WorldWideScience

Sample records for easements

  1. Conservation easements: biodiversity protection and private use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Adena R; Lozier, Lynn; Comendant, Tosha; Kareiva, Peter; Kiesecker, Joseph M; Shaw, M Rebecca; Merenlender, Adina M

    2007-06-01

    Conservation easements are one of the primary tools for conserving biodiversity on private land. Despite their increasing use, little quantitative data are available on what species and habitats conservation easements aim to protect, how much structural development they allow, or what types of land use they commonly permit. To address these knowledge gaps, we surveyed staff responsible for 119 conservation easements established by the largest nonprofit easement holder, The Nature Conservancy, between 1985 and 2004. Most easements (80%) aimed to provide core habitat to protect species or communities on-site, and nearly all were designed to reduce development. Conservation easements also allowed for a wide range of private uses, which may result in additional fragmentation and habitat disturbance. Some residential or commercial use, new structures, or subdivision of the property were permitted on 85% of sampled conservation easements. Over half (56%) allowed some additional buildings, of which 60% restricted structure size or building area. Working landscape easements with ranching, forestry, or farming made up nearly half (46%) of the easement properties sampled and were more likely than easements without these uses to be designated as buffers to enhance biodiversity in the surrounding area. Our results demonstrate the need for clear restrictions on building and subdivision in easements, research on the compatibility of private uses on easement land, and greater public understanding of the trade-offs implicit in the use of conservation easements for biodiversity conservation.

  2. State Conservation Easements - MS Chapter 84C

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Lands with a State-owned conservation easement interest mapped to the PLS forty and government lot level. Easements in this layer have been determined to meet the...

  3. Perpetual conservation easements and landowners: evaluating easement knowledge, satisfaction and partner organization relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Dianne A; Kreuter, Urs P

    2014-12-15

    Conservation easements are being more widely used to facilitate permanent land conservation. While landowners who initially place a conservation easement on their land are generally highly motivated to protect the conservation values of their land, changes in landownership may hinder long-term active landowner support for these easements. Maintaining such support is critical for ensuring their effectiveness as a conservation tool. Our research reports on results from a mail survey sent to landowners in Texas who own property encumbered with perpetual conservation easements. They were asked about their level of satisfaction concerning their conservation easement and the relationship with their easement holder. Additionally, landowners were asked how well they remembered and understood the terms of their conservation easement. We also examined institutional aspects of easement holding organizations and variables associated with landownership that affected these attitudes. Among institutional factors, frequency of contact between landowners and easement holders and the category of agency (federal, state and local or non-governmental agency) were significant in determining level of satisfaction with the easement and perceived relationship with the easement holder. Landowner factors affecting these same issues included easement grantor or successive generation landowner, gender and motivations driving landownership. We did not find any significant variables related to landowners' knowledge about their easement. Management implications from this study suggest that easement holders should increase staff capacity capable of providing targeted landowner technical assistance and outreach beyond compliance monitoring. Additionally, landownership motivations should be considered by easement holders when deciding whether to accept an easement. Finally, expressed dissatisfaction with federal governmental easement holding institutions should be explored further.

  4. 7 CFR 625.8 - Compensation for easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation for easements. 625.8 Section 625.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.8 Compensation for easements... section. (d) Acceptance of offered easement compensation. (1) NRCS will not acquire any easement...

  5. 7 CFR 623.8 - Easement value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... land covered by the easements. Fair market value will be based on post-flood conditions as if reclaimed... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Easement value. 623.8 Section 623.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  6. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Wintering River Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake...

  7. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Wintering River Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge, Lake Otis Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake...

  8. Tewaukon Waterfowl Production Area District : Bone Hill Easement Refuge, Lake Elsie Easement Refuge, Maple River Easement Refuge, Storm Lake Easement Refuge, Wild Rice River Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tewaukon Waterfowl Production Area (including easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The...

  9. Effectiveness of conservation easements in agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braza, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Conservation easements are a standard technique for preventing habitat loss, particularly in agricultural regions with extensive cropland cultivation, yet little is known about their effectiveness. I developed a spatial econometric approach to propensity-score matching and used the approach to estimate the amount of habitat loss prevented by a grassland conservation easement program of the U.S. federal government. I used a spatial autoregressive probit model to predict tract enrollment in the easement program as of 2001 based on tract agricultural suitability, habitat quality, and spatial interactions among neighboring tracts. Using the predicted values from the model, I matched enrolled tracts with similar unenrolled tracts to form a treatment group and a control group. To measure the program's impact on subsequent grassland loss, I estimated cropland cultivation rates for both groups in 2014 with a second spatial probit model. Between 2001 and 2014, approximately 14.9% of control tracts were cultivated and 0.3% of treated tracts were cultivated. Therefore, approximately 14.6% of the protected land would have been cultivated in the absence of the program. My results demonstrate that conservation easements can significantly reduce habitat loss in agricultural regions; however, the enrollment of tracts with low cropland suitability may constrain the amount of habitat loss they prevent. My results also show that spatial econometric models can improve the validity of control groups and thereby strengthen causal inferences about program effectiveness in situations when spatial interactions influence conservation decisions. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. 7 CFR 624.10 - Floodplain easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 years; or (ii) Other lands within the floodplain would contribute to the restoration of the flood... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floodplain easements. 624.10 Section 624.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION...

  11. 7 CFR 1491.22 - Conservation easement deeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... NRCS reserves the right to require additional specific language or to remove language in the... cooperative agreement. The easement shall require that the easement area be maintained in accordance with FRPP... Conservationist must consider, at a minimum: population density; the ratio of open prime other important...

  12. Narrative report: J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Lords Lake Easement Refuge, Rabb Lake Easement Refuge, School Section Lake Easement Refuge, Willow Lake Easement Refuge for calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  13. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp-Strawberry Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake Easement Refuge, Wintering River Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp-Strawberry Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood...

  14. 7 CFR 625.7 - Enrollment of easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.7 Enrollment of easements. (a... subordination agreements, procuring title insurance, and conducting other activities necessary to record the...

  15. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Half-Way Lake Easement Refuge, Hobart Lake Easement Refuge, Stoney Slough Easement Refuge, Tomahawk Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and the easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The...

  16. Inspection of the Tewaukon Lake Easement Refuge : 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On November 27, 1939 an inspection was made of the Tewaukon Lake Easement Refuge in North Dakota. The upper dike and spillway appeared to be very well constructed...

  17. 32 CFR 644.69 - Title Clearance-Easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... separate document in the Final Title Assembly submitted to HQDA (DAEN-REA-P) WASH DC 20314. (b) Easements..., except those which may be administratively waived, those which may be eliminated by the payment of money...

  18. Inspection of the Tewaukon Lake Easement Refuge : 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On June 9, 1940 an inspection was made of the Tewaukon Lake Easement Refuge in North Dakota. Considerable improvements had been made since the last inspection. At...

  19. Easements, recorded easements; assessor's office, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Easements dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as...

  20. The growth of easements as a conservation tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isla S Fishburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The numerous studies examining where efforts to conserve biodiversity should be targeted are not matched by comparable research efforts addressing how conservation investments should be structured and what balance of conservation approaches works best in what contexts. An obvious starting point is to examine the past allocation of effort among conservation approaches and how this has evolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examine the past allocation of conservation investment between conservation easements and fee simple acquisitions using the largest land trust in operation, The Nature Conservancy (TNC, as a case study. We analyse the balance of investments across the whole of the US and in individual states when measured in terms of the area protected and upfront cost of protecting land. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Across the US as a whole, the proportion of conservation investment allocated to easements is growing exponentially. Already 70% of the area of land protected in a given year, and half of all the financial investment in land conservation, is allocated to easements. The growth rate of conservation easements varies by a factor of two across states when measured in terms of the area protected and by a factor of three in terms of financial expenditure. Yet, we were unable to find consistent predictors that explained this variation. Our results underscore the urgency of implementing best practice guidelines for designing easements and of initiating a wider discussion of what balance of conservation approaches is desirable.

  1. Conservation easements and mining: The case of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-Bernstein, M.; Montecinos Carvajal, Y.; Ladle, R.; Jepson, P.; Jaksic, F.

    2013-12-01

    Private protected areas (PPAs) are important designations with the potential to complement and improve public protected area (PA) networks in many countries. PPAs come in many forms and offer a wide variety of incentives, rights, responsibilities, and protections. One popular model, now being considered for adoption in Chile, is the conservation easement. In this article, we examine how well conservation easements would perform as PPA designations in countries such as Chile that have strong mining industries. Mining, and other concessions, in PAs is emerging as an important point of contention between conservation and development. PPA designations should be carefully designed to offer protections that conform to standards that will complement PA networks, that are perpetual, and that require a publically accountable and transparent process to overturn or modify.

  2. 78 FR 9450 - Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company-Acquisition of Operating Easement-CSX Transportation, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Canadian National Railway Company, to acquire from CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) an exclusive, perpetual...-Aulon Line. GTW's easement acquisition is one part of an Agreement for Exchange of Perpetual Easements..., GTW has agreed to grant CSXT an exclusive, perpetual, non-assignable railroad operating easement...

  3. 32 CFR 644.419 - Public Law 87-852 easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Law 87-852 easements. 644.419 Section 644.419 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Public Law 87-852 easements. Public Law 87-852, approved 23 October 1962 (76 Stat. 1129),...

  4. Narrative report: Calendar year 1970: Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, White Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Pretty Rock Easement Refuge, Stewart Lake Easement Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lake Ilo NWR and the District IV easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins...

  5. Narrative report: Calendar year 1969: Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, White Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Pretty Rock Easement Refuge, Stewart Lake Easement Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lake Ilo NWR and the District IV easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins...

  6. Land management restrictions and options for change in perpetual conservation easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Adena; Bihari, Menka; Hamilton, Christopher; Locke, Christina; Lowenstein, David; Motew, Melissa; Price, Jessica; Smail, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Conservation organizations rely on conservation easements for diverse purposes, including protection of species and natural communities, working forests, and open space. This research investigated how perpetual conservation easements incorporated property rights, responsibilities, and options for change over time in land management. We compared 34 conservation easements held by one federal, three state, and four nonprofit organizations in Wisconsin. They incorporated six mechanisms for ongoing land management decision-making: management plans (74 %), modifications to permitted landowner uses with discretionary consent (65 %), amendment clauses (53 %), easement holder rights to conduct land management (50 %), reference to laws or policies as compliance terms (47 %), and conditional use permits (12 %). Easements with purposes to protect species and natural communities had more ecological monitoring rights, organizational control over land management, and mechanisms for change than easements with general open space purposes. Forestry purposes were associated with mechanisms for change but not necessarily with ecological monitoring rights or organizational control over land management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service-Wetland Reserve Program had a particularly consistent approach with high control over land use and some discretion to modify uses through permits. Conservation staff perceived a need to respond to changing social and ecological conditions but were divided on whether climate change was likely to negatively impact their conservation easements. Many conservation easements involved significant constraints on easement holders' options for altering land management to achieve conservation purposes over time. This study suggests the need for greater attention to easement drafting, monitoring, and ongoing decision processes to ensure the public benefits of land conservation in changing landscapes.

  7. Narrative report: Calendar year 1965: Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lake Ilo NWR and the District IV easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins...

  8. Narrative report: Calendar year 1967: Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lake Ilo NWR and the District IV easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins...

  9. Narrative report: Calendar year 1971: Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lake Ilo NWR and the District IV easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins...

  10. [Lake Andes Wetland Management District: Aerial Photograph of Easement 38x in Hyde County, SD, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This oblique aerial photograph from the Lake Andes Wetland Management District was taken from Easement 38x (Sec. 7 Lot 1 looking NW) in Hyde County, SD in 1984. It...

  11. State Conservation Easements - MS Chapter 84C (no matches mapped to section)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Lands with a State-owned conservation easement interest that did not match to the PLS forty and government lot level, so they were matched to the PLS section level....

  12. Easements, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Harper County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Easements dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. Data by this publisher are often...

  13. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Midwest Region easements manual

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This manual provides pollices, establishes procedures and sets guidelines to administer easement interests for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Midwest Region. It is...

  14. Narrative report: Calendar year 1966: Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lake Ilo NWR and the District IV easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins...

  15. Easements, MDTA Right of Way Easement, Right of Way Easement, Right of Way Easement on I 95, Fort McHenry Tunnel, Baltimore Harbor tunnel, Francis Scott Key Bridge, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Easements dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as 'MDTA Right...

  16. Narrative report: 1964: Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lake Ilo NWR and the District IV easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1964 calendar year. The report begins...

  17. Narrative report: Calendar year 1972: Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lake Ilo NWR and the District IV Easement Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins...

  18. 75 FR 70021 - South Dakota Prairie Winds Project; Partial Term Relinquishment and Release of Easement for Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... increase in regional demands for electricity produced from renewable resources. Several States within Basin... Dakota, on which the Service holds an easement for waterfowl habitat protection. The action selected by... 108 turbines) on lands on which the Service holds an easement for waterfowl habitat protection...

  19. The Conservation Contributions of Conservation Easements: Analysis of the San Francisco Bay Area Protected Lands Spatial Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adena R. Rissman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation easements have emerged as an important tool for land trusts and government agencies aiming to conserve private land in the United States. Despite the increase in public investment in conservation easement acquisitions, little is known about their conservation outcomes, particularly at a landscape scale. The nine-county San Francisco Bay Area exemplifies a complex conservation context: 190 organizations hold 24% of the land base in some type of protection status. Using a detailed protected lands database, we compared the contributions of conservation easements and fee-simple protected areas to ecological, agricultural, and public recreation benefits. We found that conservation easements were more likely to conserve grasslands, oak woodlands, and agricultural land, whereas fee-simple properties were more likely to conserve chaparral and scrub, redwoods, and urban areas. Conservation easements contributed to open space connectivity but were unlikely to be integrated into local land-use plans or provide public recreation. In particular, properties held by land trusts were less likely to allow for public recreation than were public lands. Conservation easements held by land trusts and special districts complemented fee-simple lands and provided greater conservation of some ecological communities and agricultural lands than fee-simple properties. Spatial databases of protected areas that include conservation easements are necessary for conservation planning and assessment.

  20. 14 CFR 1204.503 - Delegation of authority to grant easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Delegations and Designations § 1204.503 Delegation of authority to grant... actions in connection with the granting of easements. (c) Definitions. The following definitions will... interfere with NASA operations. (2) Monetary or other benefit, including any interest in real property, is...

  1. 7 CFR 623.16 - Monitoring and enforcement of easement terms and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monitoring and enforcement of easement terms and conditions. 623.16 Section 623.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.16 Monitoring and...

  2. Easements, Preservation easements by parcel as maintained by the Howard County Department of Planning and Zoning, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Easements dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2011. It is described as...

  3. Easements, constantly being updated, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Sauk County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Easements dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as...

  4. Narrative Report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 Calendar Year 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar...

  5. Narrative Report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 Calendar Year 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar...

  6. Narrative Report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 Calendar Year 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar...

  7. Narrative Report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 Calendar Year 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1964 calendar...

  8. Narrative Report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 Calendar Year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar...

  9. Fort Niobrara Easement Refuges: Lake Andes, Lake Arconge, Carr, Eagle Creek: May 1, 1943 to Aug. 31, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes activities on the Fort Niobrara Easement Refuges between May and August of 1943. Water conditions, weather conditions, migratory...

  10. Narrative Report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 Calendar Year 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar...

  11. 77 FR 24561 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda and Santa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 95116, 95122, 95112, 95133 and 94533. \\1\\ According to petitioners, VTA purchased the line from UP in December 2002, with UP retaining an operating... freight operating easement on, and for VTA, the owner of the line, to abandon its residual common...

  12. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1962 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  13. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1963 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  14. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1962 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  15. Easements, Lyon County filed easments. This data is NOT complete., Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Easements dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is described as...

  16. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1963 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  17. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1958 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV...

  18. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1961 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Reufge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV...

  19. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1958 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV...

  20. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1960 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV...

  1. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1959 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV...

  2. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1960 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo Naitonal Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV...

  3. Narrative report January February, March, April, 1959 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV...

  4. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1958 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV...

  5. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1960 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge and Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV...

  6. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1961 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - Districts...

  7. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1959 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV...

  8. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of...

  9. Assessment of conservation easements, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids in West Fork Beaver Creek, Minnesota, 1999-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Kieta, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined conservation easements and their effectiveness at reducing phosphorus and solids transport to streams. The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources and worked collaboratively with the Hawk Creek Watershed Project to examine the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin in Renville County, which has the largest number of Reinvest In Minnesota land retirement contracts in the State (as of 2013). Among all conservation easement programs, a total of 24,218 acres of agricultural land were retired throughout Renville County, and 2,718 acres were retired in the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin from 1987 through 2012. Total land retirement increased steadily from 1987 until 2000. In 2000, land retirement increased sharply because of the Minnesota River Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, then leveled off when the program ended in 2002. Streamflow data were collected during 1999 through 2011, and total phosphorus and total suspended solids data were collected during 1999 through 2012. During this period, the highest peak streamflow of 1,320 cubic feet per second was in March 2010. Total phosphorus and total suspended solids are constituents that tend to increase with increases in streamflow. Annual flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.140 to 0.759 milligrams per liter, and annual flow-weighted mean total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 21.3 to 217 milligrams per liter. Annual flow-weighted mean total phosphorus and total suspended solids concentrations decreased steadily during the first 4 years of water-quality sample collection. A downward trend in flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations was significant from 1999 through 2008; however, flow-weighted total-phosphorus concentrations increased substantially in 2009, and the total phosphorus trend was no longer significant. The high annual flow-weighted mean concentrations for total phosphorus and total suspended solids

  10. 地役权生态化的现实困境及相关建议%The Realistic Predicament and Related Recommendations of Ecological Easements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何肖洁

    2014-01-01

    随着社会经济的发展,人类的生态利益与环境资源所有权人基于物权所享有的经济利益之间的冲突愈演愈烈。历史悠久的传统地役权制度在环境保护方面体现出了极大的优势,地役权生态化的趋势越来越明显,但其也面临着许多的现实困境。针对生态地役权面临的现实困境,提出更具操作性的建议,以更好地发挥私法手段保护环境的优越性。%With the development of society and economy, the conflicts between ecology and environmental interests and economic interests of the owner of the human resources which based on property rights are intensified. The historic tradition of Easement in environmental protection reflects a great advantage, ecological trends of easements are becoming apparent. But facing many difficulties in the reality, it is necessary to attach importance to the system of ecological easements to solve their practical problems.

  11. How Family Forest Owners Consider Timber Harvesting, Land Sale, and Conservation Easement Decisions: Insights from Massachusetts, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten million family forest owners own 35 percent of US forestland. Although one owner's action may be insignificant, many owners' decisions across the landscape and over time can together affect the forest ecosystem. By analyzing survey data from Massachusetts, this paper examines the thought processes of family forest owners when considering timber harvesting, land sale, and conservation easement decisions, all having great potential to shape the future of individual properties and forest landscape. Some factors (e.g., attitudes towards forestland and desire for and experience of cooperation were important for engaged and unengaged owners, some factors (e.g., attained education level, age, and absenteeism were irrelevant, and some factors (e.g., acreage and information sources had mixed effects depending on the decision and landowner engagement level. The results suggest the need to avoid any one-size-fits-all approach, differentiate landowners based on their engagement level, and tailor outreach efforts to address the interests and concerns of particular audiences.

  12. Measuring the effectiveness of conservation: a novel framework to quantify the benefits of sage-grouse conservation policy and easements in Wyoming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E Copeland

    Full Text Available Increasing energy and housing demands are impacting wildlife populations throughout western North America. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, a species known for its sensitivity to landscape-scale disturbance, inhabits the same low elevation sage-steppe in which much of this development is occurring. Wyoming has committed to maintain sage-grouse populations through conservation easements and policy changes that conserves high bird abundance "core" habitat and encourages development in less sensitive landscapes. In this study, we built new predictive models of oil and gas, wind, and residential development and applied build-out scenarios to simulate future development and measure the efficacy of conservation actions for maintaining sage-grouse populations. Our approach predicts sage-grouse population losses averted through conservation action and quantifies return on investment for different conservation strategies. We estimate that without conservation, sage-grouse populations in Wyoming will decrease under our long-term scenario by 14-29% (95% CI: 4-46%. However, a conservation strategy that includes the "core area" policy and $250 million in targeted easements could reduce these losses to 9-15% (95% CI: 3-32%, cutting anticipated losses by roughly half statewide and nearly two-thirds within sage-grouse core breeding areas. Core area policy is the single most important component, and targeted easements are complementary to the overall strategy. There is considerable uncertainty around the magnitude of our estimates; however, the relative benefit of different conservation scenarios remains comparable because potential biases and assumptions are consistently applied regardless of the strategy. There is early evidence based on a 40% reduction in leased hectares inside core areas that Wyoming policy is reducing potential for future fragmentation inside core areas. Our framework using build-out scenarios to anticipate species declines

  13. Easements - DNR Owned Properties and Conservation Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) manages over 446,000 acres of public lands and protected open space in the state. The DNR Lands data (part of...

  14. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation of land protected with the Rural Legacy program. The Rural Legacy Area protects farmland, forests and Civil War sites, within view of the Washington Monument State Park,, Published in 2008, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset current as of 2008. Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation...

  15. Algorithm for calculating the coordinates of unsymmetrical easement curve%非对称缓和曲线坐标计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵世平; 林宗坚

    2011-01-01

    本文重点阐述高等级公路非标准缓和曲线的施工放样测量.缓和曲线是设置在直线和圆曲线之间的一种线型,起缓和过渡作用,其目的在于保证车辆由直线进入圆曲线(或由圆曲线进入直线)时的横向稳定,缓和曲线的曲率半径随曲线长度的增加而均匀连续地变小,本文综合了各种情况下的曲线计算,给出了直接计算和间接计算两种计算方法,并用C编写了计算程序,给出了计算算例.%This text focused on the construction and lofting of unsymmetrical easement curve for high standard highway. Easement curve is a kind of linetypes between circle curve and line, the purpose is to transfer alleviation and ensure lateral stability when the car drives from line to circle curve. Its Curve Radius will be uniform continuity lessening as its length increases. Through research for all kinds of curves, two kinds of new calculation methods were found as direct method and indirect method. At the same time, the paper developed the software for the calculation methods and showed example by C.

  16. Effect of easement nursing intervention on adverse reaction of aponia gastroscope%舒适护理干预减少无痛胃镜不良反应的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴琼

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨舒适护理干预措施减少无痛胃镜患者不良反应的有效性.方法 将216例患者随机分为干预组和对照组,干预组患者检查前后实施舒适护理干预措施,评估焦虑量(SAS)、麻醉起效时间、麻醉药用量、麻醉的效果及观察检查中、检查后的不良反应.结果 干预组SAS、麻醉起效时间、麻药用量和麻醉效果的优良率和并发症发生率均优于对照组.结论 舒适护理干预措施能有效减少患者的焦虑程度,减少无痛胃镜检查中和检查后不良反应的发生,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To approach the efficacy of easement nursing intervention on adverse reaction of aponia gastroscope. Methods 216 patients were randomly separated to intervention group and control group. The intervention group was treated with easement nursing intervention. The anxiety quantity was evaluated with SAS. The time to anesthesia, narcotic dose, anesthesia effective and adverse reaction were observed during gastroscopy and afetr gastroscopy. Results SAS. time to anesthesia, narcotic dose and anesthesia effect of intervention group were better than that of the control group. The complication incidence of intervention group was lower than that of the control group. Conclusion Easement nursing intervention can decrease the patients anxiety extent and adverse reaction during and after the anponia gastroscopy.

  17. 用牛顿迭代法求解弯斜坡桥直线与缓和曲线交点桩号%Newton-Raphson method solution for the easement curve and straight line intersection point's mileage of the skew curved and ramp bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡先磊

    2011-01-01

    为计算斜交的平行式墩台布置桥梁设计中直线与缓和曲线交点桩号,采用牛顿迭代法进行求解.该方法具有趋近次数少、精度满足要求的特点.经实际论证,该方法为近似求解弯斜坡桥直线与缓和曲线交点桩号较好的方法之一.%Skew bridge pier and abutment adopt parallel's axis layout,in order to describe the easement curve and straight line intersection point's mileage. This paper describes Newton-Raphson method to solve this problem, approaching number of times is not too much, and the required precision is very good. The results show that its one of good metlods to describe the easement curve and straight line intersection point's mileage of the skew curved and ramp bridge.

  18. Trees and Shrubs for Overhead Utility Easements

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; French, Sue (Sue C.); Johnson-Asnicar, Brenda; Relf, Diane; Day, Susan D.; Nunnally, Richard, 1947-; Vest, John

    2009-01-01

    Trees are one of the major causes of power outages in areas of overhead utility lines due to direct tree contact with lines, or to trees or tree limbs falling on the lines. This publication covers conflict resolution options and tree selection and planting when dealing with landscaping around power lines.

  19. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, McLean National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Hiddenwood Easement Refuge, Lake Otis Easement Refuge, Lost Lake Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge: Narrative report: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, McLean National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake...

  20. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, McLean National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Hiddenwood Easement Refuge, Lake Otis Easement Refuge, Lost Lake Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, McLean National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake...

  1. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge : Lake Elsie Easement Refuge, Storm Lake Easement Refuge, Wild Rice Lake Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tewaukon NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  2. North Dakota Easement District #3 : Narrative Report : May - December 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - December 1944 for Synder, Brumba, Rock Lake, School-Section Lake, Willow Lake, Rabb Lake, Lord's Lake, Camp Lake,...

  3. North Dakota Easement District #3 : Narrative Report : January - April 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1944 for Synder, Brumba, Rock Lake, School-Section Lake, Willow Lake, Rabb Lake, Lord's Lake, Camp...

  4. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #6 : September to December 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September to December 1956 for Bonehill Creek, Chase Lake, Half-way Lake, Hobart Lake, Lake George, Stoney Slough, and...

  5. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1950 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  6. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1945 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  7. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1954 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  8. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1949 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  9. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1946 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  10. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May - August 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1961 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  11. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May - August 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1945 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  12. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1952 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  13. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1954 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  14. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1947 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  15. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1956 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  16. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1955 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  17. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1951 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  18. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1958 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  19. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1960 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  20. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1947 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  1. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1946 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  2. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1958 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  3. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1953 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  4. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1947 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  5. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1948 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  6. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May - August 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1960 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  7. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1953 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  8. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1949 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  9. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1957 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  10. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1960 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  11. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May - August 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1958 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  12. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1955 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  13. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1959 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  14. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1952 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  15. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1959 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  16. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #6 : September to December 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September to December 1952 for Bonehill Creek, Chase Lake, Half-way Lake, Hobart Lake, Lake George, Stoney Slough, and...

  17. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #6 : September to December 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September to December 1955 for Bonehill Creek, Chase Lake, Half-way Lake, Hobart Lake, Lake George, Stoney Slough, and...

  18. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #6 : January to April 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1954 for Bonehill Creek, Chase Lake, Half-way Lake, Hobart Lake, Lake George, Stoney Slough, and...

  19. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1951 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  20. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1957 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  1. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May - August 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1958 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  2. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1950 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  3. North Dakota Easement District #3 : Narrative Report : January - December 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to December 1943 for Synder, Brumba, Rock Lake, School-Section Lake, Willow Lake, Rabb Lake, Lord's Lake, Camp...

  4. Community strategy for mangrove forest conservation: Conquista Campesina Conservation Easement

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The drafting of a community plan for mangrove forest conservation in the communal land of Conquista Campesina (Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico) is part of a more ambitious project aimed at establishing a protected wetlands corridor in the coastal region of the state of Chiapas. The purpose is to guarantee the conservation, protection and restoration of priority wetlands, placing special emphasis on vulnerable ecosystems. With the technical support of Pronatura Sur A. C. and after signing a conserv...

  5. North Dakota Easement District #1 : Narrative Reports : January - April 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January - April 1944 for Wildfang Lake, Yanktonai Lake, Lost Lake, Florence Lake, Canfield Lake, Hutchinson Lake,...

  6. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September - December 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September - December 1956 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac...

  7. North Dakota Easements District #4 : Narrative Reports : May - August 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1943. for Lake Ilo, Legion Lake, Stewart Lake, White Lake, Lake Susie, Clearwater, Lake Patricia, Lake...

  8. Narrative report 1968 Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Shell Lake Easement Refuge, and McLean Easement Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Narrative report calendar year 1969 Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Shell Lake Easement Refuge, and McLean Easement Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Narrative report calendar year 1968 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, White Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Pretty Rock Easement Refuge, & Stewart Lake Easement Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  11. Narrative report 1971 Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge and Shell Lake Easement Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  12. North Dakota Easement District #3 : Quarterly Narrative Reports : February 1942 - December 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during February 1942 - December 1942 for Synder, Brumba, Rock Lake, School-Section Lake, Willow Lake, Rabb Lake, Lord's Lake,...

  13. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #3 : Narrative Report : January - April 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January - April 1947 for Willow Lake, Lords Lake, School Section Lake, Rabb (Raab) Lake, Cottonwood Lake, Sheyenne...

  14. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #3 : Narrative Report : May - December 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - December 1949 for Willow Lake, Lords Lake, School Section Lake, Rabb (Raab) Lake, Cottonwood Lake, Sheyenne Lake,...

  15. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #3 : Narrative Report : September - December 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September to December 1947 for Willow Lake, Lords Lake, School Section Lake, Rabb (Raab) Lake, Cottonwood Lake,...

  16. North Dakota Easement Refuges, District #3: Narrative report: January, February, March, April 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1945 for School-Section Lake, Willow Lake, Rabb Lake, Lord's Lake, Camp Lake, Sheyenne Lake, Lake...

  17. North Dakota Easement District #4 : Quarterly Narrative Reports : August 1940 - January 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during August 1940 to January 1941. for Lake Ilo, Lake Zahl, Shell Lake, Legion Lake, Stewart Lake, White Lake, Lake Susie,...

  18. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1948 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the...

  19. North Dakota Easement District #3 : Quarterly Narrative Reports : May 1940 - January 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May 1940 - January 1941 for Synder, Brumba, Rock Lake, School-Section Lake, Willow Lake, Rabb Lake, Lord's Lake, Camp...

  20. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January to April 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1945 for Lake Ardoch, Kellys Slough, Little Goose, Pioneer Lake, Wood Lake, Silver Lake, Lac Aux...

  1. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May to August 1943 for Lake Ardoch, Kellys Slough, Little Goose, Pioneer Lake, Wood Lake, Silver Lake, Lac Aux Mortes...

  2. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : February 1942 - December 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during February 1942 - December 1942 for Lake Ardoch, Kellys Slough, Little Goose, Pioneer Lake, Wood Lake, Silver Lake, Lac...

  3. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1957 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  4. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1952 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  5. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September to December 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September to December 1943 for Lake Ardoch, Kellys Slough, Little Goose, Pioneer Lake, Wood Lake, Silver Lake, Lac Aux...

  6. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January to April 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1944 for Lake Ardoch, Kellys Slough, Little Goose, Pioneer Lake, Wood Lake, Silver Lake, Lac Aux...

  7. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1953 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  8. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May to August 1944 for Lake Ardoch, Kellys Slough, Little Goose, Pioneer Lake, Wood Lake, Silver Lake, Lac Aux Mortes...

  9. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1954 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  10. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : September to December 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September to December 1944 for Lake Ardoch, Kellys Slough, Little Goose, Pioneer Lake, Wood Lake, Silver Lake, Lac Aux...

  11. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1951 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  12. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1946 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  13. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : January to April 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to April 1943 for Lake Ardoch, Kellys Slough, Little Goose, Pioneer Lake, Wood Lake, Silver Lake, Lac Aux...

  14. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1950 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  15. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1946 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1949 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge and Ilo Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of...

  17. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge North Platte Easement Refuge: Annual Narrative Report, 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. A memorandum from the...

  18. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Quarterly Narrative Reports : February 1941 - January 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during February 1941 - January 1942 for Lake Ardoch, Kellys Slough, Little Goose, Pioneer Lake, Wood Lake, Silver Lake, Lac...

  19. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Quarterly Narrative Reports : May 1940 - January 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May 1940 - January 1941 for Lake Ardoch, Kellys Slough, Little Goose, Pioneer Lake, Wood Lake, Silver Lake, Lac Aux...

  20. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1949 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  1. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1948 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  2. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1955 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  3. [Narrative report, Crescent Lake Refuge and North Platte Easement Refuge : January, February, March & April, 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1945. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #3 : Narrative Report : May - August 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1946 for Willow Lake, Lords Lake, School Section Lake, Rabb (Raab) Lake, Cottonwood Lake, Sheyenne Lake,...

  5. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #3 : Narrative Report : January - April 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January - April 1946 for Willow Lake, Lords Lake, School Section Lake, Rabb (Raab) Lake, Cottonwood Lake, Sheyenne...

  6. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #3 : Narrative Report : September - December 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September to December 1946 for Willow Lake, Lords Lake, School Section Lake, Rabb (Raab) Lake, Cottonwood Lake,...

  7. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #3 : Narrative Report : May - December 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January - April 1948 for Willow Lake, Lords Lake, School Section Lake, Rabb (Raab) Lake, Cottonwood Lake, Sheyenne...

  8. North Dakota Easement Refuges District #3 : Narrative Report : May - August 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1947 for Willow Lake, Lords Lake, School Section Lake, Rabb (Raab) Lake, Cottonwood Lake, Sheyenne Lake,...

  9. Great Bay National Wildlife Refuge and Karner Blue Butterfly Conservation Easement: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Great Bay National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge...

  10. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge and Bear Butte Easement Refuge Narrative report: 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. 7 CFR 1467.8 - Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... using the Uniform Standards for Professional Appraisal Practices, or based on an area-wide market... State Conservationist will determine the geographic area rate cap using the best information which is... maximum payments to reimburse participants for reasonable expenses, if incurred. (d) Tax implications of...

  12. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1955 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  13. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1949, Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the...

  14. Colorado River Wildlife Management Area (Green River Easements) [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Colorado River Wildlife Management Area. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  15. Proposed North Dakota Wildlife Management Area: Grassland Easement Program Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The focus for this project will primarily be on high quality grasslands not only for waterfowl, but also for the myriad of other bird species, plants, and mammals...

  16. North Dakota Easement District #6 : Quarterly Narrative Reports : February 1942 - December 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during February 1942 - December 1942 for Bonehill Creek, Chase Lake, Half-way Lake, Hobart Lake, Lake George, Stoney Slough,...

  17. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, North Platte Easement Refuge: Annual narrative report, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by...

  18. North Dakota Easements District #4 : Narrative Reports : January to December 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to December 1951 for Lake Ilo, Legion Lake, Stewart Lake, White Lake, Lake Susie, Clearwater, Lake Patricia,...

  19. North Dakota Easement District #4 : Quarterly Narrative Reports : February 1941 - January 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during February 1941 to January 1942. for Lake Ilo, Lake Zahl, Shell Lake, Legion Lake, Stewart Lake, White Lake, Lake Susie,...

  20. North Dakota Easements District #4 : Narrative Reports : September to December 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during September to December 1943. for Lake Ilo, Legion Lake, Stewart Lake, White Lake, Lake Susie, Clearwater, Lake...

  1. North Dakota Easement District #4 : Narrative Reports : February 1942 - December 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during February 1942 to December 1942. for Lake Ilo, Lake Zahl, Shell Lake, Legion Lake, Stewart Lake, White Lake, Lake...

  2. North Dakota Easements District #4 : Narrative Reports : January to December 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to December 1952 for Lake Ilo, Legion Lake, Stewart Lake, White Lake, Lake Susie, Clearwater, Lake Patricia,...

  3. North Dakota Easements District #4 : Narrative Reports : January to December 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to December 1954 for Lake Ilo, Legion Lake, Stewart Lake, White Lake, Lake Susie, Clearwater, Lake Patricia,...

  4. North Dakota Easements District #4 : Narrative Reports : January to December 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to December 1950 for Lake Ilo, Legion Lake, Stewart Lake, White Lake, Lake Susie, Clearwater, Lake Patricia,...

  5. North Dakota Easements District #4 : Narrative Reports : January to December 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during January to December 1953 for Lake Ilo, Legion Lake, Stewart Lake, White Lake, Lake Susie, Clearwater, Lake Patricia,...

  6. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1950 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1950. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1948 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the...

  8. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1946 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the...

  9. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge North Platte Easement Refuge: Annual Narrative Report, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  10. North Dakota Easement District #2 : Narrative Reports : May to August 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report cover activities during May - August 1946 for Lake Ardoch, Billings Lake, Buffalo Lake, Brumba Lake, Johnson Lake, Kelly's Slough, Lac Aux...

  11. Aggregating high-priority landscape areas to the parcel level: an easement implementation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strager, Michael P; Rosenberger, Randall S

    2007-01-01

    Landscape characteristics and parcel ownership information are often collected on different spatial scales leading to difficulties in implementing land use plans at the parcel level. This study provides a method for aggregating highly resolute landscape planning information to the parcel level. Our parcel prioritization model directly incorporates a Land Trust's conservation goals in the form of a compromise programming model. We then demonstrate the use of our approach for implementation decisions, including parcel selection under a budget constraint and the estimation of a total conservation budget necessary to meet specific conservation goals. We found that these cost constraints significantly alter the composition of the 'best' parcels for conservation and can also provide guidance for implementation. The model's results were integral to a local Land Trust's ability to further define and achieve their goals.

  12. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1950 Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1950. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. Environmental Assessment: Dakota Tallgrass Prairie Wildlife Management Area Grassland Easement Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (the Service) proposes to create the Dakota Tallgrass Prairie Wildlife Management Area (WMA) to preserve 185,000 acres of native...

  14. Archaeological Reconnaissance in the 50 Year Flood Easement Lands. Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    of Professional Archaeologists ( MAPA ) were given an opportunity to review and comment on the research design. Verbal and written comments on the...the government, the MOHP, and the MAPA reviewers in early August 1979. The research objectives for this project include CRM objectives and

  15. 78 FR 64051 - Mule Sidetracks, L.L.C.-Acquisition Exemption-Columbiana County Port Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... November 10, 1993, and easements retained by PLE in deeds dated June 3, 1992, and November 10, 1993, from PLE to Allied (collectively, the Allied Easements), which Allied Easements were conveyed by Youngstown...

  16. 78 FR 64597 - Youngstown & Southeastern Railway Company-Operation Exemption-Mule Sidetracks, L.L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Company by agreements dated June 3, 1992, and November 10, 1993, and easements retained by PLE in deeds dated June 3, 1992, and November 10, 1993, from PLE to Allied (Allied Easements), which Allied Easements...

  17. 77 FR 9693 - Establishment of Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... resources in the conservation area primarily through the purchase of perpetual easements from willing... purchase perpetual conservation easements, using the acquisition authority of the Fish and ] Wildlife...

  18. Refuge narrative report for May, June, July & August, 1949. Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge and Zahl, Clearlake, & Shell Lake Easements.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the...

  19. Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1944 for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Lake Zahl, Clearwater, Shell Lake Easement Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the...

  20. Archaeological Survey and Site Testing in Sloughing Easement Areas along the Sac River Downstream from Stockton Dam, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    lower Pomme de Terre River Valley by McMillan (1976a). Post oak, white oak, and black oak were found to be the most abundant tree species; but...lists for the lower Pomme de Terre River Valley along with the habitat preferences of each species. Similar species were probably present in the...research has been carried out in the lover Sac River drainage, the Pomme de Terre River drainage, and the Osage River drainage. Most of this work

  1. Refuge narrative report: September, October, November, December, 1946 for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Lake Zahl, Clearwater, Shell Lake Easement Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1946. The report begins by summarizing...

  2. Refuge narrative report: January, February, March, April, 1946 for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Lake Zahl, Clearwater, Shell Lake Easement Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the...

  3. Narrative report for calendar year 1972 [Devils Lake Wetland Management District, North Dakota Easement Refuge District No. 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the calendar year of 1972. The report begins by giving a...

  4. Narrative Report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No.2 September - December 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December 1963. The report begins by summarizing...

  5. Refuge narrative report: September, October, November, December, 1945 for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Lake Zahl, Clearwater, Shell Lake Easement Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1945. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Narrative report for May, June, July, August, 1945 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuge in District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the...

  7. Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 Narrative Report for May - August 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  8. Narrative report for calendar year 1971 [Devils Lake Wetland Management District, North Dakota Easement Refuge District No. 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the calendar year of 1971. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. 77 FR 77183 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda County, Cal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Industrial Lead); Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority--Abandonment of Residual Common Carrier... Railroad Company (UP) and Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (SCVTA) jointly filed with the... contiguous to the segment between mileposts 7.35 and 16.30 in Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, Cal.,...

  10. Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1946 for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Lake Zahl, Clearwater, Shell Lake Easement Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1948 & Lake Zahl, Clearlake, & Shell Lake Easement Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the...

  12. Refuge narrative report: September, October, November, December, 1944 for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Lake Zahl, Clearwater, Shell Lake Easement Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1944. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. Narrative report for May, June, July and August 1944 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges in District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the...

  14. Vermont State Lands Conservation Easement for lands surrounding the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines public access rights to state lands that surround the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge.

  15. Fort Niobrara Easement Refuges: Lake Andes, Lake Arconge, Carr, Eagle Creek: May 1, 1942 to August 31, 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes activities on Lake Andes NWR between May and August of 1942. Lake Arconge Refuge, Carr Refuge, and Eagle Creek Refuge are also...

  16. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1963 Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IVA & Waterfowl Production Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1963. The report begins by summarizing...

  17. Fort Niobrara Easement Refuges: Lake Andes, Lake Arconge, Carr, Eagle Creek: Narrative report: Sept. to Dec. 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes activities on Lake Andes, Lake Arconge, Carr, and Eagle Creek Refuges between September and December of 1943. Weather conditions,...

  18. Narrative report for September, October, November, December, 1945 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge and Easement Refuges in District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1945. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. 30 CFR 282.20 - Obligations and responsibilities of lessees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other aquatic life); to property; to the national security or defense; or to the marine, coastal, or... easement shall exercise its rights under the right of use and easement in accordance with the...

  20. 7 CFR 623.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Program (EWRP). Under the EWRP, NRCS will make offers to purchase wetland conservation easements from..., and environmental education will thus be promoted. The wetland conservation easements will permanently... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  1. 76 FR 72134 - Annual Charges for Use of Government Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... determine a one-time rental payment for perpetual linear grants or easements. 18. On February 17, 2009, the... rental payment for a perpetual right of way or easement on land that will be transferred out of...

  2. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1963 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  3. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1951 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, Easement Refuges - District IV & 4a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1950 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, Easement Refuges - District IV & 4a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. Refuge narrative report Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Lake Zahl, Clearwater, & Shell Lake Easement Refuges. for Jan., Feb., March and April, 1947.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1947. The report begins by summarizing the...

  6. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1955 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the...

  7. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1962 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, and Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  8. Quarterly narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges in District IV : August, September, October, 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs topics include grazing. A progress report on field investigations and applied research is also provided. The public relations...

  9. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1949 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & 4a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1949. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1953 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & 4a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1954 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & 4a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the...

  12. Lake Mason National Wildlife Refuge, Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge, Halfbreed National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge: Easement narrative report: September, October, November, December - 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lake Mason NWR, Hailstone NWR, Halfbreed NWR, and Lamesteer NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1942....

  13. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1954 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & 4a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1954. The report begins by summarizing...

  14. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1955 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV & 4a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1955. The report begins by...

  15. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1953 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & 4a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1953. The report begins by summarizing...

  16. Quarterly narrative report for Des Lacs Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, Lostwood Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, & Easement Refuges in District IV : February, March, April, 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs topics include fur harvesting. A progress report on field investigations and applied research is also provided. The public...

  17. Quarterly narrative report : November, December, 1939, January, 1940 for Des Lacs Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, Lostwood Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, & Easement Refuges in District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs & Lostwood Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from November 1939 through January of 1940. The report...

  18. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1957 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1957. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1961 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  20. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1957 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the...

  1. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1957 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1956 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the...

  3. Narrative report September, October, November, December, 1956 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & IVa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. Narrative report January, February, March, April, 1950 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Easement Districts IV and IVA, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1954 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge, & Easement Refuges - District IV & 4a

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the...

  6. Park Land and Nature Preserves, Data extracted from many sources and combined for an eleven county region. Covers parks, easements, gamelands, forests., Published in unknown, NC Dept of Commerce - DCA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Park Land and Nature Preserves dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'Data extracted from many sources...

  7. Protected Areas, State Conservation Land, Rural Legacy, Private Conservation Land , Maryland Environmental Trust , County Conservation Land, Agriculture Preservation Easement, Agriculture Preservation District, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Protected Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'State Conservation Land, Rural Legacy, Private Conservation...

  8. 77 FR 15788 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...-G-ID-573 Comments: 11,000 sq. ft.; current use: office Illinois 1LT A.J. Ellison Army Reserve Wood...-CA-1673-AG Comments: 2.07 acres, mineral rights, utility easements Drill Site 4 null Ford City CA... Comments: 2.21 acres, mineral rights, utility easements Drill Site 6 null Ford City CA 93268...

  9. 7 CFR 1467.7 - Enrollment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... landowner. (c) Acceptance and effect of offer of enrollment.(1) Easement. For applications requesting... acceptance into the program. (b) Effect of notice of tentative selection. The notice of tentative acceptance...) Recording the easement in accordance with applicable State law; and (iv) Ensuring the title to the...

  10. 77 FR 3102 - Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... subpart when considering issuance of a permit, lease, easement, or grant to a non-Federal party and may... property rights or interests. (ii) Granting or acceptance of easements, leases, licenses, rights- of-entry...) Classification does not relieve NASA of the requirement to assess, document, and consider the...

  11. 7 CFR 1781.6 - Loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... title to lands or perpetual easements, or rights-of-way for sites for works of improvement or project... perpetual and must not include clauses that terminate the easement with the dissolution or abandonment of..., managing, and accounting for activities related to loan processing and closing and development for...

  12. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.83 Section 643.83 National... Easements § 643.83 Consideration. Although the statutes authorizing grants of rights of way or easements do... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices....

  13. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Utility Corridors at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Edwards Air Force Base, California CNPS California Native Plant Society CO Carbon monoxide CO2 Carbon dioxide CO2e Carbon dioxide equivalent mass ...corridors include existing easements, north-south and east-west traversing the Base and take into consideration current easements, communication ...73 3.7.3 Wildlife Communities

  14. 76 FR 46317 - Nantucket National Wildlife Refuge, Nantucket, MA; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... implementation. It includes an array of management actions that, in our professional judgment, work best towards... additional 1,790 acres proposed for Service acquisition from willing sellers in fee or easement, as funding... Administration facilities, as well as easements and acquisitions from willing sellers on key parcels on the...

  15. 78 FR 69121 - Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... regulations will apply to all operations conducted under a lease, right-of-way, or a right-of-use and easement...), every permit, license, easement, right-of-way, or other grant of authority for the transportation by... activities. We consider these to be usual and customary and took that into account in estimating the burden...

  16. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Robert F; Leonard, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  17. Narrative report : Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  18. Land acquisition pre-proposal investigation - expansion of Hillside NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a collection of correspondence related to the acquisition or easement of the Blissdale property at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge. This document...

  19. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Long Lake Wetland Management District, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  20. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Long Lake Wetland Management District, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  1. 36 CFR 220.6 - Categorical exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Purchasing fee, conservation easement, reserved interest deed, or other interests in lands. (7) Sale or... evaluate genetic worth, and (ii) Planting trees or mechanical seed dispersal of native tree species...

  2. 36 CFR 212.7 - Access procurement by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., limitations and other provisions set forth in the easement, permit, or other indenture. This control by the United States may include restricting or conditioning the use of the interest owned by the United...

  3. 78 FR 26390 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal and Opportunity for Public Meeting; Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... along the north bank of said creek to the north line of said sec. 2; thence easterly along said north... easement 20 feet wide along northerly and easterly boundary of lots 5 and 7; sec. 15, lots 1 to...

  4. 26 CFR 1.170A-14 - Qualified conservation contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... outdoor recreation, irrigation or water supply protection, water quality maintenance or enhancement, flood... scenic enjoyment offered by a variety of open space easements are subjective and not as easily delineated...

  5. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, 1959 to December 31, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1959. The report begins by...

  6. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, 1952 to August 31, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: September - December 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1961. The report begins by...

  8. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: September - December 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1962. The report begins by...

  9. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: May - August 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Evaluation of the Impacts of Irrigation Ground-Water Withdrawl on a Prairie Wetland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To assess the effects of ground-water removal for irrigation on a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service easement wetland in Kidder County, North Dakota, researchers...

  11. Roads (Johnson City)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the location of existing NPS roads including access roads for which the park has an easement at Lyndon B. Johnson National...

  12. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake NWR, Long Lake WMD, Slade NWR, Florence Lake NWR, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995...

  13. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, 1961 to December 31, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1961. The report begins by...

  14. State Aquatic Management Area Aquisitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer shows lands acquired by DNR Fisheries through purchase, donation and easement. Some features are hotlinked to scanned deed documents on the DNR...

  15. Lake Mason National Wildlife Refuge, Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge, Halfbreed National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report: September - October November - December, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Montana Easements outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  16. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - October - November December 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge (including Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge and District VI Easement Refuges) outlines Refuge...

  17. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, 1950 to April 30, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1950. The report begins by summarizing...

  18. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, 1958 to December 31, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by...

  19. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, 1949 to December 31, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1949. The report begins by...

  20. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, 1954 to April 30, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1954. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements: Special Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows special designations in the ecoregion, derived from the CBI Protected Areas Database, National Conservation Easements Database, Roadless Areas, BLM...

  2. 32 CFR 651.10 - Actions requiring environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engineering, laser testing, and electromagnetic pulse generation. (i) Leases, easements, permits, licenses, or..., loans, or other forms of funding such as Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated (GOCO) industrial plants...

  3. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: September - December 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1960. The report begins by...

  4. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September - October - November December 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and District VI Easement Refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December...

  5. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, 1956 to April 30, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1956. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: May - August 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: January - April 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1961. The report begins by...

  8. State Conservation Lands; StaCons11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Approximate edges of Conservation Lands protected by the State of Rhode Island through Fee Title Ownership, Conservation Easement, or Deed Restriction. Includes:...

  9. Narrative report: J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge for calendar year 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by...

  10. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake NWR, Long Lake WMD, Slade NWR, Florence Lake NWR, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000...

  11. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1954. The report begins by summarizing...

  12. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, 1960 to April 30, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1960. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. US Forest Service Right of Way

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas with a privilege to pass over the land of another in some particular path; usually an easement over the land of another; a...

  14. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May - June - July - August 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and District VI Easement Refuge) outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963....

  15. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, 1957 to August 31, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 651 - Categorical Exclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., administrative, general use, special purpose, or warehouse space (REC required). (2) Disposal of excess easement... plan or other planning document that has been subject to NEPA public review. (3) Installation,...

  17. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, 1963 to December 31, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1963. The report begins by...

  18. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and the easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1964 calendar year. The...

  19. Narrative report : Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by...

  20. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: September, October, November, December 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1953. The report begins by...

  1. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, 1955 to August 31, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing...

  2. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January - February - March - April 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and District VI Easement Refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of...

  3. Grasslands Wildlife Management Area proposed expansion: Environmental Assessment, Land Protection Plan, and Conceptual Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses the proposed expansion of the Service's easement program for protection of the wildlife habitat of Merced County's Grasslands Ecological...

  4. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: January, February, March, April 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1952. The report begins by summarizing...

  5. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, 1956 to December 31, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by...

  6. Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge, Halfbreed National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Mason National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report: May - August, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Montana Easements outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  7. Narrative report : Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by...

  8. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, 1958 to August 31, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: January - April, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1956. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, 1951 to April 30, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1951. The report begins by...

  11. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Long Lake Wetland Management District, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  12. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake NWR, Long Lake WMD, Slade NWR, Florence Lake NWR, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997...

  13. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake NWR, Long Lake WMD, Slade NWR, Florence Lake NWR, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992...

  14. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Long Lake Wetland Management District, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  15. Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake WMD and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  16. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake NWR, Long Lake WMD, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report...

  17. Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake WMD and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  18. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing...

  20. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: September, October, November, December 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1954. The report begins by...

  1. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Long Lake NWR, Long Lake WMD, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report...

  2. 78 FR 5256 - Annual Charges for Use of Government Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Hydropower Charges, U.S. General Accounting Office Report No. RCED-87-12 (November 1986). The single national... one-time rental payment for perpetual linear grants or easements. 14. On February 17, 2009,...

  3. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: September - December, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1959. The report begins by...

  4. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, 1946 to April 31, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1946. The report begins by summarizing...

  5. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: September, October, November, December 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1950. The report begins by...

  6. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, 1961 to August 31, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake WMD, Kelly's Slough NWR, Stump Lake NWR, Lake Alice NWR, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the easement refuges...

  8. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake WMD, Lake Alice NWR, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the satelite easement refuges outlines Refuge...

  9. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake WMD, Lake Alice NWR, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the satelite easement refuges outlines Refuge...

  10. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake WMD, Lake Alice NWR, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  11. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake WMD, Kelly's Slough NWR, Stump Lake NWR, Lake Alice NWR, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the easement refuges...

  12. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake WMD, Lake Alice NWR, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the satelite easement refuges outlines Refuge...

  13. Municipal & Non-Governmental Organization Conservation Lands; LocCons11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Non-State Conservation lands are real property permanently protected from future development by fee simple ownership, conservation or other restrictive easements, or...

  14. 78 FR 69118 - Information Collection Activities: General; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... operations conducted under a lease, right-of-way, or a right-of-use and easement. Operations on the OCS must... activities. We consider these to be usual and customary and took that into account in estimating the burden...

  15. Public Incentives for Conservation on Private Land

    OpenAIRE

    Suter, Jordan; Sahan, Dissanayake; Lynne, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and fragmentation resulting from land development has motivated considerable public and private expenditures on land conservation initiatives. In addition to direct expenditures related to the procurement of conservation land, legislators have also put in place incentives aimed at encouraging private landowners to voluntarily donate conservation easements. Many landowners have taken advantage of these incentives, as private land held under conservation easement increased n...

  16. Wind and aviation safety; Eólica y seguridad aérea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, M.

    2016-07-01

    The installation of a wind farm involves countless permits and one of the least well-known, but possibly the most problematic, is the permit related to aeronautical easements. In regions with high wind power development potential, but which are extremely restricted by the lie of the land and compatibility with aerodromes, as in the Canary Islands, wind farm developers are very familiar with the aeronautical easements authorisation that can even end up bringing an entire project to a standstill. (Author)

  17. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, Municipal & Non-Governmental Organization Conservation Lands; LocCons11; Non-State Conservation lands are real property permanently protected from future development by fee simple ownership, conservation or other restrictive easements, or deed restriction, Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as...

  18. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, State Conservation Lands; StaCons11; pproximate edges of Conservation Lands protected by the State of Rhode Island through Fee Title Ownership, Conservation Easement, or Deed Restriction., Published in 2011, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2011. It...

  19. Responding to Building a Beautiful Country by Legal System: Building the System of Conservation Easements of Natural Resources%建设美丽中国的法律制度回应——自然资源保护地役权制度的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐孝辉

    2013-01-01

    党的十八大报告提出建设“美丽中国”,而实现自然资源生态文明是建设美丽中国的重要途径.本文阐述了建设美丽中国与自然资源生态文明的关系,分析了目前我国建设生态文明所面临的法律制度问题,并且提出回应这一问题的关键是寻求私法上的制度以实现对自然资源的保护性利用,而以生态经济学为视角构建的自然资源保护地役权制度能够发挥积极作用.

  20. Protection Levels of Natural Vegetation Communities in the Conterminous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henifin, K.; Comendant, T.

    2013-12-01

    Protected Areas are intended to provide in situ conservation and protection of natural communities, ecosystems and cultural resources. The Protected Areas Database of the United States, PAD-US (CBI Edition) and the National Conservation Easement Database portray protected lands across the country with standardized spatial geometry and attribution that are core to tracking land management and conservation actions in the US. Natural vegetation is critical to species habitat and ecosystem health, however, it is not well understood how well natural vegetation is protected by fee designation and easements. To better characterize the level of protection for various natural vegetation communities and the ecosystems within protected areas (fee and easement) relative to lands without protection, we intersected the PAD-US (CBI Edition), NCED and LANDFIRE EVT. We identified current levels of protection for natural vegetation communities across the conterminous US, summarized by TNC ecoregions to characterize regional differences and areas where greater protection is needed in the future.

  1. 32 CFR 644.426 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Classification. 644.426 Section 644.426 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.426 Classification... required by the special acts, classification will be coordinated with the interested Federal agency....

  2. 50 CFR 296.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... right of use or easement granted under 30 CFR 250.18. Fish means all forms of marine animal and plant... territorial sea (3 miles from a State's coastline, or 9 miles from the coast of Texas or Florida). Person... and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...

  3. 7 CFR 1400.501 - Determination of average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewable energy; (4) The sale, including the sale of easements and development rights, of farm, ranch... renewable energy; (7) The feeding, rearing, or finishing of livestock; (8) The sale of land that has been..., and farm operations. (c) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, adjusted gross income means:...

  4. 78 FR 20942 - Niobrara Confluence and Ponca Bluffs Conservation Areas, NE and SD; Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ..., Division of Refuge Planning, P.O. Box 25486, DFC, Denver, CO 80225. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nick Kaczor, Planning Team Leader, at (303) 236-4387, or by mail at Division of Refuge Planning, USFWS, P.O.... Easements allow the land to stay in private ownership and on the local tax rolls while still providing the...

  5. 32 CFR 644.429 - Wildlife purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wildlife purposes. 644.429 Section 644.429... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.429 Wildlife... for wildlife conservation purposes by the agency of the state exercising administration over...

  6. 75 FR 29183 - Office of the Chief Financial Officer; Department of Agriculture Implementation of OMB Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... company to build a school in Afghanistan. In the absence of the exclusions from covered transaction status... commercial export sales of privately owned stocks of commodities. For example, under GSM-102, a CCC guarantee..., exchanges and other acquisitions of real property, rights of way, and easements under natural resource...

  7. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.431 Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act...

  8. 18 CFR 1304.303 - Channel excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Channel excavation... OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Activities on TVA Flowage Easement Shoreland § 1304.303 Channel excavation. (a) Channel excavation of...

  9. 7 CFR 1491.21 - Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding. 1491.21 Section 1491.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Agreements and Conservation Easement Deeds § 1491.21 Funding. (a) Subject to the statutory limits, the...

  10. 76 FR 51966 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... miles of 16-inch diameter pipeline and replacing with a 30-inch diameter pipeline in the same trench. In... concern. If you are a landowner receiving this notice, you may be contacted by a pipeline company... easement negotiations fail to produce an agreement, the pipeline company could initiate...

  11. 75 FR 42738 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... within the same trench of Mainline B. Following construction, permanent operation of the pipelines would... their areas of concern. If you are a landowner receiving this notice, you may be contacted by a pipeline.... Therefore, if easement negotiations fail to produce an agreement, the pipeline company could...

  12. 77 FR 35369 - Silt Water Conservancy District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... existing Grass Valley Canal in Garfield County, Colorado. The applicant holds an easement for all land on... requirements under 18 CFR 4.38(c). On September 1 and 23, and October 28, 2011, the Colorado Water Quality Control Division, the Colorado Division of Water Resources, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  13. 75 FR 42819 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and a Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... easement that would also contain underground utility lines. The access road and radar site together... Surveillance Radar, Model 9, West Chicago, IL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Impact (FONSI)/Record of Decision (ROD) for the Proposed ORD Airport Surveillance Radar, Model 9,...

  14. 75 FR 16786 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Period Ends: 04/02/2010, Contact: Deborah Darden 304-465-6509. Revision to FR Notice Published 01/29/2010... Island, VA, Comment Period Ends: 04/19/2010, Contact: Joshua A. Bundick 757-824-2319. Revision to FR... Easement--Forest Roads 191 and 191D, Implementation, Cibola National Forest, McKinley County, NM,...

  15. 77 FR 27763 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... contact you about the acquisition of an easement to construct, operate, and maintain the proposed... convert four currently certificated wells from horizontal to vertical I/W wells; Construct four additional I/W wells, three of which would be vertical and the fourth a slant well; Plug and abandon...

  16. 75 FR 68377 - Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge, Becker County, and Tamarac Wetland Management District, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge, Becker County, and Tamarac Wetland... the Environmental Assessment (EA) for Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and Tamarac Wetland... 8,577 acres of wetland easements distributed throughout five counties. The Draft CCP and EA...

  17. 75 FR 39038 - Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge and Wetland Management District, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge and Wetland Management District, Minnesota... environmental assessment (EA) for Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and Tamarac Wetland Management District.... The Tamarac Wetland Management District consists of 8,577 acres of wetland easements...

  18. 77 FR 34186 - Appeal Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... appeal procedures as required by Title II of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of... Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 The Federal Crop Insurance Reform... including Flood Plain Easements; (iii) Great Lakes Restoration Initiative; (iv) Healthy Forest Reserve...

  19. 76 FR 62434 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...; lead-base paint is present in bldgs. Suitable/Available Properties Land New Mexico FAA RML Facility...-- offices/classrooms/storage, subject to existing easements Maryland Appraisers Store Baltimore MD 21202...-D-OH-842 Comments: 29, 212, and 6,097 sq. ft.; most recent use: office, storage, classroom,...

  20. 7 CFR 1924.107 - Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sufficient easements for installation and maintenance. (a) Water and wastewater disposal systems—(1) Single Family Housing. If sites are served by central water or sewer systems, the systems must meet the... wastewater systems are in compliance with the current provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Clean...

  1. 77 FR 75443 - Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... culture as the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individuals... draft policy statement would apply to all lessees, the owners or holders of operating rights, designated... and easement, and contractors. The BSEE is requesting comments on the Draft Safety Culture...

  2. 76 FR 52008 - Keālia Pond National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and Kakahai'a NWR, Maui County, HI; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... the pond under Alternative A. When water in the main pond recedes due to evaporation, trade winds..., to allow water from the upper watershed and periodic dewatering of the wetlands to flow to the ocean... conservation easement provided by Alexander and Baldwin, Inc. The Refuge encompasses open water, fresh...

  3. 77 FR 22389 - State of Michigan Department of Transportation-Acquisition Exemption-Certain Assets of Norfolk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ..., irrevocable, perpetual, assignable, divisible, licensable and transferable freight operations easement to provide freight rail service on the line.\\1\\ \\1\\ A motion to dismiss this notice of exemption on the... this notice of exemption. MDOT requests that the Board give expedited consideration to the motion...

  4. 7 CFR 1491.6 - Ranking considerations and proposal selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) system. This score serves as a measure of agricultural viability (access to markets and infrastructure...) The performance of an entity experience in managing and enforcing easements. Performance must be measured by the closing efficiency or percentage of monitoring that is reported. Years of an...

  5. 30 CFR 285.605 - What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)? 285.605... Assessment Plan (SAP)? (a) A SAP describes the activities (e.g., installation of meteorological towers... project easement, or to test technology devices. (1) Your SAP must describe how you will conduct your...

  6. 78 FR 41393 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC: Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Project involving construction and operation of facilities by Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) in... process to determine whether the project is in the public convenience and necessity. This notice announces... an easement to construct, operate, and maintain the proposed facilities. The company would seek...

  7. 77 FR 37032 - Questar Pipeline Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... and operation of facilities by Questar Pipeline Company (Questar) in Duchesne County, Utah. The... convenience and necessity. This notice announces the opening of the scoping process the Commission will use to... about the acquisition of an easement to construct, operate, and maintain the planned facilities....

  8. 77 FR 70429 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... operation of facilities by Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP (Gulf South) in Jasper, Forrest, Perry, Greene... its decision-making process to determine whether the project is in the public convenience and... an easement to construct, operate, and maintain the planned facilities. The company would seek...

  9. 77 FR 29629 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... facilities by El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG) in El Paso County, Texas. The Commission will use this EA in its decision-making process to determine whether the project is in the public convenience and... about the acquisition of an easement to construct, operate, and maintain the proposed facilities....

  10. 78 FR 46682 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Joint Use-Louisville & Indiana Railroad Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... jointly use the Line with L&I, CSXT seeks to acquire and use a perpetual, non-exclusive freight railroad... perpetual, non-exclusive freight railroad operating easement over the Line. In order to accomplish this... arrangement is perpetual and is based on the Transaction Agreement. L&I would also be charged for...

  11. 75 FR 62755 - Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange AGENCY: Forest... land. The acquisition of the wetlands at Cooper Spur and the easement on the wetlands at...

  12. 7 CFR 1955.137 - Real property located in special areas or having special characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on FSA inventory property. Perpetual wetland conservation easements (encumbrances in deeds) to...) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.137 Real property located in special... Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS)—(1) Use restrictions. Executive Order 11988,...

  13. 32 CFR 643.74 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.74 Section 643.74 National... Licenses § 643.74 Consideration. When a license is granted under the authority of an easement or leasing statute, the same rules will apply in regard to consideration as is applicable to the granting of...

  14. 78 FR 20687 - Nantucket National Wildlife Refuge, Nantucket, MA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... combines the actions we believe would best achieve the refuge's purposes, vision, and goals, and the intent... alternative would also best respond to the issues that arose during the planning process. Alternative B would... from willing sellers in fee or easement, or as a no-cost transfer from other Federal agencies. It...

  15. 77 FR 52353 - Right-of-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Support Renewable Energy Development AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION...) renewable energy right-of-way (ROW) grants in order to streamline this process and increase efficiency and... product generated or produced from renewable energy, but does not constitute a project easement....

  16. 32 CFR 644.428 - Airport property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Airport property. 644.428 Section 644.428 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.428...

  17. 7 CFR 1955.139 - Disposition of real property rights and title to real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decrease the value by more than the price received. (3) For FSA properties only, easements, restrictions... protecting or conserving the following environmental resources or land uses: (A) Fish and wildlife habitats...) Aquifer recharge areas of local, regional or State importance, (F) Areas of high water quality or...

  18. 75 FR 21648 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... rights of use and easement in the OCS and in State coastal waters who will appoint designated applicants... activities. We consider these to be usual and customary and took that into account in estimating the burden... information or keep records for the Government; or (iv) as part of customary and usual business or private...

  19. 38 CFR 36.4354 - Estate of veteran in real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or the Director, Loan Guaranty Service: (i) That such type of leasehold is customary in the area...) Encroachments; (2) Easements; (3) Servitudes; (4) Reservations for water, timber, or subsurface rights; or (5) Sale and lease restrictions: (i) Except as to condominiums, the right in any grantor or cotenant in the...

  20. 38 CFR 36.4253 - Title and lien requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Loan Guaranty Service, (i) that such type of leasehold is customary in the area where the property is...) Encroachments; (2) Easements; (3) Servitudes; (4) Reservations for water, timber, or subsurface rights; (5) Right in any grantor or cotenant in the chain of title, or a successor of either, to purchase for cash...

  1. 76 FR 38410 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0057, Pollution Prevention and Control, Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... conducted under a lease, right-of-use and easement, and pipeline right-of-way. Operations on the OCS must... consider these to be usual and customary and took that into account in estimating the burden. Reporting and...; or (iv) as part of ] customary and usual business or private practices. We will summarize written...

  2. 24 CFR 203.389 - Waived title objections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Property Title Transfers and Title..., and other customary easements for public utilities, party walls, driveways, and other purposes. (2... exercise of the rights thereunder do not interfere with any of the buildings or improvements located on the...

  3. 7 CFR 625.15 - Violations and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... material breach of the easement covenants, associated restoration agreement, or any associated contract... without delay. (3) If NRCS terminates a cost-share agreement due to breach of contract, the participant... cost-share agreement due to breach of contract, or the participant voluntarily terminates the...

  4. Especies vegetales que habitan en los derechos de vía de las carreteras principales de Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jiménez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current article presents information about species of trees growing on the road easements on the highways of Nicaragua. Inventories of trees and bushes were carried out on two representative highways within the national roadway system to assess the most prevalent species of plants. The criteria for the selection of the highways under analysis were established by taking into account the relevant information on a precise and satisfactory level. The parameters analyzed were: proliferation, value of the species, degree of coverage, density, plant species composition and vitality. In conclusion, the tree species identified on the road easement areas were typically those of indigenous plants or the remains of riparian forests. The species most frequently found were Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae, Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae, Senna siamea (Caesalpiniaceae, y Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Mimosaceae.

  5. Environmental Assessment, Buildings 4133 and Building 4143, Historic Building Demolitions, Barksdale Air Foce Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    communities for this region include the oak-gum-cypress bottomlands, in which most wetlands occur, and the pine-oak-hickory- maple forest , which dominates...areas, forest , safety clearance/security areas, utility easements Water 2,317 11.0 Ponds, lakes, streams, forest wetlands Total 21,802 100 BAFB Total...comprises 21,802 acres of natural vegetation, 17,301 acres of which is dominated by forested communities. Bottomland hardwoods make up approximately

  6. Environmental Assessment Building 5745, Historical Building Demolition, Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    wetlands occur, and the pine-oak-hickory- maple forest , which dominates the uplands. Seven plants listed on the state rare list and ten uncommon...parks/picnic areas, FamCamp, pools, golf course Open Space 16,450 75.0 Conservation areas, forest , safety clearance/security areas, utility...easements Water 2,317 11.0 Ponds, lakes, streams, forest wetlands Total 21,802 100 BAFB Total Area Source: Barksdale Air Force Base General Plan

  7. Intensive Survey at 11-Jd-126, Jo Daviess County, Illinois. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    sediment mantle overlying the Pleistocene deposits. S Relief of the lowland floodplain is slight, ranging from 0-3 meters above the artificial ...channel environment. During recovery operations at the barge terminal easement, features (storage pits and a probable hearth ) were noted intruding...land survey records, note a greater diversity of tree species than those now present. To an unknown degree, maintenance * -of artificially high water

  8. Energy: the states' response in 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Earl S.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation of all state legislative energy enactments for legislature, in 1978 is presented. It provides source material to legislators and their staff. Each bill is separated into one or more of the 37 major subject categories. Broad categories cover public utilities; tax exemption; tax application; franchise protection; conservation; resource development; solar easements; mineral extraction regulation; management; emergency powers; anti-trust; anit-environment; and miscellaneous legislation.

  9. Addendum to the Environmental Assessment for the Armed Forces Reserve Center and Operational Maintenance Facility for the 63rd Regional Support Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-29

    proposed action. Selection of this alternative would require the relocation of two domestic water pipelines and pipeline easements crossing the ten...areas for retention ponds, while, at the same time, avoiding the existing water pipelines crossing the property. The Reserve center is sized to train...potable water pipelines south of the proposed site. This would allow for construction of the proposed facility without the need to install a water

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Armed Forces Reserve Center/Organizational Maintenance Shop at Nellis Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    relocation of two d~mestic water pipelines and pipeline easements crossing the ten acre parcel. This would require additional subsurface disturbance to the...retention ponds, while, at the same time, avoiding the existing water pipelines crossing the property. The Reserve center is sized to train... water pipelines south of the proposed · site. This would allow for construction of the proposed facility without the need to install a water storage

  11. Analysis of Legal Precedents and Land-Use Controls as applied to the Installation Compatible Use Zone (ICUZ) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    perceived as noise. land uses near an Army installation, (2) investigate and identify land-use techniques applicable to ICUZ, A vey hgh oun leel gnertedat...were responsible for they are even more significant because of the issues buying air easements (i.e., areas which they knew they left unaddressed, Or...or HUD not prevent incompatible uses, but it could discourage *policies regarding noise impact. people from buying property in noise-impacted areas

  12. Landowner Satisfaction with the Wetland Reserve Program in Texas: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Dianne; Kreuter, Urs P.

    2016-01-01

    Using mail survey data and telephone interviews, we report on landowner satisfaction with permanent easements held by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) throughout Texas. This study found that landowners were dissatisfied with the NRCS Wetland Reserve Program (WRP), conflicting with results of previous studies. The objective of this study was to explore specific reasons for frustration expressed by landowners with the program. We found three predominant themes underpinning program dissatisfaction: (1) upfront restoration failures, (2) overly restrictive easement constraints, and (3) bureaucratic hurdles limiting landowners' ability to conduct adaptive management on their easement property. The implications of this study suggest that attitudes of landowners participating in the WRP may limit the long-term effectiveness of this program. Suggestions for improving the program include implementing timely, ecologically sound restoration procedures and streamlining and simplifying the approval process for management activity requests. In addition, the NRCS should consider revising WRP restriction guidelines in order to provide more balance between protection goals and landowner autonomy.

  13. Estudio Histórico-Jurídico sobre la Servidumbre Legal Minera de Ocupación por Canales y Cañerías de Aguas (1818-1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Mauricio Obando Camino

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el estatuto jurídico de la servidumbre legal minera de ocupación de predios o terrenos superficiales por medio de canales y cañerías de agua y su relación con los denominados derechos, usos y servidumbres de aguas de las minas y establecimientos de beneficio, en el período 1818-1981. Asimismo, este artículo analiza la discusión doctrinal que se produjo en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, sobre el cuerpo legal que debía regir la constitución y ejercicio de la citada servidumbre, debido a la promulgación del Código de Aguas de 1951.This article analyzes from 1818 through 1981 the legal regulation concerning the mining easement for occupying superficial servient estates with water channels and pipes, and its relationship with the mines and mining plants´ so called water rights, uses and easements. Likewise, this article analyzes the doctrinal discussion that took place in the second half of the twentieth century about the legal statute for the establishment and exercise of the aforesaid easement, after the enactment of the 1951 Water Law Code.

  14. Research on Calculation of Move Distance Optimization by String Method and its Application%绳正法拨距优化计算方法的研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永孝; 刘学毅; 杨俊斌; 代丰

    2013-01-01

    利用不同半径和缓和曲线长度进行组合,比较其拨距的绝对值和的大小,找出拨距绝对值和最小条件下对应的最优拨距.为了分析拨距与曲线半径、缓和曲线长度之间的关系,将优化出的半径和缓和曲线长度进行适当的调整,计算调整后的曲线的拨距值.计算结果表明:此种优化方法在不用调整计划正矢的情况下,直接满足曲线整正的原则,将优化结果和调整缓和曲线长度和半径后的拨距值进行比较,验证了计算结果是最优的,且优化出的半径和缓和曲线长度与曲线既有的要素比较接近,能较好地满足现场对曲线整正的要求,尤其对三无曲线和无缝线路地段曲线更为适用.%Different radiuses and different lengths of easement curve were assembled to compare the magnitude of the total absolute value of its move distance, so as to find out the optimal move distance under the condition of the smallest total absolute value of the move distance. In order to analyze the relationship between move distance and curve radius as well as the length of easement curve, the optimized radius and length of easement curve were adjusted appropriately to calculate the move distance of the adjusted curve. The calculation results show that this kind of optimization method can comply with the curve realignment principle. Compared with the move distance resulted from the adjustment of the radius and length of easement curve, the optimized results can be proved to be optimal. And the optimized radius and length of easement curve can approach to the existing curve factors, thereby meeting the requirements for the curve realignment in situ. Especially, it is more applicable to the curve without three main factors and to the curve on the CWR region.

  15. Assessing the ecological and social benefits of private land conservation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, George N; Theobald, David M; Ernst, Tawnya; King, Katherine

    2008-04-01

    Conservation of private land through conservation easements, development agreements, and clustered housing has increased greatly as have criticisms of the laws, public programs, and incentives that motivate landowners to use them. Rapid land-use change at the urban-rural interface in Larimer County, Colorado, has given rise to programs that provide a variety of land-conservation options for landowners. As of January 2005, roughly 60% of Larimer County was publicly owned, and 3% or 16,200 ha was privately owned with some form of protection. We used document analysis, a landowner survey, targeted interviews, and a landscape-level spatial analysis to analyze the patterns, quantities, and qualities of private land conservation. We created a jurisdiction-specific typology of desired benefits from local government-planning documents to help evaluate conservation parcels. Most easements and other conservation documents used general terms and did not describe the site-specific values of the land being conserved. Landowners were able to describe some benefits not included in parcel-specific documents, and our spatial analysis revealed parcel-specific and cumulative conservation benefits such as the amount of buffering, infill, connectivity, protected agricultural land, riparian protection, and other benefits not referenced by either documents or landowners. Conservation benefits provided by a parcel varied depending on its geographic location, the specific institution such as a land trust or open space program that a landowner worked with, and the conservation mechanism used, such as voluntary easement or residential clustering requirements. The methods we used provide a template for jurisdictions wishing to undertake a similar analysis. Our findings may assist other jurisdictions and institutions interested in improving how land-conservation benefits are described; justify and inform future investments in private land conservation; assist local governments and other

  16. Solar energy legal bibliography. Final report. [160 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, D.; Euser, B.; Joyce, C.; Morgan, G. H.; Laitos, J. G.; Adams, A.

    1979-03-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliography is a compilation of approximately 160 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (through October 1978). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Legislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  17. Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) is planning, to design, construct and operate a Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). This facility will be located on a site easement near the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar company (KC&S) Paia Sugar Factory on Maui, Hawaii. The proposed BGF Project is a scale-up facility, intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of emerging biomass gasification technology for commercialization. This Executive Summary summarizes the uses of this Environmental Assessment, the purpose and need for the project, project,description, and project alternatives.

  18. Studies on Factors affecting the Evolution of Agroecosystems in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Gaurav

    This dissertation combines remote sensing and applied economics tools to study land use conversions in North Dakota and South Dakota that are tied to this region's overall socio-economic welfare. Specifically, the region's corn and soybeans cultivation expanded significantly over the past decade replacing the region's grasslands and grain crops. In paper I, we estimate the localized impacts of the advent of corn-based ethanol plants on the Dakotas' corn acreage. We implement a Difference-in-Difference framework through more flexible assumptions as the Parallel Paths assumption of the standard model fails to hold. We find strong trends in the Dakotas' corn acreage over the past decade, but surprisingly some ethanol plants were found to have a negative impact on local corn acreage. In paper II, we evaluate crop competitiveness due to heterogeneous weather impacts on crop yields, and then test whether annual weather fluctuations explain land allocations among the Dakotas' major land uses. Our integrated framework suggests that annual weather variability is an important determinant of regional land use decisions. Under the A1B emissions scenario of climate change, we find that the yields of all of the Dakotas' major crops will decline by 2031-2060 relative to 1981-2010, leading to lower (higher) spring wheat (alfalfa) acres in Eastern (Western) Dakotas. In paper III, we develop and implement a satellite image-processing algorithm to estimate historical land use acres using raw Landsat sensor data, thereby extending the existing Cropland Data Layers back to 1984 in eastern Dakotas. We demonstrate that the availability of a longer time-series is useful as the rate of land use change may differ among different time-spans. In paper IV, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of grassland conservation easements when spatial spillovers are present among private landowners. We first develop a conceptual model to incorporate social spillovers in evaluating the role of easements in

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS- 0285/SA-33)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Elaine [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2001-11-27

    Vegetation Management along the St Helens-Allston Transmission Line ROW. The line is a 115 kV Single Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 100 feet. BPA proposes to clear danger trees from varying widths of the indicated transmission line right-of-way that are approaching electrical clearance zones in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA Standards. See Section 1.1 of the attached checklist for pertinent information on each section of referenced transmission line. BPA is clearing the danger trees to prevent them from falling or growing into the lines, thereby causing outages.

  20. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project; Idaho Department of Fish and Game 2007 Final Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Katherine [Idaho Department of Fsh and Game

    2009-04-03

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game maintained a total of about 2,743 acres of wildlife mitigation habitat in 2007, and protected another 921 acres. The total wildlife habitat mitigation debt has been reduced by approximately two percent (598.22 HU) through the Department's mitigation activities in 2007. Implementation of the vegetative monitoring and evaluation program continued across protected lands. For the next funding cycle, the IDFG is considering a package of restoration projects and habitat improvements, conservation easements, and land acquisitions in the project area.

  1. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, Jed (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    2005-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts on private properties in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of this effort is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled nine properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and four properties on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Major accomplishments during the reporting period include the following: (1) Secured approximately $229,000 in project cost share; (2) Purchase of 46 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River to be protected perpetually for native fish and wildlife; (3) Developed three new 15 year conservation easements with private landowners; (4) Installed 3000 feet of weed barrier tarp with new plantings within project area on the mainstem Walla Walla River; (5) Expanded easement area on Couse Creek to include an additional 0.5 miles of stream corridor and 32 acres of upland habitat; (6) Restored 12 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River and 32 acres on Couse Creek to native perennial grasses; and (7) Installed 50,000+ new native plants/cuttings within project areas.

  2. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  3. Access to solar energy: who owns the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, J.N.

    If solar advocates should litigate for the free attainment of solar access to encourage solar energy, this would impinge directly on other people's property rights. Passage of such legislation would contradict the United States' historical acceptance of the cujus est solum...doctrine. This proprietary franchise recognizes the individual's right to use privately-owned airspace which has been legally acknowledged as separable and conveyable. A legislative attempt to redefine the property rights in the airspace over another's real estate would be a significant break with the United States legal tradition. Such action could constitute an economically inefficient and inequitable taking of property rights and reductions in property values for certain real estate owners. In Virginia, the Virginia Solar Easements Act, the text of which is appended, provides an explicit mechanism to obtain and register solar easements in those cases where the solar user fears a potential shade problem from a neighbor's real estate and where the solar user employs a market based mechanism to insure his receipt of sunlight from across another's property.

  4. The rights of passage of power transmission lines and the situation in the eastern Laender of Germany; Energieleitungsrechte in den neuen Bundeslaendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Raentsch, J. [Bundesministerium fuer Justiz, Bonn (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    In order to establish their power transmission networks, utilities entering th market in the eastern Laender have to safeguard their rights of passage by limited personal servitude, as in the western Laender, if they cannot do so by way of franchise agreements. This was a special problem emerging with transmission lines and facilities erected before the date of October 2, 1990. The solution was found in the legal instruments of easement and claim to compensation, as defined in paragraph 9 of the GBBerG (land register law). The article explains the modalities of easement and claim to compensation, and the legal requirement of giving evidence of ownership of transmission lines. (orig./HSCH) [Deutsch] Die Energieversorgungsunternehmen muessen sich ihre Leitungsfuehrungsrechte in den neuen Bundeslaendern wie in den alten durch beschraenkt persoenliche Dienstbarkeiten absichern, wenn dies nicht durch besondere Konzessionsvertraege geschieht. Dies bereitete bei den am 2.10.1990 errichteten Leitungen und Anlagen besondere Schwierigkeiten. Die Loesung war eine gesetzliche Begruendung von Dienstbarkeit und Abfindungsanspruch, die in Paragraph 9 Grundbuchbereinigungsgesetz (GBBerG) enthalten ist. Der Artikel eroertert die Begruendung von Dienstbarkeit und Abfindungsanspruch sowie den Nachweis durch Leitungsbescheinigung. (orig./HSCH)

  5. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-120 Hanford-Ostrander Corridor Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Ken [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-02-10

    Vegetation Management for the Hanford-Ostrander Transmission Line Corridor from Tower 10/4 to Tower 17/2 + 770. The line is a 500kV Single Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 300 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor as referenced on the attached checklist. The work will include the performance of road maintenance and tower pad maintenance along the Hanford-Ostrander transmission line. Maintenance will be performed from Tower 10/1, close to Army Loop road near the northeast corner of 200 West Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation to the western edge of the Arid Lands Ecological Reserve (ALE) at Tower 17/2 + 700. Total distance of the work is approximately 7.5 miles. The planned work includes spraying with herbicides to minimize vegetation regrowth along the access roads and removing shrubs from within 50 feet of each transmission tower.

  6. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-57)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Elaine [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-04-10

    Vegetation Management along the Trojan-Allston Transmission Lines 1 & 2 ROW between 1/1 and 9/1. The lines are 230 kV Single Circuit Transmission Lines having an easement width of 125 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-61) - Bell-Boundary No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Michael A. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-04-15

    Vegetation Management along the Bell-Boundary No.3, 84/4 to 96/1 Transmission Line ROW. The line is a 230kV Double Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 100 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  8. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Michael A. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-08-15

    Vegetation Management along the Libby-Conkelly, 1/2 to 26/4 Transmission Line ROW. The line is a 230kV Double Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 125 feet to 250 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor. BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation.

  9. Autonomous Multiple Gesture Recognition System for Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjot Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an intelligent multi gesture spotting system that can be used by disabled people to easily communicate with machines resulting into easement in day-to-day works. The system makes use of pose estimation for 10 signs used by hearing impaired people to communicate. Pose is extracted on the basis of silhouettes using timed motion history (tMHI followed by gesture recognition with Hu-Moments. Signs involving motion are recognized with the help of optical flow. Based on the recognized gestures, particular instructions are sent to the robot connected to system resulting into an appropriate action/movement by the robot. The system is unique as it can act as a assisting device and can communicate in local as well as wide area to assist the disabled person.

  10. Environmental Baseline Survey for Installation of Five New Hydrogeologic Groundwater Monitoring Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This Phase I Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) provides the findings of a survey and assessment for termination of an existing easement granted to the Department of Energy (DOE) for the installation of 5 new hydrogeologic groundwater monitoring wells located on KAFB, New Mexico. The purpose of this EBS is to: Document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property. Identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property. Develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks. Ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property. Determine possible effects of contamination on property valuation, and serve as the basis for notice of environmental condition for applicable federal or local real property disclosure requirements.

  11. A lack of response of the financial behaviors of biodiversity conservation nonprofits to changing economic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric R; Boyer, Alison G; Armsworth, Paul R

    2014-12-01

    The effectiveness of conservation organizations is determined in part by how they adapt to changing conditions. Over the previous decade, economic conditions in the United States (US) showed marked variation including a period of rapid growth followed by a major recession. We examine how biodiversity conservation nonprofits in the US responded to these changes through their financial behaviors, focusing on a sample of 90 biodiversity conservation nonprofits and the largest individual organization (The Nature Conservancy; TNC). For the 90 sampled organizations, an analysis of financial ratios derived from tax return data revealed little response to economic conditions. Similarly, more detailed examination of conservation expenditures and land acquisition practices of TNC revealed only one significant relationship with economic conditions: TNC accepted a greater proportion of conservation easements as donated in more difficult economic conditions. Our results suggest that the financial behaviors of US biodiversity conservation nonprofits are unresponsive to economic conditions.

  12. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....

  13. Practical boundary surveying legal and technical principles

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This guide to boundary surveying provides landowners, land surveyors, students and others with the necessary foundation to understand boundary surveying techniques and the common legal issues that govern boundary establishment.  Boundary surveying is sometimes mistakenly considered a strictly technical discipline with simple and straightforward technical solutions.  In reality, boundary establishment is often a difficult and complex matter, requiring years of experience and a thorough understanding of boundary law.  This book helps readers to understand the challenges often encountered by boundary surveyors and some of the available solutions. Using only simple and logically explained mathematics, the principles and practice of boundary surveying are demystified for those without prior experience, and the focused coverage of pivotal issues such as easements and setting lot corners will aid even licensed practitioners in untangling thorny cases. Practical advice on using both basic and advanced instruments ...

  14. Procedural violation in the licensing procedure and possible legal consequences; Verfahrensmaengel im Konzessionierungsverfahren und etwaige Rechtsfolgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Hetling, Astrid; Probst, Matthias Ernst; Wolkenhauer, Soeren [Kanzlei Becker Buettner Held (BBH), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    With respect to paragraph 46 sect. 2 to 4 EnWG (Energy Economy Law) communities are required to provide a publication procedure and competition procedure ('licensing procedure') for the new assignment of easement agreements for the establishment of local power supply systems and natural gas supply systems. The specific design of the selection process legally is regulated only rudimentary. Nevertheless old concessionaires increasingly deny the statutory grid transfer to the new concessionaires relying on supposed errors in the selection process. The unclear legal situation and the inconsistent, sometimes unreasonably strict jurisdiction and jurisprudence of antitrust as well as regulatory authorities resulted to a considerable legal certainty in communities and grid operators. Unless the legislature establishes the necessary legal clarity, the competent courts and authorities are invoked to act moderately in the examination of licensing procedures.

  15. Solar total energy-large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual report, June 1977--June 1978. [For Bleyle Knitwear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1978-06-01

    The site was described in terms of location, suitably, accessibility, and other factors. Detailed descriptions of the Solar Total Energy-Large Scale Experiment Application (STE-LSE) (Bleyle of America, Inc., Knitwear Plant), the DOE owned Meteorology Station operating at the site, and the instrumentation provided by the Georgia Power Company to measure energy usage within the knitwear plant are included. A detailed report of progress is given at the Shenandoah Site, introduced by the STE-LSE schedule and the Cooperative Agreement work tasks. Progress is described in terms of the following major task areas: site/application; instrumentation/data acquisition; meteorology station; site to STES interface; information dissemination. A brief overview of milestones to be accomplished is given, followed by these appendices: solar easement agreement, interface drawing set, and additional site background data. (MHR)

  16. Assessing Nebraska playa wetland inundation status during 1985-2015 using Landsat data and Google Earth Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenghong; Li, Yao; Gu, Yue; Jiang, Weiguo; Xue, Yuan; Hu, Qiao; LaGrange, Ted; Bishop, Andy; Drahota, Jeff; Li, Ruopu

    2016-12-01

    Playa wetlands in Nebraska provide globally important habitats for migratory waterfowl. Inundation condition is an important indicator of playa wetland functionality. However, there is a lack of long-term continuous monitoring records for playa wetlands. The objective of this study was to determine a suitable index for Landsat images to map the playa inundation status in March and April during 1985-2015. Four types of spectral indices-negative normalized vegetation index, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), modified NDWI, and Tasseled Cap Wetness-Greenness Difference (TCWGD)-were evaluated to detect playa inundation conditions from Landsat images. The results indicate that the TCWGD is the most suitable index for distinguishing playa inundation status. By using Landsat images and Google Earth Engine, we mapped the spring inundation condition of Nebraska playas during 1985-2015. The results show that the total inundated areas were 176.79 km(2) in spring migratory season, representing 18.92% of the total area of playa wetlands. There were 9898 wetlands inundated at least once in either March or April during the past 30 years, representing 29.41% of a total of 33,659 historical wetlands. After comparing the historical hydric soil footprints and the inundated areas, the results indicate that the hydrological conditions of the majority of playas in Nebraska have changed. The inundated wetlands are candidates for protection and/or partial restoration, and the un-inundated wetlands need more attention for wetland restoration. Wetlands in areas enrolled in conservation easements had a significantly high level of playa inundation status than non-conserved wetlands during spring migratory seasons in the past decades.These conservation easements only count for 4.29% of the total footprint areas, but they have contributed 20.82% of the inundation areas in Nebraska during the past 30 years.

  17. Demonstrating a Market-Based Approach to the Reclamation of Mined Lands in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich-Mahoney, John; Donnelly, Ellen

    2009-12-31

    This project demonstrated that developing environmental credits on private land—including abandoned mined lands—is dependent on a number of factors, some of them beyond the control of the project team. In this project, acid mine drainage (AMD) was successfully remediated through the construction of a passive AMD treatment system. Extensive water quality sampling both before and after the installation of the passive AMD treatment system showed that the system achieved removal efficiencies and pollutant loading reductions for acidity, iron, aluminum and manganese that were consistent with systems of similar size and design. The success of the passive AMD treatment system should have resulted in water credits if the project had not been terminated. Developing carbon sequestration credits, however, was much more complex and was not achieved in this project. The primary challenge that the project team encountered in meeting the full project objectives was the unsuccessful attempt to have the landowner sign a conservation easement for his property. This would have allowed the project team to clear and reforest the site, monitor the progress of the newly planted trees, and eventually realize carbon sequestration credits once the forest was mature. The delays caused by the lack of a conservation easement, as well as other factors, eventually resulted in the reforestation portion of the project being cancelled. The information in this report will help the public make more informed decisions regarding the potential of using water and carbon, and other credits to support the remediation of minded lands through out the United States. The hope is that by using credits that more mined lands with be remediated.

  18. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  19. Secure & Restore Critical Fisheries Habitat, Flathead Subbasin, FY2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes; Tohtz, Joel [Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks

    2008-11-12

    The construction of Hungry Horse Dam inundated 125 km of adfluvial trout habitat in the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries, impacting natural fish reproduction and rearing. Rapid residential and commercial growth in the Flathead Watershed now threaten the best remaining habitats and restrict our opportunities to offset natural resource losses. Hydropower development and other land disturbances caused severe declines in the range and abundance of our focal resident fish species, bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Bull trout were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act and westslope cutthroat were petitioned for listing under ESA. Westslope cutthroat are a species of special concern in Montana and a species of special consideration by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. The Secure & Protect Fisheries Habitat project follows the logical progression towards habitat restoration outlined in the Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan approved by the NWPPC in 1993. This project is also consistent with the 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program and the Flathead River Subbasin Plan that identifies the protection of habitats for these populations as one of the most critical needs in the subbasin and directs actions to offset habitat losses. The Flathead basin is one of the fastest growing human population centers in Montana. Riparian habitats are being rapidly developed and subdivided, causing habitat degradation and altering ecosystem functions. Remaining critical habitats in the Flathead Watershed need to be purchased or protected with conservation easements if westslope cutthroat and bull trout are to persist and expand within the subbasin. In addition, habitats degraded by past land uses need to be restored to maximize the value of remaining habitats and offset losses caused by the construction of Hungry Horse Dam. Securing and restoring remaining riparian habitat will benefit fish by shading and

  20. 胃管自然引流在肝移植术后应用的效果观察%Application of gastric canal natural draining for postoperative liver transplantation patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚竹云; 王彬; 李继东

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨肝移植术后胃管拔除时间.[方法]随机选取我院2006年-2009年肝移植手术病人80 例,分成两组,观察组术后胃管自然引流,不施行负压,待胃液<200 mL/d,可听及肠鸣音后拔除胃管.对照组给予持续胃肠减压,于肛门排气后拔除胃管.比较两组病人术后进食时间、排气时间、恶心呕吐、腹胀腹痛、病人舒适程度等指标.[结果]两组病人在手术后拔除胃管时间、病人舒适程度、进食时间、睡眠等指标观察组显著优于对照组.[结论]肝移植病人手术后胃管自然引流,待胃液<200 mL/d,可听及肠鸣音后拔除胃管可增加病人舒适度,降低相关并发症,并早期恢复进食,有利于病人的术后康复.%Objective: to probe into gastric canal extracted time of patients after undergoing liver transplantation. Methods: A total of 80 patients undergoing liver transplantation from 2006 to 2009 were randomly selected and divided into experimental group and control group, experimental group patients were given natural drainage by gastric canal after operation, no negative pressure was exerted,when the gastric juice was Iess than 200 ml/d and the bowel sound was heard, the gastric canal was extracted. The control group patients were given persistent gastrointestinal decompression, and the gastric canal was extracted after the passage of gas by anus. Then the postoperative eating time and passage of gas time, nausea and vomiting, ahdominal distension and stomachache,easement level of patients were compared. Results: there was no statistical significant difference in postoperative abdominal gas pains, nausea and passage of gas time by anus between both groups, however, the gastric canal extracted time,easement level of patients, eating time and sleep of experimental group were much better than control group. Conclusion: natural drainage by gastric canal after operation and when the gastric juice was less than 200 mL/d and the bowel

  1. Plane alignment design of turnout with the transition curve based on wheel -rail syste m dynamics%基于轮轨动力学的缓和曲线型道岔平面线型设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫华; 王平; 曹洋

    2015-01-01

    In order to select proper plane alignments for turnouts with transition curves to meet good running per-formance and improve permissible speed through the diverging track of turnouts,a vehicle -turnout dynamic cou-pling model was established based on the wheel -rail dynamic method.No.42 turnout was taken as an example to calculate wheel /rail dynamic responses of various plane alignments and analyze relationships of evaluation in-dexes and train speeds.Results show the apply of transition curve at the back of the diverging track can ensure the safety and the stability when trains pass at medium or high speed,and adding curve radius or transition curve in the front of the diverging track can reduce the wheel /rail vibration.The higher the speed of train passing through the diverging track,the intenser the wheel /rail system vibration is.When the circular -curve radius of the diverging track of No.42 turnout was increased by 500 m,the permissible speed through the diverging track will increase 10 km /h,and that of the turnout with easement -circular -easement curve can be further in-creased.%为了给缓和曲线型道岔选取合适的平面线型,满足良好的行车性能并提高侧向允许通过速度,基于轮轨动力学建立车辆-道岔动力耦合模型,以42号道岔为例计算不同线型方案下轮轨系统动力响应,且分析各评价指标与列车速度间关系。研究结果表明:道岔侧股后缓和曲线的使用可保证列车中高速通过的安全性和平稳性,增加曲线半径或加设前缓和曲线可降低轮轨系统振动剧烈程度;列车侧向通过速度越高,轮轨系统振动越显著,42号道岔侧股圆曲线半径增加500 m,可使其侧向允许通过速度提高10 km/h,缓圆缓型道岔可进一步提升。

  2. Confederated Tribes Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2008-12-02

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2007-January 31, 2008) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Camp Creek, Greasewood Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying five fish passage barriers on four creeks, (2) planting 1,275 saplings and seeding 130 pounds of native grasses, (3) constructing two miles of riparian fencing for livestock exclusion, (4) coordinating activities related to the installation of two off-channel, solar-powered watering areas for livestock, and (5) developing eight water gap access sites to reduce impacts from livestock. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at all existing easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the life of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety

  3. Level of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the serum the pleural and its clinical significance in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis%肺结核患者血浆和胸水中抑瘤素-M检测及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟景南; 张明霞; 张洁云; 邱振纲; 陈骑; 朱秀云; 陈心春

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨血浆和胸水中抑瘤素-M在肺结核中的变化及其临床意义.方法 应用双抗体夹心ELISA法检测24例健康体检者、21例活动性肺结核患者血浆和10例结核性胸膜炎胸水中OSM的水平.结果 肺结核患者血浆中OSM水平低于健康对照组,差异有统计意义;结核性胸膜炎患者胸水中OSM高于肺结核患者血浆中OSM水平,差异有统计意义.结论 OSM是局部病灶炎症反应的重要作用因子,可能参与了肺结核的免疫发病机制.%Objective To observe the clinical effect of megestrol with adjuvant application to improve the quality of life and to reduce the toxic side effects in patients with advanced lung cancer at chemotherapy. Methods 56 patients with advanced lung cancer were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group ( 30 patients ) were treated with MA combined with chemotherapy, and the control group ( 26 patients ) were treated with chemotherapy alone, and Karnofsky Performance Scale, appetite, weight increase, easement of pain and side effects under chemotherapy were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results The treatment group improved more obviously in terms of Karnofsky Performance Scale, appetite, weight increase, easement of pain and bone marrow depression, nausea and vomitting caused by chemotherapy compared with the control group, and there were significant differences between the two groups( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions MA combined with chemotherapy can improve the patient' s nutrition, enhance their tolerance to chemotherapy, relieve drug toxicity, and obviously improve the quality of life.

  4. Land Use, Land Conservation, and Wind Energy Development Outcomes in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimar, William Cameron

    This dissertation provides three independent research inquiries. The first examines how inter-governmental policy, site-specific, and social factors lead to the success, prolonged delay, or failure of inland wind power projects in New England. The three case studies examined include the 48 megawatt Glebe Mountain Wind Farm proposal in southern Vermont, the 30 megawatt Hoosac Wind Farm in western Massachusetts, and the 24 megawatt Lempster Wind Farm in southern New Hampshire. To ascertain why the project outcomes varied, 45 semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of stakeholders, including wind development firms, utility companies, state regulatory agencies, regional planning commissions, town officials, land conservation organizations, and opposition groups. The second study establishes a comprehensive set of thirty-seven explanatory variables to determine the amount of suitable land and the corresponding electricity generation potential within the prime wind resource areas of Western Massachusetts. The explanatory variables are incorporated into Boolean GIS suitability models which represent the two divergent positions towards wind power development in Massachusetts, and a third, balanced model. The third study determines that exurban residential development is not the only land use factor that reduces wind power development potential in Western Massachusetts. A set of Boolean GIS models for 1985 and 2009 find the onset of conservation easements on private lands having the largest impact. During this 25 year period a combination of land use conversion and land conservation has reduced the access to prime wind resource areas by 18% (11,601 hectares), an equivalent loss of 5,800--8,700 GWh/year of zero carbon electricity generation. The six main findings from this research are: (1) Visual aesthetics remain the main factor of opposition to specific projects; (2) The Not-in-my Backyard debate for wind power remains unsettled; (3) Widespread support

  5. Occurrence and distribution of trace elements in snow, streams, and streambed sediments, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2004-01-01

    Cape Krusenstern National Monument is located in Northwest Alaska. In 1985, an exchange of lands and interests in lands between the Northwest Alaska Native Association and the United States resulted in a 100-year transportation system easement for 19,747 acres in the monument. A road was then constructed along the easement from the Red Dog Mine, a large zinc concentrate producer and located northeast of the monument, through the monument to the coast and a port facility. Each year approximately 1.3 million tonnes of zinc and lead concentrate are transported from the Red Dog Mine via this access road. Concern about the possible deposition of cadmium, lead, zinc and other trace elements in the monument was the basis of a cooperative project with the National Park Service. Concentrations of dissolved cadmium, dissolved lead, and dissolved zinc from 28 snow samples from a 28 mile by 16 mile grid were below drinking water standards. In the particulate phase, approximately 25 percent of the samples analyzed for these trace elements were higher than the typical range found in Alaska soils. Boxplots of concentrations of these trace elements, both in the dissolved and particulate phase, indicate higher concentrations north of the access road, most likely due to the prevailing southeast wind. The waters of four streams sampled in Cape Krusenstern National Monument are classified as calcium bicarbonate. Trace-element concentrations from these streams were below drinking water standards. Median concentrations of 39 trace elements from streambed sediments collected from 29 sites are similar to the median concentrations of trace elements from the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment database. Statistical differences were noted between trace-element concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at sites along the access road and sites north and south of the access road; concentrations along the access road being higher than north or south of the road. When

  6. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  7. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Volume 3. Tasks 4-6. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, J.R.; Sommerfield, G.A.

    1979-08-01

    Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation is a member of the Demonstration Team to review and assess the technical aspects of cogeneration for district heating. Task 4 details the most practical retrofit schemes. Of the cogeneration schemes studied, a back-pressure turbine is considered the best source of steam for district heating. Battelle Columbus Laboratories is a member of the Demonstration Team employed to investigate several institutional issues affecting the success of district heating. The Toledo Edison legal staff reviewed the legal aspects of mandate to serve, easement and franchise requirements, and corporate charter requirements. The principal findings of both the Battelle investigations and the legal research are summarized in Task 5. A complete discussion of each issue is included in the two sections labeled Legal Issues and Institutional Issues. In Task 6, Battelle Columbus Laboratories completed a preliminary economic analysis, incorporating accurate input parameters applicable to utility ownership of the proposed district-heating system. The methodology used is summarized, the assumptions are listed, and the results are briefly reviewed.

  8. Common–interest community agreements on private lands provide opportunity and scale for wildlife management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Private lands are critical to conservation planning for wildlife, worldwide. Agriculture subsidies, tax incentives, and conservation easements have been successfully used as tools to convert cropland to native vegetation. However, uncertain economies threaten the sustainability of these incentives. The wildlife management profession is in need of innovative models that support effective management of populations. I argue that biologists should consider the option of facilitating the development of private reserves to reduce the dependence of conservation on public investment. Private reserves can be enhanced by creating common–interest communities, which reduce the problem posed by limited size of individual properties. Cross–property agreements between landowners can provide economic incentives through forms of ecotourism, energy production, and/or enhanced agricultural production. I share two case studies that demonstrate how cross–property agreements may be beneficial to landowner’s finances and conservation of diverse wildlife communities, as well as providing an efficient structure for NGOs and management agencies to engage and support landowners.

  9. Land-use barriers and incentives to the use of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, P.

    1979-08-01

    The impact of land-use issues on solar technologies is analyzed and attention is focused specifically on a discussion of on-site uses of active and passive solar heating and cooling. The first area discussed involves land-use regulations which prohibit the installation of solar collectors. Such regulations include both public regulations (zoning laws) and private regulations (restrictive convenants). The widely discussed issue of secure access to sunlight, also known as solar rights, comprises the bulk of the report. The many different proposed methods of ensuring solar access are compared to an ideal solar right. The solar access problem is divided into two parts: access in new developments and access in existing neighborhoods. Solar access in new developments can be provided fairly easily, if desired, by a combination of land-use tools which allow for the flexible siting of buildings and restrictive convenants to control vegetation. The problem of access in existing neighborhoods does not lend itself to easy solutions. No proposals approximate the ideal. The main solutions analyzed-privately negotiated easements, zoning laws, and allocated sun rights, have drawbacks. The final area addressed is the variety of ways in which land-use regulations can be structured to provide an incentive to install solar equipment.

  10. Bird Diversity, Birdwatching Tourism and Conservation in Peru: A Geographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E.

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1). PMID:22132078

  11. Evaluation of undersized bioretention stormwater control measures for treatment of highway bridge deck runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luell, S K; Hunt, W F; Winston, R J

    2011-01-01

    Two grassed bioretention cells were constructed in the easement of a bridge deck in Knightdale, North Carolina, USA, in October, 2009. One was intentionally undersized ('small'), while the other was full sized ('large') per current North Carolina standards. The large and small cells captured runoff from the 25- and 8-mm events, respectively. Both bioretention cells employed average fill media depths of 0.65 m and internal water storage (IWS) zones of 0.6 m. Flow-proportional, composite water quality samples were collected and analyzed for nitrogen species, phosphorus species, and TSS. During 13 months of data collection, the large cell's median effluent concentrations and loads were less than those from the small cell. The small cell's TN and TSS load reductions were 84 and 50%, respectively, of those achieved by the large cell, with both cells significantly reducing TN and TSS. TP loads were not significantly reduced by either cell, likely due to low TP concentrations in the highway runoff which may have approached irreducible levels. Outflow pollutant loads from the large and small cell were not significantly different from one another for any of the examined pollutants. The small cell's relative performance provides support for retrofitting undersized systems in urbanized areas where there is insufficient space available for conventional full-sized stormwater treatment systems.

  12. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the 2012 annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Salmon site). The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. A revised plan is in preparation. The Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site is intended for release in 2013. The Salmon site consists of 1,470 acres. The site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 10 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi The State of Mississippi owns the surface real estate subject to certain restrictions related to subsurface penetration. The State is the surface operator; the Mississippi Forestry Commission is its agent. The federal government owns the subsurface real estate (including minerals and some surface features), shares right-of-entry easements with the State, and retains rights related to subsurface monitoring. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM), a successor agency to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, is responsible for the long-term surveillance of the subsurface real estate

  13. Comparing habitat suitability and connectivity modeling methods for conserving pronghorn migrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Poor

    Full Text Available Terrestrial long-distance migrations are declining globally: in North America, nearly 75% have been lost. Yet there has been limited research comparing habitat suitability and connectivity models to identify migration corridors across increasingly fragmented landscapes. Here we use pronghorn (Antilocapra americana migrations in prairie habitat to compare two types of models that identify habitat suitability: maximum entropy (Maxent and expert-based (Analytic Hierarchy Process. We used distance to wells, distance to water, NDVI, land cover, distance to roads, terrain shape and fence presence to parameterize the models. We then used the output of these models as cost surfaces to compare two common connectivity models, least-cost modeling (LCM and circuit theory. Using pronghorn movement data from spring and fall migrations, we identified potential migration corridors by combining each habitat suitability model with each connectivity model. The best performing model combination was Maxent with LCM corridors across both seasons. Maxent out-performed expert-based habitat suitability models for both spring and fall migrations. However, expert-based corridors can perform relatively well and are a cost-effective alternative if species location data are unavailable. Corridors created using LCM out-performed circuit theory, as measured by the number of pronghorn GPS locations present within the corridors. We suggest the use of a tiered approach using different corridor widths for prioritizing conservation and mitigation actions, such as fence removal or conservation easements.

  14. Characterising the impacts of emerging energy development on wildlife, with an eye towards mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Joseph M; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Global demand for energy is projected to increase by 40% in the next 20 years, and largely will be met with alternative and unconventional sources. Development of these resources causes novel disturbances that strongly impact terrestrial ecosystems and wildlife. To effectively position ecologists to address this prevalent conservation challenge, we reviewed the literature on the ecological ramifications of this dominant driver of global land-use change, consolidated results for its mitigation and highlighted knowledge gaps. Impacts varied widely, underscoring the importance of area and species-specific studies. The most commonly reported impacts included behavioural responses and direct mortality. Examinations of mitigation were limited, but common easements included (1) reduction of the development footprint and human activity, (2) maintenance of undeveloped, 'refuge' habitat and (3) alteration of activity during sensitive periods. Problematically, the literature was primarily retrospective, focused on few species, countries, and ecoregions, and fraught with generalisations from weak inference. We advocate future studies take a comprehensive approach incorporating a mechanistic understanding of the interplay between development-caused impacts and species ecology that will enable effective mitigation. Key areas for future research vital to securing a sustainable energy future in the face of development-related global change are outlined. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Vulnerability of breeding waterbirds to climate change in the Prairie Pothole Region, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie; Skagen, Susan K; Noon, Barry R

    2014-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the north-central U.S. and south-central Canada contains millions of small prairie wetlands that provide critical habitat to many migrating and breeding waterbirds. Due to their small size and the relatively dry climate of the region, these wetlands are considered at high risk for negative climate change effects as temperatures increase. To estimate the potential impacts of climate change on breeding waterbirds, we predicted current and future distributions of species common in the PPR using species distribution models (SDMs). We created regional-scale SDMs for the U.S. PPR using Breeding Bird Survey occurrence records for 1971-2011 and wetland, upland, and climate variables. For each species, we predicted current distribution based on climate records for 1981-2000 and projected future distributions to climate scenarios for 2040-2049. Species were projected to, on average, lose almost half their current habitat (-46%). However, individual species projections varied widely, from +8% (Upland Sandpiper) to -100% (Wilson's Snipe). Variable importance ranks indicated that land cover (wetland and upland) variables were generally more important than climate variables in predicting species distributions. However, climate variables were relatively more important during a drought period. Projected distributions of species responses to climate change contracted within current areas of distribution rather than shifting. Given the large variation in species-level impacts, we suggest that climate change mitigation efforts focus on species projected to be the most vulnerable by enacting targeted wetland management, easement acquisition, and restoration efforts.

  16. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  17. Threshold responses of forest birds to landscape changes around exurban development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suarez-Rubio

    Full Text Available Low-density residential development (i.e., exurban development is often embedded within a matrix of protected areas and natural amenities, raising concern about its ecological consequences. Forest-dependent species are particularly susceptible to human settlement even at low housing densities typical of exurban areas. However, few studies have examined the response of forest birds to this increasingly common form of land conversion. The aim of this study was to assess whether, how, and at what scale forest birds respond to changes in habitat due to exurban growth. We evaluated changes in habitat composition (amount and configuration (arrangement for forest and forest-edge species around North America Breeding Bird Survey (BBS stops between 1986 and 2009. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect change points in species occurrence at two spatial extents (400-m and 1-km radius buffer. Our results show that exurban development reduced forest cover and increased habitat fragmentation around BBS stops. Forest birds responded nonlinearly to most measures of habitat loss and fragmentation at both the local and landscape extents. However, the strength and even direction of the response changed with the extent for several of the metrics. The majority of forest birds' responses could be predicted by their habitat preferences indicating that management practices in exurban areas might target the maintenance of forested habitats, for example through easements or more focused management for birds within existing or new protected areas.

  18. Survey of transmission line corridors. [Data on delays in transmission line construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The intent of this study is to determine the extent of delays experienced in planning and constructing transmission lines in the continental United States. The reasons for the delays are identified for each line studied and their effect on the total electrical system is sought. Data was collected for 136 different lines either recently built or currently under study. Statistics were developed for each line in several categories and comparisons of lines delayed were made by company, area served and generation capacity. From the study presented here it was found that: right-of-way acquisition procedures including condemnation and easement negotiation practices delay more projects than local, state and federal regulatory requirements combined; load growth reductions particularly in the east have reduced the impact of regulatory delays; the south, southeast and southwestern areas of the country experience fewer delays in constructing transmission lines than the more populated states, and the cost for corridor delays was responded to for only 17 of the 142 projects surveyed. By far the most costly delay is the expense of condemning land for transmission right-of-way.

  19. Integrating terrestrial LiDAR and stereo photogrammetry to map the Tolay lakebed in northern San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Isa; Storesund,; Takekawa, John Y.; Gardiner, Rachel J.; Ehret,

    2009-01-01

    The Tolay Creek Watershed drains approximately 3,520 ha along the northern edge of San Francisco Bay. Surrounded by a mosaic of open space conservation easements and public wildlife areas, it is one of the only watersheds in this urbanized estuary that is protected from its headwaters to the bay. Tolay Lake is a seasonal, spring-fed lake found in the upper watershed that historically extended over 120 ha. Although the lakebed was farmed since the early 1860s, the majority of the lakebed was recently acquired by the Sonoma County Regional Parks Department to restore its natural habitat values. As part of the restoration planning process, we produced a digital elevation model (DEM) of the historic extent of Tolay Lake by integrating terrestrial LiDAR (light detection and ranging) and stereo photogrammetry datasets, and real-time kinematic (RTK) global positioning system (GPS) surveys. We integrated the data, generated a DEM of the lakebed and upland areas, and analyzed errors. The accuracy of the composite DEM was verified using spot elevations obtained from the RTK GPS. Thus, we found that by combining photogrammetry, terrestrial LiDAR, and RTK GPS, we created an accurate baseline elevation map to use in watershed restoration planning and design.

  20. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  1. Threshold responses of forest birds to landscape changes around exurban development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Wilson, Scott; Leimgruber, Peter; Lookingbill, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Low-density residential development (i.e., exurban development) is often embedded within a matrix of protected areas and natural amenities, raising concern about its ecological consequences. Forest-dependent species are particularly susceptible to human settlement even at low housing densities typical of exurban areas. However, few studies have examined the response of forest birds to this increasingly common form of land conversion. The aim of this study was to assess whether, how, and at what scale forest birds respond to changes in habitat due to exurban growth. We evaluated changes in habitat composition (amount) and configuration (arrangement) for forest and forest-edge species around North America Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) stops between 1986 and 2009. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect change points in species occurrence at two spatial extents (400-m and 1-km radius buffer). Our results show that exurban development reduced forest cover and increased habitat fragmentation around BBS stops. Forest birds responded nonlinearly to most measures of habitat loss and fragmentation at both the local and landscape extents. However, the strength and even direction of the response changed with the extent for several of the metrics. The majority of forest birds' responses could be predicted by their habitat preferences indicating that management practices in exurban areas might target the maintenance of forested habitats, for example through easements or more focused management for birds within existing or new protected areas.

  2. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.

  3. Conservation covenants on private land: issues with measuring and achieving biodiversity outcomes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, James A; Carr, C Ben

    2014-09-01

    Conservation covenants and easements have become essential tools to secure biodiversity outcomes on private land, and to assist in meeting international protection targets. In Australia, the number and spatial area of conservation covenants has grown significantly in the past decade. Yet there has been little research or detailed policy analysis of conservation covenanting in Australia. We sought to determine how conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties, and factors inhibiting or contributing to measuring these outcomes. In addition, we also investigated the drivers and constraints associated with actually delivering the biodiversity outcomes, drawing on detailed input from covenanting programs. Although all conservation covenanting programs had the broad aim of maintaining or improving biodiversity in their covenants in the long term, the specific stated objectives of conservation covenanting programs varied. Programs undertook monitoring and evaluation in different ways and at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it was difficult to determine the extent Australian conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties on a national scale. Lack of time available to covenantors to undertake management was one of the biggest impediments to achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes. A lack of financial resources and human capital to monitor, knowing what to monitor, inconsistent monitoring methodologies, a lack of benchmark data, and length of time to achieve outcomes were all considered potential barriers to monitoring the biodiversity conservation outcomes of conservation covenants.

  4. Survey of transmission line corridors. [Data on delays in transmission line construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The intent of this study is to determine the extent of delays experienced in planning and constructing transmission lines in the continental United States. The reasons for the delays are identified for each line studied and their effect on the total electrical system is sought. Data was collected for 136 different lines either recently built or currently under study. Statistics were developed for each line in several categories and comparisons of lines delayed were made by company, area served and generation capacity. From the study presented here it was found that: right-of-way acquisition procedures including condemnation and easement negotiation practices delay more projects than local, state and federal regulatory requirements combined; load growth reductions particularly in the east have reduced the impact of regulatory delays; the south, southeast and southwestern areas of the country experience fewer delays in constructing transmission lines than the more populated states, and the cost for corridor delays was responded to for only 17 of the 142 projects surveyed. By far the most costly delay is the expense of condemning land for transmission right-of-way.

  5. Bird diversity, birdwatching tourism and conservation in Peru: a geographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1).

  6. Comparing Habitat Suitability and Connectivity Modeling Methods for Conserving Pronghorn Migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, Erin E.; Loucks, Colby; Jakes, Andrew; Urban, Dean L.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial long-distance migrations are declining globally: in North America, nearly 75% have been lost. Yet there has been limited research comparing habitat suitability and connectivity models to identify migration corridors across increasingly fragmented landscapes. Here we use pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) migrations in prairie habitat to compare two types of models that identify habitat suitability: maximum entropy (Maxent) and expert-based (Analytic Hierarchy Process). We used distance to wells, distance to water, NDVI, land cover, distance to roads, terrain shape and fence presence to parameterize the models. We then used the output of these models as cost surfaces to compare two common connectivity models, least-cost modeling (LCM) and circuit theory. Using pronghorn movement data from spring and fall migrations, we identified potential migration corridors by combining each habitat suitability model with each connectivity model. The best performing model combination was Maxent with LCM corridors across both seasons. Maxent out-performed expert-based habitat suitability models for both spring and fall migrations. However, expert-based corridors can perform relatively well and are a cost-effective alternative if species location data are unavailable. Corridors created using LCM out-performed circuit theory, as measured by the number of pronghorn GPS locations present within the corridors. We suggest the use of a tiered approach using different corridor widths for prioritizing conservation and mitigation actions, such as fence removal or conservation easements. PMID:23166656

  7. Energy law. The legal boundary conditions of power supply. 2. rev. ed.; Grundriss zum Energierecht. Der rechtliche Rahmen fuer die Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhlmacher, Gerd [E.ON Global Commodities SE, Duesseldorf (Germany); Stappert, Holger; Jansen, Guido (eds.) [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schoon, Heike [BDEW Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Now appearing in its second edition, this book presents a comprehensive overview of the legal framework governing the energy sector. It provides readily understandable coverage, across the relevant subfields of law, of the legal regulations applicable to any manner of activity in the energy sector along with a wealth of practical advice on the interpretation and application of legal provisions. The content has been thoroughly revised, updated to reflect the current status of legislation and supplemented with numerous chapters. The 2014 amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) and its practical impact have also been taken into account. The following topics are covered amongst others: unbundling of network operation; connection and access to networks and metering; network charges and incentive regulation; easement contracts; energy supply and basic services; energy and electricity taxes; cartel law, law on operating aids, procurement law; energy trade OTC and at exchanges; energy trade surveillance law; fuel production and fracking; conventional and nuclear power production; renewable energy production (including offshore production); energy storage and power-to-gas; transmission line construction; climate protection (including the 2014 EEG, emission trade and the Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy in the Heat Sector); cogeneration law, district heating and contracting; and investment protection.

  8. Using structured decision making with landowners to address private forest management and parcelization: balancing multiple objectives and incorporating uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige F. B. Ferguson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parcelization and forest fragmentation are of concern for ecological, economic, and social reasons. Efforts to keep large, private forests intact may be supported by a decision-making process that incorporates landowners' objectives and uncertainty. We used structured decision making (SDM with owners of large, private forests in Macon County, North Carolina. Macon County has little land use regulation and a history of discordant, ineffective attempts to address land use and development. We worked with landowners to define their objectives, identify decision options for forest management, build a Bayesian decision network to predict the outcomes of decisions, and determine the optimal and least-desirable decision options. The optimal forest management options for an average, large, forested property (30 ha property with 22 ha of forest in Macon County was crown-thinning timber harvest under the Present-Use Value program, in which enrolled property is taxed at the present-use value (growing timber for commercial harvest rather than full market value. The least-desirable forest management actions were selling 1 ha and personal use of the forest (e.g., trails, firewood with or without a conservation easement. Landowners reported that they enjoyed participating in the project (85% and would reconsider what they are currently doing to manage their forest (69%. The decision that landowners initially thought would best meet their objectives did not match results from the decision network. This highlights the usefulness of SDM, which typically has been applied to decision problems involving public resources.

  9. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  10. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  11. a Novel Approach for 3d Neighbourhood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamgholian, S.; Taleai, M.; Shojaei, D.

    2017-09-01

    Population growth and lack of land in urban areas have caused massive developments such as high rises and underground infrastructures. Land authorities in the international context recognizes 3D cadastres as a solution to efficiently manage these developments in complex cities. Although a 2D cadastre does not efficiently register these developments, it is currently being used in many jurisdictions for registering land and property information. Limitations in analysis and presentation are considered as examples of such limitations. 3D neighbourhood analysis by automatically finding 3D spaces has become an issue of major interest in recent years. Whereas the neighbourhood analysis has been in the focus of research, the idea of 3D neighbourhood analysis has rarely been addressed in 3 dimensional information systems (3D GIS) analysis. In this paper, a novel approach for 3D neighbourhood analysis has been proposed by recording spatial and descriptive information of the apartment units and easements. This approach uses the coordinates of the subject apartment unit to find the neighbour spaces. By considering a buffer around the edges of the unit, neighbour spaces are accurately detected. This method was implemented in ESRI ArcScene and three case studies were defined to test the efficiency of this approach. The results show that spaces are accurately detected in various complex scenarios. This approach can also be applied for other applications such as property management and disaster management in order to find the affected apartments around a defined space.

  12. The Property Right and the Requirements of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUŢ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental protection has lately become an essential component of the concept of sustainable development, along with the economic, social and cultural components. Being an objective of public interest, the environmental protection and conservation are essential to ensure the habitat necessary for continuing the human existence. Considering this aspect, the limitation of ownership required by certain laws has both a social and moral justification, the environmental protection having a direct link with the level of public health, which is a value of national interest. The legal limits of the ownership are restrictions brought by the law, considering aspects regarding the general interest of society. In this article we intend to emphasize, on the analysis and comparison of legislation and case law, the nature of the relationship between ownership of property and environmental rights, as well as the limitations of property rights in favor of environmental protection. As a conclusion, the environmental easements meet a wide national and international recognition and guarantee, the holder of the property having to exercise it in the interest of the whole community, including the protection and conservation of the environment. At the same time, we must consider that the right to property and environment are fundamental rights guaranteed by the Romanian Constitution itself, which makes us conclude that they converge and mutually enrich across the fundamental duties as well.

  13. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, Jed; Sexton, Amy D. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    2003-04-01

    In 2001, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of these efforts is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled six properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and one property on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Since 1997, approximately 7 miles of critical salmonid habitat has been secured for restoration and protection under this project. Major accomplishments to date include the following: Secured approximately $250,000 in cost share; Secured 7 easements; Planted 30,000+ native plants; Installed 50,000+ cuttings; and Seeded 18 acres to native grass. Pre and post-project monitoring efforts were included for all projects, incorporating methodologies from CTUIR's Draft Monitoring Plan. Basin-wide monitoring also included the deployment of 6 thermographs to collect summer stream temperatures.

  14. Conservation Covenants on Private Land: Issues with Measuring and Achieving Biodiversity Outcomes in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, James A.; Carr, C. Ben

    2014-09-01

    Conservation covenants and easements have become essential tools to secure biodiversity outcomes on private land, and to assist in meeting international protection targets. In Australia, the number and spatial area of conservation covenants has grown significantly in the past decade. Yet there has been little research or detailed policy analysis of conservation covenanting in Australia. We sought to determine how conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties, and factors inhibiting or contributing to measuring these outcomes. In addition, we also investigated the drivers and constraints associated with actually delivering the biodiversity outcomes, drawing on detailed input from covenanting programs. Although all conservation covenanting programs had the broad aim of maintaining or improving biodiversity in their covenants in the long term, the specific stated objectives of conservation covenanting programs varied. Programs undertook monitoring and evaluation in different ways and at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it was difficult to determine the extent Australian conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties on a national scale. Lack of time available to covenantors to undertake management was one of the biggest impediments to achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes. A lack of financial resources and human capital to monitor, knowing what to monitor, inconsistent monitoring methodologies, a lack of benchmark data, and length of time to achieve outcomes were all considered potential barriers to monitoring the biodiversity conservation outcomes of conservation covenants.

  15. South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  16. Barge loading facilities in conjunction with wood chipping and sawlog mill, Tennessee River Mile 145. 9R: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental consequences of approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request for barge loading facilities. These facilities would serve a proposed wood chipping and sawlog products operation at Tennessee River Mile (TRM) 145.9, right descending bank, (Kentucky Lake), in Perry County, Tennessee. The site is located between Short Creek and Peters Landing. The applicant is Southeastern Forest Products, L.P. (SFP), Box 73, Linden, Tennessee and the proposed facilities would be constructed on or adjacent to company owned land. Portions of the barge terminal would be constructed on land over which flood easement rights are held by the United States of America and administered by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) and TVA have regulatory control over the proposed barge terminal facilities since the action would involve construction in the Tennessee River which is a navigable water of the United States. The wood chipping and sawlog products facilities proposed on the upland property are not regulated by the CE or TVA. On the basis of the analysis which follows, it has been determined that a modified proposal (as described herein) would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment, and does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 8 refs.

  17. The Role of Rangelands in Diversified Farming Systems: Innovations, Obstacles, and Opportunities in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan F. Sayre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of diversified farming systems (DFS rarely mention rangelands: the grasslands, shrublands, and savannas that make up roughly one-third of Earth's ice-free terrestrial area, including some 312 million ha of the United States. Although ranching has been criticized by environmentalists for decades, it is probably the most ecologically sustainable segment of the U.S. meat industry, and it exemplifies many of the defining characteristics of DFS: it relies on the functional diversity of natural ecological processes of plant and animal (reproduction at multiple scales, based on ecosystem services generated and regenerated on site rather than imported, often nonrenewable, inputs. Rangelands also provide other ecosystem services, including watershed, wildlife habitat, recreation, and tourism. Even where non-native or invasive plants have encroached on or replaced native species, rangelands retain unusually high levels of plant diversity compared with croplands or plantation forests. Innovations in management, marketing, incentives, and easement programs that augment ranch income, creative land tenure arrangements, and collaborations among ranchers all support diversification. Some obstacles include rapid landownership turnover, lack of accessible U.S. Department of Agriculture certified processing facilities, tenure uncertainty, fragmentation of rangelands, and low and variable income, especially relative to land costs. Taking advantage of rancher knowledge and stewardship, and aligning incentives with production of diverse goods and services, will support the sustainability of ranching and its associated public benefits. The creation of positive feedbacks between economic and ecological diversity should be the ultimate goal.

  18. Viable Reserve Networks Arise From Individual Landholder Responses To Conservation Incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Thomas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation in densely settled biodiversity hotspots often requires setting up reserve networks that maintain sufficient contiguous habitat to support viable species populations. Because it is difficult to secure landholder compliance with a tightly constrained reserve network design, attention has shifted to voluntary incentive mechanisms, such as purchase of conservation easements by reverse auction or through a fixed-price offer. These mechanisms carry potential advantages of transparency, simplicity, and low cost. However, uncoordinated individual response to these incentives has been assumed incompatible with the conservation goal of viability, which depends on contiguous habitat and biodiversity representation. We model such incentives for southern Bahia in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the biologically richest and most threatened global biodiversity hotspots. Here, forest cover is spatially autocorrelated and associated with depressed land values, a situation that may be characteristic of long-settled areas with forests fragmented by agriculture. We find that in this situation, a voluntary incentive system can yield a reserve network characterized by large, viable patches of contiguous forest, and representation of subregions with distinct vegetation types and biotic assemblages, without explicit planning for those outcomes.

  19. CTUIR Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2009-02-09

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2008 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2008-January 31, 2009) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight primary fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, McKay Creek, West Fork Spring Hollow, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying one fish passage barrier on West Birch Creek; (2) participating in six projects planting 10,000 trees and seeding 3225 pounds of native grasses; (3) donating 1000 ft of fencing and 1208 fence posts and associated hardware for 3.6 miles of livestock exclusion fencing projects in riparian areas of West Birch and Meacham Creek, and for tree screens to protect against beaver damage on West Fork Spring Hollow Creek; (4) using biological control (insects) to reduce noxious weeds on three treatment areas covering five acres on Meacham Creek; (5) planning activities for a levee setback project on Meacham Creek. We participated in additional secondary projects as opportunities arose. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at additional easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Proper selection and implementation of

  20. Strategy for the Identification of an INL Comprehensive Utility Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    This report documents the strategy developed to identify a comprehensive utility corridor (CUC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The strategy established the process for which the Campus Development Office will evaluate land management issues. It is a process that uses geographical information system geospatial technology to layer critical INL mission information in a way that thorough evaluations can be conducted and strategies developed. The objective of the CUC Project was to develop a process that could be implemented to identify potential utility corridor options for consideration. The process had to take into account all the missions occurring on the INL and other land-related issues. The process for developing a CUC strategy consists of the following four basic elements using geographical information system capabilities: 1. Development of an INL base layer map; this base layer map geospatially references all stationary geographical features on INL and sitewide information. 2. Development of current and future mission land-use need maps; this involved working with each directorate to identify current mission land use needs and future land use needs that project 30 years into the future. 3. Development of restricted and potential constraint maps; this included geospatially mapping areas such as wells, contaminated areas, firing ranges, cultural areas, ecological areas, hunting areas, easement, and grazing areas. 4. Development of state highway and power line rights of way map; this included geospatially mapping rights-of-way along existing state highways and power lines running through the INL that support INL operations. It was determined after completing and evaluating the geospatial information that the area with the least impact to INL missions was around the perimeter of the INL Site. Option 1, in this document, identifies this perimeter; however, it does not mean the entire perimeter is viable. Many places along the perimeter corridor cannot

  1. Advances in nonmarket valuation econometrics: Spatial heterogeneity in hedonic pricing models and preference heterogeneity in stated preference models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin Woo

    In my 1st essay, the study explores Pennsylvania residents. willingness to pay for development of renewable energy technologies such as solar power, wind power, biomass electricity, and other renewable energy using a choice experiment method. Principle component analysis identified 3 independent attitude components that affect the variation of preference, a desire for renewable energy and environmental quality and concern over cost. The results show that urban residents have a higher desire for environmental quality and concern less about cost than rural residents and consequently have a higher willingness to pay to increase renewable energy production. The results of sub-sample analysis show that a representative respondent in rural (urban) Pennsylvania is willing to pay 3.8(5.9) and 4.1(5.7)/month for increasing the share of Pennsylvania electricity generated from wind power and other renewable energy by 1 percent point, respectively. Mean WTP for solar and biomass electricity was not significantly different from zero. In my second essay, heterogeneity of individual WTP for various renewable energy technologies is investigated using several different variants of the multinomial logit model: a simple MNL with interaction terms, a latent class choice model, a random parameter mixed logit choice model, and a random parameter-latent class choice model. The results of all models consistently show that respondents. preference for individual renewable technology is heterogeneous, but the degree of heterogeneity differs for different renewable technologies. In general, the random parameter logit model with interactions and a hybrid random parameter logit-latent class model fit better than other models and better capture respondents. heterogeneity of preference for renewable energy. The impact of the land under agricultural conservation easement (ACE) contract on the values of nearby residential properties is investigated using housing sales data in two Pennsylvania

  2. The Fiscal Expenditure Responsibility of the Ecological Tourism Zone Governments---Based on Research of the Fairness of Fiscal Expenditure%政府对生态旅游区的财政支出责任--基于财政支出的公平性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李展硕; 赵博

    2015-01-01

    生态旅游产品的核心旅游资源具有整体性、不可分性;加之此类旅游产品的连动效应和强溢出效应,致使生态旅游区地方政府之间在事权和支出责任配置上的不平衡。对此,应当采用财政支出责任的公平性标准,明确旅游区地方政府间的支出责任。在具体操作层面,可以根据目的地社区居民利益原则和地役权原理,通过设立政府间地役权契约,实现事权和支出责任的公平配置。%The core resources of ecotourism products characterize integrity and inseparability.Moreover,chain effects and strong spillover effects on adjacent areas arise the imbalance of the powers and fiscal responsibilities a-mong relevant local governments in ecotourism areas.To deal with it,the fairness of fiscal expenditure should be applied to define expenditure responsibilities among local governments in these areas.Specifically,the fair alloca-tion of powers and sharing of responsibilities could be achieved by contracts among local governments according to the principle of community residents’interests and the guidance of easement theories.

  3. Comprehensive framework for ecological assessment of the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Brian; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Barbour, Philip J.; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) established and funded the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI), with the goal of improving and increasing wetland habitats on private lands to benefit wintering and migrating waterbirds displaced from oil-impacted coastal wetlands. The NRCS and conservation partners provided financial and technical assistance to landowners and managers of sites enrolled in various conservation easement programs, and incorporated approximately 190,000 ha of wetlands and agricultural lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and Gulf Coast regions in the MBHI. In fall 2010, the NRCS worked with scientists and graduate students from three universities and various conservation agencies to design and implement landscape-scale evaluations of (1) the use of MBHI-managed wetlands and comparable non-MBHI wetlands by Charadriiformes(shorebirds), Anseriformes (waterfowl), and other waterbirds; and (2) the relative effectiveness of different MBHI practices for providing habitat and food resources for migrating, resident, and wintering waterbirds. In this paper, we describe the scientific framework designed to evaluate the MBHI in improving waterbird habitats on private lands in the MAV, the Gulf Coast Prairies in Louisiana and Texas, and Gulf coastal wetlands of Mississippi and Alabama. The results of our evaluation will enhance our understanding of the influence of MBHI, other Farm Bill Conservation Initiative managed lands (e.g., Wetland Reserve Program), and selected agricultural working lands (e.g., Oryza sativa L. [Rice] fields in southern Louisiana and Texas) on wintering and migrating waterbirds. A proactive approach that uses science to evaluate governmental conservation programs is relevant and can inform development of meaningful public policy that likely will be needed for effective delivery of future conservation programs and to justify

  4. Applications of a simulation model to decisions in mallard management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.; Shaffer, T.L.; Sparling, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    A system comprising simulation models and data bases for habitat availability and nest success rates was used to predict results from a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) management plan and to compare six management methods with a control. Individual treatments in the applications included land purchase for waterfowl production, wetland easement purchase, lease of uplands for waterfowl management, cropland retirement, use of no-till winter wheat, delayed cutting of alfalfa, installation of nest baskets, nesting island construction, and use of predator-resistant fencing.The simulations predicted that implementation of the management plan would increase recruits by 24%. Nest baskets were the most effective treatment, accounting for 20.4% of the recruits. No-till winter wheat was the second most effective, accounting for 5.9% of the recruits. Wetland loss due to drainage would cause an 11% loss of breeding population in 10 years.The models were modified to account for migrational homing. The modification indicated that migrational homing would enhance the effects of management. Nest success rates were critical contributions to individual management methods. The most effective treatments, such as nest baskets, had high success rates and affected a large portion of the breeding population.Economic analyses indicated that nest baskets would be the most economical of the three techniques tested. The applications indicated that the system is a useful tool to aid management decisions, but data are scarce for several important variables. Basic research will be required to adequately model the effect of migrational homing and density dependence on production. The comprehensive nature of predictions desired by managers will also require that production models like the one described here be extended to encompass the entire annual cycle of waterfowl.

  5. High-Resolution Biogeochemical Simulation Identifies Practical Opportunities for Bioenergy Landscape Intensification Across Diverse US Agricultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic

  6. Whither the Rangeland?: Protection and conversion in California's Rangeland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D Richard; Marty, Jaymee; Holland, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Land use change in rangeland ecosystems is pervasive throughout the western United States with widespread ecological, social and economic implications. In California, rangeland habitats have high biodiversity value, provide significant habitat connectivity and form the foundation for a number of ecosystem services. To comprehensively assess the conservation status of these habitats, we analyzed the extent and drivers of habitat loss and the degree of protection against future loss across a 13.5 M ha study area in California. We analyzed rangeland conversion between 1984 and 2008 using time series GIS data and classified resulting land uses with aerial imagery. In total, over 195,000 hectares of rangeland habitats were converted during this period. The majority of conversions were to residential and associated commercial development (49% of the area converted), but agricultural intensification was surprisingly extensive and diverse (40% across six categories). Voluntary enrollment in an agricultural tax incentive program provided widespread protection from residential and commercial conversions across 37% of the remaining rangeland habitat extent (7.5 M ha), though this program did not protect rangeland from conversion to more intensive agricultural uses. Additionally, 24% of the remaining rangeland was protected by private conservation organizations or public agencies through land or easement ownership while 38% had no protection status at all. By developing a spatial method to analyze the drivers of loss and patterns of protection, this study demonstrates a novel approach to prioritize conservation strategies and implementation locations to avert habitat conversion. We propose that this approach can be used in other ecosystem types, and can serve as a regional conservation baseline assessment to focus strategies to effect widespread, cost-effective conservation solutions.

  7. Whither the Rangeland?: Protection and conversion in California's Rangeland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Richard Cameron

    Full Text Available Land use change in rangeland ecosystems is pervasive throughout the western United States with widespread ecological, social and economic implications. In California, rangeland habitats have high biodiversity value, provide significant habitat connectivity and form the foundation for a number of ecosystem services. To comprehensively assess the conservation status of these habitats, we analyzed the extent and drivers of habitat loss and the degree of protection against future loss across a 13.5 M ha study area in California. We analyzed rangeland conversion between 1984 and 2008 using time series GIS data and classified resulting land uses with aerial imagery. In total, over 195,000 hectares of rangeland habitats were converted during this period. The majority of conversions were to residential and associated commercial development (49% of the area converted, but agricultural intensification was surprisingly extensive and diverse (40% across six categories. Voluntary enrollment in an agricultural tax incentive program provided widespread protection from residential and commercial conversions across 37% of the remaining rangeland habitat extent (7.5 M ha, though this program did not protect rangeland from conversion to more intensive agricultural uses. Additionally, 24% of the remaining rangeland was protected by private conservation organizations or public agencies through land or easement ownership while 38% had no protection status at all. By developing a spatial method to analyze the drivers of loss and patterns of protection, this study demonstrates a novel approach to prioritize conservation strategies and implementation locations to avert habitat conversion. We propose that this approach can be used in other ecosystem types, and can serve as a regional conservation baseline assessment to focus strategies to effect widespread, cost-effective conservation solutions.

  8. The effect of Urban Park Sunset Program on land value in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. R.; Yoon, H.

    2016-12-01

    Intense urbanization has increased land scarcity in cities in the world, and consequently, securing lands for public parks and open spaces has become more challenging. Korea is not an exception. With Urban Park Sunset Plan, a plan for cancelling the designation as urban parks, nearly 583㎢ of publicly appropriated private land for the purpose will be released and returned to private owners. If municipalities want to keep the easement on the land, first, they should prepare physical design for parks or open spaces by 2015, and second, they should complete construction of those by 2020. In this study, we investigate the effect of Urban Park Sunset Program on land value. Our two-fold analysis includes: First, trend analysis where we extract variations of land values in Korea for 20 years (1996 2015). Second, we use panel data modeling to estimate the impact size of milestone plan implementation on land value; in 2000, Urban Park Sunset Plan was announced publicly, in 2015, the reserved land without physical design plan were released and finally, in 2020 the rest of the reserved land that has not yet been developed as parks or open spaces will be released. Along this process, we assess the ripple effect induced from the policy. As a result, we expect to find out potential economic impact of Urban Park Sunset Plan on land value, which could be applied for the preparation of countermeasures and the political decision making happening in the near future. This work was supported by the Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute (KEITI) under Grant (No. 2014-001-310007).

  9. Dynamic reserve design in the face of climate change and urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanach, Stephanie; Johnson, Fred A.; Stith, Bradley M.; Bonneau, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Reserve design is a process that must address many ecological, social, and political factors to successfully identify parcels of land in need of protection to sustain wildlife populations and other natural resources. Making land acquisition choices for a large, terrestrial protected area is difficult because it occurs over a long timeframe and may involve consideration future conditions such as climate and urbanization changes. Decision makers need to consider factors including: order of parcel purchasing given budget constraints, future uncertainty, potential future landscape‐scale changes from urbanization and climate. In central Florida, two new refuges and the expansion of a third refuge are in various stages of USFWS planning. The Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge (EHNWR) has recently been established, is at the top of the Presidential Administration’s priority conservation areas, and is cited by the Secretary of DOI routinely in the context of conservation. The new refuges were strategically located for both for species adaptation from climate change impacts as well as currently being host to a number of important threatened and endangered species and habitats. We plan to combine a structured decision making framework, optimal solution theory, and output from ecological and sociological models (these modeling efforts were previously funded by DOI partners) that incorporate climate change to provide guidance for EHNWR reserve design. Utilizing a SDM approach and optimal solution theory, decision support tools will be developed that will incorporate stakeholder and agency objectives into targeting conservation lands both through fee simple purchase and other incentives such as easements based on ecological and socioeconomic modeling outputs driven by climate change.

  10. Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation : Montana Wildlife Habitat Protection : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and obtain information necessary to evaluate and undertake specific wildlife habitat protection/enhancement actions in northwest Montana as outlined in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Three waterfowl projects were evaluated between September 1989 and June 1990. Weaver's Slough project involved the proposed acquisition of 200 acres of irrigated farmland and a donated conservation easement on an additional 213 acres. The proposal included enhancement of the agricultural lands by conversion to upland nesting cover. This project was rated the lowest priority based on limited potential for enhancement and no further action was pursued. The Crow Creek Ranch project involved the proposed acquisition of approximately 1830 acres of grazing and dryland farming lands. The intent would be to restore drained potholes and provide adjacent upland nesting cover to increase waterfowl production. This project received the highest rating based on the immediate threat of subdivision, the opportunity to restore degraded wetlands, and the overall benefits to numerous species besides waterfowl. Ducks Unlimited was not able to participate as a cooperator on this project due to the jurisdiction concerns between State and tribal ownership. The USFWS ultimately acquired 1,550 acres of this proposed project. No mitigation funds were used. The Ashley Creek project involved acquisition of 870 acres adjacent to the Smith Lake Waterfowl Production Area. The primary goal was to create approximately 470 acres of wetland habitat with dikes and subimpoundments. This project was rated second in priority due to the lesser threat of loss. A feasibility analysis was completed by Ducks Unlimited based on a concept design. Although adequate water was available for the project, soil testing indicated that the organic soils adjacent to the creek would not support the necessary dikes. The project was determined not feasible for mitigation

  11. Origen de la gran industria en la comarca del Campo de Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Foncubierta Rodríguez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cuando en la década de los sesenta se pusieron en marcha los Planes Nacionales de Desarrollo, la comarca del Campo de Gibraltar vivía una situación de pobreza y de analfabetismo, caracterizada por la servidumbre de su población al uso militar de gran parte de su territorio, y a la presencia de la colonia británica de Gibraltar. La calificación como Zona de Preferente Localización Industrial, hizo que en el Arco de la Bahía de Algeciras se instalara un conjunto de grandes empresas que han transformado sensiblemente la comarca, en términos de empleo, económicos e incluso de cualificación de los ciudadanos. Palabras-clave: Grandes industrias, Campo de Gibraltar, Planes de Desarrollo, Bahía de Algeciras.___________________________ABSTRACT:When in the sixties are launched the National Development Plans, in order to avoid regional imbalance, the region of Campo de Gibraltar suffered a socio-economic situation of poverty and illiteracy, which was characterized by the easement to military use of its territory, and the presence of the British colony of Gibraltar. Its classification as Industrial Location Preferred Zone was the cause of a set of large companies to be installed at the Bay of Algeciras, which have significantly transformed the situation in this area, in terms of employment, economy, and even their people´s qualification.Keywords: Large industries, Campo de Gibraltar, Development Plans, Bay of Algeciras

  12. Beam Forming HF Radar Beam Pattern Measurements and Phase Offset Calibration Using a UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahl, D.; Voulgaris, G.

    2016-12-01

    It has been shown that measuring antenna patterns for direction finding radars improves surface current measurements. For beam forming radars, the beam pattern of the receive array is assumed to be similar to that derived using theoretical calculations. However, local environmental conditions may lead to deviations (i.e., larger sidelobes and beamwidth) from this idealized beam pattern. This becomes particularly important for wave measurements that are sensitive to interference from sidelobes. Common techniques for beam forming HF radar phase calibration include "cross calibration", using a secondary beam forming site as the signal source, or calibration using a ship. The former method is limited to only one direction; on straight coastlines this is often at a large angle from the radar bore site where the beam width and uncertainty in phase calibration might be large. The latter technique requires chartering a ship with an appropriate reflector or transmitter, or the identification of ships of opportunity. Recent advances in UAV technology combined with an easement of FAA restrictions (Part 107) allows phase calibrations and beam pattern measurements to be completed on an HF radar site using a small transmitter attached to a UAV. This presentation describes the use of a UAV and the development of a method for beam forming phase calibration and beam pattern measurements. This method uses the UAV as a moving signal source to provide true sidelobe and beamwidth measurements. Results are shown from a calibration carried out at a beam forming (WERA) radar site (8.3 MHz) located in Georgetown, SC and are compared with results from a cross calibration. Phase calibrations acquired by the UAV showed a dependence on azimuthal angle from the radar bore site. Also, the beam patterns obtained were found to be narrower than those derived using the stationary source method. The effect of the new phase values derived using this method on the accuracy of radial velocities will be

  13. Grasslands, wetlands, and agriculture: the fate of land expiring from the Conservation Reserve Program in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morefield, Philip E.; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Clark, Christopher M.; Iovanna, Richard

    2016-09-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is the largest agricultural land-retirement program in the United States, providing many environmental benefits, including wildlife habitat and improved air, water, and soil quality. Since 2007, however, CRP area has declined by over 25% nationally with much of this land returning to agriculture. Despite this trend, it is unclear what types of CRP land are being converted, to what crops, and where. All of these specific factors greatly affect environmental impacts. To answer these questions, we quantified shifts in expiring CRP parcels to five major crop-types (corn, soy, winter and spring wheat, and sorghum) in a 12-state, Midwestern region of the United States using a US Department of Agriculture (USDA), field-level CRP database and USDA’s Cropland Data Layer. For the years 2010 through 2013, we estimate almost 30%, or more than 530 000 ha, of expiring CRP land returned to the production of these five crops in our study area, with soy and corn accounting for the vast majority of these shifts. Grasslands were the largest type of CRP land converted (360 000 ha), followed by specifically designated wildlife habitat (76 000 ha), and wetland areas (53 000 ha). These wetland areas were not just wetlands themselves, but also a mix of land covers enhancing or protecting wetland ecosystem services (e.g., wetland buffers). Areas in the Dakotas, Nebraska, and southern Iowa were hotspots of change, with the highest areas of CRP land moving back to agriculture. By contrast, we estimate only a small amount (∼3%) of the expiring land shifted into similar, non-CRP land-retirement or easement programs. Reconciling needs for food, feed, fuel, and healthy ecosystems is an immense challenge for farmers, conservationists, and state and federal agencies. Reduced enrollment and the turnover of CRP land from conservation to agriculture raises questions about sustaining ecosystem services in this region.

  14. Factors influencing property selection for conservation revolving funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mathew J; Fitzsimons, James A; Bekessy, Sarah A; Gordon, Ascelin

    2017-07-20

    Finding sustainable ways to increase the amount of private land protected for biodiversity is a challenge for many conservation organizations. In a number of countries, organizations use 'revolving fund' programs, whereby land is purchased, and then on-sold to conservation-minded owners with a condition to enter into a conservation covenant or easement. The proceeds from sale are then used to purchase, protect and on-sell additional properties, incrementally increasing the amount of protected private land. As the effectiveness of this approach relies upon selecting the right properties, we sought to explore the factors currently considered by practitioners and how these are integrated into decision-making. We conducted exploratory, semi-structured interviews with managers from each of the five major revolving funds in Australia. Responses suggest that whilst conservation factors are important, financial and social factors are also highly influential, with a major determinant being whether the property can be on-sold within a reasonable timeframe, and at a price that replenishes the fund. To facilitate the on-sale process, often selected properties include the potential for the construction of a dwelling. Practitioners are faced with clear trade-offs between conservation, financial, amenity and other factors in selecting properties; and three main potential risks: difficulty recovering the costs of acquisition, protection, and resale; difficulty on-selling the property; and difficulty meeting conservation goals. Our findings suggest that the complexity of these decisions may be limiting revolving fund effectiveness. We draw from participant responses to identify potential strategies to mitigate the risks identified, and suggest that managers could benefit from a shared learning and adaptive approach to property selection given the commonalities between programs. Understanding how practitioners are dealing with complex decisions in the implementation of revolving

  15. State-and-transition simulation modeling to compare outcomes of alternative management scenarios under two natural disturbance regimes in a forested landscape in northeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Swearingen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of the potential outcomes of multiple land management strategies and an understanding of the influence of potential increases in climate-related disturbances on these outcomes are essential for long term land management and conservation planning. To provide these insights, we developed an approach that uses collaborative scenario development and state-and-transition simulation modeling to provide land managers and conservation practitioners with a comparison of potential landscapes resulting from alternative management scenarios and climate conditions, and we have applied this approach in the Wild Rivers Legacy Forest (WRLF area in northeastern Wisconsin. Three management scenarios were developed with input from local land managers, scientists, and conservation practitioners: 1 continuation of current management, 2 expanded working forest conservation easements, and 3 cooperative ecological forestry. Scenarios were modeled under current climate with contemporary probabilities of natural disturbance and under increased probability of windthrow and wildfire that may result from climate change in this region. All scenarios were modeled for 100 years using the VDDT/TELSA modeling suite. Results showed that landscape composition and configuration were relatively similar among scenarios, and that management had a stronger effect than increased probability of windthrow and wildfire. These findings suggest that the scale of the landscape analysis used here and the lack of differences in predominant management strategies between ownerships in this region play significant roles in scenario outcomes. The approach used here does not rely on complex mechanistic modeling of uncertain dynamics and can therefore be used as starting point for planning and further analysis.

  16. Analysis of surveying and legal problems in granting right-of-way and expropriation for the purpose of locating technical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembecka, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A condition which determines the location of technical infrastructure is an entrepreneur holding the right to use the property for construction purposes. Currently, there are parallel separate legal forms allowing the use of a real property for the purpose of locating transmission lines, i.e. transmission easement (right-of-way) established under the civil law and expropriation by limiting the rights to a property under the administrative law. The aim of the study is to compare these forms conferring the right to use real properties and to analyze the related surveying and legal problems occurring in practice. The research thesis of the article is ascertainment that the current legal provisions for establishing legal titles to a property in order to locate transmission lines need to be amended. The conducted study regarded legal conditions, extent of expropriation and granting right-of-way in the city of Krakow, as well as the problems associated with the ambiguous wording of the legal regulations. Part of the research was devoted to the form of rights to land in order to carry out similar projects in some European countries (France, Czech Republic, Germany, Sweden). The justification for the analysis of these issues is dictated by the scale of practical use of the aforementioned forms of rights to land in order to locate technical infrastructure. Over the period of 2011-2014, 651 agreements were concluded on granting transmission right-of-way for 967 cadastral parcels owned by the city of Krakow, and 105 expropriation decisions were issued, limiting the use of real properties in Krakow.

  17. Effect of Intermittent Androgen Blockade on the Quality of Life of Patients with Advanced Prostate Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of intermittent androgen blockade (IAB) on the quality of life (QOL) of patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma (APC).METHODS Investigations on the QOL of 51 APC patients receiving IAB treatment, totaling 3 times, i.e. 6 months before and after, and 12 months after treatment, were perform using the EORTC QLQ-C30 measuring scale and QLQ-PR25 scale.RESULTS Although IAB became an economic burden for the families, it was lessened during the intermission (P<0.05). The overall health status significantly improved 6 months after IAB treatment (P<0.01), especially during the intermission (P<0.05), with a total or local easement of pain (P<0.01) and an improvement of urinary function (P<0.01). Although there was impairment,to various degrees, in many functions of the patients on the 6th month of treatment, such as the physical function (P<0.05), role function (P<0.05), the emotional (P<0.01) and the social functions (P<0.01), with an enhancement of fatigue (P<0.01), these functions gradually recovered by the 12th month as the intermission started. Treatment-related symptoms such as flushing and mammary swelling significantly emerged on the 6th treatment month (P<0.01), and lessened on the 12th (P<0.01). During the treatment period,therewas an notable drop in sexual interest (P<0.01), with a deprivation of sex life, but revived to various degrees during the intermission (P<0.01).CONCLUSION Although IAB treatment of APC patients did impair the physiologic and psychologic status of patients to varying degrees, these were improved and restored during the intermission.

  18. Residential landfill remedial action construction case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creamer, P.D.; Martin, K.E. [RMT, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Fahrney, J.S. [City of Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The City of Madison - Mineral Point Park is located on Madison`s west side within a well-established neighborhood on approximately 11 acres of open green space, which was formerly the Mineral Point Landfill. In 1994, a comprehensive remedial action construction project was implemented to more effectively extract methane gas and control gas migration, to minimize potential groundwater contamination, and to improve surface water run-off controls. This was accomplished by installing two new gas extraction systems, constructing a 4-foot-thick composite final cover with a geosynthetic subsurface drainage system, and adding 12 feet of relief and a storm sewer system to promote positive surface water drainage. While these features alone are not uncommon to many other landfills, the challenging aspect of this project was to install them in extreme proximity to homes, condominiums, and a school that were quickly developed shortly after the landfill closed. Some of the issues unique to this project due to the residential setting included strict noise, dust, and odor controls, easement negotiations, limited hours of operation, limited material storage areas, utility relocations and crossings, continuous operation of the existing gas extraction system, limited construction access, and increased health and safety concerns for the general public. The need to keep the neighboring residents informed, as well as to address their concerns and requests, was also a critical requirement in both the design and construction phases. This paper will review the design of the remedial action plan and present the construction process, highlighting the constructability issues encountered and the innovative means to overcome them. The program for communication with the neighbors throughout the design and construction phases will also be addressed.

  19. Propiedad intelectual privada frente a la investigación como servicio público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, Lorenzo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property has arisen in our societies in order to solve problems brought about by technical evolution. Some authors regard it as a sui generis notion, other people reject it altogether. Our approach stresses the similarity between this sort of property and ownership in general. We propose a relative justification of intellectual ownership. Those proposals are bound up with a metaphysical elucidation of the intellectual objects of ownership; we put forward viewing them as clusters of possibilia. Intellectual ownership thus vindicated has to fulfil a social function, by resorting to the legal notion of easements or servitudes, whether voluntary or legally binding, especially as regards the outputs of scientific research. We demur at privatizing the benefits derived from publicly funded research.Surge en nuestras sociedades la propiedad intelectual para resolver problemas generados por la evolución técnica. Unos la entienden como una noción sui generis, otros la recusan. Nuestro enfoque reductivo recalca sus semejanzas con la propiedad de otros bienes. Se aborda el problema de sus fundamentos, inclinándonos por una justificación relativa al actual marco institucional. Tales propuestas están ligadas a la dilucidación metafísica de los objetos sobre los que recae, brindándose una concepción de los mismos como cúmulos de possibilia. Así defendida, la propiedad intelectual tiene que desempeñar un papel social, recurriendo a la noción de servidumbres, voluntarias o legales, todo lo cual se aplica singularmente a los productos de la investigación científica en el ámbito académico, denunciándose la privatización de sus beneficios.

  20. Stream sediment sources in midwest agricultural basins with land retirement along channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Christensen, Victoria G.; Richardson, William B.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Gellis, Allen C.; Kieta, K. A.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting the effects of agricultural land retirement on stream-sediment sources is critical to identifying management practices that improve water quality and aquatic habitat. Particularly difficult to quantify are the effects from conservation easements that commonly are discontinuous along channelized streams and ditches throughout the agricultural midwestern United States. Our hypotheses were that sediment from cropland, retired land, stream banks, and roads would be discernible using isotopic and elemental concentrations and that source contributions would vary with land retirement distribution along tributaries of West Fork Beaver Creek in Minnesota. Channel-bed and suspended sediment were sampled at nine locations and compared with local source samples by using linear discriminant analysis and a four-source mixing model that evaluated seven tracers: In, P, total C, Be, Tl, Th, and Ti. The proportion of sediment sources differed significantly between suspended and channel-bed sediment. Retired land contributed to channel-bed sediment but was not discernible as a source of suspended sediment, suggesting that retired-land material was not mobilized during high-flow conditions. Stream banks were a large contributor to suspended sediment; however, the percentage of stream-bank sediment in the channel bed was lower in basins with more continuous retired land along the riparian corridor. Cropland sediments had the highest P concentrations; basins with the highest cropland-sediment contributions also had the highest P concentrations. Along stream reaches with retired land, there was a lower proportion of cropland material in suspended sediment relative to sites that had almost no land retirement, indicating less movement of nutrients and sediment from cropland to the channel as a result of land retirement.

  1. Impacts of rural development on Yellowstone wildlife: linking grizzly bear Ursus arctos demographics with projected residential growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Gude, Patricia H.; Landenburger, Lisa; Haroldson, Mark A.; Podruzny, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Exurban development is consuming wildlife habitat within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem with potential consequences to the long-term conservation of grizzly bears Ursus arctos. We assessed the impacts of alternative future land-use scenarios by linking an existing regression-based simulation model predicting rural development with a spatially explicit model that predicted bear survival. Using demographic criteria that predict population trajectory, we portioned habitats into either source or sink, and projected the loss of source habitat associated with four different build out (new home construction) scenarios through 2020. Under boom growth, we predicted that 12 km2 of source habitat were converted to sink habitat within the Grizzly Bear Recovery Zone (RZ), 189 km2 were converted within the current distribution of grizzly bears outside of the RZ, and 289 km2 were converted in the area outside the RZ identified as suitable grizzly bear habitat. Our findings showed that extremely low densities of residential development created sink habitats. We suggest that tools, such as those outlined in this article, in addition to zoning and subdivision regulation may prove more practical, and the most effective means of retaining large areas of undeveloped land and conserving grizzly bear source habitat will likely require a landscape-scale approach. We recommend a focus on land conservation efforts that retain open space (easements, purchases and trades) coupled with the implementation of ‘bear community programmes’ on an ecosystem wide basis in an effort to minimize human-bear conflicts, minimize management-related bear mortalities associated with preventable conflicts and to safeguard human communities. Our approach has application to other species and areas, and it has illustrated how spatially explicit demographic models can be combined with models predicting land-use change to help focus conservation priorities.

  2. Tipping Points towards Regional Forest or Urban Transition in Stressed Rural Areas: An Agent-based Modelling Application of Socio-Economic Shifts in Rural Vermont US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Zia, A.

    2015-12-01

    In rural areas where farming competes with urban development and environmental amenities, urban and forest transitions occur simultaneously at different locales with different rates due to the underlying socio-economic shifts. Here we develop an interactive land use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM) in which farmers' land use decisions are made contingent on expansion and location choices of urban businesses and urban residences, as well as farmers' perceived ecosystem services produced by their land holdings. The ILUTABM simulates heterogeneity in land use decisions at parcel levels by differentiating decision making processes for agricultural and urban landowners. Landowners are simulated to make land-use transition decisions as bounded rational agents that maximize their partial expected utility functions under different underlying socio-economic conditions given the category of a landowner and the spatial characteristics of the landowner's landholdings. The ILUTABM is parameterized by spatial data sets such as National Land Cover Database (NLCD), zoning, parcels, property prices, US census, farmers surveys, building/facility characteristics, soil, slope and elevation. We then apply the ILUTABM to the rural Vermont landscape, located in the Northeast Arm District of Lake Champlain and the downstream sub-watersheds of Missisquoi River, to generate phase transitions of rural land towards urban land near peri-urban areas and towards forest land near financially stressed farmlands during 2001-2051. Possible tipping point trajectories of rural land towards regional forest or urban transition are simulated under three socio-economic scenarios: business as usual (ILUTABM calibrated to 2011 NLCD), increased incentives for conservation easements, and increased incentives for attracting urban residences and businesses.

  3. Consequences of severe habitat fragmentation on density, genetics, and spatial capture-recapture analysis of a small bear population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Ulrey, Wade A; Guthrie, Joseph M; Scheick, Brian K; McCown, J Walter; Cox, John J

    2017-01-01

    Loss and fragmentation of natural habitats caused by human land uses have subdivided several formerly contiguous large carnivore populations into multiple small and often isolated subpopulations, which can reduce genetic variation and lead to precipitous population declines. Substantial habitat loss and fragmentation from urban development and agriculture expansion relegated the Highlands-Glades subpopulation (HGS) of Florida, USA, black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) to prolonged isolation; increasing human land development is projected to cause ≥ 50% loss of remaining natural habitats occupied by the HGS in coming decades. We conducted a noninvasive genetic spatial capture-recapture study to quantitatively describe the degree of contemporary habitat fragmentation and investigate the consequences of habitat fragmentation on population density and genetics of the HGS. Remaining natural habitats sustaining the HGS were significantly more fragmented and patchier than those supporting Florida's largest black bear subpopulation. Genetic diversity was low (AR = 3.57; HE = 0.49) and effective population size was small (NE = 25 bears), both of which remained unchanged over a period spanning one bear generation despite evidence of some immigration. Subpopulation density (0.054 bear/km2) was among the lowest reported for black bears, was significantly female-biased, and corresponded to a subpopulation size of 98 bears in available habitat. Conserving remaining natural habitats in the area occupied by the small, genetically depauperate HGS, possibly through conservation easements and government land acquisition, is likely the most important immediate step to ensuring continued persistence of bears in this area. Our study also provides evidence that preferentially placing detectors (e.g., hair traps or cameras) primarily in quality habitat across fragmented landscapes poses a challenge to estimating density-habitat covariate relationships using spatial capture

  4. GRA prospectus: optimizing design and management of protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard; Halsing, David

    2001-01-01

    Protected areas comprise one major type of global conservation effort that has been in the form of parks, easements, or conservation concessions. Though protected areas are increasing in number and size throughout tropical ecosystems, there is no systematic method for optimally targeting specific local areas for protection, designing the protected area, and monitoring it, or for guiding follow-up actions to manage it or its surroundings over the long run. Without such a system, conservation projects often cost more than necessary and/or risk protecting ecosystems and biodiversity less efficiently than desired. Correcting these failures requires tools and strategies for improving the placement, design, and long-term management of protected areas. The objective of this project is to develop a set of spatially based analytical tools to improve the selection, design, and management of protected areas. In this project, several conservation concessions will be compared using an economic optimization technique. The forest land use portfolio model is an integrated assessment that measures investment in different land uses in a forest. The case studies of individual tropical ecosystems are developed as forest (land) use and preservation portfolios in a geographic information system (GIS). Conservation concessions involve a private organization purchasing development and resource access rights in a certain area and retiring them. Forests are put into conservation, and those people who would otherwise have benefited from extracting resources or selling the right to do so are compensated. Concessions are legal agreements wherein the exact amount and nature of the compensation result from a negotiated agreement between an agent of the conservation community and the local community. Funds are placed in a trust fund, and annual payments are made to local communities and regional/national governments. The payments are made pending third-party verification that the forest expanse

  5. Saving Soil for Sustainable Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo M. Torre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper experiments with some costs-benefit analyses, seeking a balance between soil-take and buildability due to land policy and management. The activities have been carried out inside the MITO lab (Lab for Multimedia Information for Territorial Objects of the Polytechnic University of Bari. Reports have been produced about the Southern Italian Apulia Region, which is rich in farmland and coastline, often invaded by construction, with a severe loss of nature, a degradation of the soil, landscape, and ecosystem services. A methodological approach to the assessment of sustainability of urban expansion related, on one hand, to “plus values” deriving from the transformation of urban fringes and, on the other hand to the analysis of the transition of land-use, with the aim of “saving soil” against urban sprawl. The loss of natural and agricultural surfaces due to the expanding artificial lands is an unsustainable character of urban development, especially in the manner in which it was carried out in past decades. We try to assess how plus value can be considered “unearned”, and to understand if the “land value recapture” can compensate for the negative environmental effects of urban expansion. We measured the transition from farmlands and natural habitat to urbanization with the support of the use of some Geographic Information Systems (GIS tools, in favor of a new artificial land cover in the region of Apulia, Southern Italy. Data have been collected at the regional scale and at the local level, producing information about land use change and increases of property values due to improvements, referring to the 258 municipalities of the region. Looking at the results of our measurements, we started an interpretation of the driving forces that favor the plus values due to the transition of land-use. Compensation, easements, recapture of plus value, and improvement are, nowadays in Italy, discussed as major land-policy tools for

  6. 1998 Tier two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory - emergency planning and community right-to-know act section 312

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALOUDEK, D.E.

    1999-03-02

    The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land that is owned by the U.S, Government and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The Hanford Site is located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The city of Richland adjoins the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site boundary and is the nearest population center. Activities on the Hanford Site are centralized in numerically designated areas. The 100 Areas, located along the Columbia River, contain deactivated reactors. The processing units are in the 200 Areas, which are on a plateau approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) from the Columbia River. The 300 Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains research and development laboratories. The 400 Area, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the 300 Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility previously used for testing liquid metal reactor systems. Adjacent to the north of Richland, the 1100 Area contains offices associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 600 Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. This Tier Two Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report contains information pertaining to hazardous chemicals managed by DOE-RL and its contractors on the Hanford Site. It does not include chemicals maintained in support of activities conducted by others on lands covered by leases, use permits, easements, and other agreements whereby land is used by parties other than DOE-RL. For example, this report does not include chemicals stored on state owned or leased lands (including the burial ground operated by US Ecology, Inc.), lands owned or used by the Bonneville Power Administration (including the Midway Substation and the Ashe Substation), lands used by the National Science Foundation (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), lands leased to the Washington

  7. Developing New Coastal Forest Restoration Products Based on Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Graham, William; Smoot, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses an ongoing effort to develop new geospatial information products for aiding coastal forest restoration and conservation efforts in coastal Louisiana and Mississippi. This project employs Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data in conjunction with airborne elevation data to compute coastal forest cover type maps and change detection products. Improved forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest restoration and management efforts of State and Federal agencies in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) region. In particular, such products may aid coastal forest land acquisition and conservation easement procurements. This region's forests are often disturbed and subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic threats, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, hurricanes, sea-level rise, insect-induced defoliation and mortality, altered hydrology, wildfire, and conversion to non-forest land use. In some cases, such forest disturbance has led to forest loss or loss of regeneration capacity. In response, a case study was conducted to assess and demonstrate the potential of satellite remote sensing products for improving forest type maps and for assessing forest change over the last 25 years. Change detection products are needed for assessing risks for specific priority coastal forest types, such as live oak and baldcypress-dominated forest. Preliminary results indicate Landsat time series data are capable of generating the needed forest type and change detection products. Useful classifications were obtained using 2 strategies: 1) general forest classification based on use of 3 seasons of Landsat data from the same year; and 2) classification of specific forest types of concern using a single date of Landsat data in which a given targeted type is spectrally distinct compared to adjacent forested cover. When available, ASTER data was

  8. Method for estimating potential wetland extent by utilizing streamflow statistics and flood-inundation mapping techniques: Pilot study for land along the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon H.; Ritz, Christian T.; Arvin, Donald V.

    2012-01-01

    Potential wetland extents were estimated for a 14-mile reach of the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana. This pilot study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The study showed that potential wetland extents can be estimated by analyzing streamflow statistics with the available streamgage data, calculating the approximate water-surface elevation along the river, and generating maps by use of flood-inundation mapping techniques. Planning successful restorations for Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) easements requires a determination of areas that show evidence of being in a zone prone to sustained or frequent flooding. Zone determinations of this type are used by WRP planners to define the actively inundated area and make decisions on restoration-practice installation. According to WRP planning guidelines, a site needs to show evidence of being in an "inundation zone" that is prone to sustained or frequent flooding for a period of 7 consecutive days at least once every 2 years on average in order to meet the planning criteria for determining a wetland for a restoration in agricultural land. By calculating the annual highest 7-consecutive-day mean discharge with a 2-year recurrence interval (7MQ2) at a streamgage on the basis of available streamflow data, one can determine the water-surface elevation corresponding to the calculated flow that defines the estimated inundation zone along the river. By using the estimated water-surface elevation ("inundation elevation") along the river, an approximate extent of potential wetland for a restoration in agricultural land can be mapped. As part of the pilot study, a set of maps representing the estimated potential wetland extents was generated in a geographic information system (GIS) application by combining (1) a digital water-surface plane representing the surface of inundation elevation that sloped in the downstream

  9. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  10. Urban development under extreme hydrologic and weather conditions for El Paso-Juarez: Recommendations resulting from hydrologic modeling, GIS, and remote sensing analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    found in the region and taking into account climate change predictions. Development of new areas needs to consider not only the watershed of study but its relation to other watersheds around them. Basin parameters seemed to be of low impact while comparing them with precipitation rates. High resolution DEMs, such as those derived from LiDAR can dramatically improve the accuracy and reliability of a hydrological model. Hardware capabilities and limitations however should be considered. The overall recommendations derived from this dissertation are to direct new studies, policies and regulations at the three levels of government---local, state and federal---to: limit urban development to areas of no or low potential for flooding; implementing some type of ecological, green corridors, or conservation easements to preserve these areas; build semi-natural or hybrid stormwater infrastructure to slowdown, collect, and ultimately, transport runoff to the Rio Grande or any other waterway; consider extreme wet and dry scenarios for designation of flood-prone areas and future construction of stormwater infrastructure; and design stormwater infrastructure to retrofit the existing natural and irrigation drains.

  11. South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaney, Mark D. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management

    2009-04-15

    activities that move toward road decommissioning to reduce sediment delivery to spawning gravels and rearing habitats by reducing sedimentation from road related, man-made sources. For FY08, the project included the design and implementation of two fish barrier replacement structures mentioned above, the Salt and Profile Creek Bridges. These work elements were to be implemented on Valley County easements within the Payette National Forest. The existing culverts are full or partial barriers to most aquatic life species and all juvenile anadromous and resident fish species. Implementation will reconnect 9.34 miles of habitat, and provide natural stream channels to facilitate complete passage for all aquatic life forms. All designs were completed and a construction subcontract was awarded to construct free span, pre-cast concrete bridges. For 2008, the project statement of work also included all the necessary work elements to manage, coordinate, plan, and develop continuing strategies for restoration and protection activities.

  12. Texas Clean Energy Project: Topical Report, Phase 1 - February 2010-December 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Karl

    2012-11-01

    required to complete the financing of the project. In general, STCE completed project definition, a front-end, engineering and design study (FEED), applied for and received its Record of Decision (ROD) associated with the NEPA requirements summarized in a detailed Environmental Impact Statement. A topical report covering the results of the FEED is the subject of a separate report submitted to the DOE on January 26, 2012. References to the FEED report are contained herein. In December 2011, STCE executed fixed-price turnkey EPC contracts and a long-term O&M agreement with industry-leading contractors.. Other work completed during Phase 1 includes execution of all major commercial input and offtake agreements. STCE negotiated long-term agreements for power, CO2 and urea offtake. A contract for the purchase of coal feedstock from Cloud Peak Energy’s Cordero Rojo mine was executed, as well as a memorandum of understanding with the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) for delivery of the coal to the TCEP site. An MOU for natural gas supply was completed with ONEOK, and a long-term water supply agreement was completed with a private landowner. In addition, STCE secured options for easements and rights-of-way, completed a transmission study, executed an interconnection agreement and devoted substantial effort to debt and conventional and tax equity structuring to position the Project for project financing, currently scheduled for closing on December 31, 2012.

  13. Application of internal fixation and external fixator for unstable pelvic fracture%内固定加外固定架在不稳定型骨盆骨折治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 郭克斌; 熊元波; 魏君虎; 张炼; 翟剑亭

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨内固定加外固定支架手术在不稳定型骨盆骨折治疗中的临床应用及疗效.方法 对我院自2001年3月至2009年6月收治的137例不稳定型骨盆骨折患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,本组患者均采用内固定加外固定支架手术治疗.其中车祸交通伤81例,高处坠落伤34例,塌方挤压伤22例.根据Tile's分型,本组中B型89例,C型48例.所有患者术后均获随访,随访时间1~6年.结果 本组中125例术后关节功能明显改善,疼痛缓解,各种并发症发生率低.采用Matta评定标准进行评估,术后优良率达91.3%.结论 内固定加外固定支架手术治疗不稳定型骨盆骨折的临床疗效良好,能够重建骨盆稳定性,是治疗此类骨折的有效方法.%Objective To evaluate the clinical application and effect of internal fixation and external fixator for treatment of unstable pelvic fracture.Methods From March 2001 to June 2009,137 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were treated by internal fixation and external fixator,a retrospective study was conducted. The injuries were caused by the traffic accident in 81 patients,following falling from high places in 34 patients,crush injury by collapse in 22 patients. According to Tile classification, 89 cases were Tile B,48 cases were Tile C. All the patients were followed up for 1 to 6 years. Results Among the 137 patients,excellent results were achieved in 125 cases with the improvement in joint function and easement of pain,with lower complications. All the patients were reviewed using the Matta evaluation system,the result showed that the clinical effective rate exceeded 91.3%.Conclusions Internal fixation combined with external fixator is a very good method,which was effective for the treatment of unstable pelvic fracture,it may be the most effective way to rebuild the stability of pelvic.

  14. The Blackwater NWR inundation model. Rising sea level on a low-lying coast: land use planning for wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curt; Clark, Inga; Guntenspergen, Glenn; Cahoon, Don; Caruso, Vincent; Hupp, Cliff; Yanosky, Tom

    2004-01-01

    shallow water surfaces has solved this problem. Our team has developed a detailed LIDAR map of the BNWR area at a 30 centimeter (ca. 1 ft) contour interval (figure 2). The new map allows us to identify the present marsh vegetation zones and to predict the location and area of future zones on a decade-by- decade basis over the next century at increments of sea level rise on the order of 3 cm/decade (ca. 1 inch). We have developed two scenarios for the model. The first is a steady-state model that uses the historic rate of sea level rise of 3.1 mm/yr to predict marsh areas. The second is a 'global warming' scenario utilizing a conservative IPCC model with an exponentially-increasing rate of sea level rise. Under either scenario, the BNWR is progressively inundated with an expanding core of open water. Although their positions change in the future, the areas of intertidal marsh as well as those of the critical high marsh remain fairly constant until the year 2050. Beyond that time, the low-lying land surface is overtopped by rising sea level and the area is dominated by open water. Our model suggests that wetland habitat in the Blackwater area might be maintained and sustained through a combination of public and private preservation efforts through easements in combination with judicious Federal land acquisition into the predicted areas of suitable marsh formation - but for only the next 50 years. Beyond that time much of this area will become open water.

  15. Texas Clean Energy Project: Decision Point Application, Section 2: Topical Report - Phase 1, February 2010-October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Karl

    2013-09-01

    additional work required to complete the financing of the Project. In general, STCE completed project definition, a front-end, engineering and design study (FEED), applied for and received its Record of Decision (ROD) associated with the NEPA requirements summarized in a detailed Environmental Impact Statement. A topical report covering the results of the FEED is the subject of a separate report submitted to the DOE on January 26, 2012. References to the FEED report are contained herein. In August 2013, STCE executed fixed-price turnkey EPC contracts and previously, in December 2011 a long-term O&M agreement, with industry-leading contractors. Other work completed during Phase 1 includes execution of all commercial input and offtake agreements required for project financing. STCE negotiated long-term agreements for power, CO2 and urea offtake. A contract for the purchase of coal feedstock from Cloud Peak Energy’s Cordero Rojo mine was executed, as well as necessary agreements (supplementing the tariff) with the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) for delivery of the coal to the TCEP site. STCE executed firm agreements for natural gas transportation with ONEOK for long-term water supply with a private landowner. In addition, STCE secured options for critical easements and rights-of-way, completed and updated a transmission study, executed an interconnection agreement and has agreed a target October 31, 2013 financial closing date with debt and conventional and tax equity.

  16. Analgesic effect of Compound Lidocaine Cream for fistula puncture%复方利多卡因乳膏对内瘘血管穿刺的镇痛作用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈民; 李正; 钟思敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the analgesic effect of Compound Lidocaine Cream for arteriovenous fistula puncture.Methods Sixty-two cases of renal failure in end stage uremia ( test group) were treated with maintenance hemodialysis and different Methods of analgesia during arteriovenous fistula puncture.The conventional group was treated by puncture after regular disinfection without analgesia.The test group was given Compound Lidocaine Cream 60 minutes before puncture.The control group was given disinfection gel 60 minutes before puncture.We used WeWl Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ) and Verbal Rating Scale ( VRS ) to evaluate degees of pain three times per month.Results There was significant difference in VAS scores among the test group [VAS: ( 34.13 ±18.02 ) mm], the conventional group [VAS: ( 34.13 ± 18.02 ) mm]and the control group [VAS: ( 49.64 ± 18.56 ) mm]( P <0.05 ).Treatment in test group was significantly more effective than in conventional group and control group in the easement of pain ( P< 0.05 ).Conclusion Compound Lidocaine Cream produces effective analgesic effect for arteriovenous fistula puncture.%目的 观察局部涂抹复方利多卡因乳膏对内瘘血管穿刺的镇痛作用.方法 采用自身前后对照研究的方法,对62例进行维持性血液透析治疗的肾功能衰竭尿毒症终末期患者在穿刺动静脉内瘘时先后采取不同的镇痛方法:常规组不镇痛,在常规消毒后进行穿刺;试验组在穿刺前60分钟给予复方利多卡因乳膏涂擦;安慰剂对照组在穿刺前60分钟给予消毒凝胶涂擦.各组均在1个月内连续3次使用视觉类比量表(visual analogue scale,VAS)及语言评价量表(verbal rating scale,VRS)评定疼痛程度,并进行比较.结果 试验组VAS评分为(34.13±18.02)分,与常规组的(54.98±19.77)分及安慰剂对照组的(49.64±18.56)分比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);试验组疼痛缓解有效率明显高于安慰剂对照组(P<0.05).结论 复方

  17. Regulation in the electric power industry. A practical manual. 2. ed.; Regulierung in der Energiewirtschaft. Ein Praxishandbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salje, Peter [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Schmidt-Preuss, Matthias (ed.) [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Baur, Juergen F.

    2016-04-01

    The energy transition is taking place with dynamism and breakneck pace. The legislation and process of regulations, European legislation and the practice of FNA and courts form a regulatory framework, which means growing challenges for all players in the energy sector. the cutting-edge issues and developments of practice and theory discussed Edition - After the encouraging uptake of the 1st edition of the best practice manual ''regulation in the energy sector'' the current questions and developments for practice and theory are dealed in a new - second edition. The specifics of the work to be maintained: On the one hand the interdisciplinary - regulatory economic as well as economic - anchoring and on the other hand taking into account the European requirements which are becoming more and more important. Against this background, in particular, the problems raised by the energy transition issues of excellent writers are explained. Here numerous additional topics are included in the manual, such as the investment stimulatory instruments (as the decommissioning ban). Moreover, in the last part, the energy of civil law has been newly added to its width. The same applies to the increasingly important topic of metrology. Other highly topical - in the new edition treated first - Topics include among others the easement agreements and the 20-year time limit and re-allocation of concession contracts, customer equipment, and closed distribution systems. As part of the energy transition the EEG 2014 with conceptual new approaches is a reason for a significant expansion of the relevant chapter. Finally is pointed to the entirely new network planning - from network development plan over the federal requirements planning to final project approval -, which will now be discussed in depth. Authors: Proven experts from science and practice Audience: courts, public authorities and institutions in the energy sector, energy businesses, advocacy and science. [German

  18. Novel Approaches to Wide Bandgap CuInSe2 Based Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William N. Shafarman

    2011-04-28

    0 ≤ Ag/(Ag+Cu) ≤ 1. Evidence of improved material quality includes reduced sub-bandgap optical absorption, sharper bandtails, and increased grain size with Ag addition. The Ag alloying was shown to increase the range of bandgaps over which solar cells can be fabricated without any drop-off in performance. With bandgap greater than 1.6 eV, in the range needed for tandem solar cells, (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 gave higher efficiency than other CuInSe2-based alloys. Using a simple single-stage co-evaporation process, a solar cell with 17.6% efficiency using a film with bandgap = 1.3 eV was achieved, demonstrating the viability of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 for high efficiency devices. With a three-stage co-evaporation process for (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 deposition a device with efficiency = 13.0 % and VOC = 890 mV with JSC = 20.5 mA/cm2, FF = 71.3% was achieved. This surpasses the performance of other wide bandgap CuInSe2-based solar cells. Detailed characterization of the electronic properties of the materials and devices including the application of advanced admittance-based easements was completed.

  19. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fsh Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd

    2001-12-31

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla River Basin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Habitat enhancement projects continued to be maintained on 44 private properties, four riparian easements and one in-stream enhancement agreement were secured, two new projects implemented and two existing projects improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities in the Umatilla River Basin. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River and Buckaroo Creek. Improvements were implemented at existing project sites on the upper Umatilla River and Wildhorse Creek. A stream bank stabilization project was implemented at approximately River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River to stabilize 760 feet of eroding stream bank and improve in-stream habitat diversity. Habitat enhancements at this site included construction of six rock barbs with one large conifer root wad incorporated into each barb, stinging approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings, planting 195 tubling willows and 1,800 basin wildrye grass plugs, and seeding 40 pounds of native grass seed. Staff time to assist in development of a subcontract and fence materials were provided to establish eight spring sites for off-stream watering and to protect wetlands within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. A gravel bar was moved and incorporated into an adjacent point bar to reduce stream energy and stream channel confinement within the existing project area at River Mile 85 Umatilla River. Approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings were stung and trenched into the stream channel margins and stream banks, and 360

  20. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-02-01

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2001 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla Subbasin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Projects continued to be maintained on 49 private properties, one 25-year Non-Exclusive Bureau of Indian Affairs' Easement was secured, six new projects implemented and two existing project areas improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River, upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek, Cottonwood Creek and Buckaroo Creek. New enhancements included: (1) construction of 11,264 feet of fencing between River Mile 43.0 and 46.5 on the Umatilla River, (2) a stream bank stabilization project implemented at approximately River Mile 63.5 Umatilla River to stabilize 330 feet of eroding stream bank and improve instream habitat diversity, included construction of eight root wad revetments and three boulder J-vanes, (3) drilling a 358-foot well for off-stream livestock watering at approximately River Mile 46.0 Umatilla River, (4) installing a 50-foot bottomless arch replacement culvert at approximately River Mile 3.0 Mission Creek, (5) installing a Geoweb stream ford crossing on Mission Creek (6) installing a 22-foot bottomless arch culvert at approximately River Mile 0.5 Cottonwood Creek, and (7) providing fence materials for construction of 21,300 feet of livestock exclusion fencing in the Buckaroo Creek Drainage. An approximate total of 3,800 native willow cuttings and 350 pounds of native grass seed was planted at new upper Umatilla River, Mission Creek and Cottonwood Creek project sites. Habitat improvements implemented at existing project sites included