srovnání amerických literárních hrdinů, kteří se vypracovali vlastní silou

    OpenAIRE

    Korejtková, Adéla

    2011-01-01

    The thesis focuses on Benjamin Franklin, as he is portrayed in his Autobiography, and Jay Gatsby, the protagonist of Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, who are connected not only by being self-made men. Firstly, they are both symbolical figures that made a powerful commentary on a period, on the country and on its core myth - the American Dream. Secondly, they are linked by Fitzgerald himself since his hero creates a schedule and a table of general resolves which clearly imitate Franklin's schedu...

  9. Death Valley Lower Carbonate Aquifer Monitoring Program Wells Down gradient of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inyo County

    2006-01-01

    Inyo County has participated in oversight activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository since 1987. The overall goal of these studies are the evaluation of far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, or radionuclides into Inyo County, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. In addition to the potential of radionuclide transport through the LCA, Czarnecki (1997), with the US Geological Survey, research indicate potential radionuclide transport through the shallower Tertiary-age aquifer materials with ultimate discharge into the Franklin Lake Playa in Inyo County. The specific purpose of this Cooperative Agreement drilling program was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: (1) establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin; (2) characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and (3) Evaluation the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA

  10. Comment on 'The equations for electronegative plasmas are not singular at the plasma centre at low pressures' by R N Franklin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, Martin; Manheimer, Wallace M; Fernsler, Richard F; Slinker, Steven P; Joyce, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Franklin's criticism (Franklin R N 2005 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38 2790) of our previous paper (Lampe M et al 2004 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 13 15-26) is based on three arguments: (1) that the limit of weak attachment is equivalent to low pressure, where our model is inappropriate; (2) that our use of the T n → 0 limit is inappropriate; (3) that the negative ion density n n is never singular at the centre. We point out that the weak attachment limit also corresponds (at high pressure) to low fraction of attaching gas, give conditions for the T n → 0 limit and discuss its consequences, and reiterate that we never argued that n n (0) is infinite, but rather discussed a quite different type of singularity. This correspondence is now closed. (comment)

  11. Mountain Biking Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Majid; Nourian, Ruhollah; Khodaee, Morteza

    With the increasing popularity of mountain biking, also known as off-road cycling, and the riders pushing the sport into extremes, there has been a corresponding increase in injury. Almost two thirds of acute injuries involve the upper extremities, and a similar proportion of overuse injuries affect the lower extremities. Mountain biking appears to be a high-risk sport for severe spine injuries. New trends of injury patterns are observed with popularity of mountain bike trail parks and freeride cycling. Using protective gear, improving technical proficiency, and physical fitness may somewhat decrease the risk of injuries. Simple modifications in bicycle-rider interface areas and with the bicycle (bike fit) also may decrease some overuse injuries. Bike fit provides the clinician with postural correction during the sport. In this review, we also discuss the importance of race-day management strategies and monitoring the injury trends.

  12. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  13. The White Mountain Recreational Enterprise: Bio-Political Foundations for White Mountain Apache Natural Resource Control, 1945–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Tomblin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Among American Indian nations, the White Mountain Apache Tribe has been at the forefront of a struggle to control natural resource management within reservation boundaries. In 1952, they developed the first comprehensive tribal natural resource management program, the White Mountain Recreational Enterprise (WMRE, which became a cornerstone for fighting legal battles over the tribe’s right to manage cultural and natural resources on the reservation for the benefit of the tribal community rather than outside interests. This article examines how White Mountain Apaches used the WMRE, while embracing both Euro-American and Apache traditions, as an institutional foundation for resistance and exchange with Euro-American society so as to reassert control over tribal eco-cultural resources in east-central Arizona.

  14. MISR Views the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image, generated using 16 orbits of MISR data collected between August 16 and August 30, 2000, takes us to the cradle of many civilizations. The data are from the 60-degree aftward-viewing camera. Because the individual orbit swaths are only 400 kilometers wide, they were 'mosaiced' together to form this composite picture, which covers about 2700 kilometers from west to east and 1750 kilometers from north to south. A few discontinuities are present in the mosaic, particularly near clouds, due to changes in the scene which occurred between dates when the individual orbit data were acquired.At the northern tip of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba frame the sandy deserts and spectacular mountains of the Sinai Peninsula. The highest peaks are Gebel Katherina (Mountain of St. Catherine, 2637 meters) and Gebel Musa (Mountain of Moses, also known as Mount Sinai, 2285 meters). To the northeast, Israel and Jordan flank the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern edge is Qumran, where the ancient Scrolls were discovered; the city of Jerusalem lies about 30 kilometers to the west.Several large rivers are prominent. Flowing southeastward through Iraq are the Tigris and Euphrates. The dark area between the two rivers, northwest of the Persian Gulf, is a very fertile region where fishing and farming are prevalent. Wending its way through eastern Egypt is the Nile. In the south is Lake Nasser and the Aswan Dam; continuing northward the Nile passes the Temple of Luxor as it sharply loops to the east. It then turns west and northward, eventually passing the capital city of Cairo, and finally spreading into a prominent delta as it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The bright dot just west of the apex of the delta marks the location of the great Pyramids and Sphinx complexes on the Giza Plateau. On the coast, west of the delta, is the ancient city of Alexandria, Egypt's main seaport.'MISR', as it turns out, is the

  15. From the central Jura mountains to the molasse basin (France and Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommaruga, A. [Institut de Géophysique, University of Lausanne, Bâtiment Amphipôle, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    This illustrated article discusses the geology of the area covering the Swiss Jura chain of mountains and the molasse basin which is to be found to the south-east of the mountain chain. The geological setting with the Jura Mountains and the molasse basin are described, as are the rocks to be found there. Their structures and faults are discussed in detail and their origin and formation are described. The paper presents a number of geological profiles and maps. The methods used to explore these structures are noted, which also indicated the presence of permo-carboniferous troughs in the molasse basin.

  16. From the central Jura mountains to the molasse basin (France and Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommaruga, A.

    2011-01-01

    This illustrated article discusses the geology of the area covering the Swiss Jura chain of mountains and the molasse basin which is to be found to the south-east of the mountain chain. The geological setting with the Jura Mountains and the molasse basin are described, as are the rocks to be found there. Their structures and faults are discussed in detail and their origin and formation are described. The paper presents a number of geological profiles and maps. The methods used to explore these structures are noted, which also indicated the presence of permo-carboniferous troughs in the molasse basin

  17. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  18. Injuries in mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulrapp, H; Weber, A; Rosemeyer, B

    2001-01-01

    Despite still growing attraction mountain biking as a matter of sports traumatology still lacks relevant data based on large cross-sectional surveys. To obtain an overview of risk factors, types, and main body sites of injuries occurring in mountain biking we assessed the results of a questionnaire answered by 3873 athletes. A total of 8133 single lesions were reported by 3474 athletes, 36% of whom regularly participated in competitions. The incidence of injuries in mountain biking is comparable to that in other outdoor sports, the majority of injuries being minor. Mountain biking athletes were found to have an overall injury risk rate of 0.6% per year and 1 injury per 1000 h of biking. The main risk factors included slippery road surface, cyclist's poor judgement of the situation, and excessive speed, representing personal factors that could be altered by preventive measures. Of all injuries 14% were due to collision with some part of the bike, especially the pedals and the handlebar. While 75% of the injuries were minor, such as skin wounds and simple contusions, 10% were so severe that hospitalization was required. A breakdown of the injuries according to body site and frequency of occurrence is presented.

  19. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  20. Rocky Mountain High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  1. Glacial erosion, rock, and peak uplift within the central Transantarctic Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, T.A.; Baxter, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    About 1500 m of peak elevation can be ascribed to the isostatic response of valley incision within the central Transantarctic Mountains. This estimate, based on a 3D analysis of topography, and on rock uplift history, represents c. 33% of the maximum peak elevation within the Transantarctic Mountains. Input to the calculation includes a previoulsy published estimate for the variation of flexural rigidity across the western margin of East Antarctica, and a lithospheric free-edge at the Transantarctic Mountains Front. The rebound response is a complex function of lithospheric rigidity, wavelength or erosion, and lithospheric boundary conditions. We also calculate a maximum 4000 m of total rebound due to both valley incision and erosion of mountain tops. This represents 60% of the maximum rock uplift inferred for the mountain front on the bases of fission track data and flexure analysis. (author). 34 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Mountains: top down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodwell, George M

    2004-11-01

    Mountainous regions offer not only essential habitat and resources, including water, to the earth's more than 6 billion inhabitants, but also insights into how the global human habitat works, how it is being changed at the moment as global climates are disrupted, and how the disruption may lead to global biotic and economic impoverishment. At least 600 million of the earth's more than 6 billion humans dwell in mountainous regions. Such regions feed water into all the major rivers of the world whose valleys support most of the rest of us. At least half of the valley dwellers receive part or all of their water from montane sources, many from the melt water of glaciers, others from the annual snow melt. Glaciers are retreating globally as the earth warms as a result of human-caused changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Many are disappearing, a change that threatens municipal water supplies virtually globally. The warming is greatest in the higher latitudes where the largest glaciers such as those of Greenland and the Antarctic Continent have become vulnerable. The melting of ice in the northern hemisphere raises serious concerns about the continued flow of the Gulf Stream and the possibility of massive climatic changes in Scandinavia and northern Europe. Mountains are also biotic islands in the sea life, rich in endemism at the ecotype level. The systematic warming of the earth changes the environment out from under these genetically specialized strains (ecotypes) which are then maladapted and vulnerable to diseases of all types. The process is systematic impoverishment in the pattern conspicuous on mountain slopes with increasing exposure to climatic extremes. It is seen now in the increased mortality and morbidity of plants as climatic changes accumulate. The seriousness of the global climatic disruption is especially clear in any consideration of mountains. It can and must be addressed constructively despite the adamancy of the current US administration.

  3. Does localized recharge occur at a discharge area within the ground-water flow system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Kroitoru, L.; Ronen, D.; Magaritz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies done in 1984, at a central site on Franklin Lake playa (also known as Alkali Flat, a major discharge area of the ground-water flow system that includes Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository) yield limited hydraulic-head and hydrochemical data from a 3-piezometer nest which indicated a slightly downward hydraulic gradient (-0.02) and decreasing concentration of dissolved solids with increasing depth. Hydraulic-head measurements in June, 1989 made at the piezometer nest showed a substantially larger downward gradient (-0.10) and a 0. 83-meter higher water level in the shallowest piezometer (3.29 meters deep), indicating the possibility of localized recharge. during the period of September-November, 1989, a multilevel sampler was used to obtain detailed hydrochemical profiles of the uppermost 1. 5 m of the saturated zone

  4. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  5. Stream capture to form Red Pass, northern Soda Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Red Pass, a narrow cut through the Soda Mountains important for prehistoric and early historic travelers, is quite young geologically. Its history of downcutting to capture streams west of the Soda Mountains, thereby draining much of eastern Fort Irwin, is told by the contrast in alluvial fan sediments on either side of the pass. Old alluvial fan deposits (>500 ka) were shed westward off an intact ridge of the Soda Mountains but by middle Pleistocene time, intermediate-age alluvial fan deposits (~100 ka) were laid down by streams flowing east through the pass into Silurian Valley. The pass was probably formed by stream capture driven by high levels of groundwater on the west side. This is evidenced by widespread wetland deposits west of the Soda Mountains. Sapping and spring discharge into Silurian Valley over millennia formed a low divide in the mountains that eventually was overtopped and incised by a stream. Lessons include the importance of groundwater levels for stream capture and the relatively youthful appearance of this ~100-200 ka feature in the slowly changing Mojave Desert landscape.

  6. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-01-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited

  7. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, R.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited.

  8. Numerical studies of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B.; Amter, S.; Lu, Ning [Disposal Safety, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    A computer model (TGIF -- Thermal Gradient Induced Flow) of two-dimensional, steady-state rock-gas flow driven by temperature and humidity differences is described. The model solves for the ``fresh-water head,`` a concept that has been used in models of variable-density water flow but has not previously been applied to gas flow. With this approach, the model can accurately simulate the flows driven by small differences in temperature. The unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being studied as a potential site for a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Using the TGIF model, preliminary calculations of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain are made for four east-west cross-sections through the mountain. Calculations are made for three repository temperatures and for several assumptions about a possible semi-confining layer above the repository. The gas-flow simulations are then used to calculate travel-time distributions for air and for radioactive carbon-14 dioxide from the repository to the ground surface.

  9. Triaxial-compression extraction of pore water from unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, I.C.; Turner, A.K.; Sayre, T.M.; Montazer, P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to design and validate methods for extracting uncontaminated pore water from nonwelded parts of this tuff. Pore water is needed for chemical analysis to help characterize the local hydrologic system. A standard Hoek-Franklin triaxial cell was modified to create a chemically inert pore-water-extraction system. Experimentation was designed to determine the optimum stress and duration of triaxial compression for efficient extraction of uncontaminated pore water. Experimental stress paths consisted of a series of increasing stress levels. Trial axial stress levels ranged from 41 to 190 megapascals with lateral confining stresses of 34 to 69 megapascals. The duration of compression at any given stress level lasted from 10 minutes to 15 hours. A total of 40 experimental extraction trials were made. Tuff samples used in these tests were collected from drill-hole core from the Paintbrush nonwelded unit at Yucca Mountain. Pore water was extracted from tuff samples that had a water content greater than 13 percent by weight. Two stress paths have been determined to be applicable for future pore-water extraction from nonwelded tuff at Yucca Mountain. The initial water content of a sample affects the selection of an appropriate period of compression. 39 refs., 55 figs

  10. DOE's Yucca Mountain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States. It is for readers who have a general rather than a technical background. It discusses why scientists and engineers thinkhigh-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. It also describes why Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being studied as a potential repository site and provides basic information about those studies

  11. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ''holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state

  12. ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most likely pathophysiological causes of the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS, also known as altitude sickness, its pulmonary form i.e. high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE, and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE. These diseases constitute extraordinary environmental hazards because they are directly connected with low atmospheric pressure, and thus low partial oxygen pressure. The above adverse atmospheric conditions start to affect humans already at an altitude of 2,500 meters above the sea level and, coupled with extreme physical exertion, can quickly lead to respiratory alkalosis, which is not present under any other conditions in the lowlands. Mountaineering above 4,500 m a.s.l. leads to hypoxia of internal organs and, primarily, reduced renal perfusion with all its consequences. The above adverse changes, combined with inadequate acclimatization, can lead to a situation of imminent danger to life and health. This paper describes in detail the consequences of acute mountain sickness, which can ultimately lead to the development of AMS and one of severe forms of HACE and/or HAPE.

  13. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  14. Investigating potential effects of heli-skiing on golden eagles in the Wasatch Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; David K. Delaney; William W. Bowerman

    2007-01-01

    Implementing further research was beyond the scope of the U.S. Forest Service's 2004 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and 2005 Wasatch Powderbird Guides (WPG) Special Use Permit Renewal process for heli-skiing in the Tri-Canyon Area in the Wasatch Mountains, just east of Salt Lake City, Utah. However, in their Record of Decision the Wasaatch-Cache (WCNF...

  15. Lo camí de la fortuna i En Ricard Pobre : les dues versions catalanes de The Way to Wealth, de Benjamin Franklin

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarte i Ballester, Xus

    2014-01-01

    Aquest treball s’emmarca dins les investigacions del grup de recerca consolidat Textos Literaris Contemporanis: Estudi, Edició i Traducció (2009 SGR 736) de la Universitat de Vic. El propòsit d’aquest article és analitzar les dues traduccions catalanes del llibret de Benjamin Franklin The Way to Wealth (1758). Aquest text, que ha deixat una empremta important en l’imaginari de la societat nord-americana, conté més de cent aforismes que insten al treball honrat, a l’estalvi i a la frugalita...

  16. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  17. "Christ is the Mountain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hallencreutz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author focuses on the religious function of symbols in the encounter and interaction of Christianity and other religions. Some observations on the religious function of the symbol of the Holy Mountain in different African contexts are presented. These contexts are a traditional Kikuyu religion, b a Christian hymn from Northern Tanzania, and c the New Year's Fiest of the independent Nazaretha Church among Zulu in South Africa. The examples of how the symbol of the holy mountain is used in different religious contexts in Africa are, of course, too limited to provide a basis for far-reaching generalizations on how symbols function religiously in the encounter of Christianity and other religions. However, this kind of analysis can be applied also when studying other encounters of religions inside and outside Africa. The symbol functions both as a carrier of a new religious message and as an indigenous means to appropriate this message locally and give it adequate form in different milieus. The symbols, which most likely have the religious functions are those which are of a general nature; light, way, living water, and which some are tempted to speak of as archetypes. Yet the comparison between the Chagga-hymn to the holy mountain and Shembe's interpretation of the blessing of the New Year's Fiest on Inhlangakozi indicates, that in the encounter of Christianity and other religions it is not only the symbols as such which produce the local appropriation of the new religious message and give it adequate localized form. Not even in the encounter of Christianity and other religions the symbols function religiously without human beings as actors in the historical process.

  18. Mountains, glaciers, and mines—The geological story of the Blue River valley, Colorado, and its surrounding mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl; Bryant, Bruce; Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-02-10

    This report describes, in a nontechnical style, the geologic history and mining activity in the Blue River region of Colorado, which includes all of Summit County. The geologic story begins with the formation of ancient basement rocks, as old as about 1700 million years, and continues with the deposition of sedimentary rocks on a vast erosional surface beginning in the Cambrian Period (about 530 million years ago). This deposition was interrupted by uplift of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains during the late Paleozoic Era (about 300 million years ago). The present Rocky Mountains began to rise at the close of the Mesozoic Era (about 65 million years ago). A few tens of millions years ago, rifting began to form the Blue River valley; a major fault along the east side of the Gore Range dropped the east side down, forming the present valley. The valley once was filled by sediments and volcanic rocks that are now largely eroded. During the last few hundred-thousand years, at least two periods of glaciation sculpted the mountains bordering the valley and glaciers extended down the Blue River valley as far south as present Dillon Reservoir. Discovery of deposits of gold, silver, copper, and zinc in the late 1800s, particularly in the Breckenridge region, brought an influx of early settlers. The world-class molybdenum deposit at Climax, mined since the First World War, reopened in 2012 after a period of closure.

  19. Respiratory disease, behavior, and survival of mountain goat kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Anderson, Christopher A.; Clark, Nicholas J.; Klaver, Robert W.; Plummer, Paul J.; Cox, Mike; Mcadoo, Caleb; Wolff, Peregrine L.

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a threat to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. Bighorn sheep in the East Humboldt Mountain Range (EHR), Nevada, USA, experienced a pneumonia epizootic in 2009–2010. Testing of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) that were captured or found dead on this range during and after the epizootic detected bacteria commonly associated with bighorn sheep pneumonia die‐offs. Additionally, in years subsequent to the bighorn sheep epizootic, the mountain goat population had low kid:adult ratios, a common outcome for bighorn sheep populations that have experienced a pneumonia epizootic. We hypothesized that pneumonia was present and negatively affecting mountain goat kids in the EHR. From June–August 2013–2015, we attempted to observe mountain goat kids with marked adult females in the EHR at least once per week to document signs of respiratory disease; identify associations between respiratory disease, activity levels, and subsequent disappearance (i.e., death); and estimate weekly survival. Each time we observed a kid with a marked adult female, we recorded any signs of respiratory disease and collected behavior data that we fit to a 3‐state discrete hidden Markov model (HMM) to predict a kid's state (active vs. sedentary) and its probability of disappearing. We first observed clinical signs of respiratory disease in kids in late July–early August each summer. We observed 8 of 31 kids with marked adult females with signs of respiratory disease on 13 occasions. On 11 of these occasions, the HMM predicted that kids were in the sedentary state, which was associated with increased probability of subsequent death. We estimated overall probability of kid survival from June–August to be 0.19 (95% CI = 0.08–0.38), which was lower than has been reported in other mountain goat populations. We concluded that respiratory disease was present in the mountain goat kids in the EHR and negatively affected their activity levels and survival

  20. The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulos, Gregory Steve [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.

  1. Cosine components in water levels at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, J.; Lehman, L.; Keen, K.

    1990-01-01

    Water-level records from wells at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are analyzed periodically to determine if they contain periodic (cosine) components. Water-level data from selected wells are input to an iterative numerical procedure that determines a best fitting cosine function. The available water-level data, with coverage of up to 5 years, appear to be representative of the natural water-level changes. From our analysis of 9 water-level records, it appears that there may be periodic components (periods of 2-3 years) in the groundwater-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, although some records are fit better than others by cosine functions. It also appears that the periodic behavior has a spatial distribution. Wells west of Yucca Mountain have different periods and phase shifts from wells on and east of Yucca Mountain. Interestingly, a similar spatial distribution of groundwater chemistry at Yucca Mountain is reported by Matuska (1988). This suggests a physical cause may underlie the different physical and chemical groundwater conditions. Although a variety of natural processes could cause water-level fluctuations, hydrologic processes are the most likely, because the periodicities are only a few years. A possible cause could be periodic recharge related to a periodicity in precipitation. It is interesting that Cochran et al., (1988), show a crude two-year cycle of precipitation for 1961 to 1970 in southern Nevada. Why periods and phase shifts may differ across Yucca Mountain is unknown. Different phase shifts could indicate different lag times of response to hydrologic stimuli. Difference in periods could mean that the geologic media is heterogeneous and displays heterogeneous response to a single stimulus, or that stimuli differ in certain regions, or that a hydraulic barrier separates the groundwater system into two regions having different water chemistry and recharge areas. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  3. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring...

  4. East Plays West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    A chamber ensemble fuses traditional Chinese instruments,with modern,Western compositions The ethereal, haunting sounds of Chinese traditional music can instantly transport a person to placid mountain lakes or back in time

  5. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  6. SP mountain data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  7. Plant biodiversity patterns on Helan Mountain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Kang, Muyi; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Guangcai

    2007-09-01

    A case study was conducted to mountainous ecosystems in the east side of Helan Mountain, located in the transitional zone between steppe and desert regions of China, aiming to reveal the influences of four environmental factors on features of plant biodiversity—the spatial pattern of vegetation types, and the variation of α- and β-diversities in vegetation and flora. Field surveys on vegetation and flora and on environmental factors were conducted, and those field data were analyzed through CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and through Shannon-Weiner index for α-diversity and Sørensen index for β-diversity. The preliminary results are: (1) Ranked in terms of their impacts on spatial patterns of plant biodiversity, the four selected environmental factors would be: elevation > location > slope > exposure. (2) The variation of Shannon-Weiner index along the altitudinal gradient is similar to that of species amount within altitudinal belts spanning 200 m each, which suggests a unimodal relationship between the species richness and the environmental condition with regards to altitudinal factors. Both the Shannon-Weiner index and the species richness within each altitudinal belt reach their maximum at elevation range from about 1700 to 2000 m a.s.l. (3) The altitudinal extent with the highest Shannon-Weiner index is identical to the range, where both the deciduous broad-leaved forest, and the temperate evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest distribute. The altitudinal range from 1700 to 2200 m a.s.l. is the sector with both high level of species richness and diversified vegetation types. (4) The variation of β-diversity along the altitude is consistent with the vegetation vertical zones. According to the Sørensen index between each pair of altitudinal belts, the transition of vegetation spectrum from one zone to another, as from the base horizontal zone, the desert steppe, to the first vertical zone, the mountain open forest and

  8. The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

    Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

  9. Bathymetric and sediment facies maps for China Bend and Marcus Flats, Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Washington, 2008 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Williams, Marshall L.; Barton, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created bathymetric and sediment facies maps for portions of two reaches of Lake Roosevelt in support of an interdisciplinary study of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and their habitat areas within Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Washington. In October 2008, scientists from the USGS used a boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder (MBES) to describe bathymetric data to characterize surface relief at China Bend and Marcus Flats, between Northport and Kettle Falls, Washington. In March 2009, an underwater video camera was used to view and record sediment facies that were then characterized by sediment type, grain size, and areas of sand deposition. Smelter slag has been identified as having the characteristics of sand-sized black particles; the two non-invasive surveys attempted to identify areas containing black-colored particulate matter that may be elements and minerals, organic material, or slag. The white sturgeon population in Lake Roosevelt is threatened by the failure of natural recruitment, resulting in a native population that consists primarily of aging fish and that is gradually declining as fish die and are not replaced by nonhatchery reared juvenile fish. These fish spawn and rear in the riverine and upper reservoir reaches where smelter slag is present in the sediment of the river lake bed. Effects of slag on the white sturgeon population in Lake Roosevelt are largely unknown. Two recent studies demonstrated that copper and other metals are mobilized from slag in aqueous environments with concentrations of copper and zinc in bed sediments reaching levels of 10,000 and 30,000 mg/kg due to the presence of smelter slag. Copper was found to be highly toxic to 30-day-old white sturgeon with 96-h LC50 concentrations ranging from 3 to 5 (u or mu)g copper per liter. Older juvenile and adult sturgeons commonly ingest substantial amounts of sediment while foraging. Future study efforts in Lake Roosevelt should include sampling of

  10. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet

  11. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Won, Yong-Jin; Simons, Andrew M

    2017-07-01

    The Taebaek Mountains in Korea serve as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in 2 distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are 5 rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) Rivers since the Late Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (Late Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong Rivers, but also between the Osip and Han Rivers. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Implications of seismic reflection and potential field geophysical data on the structural framework of the Yucca Mountain--Crater Flat region, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocher, T.M.; Langenheim, V.E.; Hunter, W.C.

    1998-01-01

    Seismic reflection and gravity profiles collected across Yucca Mountain, Nevada, together with geologic data, provide evidence against proposed active detachment faults at shallow depth along the pre-Tertiary-Tertiary contact beneath this potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. The new geophysical data show that the inferred pre-Tertiary-Tertiary contact is offset by moderate-to-high-angle faults beneath Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and thus this shallow surface cannot represent an active detachment surface. The reflection lines reveal that the Amargosa Desert rift zone is an asymmetric half-graben having a maximum depth of about 4 km and a width of about 25 km. The east-dipping Bare Mountain fault that bounds this graben to the west can be traced by seismic reflection data to a depth of at least 3.5 km and possibly as deep as 6 km, with a constant dip of 64 degree ± 5 degree. Along the profile the transition from east- to west-dipping faults occurs at or just west of the Solitario Canyon fault, which bounds the western side of Yucca Mountain. The interaction at depth of these east- and west-dipping faults, having up to hundreds of meters offset, is not imaged by the seismic reflection profile. Understanding potential seismic hazards at Yucca Mountain requires knowledge of the subsurface geometry of the faults near Yucca Mountain, since earthquakes generally nucleate and release the greatest amount of their seismic energy at depth. The geophysical data indicate that many fault planes near the potential nuclear waste facility dip toward Yucca Mountain, including the Bare Mountain range-front fault and several west-dipping faults east of Yucca Mountain. Thus, earthquake ruptures along these faults would lie closer to Yucca Mountain than is often estimated from their surface locations and could therefore be more damaging

  13. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on ... research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special ... Analysis of survival patterns of TB‐HIV co‐infected patients in relation to ...

  14. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  15. Middle East - future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lior, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Facts concerning the basic features of Tlatelolco Treaty are discussed in comparison with the Middle East situation which is described as a special case. Countries in the Middle East should attain political, social and ideological maturity necessary for the adoption of negotiating strategies suitable for this particular region

  16. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  17. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper

  18. The Yucca Mountain tours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, N.F.; Champagne, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    In 1978, Mderthaner et al. observed that opposition to nuclear facilities was lowest near the facility. This suggested that opposition decreased as familiarity with the facility increased, with distance from the facility as an inverse measure of familiarity. In this paper, the authors analyze data from the literature supporting this hypothesis and examine a poll of 1200 public visitors to the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in March through June 1991. The tour poll and independent pools show that most Nevadans support the present scientific investigation of the site while opposing the repository. Among the visitors, support for the investigation increased from 66 to 90 percent, which we attribute to increased familiarity

  19. BASEMAP, FRANKLIN COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  20. FLOODPLAIN, FRANKLIN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. TERRAIN, FRANKLIN COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. FLOODPLAIN, franklin COUNTY, Kentucky

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  3. Rapid middle Miocene extension and unroofing of the southern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Howard, Keith A.; Fleck, Robert J.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Paleozoic rocks in the northern Ruby Mountains were metamorphosed during Mesozoic crustal shortening and Cenozoic magmatism, but equivalent strata in the southern Ruby Mountains were never buried deeper than stratigraphic depths prior to exhumation in the footwall of a west dipping brittle normal fault. In the southern Ruby Mountains, Miocene sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of this fault date from 15.2 to 11.6 Ma and contain abundant detritus from the Paleozoic section. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He samples of the Eocene Harrison Pass pluton record rapid cooling that peaked ca. 17–15 Ma, while apatite fission track data from Jurassic plutons east and west of the southern Ruby Mountains indicate near-surface temperatures (pluton to be partially reset rather than to directly record fault slip. Our new data, together with published data on the distribution and composition of Miocene basin fill, suggest that rapid middle Miocene slip took place on the west dipping brittle detachment that bounds the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range for 150 km along strike. This fault was thus active during a period of rapid extension (ca. 17–15 to 12–10 Ma) documented widely across the northern Basin and Range Province.

  4. Influence of latitude on the US great plains East-West precipitation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation varies greatly from east to west across the US Great Plains as a result of a combination of the rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains and the moisture flow from the Gulf of Mexico. Because of this precipitation gradient, application of research results obtained in one location to other lo...

  5. Trace element geochemistry and surface water chemistry of the Bon Air coal, Franklin County, Cumberland Plateau, southeast Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, S.A.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; McLamb, E.D.; Kuers, K.

    2006-01-01

    Mean contents of trace elements and ash in channel, bench-column, and dump samples of the abandoned Bon Air coal (Lower Pennsylvanian) in Franklin County, Tennessee are similar to Appalachian COALQUAL mean values, but are slightly lower for As, Fe, Hg, Mn, Na, Th, and U, and slightly higher for ash, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, REEs, Sr, and V, at the 95% confidence level. Compared to channel samples, dump sample means are slightly lower in chalcophile elements (As, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, and V) and slightly higher in clay or heavy-mineral elements (Al, K, Mn, REEs, Th, Ti, U, and Y), but at the 95% confidence level, only As and Fe are different. Consistent abundances of clay or heavy-mineral elements in low-Br, high-S, high-ash benches that are relatively enriched in quartz and mire-to-levee species like Paralycopodites suggest trace elements are largely fluvial in origin. Factor analysis loadings and correlation coefficients between elements suggest that clays host most Al, Cr, K, Ti, and Th, significant Mn and V, and some Sc, U, Ba, and Ni. Heavy accessory minerals likely house most REEs and Y, lesser Sc, U, and Th, and minor Cr, Ni, and Ti. Pyrite appears to host As, some V and Ni, and perhaps some Cu, but Cu probably exists largely as chalcopyrite. Data suggest that organic debris houses most Be and some Ni and U, and that Pb and Sb occur as Pb-Sb sulfosalt(s) within organic matrix. Most Hg, and some Mn and Y, appear to be hosted by calcite, suggesting potential Hg remobilization from original pyrite, and Hg sorption by calcite, which may be important processes in abandoned coals. Most Co, Zn, Mo, and Cd, significant V and Ni, and some Mn probably occur in non-pyritic sulfides; Ba, Sr, and P are largely in crandallite-group phosphates. Selenium does not show organic or "clausthalite" affinities, but Se occurrence is otherwise unclear. Barium, Mn, Ni, Sc, U, and V, with strongly divided statistical affinities, likely occur subequally in multiple modes. For study area

  6. Les premières années de la diplomatie états-unienne : l’influence décisive de Benjamin Franklin à Paris (1776-1778

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lerat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’appuie sur les recherches de ces dernières décennies pour faire le point sur ce que fut le rôle de Franklin en tant que père fondateur de la diplomatie américaine. Mettre l’accent sur la première partie de la mission de Franklin en France, se concluant par les traités de commerce et d’amitié et d’alliance politique avec la France (6 février 1778, permet de mieux mesurer comment Franklin sut d’emblée relever les défis auxquels il était confronté et aussi faire preuve de souplesse dans son positionnement par rapport aux attentes françaises. Son principal atout fut d’être doté de ce qui manquait tellement aux autres émissaires américains avec lesquels il ne tarda pas à se trouver en rivalité. Alliant charme personnel à un art inné de la communication et… de la manipulation, Franklin se verra aisément reconnu comme principal interlocuteur par une Cour dont il saura vaincre les réticences bien compréhensibles et obtenir qu’elle devienne l’alliée d’une jeune république, événement dont l’importance devait s’avérer décisive.This paper relies on scholarship produced over the last decades to take stock of the role of Benjamin Franklin as founding father of American diplomacy. Focusing on the first part of Franklin’s mission to France–which leads us to the signing of the treaties of amity and commerce and of political alliance with France (February 6, 1778, enables one to assess how Franklin soon succeeded in meeting the challenges he was confronted with and also in showing flexibility in his reactions to French expectations. His main asset certainly lay in his being able to capitalize on what the other American emissaries were so cruelly deprived of, to the point of becoming the latter’s rival. Blending personal charm with an inborn talent for communication and… manipulation, Franklin easily managed recognition as the main negotiating partner of a Court whose understandable

  7. Effects of variations in flow characteristics through W.P. Franklin Lock and Dam on downstream water quality in the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and in McIntyre Creek in the J.N. “Ding” Darling National Wildlife Refuge, southern Florida, 2010–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amanda C.; Soderqvist, Lars E.; Knight, Travis M.

    2016-05-17

    The U.S. Geological Survey studied water-quality trends at the mouth of McIntyre Creek, an entry point to the J.N. “Ding” Darling National Wildlife Refuge, to investigate correlations between flow rates and volumes through the W.P. Franklin Lock and Dam and water-quality constituents inside the refuge from March 2010 to December 2013. Outflow from Lake Okeechobee, and flows from Franklin Lock, tributaries to the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, and the Cape Coral canal system were examined to determine the sources and quantity of water to the study area. Salinity, temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration, pH, turbidity, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) were measured during moving-boat surveys and at a fixed location in McIntyre Creek. Chlorophyll fluorescence was also recorded in McIntyre Creek. Water-quality surveys were completed on 20 dates between 2011 and 2014 using moving-boat surveys.Franklin Lock contributed the majority of flow to the Caloosahatchee River. Between 2010 and 2013, the monthly mean flow rate at Franklin Lock ranged from 29 cubic feet per second in May 2011 to 10,650 cubic feet per second in August 2013. Instantaneous near-surface salinity in McIntyre Creek ranged from 12.9 parts per thousand on September 26, 2013, to 37.9 parts per thousand on June 27, 2011. Salinity in McIntyre Creek decreased with increasing flow rate through Franklin Lock. Flow rates through Franklin Lock explained 61 percent of the variation in salinity in McIntyre Creek. Salinity data from moving-boat surveys also indicate that an increase in flow rate at Franklin Lock decreases salinity in the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, and a reduction or elimination in flow increases salinity. The FDOM in McIntyre Creek was positively correlated with flow at Franklin Lock, and 54 percent of the variation in FDOM can be attributed to the flow rate through Franklin Lock. Data from moving-boat surveys indicate that FDOM increases when flow volume from

  8. A mountain of millipedes IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the genus Prionopetalum Attems, 1909, are recorded from the Udzungwa Mountains: P. asperginis sp. nov. and P. kraepelini (Attems, 1896). Prionopetalum stuhlmanni Attems, 1914, is synonymized under P. kraepelini. Odontopyge fasciata Attems, 1896, is transferred from Prionopetalum...

  9. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  10. Geography and Weather: Mountain Meterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Provided are 26 ideas to help children explore the effects of mountains on the weather. Weather conditions in Nepal and Colorado are considered separately. Nine additional sources of information are listed. (CW)

  11. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters

  12. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  13. Upper-mantle velocities below the Scandinavian Mountains from P- and S- wave traveltime tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejrani, Babak; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    2017-01-01

    More than 20000 arrival-times of teleseismic P- and S-waves were measured over a period of more than 10 years in five separate temporary and two permanent seismic networks covering the Scandinavian (Scandes) Mountains and adjacent areas of the Baltic Shield. The relative traveltime residuals were...... between Lofoten and the crest of the Northern Scandes Mountains and stays off the coast further north. Seismic velocities in the depth interval 100-300 km change across the UMVB from low relative VP and even lower relative VS on the western side to high relative VP and even higher relative VS to the east...

  14. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-11-11

    Nov 11, 2003 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. ... Lecturer/Consultant Surgeon, Paediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, .... mind and the results obtained were however satisfying.

  15. Fluxus East / Petra Stegmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stegmann, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Näitusest "Fluxus East" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Fluxuse liikumisest leedu kunstniku George Maciunase (1931-1978) eestvedamisel. Liikumise ilmingutest Eestis (happeningid, muusikaaktsioonid, visuaalne poeesia, mail art). Kuraator Petra Stegmann, kujundaja Andrea Pichl

  16. Yucca Mountain Project public interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project's public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site

  17. Leukaemia in East Suffolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, M.F.H.

    1983-09-01

    An investigation was conducted by the East Suffolk Health Authority to determine whether there were any geographical variations in the incidence of leukaemia over the last fifteen years in East Suffolk suggesting an environmental hazard, e.g. Sizewell Power Station. No areas were found to have a statistically significant increased incidence of leukaemia cases although there did appear to be a cluster of cases in the Leiston area. (U.K.)

  18. Lo camí de la fortuna i En Ricard Pobre : les dues versions catalanes de The Way to Wealth, de Benjamin Franklin

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarte i Ballester, Xus

    2014-01-01

    El propòsit d’aquest article és analitzar les dues traduccions catalanes del llibret de Benjamin Franklin The Way to Wealth (1758). Aquest text, que ha deixat una empremta important en l’imaginari de la societat nord-americana, conté més de cent aforismes que insten al treball honrat, a l’estalvi i a la frugalitat com a vies segures per accedir a la fortuna econòmica. La primera versió catalana ens arriba un segle més tard, quan Gaietà Vidal i de Valenciano en fa el 1868 un anostrament més se...

  19. A aldraxe proverbial da preguiza nas dúas versións españolas de The Way to Wealth de Benjamin Franklin

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarte i Ballester, Xus

    2012-01-01

    A admiración que destilou no seu tempo e durante o século XIX o bo sentido común das obras de Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) plasmouse na tradución dos seus libros a un considerable número de linguas. The Way to Wealth (El camino de la fortuna o Cómo hacerse rico), publicado en 1758, contén máis de cen máximas que instan ao traballo honrado, á orde e ao aforro, condenando calquera sinal de preguiza ou desidia. O noso corpus nútrese dunha selección de trece aforismos que teñen re...

  20. Physical, chemical, and mineralogical data from surficial deposits, groundwater levels, and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Breit, George N.; Yount, James C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Reheis, Marith C.; Skipp, Gary L.; Fisher, Eric M.; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methods used to determine the physical attributes, as well as the chemical and mineralogical composition of surficial deposits; groundwater levels; and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada. The results support studies that examine (1) the interaction between groundwater and the ground surface, and the transport of solutes through the unsaturated zone; (2) the potential for the accumulation of metals and metalloids in surface crusts; (3) emission of dust from metal-rich salt crust; and (4) the effects of metal-rich dusts on human and ecosystem health. The evaporation of shallow (travel as atmospheric dust and affect human and ecosystem health at local to regional scales.

  1. « Very much in the dark about light » : Franklin, lumières et critiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Delbourgo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet essai considère une critique des expériences électriques de Benjamin Franklin, publiée anonymement à Londres en 1777. L'auteur s'interroge pour savoir s'il est légitime de regarder ces expériences comme « natural philosophy » dans la tradition d’Isaac Newton. Cette critique des lumières frankliniennes est considérée en connection avec les conflits de la Révolution américaine, les angoisses sociales sur la dextérité mécanique, et la hiérarchie géographique des savoirs. Les débats sur le caractère de la vraie philosophie naturelle qui touchaient les expériences de Franklin portaient également sur la constitution sociale, politique et géographique de l’autorité.This essay discusses a critical account of Benjamin Franklin’s experiments with electricity published anonymously in London in 1777. The fundamental question raised was whether Franklin’s famous experiments constituted legitimate natural philosophy in the tradition of Isaac Newton. This dim view of Franklinist enlightenment is linked to the conflicts of the American Revolution, social anxieties about mechanical ingenuity, and geographical hierarchies of knowledge-making. It is argued that debates over the legitimacy of the proper character of natural philosophy that addressed Franklinist science were also debates over the social, political and geographical constitution of authority.

  2. The origins of mountain geoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountain geoecology, as a sub-discipline of Geography, stems from the life and work of Carl Troll who, in turn, was inspired by the philosophy and mountain travels of Alexander von Humboldt. As founding chair of the IGU Commission on High-Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll laid the foundations for inter-disciplinary and international mountain research. The paper traces the evolution of the Commission and its close links with the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (1972- and the United Nations University’s mountain Project (1978-. This facilitated the formation of a major force for inclusion of a mountain chapter in AGENDA 21 during the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Herat Summit (UNCED and the related designation by the United Nations of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. In this way, mountain geoecology not only contributed to worldwide mountain research but also entered the political arena in the struggle for sustainable mountain development and the well-being of mountain people.La geoecología de montaña, como sub-disciplina de la Geografía, entronca con la vida y trabajo de Carl Troll, quien, a su vez, fue inspirado por la filosofía y viajes de Alexander von Humboldt. Como presidente fundador de la comisión de la UGI sobre High Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll colocó las bases para la investigación interdisciplinar e internacional de las montañas. Este trabajo presenta la evolución de la Comisión y sus estrechas relaciones con el Programa Hombre y Biosfera de UNESCO (1972- y con el Proyecto de montaña de la Universidad de Naciones Unidas (1978-. Esto facilitó la inclusión de un capítulo sobre la montaña en AGENDA 21 durante la Cumbre de la Tierra de Río de Janeiro (UNCED, y la consiguiente designación de 2002 como el Año Internacional de las Montañas por parte de Naciones Unidas. En este sentido, la geoecología de montaña no sólo contribuyó a la investigación de las montañas del mundo sino que también empujó a la pol

  3. Precambrian crustal history of the Nimrod Group, central Transantarctic Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodge, J.W.; Fanning, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    High-grade metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Nimrod Group represent crystalline basement to the central Transantarctic Mountains. Despite metamorphism and penetrative deformation during the Ross Orogeny, they preserve a deep record of Precambrian geologic history in this sector of the East Antarctic shield. A review of available U-Pb geochronometric data reveals multiple geologic events spanning 2.5 b.y. of Archean to Early Paleozoic time, including: (1) juvenile Archean crust production by magmatism between 3150 and 3000 Ma; (2) crustal stabilisation and metamorphism between 2955 and 2900 Ma; (3) ultra-metamorphism or anatexis at c. 2500 Ma; (4) deep-crustal metamorphism and magmatism between 1720 and 1730 Ma, redefining the Nimrod Orogeny; (5) post-1700 Ma sedimentation; and (6) basement reactivation involving high-grade metamorphism, magmatism, and penetrative deformation during the Ross Orogeny between 540 and 515 Ma. A strong regional metamorphic and deformational Ross overprint, dated by U-Pb and Ar thermochronology, had pronounced thermomechanical effects on the basement assemblage, yet rocks of the Nimrod Group retain robust evidence of their Precambrian ancestry. The zircon U-Pb record therefore demonstrates that primary crustal lithosphere of the East Antarctic shield extends to the central Transantarctic Mountains, and that it has undergone multiple episodes of reactivation culminating in the Ross Orogeny. (author). 48 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 9 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    The Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Ecoregion covers approximately 44,176 km2 (17, 057 mi2) (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). With the exception of a small part of the ecoregion extending into southern Wyoming and southern Idaho, the vast majority of the ecoregion is located along the eastern mountain ranges of Utah. The ecoregion is situated between the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateaus Ecoregions to the east and south and the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion to the west; in addition, the Middle Rockies, Snake River Basin, and Northern Basin and Range Ecoregions are nearby to the north. Considered the western front of the Rocky Mountains, the two major mountain ranges that define the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Ecoregion include the north-south-trending Wasatch Range and east-west- trending Uinta Mountains. Both mountain ranges have been altered by multiple mountain building and burial cycles since the Precambrian era 2.6 billion years ago, and they have been shaped by glacial processes as early as 1.6 million years ago. The terrain is defined by sharp ridgelines, glacial lakes, and narrow canyons, with elevations ranging from 1,829 m in the lower canyons to 4,123 m at Kings Peak, the highest point in Utah (Milligan, 2010).

  5. Cryptic diversity in Ptyodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae from the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates uncovered by an integrative taxonomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Simó-Riudalbas

    Full Text Available The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range. The geckos of the Ptyodactylus hasselquistii species complex are the largest geckos in Arabia and are found widely distributed across the Arabian Mountains, constituting a very important component of the reptile mountain fauna. Preliminary analyses suggested that their diversity in the Hajar Mountains may be higher than expected and that their systematics should be revised. In order to tackle these questions, we inferred a nearly complete calibrated phylogeny of the genus Ptyodactylus to identify the origin of the Hajar Mountains lineages using information from two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Genetic variability within the Hajar Mountains was further investigated using 68 specimens of Ptyodactylus from 46 localities distributed across the entire mountain range and sequenced for the same genes as above. The molecular phylogenies and morphological analyses as well as niche comparisons indicate the presence of two very old sister cryptic species living in allopatry: one restricted to the extreme northern Hajar Mountains and described as a new species herein; the other distributed across the rest of the Hajar Mountains that can be confidently assigned to the species P. orlovi. Similar to recent findings in the geckos of the genus Asaccus, the results of the present study uncover more hidden diversity in the northern Hajar Mountains and stress once

  6. Preliminary isostatic residual gravity map of the Tremonton 30' x 60' quadrangle, Box Elder and Cache Counties, Utah, and Franklin and Oneida Counties, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria; Oaks, R.Q.; Willis, H.; Hiscock, A.I.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Rosario, Jose J.; Hardwick, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    A new isostatic residual gravity map of the Tremonton 30' x 60' quadrangle of Utah is based on compilation of preexisting data and new data collected by the Utah and U.S. Geological Surveys. Pronounced gravity lows occur over North Bay, northwest of Brigham City, and Malad and Blue Creek Valleys, indicating significant thickness of low-density Tertiary sedimentary rocks and deposits. Gravity highs coincide with exposures of dense pre-Cenozoic rocks in the Promontory, Clarkston, and Wellsville Mountains. The highest gravity values are located in southern Curlew Valley and may be produced in part by deeper crustal density variations or crustal thinning. Steep, linear gravity gradients coincide with Quaternary faults bounding the Wellsville and Clarkston Mountains. Steep gradients also coincide with the margins of the Promontory Mountains, Little Mountain, West Hills, and the eastern margin of the North Promontory Mountains and may define concealed basin-bounding faults.

  7. Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.

    1985-01-01

    Early Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains is inferred in part from published surface and subsurface studies of the pre-Oligocene surface. These studies are combined with published and unpublished information on clast provenance, crossbedding orientation, and Eocene paleogeography. The Oligocene Arctic Ocean-Gulf of Mexico continental divide extended from the southern Absaroka Mountains east along the Owl Creek Mountains, across the southern Powder River Basin, through the northern Black Hills, and eastward across South Dakota. Streams north of the divide flowed northeastward. The Olligocene White River Group contains 50 to 90 percent airfall pyroclastic debris from a northern Great Basin source. Most of the uranium deposits of the region in pre-Oligocene rocks can be related to a uranium source in the volcanic ash of the White River; in many places the pre-Oligocene deposits can be related to specific Oligocene channels. Uranium deposits in sandstones of major Oligocene rivers are an important new type of deposit. The Oligocene channel sandstones also contain small quantities of gold, molybdenum, gas, and oil

  8. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1993. Seventeen wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 11 wells representing 18 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,034 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1993. Water levels were an average of about 0.04 meter lower than 1992 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data

  9. Numerical studies of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Amter, S.; Lu, Ning

    1992-02-01

    A computer model (TGIF -- Thermal Gradient Induced Flow) of two-dimensional, steady-state rock-gas flow driven by temperature and humidity differences is described. The model solves for the ''fresh-water head,'' a concept that has been used in models of variable-density water flow but has not previously been applied to gas flow. With this approach, the model can accurately simulate the flows driven by small differences in temperature. The unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being studied as a potential site for a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Using the TGIF model, preliminary calculations of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain are made for four east-west cross-sections through the mountain. Calculations are made for three repository temperatures and for several assumptions about a possible semi-confining layer above the repository. The gas-flow simulations are then used to calculate travel-time distributions for air and for radioactive carbon-14 dioxide from the repository to the ground surface

  10. Mountain biking injuries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmont, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Mountain biking is a fast, exciting adventure sport with increasing numbers of participants and competitions. A search of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, DH data, and Embase databases was performed using the following keywords: mountain, biking and injuries. This revealed 2 review articles, 17 case controlled studies, 4 case series and 5 case reports. This review summarises the published literature on mountain biking injuries, discusses injury frequency and common injury mechanisms. Riders are quick to adopt safety measures. Helmet usage is now increasingly common and handlebar adaptations have been discontinued. Although the sport has a reputation for speed and risk with research and awareness, injury prevention measures are being adopted making the sport as safe as possible.

  11. The Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houze, Robert A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; McMurdie, Lynn A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama; Schwaller, Mathew R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Baccus, William [Olympic National Park, Port Angeles, Washington; Lundquist, Jessica D. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Mass, Clifford F. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Nijssen, Bart [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rutledge, Steven A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Hudak, David R. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, King City, Ontario, Canada; Tanelli, Simone [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; Mace, Gerald G. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; Poellot, Michael R. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Zagrodnik, Joseph P. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rowe, Angela K. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; DeHart, Jennifer C. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Madaus, Luke E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Barnes, Hannah C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2017-10-01

    the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) took place during the 2015-2016 fall-winter season in the vicinity of the mountainous Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The goals of OLYMPEX were to provide physical and hydrologic ground validation for the U.S./Japan Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and, more specifically, to study how precipitation in Pacific frontal systems is modified by passage over coastal mountains. Four transportable scanning dual-polarization Doppler radars of various wavelengths were installed. Surface stations were placed at various altitudes to measure precipitation rates, particle size distributions, and fall velocities. Autonomous recording cameras monitored and recorded snow accumulation. Four research aircraft supplied by NASA investigated precipitation processes and snow cover, and supplemental rawinsondes and dropsondes were deployed during precipitation events. Numerous Pacific frontal systems were sampled, including several reaching "atmospheric river" status, warm and cold frontal systems, and postfrontal convection

  12. World review: Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) and recently completed in some parts of the Middle East in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Areas specifically mentioned are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. The prospects for the petrochemical industry in particular are good and continued growth is expected. Gas is likely to make an increasingly important contribution to the prosperity of the Middle East and is expected to carry a higher priority than expansion of crude oil production

  13. Geological Structure and Gold Mineralization of Carbonaceous Deposits of the Tyotechnaya Mountain (South Urals)

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Snachev; E. P. Shchulkin

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the geological structure of the northern part of the East-Urals Trough. Particular attention is paid to the Kosobrodskaya Formation, where the carbonaceous deposits are most abundant. It was found that the gold in the black shales of the Tyotechnaya Mountain is associated with the intensively dislocated, silicified and sulfidised rocks struck with the diorite porphyry of the Birgildin-Tomino Complex. Channel sampling on the number of wells showed the gold grades up to 1.5...

  14. NEW ASPECTS OF THE ALPINE VEGETATION OF PARÂNG MOUNTAINS (SOUTH CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMON TIBOR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 4 plant communities unknown in the the European syntaxonomy are described from the alpine and subalpine belts of Parâng Mountains, based on vegetation studies of the authors during 1955–1960. These are: Arabis alpina-Saxifraga aizoides, Arabis alpina-Delphinium elatum, Dianthus tenuifolius-Festuca dalmatica and the Primula minima-Dryas octopetala communities. These communities could be described later as new associations in the possession of more relevés from different localities. The East and South Carpathian Doronico carpatici-Festucetum pictae association is distinguished under this new name from the Festucetum pictae Krajina described from the Tatra Mountains. 7 further associations are found as new to the Parâng Mountains.

  15. Environmental geochemical study of Red Mountain--an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska range, east-central Alaska: Chapter I in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Giles, Stuart A.; Gough, Larry P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2007-01-01

    The Red Mountain volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit exhibits well-constrained examples of acid-generating, metal-leaching, metal-precipitation, and self-mitigation (via co-precipitation, dilution, and neutralization) processes that occur in an undisturbed natural setting, a rare occurrence in North America. The unmined pyrite-rich deposit displays a remarkable environmental footprint of natural acid generation, high metal concentrations, and exceedingly high rare-earth-element (REE) concentrations in surface waters. Dissolution of pyrite and associated secondary reactions under near-surface, oxidizing conditions are the primary causes for the acid generation and metal leaching. The deposit is hosted in Devonian to Mississippian felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist.

  16. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from FRANKLIN in the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean from 1994-11-12 to 1994-12-05 (NODC Accession 0116716)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116716 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean from...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 2000-09-26 to 2000-11-12 (NODC Accession 0108074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108074 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 2000-09-26 to 2000-11-12 and...

  18. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the FRANKLIN in the Coral Sea and Tasman Sea from 1993-06-24 to 1993-07-17 (NODC Accession 0116409)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116409 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the Coral Sea and Tasman Sea from 1993-06-24 to...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the FRANKLIN in the South Pacific Ocean from 2001-05-24 to 2001-07-07 (NODC Accession 0108083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108083 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the South Pacific Ocean from 2001-05-24 to 2001-07-07...

  20. Effect of Aspect on Climate Variation in Mountain Ranges of Shen-nongjia Massif, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms of regional climate variation in mountain ranges with con-trasting aspects as mediated by changes in global climate. It may help predict trends of vegetation variations in native ecosystems in natural reserves. As measures of climate response, temperature and precipitation data from the north, east, and south-facing mountain ranges of Shennongjia Massif in the coldest and hottest months (January and July), different seasons (spring, summer, autumn, and win-ter) and each year were analyzed from a long-term dataset (1960 to 2003) to tested variations characteristics, temporal and spatial quan-titative relationships of climates. The results showed that the average seasonal temperatures and precipitation in the north, east, and south aspects of the mountain ranges changed at different rates. The average seasonal temperatures change rate ranges in the north, east, and south-facing mountain ranges were from –0.0210℃ /yr to 0.0143℃ /yr,–0.0166℃ /yr to 0.0311℃ /yr, and –0.0290℃ /yr to 0.0084℃ /yr, respectively,and seasonal precipitation variation magnitude were from –1.4940 mm/yr to 0.6217 mm/yr, –1.6833 mm/yr to 2.6182 mm/yr, and –0.8567 mm/yr to 1.4077 mm/yr, respectively. The climates variation trend among the three mountain ranges were different in magnitude and direction, showing a complicated change of the climates in mountain ranges and some inconsistency with general trends in global climate change. The climate variations were significantly different and positively correlated cross mountain ranges, revealing that aspects significantly affected on climate variations and these variations resulted from a larger air circulation sys-tem, which were sensitive to global climate change. We conclude that location and terrain of aspect are the main factors affecting dif-ferences in climate variation among the mountain ranges with contrasting aspects.

  1. Yucca Mountain project prototype testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.T.; Girdley, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is responsible for characterizing the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada to determine its suitability for development as a geologic repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 years. This unprecedented task relies in part on measurements made with relatively new methods or applications, such as dry coring and overcoring for studies to be conducted from the land surface and in an underground facility. The Yucca Mountain Project has, since 1988, implemented a program of equipment development and methods development for a broad spectrum of hydrologic, geologic, rock mechanics, and thermomechanical tests planned for use in an Exploratory Shaft during site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site. A second major program was fielded beginning in April 1989 to develop and test methods and equipment for surface drilling to obtain core samples from depth using only air as a circulating medium. The third major area of prototype testing has been during the ongoing development of the Instrumentation/ Data Acquisition System (IDAS), designed to collect and monitor data from down-hole instrumentation in the unsaturated zone, and store and transmit the data to a central archiving computer. Future prototype work is planned for several programs including the application of vertical seismic profiling methods and flume design to characterizing the geology at Yucca Mountain. The major objectives of this prototype testing are to assure that planned Site Characterization testing can be carried out effectively at Yucca Mountain, both in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and from the surface, and to avoid potential major failures or delays that could result from the need to re-design testing concepts or equipment. This paper will describe the scope of the Yucca Mountain Project prototype testing programs and summarize results to date. 3 figs

  2. Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Muhammad

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations...

  3. Mineral resources of the Swasey Mountain and Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Millard County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, D.A.; Zimbelman, D.R.; Campbell, D.L.; Duval, J.S.; Cook, K.L.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Yambrick, R.A.; Tuftin, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Swasey Mountain and the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas are underlain by an east-dipping sequence of carbonate rocks, shale, and quartzite of Cambrian age. The Sand Pass mineralized area, immediately northwest of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area, contains numerous occurrences of jasperoid, small igneous intrusions of Tertiary age, and geochemical anomalies; the mineralized area has been explored for gold. Although no identified resources of metals are known in or near the wilderness study areas, the distribution of geologic structures and stream-sediment geochemical anomalies indicates there is a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silver, and gold. An area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends south and east into the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area from the Sand Pass mineralized area. A second area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends from the southern part of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area across the western part of the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Area. Both study areas contain inferred subeconomic resources of quartzite, high-purity limestone, and sand and gravel. Both areas have moderate resource potential for high-purity limestone and dolomite. Fossils, especially trilobites, of interest to collectors are present in both areas. The potential for undiscovered resources is moderate for oil and gas and is low for geothermal energy within the study areas. There is no potential for undiscovered resources of coal.

  4. The Impact Snow Albedo Feedback over Mountain Regions as Examined through High-Resolution Regional Climate Change Experiments over the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Theodore

    the thermal contrast between the mountain slopes and the surrounding lowlands which drives these wind systems. This analysis is extended to investigate the impacts that the SAF has on the large-scale mountain-plain circulation that develops east of the Rockies over the Great Plains. To help isolate the SAF, a more idealized regional climate experiment which isolates the SAF is performed. It was found that SAF may influence thermally driven atmospheric dynamics up-to 200km east of the Mountains where the SAF originates, suggesting broader regional impacts of the SAF which may not be well resolved by coarser resolution global climate models. The implications of these changes on pollution transport and moist convection are also explored using these simulations.

  5. Middle East political stability

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Henry Siegman asks whether the next US President can rescue a two-state solution to the Israel–Palestine conflict; Lakhdar Brahimi discusses Iran – war or peace in the Middle East?; Eric Rouleau assesses the Iranian nuclear threat; Walid Khadduri looks at concerns over the future of Iraq and regional implications.

  6. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  7. Fleet Readiness Center East

    Science.gov (United States)

    ability to take care of our Customers, our People, and our Business. WHAT'S NEW ON FACEBOOK? weather icon S o cial Media Navy Twitter US Navy Pinterest US Navy Instagram FRC East Facebook US Navy Google FRCE ADVERSE WEATHER INFO Severe Weather Number: 252-464-8333 Visit us on Facebook for up-to-date

  8. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... for Disease Control and Prevention website. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently asked questions and answers. www. ...

  9. The role of the Anaxagoras Mountain in the Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourne, Mark; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; Çifçi, Günay

    2014-05-01

    The Anaximander Mountains are one of the many enigmatic structures situated along the morphologically and structurally complicated junction between the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, in the eastern Mediterranean. Interpretation of ~750 km of marine multi-channel seismic reflection data show that the present day Anaximander Mountains underwent several distinct phases of tectonic activity since Miocene. During the mid-late Miocene, a protracted, contractional tectonic regime produced the east-west trending, south-verging fold-thrust belt observed in the area. The Messinian was a period of relatively low tectonic activity, and is marked by the deposition of an evaporite layer. This phase lasted until the latest Miocene - earliest Pliocene, when a major erosional event associated with the Messinian salinity crisis occurred. Beginning in the early-mid Pliocene-Quaternary a transpressional and rotational tectonic regime prevailed over the area. The Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto) and Anaximenes Mountain developed in the Pliocene-Quaternary associated with the reactivation, uplift and rotation of a linked, thick skinned pre-Messinian imbricate thrust fan. Back thrusting in the region accentuated the morphology of these mountains. The Anaxagoras Mountain differs both lithologically and morphologically from the Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto) and the Anaximenes Mountain. It is probably developed associated with the emplacement of the ophiolitic Antalya Nappe Complex. Faulting in the Anaxagoras region is characterized by southwest striking thrust and/or oblique thrust faults. Due to the similarities in morphology between the Isparta Angle of southwestern Turkey and the Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato), it is hypothesized that the tectonic evolution of the two regions are similar in nature. The Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato) can thus be considered the offshore replication of the Isparta Angle, produced by similar mechanisms, but being of a younger age.

  10. A mountain of millipedes I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Twenty new species of the millipede genus Chaleponcus Attems, 1914, are described from the Udzungwa Mountains: C. netus sp. nov., C. quasimodo sp. nov., C. malleolus sp. nov., C. scopus sp. nov., C. nikolajscharffi sp. nov., C. mwanihanensis sp. nov., C. basiliscus sp. nov., C. krai sp. nov., C...

  11. Soil variability in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, E.; Freppaz, M.; Stanchi, S.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  12. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  13. A mountain of millipedes V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Three new genera of Odontopygidae are described, all based on new species from the Udzungwa mountains, Tanzania, and all monotypic: Casuariverpa gen. nov. (type species: C. scarpa gen. et sp. nov.), Yia gen. nov. (type species: Y. geminispina gen. et sp. nov.), and Utiliverpa gen. nov. (type spec...

  14. Mountain biking injuries: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronisch, Robert L; Pfeiffer, Ronald P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the available literature regarding injuries in off-road bicyclists. Recent progress in injury research has allowed the description of several patterns of injury in this sport. Mountain biking remains popular, particularly among young males, although sales and participation figures have decreased in the last several years. Competition in downhill racing has increased, while cross-country racing has decreased somewhat in popularity. Recreational riders comprise the largest segment of participants, but little is known about the demographics and injury epidemiology of noncompetitive mountain cyclists. Most mountain bikers participating in surveys reported a history of previous injuries, but prospective studies conducted at mountain bike races have found injury rates of bike racing the risk of injury may be higher for women than men. Minor injuries such as abrasions and contusions occur frequently, but are usually of little consequence. Fractures usually involve the torso or upper extremities, and shoulder injuries are common. Head and face injuries are not always prevented by current helmet designs. Fatal injuries are rare but have been reported. Improvements in safety equipment, rider training and racecourse design are suggested injury prevention measures. The authors encourage continued research in this sport.

  15. Gearing Up for Mountain Biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Examines the gear system of a mountain bike to discover any redundancy in the many gear settings available to the cyclist. Suggests a best strategy for changing up through the gears on a typical 21-gear system and an adjustment to the available gears that would result in a smoother change. (Author/ASK)

  16. A mountain of millipedes III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Geotypodon gen. nov. is described. It includes two species from the Udzungwa Mountains: G. millemanus gen. et sp. nov. (type species) and G. submontanus gen. et sp. nov., one species from nearby Iringa: G. iringensis gen. et sp. nov., and 18 previously described species hitherto...

  17. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  19. Paleoseismic evidence for late Holocene tectonic deformation along the Saddle mountain fault zone, Southeastern Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Sherrod, Brian; Hughes, Jonathan F.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Czajkowski, Jessica L.; Walsh, Timothy J.; Contreras, Trevor A.; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Carson, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Trench and wetland coring studies show that northeast‐striking strands of the Saddle Mountain fault zone ruptured the ground about 1000 years ago, generating prominent scarps. Three conspicuous subparallel fault scarps can be traced for 15 km on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) imagery, traversing the foothills of the southeast Olympic Mountains: the Saddle Mountain east fault, the Saddle Mountain west fault, and the newly identified Sund Creek fault. Uplift of the Saddle Mountain east fault scarp impounded stream flow, forming Price Lake and submerging an existing forest, thereby leaving drowned stumps still rooted in place. Stratigraphy mapped in two trenches, one across the Saddle Mountain east fault and the other across the Sund Creek fault, records one and two earthquakes, respectively, as faulting juxtaposed Miocene‐age bedrock against glacial and postglacial deposits. Although the stratigraphy demonstrates that reverse motion generated the scarps, slip indicators measured on fault surfaces suggest a component of left‐lateral slip. From trench exposures, we estimate the postglacial slip rate to be 0.2  mm/yr and between 0.7 and 3.2  mm/yr during the past 3000 years. Integrating radiocarbon data from this study with earlier Saddle Mountain fault studies into an OxCal Bayesian statistical chronology model constrains the most recent paleoearthquake age of rupture across all three Saddle Mountain faults to 1170–970 calibrated years (cal B.P.), which overlaps with the nearby Mw 7.5 1050–1020 cal B.P. Seattle fault earthquake. An earlier earthquake recorded in the Sund Creek trench exposure, dates to around 3500 cal B.P. The geometry of the Saddle Mountain faults and their near‐synchronous rupture to nearby faults 1000 years ago suggest that the Saddle Mountain fault zone forms a western boundary fault along which the fore‐arc blocks migrate northward in response to margin‐parallel shortening across the Puget Lowland.

  20. From Rodinia to Gondwana : supercontinent evolution in the Transantarctic Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodge, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains provide a cryptic but important record of Proterozoic and Early Paleozoic supercontinent history, including Rodinian assembly, Rodinian breakup, transition from a drifting to subducting margin, and active plate-margin activity during Gondwanan assembly. A linkage between Laurentia and East Antarctica as part of Neoproterozoic Rodinia is plausible, based on isotopic data from rare exposures of crystalline basement in the Transantarctic Mountains. However, testing of paleogeographic details is difficult because the crustal structure of the East Antarctic shield is poorly known along much of its perimeter and because we lack well-dated Proterozoic paleomagnetic poles. The timing of Rodinian breakup is poorly constrained globally, yet local mafic magmatism of 800-650 Ma age provides the best evidence in the Transantarctic Mountains for Late Neoproterozoic crustal extension and possible rifting. Still uncertain are the position of the rift margin, the geometry of rifting, the extent of crustal thinning, the extent of rift-margin sedimentation, the location of possible transform offset, and the influence of these structural patterns on later orogenesis. A transformation from drifting to active subducting mode is inferred for the Late Neoproterozoic, but the nature and specific timing of this event are unknown. The Vendian-Early Paleozoic Ross Orogen reflects convergent-margin activity associated temporally, if not causally, with the consolidation of Gondwana. Inception of a convergent Gondwana margin is signalled by the earliest Ross granitoids at c. 560 Ma and may be reflected in early structural inversion of craton-margin sedimentary succession. Protracted Ross tectonism between 560 and 480 Ma involved episodic deformation, calc-alkaline magmatism, and syn-orogenic deposition of arc-derived detritus in a sinistral-transpressive, continental-margin arc setting. Sedimentary provenance in siliciclastic rocks appears to have shifted by late

  1. Major results of gravity and magnetic studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, H.W.; Ponce, D.A.; Sikora, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    About 4000 gravity stations have been obtained at Yucca Mountain and vicinity since the beginning of radioactive-waste studies there in 1978. These data have been integrated with data from about 29,000 stations previously obtained in the surrounding region to produce a series of Bouguer and isostatic-residual-gravity maps of the Nevada Test Site and southeastern Nevada. Yucca Mountain is characterized by a WNW-dipping gravity gradient whereby residual values of -10 mGal along the east edge of Yucca Mountain decrease to about -38 mGal over Crater Flat. Using these gravity data, two-dimensional modeling predicted the depth to pre-Cenozoic rocks near the proposed repository to be about 1220 ± 150 m, an estimate that was subsequently confirmed by drilling to be 1244 m. Three-dimensional modeling of the gravity low over Crater Flat indicates the thickness of Cenozoic volcanic rocks and alluvial cover to be about 3000 m. Considerable aeromagnetic coverage of southwestern Nevada was obtained in 1978--1979 to help characterize Yucca Mountain and vicinity. One significant result is the discovery of a series of circular magnetic anomalies in Crater Flat and the northern Amargosa Desert that suggest the presence of buried volcanic centers there. Elongate magnetic highs and associated lows over Yucca Mountain correlate with mapped faults, some of which are only partially exposed. Thus, the data provide inforamtion on the extent and continuity of these faults. 31 refs., 3 figs

  2. Effects of Faulted Stratigraphy on Saturated Zone Flow Beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Andrew J.B.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    1999-01-01

    The S 4 Z Model (''sub-site-scale saturated zone'') is a 3-D TOUGH2 model that was developed to study the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to aid in the design and analysis of hydrologic tests. Yucca Mountain is the proposed site for a nuclear waste repository for the United States. The model covers an area of approximately 100 km 2 around Yucca Mountain, as shown in Figure 1. The proposed repository is located in the unsaturated zone, immediately above the area of equidimensional gridblocks east of Solitario Canyon fault, which defines the crest of Yucca Mountain. The finely discretized region near the center of the domain corresponds to the area near a cluster of boreholes used for hydraulic and tracer testing. This discretization facilitates simulation of tests conducted there. The hydrogeologic structure beneath the mountain is comprised of dipping geologic units of variable thickness which are offset by faults. One of the primary objectives of the S 4 Z modeling effort is to study the potential effects of the faulted structure on flow. Therefore, replication of the geologic structure in the model mesh is necessary. This paper summarizes (1) the mesh discretization used to capture the faulted geologic structure, and (2) a model simulation that illustrates the significance of the geologic structure on SZ flow and the resulting macrodispersion

  3. Klamath Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 13 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Mountains Ecoregion covers approximately 47,791 km2 (18,452 mi2) of the Klamath and Siskiyou Mountains of northern California and southern Oregon (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion is flanked by the Coast Range Ecoregion to the west, the Southern and Central California Chaparral and Oak Woodlands Ecoregion to the south, the Cascades and the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills Ecoregions to the east, and the Willamette Valley Ecoregion to the north. The mild Mediterranean climate of the ecoregion is characterized by hot, dry summers and wet winters; the amount of winter moisture varies within the ecoregion, decreasing from west to east. The Klamath–Siskiyou Mountains region is widely recognized as an important biodiversity hotspot (Whittaker, 1960; Kruckeberg, 1984; Wagner, 1997; DellaSala and others, 1999), containing more than 3,500 plant species, more than 200 of which are endemic (Sawyer, 2007). A biological assessment by DellaSala and others (1999) ranked the Klamath–Siskiyou Mountains region as the fifth richest coniferous forest in terms of species diversity. In addition, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature considers the region an area of notable botanical importance (Wagner, 1997). Twenty-nine different species of conifers can be found in the Klamath Mountains Ecoregion (Sawyer, 1996).

  4. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-04

    ments, they actively advertise their readiness to enter 90GE0031A East Berlin A USSENWIRTSCHAFT a barter deal and they will accept it as long as...AG it comprises the following aspects: has set up two joint ventures in the USSR producing shoes; Adidas has one joint venture in Hungary.) Joint...administration until product development, advertising , and marketing. In the repayment of long-term credits. Consortiums addition, the Soviet firm is interested

  5. Spiders in mountain habitats of the Giant Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Vaněk, J.; Šmilauer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2012), s. 341-347 ISSN 1067-4136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, Karkonosze) * spider s * anemo-orographic systems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.236, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/0k5g721q1155r146/fulltext.pdf

  6. Determination of Flower Constancy in Bombus atratus Franklin and Bombus bellicosus Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) through Palynological Analysis of Nectar and Corbicular Pollen Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, N; Santos, E; Salvarrey, S; Arbulo, N; Invernizzi, C

    2015-12-01

    The flower constancy (the visit to a single plant species during a foraging trip) in pollinator insects is a theme widely discussed in behavioral ecology and has an important implication in the evolution of angiosperms. This behavior was studied in the bumblebees Bombus atratus Franklin and Bombus bellicosus Smith through palynological analysis of the nectar and pollen loads of individuals captured while foraging in a restricted area. In both species, there were more individuals with constant flights than with non-constant ones, although in the nectar loads of B. atratus there were no significant differences between individuals with each flight types. It was verified that the nectar loads of the individuals that made either constant or non-constant flights did not differ in the number of pollen grains they contained. Considering this measurement as an estimate for flight duration, the results would indicate that the probability of changing between plant species during nectar collection is independent of the foraging trip duration. In both species, most individuals who collected nectar and/or pollen from more than one plant species visited just two plant species. In these cases, the pollen of one plant species was predominant. In the bumblebees in which it was possible to analyze nectar and pollen loads, the botanical origin of both resources was the same or they shared the principal species (with the exception of two individuals), showing that bumblebees do not often use a botanical source in an exclusive way to collect nectar and another to collect pollen.

  7. Flood-inundation Maps for the Deerfield River, Franklin County, Massachusetts, from the Confluence with the Cold River Tributary to the Connecticut River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2015-09-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed flood elevations in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency for a 30-mile reach of the Deerfield River from the confluence of the Cold River tributary to the Connecticut River in the towns of Charlemont, Buckland, Shelburne, Conway, Deerfield, and Greenfield in Franklin County, Massachusetts to assist land owners, and emergency management workers prepare for and recover from floods. Peak flows with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities were computed for the reach from updated flood-frequency analyses. These peak flows were routed through a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic model to obtain the corresponding peak water-surface elevations and to place the tropical storm Irene flood of August 28, 2011 into historical context. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using current [2015] stage-discharge relations at two U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the study reach—Deerfield River at Charlemont, MA (01168500) and Deerfield River near West Deerfield, MA (01170000)—and from documented high-water marks from the tropical storm Irene flood, which had between a 1- and 0.2-percent AEP.

  8. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified

  9. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  10. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  11. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Dubakella Mountain 15 quadrangle, Trinity, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Yule, J. Douglas; Court, Bradford L.; Snoke, Arthur W.; Stern, Laura A.; Copeland, William B.

    2011-01-01

    The Dubakella Mountain 15' quadrangle is located just south of the Hayfork quadrangle and just east of the Pickett Peak quadrangle. It spans a sequence of four northwest-trending tectonostratigraphic terranes of the Klamath Mountains geologic province that includes, from east to west, the Eastern Hayfork, Western Hayfork, Rattlesnake Creek, and Western Jurassic terranes, as well as, in the southwest corner of the quadrangle, part of a fifth terrane, the Pickett Peak terrane of the Coast Ranges geologic province. The Eastern Hayfork terrane is a broken formation and melange of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that include blocks of limestone and chert. The limestone contains late Permian microfossils of Tethyan faunal affinity. The chert contains radiolarians of Mesozoic age, mostly Triassic, but none clearly Jurassic. The Western Hayfork terrane is an andesitic volcanic arc that consists mainly of agglomerate, tuff, argillite, and chert, and includes the Wildwood pluton. That pluton is related to the Middle Jurassic (about 170 Ma) Ironside Mountain batholith that is widely exposed farther north beyond the Dubakella Mountain quadrangle. The Rattlesnake Creek terrane is a highly disrupted ophiolitic melange of probable Late Triassic or Early Jurassic age. Although mainly ophiolitic, the melange includes blocks of plutonic rocks (about 200 Ma) of uncertain genetic relation. Some scattered areas of well-bedded mildly slaty detrital rocks of the melange appear similar to Galice Formation (unit Jg) and may be inliers of the nearby Western Jurassic terrane. The Western Jurassic terrane consists mainly of slaty to phyllitic argillite, graywacke, and stretched-pebble conglomerate and is correlative with the Late Jurassic Galice Formation of southwestern Oregon. The Pickett Peak terrane, the most westerly of the succession of terranes of the Dubakella Mountain quadrangle, is mostly fine-grained schist that includes the blueschist facies mineral lawsonite and is of Early

  12. The physiology of mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Marcora, Samuele M

    2007-01-01

    Mountain biking is a popular outdoor recreational activity and an Olympic sport. Cross-country circuit races have a winning time of approximately equal 120 minutes and are performed at an average heart rate close to 90% of the maximum, corresponding to 84% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). More than 80% of race time is spent above the lactate threshold. This very high exercise intensity is related to the fast starting phase of the race; the several climbs, forcing off-road cyclists to expend most of their effort going against gravity; greater rolling resistance; and the isometric contractions of arm and leg muscles necessary for bike handling and stabilisation. Because of the high power output (up to 500W) required during steep climbing and at the start of the race, anaerobic energy metabolism is also likely to be a factor of off-road cycling and deserves further investigation. Mountain bikers' physiological characteristics indicate that aerobic power (VO2max >70 mL/kg/min) and the ability to sustain high work rates for prolonged periods of time are prerequisites for competing at a high level in off-road cycling events. The anthropometric characteristics of mountain bikers are similar to climbers and all-terrain road cyclists. Various parameters of aerobic fitness are correlated to cross-country performance, suggesting that these tests are valid for the physiological assessment of competitive mountain bikers, especially when normalised to body mass. Factors other than aerobic power and capacity might influence off-road cycling performance and require further investigation. These include off-road cycling economy, anaerobic power and capacity, technical ability and pre-exercise nutritional strategies.

  13. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime

  14. Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan

    1998-01-01

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the

  15. Mountain Plant Community Sentinels: AWOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain plant communities are thought to be sensitive to climate change. Because climatic gradients are steep on mountain slopes, the spatial response of plant communities to climate change should be compressed and easier to detect. These expectations have led to identifying mountain plant communities as sentinels for climate change. This idea has, however, been criticized. Two critiques, for alpine treeline and alpine tundra, are rehearsed and supplemented. The critique of alpine treeline as sentinel is bolstered with new model results on the confounding role of dispersal mechanisms and sensitivity to climatic volatility. In alpine tundra, for which background turnover rates have yet to be established, community composition may reflect environmental gradients only for extremes where effects of climate are most indirect. Both plant communities, while primarily determined by energy at broad scales, may respond to water as a proximate driver at local scales. These plant communities may not be in equilibrium with climate, and differently scaled time lags may mean that ongoing vegetation change may not signal ongoing climate change (or lack thereof). In both cases a double-whammy is created by scale dependence for time lags and for drivers leading to confusion, but these cases present opportunities for insights into basic ecology.

  16. Looping tracks associated with tropical cyclones approaching an isolated mountain. Part I: Essential parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chih; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2017-05-01

    Essential parameters for making a looping track when a westward-moving tropical cyclone (TC) approaches a mesoscale mountain are investigated by examining several key nondimensional control parameters with a series of systematic, idealized numerical experiments, such as U/Nh, V max/Nh, U/fL x , V max/fR, h/L x , and R/L y . Here U is the uniform zonal wind velocity, N the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, h the mountain height, f the Coriolis parameter, V max the maximum tangential velocity at a radius of R from the cyclone center and L x is the halfwidth of the mountain in the east-west direction. It is found that looping tracks (a) tend to occur under small U/Nh and U/fL x , moderate h/L x , and large V max/Nh, which correspond to slow movement (leading to subgeostrophic flow associated with strong orographic blocking), moderate steepness, and strong tangential wind associated with TC vortex; (b) are often accompanied by an area of perturbation high pressure to the northeast of the mountain, which lasts for only a short period; and (c) do not require the existence of a northerly jet. The nondimensional control parameters are consolidated into a TC looping index (LI), {U2 R2 }/{V_{max}2 hLy }} , which is tested by several historical looping and non-looping typhoons approaching Taiwan's Central Mountain Range (CMR) from east or southeast. It is found that LI < 0.0125 may serve as a criterion for looping track to occur.

  17. Looping tracks associated with tropical cyclones approaching an isolated mountain. Part I: Essential parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chih; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2018-06-01

    Essential parameters for making a looping track when a westward-moving tropical cyclone (TC) approaches a mesoscale mountain are investigated by examining several key nondimensional control parameters with a series of systematic, idealized numerical experiments, such as U/ Nh, V max/ Nh, U/ fL x , V max/ fR, h/ L x , and R/ L y . Here U is the uniform zonal wind velocity, N the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, h the mountain height, f the Coriolis parameter, V max the maximum tangential velocity at a radius of R from the cyclone center and L x is the halfwidth of the mountain in the east-west direction. It is found that looping tracks (a) tend to occur under small U/ Nh and U/ fL x , moderate h/ L x , and large V max/ Nh, which correspond to slow movement (leading to subgeostrophic flow associated with strong orographic blocking), moderate steepness, and strong tangential wind associated with TC vortex; (b) are often accompanied by an area of perturbation high pressure to the northeast of the mountain, which lasts for only a short period; and (c) do not require the existence of a northerly jet. The nondimensional control parameters are consolidated into a TC looping index (LI), {U2 R2 }/{V_{max 2 hLy }} , which is tested by several historical looping and non-looping typhoons approaching Taiwan's Central Mountain Range (CMR) from east or southeast. It is found that LI < 0.0125 may serve as a criterion for looping track to occur.

  18. Water Futures for Cold Mountain Ecohydrology under Climate Change - Results from the North American Cordilleran Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, K.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Fang, X.; Whitfield, P. H.; Marks, D. G.; Janowicz, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    A transect comprising three intensively researched mountain headwater catchments stretching from the northern US to northern Canada provides the basis to downscale climate models outputs for mountain hydrology and insight for an assessment of water futures under changing climate and vegetation using a physically based hydrological model. Reynolds Mountain East, Idaho; Marmot Creek, Alberta and Wolf Creek, Yukon are high mountain catchments dominated by forests and alpine shrub and grass vegetation with long-term snow, hydrometric and meteorological observations and extensive ecohydrological process studies. The physically based, modular, flexible and object-oriented Cold Regions Hydrological Modelling Platform (CRHM) was used to create custom spatially distributed hydrological models for these three catchments. Model parameterisations were based on knowledge of hydrological processes, basin physiography, soils and vegetation with minimal or no calibration from streamflow measurements. The models were run over multidecadal periods using high-elevation meteorological observations to assess the recent ecohydrological functioning of these catchments. The results showed unique features in each catchment, from snowdrift-fed aspen pocket forests in Reynolds Mountain East, to deep late-lying snowdrifts at treeline larch forests in Marmot Creek, and snow-trapping shrub tundra overlying discontinuous permafrost in Wolf Creek. The meteorological observations were then perturbed using the changes in monthly temperature and precipitation predicted by the NARCCAP modelling outputs for the mid-21st C. In all catchments there is a dramatic decline in snow redistribution and sublimation by wind and of snow interception by and sublimation from evergreen canopies that is associated with warmer winters. Reduced sublimation loss only partially compensated for greater rainfall fractions of precipitation. Under climate change, snowmelt was earlier and slower and at the lowest elevations

  19. Geologic and Engineering Characterization of East Ford Field, Reeves County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Guzman, Jose I.; Zirczy, Helena

    1999-08-16

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. The project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit: it contained an estimated 18.4 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place.

  20. A mountain of millipedes II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; Frederiksen, Sara Barup

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aquattuor Frederiksen, 2013 is revised. A. denticulatus Frederiksen, 2013 (type species) from the East Usambara Mts, Tanzania, is redescribed, and six new species are described: A. claudiahempae sp. nov. from Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, and fi ve species from the Udzungwa Mts, Tanzania: ...

  1. Facies and diagenesis of the Devonian Portilla limestone formation between the river Esla and the Embalse de la Luna, Cantabrian Mountains, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, T.J.A.

    1972-01-01

    In the central part of the Cantabrian Mountains, between the artificial lake in the rivei Luna in the west and the river Esla in the east, outcrops of the Portilla Limestone Formation were investigated. A fairly uniform development could be observed in four structurally different areas. Six

  2. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  3. Taking the pulse of mountains: Ecosystem responses to climatic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Peterson, David L.; Hessl, Amy E.

    2003-01-01

    An integrated program of ecosystem modeling and field studies in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.) has quantified many of the ecological processes affected by climatic variability. Paleoecological and contemporary ecological data in forest ecosystems provided model parameterization and validation at broad spatial and temporal scales for tree growth, tree regeneration and treeline movement. For subalpine tree species, winter precipitation has a strong negative correlation with growth; this relationship is stronger at higher elevations and west-side sites (which have more precipitation). Temperature affects tree growth at some locations with respect to length of growing season (spring) and severity of drought at drier sites (summer). Furthermore, variable but predictable climate-growth relationships across elevation gradients suggest that tree species respond differently to climate at different locations, making a uniform response of these species to future climatic change unlikely. Multi-decadal variability in climate also affects ecosystem processes. Mountain hemlock growth at high-elevation sites is negatively correlated with winter snow depth and positively correlated with the winter Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. At low elevations, the reverse is true. Glacier mass balance and fire severity are also linked to PDO. Rapid establishment of trees in subalpine ecosystems during this century is increasing forest cover and reducing meadow cover at many subalpine locations in the western U.S.A. and precipitation (snow depth) is a critical variable regulating conifer expansion. Lastly, modeling potential future ecosystem conditions suggests that increased climatic variability will result in increasing forest fire size and frequency, and reduced net primary productivity in drier, east-side forest ecosystems. As additional empirical data and modeling output become available, we will improve our ability to predict the effects of climatic change

  4. A Geological and Geophysical Information System for the Middle East and North Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-14

    Saad, D., Sawaf, T., and Gebran, A., 1990, Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian ...that occurred between 1977 and 1992 (Figure 2). We have finished compiling a crustal scale Bouguer gravity data for Syria, Israel and Lebanon (Figure...3). This Bouguer gravity database is a part of our attempt to form a uniform grided Bouguer gravity data set for the entire Middle East, which then

  5. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  6. Mountain Weather and Climate, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastenrath, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    For colleagues with diverse interests in the atmosphere, glaciers, radiation, landforms, water resources, vegetation, human implications, and more, Mountain Weather and Climate can be a valuable source of guidance and literature references. The book is organized into seven chapters: 1, Mountains and their climatological study; 2,Geographical controls of mountain meteorological elements; 3, Circulation systems related to orography; 4, Climatic characteristics of mountains; 5, Regional case studies; 6, Mountain bioclimatology; and 7, Changes in mountain climates. These chapters are supported by l78 diagrams and photographs, 47 tables, and some 2000 literature references. The volume has an appendix of units and energy conversion factors and a subject index, but it lacks an author index.

  7. Run-off regime of the small rivers in mountain landscapes (on an example of the mountain "Mongun-taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryahina, G.; Zelepukina, E.; Guzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological characteristics calculations of the small mountain rivers in the basins with glaciers frequently cause complexity in connection with absence of standard hydrological supervision within remote mountain territories. The unique way of the actual information reception on a water mode of such rivers is field work. The rivers of the mountain Mongun-taiga located on a joint of Altai and Sayan mountains became hydrological researches objects of Russian geographical society complex expeditions in 2010-2011. The Mongun-taiga cluster of international biosphere reserve "Ubsunurskaya hollow" causes heightened interest of researchers — geographers for many years. The original landscape map in scale 1:100000 has been made, hydrological supervision on the rivers East Mugur and ugur, belonging inland basin of Internal Asia are lead. Supervision over the river drain East Mugur runoff were spent in profile of glacier tongue (the freezing area - 22 % (3.2 km2) from the reception basin) and in the closing alignment of the river located on distance of 3,4 km below tongue of glacier. During researches following results have been received. During the ablation period diurnal fluctuations with a strongly shown maximum and minimum of water discharges are typically for the small rivers with considerable share of a glacial food. The run-off maximum from the glacier takes place from 2 to 7 p.m., the run-off minimum is observed early in the morning. High speed of thawed snow running-off from glacier tongue and rather small volume of dynamic stocks water on an ice surface lead to growth of water discharge. In the bottom profile the time of maximum and minimum of water discharge is displaced on the average 2 hours, it depends of the water travel time. Maximum glacial run-off discharge (1.12 m3/s) in the upper profile was registered on July 16 (it was not rain). Volumes of daily runoff in the upper and bottom profiles were 60700-67600 m3 that day. The run-off from nonglacial part of

  8. Climatic variability of east Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camerlengo, A.L.; Saadon, M.N.; Awang, M.; Somchit, H.; Rang, L.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to learn the variability of atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and insolation in East Malaysia. The main results of our study are: (1) a gentle pressure gradient is observed at the east coast in the boreal winter, (2) smaller atmospheric pressure values are noted during the first inter-monsoon period all across East Malaysia, (3) lesser insolation values are observed in Sarawak and at the east coast during the boreal winter as compared to the boreal summer, and (4) a poleward increase of insolation is registered. (author)

  9. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli colonizing the migratory Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in Antofagasta, North of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, John; Hernández-García, Marta; Guamparito, Constanza; Díaz, Sofía; Olave, Abdon; Guerrero, Katherine; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando; Gahona, Joselyne; Valenzuela, Nicomedes; Del Campo, Rosa; Silva, Juan

    2015-02-01

    The role of wild animals, particularly migratory birds, in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria between geographically distant ecosystems is usually underestimated. The aim of this work was to characterize the Escherichia coli population from Franklin's gull feces, focusing on the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. In the summer of 2011, 124 fecal swabs from seagulls (1 of each) migrating from the United States and Canada to the coast of Antofagasta, north of Chile, were collected. Samples were seeded on MacConkey agar supplemented with 2 μg/ml of cefotaxime and a single colony from each plate was tested for ESBL production by the double-disk ESBL synergy test. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and blaESBL genes were amplified and sequenced. The genetic diversity of isolates was explored by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-XbaI and multilocus sequence typing. A total of 91 E. coli isolates with high rates of antibiotic resistance were identified. Carbapenemase production was not detected, whereas 67 of the 91 (54%) isolates exhibited an ESBL phenotype due to the presence of CTX-M-15 (61.3%), CTX-M-2 (19.3%), CTX-M-22 (16.1%), and CTX-M-3 (1.6%) coding genes. High genetic diversity was observed, with 30 PFGE patterns and 23 sequence types (STs), including ST131 (18%), ST44 (15%), ST617 (9%), and ST10 (9%). Results presented here are complementary to those previously reported by Hernández et al. in the same gull species, but located in the Central Region of Chile. Differences observed between gulls from both areas lead us to hypothesize that gulls from the northern location retain, as gut carriers, those resistant bacteria acquired in the United States and/or Canada.

  10. Cenozoic mountain building on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Richard O.

    2014-01-01

    Northeastern Tibetan Plateau growth illuminates the kinematics, geodynamics, and climatic consequences of large-scale orogenesis, yet only recently have data become available to outline the spatiotemporal pattern and rates of this growth. I review the tectonic history of range growth across the plateau margin north of the Kunlun fault (35°–40°N) and east of the Qaidam basin (98°–107°E), synthesizing records from fault-bounded mountain ranges and adjacent sedimentary basins. Deformation began in Eocene time shortly after India-Asia collision, but the northeastern orogen boundary has largely remained stationary since this time. Widespread middle Miocene–Holocene range growth is portrayed by accelerated deformation, uplift, erosion, and deposition across northeastern Tibet. The extent of deformation, however, only expanded ~150 km outward to the north and east and ~150 km laterally to the west. A middle Miocene reorganization of deformation characterized by shortening at various orientations heralds the onset of the modern kinematic regime where shortening is coupled to strike slip. This regime is responsible for the majority of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening and the development of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  11. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  12. Seaside, mountain and... wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossement, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several courts have given a ruling considering that the law 'Montagne' (January 9., 1985) and the law 'Littoral' (January 3., 1986) are opposable to the building license of wind turbines. The law 'Littoral' imposes that any new construction in seaside areas has to be built in continuity of existing villages or hamlets. The law 'Montagne' imposes similar constraints to avoid the construction of isolated buildings in mountain areas but, contrary to the law 'Littoral', it allows some impairment for instance for the construction of certain public equipment. (A.C.)

  13. Yucca Mountain and The Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project

  14. SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  15. The genus Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae) in East Africa: phylogeny and the role of rifting and climate in shaping the current pattern of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, M; Loader, S P; Marsden, S J; Branch, W R; Davenport, T R B; Ursenbacher, S

    2014-10-01

    Past climatic and tectonic events are believed to have strongly influenced species diversity in the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the East African genus Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae), and explored temporal and spatial relationships between Atheris species across Africa, and the impact of palaeoclimatic fluctuations and tectonic movements on cladogenesis of the genus. Using mitochondrial sequence data, the phylogeny of East African species of Atheris shows congruent temporal patterns that link diversification to major tectonic and aridification events within East Africa over the last 15million years (my). Our results are consistent with a scenario of a delayed direct west-east colonisation of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Atheris by the formation of the western rift. Based on the phylogenetic patterns, this terrestrial, forest-associated genus has dispersed into East Africa across a divided route, on both west-southeasterly and west-northeasterly directions (a C-shaped route). Cladogenesis in the Eastern Arc Mountains and Southern Highlands of Tanzania corresponds to late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene climatic shifts. Taxonomically, our data confirmed the monophyly of Atheris as currently defined, and reveal four major East African clades, three of which occur in discrete mountain ranges. Possible cryptic taxa are identified in the Atheris rungweensis and A. ceratophora clades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

  17. East Kentucky Bioenergy Capacity Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. Michael [Morehead State Univ., KY (United States); Montross, Michael [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Mark, Tyler [Morehead State Univ., KY (United States)

    2013-03-31

    When you look across the landscape of Kentucky you will find a very diverse topography. In the western portions of the state you will find fertile and gently rolling soils that are prime land for traditional row crop production. As you move east towards the Appalachian Mountains the terrain becomes increasing roughed and less productive soils. One of the primary objectives of Morehead State University is to serve the eastern Kentucky population of Kentucky. Fitting within that mission is identifying new opportunities for people living in this region. With the passing of the Renewable Fuels Standard in 2005 there was a focus put on the production of biomass crops that can be used in the production of ethanol and cellulosic ethanol. The majority of US ethanol production is derived from corn. The eastern portion of Kentucky is not well suited for corn production, but might be a location for other biomass crops to be produced. Additionally, many farmers in the region were looking for alternative crops to tobacco that might be well suited for the region.

  18. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  19. Geologic map of the Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, Taos County, New Mexico, and Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ren A.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Lee, John P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    The Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle is located in the south-central part of the San Luis Basin of northern New Mexico, in the Rio Grande del Norte National Monument, and contains deposits that record volcanic, tectonic, and associated alluvial and colluvial processes over the past four million years. Ute Mountain has the distinction of being one of the largest intermediate composition eruptive centers of the Taos Plateau, a largely volcanic tableland occupying the southern portion of the San Luis Basin. Ute Mountain rises to an elevation in excess of 3,000 m, nearly 700 m above the basaltic plateau at its base, and is characterized by three distinct phases of Pliocene eruptive activity recorded in the stratigraphy exposed on the flanks of the mountain and in the Rio Grande gorge. Unconformably overlain by largely flat-lying lava flows of Servilleta Basalt, the area surrounding Ute Mountain records a westward thickening of basin-fill volcanic deposits interstratified in the subsurface with Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary deposits derived from older Tertiary and Precambrian sources to the east. Superimposed on this volcanic stratigraphy are alluvial and colluvial deposits derived from the flanks of Ute Mountain and more distally-derived alluvium from the uplifted Sangre de Cristo Mountains to the east, that record a complex temporal and stratigraphic succession of Quaternary basin deposition and erosion. Pliocene and younger basin deposition was accommodated along predominantly north-trending fault-bounded grabens. These poorly exposed fault scarps cutting lava flows of Ute Mountain volcano. The Servilleta Basalt and younger surficial deposits record largely down-to-east basinward displacement. Faults are identified with varying confidence levels in the map area. Recognizing and mapping faults developed near the surface in young, brittle volcanic rocks is difficult because: (1) they tend to form fractured zones tens of meters wide rather than discrete fault planes, (2

  20. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  1. Mountain building long after plate collision. Possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Chekhovich, Peter; Korikovsky, Sergei; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that mountain building occurs synchronously to plate collision. However, it was well known long ago that in most cases mountain building began 10-100 Ma later. For example, in the Middle and Southern Urals collision occurred from the Late Devonian and until the Early Permian. The shortened regions remained covered by a shallow sea. High mountains began to form rapidly 10 Ma after the termination of collision. The Verkhoyansk Range in Northeastern Asia was strongly shortened at mid-Cretaceous time. It remained at a low altitude for 100 Ma and rose by 2 km in the Pleistocene. Compressive stresses most probably were acting in the Urals during all the epoch of collision. Strong shortening however occurred only as several impulses 1-2 Ma long. This can be explained by temporary weakening of the lithosphere due to a change in the mechanism of creep under infiltration of fluids from the mantle. To sustain a thickened crust at a low altitude, a density increase in the lithosphere was necessary. A possible cause could be metamorphism in crustal rocks, both mafic and felsic, under a pressure increase during collision. Rapid uplift of the shortened crust long after collision and establishment of a new temperature distribution indicates a density decrease in the lithosphere. Thus, on the Precambrian cratons which cover about 70% of continental areas collision terminated ≥ 500 Ma ago. However, during the last several Ma most of them underwent the uplift ranging from 100-200 m to 1000-1500 m. This occurred on the African continent, in central and eastern Australia, East Siberia, East Antarctica and in many other regions. Preservation of thick mantle roots precluded delamination of the lowermost lithosphere as a mechanism for the uplift. Due to a strong denudation of cratons deeply metamorphosed rocks of the lower crust emerged to a shallow depth. Under dry conditions for a long time they remained metastable. Recent inflow of fluid from the mantle

  2. Mountaineers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    89 x 110 mm. Woodburytype. A half-length portrait of a seated man from the village of Prodromos. The portrait appears in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.2, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). It is annotated: 'The villagers are a robust race, as may be gathered from the two following photographs, the first of which represents one of the chief people of the place, a man who deserves to be rendered famous for the kind manner in w...

  3. Mountaineers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    84 x 107 mm. Woodburytype. A posed portrait of a man from Prodromos. The portrait appears in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.2, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). It is annotated: 'Another Highlander figures in the second plate - a tall, bony man of a most obligingly good-natured disposition. He, however, looked a bold, determined character, whose massive hands and muscular frame would stand him in good stead in carrying out ...

  4. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2011 Annual Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  5. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  6. Impact of Hypoxia on Man on Mountaineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kislitsyn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available External respiratory function was studied in those engaged in mountaineering. A negative correlation was found between the intensity of exercise and the changes in vital capacity under mountainous conditions. Changes occurring in the levels of glucose and cholesterol were considered in tourists.

  7. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Transmission Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis and Testing ...

  9. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. TS04-277-002] Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional information in support of its request for continued waiver of Standards of Conduct. Any...

  10. The impact of environment change on culture evolution in east Ancient Silk Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, G.; Liu, F.; Li, G.; Zhang, D. D.; Lee, H. F.; Chen, F.

    2017-12-01

    Ancient Silk Road played an important role in culture communication between west and east parts of the Eurasia during Bronze Age and historical period. Tens of archaic civilizations rise and fall in east parts of the Ancient Silk Road, climate change is attributed as one of the most important driving forces, while the process and mechanism for the impact of environmental change on culture evolution in the area has not been well-understood. Here we report new paleoclimate data based on multi-proxy analysis from two well-dated aeolian deposit sequences in the Hexi Corridor and Qaidam basin, where locate at the throat position of the Ancient Silk Road. Comparing with high-resolution tree rings from Qilian Mountain nearby, and archaeological evidence and historical documents, we proposed that two desertification events occurred in west Hexi Corridor between 3400-3100 BP and post 1450 AD, which induced two cultural discontinuity in that area. Climate was dry between 3400-2900 BP and wet between 2900-2000 BP in lowlands of east Qaidam basin, mismatching with the development of Nuomuhong Bronze culture in the area during 3400-2450 BP. We propose culture evolution in east Ancient Silk Road was mainly influenced by precipitation change of highlands in mountain areas,which was further influenced by large-scale vapor transport.

  11. A sightability model for mountain goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  12. Imaging of upper crustal structure beneath East Java-Bali, Indonesia with ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Cummins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Sri Widiyantoro; Masturyono

    2017-12-01

    The complex geological structures in East Java and Bali provide important opportunities for natural resource exploitation, but also harbor perils associated with natural disasters. Such a condition makes the East Java region an important area for exploration of the subsurface seismic wave velocity structure, especially in its upper crust. We employed the ambient noise tomography method to image the upper crustal structure under this study area. We used seismic data recorded at 24 seismographs of BMKG spread over East Java and Bali. In addition, we installed 28 portable seismographs in East Java from April 2013 to January 2014 for 2-8 weeks, and we installed an additional 28 seismographs simultaneously throughout East Java from August 2015 to April 2016. We constructed inter-station Rayleigh wave Green's functions through cross-correlations of the vertical component of seismic noise recordings at 1500 pairs of stations. We used the Neighborhood Algorithm to construct depth profiles of shear wave velocity (Vs). The main result obtained from this study is the thickness of sediment cover. East Java's southern mountain zone is dominated by higher Vs, the Kendeng basin in the center is dominated by very low Vs, and the Rembang zone (to the North of Kendeng zone) is associated with medium Vs. The existence of structures with oil and gas potential in the Kendeng and Rembang zones can be identified by low Vs.

  13. Perspectives East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Sasaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to elucidate the sense of space peculiar to Japanese sensibility. To accomplish this task I consult not only paintings but also waka, distinctively Japanese poetry. I also compare the structures of Japanese and Western perspective in order to highlight the distinctive features of the Japanese sense of space. In China and Japan, traditional landscape painting was called sansui painting, literally, painting of “mountains and waters,” unlike fūkei painting, which is a modern adaptation of the Western notion of landscape. Landscape as sansui is characterized by its vitalistic conception: the cosmic space is filled with ki, a vital and spiritual element. This view is reflected in the Japanese notion of keshiki (literally, color of ki, another word meaning landscape, to which I pay particular attention because it is a vernacular word and expresses the genuine Japanese sense of space, differentiated even from the Chinese perspective found in Sansui paintings. Such a space as keshiki was to be felt rather than seen. The notion of the picturesque was associated in Japan with a spatial extent. It is a concept closely related to a humid climate that produces much fog or haze. A typical description is found in the Tale of Genji. It is in waka, from the thirteenth century, that we find the first expression of Japanese perspective, which consists the combination of a tactile, sometimes auditory close range with the visual, distant range, yet without a middle range (which is obscured by fog. This is very different from Western geometrical perspective, which is essentially constituted by the middle range relating the close continuously to the distant. In painting, this Japanese perspective was realized for the first time in ukiyo-e, particularly in the work of Hokusai and Hiroshige. I assume that this composition was transplanted to the Western world during the fashion for “japonisme,” and now determines the basic

  14. AHP 21: Review: Moving Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Moving Mountains stands out among recent discussions of the Southeast Asian Highlands, drawing from twelve contributors with extensive field experience living and working in locales closed to nonCommunist academics between 1945 and 1990 (3. The authors' methodologies focus on the anthropological approach of participant observation combined with oral history. Previously, substantial research had been confined to the experience of "hill tribes" in Northern Thailand (11, unless one gained access to the massive collections of French language research under the École Française d'Extrême Orient (EFEO or the Société Asiatique (SA, both in Paris. As such, this volume's contributors are able to ring out the voices of Southeast Asian Massif populations in a way that demonstrates a mindful assembly of research, while carefully narrating a more complex view of the region than that presented by Scott's (2009:22 "zones of refuge." ...

  15. Natural analogs for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the US, spent fuels from commercial reactors and nuclear materials generated by defense activities, will remain potentially hazardous for thousands of years. Demonstrable long-term stability of certain geologic and geochemical systems motivates and sustains the concept that high-level waste can be safely isolated in geologic repositories for requisite periods of time. Each geologic repository is unique in its properties and performance with reguard to isolation of nuclear wastes. Studies of processes analogous to waste-form alteration and radioelement transport in environments analogous to Yucca Mountain are being conducted at two sites, described in this article to illustrate uses of natural analog data: the Nopal I uranium deposit in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico, and the Akrotiri archaeological site on the island of Santorini, Greece

  16. Geological Structure and Gold Mineralization of Carbonaceous Deposits of the Tyotechnaya Mountain (South Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Snachev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the geological structure of the northern part of the East-Urals Trough. Particular attention is paid to the Kosobrodskaya Formation, where the carbonaceous deposits are most abundant. It was found that the gold in the black shales of the Tyotechnaya Mountain is associated with the intensively dislocated, silicified and sulfidised rocks struck with the diorite porphyry of the Birgildin-Tomino Complex. Channel sampling on the number of wells showed the gold grades up to 1.5 g/t that allows suggesting the setting up of new gold deposit.

  17. Occupational Health in Mountainous Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhusupov, Kenesh O; Colosio, Claudio; Tabibi, Ramin; Sulaimanova, Cholpon T

    2015-01-01

    In the period of transition from a centralized economy to the market economy, occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan have survived through dramatic, detrimental changes. It is common for occupational health regulations to be ignored and for basic occupational health services across many industrial enterprises and farms to be neglected. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the present situation and challenges facing occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan. The transition from centralized to the market economy in Kyrgyzstan has led to increased layoffs of workers and unemployment. These threats are followed by increased workload, and the health and safety of workers becomes of little concern. Private employers ignore occupational health and safety; consequently, there is under-reporting of occupational diseases and accidents. The majority of enterprises, especially those of small or medium size, are unsanitary, and the health status of workers remains largely unknown. The low official rates of occupational diseases are the result of data being deliberately hidden; lack of coverage of working personnel by medical checkups; incompetent management; and the poor quality of staff, facilities, and equipment. Because Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country, the main environmental and occupational factor of enterprises is hypoxia. Occupational health specialists have greatly contributed to the development of occupational medicine in the mountains through science and practice. The enforcement of existing strong occupational health legislation and increased financing of occupational health services are needed. The maintenance of credible health monitoring and effective health services for workers, re-establishment of medical services and sanitary-hygienic laboratories in industrial enterprises, and support for scientific investigations on occupational risk assessment will increase the role of occupational health services in improving the health of the working population

  18. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Characterization and comparison of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL resistance genotypes and population structure of Escherichia coli isolated from Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan and humans in Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernandez

    Full Text Available We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan in central parts of Chile. We found a surprisingly high carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli among the gulls 112/372 (30.1% as compared to the human population 6/49 (12.2%. Several of the E. coli sequence types (STs identified in birds have previously been reported as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR human pathogens including the ability to produce ESBLs. This means that not only commensal flora is shared between birds and humans but also STs with pathogenic potential. Given the migratory behavior of Franklin's gulls, they and other migratory species, may be a part of ESBL dissemination in the environment and over great geographic distances. Apart from keeping the antibiotic use low, breaking the transmission chains between the environment and humans must be a priority to hinder the dissemination of resistance.

  20. Difference in tree growth responses to climate at the upper treeline: Qilian Juniper in the Anyemaqen Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianfeng; Gou, Xiaohua; Chen, Fahu; Li, Jinbao; Liu, Puxing; Zhang, Yong; Fang, Keyan

    2008-08-01

    Three ring-width chronologies were developed from Qilian Juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) at the upper treeline along a west-east gradient in the Anyemaqen Mountains. Most chronological statistics, except for mean sensitivity (MS), decreased from west to east. The first principal component (PC1) loadings indicated that stands in a similar climate condition were most important to the variability of radial growth. PC2 loadings decreased from west to east, suggesting the difference of tree-growth between eastern and western Anyemaqen Mountains. Correlations between standard chronologies and climatic factors revealed different climatic influences on radial growth along a west-east gradient in the study area. Temperature of warm season (July-August) was important to the radial growth at the upper treeline in the whole study area. Precipitation of current May was an important limiting factor of tree growth only in the western (drier) upper treeline, whereas precipitation of current September limited tree growth in the eastern (wetter) upper treeline. Response function analysis results showed that there were regional differences between tree growth and climatic factors in various sampling sites of the whole study area. Temperature and precipitation were the important factors influencing tree growth in western (drier) upper treeline. However, tree growth was greatly limited by temperature at the upper treeline in the middle area, and was more limited by precipitation than temperature in the eastern (wetter) upper treeline.

  1. East India Company Logbooks - Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...

  2. Mountain laurel toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Ingrid O; DeClementi, Camille; Guenther, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    To describe a case of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) toxicosis in a dog, including case management and successful outcome. A dog presented for vomiting, hematochezia, bradycardia, weakness, and ataxia, which did not improve with supportive treatment. Mountain laurel ingestion was identified as cause of clinical signs after gastrotomy was performed to remove stomach contents. Supportive treatment was continued and the dog made a full recovery. This report details a case of mountain laurel toxicosis in a dog, including management strategies and outcome, which has not been previously published in the veterinary literature. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  3. Transport of neptunium through Yucca Mountain tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Robinson, B.A.; Mitchell, A.J.; Overly, C.M.; Lopez, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Neptunium has a high solubility in groundwaters from Yucca Mountain [1]. Uranium in nuclear reactors produces 237 Np which has a half-life of 2.1 4 x 10 6 years. Consequently, the transport of 237 Np through tuffs is of major importance in assessing the performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The objective of this work is to determine the amount of Np retardation that is provided by the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs as a function of groundwater chemistry

  4. Preliminary description of quaternary and late pliocene surficial deposits at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain area, in the south-central part of the Great Basin, is in the drainage basin of the Amargosa River. The mountain consists of several fault blocks of volcanic rocks that are typical of the Basin and Range province. Yucca Mountain is dissected by steep-sided valleys of consequent drainage systems that are tributary on the east side to Fortymile Wash and on the west side to an unnamed wash that drains Crater Flat. Most of the major washes near Yucca Mountain are not integrated with the Amargosa River, but have distributary channels on the piedmont above the river. Landforms in the Yucca Mountain area include rock pediments, ballenas, alluvial pediments, alluvial fans, stream terraces, and playas. Early Holocene and older alluvial fan deposits have been smoothed by pedimentation. The semiconical shape of alluvial fans is apparent at the junction of tributaries with major washes and where washes cross fault and terrace scarps. Playas are present in the eastern and southern ends of the Amargosa Desert. 39 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. Nuclear power in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This editorial discusses the shifting dominance in the nuclear reactor technology from the USA to new leadership in East Asia. With the expanding economies and electricity demand, Design, construction and operation of a large number of nuclear power plants in east Asia will support nuclear engineers, technologist, manufacturing facilities, and potential weapons experts. In contrast, the cessation of construction of power reactors in the US is leading to deminished nuclear capabilities

  6. Major results of gravity and magnetic studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, H.W.; Ponce, D.A.; Sikora, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    About 4,000 gravity stations have been obtained at Yucca Mountain and vicinity since the beginning of radioactive-waste studies there in 1978. These data have been integrated with data from about 29,000 stations previously obtained in the surrounding region to produce a series of Bouguer and isostatic-residual-gravity maps of the Nevada Test Site and southeastern Nevada. Yucca Mountain is characterized by a WNW-dipping gravity gradient whereby residual values of -10 mGal along the east edge of Yucca Mountain decrease to about -38 mGal over Crater Flat. Using these gravity data, two-dimensional modeling predicted the depth to pre-Cenozoic rocks near the proposed repository to be about 1,220±150 m, an estimate that was subsequently confirmed by drilling to be 1,244 m. Three-dimensional modeling of the gravity low over Crater Flat indicates the thickness of Cenozoic volcanic rocks and alluvial cover to be about 3,000 m. Gravity interpretations also identified the Silent Canyon caldera before geologic mapping of Pahute Mesa and provided an estimate of the thickness of the volcanic section there of nearly 5 km. Considerable aeromagnetic coverage of southwestern Nevada was obtained in 1978-79 to help characterize Yucca Mountain and vicinity. One significant result is the discovery of a series of circular magnetic anomalies in Crater Flat and the northern Amargosa Desert that suggest the presence of buried volcanic centers there. If this interpretation is confirmed by drilling, the magnetic data can be used to help estimate the total volume of buried volcanic rocks, which, along with radiometric dating, could help provide a better prediction of future volcanism. Elongate magnetic highs and associated lows over Yucca Mountain correlate with mapped faults, some of which are only partially exposed. Thus, the data provide information on the extent and continuity of these faults

  7. The Rapid Arctic Warming and Its Impact on East Asian Winter Weather in Recent Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. J.; Kim, B. M.; Kim, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much more rapidly than the lower latitudes. In contrast to the rapid Arctic warming, in winters of the recent decade, the cold-air outbreaks over East Asia occur more frequently and stronger than in 1990s. By accompanying the snow over East Asia, the strong cold surges have led to a severe socio-economic impact. Such severe cold surges in recent decade over east Asia is consistent with the more dominant negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), that may be attributed by the Arctic amplification. In both observation-based reanalysis and numerical model experiments, the Arctic sea ice melting leads to the weakening of the AO polarity by reducing the meridional temperature gradient through a heat flux feedback. The Arctic warming and associated sea ice melting over the Kara-Barents area in late fall and early winter first release a lot of heat to the atmosphere from the ocean by a strong contrast in temperature and moisture and higher height anomaly is developed over the Kara/Barents and the Ural mountains The anomalous anticyclonic anomaly over the Arctic strengthen the Siberian High and at the same time the east Asian trough is developed over the western coast of the North Pacific. Through the passage between the margin of the Siberian High and east Asian tough, an extremely cold air is transported from east Siberia to east Asia for sometimes more than a week. Such a severe sold air brings about the moisture from nearby ocean, largely influencing the daily lives and economy in north East China, Korea, and Japan. The recent Arctic and associated sea ice melting is not only contributed to the local climate and weather, but also a severe weather in mid-latitudes through a modulation in polar vortex.

  8. New aerogeophysical views of crustal architecture in the Recovery frontier of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Forsberg, Rene; Jordan, Tom; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Olsen, Arne; King, Owen; Ghidella, Marta

    2014-05-01

    East Antarctica is the least known continent on Earth, despite being regarded as a keystone in Gondwana, Rodinia and possibly Columbia supercontinents. Significant progress has however been made in recent years in the exploration of East Antarctica using airborne geophysical techniques. Spurred by the International Polar Year major collaborative aerogeophysical campaigns have been performed over the Wilkes Subglacial Basin, the Aurora Subglacial Basin and the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains. Analyses of these recent datasets is providing fundamental new glimpses into the crustal architecture in interior East Antarctica, as well as several new interpretations regarding its linkages with tectonic and geodynamic evolution from the Precambrian to the Mesozoic. Here we present the first results of a major reconnaissance aerogeophysical survey over the largely unexplored Recovery ice stream catchment in East Antarctica, flown during the IceGRAV 2012-13 field season, as part of a new international Danish, Norwegian, UK and Argentine collaboration. Over 29,000 line km of new radio-echo sounding, laser altimetry, gravity and magnetic data were acquired using a British Antarctic Survey Twin Otter. We will focus primarily on presenting the new potential field datasets and discuss the anomaly patterns seen in aeromagnetic anomaly maps, free air, Bouguer and isostatic residual maps. The aerogeophysical datasets we will present provide a new foundation to address a cascade of open questions regarding this part of East Antarctica, including: i) Where are and what is the nature of the major tectonic boundaries separating the Coast block, the Shackleton Range and the Dronning Maud Land crustal provinces? Specifically is there new geophysical evidence in support of a Pan-African age suture zone in the Shackleton Range linked to Gondwana assembly?; ii) is there evidence in support of an older Grenvillian-age orogenic belt, extending across the interior of East Antarctica?; Or, is

  9. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. East Cent. East Cent. Afr. J.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. ... collaboration in the writing and editing of Surgical Care at the District Hospital, ... increasing availability of computers and huge developments in software technology such ... Emergency Surgery ...

  10. TERRAIN, FRANKLIN COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. Maailm aastal 2026 / Daniel Franklin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Franklin, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Aastaks 2026 ennustatakse, et maailma tugevama majandusega riikideks on Hiina ja USA ning Euroopa majandus hääbub. Diagrammid: SKP 2006/2026 ostujõu pariteedi alusel, % kogu maailmast; SKP 2006/2026 turuvahetuskursi alusel, % kogu maailmast

  12. FLOODPLAIN, FRANKLIN COUNTY, MO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  13. floodzones_franklin_FEMA_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  14. TERRAIN, FRANKLIN PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING, Franklin COUNTY, IN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  16. BASEMAP, FRANKLIN COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  17. FLOODPLAIN, FRANKLIN COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  18. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/

  19. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  20. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  1. A middle Pleistocene through middle Miocene moraine sequence in the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, A.; Bromley, G. R.; Balco, G.; Thomas, H.; Jackson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Ice-free areas at high elevation in the central Transantarctic Mountains preserve extensive moraine sequences and drift deposits that comprise a geologic record of former East Antarctic Ice Sheet thickness and extent. We are applying cosmogenic-nuclide exposure dating to determine the ages of these moraine sequences at Roberts Massif and Otway Massif, at the heads of the Shackleton and Beardmore Glaciers, respectively. Moraines at these sites are for the most part openwork boulder belts characteristic of deposition by cold-based ice, which is consistent with present climate and glaciological conditions. To develop our chronology, we collected samples from 30 distinct ice-marginal landforms and have so far measured >100 3He, 10Be, and 21Ne exposure ages. Apparent exposure ages range from 1-14 Ma, which shows that these landforms record glacial events between the middle Pleistocene and middle Miocene. These data show that the thickness of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in this region was similar to or thicker than present for long periods between the middle Miocene and today. The time range represented by these moraine sequences indicates that they may also provide direct geologic evidence for East Antarctic Ice Sheet behavior during past periods of warmer-than-present climate, specifically the Miocene and Pliocene. As the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is the largest ice sheet on earth, understanding its sensitivity to warm-climate conditions is critical for projections of ice sheet behavior and sea-level rise in future warm climates.

  2. Radioecological situation in the Khibiny mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedova, N.B.

    2008-01-01

    Radioecological situation in the Khibiny Mountains is considered. Two former areas of engineering nuclear explosions are monitored. The accumulation and migration of radionuclides in soil, vegetation and snow are examined.

  3. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  4. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  5. Mountain Wave Analysis Using Fourier Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roadcap, John R

    2007-01-01

    ...) their requirements for only a coarse horizontal background state. Common traits of Fourier mountain wave models include use of the Boussinesq approximation and neglect of moisture and Coriolis terms...

  6. MOUNTAIN TOURISM-PLEASURE AND NECESSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Corina SLUSARIUC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has a more and more important role in the economic development of many countries. Mountain tourism is an anti-stress solutions and a type of disconnection from the citadel life style through replacing some activities of media consuming type, games and virtual socializing with therapy through movement, the physical activity being an essential dimension in assuring the high life quality. Mountaineering is searched for: practicing winter sports, its invigorating and comforting, relaxing role, medical spa treatments practicing hiking, alpinism. Mountain tourism generates increased economic benefits for the surrounding areas, improves the life quality of the local communities and can assure the prosperity of some disadvantaged areas, being able to be a remedy for unindustrialised regions. Mountain tourism contributes to the economic development of the region and also to satisfying spiritual and psychological needs of the people, representing a necessity for a touristic area and a pleasure for tourist consumers.

  7. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holt, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Congress designated Yucca Mountain, NV, as the nation's sole candidate site for a permanent high-level nuclear waste repository in 1987, following years of controversy over the site-selection process...

  8. Alternative transportation study : Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report provides an assessment of historic and current visitation, infrastructure, and transportation conditions at the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in southwest Oklahoma. The study defines transportation-related goals ...

  9. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  10. Rethinking risk and disasters in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Kenneth; Mehta, Manjari

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a view of risk and disaster in the mountains that finds them fully a part of public safety issues in modern states and developments, rather than separated from them. This contrasts with prevailing approaches to disaster focused on natural hazards, “unscheduled” or extreme events, and emergency preparedness; approaches strongly reinforced by mountain stereotypes. Rather, we find the legacies of social and economic histories, especially relations to down-country or metropo...

  11. CURRENT MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN HIGH MOUNTAIN

    OpenAIRE

    KURT HANSELMANN; MUNTI YUHANA

    2006-01-01

    Remote and normally unpolluted high mountain lakes provide habitats with no or very limited anthropogenic influences and, therefore, their hydrodynamics are mostly regulated by the natural c onditions. Researches in high mountain lakes deal with measuring and modeling the response of the habitats to environmental changes especially correlated to acid deposition, pollutants influx and climatic variability. The microbial world has also become a focus in many studies of these extreme ecosystem...

  12. Gridded rainfall estimation for distributed modeling in western mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda, F.; Cong, S.; Schaake, J.; Smith, M.

    2006-05-01

    Estimation of precipitation in mountainous areas continues to be problematic. It is well known that radar-based methods are limited due to beam blockage. In these areas, in order to run a distributed model that accounts for spatially variable precipitation, we have generated hourly gridded rainfall estimates from gauge observations. These estimates will be used as basic data sets to support the second phase of the NWS-sponsored Distributed Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP 2). One of the major foci of DMIP 2 is to better understand the modeling and data issues in western mountainous areas in order to provide better water resources products and services to the Nation. We derive precipitation estimates using three data sources for the period of 1987-2002: 1) hourly cooperative observer (coop) gauges, 2) daily total coop gauges and 3) SNOw pack TELemetry (SNOTEL) daily gauges. The daily values are disaggregated using the hourly gauge values and then interpolated to approximately 4km grids using an inverse-distance method. Following this, the estimates are adjusted to match monthly mean values from the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Several analyses are performed to evaluate the gridded estimates for DMIP 2 experiments. These gridded inputs are used to generate mean areal precipitation (MAPX) time series for comparison to the traditional mean areal precipitation (MAP) time series derived by the NWS' California-Nevada River Forecast Center for model calibration. We use two of the DMIP 2 basins in California and Nevada: the North Fork of the American River (catchment area 885 sq. km) and the East Fork of the Carson River (catchment area 922 sq. km) as test areas. The basins are sub-divided into elevation zones. The North Fork American basin is divided into two zones above and below an elevation threshold. Likewise, the Carson River basin is subdivided in to four zones. For each zone, the analyses include: a) overall

  13. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Devojit K; Prakash, Anil; O'Loughlin, Samantha M; Bhattacharyya, Dibya R; Mohapatra, Pradumnya K; Bhattacharjee, Kanta; Das, Kanika; Singh, Sweta; Sarma, Nilanju P; Ahmed, Gias U; Walton, Catherine; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2012-03-20

    Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII) gene. Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP) in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be confirmed and its epidemiological significance further

  14. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Devojit K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be

  15. Geologic map of the Providence Mountains in parts of the Fountain Peak and adjacent 7.5' quadrangles, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Miller, David M.; Stevens, Calvin H.; Rosario, Jose J.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Wan, Elmira; Priest, Susan S.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2017-03-22

    IntroductionThe Providence Mountains are in the eastern Mojave Desert about 60 km southeast of Baker, San Bernardino County, California. This range, which is noted for its prominent cliffs of Paleozoic limestone, is part of a northeast-trending belt of mountainous terrain more than 100 km long that also includes the Granite Mountains, Mid Hills, and New York Mountains. Providence Mountains State Recreation Area encompasses part of the range, the remainder of which is within Mojave National Preserve, a large parcel of land administered by the National Park Service. Access to the Providence Mountains is by secondary roads leading south and north from Interstate Highways 15 and 40, respectively, which bound the main part of Mojave National Preserve.The geologic map presented here includes most of Providence Mountains State Recreation Area and land that surrounds it on the north, west, and south. This area covers most of the Fountain Peak 7.5′ quadrangle and small adjacent parts of the Hayden quadrangle to the north, the Columbia Mountain quadrangle to the northeast, and the Colton Well quadrangle to the east. The map area includes representative outcrops of most of the major geologic elements of the Providence Mountains, including gneissic Paleoproterozoic basement rocks, a thick overlying sequence of Neoproterozoic to Triassic sedimentary rocks, Jurassic rhyolite that intrudes and overlies the sedimentary rocks, Jurassic plutons and associated dikes, Miocene volcanic rocks, and a variety of Quaternary surficial deposits derived from local bedrock units. The purpose of the project was to map the area in detail, with primary emphasis on the pre-Quaternary units, to provide an improved stratigraphic, structural, and geochronologic framework for use in land management applications and scientific research.

  16. Study of natural biota of and biologic recovery possibilities for closed tunnels of the Degelen mountain complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Baiganov, A.T.; Seisebaev, A.T.; Nesipbaev, Sh.T.; Dzhanin, B.T.; Sultanova, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Processes of degradation due to nuclear testing affected all the components of the ecosystems stems of the Degelen Mountain Complex. The composition of the vegetative cover of the Degelen Mountains distinguishes by the diversity of vegetation due to significant differentiation of ecological conditions of vegetation growth. Here the following types of vegetation are present: steppe, meadow, forest, bushes, and desert. The peculiarity of vegetation is the presence of large forest areas (containing birch, aspen-birch, and poplar-aspen areas) in narrow mountain valleys and the certain locations of the main fragments of forests typical for them. In accordance with the methodology of the vertical zoning, the following zones have been determined on the territory of the Degelen Mountains: 1) a zone of mountainous meadow and motley-feather steppe; 2) a zone of bushes. During the field work of the Inst. of Radiation Safety and Ecology (IRSE) on analysis of Degelen Mountains' flora 387 species of vascular plants of 58 families have been found. This data permits to characterize the structure and the patterns of the specific flora on the representative area of the Degelen Mountains on the southeast edge of the Central Kazakstan Low Hills. The assessment of flora taxonomic diversity, the quantitative set of species and families reflects the specific properties inherent in flora of the Degelen Mountains of the east edge of the Central Kazakstan Low Hills. The floristic composition of the Degelen Mountain Complex is more rich as compared to that one of the other two test fields of the former STS: Experimental Field - 148 species, Balapan - 192 species. Data of ecological, geological and butanic studies allowed to determine the main types of anthropogenic destruction of the ecosystem and the nature of their spatial distribution, the major cenosis-forming species for every type of anthropogenic residence and the radioecological growth amplitude of the dominant cenosis

  17. Scientific progress at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is moving forward with studies to determine whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would be a suitable site for the nation's first high-level radioactive waste repository; however, the DOE's Congressionally mandated task of characterizing the site has been severely delayed by a lack of cooperation from the state of Nevada. The state has refused to issue the appropriate permits that must be obtained before surface disturbing studies can proceed; therefore, an extensive surface-based drilling and trenching program and construction of underground exploration facilities are on hold until pending litigation between the DOE and Nevada has been resolved. Despite this major impasse, significant scientific progress has been made, and the DOE is aggressively pursuing investigations that can be conducted without the state-issued permits. Additionally, the DOE is developing a high-quality technical and management structure as well as equipment, plans, and quality assurance procedures, so that the scientific investigation program can proceed without delay once the appropriate permits are obtained

  18. ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield

  19. Manganese Deposits in the Artillery Mountains Region, Mohave County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, S.G.; Webber, B.N.

    1944-01-01

    The manganese deposits of the Artillery Mountains region lie within an area of about 25 square miles between the Artillery and Rawhide Mountains, on the west side of the Bill Williams River in west-central Arizona. The richest croppings are on the northeast side of this area, among the foothills of the Artillery Mountains. They are 6 to 10 miles from Alamo. The nearest shipping points are Congress, about 50 miles to the east, and Aguila, about 50 miles to the southeast. The principal manganese deposits are part of a sequence of alluvial fan and playa material, probably of early Pliocene age, which were laid down in a fault basin. They are overlain by later Pliocene (?) basalt flows and sediments and by Quaternary basalt and alluvium. The Pliocene (?) rocks are folded into a shallow composite S1ncline ttat occupies the valley between the Artillery and Rawhide Mountains, and the folded rocks along either side of the valley, together with the overlying Quaternary basalt, are broken by faults that have produced a group of horsts, grabens, and step-fault blocks. The manganiferous beds, lie at two zones, 750 to 1,000 feet apart stratigraphically, each of which is locally as much as 300 to 400 feet thick. The main, or upper, zone contains three kinds of ore - sandstone ore, clay ore, and 'hard' ore. The sandstone and clay ores differ from the associated barren sandstone and clay, with which they are interlayered and into which they grade, primarily in containing a variable proportion of amorphous manganese oxides, besides iron oxides and clayey material such as are present in the barren beds. The 'hard' ore is sandstone that has been impregnated with opal and calcite and in which the original amorphous manganese oxides have been largely converted to psilomelane and manganite. The average manganese content of the sandstone and clay ores is between 3 and 4 percent and that of the 'hard' ore is between 6 and 7 percent. The ore contains an average of 3 percent of iron, 0

  20. Neotectonic inversion of the Hindu Kush-Pamir mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Hindu Kush-Pamir region of southern Asia is one of Earth's most rapidly deforming regions and it is poorly understood. This study develops a kinematic model based on active faulting in this part of the Trans-Himalayan orogenic belt. Previous studies have described north-verging thrust faults and some strike-slip faults, reflected in the northward-convex geomorphologic and structural grain of the Pamir Mountains. However, this structural analysis suggests that contemporary tectonics are changing the style of deformation from north-verging thrusts formed during the initial contraction of the Himalayan orogeny to south-verging thrusts and a series of northwest-trending, dextral strike-slip faults in the modern transpressional regime. These northwest-trending fault zones are linked to the major right-lateral Karakoram fault, located to the east, as synthetic, conjugate shears that form a right-stepping en echelon pattern. Northwest-trending lineaments with dextral displacements extend continuously westward across the Hindu Kush-Pamir region indicating a pattern of systematic shearing of multiple blocks to the northwest as the deformation effects from Indian plate collision expands to the north-northwest. Locally, east-northeast- and northwest-trending faults display sinistral and dextral displacement, respectively, yielding conjugate shear pairs developed in a northwest-southeast compressional stress field. Geodetic measurements and focal mechanisms from historical seismicity support these surficial, tectono-morphic observations. The conjugate shear pairs may be structurally linked subsidiary faults and co-seismically slip during single large magnitude (> M7) earthquakes that occur on major south-verging thrust faults. This kinematic model provides a potential context for prehistoric, historic, and future patterns of faulting and earthquakes.

  1. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  2. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  3. Upper crustal structure beneath East Java from ambient noise tomography: A preliminary result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Cummins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Masturyono

    2015-01-01

    East Java has a fairly complex geological structure. Physiographically East Java can be divided into three zones, i.e. the Southern Mountains zone in the southern part, the Kendeng zone in the middle part, and the Rembang zone in the northern part. Most of the seismic hazards in this region are due to processes in the upper crust. In this study, the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method is used to image the upper crustal structure beneath East Java. We have used seismic waveform data recorded by 8Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 16 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. The data were processed to obtain waveforms fromnoise cross-correlation between pairs of seismographic stations. Our preliminary results indicate that the Kendeng zone, an area of low gravity anomaly, is associated with a low velocity zone. On the other hand, the southern mountain range, which has a high gravity anomaly, is related to a high velocity anomaly as shown by our tomographic images

  4. Upper crustal structure beneath East Java from ambient noise tomography: A preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha, Agustya Adi [Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Graduate Research on Earthquakes and Active Tectonics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia); Widiyantoro, Sri [Global Geophysics Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia); Center for Disaster Mitigation, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia); Cummins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Masturyono [Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    East Java has a fairly complex geological structure. Physiographically East Java can be divided into three zones, i.e. the Southern Mountains zone in the southern part, the Kendeng zone in the middle part, and the Rembang zone in the northern part. Most of the seismic hazards in this region are due to processes in the upper crust. In this study, the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method is used to image the upper crustal structure beneath East Java. We have used seismic waveform data recorded by 8Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 16 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. The data were processed to obtain waveforms fromnoise cross-correlation between pairs of seismographic stations. Our preliminary results indicate that the Kendeng zone, an area of low gravity anomaly, is associated with a low velocity zone. On the other hand, the southern mountain range, which has a high gravity anomaly, is related to a high velocity anomaly as shown by our tomographic images.

  5. Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausel, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as a complex, even though it has some characteristics of a greestone belt. At least three episodes of Precambrian deformation have affected the supracrustals, and two have disturbed the granites. The final Precambrian deformation event was preceded by a weak thermal event expressed by retrogressive metamorphism and restricted metasomatic alteration. During this event, a second phase of pegmatization was accompanied by hydrothermal solutions. During the Laramide orogeny, Copper Mountain was again modified by deformation. Laramide deformation produced complex gravity faults and keystone grabens. Uranium deposits were formed following major Laramide deformation. The genesis of these deposits is attributable to either the leaching of granites or the leaching of overlying tuffaceous sediments during the Tertiary. Production of metals and industrial minerals has been limited, although some gold, copper, silver, tungsten, beryl, feldspar, and lithium ore have been shipped from Copper Mountain. A large amount of uranium was produced from the Copper Mountain district in the 1950s

  6. SWANEA (Southwest Asia-Northeast Africa) A Climatological Study. Volume 3. The Near East Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    SHIRAZ TlRA M LAT/LON: 2f 32 N 52 35 E ELEV: 4920 FT ILIHINTS JAN jFEB J MAR IAPR [MAY IJUN JJU, JAUG ISEP JOCT I NOV j DEC IAkNNJ EXT MAX 61 i75 81...M1AR APR I MAY I JUN jJUL JAUG ISEP I OCT I NOV IDE C IANN xX 5MA1 58 69 75 " ao 921 1001 98 191 j 841 67j 57’ 100 AIVG MAX .... 13 42 5 6 76 83 1 483...o t S•TATON : ESKISEHI[R T URM-’ LAT/LOI.: 39 47 N 30 34 E ELEV: 2579 FT ELEMI.-L TS !JAN FEB IMAR IAPR iHAY JUN JUL JAUG .SEP OCT NOV IDEC I NNI EXT

  7. The "Geomorphologic Diagonal" of Central Europe - towards a new morphotectonic interpretation of macroforms in average mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Ludwig

    2016-04-01

    Modern methods of low temperature thermochronology are able to throw light on the geomorphological development of macrorelief landforms. A rarely investigated problem concerns the orientation and morphotectonic evolution of Central European uplands (low to mid-elevation mountain ranges). A conspicuous NW-SE striking boundary takes course through Germany from the Osning and Teutoburg Forest in the NW to the Bavarian Forest in the SE. I call this line the "geomorphological diagonal". East of this line, more or less NW-SE striking morphotectonic features (e.g., Harz Mountains, Sudety) dominate the macrorelief up to the eastern border of Central Europe (Thornquist-Teysseire Lineament), with the exception of the Ohre Rift and Central Bohemia. West of this line, the macrorelief is either characterized by NNE-SSW to N-S oriented structures (e.g., Upper Rhine Rift) and, to a lesser extent, by (S)SW-(E)NE mountain ranges (southern Rhenish Slate Mountains and Ore Mountains) or by no predominance at all. In the Lower Rhine Embayment and along the Middle Rhine River, (N)NW-(S)SE directed morphotectonic features influence the low mountain ranges. In several cases geologists have proven that NW-SE morphotectonic structures are related to the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian to Campanian) "basin inversion" (e.g., von Eynatten et al. 2008). A compilation of low temperature thermochronological data (AFT, [U-Th]/He) from Central Europe clearly supports strong crustal cooling during the Upper Cretaceous and lowermost Tertiary in morphotectonically protruded crustal blocks east of the geomorphological diagonal, whereas west of it the age data available so far exhibit a much larger scatter from Upper Paleozoic to Tertiary without clear evidence of an outstanding Upper Cretaceous crustal cooling event. Based on this data I hypothesize that east of the diagonal macroforms of uplifted denudation surfaces ("peneplains" or "etchplains") may be inherited from the Cretaceous whereas west of it

  8. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and

  9. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  10. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  11. Spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca (fabaceae) reveals multiple dispersals in central Asian mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Wen, Zhi-Bin; Fritsch, Peter W; Sanderson, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried out in order to confirm its taxonomic status and reconstruct its evolutionary history. We employed BEAST Bayesian inference for dating, and S-DIVA and BBM for ancestral area reconstruction, to study its spatiotemporal evolution. Our results show that Calophacais monophyletic and nested within Caragana. The divergence time of Calophaca is estimated at ca. 8.0 Ma, most likely driven by global cooling and aridification, influenced by rapid uplift of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau margins. According to ancestral area reconstructions, the genus most likely originated in the Pamir Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot and hypothesized Tertiary refugium of many Central Asian plant lineages. Dispersals from this location are inferred to the western Tianshan Mountains, then northward to the Tarbagatai Range, eastward to East Asia, and westward to the Caucasus, Russia, and Europe. The spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca provides a case contributing to an understanding of the flora and biodiversity of the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions.

  12. Clinoptilolite compositions in diagenetically-altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The compositions of Yucca Mountain clinoptilolites and their host tuffs are highly variable. Clinoptilolites and heulandites in fractures near the repository and in a thin, altered zone at the top of the Topopah Spring basal vitrophyre have consistent calcium-rich compositions. Below this level, clinoptilolites in thick zones of diagenetic alteration on the east side of Yucca Mountain have calcic-potassic compositions and become more calcium rich with depth. Clinoptilolites in stratigraphically equivalent tuffs to the west have sodic-potassic compositions and become more sodic with depth. Clinoptilolite properties important for repository performance assessment include thermal expansion/contraction behavior, hydration/dehydration behavior, and ion-exchange properties. These properties can be significantly affected by clinoptilolite compositions. The compositional variations for clinoptilolites found by this study suggest that the properties will vary vertically and laterally at Yucca Mountain. Used in conjunction with experimental data, the clinoptilolite compositions presented here can be used to model the behavior of clinoptilolites in the repository environment and along transport pathways

  13. Mineralogy of drill hole UE-25pnumber1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1988-05-01

    Drill hole UE-25p/number sign/1 is located east of the candidate repository block at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and as such provides information on the geology of the accessible environment. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1807 m (5923 ft) and is unique in that it penetrates tuffs that are older than any volcanic units previously encountered in drill holes at Yucca Mountain. In addition, it is the only hole drilled to date that penetrates the base of the tuff sequence and enters the underlying Paleozoic dolomite basement. We have examined the mineralogy of drill cuttings, core, and sidewall samples from drill hole UE-25p/number sign/1 is similar to that in the other drill holes examined at Yucca Mountain. The only significant differences in mineralogy from other drill holes include the presence of dolomite in the Paleozoic carbonate rocks and the occurrence of up to 3% laumontite, a Ca-zeolite, in four samples of the Lithic Ridge Tuff. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Biomass burning in the Amazon-fertilizer for the mountaineous rain forest in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Peter; Kohlpaintner, Michael; Rollenbeck, Ruetger

    2005-09-01

    Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected in the mountaineous rain forest of south Ecuador show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates are derived comparable to those found in polluted central Europe. As significant anthropogenic sources are lacking at the research site it is suspected that biomass burning upwind in the Amazon basin is the major source of the enhanced sulfate and nitrate imput. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m has been carried out in the Podocarpus National Park close to the Rio SanFrancisco (3 degrees 58'S, 79 degrees 5'W) in southern Ecuador. pH values, electrical conductivity and chemical ion composition were measured at the TUM-WZW using standard methods. Results reported cover over one year from March 2002 until May 2003. Annual deposition rates of sulfate were calculated ranging between 4 and 13 kg S/ha year, almost as high as in polluted central Europe. Nitrogen deposition via ammonia (1.5-4.4 kg N/ha year) and nitrate (0.5-0.8 kg N/ha year) was found to be lower but still much higher than to be expected in such pristine natural forest environment. By means of back trajectory analyses it can be shown that most of the enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition is most likely due to forest fires far upwind of the ecuadorian sampling site, showing a seasonal variation, with sources predominantly found in the East/North East during January-March (Colombia, Venezuala, Northern Brazil) and East/SouthEast during July-September (Peru, Brazil). Our results show that biomass burning in the Amazon basin is the predominant source of sulfur and nitrogen compounds that fertilize the mountaineous rain forest in south Ecuador. The

  15. SEEWIND - South-East European Wind Energy Exploitation. Wind energy research in South East Europe under the EC FP6 programme; SEEWIND - South-East European Wind Energy Exploitation. Windenergieforschung im 6. Rahmenprogramm der Europaeischen Union in Suedosteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmeier, H. [Verein Energiewerkstatt (Austria)

    2008-08-15

    Large areas in South East Europe offer perfect conditions for the Utilisation of Wind Energy. Local wind systems like ''Bora'', which occurs along the Adriatic Sea, or ''Koshava'', which flows between the ridge of the Carpathian Mountains and the Balkan Mountains from Romania over to Serbia, are generated through differences in pressure and temperature between the adjacent regions. Those wind systems therefore can be described as 'home made' and have very individual characteristics. Despite the excellent wind conditions of those locations, the mainly cliffy and complex terrain and the extreme wind conditions with turbulences and strong gusts make great demands on the design and operation of the wind turbines. Exactly those problems the European Commission asked to be investigated and therefore defined 'Complex terrain and local wind systems' as one of the research topics in the last call of the 6th Framework Programme. Under the lead management of Verein Energiewerkstatt, a consortium of ten partners from seven middle- and southeast European countries took part in this call for proposals and received acceptance for the submitted Project ''SEEWIND - South-East European Wind Energy Exploitation''. (orig.)

  16. Structural character of the northern segment of the Paintbrush Canyon fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, R.P.; Spengler, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed mapping of exposed features along the northern part of the Paintbrush Canyon fault was initiated to aid in construction of the computer-assisted three-dimensional lithostratigraphic model of Yucca Mountain, to contribute to kinematic reconstruction of the tectonic history of the Paintbrush Canyon fault, and to assist in the interpretation of geophysical data from Midway Valley. Yucca Mountain is segmented into relatively intact blocks of east-dipping Miocene volcanic strata, bounded by north-striking, west-dipping high-angle normal faults. The Paintbrush Canyon fault, representing the easternmost block-bounding normal fault, separates Fran Ridge from Midway Valley and continues northward across Yucca Wash to at least the southern margin of the Timber Mountain Caldera complex. South of Yucca Wash, the Paintbrush Canyon Fault is largely concealed beneath thick Quaternary deposits. Bedrock exposures to the north reveal a complex fault, zone, displaying local north- and west-trending grabens, and rhombic pull-apart features. The fault scarp, discontinuously exposed along a mapped length of 8 km north of Yucca Wash, dips westward by 41 degrees to 74 degrees. Maximum vertical offset of the Rhyolite of Comb Peak along the fault measures about 210 m in Paintbrush Canyon and, on the basis of drill hole information, vertical offset of the Topopoah Spring Tuff is about 360 m near the northern part of Fran Ridge. Observed displacement along the fault in Paintbrush Canyon is down to the west with a component of left-lateral oblique slip. Unlike previously proposed tectonic models, strata adjacent to the fault dip to the east. Quaternary deposits do not appear displaced along the fault scarp north of Yucca Wash, but are displaced in trenches south of Yucca Wash

  17. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  18. Intraplate Earthquakes and Deformation within the East Antarctic Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, A. C.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.

    2017-12-01

    The apparent lack of tectonic seismicity within Antarctica has long been discussed. Explanations have ranged from a lack of intraplate stress due to the surrounding spreading ridges and low absolute plate velocity (Sykes, 1978), to the weight of ice sheets increasing the vertical normal stress (Johnston, 1987). The 26 station GAMSEIS/AGAP array deployed in East Antarctica from late 2008 to early 2010 provides the first opportunity to study the intraplate seismicity of the Antarctic interior using regional data. Here we report 27 intraplate tectonic earthquakes that occurred during 2009. Depth determination together with their corresponding uncertainty estimates, show that most events originate in the shallow to middle crust, indicating a tectonic and not a cryoseismic origin. The earthquakes are primarily located beneath linear alignments of basins adjacent to the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) that have been denoted as the East Antarctic rift system (Ferraccioli et al, 2011). The geophysical properties of the `rift' system contrast sharply with those of the GSM and Vostok Subglacial Highlands on either side. Crustal thickness, seismic velocity, and gravity anomalies all indicate large lateral variation in lithospheric properties. We propose the events outline an ancient continental rift, a terrain boundary feature, or a combination of the two where rifting exploited pre-existing weakness. It is natural to draw parallels between East Antarctica and the St. Lawrence depression where rifting and a collisional suture focus intraplate earthquakes within a craton (Schulte and Mooney, 2005). We quantify the East Antarctic seismicity by developing a frequency-magnitude relation, constraining the lower magnitudes with the 2009 results and the larger magnitudes with 1982-2012 teleseismic seismicity. East Antarctica and the Canadian Shield show statistically indistinguishable b-values (near 1) and seismicity rates as expressed as the number of events with mb > 4 per

  19. DANGERS AND SAFETY MEASURES IN A MOUNTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountaineering and everything that is connected with it is a sport with con¬tro¬lled risk. Mountaineers, alpinists, climbers, cavers and all the others who visit and sojourn in mountains are faced with many risks and dangers, which are caused by na¬ture and also by their own mistakes. The dangers in the mountains, like dangers in any other environment, are mainly predictable, so it is best to deal with them with good esti¬mation, knowledge and skill. One has to be aware of his surroundings – the moun¬tain, to respect it and to know what is dangerous and how much it is dangerous at any moment. The organization of the mountaineering expeditions and leadership per¬haps re¬present the highest level of security control. To develop skills for organizing and lead¬ing a group means to ensure the safety of the entire group – to work pre¬ven¬ti¬ve¬ly at the level of the entire group, not only at the level of an individual. The success of the enti¬re group as well as safety depends on the organization and leadership.

  20. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul C.; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at

  1. Seismicity of the Earth 1900–2010 Middle East and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Turner, Bethan; Turner, Rebecca; Hayes, Gavin P.; Davies, Sian; Dart, Richard L.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley M.

    2013-01-01

    No fewer than four major tectonic plates (Arabia, Eurasia, India, and Africa) and one smaller tectonic block (Anatolia) are responsible for seismicity and tectonics in the Middle East and surrounding region. Geologic development of the region is a consequence of a number of first-order plate tectonic processes that include subduction, large-scale transform faulting, compressional mountain building, and crustal extension. In the east, tectonics are dominated by the collision of the India plate with Eurasia, driving the uplift of the Himalaya, Karakorum, Pamir and Hindu Kush mountain ranges. Beneath the Pamir‒Hindu Kush Mountains of northern Afghanistan, earthquakes occur to depths as great as 200 km as a result of remnant lithospheric subduction. Along the western margin of the India plate, relative motions between India and Eurasia are accommodated by strike-slip, reverse, and oblique-slip faulting, resulting in the complex Sulaiman Range fold and thrust belt, and the major translational Chaman Fault in Afghanistan. Off the south coasts of Pakistan and Iran, the Makran trench is the surface expression of active subduction of the Arabia plate beneath Eurasia. Northwest of this subduction zone, collision between the two plates forms the approximately 1,500-km-long fold and thrust belts of the Zagros Mountains, which cross the whole of western Iran and extend into northeastern Iraq. Tectonics in the eastern Mediterranean region are dominated by complex interactions between the Africa, Arabia, and Eurasia plates, and the Anatolia block. Dominant structures in this region include: the Red Sea Rift, the spreading center between the Africa and Arabia plates; the Dead Sea Transform, a major strike-slip fault, also accommodating Africa-Arabia relative motions; the North Anatolia Fault, a right-lateral strike-slip structure in northern Turkey accommodating much of the translational motion of the Anatolia block westwards with respect to Eurasia and Africa; and the Cyprian

  2. Forests of East Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  3. Forests of east Texas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J.W. Dooley; T.J. Brandeis

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. Forest resource estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  4. Forests of east Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Dooley

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  5. East African Orthopaedic Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The East African Orthopaedic Journal is published biannually by the Kenya Orthopaedics Association. Its primary objective is to give researchers in orthopaedics and ... Format should be as follows; Details of authors as for original articles, summary of not more than 200 words, introduction, case report,

  6. East African Journal of Statistics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Journal of Statistics: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > East African Journal of Statistics: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Multinationals and East Asian Integration | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia. ... "dragons" of East Asia have emerged among the world's leading economic powers. ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  8. Wildfires in Siberian Mountain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Antamoshkina, O.

    2017-12-01

    The annual burned area in Russia was estimated as 0.55 to 20 Mha with >70% occurred in Siberia. We analyzed Siberian wildfires distribution with respect to elevation, slope steepness and exposure. In addition, wildfires temporal dynamic and latitudinal range were analyzed. We used daily thermal anomalies derived from NOAA/AVHRR and Terra/MODIS satellites (1990-2016). Fire return intervals were (FRI) calculated based on the dendrochronology analysis of samples taken from trees with burn marks. Spatial distribution of wildfires dependent on topo features: relative burned area increase with elevation increase (ca. 1100 m), switching to following decrease. The wildfires frequency exponentially decreased within lowlands - highlands transition. Burned area is increasing with slope steepness increase (up to 5-10°). Fire return intervals (FRI) on the southfacing slopes are about 30% longer than on the north facing. Wildfire re-occurrence is decreasing exponentially: 90% of burns were caused by single fires, 8.5% by double fires, 1% burned three times, and on about 0.05% territory wildfires occurred four times (observed period: 75 yr.). Wildfires area and number, as well as FRI, also dependent on latitude: relative burned area increasing exponentially in norward direction, whereas relative fire number is exponentially decreasing. FRI increases in the northward direction: from 80 years at 62°N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle, and to 300 years at the northern limit of closed forests ( 71+°N). Fire frequency, fire danger period and FRI are strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.81 - 0.95). In 21-s century, a positive trend of wildfires number and area observed in mountain areas in all Siberia. Thus, burned area and number of fires in Siberia are significantly increased since 1990th (R2 =0.47, R2 =0.69, respectively), and that increase correlated with air temperatures and climate aridity increases. However, wildfires are essential for supporting fire

  9. Periurban landscapes in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Les mutations des paysages régionaux dues aux pressions urbaines questionnent l’usage du sol. Elles interpellent à la fois des enjeux économiques, sociaux et environnementaux voire spatiaux sous-tendus par l’étalement urbain, l’accroissement des déplacements domicile-travail, le mitage de l’espace. Ces évolutions et dysfonctionnements renvoient à la question de la durabilité du développement des régions, et particulièrement des Alpes, espace contraint géographiquement et objet de nombreuses pressions anthropiques et riche en biotopes remarquables. Cet article est basé sur deux ans de travaux menés par des socio-économistes et des écologues sur les effets sur le paysage et l’environnement de la périurbanisation d’un massif alpin. Nous avons pris en compte l’espace dans les processus environnementaux, économiques ou sociaux. Intrinsèque dans les analyses écologiques, elle a longtemps posé problème à l’économie pour intégrer l’espace comme dimension à part entière des processus économiques. Trois thèmes sont ici développés : l’approche du point de vue du paysage, les problèmes d’échelles spatiales et temporelles, le choix d’indicateurs. Ils demandent de hiérarchiser les questions et de pratiquer le travail en commun. Aller au-delà nécessite de développer une interrogation plus écologique ou plus économique et/ou sociale en quittant de ce fait l’interface pour favoriser des interrogations disciplinaires particulières.Changes in regional landscapes due to urban pressures raise questions regarding land use. They also give rise to economic, social and environmental issues related to urban sprawl, increases in daily commuting, and land consumption. These changes and dysfunctions are ultimately underpinned by the question of sustainable regional development. Mountain regions such as the Alps, with their various outstanding biotopes in a restricted space, are particularly vulnerable.

  10. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG ampersand G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  11. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  12. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Yucca Mountain Biological resources monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geological repository for high-level radioactive waste. To ensure site characterization activities do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program, the Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program, has been implemented monitor and mitigate environmental impacts and to ensure activities comply with applicable environmental laws. Potential impacts to vegetation, small mammals, and the desert tortoise (an indigenous threatened species) are addressed, as are habitat reclamation, radiological monitoring, and compilation of baseline data. This report describes the program in Fiscal Years 1989 and 1990. 12 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  14. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests, and potentially large-scale lab. demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well-quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs

  15. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  16. SEASONAL DISCHARGE REGIME OF THE RIVERS IN THE TRANSYLVANIAN SUBCARPATHIANS AND THE ADJACENT MOUNTAINOUS SPACE BETWEEN TÂRNAVA MARE AND NIRAJ

    OpenAIRE

    VICTOR SOROCOVSCHI; DANIEL RADULY; CSABA HORVATH

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal discharge regime of the rivers in the Transylvanian Subcarpathians and the adjacent mountainous space between Târnava Mare and Niraj. The studied region is situated in the North-East of the Transylvanian Depression and includes two distinct units: the Transylvanian Subcarpathians and the Moldavo-Transylvanian Carpathians, comprised between the valleys of Târnava Mare and Niraj. The study is based upon the processing and interpretation of data coming from 13 hydrometric stations. In o...

  17. Report on geomorphologic and geodesic field surveys in the Sor Rondane Mountains, Eastern Dronning Maud Land, 2011-2012 (JARE-53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Suganuma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologic and geodetic field surveys were carried out in the Sor Rondane Mountains, East Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, during the 2011-2012 summer season as part of the 53rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-53. The field party consisted of three geomorphologists, one geodesist, and one field assistant. The expedition was supported by the Belgian Antarctic Research Expedition (BELARE and the International Polar Foundation (IPF. Dronning Maud Land Air Network (DROMLAN provided air transport from Cape Town, South Africa to the Sor Rondane Mountains via Novolazarevskaya Airbase. The survey areas were the central and western parts of the Sor Rondane Mountains. This report summarizes the field expedition in terms of operations, logistics, and weather records.

  18. The Neotectonic and its relation with radioactive manifestations in the east of the Sierra Maestra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geler Roffe, T.; Leal Ramirez, R.; Orbera Hernandez, L.; Alcaide Orpi, J.; Sanchez Rumayor, J.; Olivera Acosta, J.; Matos Martinez, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    The neotectonic structures of the east of the Sierra Maestra were studied. A tectonic-structural analysis of relief was made, were morphometric methods and the joint analysis of the geological, geophysical and geomorphological information were applied to know its influence in the control of the radioactive mineralization. The meso blocks and micro blocks were determined and characterized. The diagram of neotectonic blocks to scale 1:100 000 was made. The link between radioactive anomalies and disyuntive structures was demonstrated. A methodology of work for the study of the mountainous zones of the country was obtained

  19. Middle East and North African Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  20. Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology has been published since 1977 by the Bird Committee of the East Africa Natural History Society. Originally titled Scopus, the addition of Journal of East African Ornithology began with our January 2018 issue. The journal is published Open Access twice a year, typically in January ...

  1. Funding problems threaten Middle East's synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).

  2. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsburg, S.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography

  3. The mountains influence on Turkey Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensoy, Serhat

    2004-01-01

    Since the Black sea mountains at the north of the country and the Taurus mountains in the south lay parallel to the seashore and rise very sharply rain clouds can not penetrate to the internal part of the country. Rain clouds drops most of their water on the slopes opposite the sea. As rain clouds pass over the mountains and reach Central Anatolia they have no significant capability of rain. For this reason, the Central Anatolia does not have very much precipitation. The difference between the rates of precipitation on the inner and outer slopes seems to be effective on the expansion of plants. For example, there is a subtropical climate prevailing on the Black sea shore between Sinop and Batum where precipitation is more than 1000-2000 mm yearly. Going from Sinop to the mouth of the Sakarya River the rate of precipitation goes down to 800-1250 mm in a year. Running from the Sakarya River to the western area covering Thrace the climate seems to be continental, and in the area dominant plant cover is of the Mediterranean type. Since the succession of the mountains in Western Anatolia lay perpendicular to the seashore, rain clouds penetrate towards the inner regions for about 400 km. The continental climate with long, dry and summer affects this area. In the Eastern region of Anatolia, since the elevation of the mountains exceeds 2500-3000 m, valleys are disorderly scattered and located at high elevations, and the northern Black sea mountains and Caucasian mountains hold the rain clouds, the area is effected by the continental climate with long and very cold winters. Consequently precipitation at the lgdir River goes down to 300 mm while it is 500-800 mm in most of areas and 1000-1500 mm in some regions towards northern Mu and Bingol provinces. As mentioned above, high mountains, which hold rain clouds, surround the Central Anatolia, which has caused drought in this region. In the central Anatolia covering Afyon, Eski hir, Ankara, Qankiri, Qorum, Amasya, Kayseri

  4. Succession status on mountain farms in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kerbler-Kefo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the hypothesis that the offi cial statistical data does not refl ect actual succession status on mountain farms in Slovenia and also on Slovene farms in general, since the census criteria defi ning succession are still incomplete. With the purpose of confi rming our assumption, we formulated more accurate criteria and also determined as to what is the real status of succession on mountain farms in Slovenia. It has proved to be more favourable, than it is presented by the offi cial statistics.

  5. Risk management among mountain bikers in selected clubs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk management among mountain bikers in selected clubs in Malaysia. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT ... is more risky. Keywords: mountain biking, risk management, event management, Malaysia ...

  6. MOUNTAIN TOURISM INTERCONNECTIONS. VARIATION OF MOUNTAIN TOURIST FLOW IN SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George CHEIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism, in addition to one of the most common types of tourism, is generated by a complex of factors and at the same time, triggers a series of processes involving tourism phenomenon, especially the environment where it is taking place. This paper aims to discuss some of these causal factors, and the relationship between this type of tourism and the tourist area itself (1. By using SPSS analytical methods , it can be practically demonstrated the impact of mountain tourist flow in spas (2 and mountain resorts (3 in Suceava county.

  7. A new brachypterous scarab species, Orphnus longicornis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), from the East African Rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Lilia

    2015-11-05

    The Afrotropical Region is the center of the diversity of the scarab beetle genus Orphnus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), with 94 species occurring from Sahel in the north to Little Karoo in the south (Paulian, 1948; Petrovitz, 1971; Frolov, 2008). The East African Rift is one of the richest regions of the Afrotropics housing more than 20 species of Orphnus (Paulian, 1948; Frolov, 2013), most of which are endemic to this region. Yet the scarab beetle fauna of the East African Rift, and especially the Eastern Arc Mountains, is still inadequately studied. Examination of the material housed in the Museum of Natural History of Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany (ZMHUB), revealed a series of brachypterous Orphnus beetles belonging to an undescribed species. The new species is described and illustrated below.

  8. The interglacial-glacial record at the mouth of Scoresby Sund, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangerud, Jan; Funder, Svend Visby

    1994-01-01

    Brewster (facing the open ocean) and till on top of the interglacial beds at Kikiakajik show that both an outlet from the Greenland Ice Sheet, and more local glaciers reached the continental shelf during the Weichselian. This glacial event is poorly dated, but tentatively correlated with the Flakkerhuk...... interglaciation ( "" isotope substage Se) on the basis of mollusc assemblages and luminescence dates. Abundant Balal/lls Crel/atlls, and several bivalves, show that the advection of warm Atlantic water to the East Greenland coast was higher during that interglacial than during the Holocene. Glacial striae at Kap...... stade ( "" 19-15 ka BP) when, from marine geological data, it is suggested that the Scoresby Sund glacier terminated c. 30 km east of Kap Brewster. During the Milne Land stade (c. 10 ka BP) there was a resurgence of local ice caps in the mountains both north and south of the fjord mouth, but Scoresby...

  9. Characterization of sediment transport upstream and downstream from Lake Emory on the Little Tennessee River near Franklin, North Carolina, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Brad A.; Hazell, William F.; Oblinger, Carolyn J.

    2017-09-06

    Federal, State, and local agencies and organizations have expressed concerns regarding the detrimental effects of excessive sediment transport on aquatic resources and endangered species populations in the upper Little Tennessee River and some of its tributaries. In addition, the storage volume of Lake Emory, which is necessary for flood control and power generation, has been depleted by sediment deposition. To help address these concerns, a 2-year study was conducted in the upper Little Tennessee River Basin to characterize the ambient suspended-sediment concentrations and suspended-sediment loads upstream and downstream from Lake Emory in Franklin, North Carolina. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Duke Energy. Suspended-sediment samples were collected periodically, and time series of stage and turbidity data were measured from December 2013 to January 2016 upstream and downstream from Lake Emory. The stage data were used to compute time-series streamflow. Suspended-sediment samples, along with time-series streamflow and turbidity data, were used to develop regression models that were used to estimate time-series suspended-sediment concentrations for the 2014 and 2015 calendar years. These concentrations, along with streamflow data, were used to compute suspended-sediment loads. Selected suspended-sediment samples were collected for analysis of particle-size distribution, with emphasis on high-flow events. Bed-load samples were also collected upstream from Lake Emory.The estimated annual suspended-sediment loads (yields) for the upstream site for the 2014 and 2015 calendar years were 27,000 short tons (92 short tons per square mile) and 63,300 short tons (215 short tons per square mile), respectively. The annual suspended-sediment loads (yields) for the downstream site for 2014 and 2015 were 24,200 short tons (75 short tons per square mile) and 94,300 short tons (292 short tons per square mile), respectively. Overall, the

  10. Portulacaria afra in East AFrica | Newton | Journal of East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. East African Journal of Natural History Vol. 96 (1) 2007: pp. 107-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/0012-8317(2007)96[107:PAIEA]2.0.CO;2 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  11. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  12. Hydrologeologic characteristics of faults at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located

  13. Mountain prophecies | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-23

    Dec 23, 2010 ... ... of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains may seem an unlikely choice. ... streams) is begging new questions about how best to preserve this crucial ... In addition, there are the ever-looming hazards of avalanches, ...

  14. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Krier

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached

  15. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.

  16. Determination of characteristics maximal runoff Mountain Rivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovcharuk V and Todorova O

    Odessa State Environmental University, Ukraine. Received: 03 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2016 / Published online: 01 May 2016. ABSTRACT. This article has been examined maximum runoff of the rivers of the Crimean Mountains. The rivers flow through the western and eastern part of the northern slope Crimean ...

  17. Mountain biking. Breezy ups and traumatic downs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, G.

    2010-01-01

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing. The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided. (orig.) [de

  18. [Mountain biking : Breezy ups and traumatic downs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueller, G

    2010-05-01

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing.The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided.

  19. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  20. Experiments on sediment pulses in mountain rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Cui; T. E. Lisle; J. E. Pizzuto; G. Parker

    1998-01-01

    Pulses of sediment can be introduced into mountain rivers from such mechanisms as debris flows, landslides and fans at tributary confluences. These processes can be natural or associated with the activities of humans, as in the case of a pulse created by sediment derived from timber harvest or the removal of a dam. How does the river digest these pulses?

  1. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  3. Air pollution: worldwide effects on mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Andrzej Featured: Bytnerowicz

    2004-01-01

    Widespread forest decline in remote areas of the Carpathian Mountains has been linked to air pollution from urban and industrial regions. Besides injuring plant tissues directly, pollutants may deposit to soils and water, drastically changing susceptible ecosystems. Researcher Andrzej Bytnerowicz has developed effective methods for assessing air quality over wildlands...

  4. Mountain Guides: Between Ethics and Socioeconomic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Thierry; Bazin, Damien; Massiera, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed mountain guides' representations of environmental responsibility and explored the paradox that these professionals face: using nature as a source of income while trying to preserve it. The study was mainly guided by the philosophical literature on this topic and made use of the concepts of sustainable development and nature.…

  5. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  6. Thunder Mountain School Is Something Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article describes Thunder Mountain School, operated year round by the Newton Board of Education under a special use permit granted by the National Park Service. The center includes sports facilities, nature preserves, a farm, and historic sites for use by residential and day students, kindergarten through college. (SJL)

  7. Energy supply in East Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Tsutomu

    1988-07-10

    East Germany has abundant brown coal, about 90.4% of primary energy production in 1986. The high dependence upon brown coal has been established since its reevaluation in 1980 and the production is reaching a peak. Its share in power generation is also as high as 83.3% in the year. Therefore, the energy sufficiency of East Germany is about 80%. Problems are arising, however, in deterioration of excavation conditions and coal quality. Domestic energy resources such as the uranium and natural gas are also used to the maximum extent. The nuclear power has about 10% of share in the power generation. The share expansion policy is seemingly maintained even after the accident of Chernoble. Exploration, excavation and reprocessing of the uranium are conducted under the leadership of USSR. The country depends upon the oil in a very low level, less than 1%, as a result of the energy conservation policy in 1980's. (1 fig, 5 tabs)

  8. The Late Quaternary history of climate and vegetation in East and southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. van Zinderen Bakker Sr

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available In the vast region of East and southern Africa the alternating glacial and interglacial periods of the Quaternarv were characterized by considerable changes in temperature and precipitation. During the last glacial maximum the influence of the ITCZ was limited, while the circulation systems were strengthened. The ocean surface waters were cooler and the Benguela Current was activated. In the montane areas of East Africa and also in southern Africa the temperature dropped by about 6°C. During this hypothermal period, rainfall on the east African plateau and mountains diminished. Summer precipitation could still penetrate the eastern half of southern Africa from the Indian Ocean, while the western half was arid to semi-arid. Cyclonic winter rain migrated further north beyond the latitude of the Orange River. The consequences of these climatic changes during the last glacial maximum were that the woodlands of East Africa opened up. On the plateau of South Africa austro-afroalpine vegetation dominated. The south coastal plain was very windy and cold to temperate, while the Namib and Kalahari were respectively hyper-arid and semi-humid. During hyperthermals the vegetation pattern resembled present-day conditions more closely.

  9. Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Njuguna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the main staple crop in the East African Mountains. Understanding how the edaphic characteristics change along altitudinal gradients is important for maximizing maize production in East African Highlands, which are the key maize production areas in the region. This study evaluated and compared the levels of some macro and micro-elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P and other soil parameters (pH, organic carbon content, soil texture [i.e. % Sand, % Clay and % Silt], cation exchange capacity [CEC], electric conductivity [EC], and water holding capacity [HC]. Soil samples were taken from maize plots along three altitudinal gradients in East African highlands (namely Machakos Hills, Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro characterized by graded changes in climatic conditions. For all transects, pH, Ca, K and Mg decreased with the increase in altitude. In contrast, % Silt, organic carbon content, Al and water holding capacity (HC increased with increasing altitude. The research provides information on the status of the physical–chemical characteristics of soils along three altitudinal ranges of East African Highlands and includes data available for further research.

  10. Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    2012-05-01

    Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

  11. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  12. East Asia basin Analysis Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989

  13. Recent LHCD experiments in EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    LHCD system of 2.45 GHz in EAST has been updated to 4MW in last campaign. Aimed at high confinement (H-mode) plasma in EAST, the LHW-plasma coupling and current drive experiments were continued. Experiments of local gas puffing near LHW antenna shows that gas puffing from electron side is better to improve LHW-plasma coupling than that from ion side. LHCD experiments at high density are also performed, demonstrating that the decrease of current efficiency at high density may be related to the parametric decay instability (PDI) effect. Lithiation and local gas puffing near LHW antenna are utilized so as to sustain H-mode plasma. H-mode plasma is obtained by LHCD with a wide range of parameters: Ip=0.4∼0.8MA, B_t=1.35∼1.81T, n_e=1.5∼2.5x10"1"9 m"-"3, P_L_H_W>=0.5MW. LHW power deposition and driven current profile with C3PO/LUKE are calculated with the experimental parameters, showing that central and large driven current seems not a necessary condition for the H-mode plasma. H-mode is reproduced with CRONOS. Long pulse plasmas, >400s L mode fully driven by LHCD and >30s H-mode with LHCD and ICRF, have been achieved and demonstrated in EAST. (author)

  14. Design of a three-dimensional site-scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W.; Flint, L.E.; Rautman, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed. This site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km 2 and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on location of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units

  15. Thermochronological Evidence for Cenozoic Segmentation of Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zattin, M.; Pace, D.; Andreucci, B.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) represent the boundary between the cratonic East Antarctica and the West Antarctica and are thus related to formation of the Western Antarctic Rift system (WARS). However, temporal relationships between timing of TAM uplift and evolution of the WARS are not clear. The large amount of existing thermochronological data indicate that exhumation of the TAM occurred at different times and extents, with main cooling events in the Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous, and early Cenozoic. Uplift of the different segments of the TAM was not recorded according to regular trends along the mountain chain, but instead appears diachronous and without a recognizable spatial pattern. Here we present apatite fission-track (AFT) data from 20 samples, collected from metamorphic and intrusive rocks from the region comprised between the Blue Glacier and the Byrd Glacier. AFT data show a large variety of ages, ranging from 28.0 to 88.8 Ma and without a clear correlation between age and elevation. As a whole, spatial variations suggest a decrease of ages from S to the region of the Koettlitz Glacier, where ages suddenly raise up to Cretaceous values. A marked increase of ages has been detected also south of Darwin Glacier, that is in correspondence of the Britannia Range. Thermal modelling shows that cooling paths are usually composite, with a main cooling event followed by slower cooling to present day temperatures. Time of main cooling event is late Cretaceous for samples from the Britannia Range whereas it is Eocene-Oligocene for samples from Koettlitz and Mulock areas. In any case, cooling rates are always quite low also during periods of enhanced uplift, with values not exceeding 5°C/Ma. These data support the idea of tectonic block segmentation of the TAM during the last phases of exhumation. Most of vertical displacements occurred during the Oligocene across transverse fault zones such as the Discovery Accommodation Zone to the north and the

  16. ARCOS Network: A Sustainable Mountain Development Hub for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Muvunankiko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is endowed with mountains of high productivity, biodiversity, endemism, and cultural diversity. African mountain ecosystems play an important role in economic development, poverty alleviation, and environmental protection. However, climate change and extreme events, as well as human activities, alter the capacity of mountains to provide such services to millions of Africans who depend on them. Since the creation in 1995 of the Albertine Rift Conservation Society (ARCOS, mountains have been at the core of its programs, and collaboration among stakeholders is a key aspect of its search for sustainable solutions to threats affecting African mountains.

  17. Mountain cedar allergens found in nonpollen tree parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, D W; Goetz, M A; Whisman, B A

    1995-09-01

    Mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen is the principal aeroallergen in south central Texas from late December through February. The major mountain cedar allergen is a 40-kD glycoprotein, gp40. To identify allergens in mountain cedar wood, leaves, and berries and to detect mountain cedar allergen in smoke from burning male or female trees. SDS-PAGE plus mountain cedar human sIgE and monoclonal antibody immunoblots identified mountain cedar allergens within pollen and nonpollen tree part extracts. IgE immunoblots identified a single wood allergen at 36 kD and three berry allergens at 36, 26-27, and 21 kD, in addition to known pollen allergens. Mountain cedar monoclonal antibody bound an allergen epitope present not only on 40, 33, and 28-kD pollen allergens, but also on 36 and 32-kD wood allergens, and the 26-27-kD berry allergen. Immunoblot studies detected no mountain cedar allergen in leaves and no allergen in smoke from burning male and female trees. Allergens constituted a much smaller percentage of extractable protein in wood and berries than in pollen. Mountain cedar berry allergen content is too small to give credence to the ingestion of berries as a folk medicine treatment of mountain cedar pollinosis. In addition, while smoke from burning mountain cedar trees may be irritating, it contains no allergens that could cause allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

  18. Preface of special issue on ;tectonics, volcanism and geo-energy in East Asia;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sheng-Rong; Chen, Cheng-Hong; Ryu, Byong-Jae; Lin, Saulwood

    2017-11-01

    The East Asia, from north to south, including Russia, China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines and Indonesia etc., is one of the most active tectonic and natural hazardous regions in the world. The subduction and collision zones, such as the Pacific Plate subducting into the Japan Arc and the Philippine Sea, and the Philippine Sea Plate subducting into the Eurasia Plate, and the collision zones of the Philippine Sea Plate with the Asian continental margin in the Taiwan mountain belt, and the India Plate with the Eurasia Plate in Himalaya mountain belts, distribute widely in this region. It is also the most densely populated areas in the world. More than two billion people (one/third populations of the world) live in East Asia. Most of disastrous natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and debris flows induced by floods occur frequently and cause many building collapses and causalities in this area. Geoscientists, therefore, must seriously consider and endeavor for mitigations of the natural hazards and reduction of the properties lose and human death.

  19. Investigation of the mineral potential of the Clipper Gap, Lone Mountain-Weepah, and Pipe Spring plutons, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingley, J.V.; Maldonado, F.

    1983-01-01

    The Clipper Gap pluton, composed mostly of quartz monzonite with minor granite, granodiorite, and crosscutting alaskite dikes, intrudes Paleozoic western facies strata. A narrow zone of contact metamorphism is present at the intrusive-sediment contact. No mineral production has been recorded from Clipper Gap, but quartz veins containing gold-silver-copper mineral occurrences have been prospected there from the late 1800's to the present. Areas of the Lone Mountain-Weepah plutons that were studied are located in Esmeralda County about 14 km west of Tonopah, Nevada. At Lone Mountain, a Cretaceous intrusive cuts folded Precambrian and Cambrian sediments. Lead-zinc ores have been mined from small replacement ore bodies in the Alpine district, west of Lone Mountain. Copper and molybdenum occurrences have been found along the east flank of Lone Mountain, and altered areas were noted in intrusive outcrops around the south end of Lone Mountain. Mineral occurrences are widespread and varied with mining activity dating back to the 1860's. The Pipe Spring pluton study area is flanked by two important mining districts, Manhattan to the north and Belmont to the northeast. Mining activity at Belmont dates from 1865. Activity at Manhattan was mainly between 1907 and 1947, but the district is active at the present time (1979). Four smaller mining areas, Monarch, Spanish Springs, Baxter Spring, and Willow Springs, are within the general boundary of the area. The Pipe Spring pluton study area contains numerous prospects along the northern contact zone of the pluton. Tungsten-bearing veins occur within the pluton near Spanish Springs, with potential for gold-tungsten placer in the Ralston Valley. Nickel and associated metals occur at Willow Spring and Monarch Ranch, where prospects may be associated with the margin of the Big Ten Peak Caldera

  20. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  1. THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING AND AERO-GEOPHYSICS DATA FUSION ON METALLOGENIC PROGNOSIS IN QIMANTAGE OF EAST KUNLUN MONTAIN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, W.; Zhang, H.; Lin, J.; Zhao, H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on west of Qimantage of East Kunlun mountain area, takes advantage of ASTER data, according to the altered mineral spectral characteristics, remote sensing alteration information is extracted. Incorporation the anomaly extraction results with high-precision aero geophysical data processing results, a multiple resource information fusion model is proposed. The fusion model of two totally different type of data which is a special attention in geospatial academia now, which can im...

  2. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  3. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area

  4. Stoneflies (Plecoptera, Insecta from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA TYUFEKCHIEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes both literature and new data on the fauna of Plecoptera (Insecta of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains, Bulgaria. A total of 20 species and seven subspecies are known from the mountain. The recorded stoneflies belong to 12 genera and seven families. They represent 25% of the 108 stoneflies currently known from Bulgaria. Among the 27 species that have been recorded, two are Critically Endangered (CR, one –Endangered (EN and ten – Vulnerable (VU. From a zoogeographical point of view, one subspecies and four species from the Plecoptera, recorded in Vrachanska Planina Mts., are Balkan endemics: Capnopsis schilleri balcanica Zwick, 1984, Leuctra balcanica Rauser, 1965, Leuctra hirsuta Bogoescu, Tabacaru, 1960, Nemoura braaschi Joost, 1970 and Isoperla belai Illies, 1963. Four of the recorded species are rare for Bulgaria.

  5. Teach yourself visually OS X Mountain Lion

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Get to know the new cat in the pride-Mac OS X Mountain Lion-with this VISUAL guide Apple's new Mac OS X Mountain Lion is impressive, with features and functions that will be familiar to Mac users from their iPhones and iPads. Make sure you get the most out of your new big cat with this practical guide. Using step-by-step instructions and full-color screenshots or illustrations on virtually every page-the hallmark of the practical Teach Yourself VISUALLY series-this book clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks, rather than burying you with paragraphs of text. You'll learn how to customize

  6. OS X Mountain Lion Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Essential tips and techniques on the Mac OS X features you use most! If you want the kind of hip, friendly help you'd get from friends on how to get the most of out of Mac OS X Mountain Lion, this is the guide you need. Jump right into the coolest new Mac OS X features like Game Center, Messages, and Notification, or get a better handle on the basic tools and shortcuts that will help keep your mountain cat purring. From customizing to using multimedia to syncing your Mac to other devices, this book saves you time and hassle, avoids fluff, and covers what you want to know most. New addition t

  7. TBM tunneling on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.P.; Hansmire, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is a scientific endeavor to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain for the first long-term, high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States. The current status of this long-term project from the construction perspective is described. A key element is construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Tunnel, which is being excavated with a 7.6 m (25 ft) diameter tunnel boring machine (TBM). Development of the ESF may include the excavation of over 15 km (9.3 mi) of tunnel varying in size from 3.0 to 7.6 m (10 to 25 ft). Prior to construction, extensive constructability reviews were an interactive part of the final design. The intent was to establish a constructable design that met the long-term stability requirements for radiological safety of a future repository, while maintaining flexibility for the scientific investigations and acceptable tunneling productivity

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Edwin J; Olson, Gary S; Weiner, Scott J; Paddock, Christopher D

    2003-04-14

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is still the most lethal tick-vectored illness in the United States. We examine the dilemmas facing the clinician who is evaluating the patient with possible Rocky Mountain spotted fever, with particular attention to the following 8 pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment: (1) waiting for a petechial rash to develop before diagnosis; (2) misdiagnosing as gastroenteritis; (3) discounting a diagnosis when there is no history of a tick bite; (4) using an inappropriate geographic exclusion; (5) using an inappropriate seasonal exclusion; (6) failing to treat on clinical suspicion; (7) failing to elicit an appropriate history; and (8) failing to treat with doxycycline. Early diagnosis and proper treatment save lives.

  9. The Yucca Mountain Project Prototype Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is conducting a Prototype Testing Program to ensure that the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) tests can be completed in the time available and to develop instruments, equipment, and procedures so the ESF tests can collect reliable and representative site characterization data. This report summarizes the prototype tests and their status and location and emphasizes prototype ESF and surface tests, which are required in the early stages of the ESF site characterization tests. 14 figs

  10. The Olympic Mountains Experiment for GPM (OLYMPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houze, R.; McMurdie, L. A.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.

    2016-12-01

    The GPM satellite has made it possible to observe the amount and nature of precipitation in remote areas of midlatitudes, including oceans and mountain ranges. OLYMPEX conducted over the Olympic Mountains on the northwest coast of Washington State was designed to provide the means for evaluating the physical basis of the algorithms used to convert GPM satellite measurements to determine the amount and nature of precipitation in midlatitude extratropical cyclones. Microphysical processes producing precipitation are highly sensitive to the vertical profile of temperature. In the tropics, the domain of the TRMM satellite, the temperature profile varies only slightly. GPM algorithms, however, must account for the strong horizontal variation of temperature profiles in baroclinic storms systems of midlatitudes and for the variations of precipitation mechanisms caused by passage of these storms over mountains. The OLYMPEX scientific strategy was: 1) collect a statistically robust set of measurements in midlatitude cyclones upstream of, over, and downstream of a midlatitude mountain range that can be used to improve GPM satellite algorithms; 2) determine how the physics and dynamics of the mechanisms affecting precipitation formation in relation to storm structure and terrain. To accomplish these goals 3 aircraft, 4 scanning dual polarization Doppler radars, supplemental soundings, and sophisticated surface instruments were deployed on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, where Pacific frontal systems produce seasonal precipitation of 2000-4000 mm. 13 storms were observed. 3 of these were atmospheric rivers. The NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft overflew the storms with instruments similar to those on GPM. The U. North Dakota Citation sampled hydrometeors in situ. Preliminary analysis indicates that one of the primary modes of orographic enhancement is low-level moist flow rising over the lower windward slopes and producing many very small drops. Ice-phase processes producing

  11. Infantry Small-Unit Mountain Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    should be on the uphill side of grass tussocks, small talus, and other level spots to avoid twisting an ankle or straining an Achilles tendon...should be extremely cautious while traveling on the side of a hill. During side-hill travel personnel are more vulnerable to twisted ankles , back injury...installation in the mountains is the fixed rope system. A fixed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist Soldiers in movement over difficult terrain

  12. Mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Kylee B; Meyers, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the sport of mountain biking has experienced extensive growth in youth participation. Due to the unpredictable nature of outdoor sport, a lack of rider awareness and increased participation, the number of injuries has unnecessarily increased. Many believe that the actual incidence of trauma in this sport is underestimated and is just the 'tip of the iceberg'. The most common mechanism of injury is usually attributed to downhill riding and forward falling. Although rare, this type of fall can result in serious cranial and thoraco-abdominal trauma. Head and neck trauma continue to be documented, often resulting in concussions and the possibility of permanent neurological sequelae. Upper limb injuries range from minor dermal abrasions, contusions and muscular strains to complex particular fracture dislocations. These are caused by attempting to arrest the face with an outstretched hand, leading to additional direct injury. Common overuse injuries include repeated compression from the handlebars and vibration leading to neurovascular complications in the hands. Along with reports of blunt abdominal trauma and lumbar muscle strains, lower extremity injuries may include various hip/pelvic/groin contusions, patellofemoral inflammation, and various muscle strains. The primary causes of mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents include overuse, excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Additional factors contributing to trauma among this age group involve musculoskeletal immaturity, collisions and falls, excessive speed, environmental conditions, conditioning and fitness status of the rider, nonconservative behavioural patterns, and inadequate medical care. The limited available data restrict the identification and understanding of specific paediatric mountain biking injuries and injury mechanisms. Education about unnecessary risk of injury, use of protective equipment, suitable bikes

  13. Evaluating Cumulative Ascent:. Mountain Biking Meets Mandelbrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, D. C.

    The problem of determining total distance ascended during a mountain bike trip is addressed. Altitude measurements are obtained from GPS receivers utilizing both GPS-based and barometric altitude data, with data averaging used to reduce fluctuations. The estimation process is sensitive to the degree of averaging, and is related to the well-known question of determining coastline length. Barometric-based measurements prove more reliable, due to their insensitivity to GPS altitude fluctuations.

  14. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years

  15. Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  16. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Wilson

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

  17. Sulphur mountain: Cosmic ray intensity records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, D.; Mathews, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book deals with the comic ray intensity registrations at the Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Laboratory. The time series of intensity form a valuable data-set, for studying cosmic ray intensity variations and their dependence on solar activity. The IGY neutron monitor started operating from July 1, 1957 and continued through 1963. Daily mean values are tabulated for the period and these are also represented in plots. This monitor was set up by the National Research Council of Canada

  18. Man-induced transformation of mountain meadow soils of Aragats mountain massif (Armenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    The article considers issues of degradation of mountain meadow soils of the Aragats mountain massif of the Republic of Armenia and provides the averaged research results obtained for 2013 and 2014. The present research was initiated in the frames of long-term complex investigations of agroecosystems of Armenia’s mountain massifs and covered sod soils of high mountain meadow pasturelands and meadow steppe grasslands lying on southern slope of Mt. Aragats. With a purpose of studying the peculiarities of migration and transformation of flows of major nutrients namely carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus in study mountain meadow and meadow steppe belts of the Aragats massif we investigated water migration of chemical elements and regularities of their leaching depending on different belts. Field measurement data have indicated that organic carbon and humus in a heavily grazed plot are almost twice as low as on a control site. Lysimetric data analysis has demonstrated that heavy grazing and illegal deforestation have brought to an increase in intrasoil water acidity. The results generated from this research support a conclusion that a man’s intervention has brought to disturbance of structure and nutrient and water regimes of soils and loss of significant amounts of soil nutrients throughout the studied region.

  19. Preliminary studies of bobcat activity patterns. [In mountainous forests of eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchings, J.T.; Story, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Home range and activity patterns were determined for two radio-collared bobcats, one male and one female, in an eastern Tennessee hardwood forest. Home range of the male was calculated to be approximately 3076 ha while the female utilized 1416 ha. Both bobcats' ranges were larger than previously reported values for the southeast. Measurements of both average net distance traveled per day showed the male moved a statistically significant greater distance than the female. The larger home ranges may be primarily the result of relatively low prey populations in the mountainous terrain of East Tennessee as compared to upper coastal plains areas where most of the previous research on southeastern bobcats has been carried out.

  20. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  1. The East Midlands in 2006: the demography of the East Midlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton, C

    2006-01-01

    The East Midlands in 2006 is the evidence base that was produced to underpin the devleopment of the regional economic strategy, A Flourishing Region. This document presents detailed analysis of the demography of the East Midlands.

  2. Spatial patterns of sea surface temperature influences on East African precipitation as revealed by empirical orthogonal teleconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eAppelhans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available East Africa is characterized by a rather dry annual precipitation climatology with two distinct rainy seasons. In order to investigate sea surface temperature driven precipitation anomalies for the region we use the algorithm of empirical orthogonal teleconnection analysis as a data mining tool. We investigate the entire East African domain as well as 5 smaller sub-regions mainly located in areas of mountainous terrain. In searching for influential sea surface temperature patterns we do not focus any particular season or oceanic region. Furthermore, we investigate different time lags from zero to twelve months. The strongest influence is identified for the immediate (i.e. non-lagged influences of the Indian Ocean in close vicinity to the East African coast. None of the most important modes are located in the tropical Pacific Ocean, though the region is sometimes coupled with the Indian Ocean basin. Furthermore, we identify a region in the southern Indian Ocean around the Kerguelen Plateau which has not yet been reported in the literature with regard to precipitation modulation in East Africa. Finally, it is observed that not all regions in East Africa are equally influenced by the identified patterns.

  3. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Near East/South Asia, Algeria, Sudan, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, and Pakistan, contains articles on Economics, Political Science...

  4. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Iran contains articles on Political Science, Economics, Regional...

  5. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Israel, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, and Pakistan contains articles on International, Regional, Political and Economic Issues...

  6. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from the Near East/South Asia, Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia, Israel, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan and Iran, contains articles on International Affairs, Politics...

  7. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report contains articles on the Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan...

  8. Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

  9. A lineament analysis of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 was signed into law on January 7, 1983. It specifies procedures for the Department of Energy in the selection of a high level nuclear waste repository. Federal Environmental Protection Agency standards require adequate isolation of waste from the biosphere for 10,000 years. The law considers such geologic factors as tectonic stability, igneous activity, hydrologic conditions and natural resources to be of primary concern. Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada is one of three sites selected for further consideration in the site characterization process. The Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) within the Agency for Nuclear Projects of the State of Nevada is conducting an independent scientific assessment of the proposed site. The remote sensing technical assessment is one of seven task groups conducting review and research into the suitability of Yucca Mountain. The study undertaken by the Remote Sensing Group was that of a lineament analysis with regard to the site's structural relationship within a regional tectonic framework. Lineaments mapped from synoptic imagery may prove to represent structural zones of weakness. These zones may provide pathways for the infiltration of groundwater, conduits for the extrusion of magma or be reactivated as stress conditions change. This paper describes the methodology for a lineament analysis of the Yucca Mountain area

  10. Physiological demands of downhill mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jamie F; Drury, C Taylor; Ivey, Adam C; Warburton, Darren E R

    2012-12-01

    Mountain biking is a popular recreational pursuit and the physiological demands of cross-country style riding have been well documented. However, little is known regarding the growing discipline of gravity-assisted downhill cycling. We characterised the physiological demands of downhill mountain biking under typical riding conditions. Riding oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) were measured on 11 male and eight female experienced downhill cyclists and compared with data during a standardised incremental to maximum (VO(2max)) exercise test. The mean VO(2) while riding was 23.1 ± 6.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) or 52 ± 14% of VO(2max) with corresponding heart rates of 146 ± 11 bpm (80 ± 6% HRmax). Over 65% of the ride was in a zone at or above an intensity level associated with improvements in health-related fitness. However, the participants' heart rates and ratings of perceived exertion were artificially inflated in comparison with the actual metabolic demands of the downhill ride. Substantial muscular fatigue was evident in grip strength, which decreased 5.4 ± 9.4 kg (5.5 ± 11.2%, P = 0.03) post-ride. Participation in downhill mountain biking is associated with significant physiological demands, which are in a range associated with beneficial effects on health-related fitness.

  11. Yucca Mountain Project bibliography, 1988--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, J.J.

    1990-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on the Yucca Mountain Project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1988 through December 1989. This supplement also includes a new section which provides information about publications on the Energy Data Base that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Indexes are provided for Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, Report Number, Order Number Correlation, and Key Word in Context. All entries in the Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies are searchable online on the NNW database file. This file can be accessed through the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Technical reports on the Yucca Mountain Project are on display in special open files at participating Nevada Libraries and in the Public Document Room of the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, in Las Vegas

  12. Yucca Mountain and the environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    The scientists and engineers who work on the Yucca Mountain Project keenly feel their responsibility - to solve an important national environmental issue. Addressing the issue of nuclear waste disposal may also help keep the nuclear option viable. Under congressional mandate, they are working to find that solution despite tough opposition from the state of Nevada. Nevada and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have been litigating the issue of environmental permits for almost 2 years now, and the court decisions have all favored DOE. The DOE's site characterization efforts are designed to determine whether Yucca Mountain can safely store spent nuclear fuel for the next 10,000 yr. DOE is studying the rocks, the climate, and the water table to make sure that the site is suitable before anything is built there. The success of the Yucca Mountain Project is vital to settling existing environmental issues as well as maintaining the viability of nuclear energy. Through efforts in Congress and outreach programs in Nevada, DOE hopes to inform the public of the mission and begin the process of site characterization

  13. East Carnduff Unit: corrosion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, C D

    1966-07-01

    Waterflooding of the East Carnduff Unit began in late 1962. The first injection line leak was discovered April 29, 1965. The first 6 leaks in the East Carnduff Unit occurred within a period of less than one month--a very startling and serious warning of pending problems. Analysis of the pipe removed showed a deep pit covered by a severe scale in the piping fitting. Several remedial actions were tried in order to develop the present inhibition program. First, the lines were cleaned as well as possible utilizing rubber pig spheres with normal injection pressure. This proved very effective and 2 passes wiped out most of the scale in the lines. Only one line required acid. After the lines had been cleaned, a water treating rate of an organic amine corrosion inhibitor, 10 ppm of the scale inhibitor, and bactericide at the rate of 40 ppm slugs 2 days per month was initiated. The above treating program is in use at the present time and is maintaining a very low leak frequency. This experience has demonstrated 2 important points in waterflood operations: (1) a bare piping system in warm brine service requires constant attention to insure that it is being kept clean; and (2) reliance cannot be placed on any one method of checking corrosion rates.

  14. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  15. Middle East oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  16. The use of approaches the history of science in the teaching of Biology: A proposal to work the participation of scientist Rosalind Franklin in building the model of the DNA double helix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiane Ortiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of an investigation conducted with academics from a course of Biological Sciences of North University of Paraná. We sought to investigate the virtues and difficulties encountered in the process of contextualization the episode of "discovery" of the DNA double helix. Therefore, an educational proposal was developed with the goal of working context of that episode emphasizing controversies in the history regarding the participation of scientist Rosalind Franklin in the construction of DNA model, based on a traditional approach and alternative in History of Science. Data were collected through questionnaires and records were analyzed according to the procedures of content analysis. The use of an approach based on the History of Science has proven effective in contextualizing the historical episode presented in this study, since, from the analysis of the data, it was observed that the students were able to understand the controversial episode at the end of didactic intervention and knew in general, how to differentiate the two types of approaches in the history of science that were used to treat the historical episode. However, this research also showed that the use of this approach is no easy task, since some difficulties were encountered during the investigation.

  17. Stratigraphy and structural setting of Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation, western Centennial Mountains, southwestern Montana and southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Nichols, D.J.; Obradovich, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and palynologic data were used to correlate the Frontier Formation of the western Centennial Mountains with time-equivalent rocks in the Lima Peaks area and other nearby areas in southwestern Montana. The stratigraphic interval studied is in the middle and upper parts (but not uppermost) of the formation based on a comparison of sandstone petrography, palynologic age data, and our interpretation of the structure using a seismic line along the frontal zone of the Centennial Mountains and the adjacent Centennial Valley. The Frontier Formation is comprised of sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, limestone, and silty shale in fluvial and coastal depositional settings. A distinctive characteristic of these strata in the western Centennial Mountains is the absence of conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstone beds. Absence of conglomerate beds may be due to lateral facies changes associated with fluvial systems, a distal fining of grain size, and the absence of both uppermost and lower Frontier rocks in the study area. Palynostratigraphic data indicate a Coniacian age for the Frontier Formation in the western Centennial Mountains. These data are supported by a geochronologic age from the middle part of the Frontier at Lima Peaks indicating a possible late Coniacian-early Santonian age (86.25 ?? 0.38 Ma) for the middle Frontier there. The Frontier Formation in the western Centennial Mountains is comparable in age and thickness to part of the Frontier at Lima Peaks. These rocks represent one of the thickest known sequences of Frontier strata in the Rocky Mountain region. Deposition was from about 95 to 86 Ma (middle Cenomanian to at least early Santonian), during which time, shoreface sandstone of the Telegraph Creek Formation and marine shale of the Cody Shale were deposited to the east in the area now occupied by the Madison Range in southwestern Montana. Frontier strata in the western Centennial Mountains are structurally isolated from other

  18. Numerical simulation of gas flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical analysis is used to identify the physical phenomena associated with barometrically driven gas (air and water vapor) flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Results from simple finite difference simulations indicate that for a fractured rock scenario, the maximum velocity of air out of an uncased 10 cm borehole is 0.002 m s -1 . An equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was incorporated into a multiphase, multicomponent simulator to test more complex conceptual models. Results indicate that for a typical June day, a diurnal pressure wave propagates about 160 m into the surrounding Tiva Canyon hydrogeologic unit. Dry air that enters the formation evaporates water around the borehole which reduces capillary pressure. Multiphase countercurrent flow develops in the vicinity of the hole; the gas phase flows into the formation while the liquid phase flows toward the borehole. The effect occurs within 0.5 m of the borehole. The amount of water vapor leaving the formation during 1 day is 900 cm 3 . This is less than 0.1% of the total recharge into the formation, suggesting that the barometric effect may be insignificant in drying the unsaturated zone. However, gas phase velocities out of the borehole (3 m s -1 ), indicating that observed flow rates from wells along the east flank of Yucca Mountain were able to be simulated with a barometric model

  19. PRESERVATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN ARID ENVIRONMENTS RELEVANT TO YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N. Chapman, A. Dansie, C. McCombie

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate archaeological materials from underground openings or shallow burial in arid environments relevant to Yucca Mountain and to draw conclusions about how their state and their environment of preservation could be of relevance to design and operational aspects of the high-level waste repository. The study has evaluated materials from cultures in the arid regions of the ancient Middle East and compared them with the preservation of ancient materials in dry cave sites in the Great Basin desert area of Nevada. The emphasis has been on materials found in undisturbed underground openings such as caves and un-backfilled tombs. Long-term preservation of such materials in underground openings and the stability of the openings themselves provide useful analogue information that serves as a reference point for considering the operation and evolution of the Yucca Mountain repository. Being able to shed light, by close physical and environmental analogy, on what happens in underground openings over many thousands of years provides valuable underpinning to illustrations of expected system performance and offers pointers towards optimizing repository system and operational design

  20. Archaeology of Arid Environments Points to Management Options for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N. Chapman; A. Dansie; C. McCombie

    2006-01-01

    As with all planned repositories for spent fuel, the critical period over which Yucca Mountain needs to provide isolation is the first hundreds to thousands of years after the fuel is emplaced, when it is at its most hazardous. Both the original and the proposed new EPA standards highlight the central importance of this performance period by focusing on repository behavior during the first 10,000 years. Archaeology has a lot to tell us about the behavior of materials and structures over this time period. There have been numerous studies of archaeological artifacts in conditions relevant to the groundwater saturated environments that are a feature of most international geological disposal concepts, but relatively few in arid environments like that of the Nevada desert. However, there is much information to be gleaned, not only from classic archaeological areas in the Middle East and around the Mediterranean but also, perhaps surprisingly to some, from Nevada itself. Our recent study evaluated archaeological materials from underground openings and shallow burial in arid environments relevant to Yucca Mountain, drawing conclusions about how their state and their environment of preservation could help to assess design and operational options for the high-level waste repository

  1. Mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor using an evidential reasoning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Youhua; Liu, Jinpeng; Tian, Feng; Wang, Dekai

    2017-02-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt and a crucial channel for westward development in China. Many important national engineering projects pass through the corridor, such as highways, railways, and the West-to-East Gas Pipeline. The frequent torrent disasters greatly impact the security of infrastructure and human safety. In this study, an evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer theory is proposed for mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor. A torrent hazard map for the Hexi Corridor was generated by integrating the driving factors of mountain torrent disasters including precipitation, terrain, flow concentration processes, and the vegetation fraction. The results show that the capability of the proposed method is satisfactory. The torrent hazard map shows that there is high potential torrent hazard in the central and southeastern Hexi Corridor. The results are useful for engineering planning support and resource protection in the Hexi Corridor. Further efforts are discussed for improving torrent hazard mapping and prediction.

  2. Predictive Understanding of Mountainous Watershed Hydro-Biogeochemical Function and Response to Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Williams, K. H.; Agarwal, D.; Banfield, J. F.; Beller, H. R.; Bouskill, N.; Brodie, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Nico, P. S.; Steefel, C. I.; Steltzer, H.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Wainwright, H. M.; Dwivedi, D.; Newcomer, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Recognizing the societal importance, vulnerability and complexity of mountainous watersheds, the `Watershed Function' project is developing a predictive understanding of how mountainous watersheds retain and release downgradient water, nutrients, carbon, and metals. In particular, the project is exploring how early snowmelt, drought, floods and other disturbances will influence mountainous watershed dynamics at seasonal to decadal timescales. Located in the 300km2 East River headwater catchment of the Upper Colorado River Basin, the project is guided by several constructs. First, the project considers the integrated role of surface and subsurface flow and biogeochemical reactions - from bedrock to the top of the vegetative canopy, from terrestrial through aquatic compartments, and from summit to receiving waters. The project takes a system-of-systems perspective, focused on developing new methods to quantify the cumulative watershed hydrobiogeochemical response to perturbations based on information from select subsystems within the watershed, each having distinct vegetation-subsurface biogeochemical-hydrological characteristics. A `scale-adaptive' modeling capability, in development using adaptive mesh refinement methods, serves as the organizing framework for the SFA. The scale-adaptive approach is intended to permit simulation of system-within-systems behavior - and aggregation of that behavior - from genome through watershed scales. This presentation will describe several early project discoveries and advances made using experimental, observational and numerical approaches. Among others, examples may include:quantiying how seasonal hydrological perturbations drive biogeochemical responses across critical zone compartments, with a focus on N and C transformations; metagenomic documentation of the spatial variability in floodplain meander microbial ecology; 3D reactive transport simulations of couped hydrological-biogeochemical behavior in the hyporheic zone; and

  3. Lithospheric Strength Beneath the Zagros Mountains of Southwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Nyblade, A.; Brazier, R.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Zagros Mountain Belt of southwestern Iran is among the most seismically active mountain belts in the world. Early seismic studies of this area found that the lithosphere underlying the Zagros Mountains follows the "jelly sandwich" model, having a strong upper crust and a strong lithospheric mantle, separated by a weak lower crust. More recent studies, which analyzed earthquakes originating within the Zagros Mountains that were recorded at teleseismic distances, however, found that these earthquakes occurred only within the upper crust, thus indicating that the strength of the Zagros Mountains' lithosphere lies only within the upper crust, in accordance with the "creme brulee" lithospheric model. Preliminary analysis of regionally recorded earthquakes that originated within the Zagros Mountains is presented here. Using earthquakes recorded at regional distances will allow the analysis of a larger dataset than has been used in previous studies. Preliminary results show earthquakes occurring throughout the crust and possibly extending into the upper mantle.

  4. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  5. Stratigraphic and structural framework of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, R.W.; Fox, K.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is located within the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, ∼140 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and 50 km northeast of Death Valley, California. The mountain consist of a series of long, linear, north-trending volcanic ridges that approach an 1800-m maximum elevation near The Prow. The broad intermontane alluviated valleys of Crater Flat, the Amargosa Desert, and Jackass Flats, averaging 800 to 1100 m in elevation, form the western, southern, and eastern margins of Yucca Mountain, respectively. North of The Prow, Yucca Mountain merges with other volcanic highlands that flank the southern rim of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex. The stratigraphy and structure of the area are discussed. Future geologic studies will attempt to determine if faults extend beneath Yucca Mountain, and, if present, their potential effects on the hydrologic and tectonic regimes

  6. Unique parallel radiations of high-mountainous species of the genus Sedum (Crassulaceae) on the continental island of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takuro; Yu, Chih-Chieh; Nakamura, Koh; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Yang, Qin-Er; Fu, Cheng-Xin; Qi, Zhe-Chen; Kokubugata, Goro

    2017-08-01

    We explored the temporal and spatial diversification of the plant genus Sedum L. (Crassulaceae) in Taiwan based on molecular analysis of nrITS and cpDNA sequences from East Asian Sedum members. Our phylogenetic and ancestral area reconstruction analysis showed that Taiwanese Sedum comprised two lineages that independently migrated from Japan and Eastern China. Furthermore, the genetic distances among species in these two clades were smaller than those of other East Asian Sedum clades, and the Taiwanese members of each clade occupy extremely varied habitats with similar niches in high-mountain regions. These data indicate that species diversification occurred in parallel in the two Taiwanese Sedum lineages, and that these parallel radiations could have occurred within the small continental island of Taiwan. Moreover, the estimated time of divergence for Taiwanese Sedum indicates that the two radiations might have been correlated to the formation of mountains in Taiwan during the early Pleistocene. We suggest that these parallel radiations may be attributable to the geographical dynamics of Taiwan and specific biological features of Sedum that allow them to adapt to new ecological niches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Symposium 9: Rocky Mountain futures: preserving, utilizing, and sustaining Rocky Mountain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Seastedt, Timothy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Tomback, Diana; Garcia, Elizabeth; Bowen, Zachary H.; Logan, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002 we published Rocky Mountain Futures, an Ecological Perspective (Island Press) to examine the cumulative ecological effects of human activity in the Rocky Mountains. We concluded that multiple local activities concerning land use, hydrologic manipulation, and resource extraction have altered ecosystems, although there were examples where the “tyranny of small decisions” worked in a positive way toward more sustainable coupled human/environment interactions. Superimposed on local change was climate change, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and other pollutants, regional population growth, and some national management policies such as fire suppression.

  8. Conservation of biodiversity in mountain ecosystems -- At a glance

    OpenAIRE

    MacKinnon, K.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record Mountains are especially important for biodiversity conservation since many harbor unique assemblages of plants and animals, including high levels of endemic species. Mountain biodiversity and natural habitats bestow multiple ecosystem, soil conservation, and watershed benefits. Mountains are often centers of endemism, where species are prevalent in or peculiar to a particular region, and Pleistocene refuges, which are hypothesized to have high levels of diversity wher...

  9. THE MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN CONTEXT OF STRATEGY 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONESCU Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mountain regions in Romania and European Union represent a special territory of interest, with a huge economic, social, environmental and cultural potential. More, mountain area is considerate a natural-economic region and constitutes an important objective for regional development policy. The main sectors of mountain area are presented in agriculture and tourism fields that lead the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby maintaining the general living and working space.Mountain areas should have a specific policy defined by the sustainable development principle, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the opportunities of future generations. The specific mountain policy aims to reduce the imbalance between favored and disadvantaged mountain regions, permanently marked by natural, economic, social, cultural and environmental constraints. In previous programming period, mountain regions among have profited from the intensive regional support, in specially, for constructing of and connecting them to fresh water and waste water networks, in particular for increasing of life quality. In context of 2020 Strategy, the Member States will concentrate investments on a small number of thematic objectives. In advanced regions, 60 % of funds will used for only two of these objectives (competitiveness of SME and research/innovation. The all less developed regions will received about 50% of Structural Funds In Romania, mountain representing 29.93% out of the total national surface and 20.14% from UAA (Utilised Agricultural Area of total national. The mountain territory has around 20% of the national population and is overlapping almost 100% with the Carpathian Mountains. Due to these conditions, Romania's regional development policy must take into account the specificities of mountain area, the problems they faced, and the requirements of 2020 Strategy.This paper presents the main aspects to be taken into account

  10. Mountaineering and photography. Contacts between 1880 and 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Andorno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the nineteenth century, the photograph produced in high altitude mountain (mountaineering photography gives rise to peculiar images that do not belong to the tradition of landscape painting. Mountaineering is similar to the art of performance, if we talk about physical and mental commitment. Therefore, photos taken during the ascent of a peak shows both conceptual and formal values.

  11. Yucca Mountain Site characterization project bibliography, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991

  12. Massive job cuts threaten East German science

    CERN Multimedia

    Hamer, M

    1990-01-01

    German reunification could result in thousands of scientists losing their jobs. At the end of this year the East German state budget for science will run out. Scientists in the East are keen to find Western support to protect their research (1 page).

  13. Journal of East African Natural History

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of East African Natural History is published jointly by the East Africa Natural History Society and the National Museums of Kenya. The Journal publishes papers and notes in the field of natural history, broadly defined as the study of organisms in their natural state, relevant to the eastern African region.

  14. Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Western and East Asian people hold fundamentally different beliefs about learning that influence how they approach child rearing and education. Reviewing decades of research, Dr. Jin Li presents an important conceptual distinction between the Western mind model and the East Asian virtue model of learning. The former aims to cultivate the mind to…

  15. Green chemistry education in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-06-01

    The Middle East once dominated the age of alchemy, and today it is experiencing a resurgence by transforming the age of petroleum chemicals into a greener science through Estidama. This green conversion is taking place through green chemical research and education. This report examines and reviews the understudied subject of green chemical education in the Middle East through the lens of context and history.

  16. Calculating the azimuth of mountain waves, using the effect of tilted fine-scale stable layers on VHF radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is described, based on standard VHF wind-profiler data, where imbalances of echo power between four off-vertical radar beams, caused by mountain waves, can be used to calculate the orientation of the wave pattern. It is shown that the mountain wave azimuth (direction of the horizontal component of the wavevector, is given by the vector [ W (PE - P W ,W (PN - P S ]; PN, PS, PE, PW are radar echo powers, measured in dB, in beams pointed away from vertical by the same angle towards north, south, east and west respectively, and W is the vertical wind velocity. The method is applied to Aberystwyth MST radar data, and the calculated wave vector usually, but not always, points into the low-level wind direction. The mean vertical wind at Aberystwyth, which may also be affected by tilted aspect-sensitive layers, is investigated briefly using the entire radar output 1990-1997. The mean vertical-wind profile is inconsistent with existing theories, but a new mountain-wave interpretation is proposed.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides; instruments and techniques.

  17. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water years 1993--94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Yucca Mountain area is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy for its suitability to store high-level nuclear waste in a mined, underground repository. Hydrologic data are being collected by the US Geological Survey throughout a 150 Km{sup 2} study area about 15- Km northwest of Las Vegas in southern Nevada for site characterization studies. Ongoing hydrologic studies are investigating atmospheric precipitation, stream-flow, movement of water through the unsaturated zone, movement of water through the saturated zone, and paleohydrology. This study at Fortymile Wash involves some components of each of these studies. Fortymile Wash is an ephemeral stream near Yucca Mountain with tributaries draining the east side of Yucca Mountain and then forming a distributary system in the Amargosa Desert. An objective of the study is to determine the amount of recharge from Fortymile Wash to the ground-water flow system that has been proposed. Understanding the ground-water flow system is important because it is a possible mechanism for radionuclide migration from the repository to the accessible environment. An adequate understanding of the ground-water flow system is necessary for an evaluation of the safety issues involved in siting the potential repository.

  18. Geology of drill hole UE25p No. 1: A test hole into pre-Tertiary rocks near Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.D.; Waddell, S.J.; Vick, G.S.; Stock, J.M.; Monsen, S.A.; Harris, A.G.; Cork, B.W.; Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been proposed as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level nuclear waste. An exploratory drill hole designated UE25p No. 1 was drilled 3 km east of the proposed repository site to investigate the geology and hydrology of the rocks that underlie the Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rock sequence forming Yucca Mountain. Silurian dolomite assigned to the Roberts Mountain and Lone Mountain Formations was intersected below the Tertiary section between a depth of approximately 1244 m (4080 ft) and the bottom of the drill hole at 1807 m (5923 ft). These formations are part of an important regional carbonate aquifer in the deep ground-water system. Tertiary units deeper than 1139 m (3733 ft) in drill hole UE25p No. 1 are stratigraphically older than any units previously penetrated by drill holes at Yucca Mountain. These units are, in ascending order, the tuff of Yucca Flat, an unnamed calcified ash-flow tuff, and a sequence of clastic deposits. The upper part of the Tertiary sequence in drill hole UE25p No. 1 is similar to that found in other drill holes at Yucca Mountain. The Tertiary sequence is in fault contact with the Silurian rocks. This fault between Tertiary and Paleozoic rocks may correlate with the Fran Ridge fault, a steeply westward-dipping fault exposed approximately 0.5 km east of the drill hole. Another fault intersects UE25p No. 1 at 873 m (2863 ft), but its surface trace is concealed beneath the valley west of the Fran Ridge fault. The Paintbrush Canyon fault, the trace of which passes less than 100 m (330 ft) east of the drilling site, intersects drill hole UE25p No. 1 at a depth of approximately 78 m (255 ft). The drill hole apparently intersected the west flank of a structural high of pre-Tertiary rocks, near the eastern edge of the Crater Flat structural depression

  19. Late Miocene-Recent evolution of the Finike Basin and its linkages with the Beydağlari complex and the Anaximander Mountains, eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, A. E.; Hall, J.; Yaltırak, C.; Çınar, E.; Küçük, M.; Çifçi, G.

    2014-11-01

    Interpretation of ~ 2500 km of high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection profiles shows that the Finike Basin evolved during the Pliocene-Quaternary as the result of dramatic subsidence associated with loading of large imbricate thrust panels that carry the western Tauride Mountains in the north in the Late Miocene. The stacked, seaward prograded Quaternary deltas presently resting at 1000-1500 m water depths corroborate the rapid subsidence of the region. The ubiquitous presence of evaporites in the 2000-2400 m-deep Antalya Basin and their absence in the 3000-3200 m deep Finike Basin suggest that the morphology of the Finike Basin and environs must have been considerably different during the Messinian and that this region must have remained above the depositional base of evaporites during this time. The transition from the Messinian to the Pliocene-Quaternary is marked by partitioning of stress into several discrete spatial domains. A dextral strike-slip fault zone developed along the western Antalya Basin, extending from the apex of the Isparta Angle southward into the Anaximander Mountains. This fault zone, referred to as the Antalya Fault zone, transected the Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato) separating the Anaxagoras Mountain from the Anaximander and Anaximenes Mountains. Hence, the Finike Basin, Sırrı Erinç Plateau and the Anaximander and Anaximenes Mountains remained part of the onland Beydağları Block and experienced ~ 20° counterclockwise rotation during the Late Miocene. We envisage the boundaries of the Beydağları Block as the Burdur-Fethiye Fault zone in the west, the newly delineated Antalya Fault zone in the east and the east-west trending sector of the Sırrı Erinç Plateau in the southwest. Kinematic evaluation of the structural elements mapped across the Finike Basin and the Sırrı Erinç Plateau suggest that two additional strike-slip zones developed during the Pliocene-Quaternary relaying the stress between the Antalya Fault

  20. Mountain tourism development in Serbia and neighboring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain areas with their surroundings are important parts of tourism regions with potentials for all-season tourism development and complementary activities. Development possibilities are based on size of high mountain territory, nature protection regimes, infrastructural equipment, provided conditions for leisure and recreation as well as involvement of local population in processes of development and protection. This paper analyses the key aspects of tourism development, winter tourism in high-mountain areas of Serbia and some neighboring countries (Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece. Common determinants of cohesion between nature protection and mountain tourism development, national development policies, applied models and concepts and importance of trans-border cooperation are indicated.