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Sample records for earthworm gut microbiota

  1. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity.

  2. Gut microbiota: the brain peacekeeper

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota regulates intestinal and extraintestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may also regulate brain function and behavior. Results from animal models indicate that disturbances in the composition and functionality of some microbiota members are associated with neurophysiological disorders, strengthening the idea of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and the role of microbiota as a peacekeeper in the brain health. Here, we review recent discoveries on t...

  3. The Earthworm Gut: an Ideal Habitat for Ingested N2O-Producing Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Marcus A.; Schramm, Andreas; Drake, Harold L.

    2003-01-01

    The in vivo production of nitrous oxide (N2O) by earthworms is due to their gut microbiota, and it is hypothesized that the microenvironment of the gut activates ingested N2O-producing soil bacteria. In situ measurement of N2O and O2 with microsensors demonstrated that the earthworm gut is anoxic and the site of N2O production. The gut had a pH of 6.9 and an average water content of approximately 50%. The water content within the gut decreased from the anterior end to the posterior end. In co...

  4. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xing Wang; Yu-Ping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis.Data Sources:All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18,2016,were identified through a literature search on PubMed,ScienceDirect,and Web of Science,with the keywords of"gut microbiota","gut-brain axis",and "neuroscience".Study Selection:All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed,with no limitation of study design.Results:It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological,behavioral,and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood.Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products,enteric nervous system,sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system,neural-immune system,neuroendocrine system,and central nervous system.Moreover,there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain,including the gut-brain's neural network,neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,gut immune system,some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria,and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier.The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota,and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota.Conclusions:Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain,which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  5. The Human Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; de Goffau, Marcus. C.; Schwiertz, A

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota in our gut performs many different essential functions that help us to stay healthy. These functions include vitamin production, regulation of lipid metabolism and short chain fatty acid production as fuel for epithelial cells and regulation of gene expression. There is a very numerou

  6. The Human Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; de Goffau, Marcus. C.; Schwiertz, A

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota in our gut performs many different essential functions that help us to stay healthy. These functions include vitamin production, regulation of lipid metabolism and short chain fatty acid production as fuel for epithelial cells and regulation of gene expression. There is a very

  7. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. Results: It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Conclusions: Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future. PMID:27647198

  8. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yeon Hur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders.

  9. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of s...

  10. Gut microbiota: the brain peacekeeper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlong eMu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota regulates intestinal and extraintestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may also regulate brain function and behavior. Results from animal models indicate that disturbances in the composition and functionality of some microbiota members are associated with neurophysiological disorders, strengthening the idea of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and the role of microbiota as a peacekeeper in the brain health. Here, we review recent discoveries on the role of the gut microbiota in central nervous system (CNS-related diseases. We also discuss the emerging concept of the bidirectional regulation by the circadian rhythm and gut microbiota, and the potential role of the epigenetic regulation in neuronal cell function. Microbiome studies are also highlighted as crucial in the development of targeted therapies for neurodevelopmental disorders.

  11. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kyu Yeon Hur; Myung-Shik Lee

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or...

  12. Gut Microbiota: The Brain Peacekeeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota regulates intestinal and extraintestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may also regulate brain function and behavior. Results from animal models indicate that disturbances in the composition and functionality of some microbiota members are associated with neurophysiological disorders, strengthening the idea of a microbiota–gut–brain axis and the role of microbiota as a “peacekeeper” in the brain health. Here, we review recent discoveries on the role of the gut microbiota in central nervous system-related diseases. We also discuss the emerging concept of the bidirectional regulation by the circadian rhythm and gut microbiota, and the potential role of the epigenetic regulation in neuronal cell function. Microbiome studies are also highlighted as crucial in the development of targeted therapies for neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27014255

  13. The gut microbiota in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, John

    2016-01-01

    The accruing data linking the gut microbiota to the development and function of the central nervous system has been proposed as a paradigm shift in neuroscience. Neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural communication pathways exist between host and microbe. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, function and behaviour. Dysfunctional neu...

  14. Gut microbiota and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2015-02-14

    Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases.

  15. Metagenomic Surveys of Gut Microbiota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahul Shubhra Mandal; Sudipto Saha; Santasabuj Das

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota of higher vertebrates is host-specific. The number and diversity of the organisms residing within the gut ecosystem are defined by physiological and environmental factors, such as host genotype, habitat, and diet. Recently, culture-independent sequencing techniques have added a new dimension to the study of gut microbiota and the challenge to analyze the large volume of sequencing data is increasingly addressed by the development of novel computational tools and methods. Interestingly, gut microbiota maintains a constant relative abundance at operational tax-onomic unit (OTU) levels and altered bacterial abundance has been associated with complex diseases such as symptomatic atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and colorectal cancer. Therefore, the study of gut microbial population has emerged as an important field of research in order to ulti-mately achieve better health. In addition, there is a spontaneous, non-linear, and dynamic interac-tion among different bacterial species residing in the gut. Thus, predicting the influence of perturbed microbe–microbe interaction network on health can aid in developing novel therapeutics. Here, we summarize the population abundance of gut microbiota and its variation in different clinical states, computational tools available to analyze the pyrosequencing data, and gut microbe–microbe inter-action networks.

  16. Metagenomic Surveys of Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shubhra Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota of higher vertebrates is host-specific. The number and diversity of the organisms residing within the gut ecosystem are defined by physiological and environmental factors, such as host genotype, habitat, and diet. Recently, culture-independent sequencing techniques have added a new dimension to the study of gut microbiota and the challenge to analyze the large volume of sequencing data is increasingly addressed by the development of novel computational tools and methods. Interestingly, gut microbiota maintains a constant relative abundance at operational taxonomic unit (OTU levels and altered bacterial abundance has been associated with complex diseases such as symptomatic atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and colorectal cancer. Therefore, the study of gut microbial population has emerged as an important field of research in order to ultimately achieve better health. In addition, there is a spontaneous, non-linear, and dynamic interaction among different bacterial species residing in the gut. Thus, predicting the influence of perturbed microbe–microbe interaction network on health can aid in developing novel therapeutics. Here, we summarize the population abundance of gut microbiota and its variation in different clinical states, computational tools available to analyze the pyrosequencing data, and gut microbe–microbe interaction networks.

  17. Gut microbiota and allogeneic transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilin; Xu, Shaoyan; Ren, Zhigang; Jiang, Jianwen; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-08-23

    The latest high-throughput sequencing technologies show that there are more than 1000 types of microbiota in the human gut. These microbes are not only important to maintain human health, but also closely related to the occurrence and development of various diseases. With the development of transplantation technologies, allogeneic transplantation has become an effective therapy for a variety of end-stage diseases. However, complications after transplantation still restrict its further development. Post-transplantation complications are closely associated with a host's immune system. There is also an interaction between a person's gut microbiota and immune system. Recently, animal and human studies have shown that gut microbial populations and diversity are altered after allogeneic transplantations, such as liver transplantation (LT), small bowel transplantation (SBT), kidney transplantation (KT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HTCT). Moreover, when complications, such as infection, rejection and graft versus host disease (GVHD) occur, gut microbial populations and diversity present a significant dysbiosis. Several animal and clinical studies have demonstrated that taking probiotics and prebiotics can effectively regulate gut microbiota and reduce the incidence of complications after transplantation. However, the role of intestinal decontamination in allogeneic transplantation is controversial. This paper reviews gut microbial status after transplantation and its relationship with complications. The role of intervention methods, including antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics, in complications after transplantation are also discussed. Further research in this new field needs to determine the definite relationship between gut microbial dysbiosis and complications after transplantation. Additionally, further research examining gut microbial intervention methods to ameliorate complications after transplantation is warranted. A better understanding of the

  18. Probiotics, gut microbiota and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, M-J

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is a huge complex ecosystem where microbiota, nutrients, and host cells interact extensively, a process crucial for the gut homeostasis and host development with a real partnership. The various bacterial communities that make up the gut microbiota have many functions including metabolic, barrier effect, and trophic functions. Hence, any dysbiosis could have negative consequences in terms of health and many diseases have been associated to impairment of the gut microbiota. These close relationships between gut microbiota, health, and disease, have led to great interest in using probiotics (i.e. live micro-organisms), or prebiotics (i.e. non-digestible substrates) to positively modulate the gut microbiota to prevent or treat some diseases. This review focuses on probiotics, their mechanisms of action, safety, and major health benefits. Health benefits remain to be proven in some indications, and further studies on the best strain(s), dose, and algorithm of administration to be used are needed. Nevertheless, probiotic administration seems to have a great potential in terms of health that justifies more research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Gut Microbiota and Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Giovanni; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Ravaioli, Federico; Scaioli, Eleonora; Colecchia, Antonio; Festi, Davide

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence regarding celiac disease has increasingly shown the role of innate immunity in triggering the immune response by stimulating the adaptive immune response and by mucosal damage. The interaction between the gut microbiota and the mucosal wall is mediated by the same receptors which can activate innate immunity. Thus, changes in gut microbiota may lead to activation of this inflammatory pathway. This paper is a review of the current knowledge regarding the relationship between celiac disease and gut microbiota. In fact, patients with celiac disease have a reduction in beneficial species and an increase in those potentially pathogenic as compared to healthy subjects. This dysbiosis is reduced, but might still remain, after a gluten-free diet. Thus, gut microbiota could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, as described by studies which link dysbiosis with the inflammatory milieu in celiac patients. The use of probiotics seems to reduce the inflammatory response and restore a normal proportion of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Additional evidence is needed in order to better understand the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, and the clinical impact and therapeutic use of probiotics in this setting.

  20. [Current view on gut microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlioux, P

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota is more and more important since metagenomic research have brought new knowledge on this topic especially for human health. Firstly, gut microbiota is a key element for our organism he lives in symbiosis with. Secondly, it interacts favorably with many physiological functions of our organism. Thirdly, at the opposite, it can be an active participant in intestinal pathologies linked to a dysbiosis mainly in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis but also in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and more prudently in autism and behavioral disorders. In order to keep a good health, it is essential to protect our gut microbiota as soon as our young age and maintain it healthy. Face to a more and more important number of publications for treating certain digestive diseases with fecal microbial transplantation, it needs to be very careful and recommend further studies in order to assess risks and define standardized protocols. Gut microbiota metabolic capacities towards xenobiotics need to be developed, and we must take an interest in the modifications they induce on medicinal molecules. On the other hand, it is essential to study the potent effects of pesticides and other pollutants on microbiota functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of the gut microbiota has intensified within the past decade with the introduction of cultivation-independent methods. By investigation of the gut bacterial genes, our understanding of the compositional and functional capability of the gut microbiome has increased. It is now widel...... strategies to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes....... recognized that the gut microbiota has profound effect on host metabolism and recently changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with type 2 diabetes. Animal models and human studies have linked changes in the gut microbiota to the induction of low-grade inflammation, altered immune response...

  2. Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Arkadievich Shenderov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance coursed by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce the different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The author substantiates the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics investigations as well as in diseases prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.

  3. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-11-21

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal "superorganism" seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host's immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of "metabolic endotoxemia", leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use.

  4. Alzheimer’s disease and gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Hu; Tao Wang; Feng Jin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a most common neurodegenerative disorder, which associates with impaired cognition. Gut microbiota can modulate host brain function and behavior via microbiota-gut-brain axis, including cognitive behavior. Germ-free animals, antibiotics, probiotics intervention and diet can induce alterations of gut microbiota and gut physiology and also host cognitive behavior, increasing or decreasing risks of AD. The increased permeability of intestine and blood-brain b...

  5. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflam...

  6. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for the health of the host. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of a moderate diet shift from Average Danish Diet to New Nordic Diet...... on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio (P/B), we were able to detect...... significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes influence microbiota response to a dietary...

  7. Gut microbiota modulation: probiotics, antibiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Bibbò, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Gut microbiota is known to have a relevant role in our health, and is also related to both gastrointestinal and extradigestive diseases. Therefore, restoring the alteration of gut microbiota represents an outstanding clinical target for the treatment of gut microbiota-related diseases. The modulation of gut microbiota is perhaps an ancestral, innate concept for human beings. At this time, the restoration of gut microbiota impairment is a well-established concept in mainstream medicine, and several therapeutic approaches have been developed in this regard. Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are the best known and commercially available options to overcome gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation is an old procedure that has recently become popular again. It has shown a clear effectiveness in the treatment of C. difficile infection, and now represents a cutting-edge option for the restoration of gut microbiota. Nevertheless, such weapons should be used with caution. Antibiotics can indeed harm and alter gut microbiota composition. Probiotics, instead, are not at all the same thing, and thinking in terms of different strains is probably the only way to improve clinical outcomes. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation has shown promising results, but stronger proofs are needed. Considerable efforts are needed to increase our knowledge in the field of gut microbiota, especially with regard to the future use in its modulation for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for human health. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of consuming a diet following the New Nordic Diet recommendations (NND......) as opposed to Average Danish Diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio...... (P/B), we were able to detect significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes...

  9. Gut Microbiota and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Molin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local inflammation in relation to the resident microbiota of the human gastro-intestinal (GI tract and administration of probiotics are the main themes of the present review. The dominating taxa of the human GI tract and their potential for aggravating or suppressing inflammation are described. The review focuses on human trials with probiotics and does not include in vitro studies and animal experimental models. The applications of probiotics considered are systemic immune-modulation, the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and radiation-induced enteritis. When the major genomic differences between different types of probiotics are taken into account, it is to be expected that the human body can respond differently to the different species and strains of probiotics. This fact is often neglected in discussions of the outcome of clinical trials with probiotics.

  10. Gut microbiota and hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Radha K

    2013-06-01

    There is a strong relationship between liver and gut; while the portal venous system receives blood from the gut, and its contents may affect liver functions, liver in turn, affects intestinal functions through bile secretion. There is robust evidence that the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is linked to alterations in gut microbiota and their by-products such as ammonia, indoles, oxindoles, endotoxins, etc. In the setting of intestinal barrier and immune dysfunction, these by-products are involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis including HE and systemic inflammation plays an important role. Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics may exhibit efficacy in the treatment of HE by modulating the gut flora. They improve derangement in flora by decreasing the counts of pathogenic bacteria and thus improving the endotoxemia, HE and the liver disease. Current evidence suggest that the trials evaluating the role of probiotics in the treatment of HE are of not high quality and all trials had high risk of bias and high risk of random errors. Therefore, the use of probiotics for patients with HE cannot be currently recommended. Further RCTs are required. This review summarizes the main literature findings about the relationships between gut flora and HE, both in terms of the pathogenesis and the treatment of HE.

  11. Influence of gut microbiota on neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenit, María Carmen; Sanz, Yolanda; Codoñer-Franch, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a growing appreciation of the fundamental role played by an early assembly of a diverse and balanced gut microbiota and its subsequent maintenance for future health of the host. Gut microbiota is currently viewed as a key regulator of a fluent bidirectional dialogue between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis). A number of preclinical studies have suggested that the microbiota and its genome (microbiome) may play a key role in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, alterations in the gut microbiota composition in humans have also been linked to a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depression, autism and Parkinson’s disease. However, it is not yet clear whether these changes in the microbiome are causally related to such diseases or are secondary effects thereof. In this respect, recent studies in animals have indicated that gut microbiota transplantation can transfer a behavioral phenotype, suggesting that the gut microbiota may be a modifiable factor modulating the development or pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric conditions. Further studies are warranted to establish whether or not the findings of preclinical animal experiments can be generalized to humans. Moreover, although different communication routes between the microbiota and brain have been identified, further studies must elucidate all the underlying mechanisms involved. Such research is expected to contribute to the design of strategies to modulate the gut microbiota and its functions with a view to improving mental health, and thus provide opportunities to improve the management of psychiatric diseases. Here, we review the evidence supporting a role of the gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders and the state of the art regarding the mechanisms underlying its contribution to mental illness and health. We also consider the stages of life where the gut microbiota is more susceptible to the effects of environmental stressors

  12. Gut microbiota and type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaarala, Outi

    2012-01-01

    The gut immune system has a key role in the development of autoimmune diabetes, and factors that control the gut immune system are also regulators of beta-cell autoimmunity. Gut microbiota modulate the function of the gut immune system by their effect on the innate immune system, such as the intestinal epithelial cells and dendritic cells, and on the adaptive immune system, in particular intestinal T cells. Due to the immunological link between gut and pancreas, e.g. the shared lymphocyte homing receptors, the immunological changes in the gut are reflected in the pancreas. According to animal studies, changes in gut microbiota alter the development of autoimmune diabetes. This has been demonstrated by antibiotics that induce changes in the gut microbiota. Furthermore, gut-colonizing microbes may modify the incidence of autoimmune diabetes in animal models. Deficient toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, mediating microbial stimulus in immune cells, prevents autoimmune diabetes, which appears to be dependent on alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Although few studies have been conducted in humans, recent studies suggest that the abundance of Bacteroides and lack of butyrate-producing bacteria in fecal microbiota are associated with beta-cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. It is possible that altered gut microbiota are associated with immunological aberrancies in type 1 diabetes. The changes in gut microbiota could lead to alterations in the gut immune system, such as increased gut permeability, small intestinal inflammation, and impaired tolerance to food antigens, all of which are observed in type 1 diabetes. Poor fitness of gut microbiota could explain why children who develop type 1 diabetes are prone to enterovirus infections, and do not develop tolerance to cow milk antigens. These candidate risk factors of type 1 diabetes may imply an increased risk of type 1 diabetes due to the presence of gut microbiota that do not support health. Despite the complex

  13. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-07

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool.

  14. The gut microbiota and metabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, T; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota has been studied for more than a century. However, of nonculture-based techniques exploiting next-generation sequencing for analysing the microbiota, development has renewed research within the field during the past decade. The observation that the gut microbiota......, as an environmental factor, contributes to adiposity has further increased interest in the field. The human microbiota is affected by the diet, and macronutrients serve as substrates for many microbially produced metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that may modulate host metabolism. Obesity......-producing bacteria might be causally linked to type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery, which promotes long-term weight loss and diabetes remission, alters the gut microbiota in both mice and humans. Furthermore, by transferring the microbiota from postbariatric surgery patients to mice, it has been demonstrated...

  15. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, C; Quévrain, E

    2016-06-01

    The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The human gut microbiota and undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffrey I; Dewey, Kathryn G; Mills, David A; Medzhitov, Ruslan M

    2012-06-06

    Childhood malnutrition is a global health problem that cannot be attributed to food insecurity alone. The gut microbiota may contribute to this devastating health disorder. In this Perspective, we call for the application of tools and concepts emerging from studies of the human gut microbiota to better understand the nutritional needs of infants and children and the role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis and treatment of undernutrition. This effort will require elucidation of the interrelationships between breast milk composition and the development of the microbiota and immune system in the context of the maternal-infant dyad.

  17. Degradation of potassium rock by earthworms and responses of bacterial communities in its gut and surrounding substrates after being fed with mineral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianfeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms are an ecosystem's engineers, contributing to a wide range of nutrient cycling and geochemical processes in the ecosystem. Their activities can increase rates of silicate mineral weathering. Their intestinal microbes usually are thought to be one of the key drivers of mineral degradation mediated by earthworms,but the diversities of the intestinal microorganisms which were relevant with mineral weathering are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show earthworms' effect on silicate mineral weathering and the responses of bacterial communities in their gut and surrounding substrates after being fed with potassium-bearing rock powder (PBRP. Determination of water-soluble and HNO(3-extractable elements indicated some elements such as Al, Fe and Ca were significantly released from mineral upon the digestion of earthworms. The microbial communities in earthworms' gut and the surrounding substrates were investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA and the results showed a higher bacterial diversity in the guts of the earthworms fed with PBRP and the PBRP after being fed to earthworms. UPGMA dendrogram with unweighted UniFrac analysis, considering only taxa that are present, revealed that earthworms' gut and their surrounding substrate shared similar microbiota. UPGMA dendrogram with weighted UniFrac, considering the relative abundance of microbial lineages, showed the two samples from surrounding substrate and the two samples from earthworms' gut had similarity in microbial community, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated earthworms can accelerate degradation of silicate mineral. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystem processe since they not only have some positive effects on soil structure, but also promote nutrient cycling of ecosystem by enhancing the weathering of minerals.

  18. Gut microbiota and the development of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroni Moreira, A P; Fiche Salles Teixeira, T; do C Gouveia Peluzio, M; de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, R

    2012-01-01

    Advances in tools for molecular investigations have allowed deeper understanding of how microbes can influence host physiology. A very interesting field of research that has gained attention recently is the possible role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms that explain the influence of gut microbiota on host metabolism. The gut microbiota is important for normal physiology of the host. However, differences in their composition may have different impacts on host metabolism. It has been shown that obese and lean subjects present different microbiota composition profile. These differences in microbiota composition may contribute to weight imbalance and impaired metabolism. The evidences from animal models suggest that it is possible that the microbiota of obese subjects has higher capacity to harvest energy from the diet providing substrates that can activate lipogenic pathways. In addition, microorganisms can also influence the activity of lipoprotein lipase interfering in the accumulation of triglycerides in the adipose tissue. The interaction of gut microbiota with the endocannabinoid system provides a route through which intestinal permeability can be altered. Increased intestinal permeability allows the entrance of endotoxins to the circulation, which are related to the induction of inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. The impact of the proposed mechanisms for humans still needs further investigations. However, the fact that gut microbiota can be modulated through dietary components highlights the importance to study how fatty acids, carbohydrates, micronutrients, prebiotics, and probiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and the management of obesity. Gut microbiota seems to be an important and promising target in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related metabolic disturbances in future studies and in clinical practice.

  19. Gut microbiota in autism and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiola, Francesca; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franceschi, Francesco; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-07

    The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis of pathology such as autism, dementia and mood disorder, has been raised. The evidence of the inflammatory state alteration, highlighted in disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, strongly recalls the microbiota alteration, highly suggesting an important role of the alteration of GI system also in neuropsychiatric disorders. Up to now, available evidences display that the impairment of gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of autism and mood disorders. The application of therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota to autism and mood disorders has been experienced only in experimental settings to date, with few but promising results. A deeper assessment of the role of gut microbiota in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as the advancement of the therapeutic armamentarium for the modulation of gut microbiota is warranted for a better management of ASD and mood disorders.

  20. Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Aline Corado; Bueno, Allain Amador; de Souza, Rávila Graziany Machado; Mota, João Felipe

    2014-06-17

    Diabetes is a condition of multifactorial origin, involving several molecular mechanisms related to the intestinal microbiota for its development. In type 2 diabetes, receptor activation and recognition by microorganisms from the intestinal lumen may trigger inflammatory responses, inducing the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes, the lowered expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium favours a greater immune response that may result in destruction of pancreatic β cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and increased expression of interleukin-17, related to autoimmunity. Research in animal models and humans has hypothesized whether the administration of probiotics may improve the prognosis of diabetes through modulation of gut microbiota. We have shown in this review that a large body of evidence suggests probiotics reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as well as increase the expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium, reducing intestinal permeability. Such effects increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune response. However, further investigations are required to clarify whether the administration of probiotics can be efficiently used for the prevention and management of diabetes.

  1. Endurance exercise and gut microbiota: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Mach

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The present review provides a comprehensive overview of how gut microbiota may have a key role in controlling the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses as well as improving metabolism and energy expenditure during intense exercise.

  2. Beyond gut feelings: how the gut microbiota regulates blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Mackay, Charles R; Kaye, David M

    2017-08-24

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke, and is estimated to cause 9.4 million deaths globally every year. The pathogenesis of hypertension is complex, but lifestyle factors such as diet are important contributors to the disease. High dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced blood pressure and lower cardiovascular mortality. A critical relationship between dietary intake and the composition of the gut microbiota has been described in the literature, and a growing body of evidence supports the role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of blood pressure. In this Review, we describe the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota and its metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, trimethylamine N-oxide, and lipopolysaccharides, act on downstream cellular targets to prevent or contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. These effects have a direct influence on tissues such as the kidney, the endothelium, and the heart. Finally, we consider the role of the gut microbiota in resistant hypertension, the possible intergenerational effect of the gut microbiota on blood pressure regulation, and the promising therapeutic potential of gut microbiota modification to improve health and prevent disease.

  3. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Obin, Martin S; Zhao, Liping

    2013-02-01

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. In this review we discuss molecular and cell biological mechanisms by which the microbiota participate in host functions that impact the development and maintenance of the obese state, including host ingestive behavior, energy harvest, energy expenditure and fat storage. We additionally explore the diverse signaling pathways that regulate gut permeability and bacterial translocation to the host and how these are altered in the obese state to promote the systemic inflammation ("metabolic endotoxemia") that is a hallmark of obesity and its complications. Fundamental to our discussions is the concept of "crosstalk", i.e., the biochemical exchange between host and microbiota that maintains the metabolic health of the superorganism and whose dysregulation is a hallmark of the obese state. Differences in community composition, functional genes and metabolic activities of the gut microbiota appear to distinguish lean vs obese individuals, suggesting that gut 'dysbiosis' contributes to the development of obesity and/or its complications. The current challenge is to determine the relative importance of obesity-associated compositional and functional changes in the microbiota and to identify the relevant taxa and functional gene modules that promote leanness and metabolic health. As diet appears to play a predominant role in shaping the microbiota and promoting obesity-associated dysbiosis, parallel initiatives are required to elucidate dietary patterns and diet components (e.g., prebiotics, probiotics) that promote healthy gut microbiota. How the microbiota promotes human health and disease is a rich area of investigation that is likely to generate

  4. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Pathological States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiota is an aggregate of microorganisms residing in the human body, mostly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Our gut microbiota evolves with us and plays a pivotal role in human health and disease. In recent years, the microbiota has gained increasing attention due to its impact on host metabolism, physiology, and immune system development, but also because the perturbation of the microbiota may result in a number of diseases. The gut microbiota may be linked to malignancies such as gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. It may also be linked to disorders such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; obesity and diabetes, which are characterized as “lifestyle diseases” of the industrialized world; coronary heart disease; and neurological disorders. Although the revolution in molecular technologies has provided us with the necessary tools to study the gut microbiota more accurately, we need to elucidate the relationships between the gut microbiota and several human pathologies more precisely, as understanding the impact that the microbiota plays in various diseases is fundamental for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide the reader with an updated overview of the importance of the gut microbiota for human health and the potential to manipulate gut microbial composition for purposes such as the treatment of antibiotic-resistant Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infections. The concept of altering the gut community by microbial intervention in an effort to improve health is currently in its infancy. However, the therapeutic implications appear to be very great. Thus, the removal of harmful organisms and the enrichment of beneficial microbes may protect our health, and such efforts will pave the way for the development of more rational treatment options in the future.

  5. Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W H Wilson; Kitai, Takeshi; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-03-31

    Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent studies revealed that gut microbiota can elicit a variety of effects on the host. Indeed, the gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, that can impact host physiology. Microbiota interact with the host through many pathways, including the trimethylamine/trimethylamine N-oxide pathway, short-chain fatty acids pathway, and primary and secondary bile acids pathways. In addition to these metabolism-dependent pathways, metabolism-independent processes are suggested to also potentially contribute to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. For example, heart failure-associated splanchnic circulation congestion, bowel wall edema, and impaired intestinal barrier function are thought to result in bacterial translocation, the presence of bacterial products in the systemic circulation and heightened inflammatory state. These are thought to also contribute to further progression of heart failure and atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current review is to highlight the complex interplay between microbiota, their metabolites, and the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the roles of gut microbiota in normal physiology and the potential of modulating intestinal microbial inhabitants as novel therapeutic targets. © 2017 American Heart

  6. Gut microbiota in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Icaza-Chávez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease.

  7. Interplay between gut microbiota and antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesus Bello Gonzalez, de Teresita

    2016-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively defined as the microbiota. In the gut, the microbiota has important roles in health and disease, and can serve as a host of antibiotic resistance genes. Disturbances in the ecological balance, e.g. by antibiotics, can affect

  8. Interplay between gut microbiota and antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesus Bello Gonzalez, de Teresita

    2016-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively defined as the microbiota. In the gut, the microbiota has important roles in health and disease, and can serve as a host of antibiotic resistance genes. Disturbances in the ecological balance, e.g. by antibiotics, can affect

  9. Altered gut microbiota in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Albanese, Davide; De Felice, Claudio; Donati, Claudio; Hayek, Joussef; Jousson, Olivier; Leoncini, Silvia; Pindo, Massimo; Renzi, Daniela; Rizzetto, Lisa; Stefanini, Irene; Calabrò, Antonio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-07-30

    The human gut microbiota directly affects human health, and its alteration can lead to gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammation. Rett syndrome (RTT), a progressive neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene, is commonly associated with gastrointestinal dysfunctions and constipation, suggesting a link between RTT's gastrointestinal abnormalities and the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of RTT subjects integrating clinical, metabolomics and metagenomics data to understand if changes in the gut microbiota of RTT subjects could be associated with gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammatory status. Our findings revealed the occurrence of an intestinal sub-inflammatory status in RTT subjects as measured by the elevated values of faecal calprotectin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. We showed that, overall, RTT subjects harbour bacterial and fungal microbiota altered in terms of relative abundances from those of healthy controls, with a reduced microbial richness and dominated by microbial taxa belonging to Bifidobacterium, several Clostridia (among which Anaerostipes, Clostridium XIVa, Clostridium XIVb) as well as Erysipelotrichaceae, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Eggerthella, Escherichia/Shigella and the fungal genus Candida. We further observed that alterations of the gut microbiota do not depend on the constipation status of RTT subjects and that this dysbiotic microbiota produced altered short chain fatty acids profiles. We demonstrated for the first time that RTT is associated with a dysbiosis of both the bacterial and fungal component of the gut microbiota, suggesting that impairments of MeCP2 functioning favour the establishment of a microbial community adapted to the costive gastrointestinal niche of RTT subjects. The altered production of short chain fatty acids associated with this microbiota might reinforce the constipation status of RTT

  10. Gut microbiota, diet, and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Julia M W; Esfahani, Amin; Singh, Natasha; Villa, Christopher R; Mirrahimi, Arash; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the gut microbiota is an area of growing interest, particularly for its link to improving and maintaining the systemic health of the host. It has been suggested to have potential to reduce risk factors associated with chronic diseases, such as elevated cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease (CHD). Diets of our evolutionary ancestors were largely based on plant foods, high in dietary fiber and fermentable substrate, and our gut microbiota has evolved against a background of such diets. Therapeutic diets that mimic plant-based diets from the early phases of human evolution may result in drug-like cholesterol reductions. In contrast, typical Western diets low in dietary fiber and fermentable substrate, and high in saturated and trans fatty acids, are likely contributors to the increased need for pharmacological agents for cholesterol reduction. The gut microbiota of those consuming a Western diet are likely underutilized and depleted of metabolic fuels, resulting in a less than optimal gut microbial profile. As a result, this diet is mismatched to our archaic gut microbiota and, therefore, to our genome, which has changed relatively little since humans first appeared. While the exact mechanism by which the gut microbiota may modulate cholesterol levels still remains uncertain, end products of bacterial fermentation, particularly the short chain fatty acids (i.e., propionate), have been suggested as potential candidates. While more research is required to clarify the potential link between gut microbiota and CHD risk reduction, consuming a therapeutic diet rich in plant foods, dietary fiber, and fermentable substrate would be a useful strategy for improving systemic health, possibly by altering the gut microbiota.

  11. Gut Microbiota and Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Vaarala, Outi

    2012-01-01

    The gut immune system has a key role in the development of autoimmune diabetes, and factors that control the gut immune system are also regulators of beta-cell autoimmunity. Gut microbiota modulate the function of the gut immune system by their effect on the innate immune system, such as the intestinal epithelial cells and dendritic cells, and on the adaptive immune system, in particular intestinal T cells. Due to the immunological link between gut and pancreas, e.g. the shared lymphocyte hom...

  12. Correlation Between Gut Microbiota and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Naseribafrouei, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota consist of a variety of microorganisms which inhabit the human gut. They play many well-known roles in human gut homeostasis and may be implicated in some pathologic processes especially immunological events. Depression is a chronic syndrome with a pathogenesis linked to various genetic, biological and environmental factors. In recent years inflammatory factors has been mentioned as contributing factors for development and exacerbation of depression. Most of these inflammatory ...

  13. Role of Gut Microbiota in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Maeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune disease, caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, investigators have focused on the gut microbiota, which is thought to be an environmental agent affecting the development of RA. Here we review the evidence from animal and human studies that supports the role of the gut microbiota in RA. We and others have demonstrated that the abundance of Prevotella copri is increased in some early RA. We have also used gnotobiotic experiments to show that dysbiosis in RA patients contributed to the development of Th17 cell-dependent arthritis in intestinal microbiota-humanized SKG mice. On the other hand, Prevotella histicola from human gut microbiota suppressed the development of arthritis. In summary, Prevotella species are involved in the pathogenesis of arthritis.

  14. [Why could gut microbiota become a medication?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlioux, P; Megerlin, F; Corthier, G; Gobert, J-G; Butel, M-J

    2014-09-01

    The gut microbiota (or gut flora) is a set of bacteria living in symbiosis with the host. Strictly associated with the intestinal tract and interacting with it, the gut microbiota is not a tissue nor an organ, but a supra-organism. A disruption of dialogue between bacteria and human cells is a risk factor or a possible cause of various diseases. The restoration of this dialogue, thanks to the transfer of the gut microbiota of a healthy individual to a patient whose balance of gut flora has been broken, is a new therapeutic approach. If its exact effect still eludes scientific understanding, its clinical benefit is well established for an indication, and is recently being tested for many others. The proven contribution of gut microbiota in the human physiological balance calls for intensifying research throughout the world about the state of knowledge and technologies, as well as on the legal and ethical dimension of fecal microbiota transfer. This didactic paper updates the questions in relation with this therapeutic act. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics.

  16. Engineering the gut microbiota to treat hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ting-Chin David; Albenberg, Lindsey; Bittinger, Kyle; Chehoud, Christel; Chen, Ying-Yu; Judge, Colleen A; Chau, Lillian; Ni, Josephine; Sheng, Michael; Lin, Andrew; Wilkins, Benjamin J; Buza, Elizabeth L; Lewis, James D; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Ilana; Yudkoff, Marc; Bushman, Frederic D; Wu, Gary D

    2015-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota can be altered to ameliorate or prevent disease states, and engineering the gut microbiota to therapeutically modulate host metabolism is an emerging goal of microbiome research. In the intestine, bacterial urease converts host-derived urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, contributing to hyperammonemia-associated neurotoxicity and encephalopathy in patients with liver disease. Here, we engineered murine gut microbiota to reduce urease activity. Animals were depleted of their preexisting gut microbiota and then inoculated with altered Schaedler flora (ASF), a defined consortium of 8 bacteria with minimal urease gene content. This protocol resulted in establishment of a persistent new community that promoted a long-term reduction in fecal urease activity and ammonia production. Moreover, in a murine model of hepatic injury, ASF transplantation was associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. These results provide proof of concept that inoculation of a prepared host with a defined gut microbiota can lead to durable metabolic changes with therapeutic utility.

  17. Regulation of body fat mass by the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schéle, Erik; Grahnemo, Louise; Anesten, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    New insight suggests gut microbiota as a component in energy balance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota can impact metabolic regulation is unclear. A recent study from our lab shows, for the first time, a link between gut microbiota and energy balance circuitries...

  18. Irritable bowel syndrome, gut microbiota and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom Jae; Bak, Young-Tae

    2011-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized.

  19. Dynamics of gut microbiota in autoimmune lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Husen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Sparks, Joshua B; Luo, Xin M

    2014-12-01

    Gut microbiota has been recognized as an important environmental factor in health, as well as in metabolic and immunological diseases, in which perturbation of the host gut microbiota is often observed in the diseased state. However, little is known on the role of gut microbiota in systemic lupus erythematosus. We investigated the effects of host genetics, sex, age, and dietary intervention on the gut microbiome in a murine lupus model. In young, female lupus-prone mice resembling women at childbearing age, a population with the highest risk for lupus, we found marked depletion of lactobacilli, and increases in Lachnospiraceae and overall diversity compared to age-matched healthy controls. The predicted metagenomic profile in lupus-prone mice showed a significant enrichment of bacterial motility- and sporulation-related pathways. Retinoic acid as a dietary intervention restored lactobacilli that were downregulated in lupus-prone mice, and this correlated with improved symptoms. The predicted metagenomes also showed that retinoic acid reversed many lupus-associated changes in microbial functions that deviated from the control. In addition, gut microbiota of lupus-prone mice were different between sexes, and an overrepresentation of Lachnospiraceae in females was associated with an earlier onset of and/or more severe lupus symptoms. Clostridiaceae and Lachnospiraceae, both harboring butyrate-producing genera, were more abundant in the gut of lupus-prone mice at specific time points during lupus progression. Together, our results demonstrate the dynamics of gut microbiota in murine lupus and provide evidence to suggest the use of probiotic lactobacilli and retinoic acid as dietary supplements to relieve inflammatory flares in lupus patients.

  20. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  1. Impact of gut microbiota on diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, G; Inturri, R; Lazzara, F; Di Rosa, M; Malaguarnera, L

    2016-11-01

    Various functions of the gut are regulated by sophisticated interactions among its functional elements, including the gut microbiota. These microorganisms play a crucial role in gastrointestinal mucosa permeability. They control the fermentation and absorption of dietary polysaccharides to produce short-chain fatty acids, which may explain their importance in the regulation of fat accumulation and the subsequent development of obesity-related diseases, suggesting that they are a crucial mediator of obesity and its consequences. In addition, gut bacteria play a crucial role in the host immune system, modulation of inflammatory processes, extraction of energy from the host diet and alterations of human gene expression. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota has been shown to confer a number of health benefits to the host. Simple therapeutic strategies targeted at attenuating the progression of chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance are urgently required to prevent or slow the development of diabetes in susceptible individuals. The main objective of this review is to address the pathogenic association between gut microbiota and diabetes, and to explore any novel related therapeutic targets. New insights into the role of the gut microbiota in diabetes could lead to the development of integrated strategies using probiotics to prevent and treat these metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-12-23

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  3. Introduction to the human gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursby, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbours a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Multiple factors contribute to the establishment of the human gut microbiota during infancy. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers in shaping the gut microbiota across the life time. Intestinal bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining immune and metabolic homeostasis and protecting against pathogens. Altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) has been associated with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases and infections. The interpretation of these studies relies on a better understanding of inter-individual variations, heterogeneity of bacterial communities along and across the GI tract, functional redundancy and the need to distinguish cause from effect in states of dysbiosis. This review summarises our current understanding of the development and composition of the human GI microbiota, and its impact on gut integrity and host health, underlying the need for mechanistic studies focusing on host–microbe interactions. PMID:28512250

  4. Gut/brain axis and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Emeran A; Tillisch, Kirsten; Gupta, Arpana

    2015-03-02

    Tremendous progress has been made in characterizing the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract. A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. Based on studies using rodents raised in a germ-free environment, the gut microbiota appears to influence the development of emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems, and brain neurotransmitter systems. Additionally, microbiota perturbations by probiotics and antibiotics exert modulatory effects on some of these measures in adult animals. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms, including endocrine and neurocrine pathways, may be involved in gut microbiota-to-brain signaling and that the brain can in turn alter microbial composition and behavior via the autonomic nervous system. Limited information is available on how these findings may translate to healthy humans or to disease states involving the brain or the gut/brain axis. Future research needs to focus on confirming that the rodent findings are translatable to human physiology and to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, autism, anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease.

  5. Comparison of Gut Microbiota between Sasang Constitutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sasang constitutional medicine has long been applied to diagnose and treat patients with various diseases. Studies have been conducted for establishment of scientific evidence supporting Sasang Constitutional (SC diagnosis. Recent human microbiome studies have demonstrated individual variations of gut microbiota which can be dependent on lifestyle and health conditions. We hypothesized that gut microbial similarities and discrepancies may exist across SC types. We compared the difference of gut microbiota among three constitutions (So-Yang, So-Eum, and Tae-Eum, along with the investigation of anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were predominant phyla in all SC types. The median plot analysis suggested that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes appeared more abundant in SE and TE, respectively, in the male subjects of 20–29 years old. At the genus level, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides manifested the difference between SE and TE types. For anthropometry, body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference of the TE type were significantly higher than those of the other types. Overall, findings indicated a possible link between SC types and gut microbiota within a narrow age range. Further investigations are deemed necessary to elucidate the influences of age, gender, and other factors in the context of SC types and gut microbiota.

  6. The gut microbiota and its relationship to diet and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Siobhan F.; Murphy, Eileen F.; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Ross, Paul R.; Shanahan, Fergus; O’Toole, Paul W.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity develops from a prolonged imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the relatively recent discovery that the composition and function of the gut microbiota impacts on obesity has lead to an explosion of interest in what is now a distinct research field. Here, research relating to the links between the gut microbiota, diet and obesity will be reviewed under five major headings: (1) the gut microbiota of lean and obese animals, (2) the composition of the gut microbiota of lean and obese humans, (3) the impact of diet on the gut microbiota, (4) manipulating the gut microbiota and (5) the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can impact on weight gain. PMID:22572830

  7. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti...

  8. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Houghton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Although the exact mechanism(s remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis.

  9. The gut microbiota and host health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesi, Julian R.; Adams, David H.; Fava, Francesca; Hermes, Gerben D.A.; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Hold, Georgina; Quraishi, Mohammed N.; Kinross, James; Smidt, Hauke; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Thomas, Linda V.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Hart, Ailsa

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, our understanding of the composition and functions of the human gut microbiota has increased exponentially. To a large extent, this has been due to new 'omic' technologies that have facilitated large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of this microbial

  10. Gut microbiota-related complications in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hurtado, Isabel; Such, José; Sanz, Yolanda; Francés, Rubén

    2014-11-14

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in cirrhosis. The liver is constantly challenged with commensal bacteria and their products arriving through the portal vein in the so-called gut-liver axis. Bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen through the intestinal wall and to mesenteric lymph nodes is facilitated by intestinal bacterial overgrowth, impairment in the permeability of the intestinal mucosal barrier, and deficiencies in local host immune defences. Deranged clearance of endogenous bacteria from portal and systemic circulation turns the gut into the major source of bacterial-related complications. Liver function may therefore be affected by alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and a role for commensal flora has been evidenced in the pathogenesis of several complications arising in end-stage liver disease such as hepatic encephalopathy, splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The use of antibiotics is the main therapeutic pipeline in the management of these bacteria-related complications. However, other strategies aimed at preserving intestinal homeostasis through the use of pre-, pro- or symbiotic formulations are being studied in the last years. In this review, the role of intestinal microbiota in the development of the most frequent complications arising in cirrhosis and the different clinical and experimental studies conducted to prevent or improve these complications by modifying the gut microbiota composition are summarized.

  11. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael

    2016-03-25

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host-microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis.

  12. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  13. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C.; Groen, Albert K.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been

  14. The gut microbiota and host health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesi, Julian R.; Adams, David H.; Fava, Francesca; Hermes, Gerben D.A.; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Hold, Georgina; Quraishi, Mohammed N.; Kinross, James; Smidt, Hauke; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Thomas, Linda V.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Hart, Ailsa

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, our understanding of the composition and functions of the human gut microbiota has increased exponentially. To a large extent, this has been due to new 'omic' technologies that have facilitated large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of this microbial

  15. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C.; Groen, Albert K.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been recog

  16. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C.; Groen, Albert K.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been recog

  17. Gut microbiota imbalance and colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnière, Johan; Raisch, Jennifer; Veziant, Julie; Barnich, Nicolas; Bonnet, Richard; Buc, Emmanuel; Bringer, Marie-Agnès; Pezet, Denis; Bonnet, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota acts as a real organ. The symbiotic interactions between resident micro-organisms and the digestive tract highly contribute to maintain the gut homeostasis. However, alterations to the microbiome caused by environmental changes (e.g., infection, diet and/or lifestyle) can disturb this symbiotic relationship and promote disease, such as inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. Colorectal cancer is a complex association of tumoral cells, non-neoplastic cells and a large amount of micro-organisms, and the involvement of the microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Indeed, many changes in the bacterial composition of the gut microbiota have been reported in colorectal cancer, suggesting a major role of dysbiosis in colorectal carcinogenesis. Some bacterial species have been identified and suspected to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, such as Streptococcus bovis, Helicobacter pylori, Bacteroides fragilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium septicum, Fusobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli. The potential pro-carcinogenic effects of these bacteria are now better understood. In this review, we discuss the possible links between the bacterial microbiota and colorectal carcinogenesis, focusing on dysbiosis and the potential pro-carcinogenic properties of bacteria, such as genotoxicity and other virulence factors, inflammation, host defenses modulation, bacterial-derived metabolism, oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defenses modulation. We lastly describe how bacterial microbiota modifications could represent novel prognosis markers and/or targets for innovative therapeutic strategies. PMID:26811603

  18. Gut microbiota imbalance and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnière, Johan; Raisch, Jennifer; Veziant, Julie; Barnich, Nicolas; Bonnet, Richard; Buc, Emmanuel; Bringer, Marie-Agnès; Pezet, Denis; Bonnet, Mathilde

    2016-01-14

    The gut microbiota acts as a real organ. The symbiotic interactions between resident micro-organisms and the digestive tract highly contribute to maintain the gut homeostasis. However, alterations to the microbiome caused by environmental changes (e.g., infection, diet and/or lifestyle) can disturb this symbiotic relationship and promote disease, such as inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. Colorectal cancer is a complex association of tumoral cells, non-neoplastic cells and a large amount of micro-organisms, and the involvement of the microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Indeed, many changes in the bacterial composition of the gut microbiota have been reported in colorectal cancer, suggesting a major role of dysbiosis in colorectal carcinogenesis. Some bacterial species have been identified and suspected to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, such as Streptococcus bovis, Helicobacter pylori, Bacteroides fragilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium septicum, Fusobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli. The potential pro-carcinogenic effects of these bacteria are now better understood. In this review, we discuss the possible links between the bacterial microbiota and colorectal carcinogenesis, focusing on dysbiosis and the potential pro-carcinogenic properties of bacteria, such as genotoxicity and other virulence factors, inflammation, host defenses modulation, bacterial-derived metabolism, oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defenses modulation. We lastly describe how bacterial microbiota modifications could represent novel prognosis markers and/or targets for innovative therapeutic strategies.

  19. [Gut microbiota in health and disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icaza-Chávez, M E

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Gut microbiota and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Diaz-Perdigones, Cristina; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, many studies have related gut microbiome to development of highly prevalent diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Obesity itself is associated to changes in the composition of gut microbiome, with a trend to an overgrowth of microorganisms more efficiently obtaining energy from diet. There are several mechanisms that relate microbiota to the onset of insulin resistance and diabetes, including changes in bowel permeability, endotoxemia, interaction with bile acids, changes in the proportion of brown adipose tissue, and effects associated to use of drugs like metformin. Currently, use of pro and prebiotics and other new techniques such as gut microbiota transplant, or even antibiotic therapy, has been postulated to be useful tools to modulate the development of obesity and insulin resistance through the diet. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Deviations in human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis is associated with many diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. Potential clinical impact of imbalance in the intestinal microbiota suggests need for new standardised diagnostic methods to facilitate microb...... and improvement in new therapeutic approaches.......BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis is associated with many diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. Potential clinical impact of imbalance in the intestinal microbiota suggests need for new standardised diagnostic methods to facilitate...

  2. Gut Protozoa: Friends or Foes of the Human Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Magali; Lokmer, Ana; Ségurel, Laure

    2017-09-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota for human health has sparked a strong interest in the study of the factors that shape its composition and diversity. Despite the growing evidence suggesting that helminths and protozoa significantly interact with gut bacteria, gut microbiome studies remain mostly focused on prokaryotes and on populations living in industrialized countries that typically have a low parasite burden. We argue that protozoa, like helminths, represent an important factor to take into account when studying the gut microbiome, and that their presence - especially considering their long coevolutionary history with humans - may be beneficial. From this perspective, we examine the relationship between the protozoa and their hosts, as well as their relevance for public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The gut microbiota and gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Kristina; Alverdy, John C

    2017-01-01

    Surgery involving the gastrointestinal tract continues to prove challenging because of the persistence of unpredictable complications such as anastomotic leakage and life-threatening infections. Removal of diseased intestinal segments results in substantial catabolic stress and might require complex reconstructive surgery to maintain the functional continuity of the intestinal tract. As gastrointestinal surgery necessarily involves a breach of an epithelial barrier colonized by microorganisms, preoperative intestinal antisepsis is used to reduce infection-related complications. The current approach to intestinal antisepsis varies widely across institutions and countries with little understanding of its mechanism of action, effect on the gut microbiota and overall efficacy. Many of the current approaches to intestinal antisepsis before gastrointestinal surgery run counter to emerging concepts of intestinal microbiota contributing to immune function and recovery from injury. Here, we review evidence outlining the role of gut microbiota in recovery from gastrointestinal surgery, particularly in the development of infections and anastomotic leak. To make surgery safer and further reduce complications, a molecular, genetic and functional understanding of the response of the gastrointestinal tract to alterations in its microbiota is needed. Methods can then be developed to preserve the health-promoting functions of the microbiota while at the same time suppressing their harmful effects.

  4. Bugging inflammation: role of the gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sj; Wong, Connie HY

    2016-01-01

    The advent of vaccination and improved hygiene have eliminated many of the deadly infectious pathogens in developed nations. However, the incidences of inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, obesity and diabetes are increasing dramatically. Research in the recent decades revealed that it is indeed the lack of early childhood microbial exposure, increase use of antibiotics, as well as increase consumption of processed foods high in carbohydrates and fats, and lacking fibre, which wreak havoc on the proper development of immunity and predispose the host to elevated inflammatory conditions. Although largely unexplored and under-appreciated until recent years, these factors impact significantly on the composition of the gut microbiota (a collection of microorganisms that live within the host mucosal tissue) and inadvertently play intricate and pivotal roles in modulating an appropriate host immune response. The suggestion that shifts in the composition of host microbiota is a risk factor for inflammatory disease raises an exciting opportunity whereby the microbiota may also present as a potential modifiable component or therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases. This review provides insights into the interactions between the microbiota and the immune system, how these affect disease phenotypes, and explore current and emerging therapies that target the gut microbiota as potential treatment for inflammatory diseases. PMID:27195115

  5. Molecular Insight into Gut Microbiota and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohao; He, Bing; Liu, Jin; Feng, Hui; Ma, Yinghui; Li, Defang; Guo, Baosheng; Liang, Chao; Dang, Lei; Wang, Luyao; Tian, Jing; Zhu, Hailong; Xiao, Lianbo; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-03-22

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorder. Gut microbiota play an important role in the etiology of RA. With the considerable progress made in next-generation sequencing techniques, the identified gut microbiota difference between RA patients and healthy individuals provides an updated overview of the association between gut microbiota and RA. We reviewed the reported correlation and underlying molecular mechanisms among gut microbiota, the immune system, and RA. It has become known that gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of RA via multiple molecular mechanisms. The progressive understanding of the dynamic interaction between gut microbiota and their host will help in establishing a highly individualized management for each RA patient, and achieve a better efficacy in clinical practice, or even discovering new drugs for RA.

  6. Methanogenic Food Web in Gut Contents of the Methane-Emitting Earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, Kristin; Hunger, S.; Brown, G.G.; Tsai, S.M.; Cerri, C.C.; Conrad, R.; Drake, H.

    2015-01-01

    The anoxic saccharide-rich conditions of the earthworm gut provide an ideal transient habitat for ingested microbes capable of anaerobiosis. It was recently discovered that the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil can emit methane (CH4) and that ingested methanogens might be associated with this

  7. Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a condition of multifactorial origin, involving several molecular mechanisms related to the intestinal microbiota for its development. In type 2 diabetes, receptor activation and recognition by microorganisms from the intestinal lumen may trigger inflammatory responses, inducing the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes, the lowered expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium favour...

  8. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with the pathogenesis of both intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders. Intestinal disorders include inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and coeliac disease, while extra-intestinal disorders include allergy, asthma, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.In many of these conditions, the mechanisms leading to disease development involves the pivotal mutualistic relationship be...

  9. Gut Microbiota, Obesity and Metabolic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and related disorders such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes has vastly increased throughout the world. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective suggesting that our microbiota might be involved in the development of these disorders. This represents an area of scientific need, opportunity and challenge. The insights gleaned should help to address several pressing global health problems. CONTENT: Our bowels have two major roles: the digestion and absorption of nutrients and the maintenance of a barrier against the external environment. They fulfill these functions in the context of, and with the help from, tens of trillions of resident microbes, known as the gut microbiota. Studies have demonstrated that obesity and metabolic syndrome may be associated with profound microbiotal changes, and the induction of a metabolic syndrome phenotype through fecal transplants corroborates the important role of the microbiota in this disease. Dietary composition and caloric intake appear to swiftly regulate intestinal microbial composition and function. SUMMARY: The interaction of the intestinal microbial world with its host, and its mutual regulation, will become one of the important topics of biomedical research and will provide us with further insights at the interface of microbiota, metabolism, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. A better understanding of the interaction between certain diets and the human gut microbiome should help to develop new guidelines for feeding humans at various time points in their life, help to improve global human health, and establish ways to prevent or treat various food-related diseases. KEYWORDS: gut microbiota, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes.

  10. Gut microbiota and immune crosstalk in metabolic disease

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gut microbiota is considered as a major regulator of metabolic disease. This reconciles the notion of metabolic inflammation and the epidemic development of the disease. In addition to evidence showing that a specific gut microbiota characterizes patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hepatic steatosis, the mechanisms causal to the disease could be related to the translocation of microbiota from the gut to the tissues, inducing inflammation. The mechanisms regulating such a p...

  11. The gut microbiota and Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülden, Elke; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2015-08-01

    Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial, immune-mediated disease, which is characterized by the progressive destruction of autologous insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The risk of developing T1D is determined by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. In the past few decades there has been a continuous rise in the incidence of T1D, which cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Changes in our lifestyle that include diet, hygiene, and antibiotic usage have already been suggested to be causal factors for this rising T1D incidence. Only recently have microbiota, which are affected by all these factors, been recognized as key environmental factors affecting T1D development. In this review we will summarize current knowledge on the impact of gut microbiota on T1D development and give an outlook on the potential to design new microbiota-based therapies in the prevention and treatment of T1D.

  12. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Carding

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with the pathogenesis of both intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders. Intestinal disorders include inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and coeliac disease, while extra-intestinal disorders include allergy, asthma, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.In many of these conditions, the mechanisms leading to disease development involves the pivotal mutualistic relationship between the colonic microbiota, their metabolic products, and the host immune system. The establishment of a ‘healthy’ relationship early in life appears to be critical to maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Whilst we do not yet have a clear understanding of what constitutes a ‘healthy’ colonic microbiota, a picture is emerging from many recent studies identifying particular bacterial species associated with a healthy microbiota. In particular, the bacterial species residing within the mucus layer of the colon, either through direct contact with host cells, or through indirect communication via bacterial metabolites, may influence whether host cellular homeostasis is maintained or whether inflammatory mechanisms are triggered. In addition to inflammation, there is some evidence that perturbations in the gut microbiota is involved with the development of colorectal cancer. In this case, dysbiosis may not be the most important factor, rather the products of interaction between diet and the microbiome. High-protein diets are thought to result in the production of carcinogenic metabolites from the colonic microbiota that may result in the induction of neoplasia in the colonic epithelium.Ever more sensitive metabolomics methodologies reveal a suite of small molecules produced in the microbiome which mimic or act as neurosignallers or neurotransmitters. Coupled with evidence that probiotic interventions may alter psychological endpoints in both humans and in

  13. Human gut microbiota: repertoire and variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe eLagier

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The composition of human gut microbiota and their relationship with the host and, consequently, with human health and disease, presents several challenges to microbiologists. Originally dominated by culture-dependent methods for exploring this ecosystem, the advent of molecular tools has revolutionized our ability to investigate these relationships. However, many biases that have led to contradictory results have been identified. Microbial culturomics, a recent concept based on a use of several culture conditions with identification by MALDI-TOF followed by the genome sequencing of the new species cultured had allowed a complementarity with metagenomics. Culturomics allowed to isolate 31 new bacterial species the largest human virus, the largest bacteria, and the largest Archaea from human. Moreover, some members of this ecosystem, such as Eukaryotes, giant viruses, Archaea and Planctomycetes, have been neglected by the majority of studies. In addition, numerous factors, such as age, geographic provenance, dietary habits, antibiotics or probiotics, can influence the composition of the microbiota. Finally, in addition to the countless biases associated with the study techniques, a considerable limitation to the interpretation of studies of human gut microbiota is associated with funding sources and transparency disclosures. In the future, studies independent of food industry funding and using complementary methods from a broad range of both culture-based and molecular tools will increase our knowledge of the repertoire of this complex ecosystem and host-microbiota mutualism.

  14. Targeting gut microbiota as a possible therapy for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Canxia; Shan, Yujuan; Song, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of diabetes has increased rapidly across the entire world in the last 2 decades. Accumulating evidence suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes. Several studies have demonstrated that patients with diabetes are characterized by a moderate degree of gut microbial dysbiosis. However, there are still substantial controversies regarding altered composition of the gut microbiota and the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota interact with the body's metabolism. The purpose of this review is to define the association between gut microbiota and diabetes. In doing so an electronic search of studies published in English from January 2004 to the November 2014 in the National Library of Medicine, including the original studies that addressed the effects of gut microbiota on diabetes, energy metabolism, inflammation, the immune system, gut permeability and insulin resistance, was performed. Herein, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which the gut microbiota are involved in the development of diabetes, including energy metabolism, inflammation, the innate immune system, and the bowel function of the intestinal barrier. The compositional changes in the gut microbiota in type 2 and type 1 diabetes are also discussed. Moreover, we introduce the new findings of fecal transplantation, and use of probiotics and prebiotics as new treatment strategies for diabetes. Future research should be focused on defining the primary species of the gut microbiota and their exact roles in diabetes, potentially increasing the possibility of fecal transplants as a therapeutic strategy for diabetes.

  15. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases: associations and potentials for gut microbiota therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Allen, Katrina J; Vuillermin, Peter; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity for multisystem effects. Changes in microbial composition are implicated in the increasing propensity for a broad range of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, and associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). There are also suggestive implications for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti-inflammatory properties. Specific probiotics also have immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. However, when evaluated in clinical trials, the effects are variable, preliminary, or limited in magnitude. Fecal microbiota transplantation is another emerging therapy that regulates inflammation in experimental models. In human subjects it has been successfully used in cases of Clostridium difficile infection and IBD, although controlled trials are lacking for IBD. Here we discuss relationships between gut colonization and inflammatory NCDs and gut microbiota modulation strategies for their treatment and prevention.

  16. Monitoring host responses to the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Joshua S; Sonnenburg, Justin L; Elias, Joshua E

    2015-09-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) ecosystem is increasingly understood to be a fundamental component of health, and has been identified as a new focal point for diagnosing, correcting and preventing countless disorders. Shotgun DNA sequencing has emerged as the dominant technology for determining the genetic and microbial composition of the gut microbiota. This technology has linked microbiota dysbioses to numerous GI diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and allergy, and to non-GI diseases like autism and depression. The importance of establishing causality in the deterioration of the host-microbiota relationship is well appreciated; however, discovery of candidate molecules and pathways that underlie mechanisms remains a major challenge. Targeted approaches, transcriptional assays, cytokine panels and imaging analyses, applied to animals, have yielded important insight into host responses to the microbiota. However, non-invasive, hypothesis-independent means of measuring host responses in humans are necessary to keep pace with similarly unbiased sequencing efforts that monitor microbes. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has served this purpose in many other fields, but stool proteins exist in such diversity and dynamic range as to overwhelm conventional proteomics technologies. Focused analysis of host protein secretion into the gut lumen and monitoring proteome-level dynamics in stool provides a tractable route toward non-invasively evaluating dietary, microbial, surgical or pharmacological intervention efficacies. This review is intended to guide GI biologists and clinicians through the methods currently used to elucidate host responses in the gut, with a specific focus on mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics applied to the study of host protein dynamics within the GI ecosystem.

  17. Human gut microbiota: does diet matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maukonen, Johanna; Saarela, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The human oro-gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex system, consisting of oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus, which all together with the accessory digestive organs constitute the digestive system. The function of the digestive system is to break down dietary constituents into small molecules and then absorb these for subsequent distribution throughout the body. Besides digestion and carbohydrate metabolism, the indigenous microbiota has an important influence on host physiological, nutritional and immunological processes, and commensal bacteria are able to modulate the expression of host genes that regulate diverse and fundamental physiological functions. The main external factors that can affect the composition of the microbial community in generally healthy adults include major dietary changes and antibiotic therapy. Changes in some selected bacterial groups have been observed due to controlled changes to the normal diet e.g. high-protein diet, high-fat diet, prebiotics, probiotics and polyphenols. More specifically, changes in the type and quantity of non-digestible carbohydrates in the human diet influence both the metabolic products formed in the lower regions of the GI tract and the bacterial populations detected in faeces. The interactions between dietary factors, gut microbiota and host metabolism are increasingly demonstrated to be important for maintaining homeostasis and health. Therefore the aim of this review is to summarise the effect of diet, and especially dietary interventions, on the human gut microbiota. Furthermore, the most important confounding factors (methodologies used and intrinsic human factors) in relation to gut microbiota analyses are elucidated.

  18. The role of gut microbiota in human metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis supports the hypothesis that gut microbiota can be viewed as an ‘exteriorised organ’ that contributes to energy metabolism and the modulation of our immune system. Following Koch’s postulates, it has now been shown that gut microbiota are associated with metabolic disease and that these

  19. The role of gut microbiota in human metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis supports the hypothesis that gut microbiota can be viewed as an ‘exteriorised organ’ that contributes to energy metabolism and the modulation of our immune system. Following Koch’s postulates, it has now been shown that gut microbiota are associated with metabolic disease and that these

  20. Characterization of the gut microbiota in leptin deficient obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Krych, Lukasz; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota have been implicated as a relevant factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and its diversity might be a cause of variation in animal models of T2DM. In this study, we aimed to characterise the gut microbiota of a T2DM mouse model with a long term vision of bei...

  1. Gut microbiota and the development of obesity La microbiota intestinal y el desarrollo de la obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Boroni Moreira; T. Fiche Salles Teixeira; M.ª do C. Gouveia Peluzio; R. de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Advances in tools for molecular investigations have allowed deeper understanding of how microbes can influence host physiology. A very interesting field of research that has gained attention recently is the possible role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. Objective: The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms that explain the influence of gut microbiota on host metabolism. Results and discussion: The gut microbiota is important for norma...

  2. Rett Syndrome: A Focus on Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Elisa; Borgo, Francesca; Severgnini, Marco; Savini, Miriam Nella; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Vignoli, Aglaia

    2017-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 in 10,000 live female births. Changes in microbiota composition, as observed in other neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, may account for several symptoms typically associated with RTT. We studied the relationship between disease phenotypes and microbiome by analyzing diet, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. We enrolled eight RTT patients and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy women, all without dietary restrictions. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and SCFAs concentration was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. The RTT microbiota showed a lower α diversity, an enrichment in Bacteroidaceae, Clostridium spp., and Sutterella spp., and a slight depletion in Ruminococcaceae. Fecal SCFA concentrations were similar, but RTT samples showed slightly higher concentrations of butyrate and propionate, and significant higher levels in branched-chain fatty acids. Daily caloric intake was similar in the two groups, but macronutrient analysis showed a higher protein content in RTT diets. Microbial function prediction suggested in RTT subjects an increased number of microbial genes encoding for propionate and butyrate, and amino acid metabolism. A full understanding of these critical features could offer new, specific strategies for managing RTT-associated symptoms, such as dietary intervention or pre/probiotic supplementation. PMID:28178201

  3. Rett Syndrome: A Focus on Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Borghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 in 10,000 live female births. Changes in microbiota composition, as observed in other neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, may account for several symptoms typically associated with RTT. We studied the relationship between disease phenotypes and microbiome by analyzing diet, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA production. We enrolled eight RTT patients and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy women, all without dietary restrictions. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and SCFAs concentration was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. The RTT microbiota showed a lower α diversity, an enrichment in Bacteroidaceae, Clostridium spp., and Sutterella spp., and a slight depletion in Ruminococcaceae. Fecal SCFA concentrations were similar, but RTT samples showed slightly higher concentrations of butyrate and propionate, and significant higher levels in branched-chain fatty acids. Daily caloric intake was similar in the two groups, but macronutrient analysis showed a higher protein content in RTT diets. Microbial function prediction suggested in RTT subjects an increased number of microbial genes encoding for propionate and butyrate, and amino acid metabolism. A full understanding of these critical features could offer new, specific strategies for managing RTT-associated symptoms, such as dietary intervention or pre/probiotic supplementation.

  4. Role of gut microbiota in atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Annika Lindskog; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Infections have been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Findings from the past decade have identified microbial ecosystems residing in different habitats of the human body that contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular-related disorders. In this Review, we...... of atherosclerotic plaques. Third, diet and specific components that are metabolized by gut microbiota can have various effects on atherosclerosis; for example, dietary fibre is beneficial, whereas the bacterial metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide is considered harmful. Although specific bacterial taxa have been...... associated with atherosclerosis, which is supported by increasing mechanistic evidence, several questions remain to be answered to understand fully how the microbiota contributes to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Such knowledge might pave the way for novel diagnostics and therapeutics based...

  5. The role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Aafke W F; Kersten, Sander

    2015-08-01

    The global prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities has increased considerably over the past decades. In addition to an increase in food consumption and a reduction in physical activity, growing evidence implicates the microorganisms in our gastrointestinal tract, referred to as the gut microbiota, in obesity and related metabolic disturbances. The composition of the gut microbiota can fluctuate markedly within an individual and between individuals. Changes in gut microbial composition may be unfavorable and predispose an individual to disease. Studies in mice that are germ free, mice that are cohoused, and mice that are treated with antibiotics have provided some evidence that changes in gut microbiota may causally contribute to metabolic disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed and explored that may mediate the effects of the gut microbiota on metabolic disorders. In this review, we carefully analyze the literature on the connection between the gut microbiota and metabolic health, with a focus on studies demonstrating a causal relation and clarifying potential underlying mechanisms. Despite a growing appreciation for a role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health, more experimental evidence is needed to substantiate a cause-and-effect relationship. If a clear causal relationship between the gut microbiota and metabolic health can be established, dietary interventions can be targeted toward improving gut microbial composition in the prevention and perhaps even the treatment of metabolic diseases.

  6. Minireview: Gut Microbiota: The Neglected Endocrine Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gerard; Stilling, Roman M.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The concept that the gut microbiota serves as a virtual endocrine organ arises from a number of important observations. Evidence for a direct role arises from its metabolic capacity to produce and regulate multiple compounds that reach the circulation and act to influence the function of distal organs and systems. For example, metabolism of carbohydrates results in the production of short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate and propionate, which provide an important source of nutrients as well as regulatory control of the host digestive system. This influence over host metabolism is also seen in the ability of the prebiotic inulin to influence production of relevant hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, ghrelin, and leptin. Moreover, the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60, which produces conjugated linoleic acid, has been shown to reduce body-weight gain and white adipose tissue without effects on food intake. Manipulating the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract modulates plasma concentrations of tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a key neurotransmitter within both the enteric and central nervous systems. Indirectly and through as yet unknown mechanisms, the gut microbiota exerts control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This is clear from studies on animals raised in a germ-free environment, who show exaggerated responses to psychological stress, which normalizes after monocolonization by certain bacterial species including Bifidobacterium infantis. It is tempting to speculate that therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may be useful in treating stress-related disorders and metabolic diseases. PMID:24892638

  7. Molecular Tools for Investigating the Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Christophe

    The “microbial world within us” (Zoetendal et al., 2006) is populated by a complex society of indigenous microorganisms that feature different “ethnic” populations. Those microbial cells thriving within us are estimated to outnumber human body cells by a factor of ten to one. Insights into the relation between the intestinal microbial community and its host have been gained through gnotobiology. Indeed, the influence of the gut microbiota upon human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition has been inferred by comparing gnotoxenic and axenic murine models (Hooper et al., 1998, 2002, 2003; Hooper and Gordon, 2001).

  8. Metabolic activity of gut microbiota and xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestine habitat is the natural collection of symbiotic microorganisms. The bacterial population enables many permanent metabolic activities in this environment. Inside the intestine of mammals there are an extended genome of millions of bacterial genes named microbiome. In recent years, there has been an increased interest of scientists to discover the place and the role of bio-ecological content and modulation of gut microbiota in a host organism using prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics, which may have a great benefit for human health. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46012 i br. 41012

  9. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...... and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  10. The Gut Microbiota in Host Metabolism and Pathogen Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Bak

    The human microbiota consists of a complex community of microbial cells that live on and inside each person in a close relationship with their host. The majority of the microbial cells are harboured by the gastro intestinal tract where 10-100 trillion bacteria reside. The microbiota is a dynamic...... community where both composition and function can be affected by changes in the local environment. With the microbiota containing ~150 times more genes than the human host, the microbiota provides a large modifiable “secondary genome” (metagenome). Within the last decade, changes in the gut microbiota...... composition has indeed been established as a factor contributing to the health of the host. Therefore, being able to understand, control and modify the gut microbiota is a promising way of improving health. The following thesis is based on four different projects investigating the murine gut microbiota...

  11. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides

  12. Does the gut microbiota trigger Hashimoto's thyroiditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kouki; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Ozaki, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an organ-specific autoimmune disease in which both genetic predisposition and environmental factors serve as the trigger of the disease. A growing body of evidence suggests involvement of viral infection in the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, not only pathogenic microorganisms but also non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms induce proinflammatory or regulatory immune responses within the host. In accordance, series of studies indicate a critical role of intestinal commensal microbiota in the development of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. In contrast, the role of the gut and indigenous microorganisms in Hashimoto's thyroiditis has received little attention. Whereas activation of innate pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors and disturbed intestinal epithelial barrier may contribute to thyroiditis development, only a few studies have addressed a link between the gut and Hashimoto's thyroiditis and provided just indirect and weak evidence for such a link. Despite this unsatisfactory situation, we here focus on the possible interaction between the gut and thyroid autoimmunity. Further studies are clearly needed to test the hypothesis that the gut commensal microflora represents an important environmental factor triggering Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  13. Gut Microbiota Mediates Protection Against Enteropathy Induced by Indomethacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue; Nakatsu, Geicho; Jin, Ye; Wong, Sunny; Yu, Jun; Lau, James Y. W.

    2017-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause significant small bowel injuries. The role of gut microbiota in this NSAID-induced enteropathy is poorly understood. We studied the dynamic changes in gut microbiota following indomethacin administration in mice, and investigated the effects of these adaptive changes on subsequent NSAID-induced enteropathy. The changes in gut microbiota were studied using 16S rRNA sequencing, and the effects of such changes were investigated using antibiotics and a faecal transplantation model. After indomethacin treatment, significant adaptive changes in gut microbiota were observed, including increased abundance of Firmicutes and decreased abundance in that of Bacteroidetes. Depletion of gut microbiota with antibiotics led to a higher mortality (P = 0.0021) in mice compared to controls. Mice pre-transplanted with adaptively changed microbiota showed less small bowel injury and lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines when exposed to indomethacin. In summary, this study identifies adaptive changes in the gut microbiota upon indomethacin administration, which can in turn ameliorate further NSAID-induced injury. The heightened mortality with antibiotic depletion of the adaptively changed microbiota suggests its important role in protecting against such injury. This study provides insight for future efforts to target the microbiota as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:28067296

  14. From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The gut microbiota continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily varia...

  15. Gut microbiota may predict host divergence time during Glires evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Yao, Minjie; Li, Jiaying; Li, Xiangzhen

    2017-03-01

    The gut microbial communities of animals play key roles in host evolution. However, the possible relationship between gut microbiota and host divergence time remains unknown. Here, we investigated the gut microbiota of eight Glires species (four lagomorph species and four rodent species) distributed throughout the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and Inner Mongolia grassland. Lagomorphs and rodents had distinct gut microbial compositions. Three out of four lagomorph species were dominated by Firmicutes, while rodents were dominated by Bacteroidetes in general. The alpha diversity values (Shannon diversity and evenness) exhibited significant differences between any two species within the lagomorphs, whereas there were no significant differences among rodents. The structure of the gut microbiota showed significant differences between lagomorphs and rodents. In addition, we calculated host phylogeny and divergence times, and used a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how the animal gut microbiota has diverged from their ancestral species. Some core bacterial genera (e.g. Prevotella and Clostridium) shared by more than nine-tenths of all the Glires individuals associated with plant polysaccharide degradation showed marked changes within lagomorphs. Differences in Glires gut microbiota (based on weighted UniFrac and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metrics) were positively correlated with host divergence time. Our results thus suggest the gut microbial composition is associated with host phylogeny, and further suggest that dissimilarity of animal gut microbiota may predict host divergence time. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B; Bahijri, Suhad M; Alfadul, Sulaiman M; Ajabnoor, Ghada M A; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 10(14) microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 10(14) microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  17. Gut Microbiota: a contributing factor to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Harakeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review.Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  18. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  19. Kynurenine pathway metabolism and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, P J; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G

    2017-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the gut microbiota influences not only gastrointestinal physiology but also central nervous system (CNS) function by modulating signalling pathways of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the influence exerted by the gut microbiota on brain function and behaviour has become a key research priority. Microbial regulation of tryptophan metabolism has become a focal point in this regard, with dual emphasis on the regulation of serotonin synthesis and the control of kynurenine pathway metabolism. Here, we focus in detail on the latter pathway and begin by outlining the structural and functional dynamics of the gut microbiota and the signalling pathways of the brain-gut axis. We summarise preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrating that the gut microbiota influences CNS physiology, anxiety, depression, social behaviour, cognition and visceral pain. Pertinent studies are drawn from neurogastroenterology demonstrating the importance of tryptophan and its metabolites in CNS and gastrointestinal function. We outline how kynurenine pathway metabolism may be regulated by microbial control of neuroendocrine function and components of the immune system. Finally, preclinical evidence demonstrating direct and indirect mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can regulate tryptophan availability for kynurenine pathway metabolism, with downstream effects on CNS function, is reviewed. Targeting the gut microbiota represents a tractable target to modulate kynurenine pathway metabolism. Efforts to develop this approach will markedly increase our understanding of how the gut microbiota shapes brain and behaviour and provide new insights towards successful translation of microbiota-gut-brain axis research from bench to bedside. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Kynurenine Pathway in Health and Disease'.

  20. Gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Makoto; Miyoshi, Makoto; Yamashita, Hayato

    2015-11-07

    The gut microbiota has the capacity to produce a diverse range of compounds that play a major role in regulating the activity of distal organs and the liver is strategically positioned downstream of the gut. Gut microbiota linked compounds such as short chain fatty acids, bile acids, choline metabolites, indole derivatives, vitamins, polyamines, lipids, neurotransmitters and neuroactive compounds, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones have many biological functions. This review focuses on the gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis. Dysbiosis in liver cirrhosis causes serious complications, such as bacteremia and hepatic encephalopathy, accompanied by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability. Gut dysbiosis in cirrhosis and intervention with probiotics and synbiotics in a clinical setting is reviewed and evaluated. Recent studies have revealed the relationship between gut microbiota and host metabolism in chronic metabolic liver disease, especially, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and with the gut microbiota metabolic interactions in dysbiosis related metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Recently, our understanding of the relationship between the gut and liver and how this regulates systemic metabolic changes in liver cirrhosis has increased. The serum lipid levels of phospholipids, free fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially, eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid have significant correlations with specific fecal flora in liver cirrhosis. Many clinical and experimental reports support the relationship between fatty acid metabolism and gut-microbiota. Various blood metabolome such as cytokines, amino acids, and vitamins are correlated with gut microbiota in probiotics-treated liver cirrhosis patients. The future evaluation of the gut-microbiota-liver metabolic network and the intervention of these relationships using probiotics

  1. Evidence for a core gut microbiota in the zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeselers, Guus; Mittge, Erika K; Stephens, W Zac; Parichy, David M; Cavanaugh, Colleen M; Guillemin, Karen; Rawls, John F

    2011-01-01

    Experimental analysis of gut microbial communities and their interactions with vertebrate hosts is conducted predominantly in domesticated animals that have been maintained in laboratory facilities for many generations. These animal models are useful for studying coevolved relationships between host and microbiota only if the microbial communities that occur in animals in lab facilities are representative of those that occur in nature. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of gut bacterial communities in zebrafish collected recently from their natural habitat and those reared for generations in lab facilities in different geographic locations. Patterns of gut microbiota structure in domesticated zebrafish varied across different lab facilities in correlation with historical connections between those facilities. However, gut microbiota membership in domesticated and recently caught zebrafish was strikingly similar, with a shared core gut microbiota. The zebrafish intestinal habitat therefore selects for specific bacterial taxa despite radical differences in host provenance and domestication status. PMID:21472014

  2. The gut microbiota, environment and diseases of modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Wu, Gary D

    2012-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is a complex community that provides important metabolic functions to the host. Consequently, alterations in the gut microbiota have been associated with the pathogenesis of several human diseases associated with a disturbance in metabolism, particularly those that have been increasing in incidence over the last several decades including obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. In this review, we explore how advances in deep DNA sequencing technology have provided us a greater understanding of the factors that influence that composition of the gut microbiota and its possible links to the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  3. The gut microbiota and obesity: from correlation to causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping

    2013-09-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked with chronic diseases such as obesity in humans. However, the demonstration of causality between constituents of the microbiota and specific diseases remains an important challenge in the field. In this Opinion article, using Koch's postulates as a conceptual framework, I explore the chain of causation from alterations in the gut microbiota, particularly of the endotoxin-producing members, to the development of obesity in both rodents and humans. I then propose a strategy for identifying the causative agents of obesity in the human microbiota through a combination of microbiome-wide association studies, mechanistic analysis of host responses and the reproduction of diseases in gnotobiotic animals.

  4. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients’ quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other’s expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis. PMID:24921926

  5. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients' quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other's expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  6. THE ROLE OF RED PIGMENT PRODIGIOSIN FROM BACTERIA OF EARTHWORM GUT AS AN ANTICANCER AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthy P.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are the most ancient invertebrate animals on earth which can be used as a good source of pharmaceutical compounds. A study was carried out to find out the distribution of microorganisms in the gut of earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. Significant number of microbial populations in the gut of earthworm was observed and it was gradually increased from the initial day to final day of composting. Pigmented colonies of bacteria from earthworm gut were selectively isolated, the pigment was extracted from the culture broth and a presumptive test was carried out for the confirmation of prodigiosin. The pigment component was separated using thin layer chromatography and the structural elucidation of the compound was performed using U.V. spectroscopy. The inhibitory effect of prodigiosin on bacterial pathogens was studied and the results confirmed the antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. The anticancer activity of the prodigiosin pigment was evaluated under in vitro conditions against the breast cancer cell lines and it was observed that prodigiosin induced the apoptosis in MCF-7 cell lines in a dose dependent manner. Then the potential isolate was subjected to morphological and biochemical analysis and it was confirmed that the colonies were of Serratia marcescens. The results obtained from the present study indicated that earthworm gut is promising and could be a vital source of habitat possessing antimicrobial and anticancer activity.

  7. The active human gut microbiota differs from the total microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Peris-Bondia

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiota is considered one of the most fascinating reservoirs of microbial diversity hosting between 400 to 1000 bacterial species distributed among nine phyla with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria representing around 75% of the diversity. One of the most intriguing issues relates to understanding which microbial groups are active players in the maintenance of the microbiota homeostasis.Here, we describe the diversity of active microbial fractions compared with the whole community from raw human fecal samples. We studied four healthy volunteers by 16S rDNA gene pyrosequencing. The fractions were obtained by cell sorting based on bacterial RNA concentration. Bacterial families were observed to appear or disappear on applying a cell sorting method in which flow cytometry was used to evaluate the active cells by pyronin-Y staining of RNA. This method was able to detect active bacteria, indicating that the active players differed from that observed in raw fecal material. Generally, observations showed that in the active fractions, the number of reads related to Bacteroidetes decreased whereas several families from Clostridiales (Firmicutes were more highly represented. Moreover, a huge number of families appeared as part of the active fraction when cell sorting was applied, indicating reads that are simply statistically hidden by the total reads.

  8. Diet strongly influences the gut microbiota of surgeonfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Sou; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    Intestinal tracts are among the most densely populated microbial ecosystems. Gut microbiota and their influence on the host have been well characterized in terrestrial vertebrates but much less so in fish. This is especially true for coral reef fishes, which are among the most abundant groups of vertebrates on earth. Surgeonfishes (family: Acanthuridae) are part of a large and diverse family of reef fish that display a wide range of feeding behaviours, which in turn has a strong impact on the reef ecology. Here, we studied the composition of the gut microbiota of nine surgeonfish and three nonsurgeonfish species from the Red Sea. High-throughput pyrosequencing results showed that members of the phylum Firmicutes, especially of the genus Epulopiscium, were dominant in the gut microbiota of seven surgeonfishes. Even so, there were large inter- and intraspecies differences in the diversity of surgeonfish microbiota. Replicates of the same host species shared only a small number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), although these accounted for most of the sequences. There was a statistically significant correlation between the phylogeny of the host and their gut microbiota, but the two were not completely congruent. Notably, the gut microbiota of three nonsurgeonfish species clustered with some surgeonfish species. The microbiota of the macro- and microalgavores was distinct, while the microbiota of the others (carnivores, omnivores and detritivores) seemed to be transient and dynamic. Despite some anomalies, both host phylogeny and diet were important drivers for the intestinal microbial community structure of surgeonfishes from the Red Sea.

  9. Gut microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large diverse community of bacteria collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. Alterations in gut microbiota composition are associated with a variety of disease states including obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Transplant of microbiota from diseased persons (or mice) to germfree mice transfers some aspects of disease phenotype, indicating that altered microbiota plays a role in disease establishment and manifestation. There are myriad potential mechanisms by which alterations in gut microbiota might promote disease, including increasing energy harvest, production of toxic metabolites, and molecular mimicry of host proteins. However, our research indicates that an overarching mechanism by which an aberrant microbiota negatively impacts health is by driving chronic inflammation. More specifically, we hypothesize that the histopathologically evident gut inflammation that defines IBD is a severe but relatively rare outcome of an altered host-microbiota relationship, while a much more common consequence of such disturbances is "low-grade" inflammation characterized by elevated proinflammatory gene expression that associates with, and may promote, metabolic syndrome. In this context, a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases may stem from inability of the mucosal immune system to properly manage a stable healthy relationship with the gut microbiota. While one's ability to manage their gut microbiota is dictated in part by genetics, it can be markedly influenced by the composition of the microbiota one inherits from their early environment. Moreover, the host-microbiota relationship can be perturbed by instigator bacteria or dietary components, which may prove to play a role in promoting chronic inflammatory disease states.

  10. The Colonization Dynamics of the Gut Microbiota in Tilapia Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, Christos; Sipkema, Detmer; Smidt, Hauke; Verreth, Johan; Verdegem, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an environmental factor is very complicated. Interactions between factors are difficult to separate and any response could be masked due to high inter-individual variation even for individuals that share a common environment. In this study we characterized and quantified the spatio-temporal variation in the gut microbiota of tilapia larvae, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) or active suspension tanks (AS). Our results showed that variation in gut microbiota between replicate tanks was not significantly higher than within tank variation, suggesting that there is no tank effect on water and gut microbiota. However, when individuals were reared in replicate RAS, gut microbiota differed significantly. The highest variation was observed between individuals reared in different types of system (RAS vs. AS). Our data suggest that under experimental conditions in which the roles of deterministic and stochastic factors have not been precisely determined, compositional replication of the microbial communities of an ecosystem is not predictable. PMID:25072852

  11. The colonization dynamics of the gut microbiota in tilapia larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, Christos; Sipkema, Detmer; Smidt, Hauke; Verreth, Johan; Verdegem, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an environmental factor is very complicated. Interactions between factors are difficult to separate and any response could be masked due to high inter-individual variation even for individuals that share a common environment. In this study we characterized and quantified the spatio-temporal variation in the gut microbiota of tilapia larvae, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) or active suspension tanks (AS). Our results showed that variation in gut microbiota between replicate tanks was not significantly higher than within tank variation, suggesting that there is no tank effect on water and gut microbiota. However, when individuals were reared in replicate RAS, gut microbiota differed significantly. The highest variation was observed between individuals reared in different types of system (RAS vs. AS). Our data suggest that under experimental conditions in which the roles of deterministic and stochastic factors have not been precisely determined, compositional replication of the microbial communities of an ecosystem is not predictable.

  12. Gut microbiota composition modifies fecal metabolic profiles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Wu, Junfang; Li, Jia V; Zhou, Ning-Yi; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2013-06-07

    The gut microbiome is known to be extensively involved in human health and disease. In order to reveal the metabolic relationship between host and microbiome, we monitored recovery of the gut microbiota composition and fecal profiles of mice after gentamicin and/or ceftriaxone treatments. This was performed by employing (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint of gut microbiota. The common features of fecal metabolites postantibiotic treatment include decreased levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), amino acids and primary bile acids and increased oligosaccharides, d-pinitol, choline and secondary bile acids (deoxycholic acid). This suggests suppressed bacterial fermentation, protein degradation and enhanced gut microbial modification of bile acids. Barnesiella, Prevotella, and Alistipes levels were shown to decrease as a result of the antibiotic treatment, whereas levels of Bacteroides, Enterococcus and Erysipelotrichaceae incertae sedis, and Mycoplasma increased after gentamicin and ceftriaxone treatment. In addition, there was a strong correlation between fecal profiles and levels of Bacteroides, Barnesiella, Alistipes and Prevotella. The integration of metabonomics and gut microbiota profiling provides important information on the changes of gut microbiota and their impact on fecal profiles during the recovery after antibiotic treatment. The correlation between gut microbiota and fecal metabolites provides important information on the function of bacteria, which in turn could be important in optimizing therapeutic strategies, and developing potential microbiota-based disease preventions and therapeutic interventions.

  13. Epigeic earthworms exert a bottleneck effect on microbial communities through gut associated processes.

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    María Gómez-Brandón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei is capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter through gut associated processes; and if these direct effects are related to the earthworm diet. METHODOLOGY: To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis in the earthworm casts derived from three types of animal manure (cow, horse and pig manure, which differed in microbial composition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The passage of the organic material through the gut of E. andrei reduced the total microbial biomass irrespective of the type of manure, and resulted in a decrease in bacterial biomass in all the manures; whilst leaving the fungi unaffected in the egested materials. However, unlike the microbial biomass, no such reduction was detected in the total microbial activity of cast samples derived from the pig manure. Moreover, no differences were found between cast samples derived from the different types of manure with regards to microbial community structure, which provides strong evidence for a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveal that earthworm gut is a major shaper of microbial communities, thereby favouring the existence of a reduced but more active microbial population in the egested materials, which is of great importance to understand how biotic interactions

  14. Epigeic Earthworms Exert a Bottleneck Effect on Microbial Communities through Gut Associated Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Aira, Manuel; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei is capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter through gut associated processes; and if these direct effects are related to the earthworm diet. Methodology To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis) in the earthworm casts derived from three types of animal manure (cow, horse and pig manure), which differed in microbial composition. Principal Findings The passage of the organic material through the gut of E. andrei reduced the total microbial biomass irrespective of the type of manure, and resulted in a decrease in bacterial biomass in all the manures; whilst leaving the fungi unaffected in the egested materials. However, unlike the microbial biomass, no such reduction was detected in the total microbial activity of cast samples derived from the pig manure. Moreover, no differences were found between cast samples derived from the different types of manure with regards to microbial community structure, which provides strong evidence for a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Conclusions/Significance Our data reveal that earthworm gut is a major shaper of microbial communities, thereby favouring the existence of a reduced but more active microbial population in the egested materials, which is of great importance to understand how biotic interactions within the decomposer

  15. Gut microbiota and metabolic disorders: How prebiotic can work?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delzenne, Nathalie M; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Cani, Patrice D

    2013-01-01

    .... In the present review, we will describe how changes in the gut microbiota composition and/or activity by dietary fibres with prebiotic properties, can modulate host gene expression and metabolism...

  16. Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rochellys Diaz Heijtz; Shugui Wang; Farhana Anuar; Yu Qian; Britta Björkholm; Annika Samuelsson; Martin L. Hibberd; Hans Forssberg; Sven Pettersson; Arturo Zychlinsky

    2011-01-01

    ...) mice with a normal gut microbiota. This behavioral phenotype is associated with altered expression of genes known to be involved in second messenger pathways and synaptic long-term potentiation in brain regions implicated in motor...

  17. Effect of diet on the human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain

    The gut microbiota plays an important role for humans in both health and disease. It is therefore important to understand how and to what extent choice of diet may influence the microbial community and the effects this has on the host. The variation in the normal human gut microbiota may however...... impede the discovery of correlations between dietary changes and compositional shifts in the microbiota by masking such effects. Although specific functional food ingredients, such as prebiotics, are known to have measurable effects on e.g. abundance of bifidobacteria, it is nevertheless clear...... that induced shifts in gut microbiota show large inter-individual variations. It thus seems plausible that knowing the microbiota composition could facilitate predictions as to how the community will react to dietary interventions thus moving towards some degree of personalised dietary recommendations. During...

  18. Assessing the human gut microbiota in metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Tremaroli, Valentina; Nielsen, Jens; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2013-10-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that the gut microbiome complements our human genome with at least 100-fold more genes. In contrast to our Homo sapiens-derived genes, the microbiome is much more plastic, and its composition changes with age and diet, among other factors. An altered gut microbiota has been associated with several diseases, including obesity and diabetes, but the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we discuss factors that affect the gut microbiome, how the gut microbiome may contribute to metabolic diseases, and how to study the gut microbiome. Next-generation sequencing and development of software packages have led to the development of large-scale sequencing efforts to catalog the human microbiome. Furthermore, the use of genetically engineered gnotobiotic mouse models may increase our understanding of mechanisms by which the gut microbiome modulates host metabolism. A combination of classical microbiology, sequencing, and animal experiments may provide further insights into how the gut microbiota affect host metabolism and physiology.

  19. Postprandial remodeling of the gut microbiota in Burmese pythons

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Elizabeth K.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Secor, Stephen M.; Knight, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The vertebrate gut microbiota evolved in an environment typified by periodic fluctuations in nutrient availability, yet little is known about its responses to host feeding and fasting. Because many model species (e.g., mice) are adapted to lifestyles of frequent small meals, we turned to the Burmese python, a sit-and-wait foraging snake that consumes large prey at long intervals (>1 month), to examine the effects of a dynamic nutrient milieu on the gut microbiota. We employed multiplexed 16S ...

  20. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle N. Cooper; Martin, Roy J.; Keim, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not...

  1. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of 2 genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of 4 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  2. Microbiota and Neurological Disorders: A Gut Feeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Walter H; Faller, Douglas V; Harpp, David N; Kanara, Iphigenia; Pernokas, Julie; Powers, Whitney R; Steliou, Kosta

    2016-01-01

    In the past century, noncommunicable diseases have surpassed infectious diseases as the principal cause of sickness and death, worldwide. Trillions of commensal microbes live in and on our body, and constitute the human microbiome. The vast majority of these microorganisms are maternally derived and live in the gut, where they perform functions essential to our health and survival, including: digesting food, activating certain drugs, producing short-chain fatty acids (which help to modulate gene expression by inhibiting the deacetylation of histone proteins), generating anti-inflammatory substances, and playing a fundamental role in the induction, training, and function of our immune system. Among the many roles the microbiome ultimately plays, it mitigates against untoward effects from our exposure to the environment by forming a biotic shield between us and the outside world. The importance of physical activity coupled with a balanced and healthy diet in the maintenance of our well-being has been recognized since antiquity. However, it is only recently that characterization of the host-microbiome intermetabolic and crosstalk pathways has come to the forefront in studying therapeutic design. As reviewed in this report, synthetic biology shows potential in developing microorganisms for correcting pathogenic dysbiosis (gut microbiota-host maladaptation), although this has yet to be proven. However, the development and use of small molecule drugs have a long and successful history in the clinic, with small molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors representing one relevant example already approved to treat cancer and other disorders. Moreover, preclinical research suggests that epigenetic treatment of neurological conditions holds significant promise. With the mouth being an extension of the digestive tract, it presents a readily accessible diagnostic site for the early detection of potential unhealthy pathogens resident in the gut. Taken together, the data outlined

  3. Potential applications of gut microbiota to control human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umu, Ozgün Candan Onarman; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B; Svihus, Birger; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2013-11-01

    The microorganisms living in our gut have been a black box to us for a long time. However, with the recent advances in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies, it is now possible to assess virtually all microorganisms in our gut including non-culturable ones. With the use of powerful bioinformatics tools to deal with multivariate analyses of huge amounts of data from metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, we now start to gain some important insights into these tiny gut inhabitants. Our knowledge is increasing about who they are, to some extent, what they do and how they affect our health. Gut microbiota have a broad spectrum of possible effects on health, from preventing serious diseases, improving immune system and gut health to stimulating the brain centers responsible for appetite and food intake control. Further, we may be on the verge of being capable of manipulating the gut microbiota by diet control to possibly improve our health. Diets consisting of different components that are fermentable by microbiota are substrates for different kinds of microbes in the gut. Thus, diet control can be used to favor the growth of some selected gut inhabitants. Nowadays, the gut microbiota is taken into account as a separate organ in human body and their activities and metabolites in gut have many physiological and neurological effects. In this mini-review, we discuss the diversity of gut microbiota, the technologies used to assess them, factors that affect microbial composition and metabolites that affect human physiology, and their potential applications in satiety control via the gut-brain axis.

  4. Metabolic Interaction of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gut Microbiota

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    Yao-Jong Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a barrier, gut commensal microbiota can protect against potential pathogenic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Crosstalk between gut microbes and immune cells promotes human intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of many human metabolic disorders like obesity, hepatic steatohepatitis, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Certain microbes, such as butyrate-producing bacteria, are lower in T2D patients. The transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome, but the exact pathogenesis remains unclear. H. pylori in the human stomach cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancers. H. pylori infection also induces insulin resistance and has been defined as a predisposing factor to T2D development. Gastric and fecal microbiota may have been changed in H. pylori-infected persons and mice to promote gastric inflammation and specific diseases. However, the interaction of H. pylori and gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism also remains unknown. Further studies aim to identify the H. pylori-microbiota-host metabolism axis and to test if H. pylori eradication or modification of gut microbiota can improve the control of human metabolic disorders.

  5. Effect of metformin on metabolic improvement and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heetae; Ko, GwangPyo

    2014-10-01

    Metformin is commonly used as the first line of medication for the treatment of metabolic syndromes, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, metformin-induced changes in the gut microbiota have been reported; however, the relationship between metformin treatment and the gut microbiota remains unclear. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota was investigated using a mouse model of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity with and without metformin treatment. As expected, metformin treatment improved markers of metabolic disorders, including serum glucose levels, body weight, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, Akkermansia muciniphila (12.44%±5.26%) and Clostridium cocleatum (0.10%±0.09%) abundances increased significantly after metformin treatment of mice on the HFD. The relative abundance of A. muciniphila in the fecal microbiota was also found to increase in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium supplemented with metformin in vitro. In addition to the changes in the microbiota associated with metformin treatment, when other influences were controlled for, a total of 18 KEGG metabolic pathways (including those for sphingolipid and fatty acid metabolism) were significantly upregulated in the gut microbiota during metformin treatment of mice on an HFD. Our results demonstrate that the gut microbiota and their metabolic pathways are influenced by metformin treatment.

  6. Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjie; Qi, Yane; Yang, Xuefei; Zhao, Lihui; Wen, Shu; Liu, Yinhui; Tang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is difficult to treat PCOS because of its complex etiology and pathogenesis. Here, we characterized the roles of gut microbiota on the pathogenesis and treatments in letrozole (a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor) induced PCOS rat model. Changes in estrous cycles, hormonal levels, ovarian morphology and gut microbiota by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR were determined. The results showed that PCOS rats displayed abnormal estrous cycles with increasing androgen biosynthesis and exhibited multiple large cysts with diminished granulosa layers in ovarian tissues. Meanwhile, the composition of gut microbiota in letrozole-treated rats was different from that in the controls. Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus and Clostridium were lower while Prevotella was higher in PCOS rats when compared with control rats. After treating PCOS rats with Lactobacillus and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy rats, it was found that the estrous cycles were improved in all 8 rats in FMT group, and in 6 of the 8 rats in Lactobacillus transplantation group with decreasing androgen biosynthesis. Their ovarian morphologies normalized. The composition of gut microbiota restored in both FMT and Lactobacillus treated groups with increasing of Lactobacillus and Clostridium, and decreasing of Prevotella. These results indicated that dysbiosis of gut microbiota was associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS. Microbiota interventions through FMT and Lactobacillus transplantation were beneficial for the treatments of PCOS rats.

  7. Gut microbiota, immunity and disease: a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele M Kosiewicz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Our immune system has evolved to recognize and eradicate pathogenic microbes. However, we have a symbiotic relationship with multiple species of bacteria that occupy the gut and comprise the natural commensal flora or microbiota. The microbiota is critically important for the breakdown of nutrients, and also assists in preventing colonization by potentially pathogenic bacteria. In addition, the gut commensal bacteria appears to be critical for the development of an optimally functioning immune system. Various studies have shown that individual species of the microbiota can induce very different types of immune cells (e.g., Th17 cells, Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and responses, suggesting that the composition of the microbiota can have an important influence on the immune response. Although the microbiota resides in the gut, it appears to have a significant impact on the systemic immune response. Indeed, specific gut commensal bacteria have been shown to affect disease development in organs other than the gut, and depending on the species, have been found to have a wide range of effects on diseases from induction and exacerbation to inhibition and protection. In this review, we will focus on the role that the gut microbiota plays in the development and progression of inflammatory/autoimmune disease, and we will also touch upon its role in allergy and cancer.

  8. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  9. Gut microbiota biomodulators, when the stork comes by the scalpel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Colasanto, Angela; Cristofori, Fernanda; Diaferio, Lucia; Ficele, Laura; Lieggi, Maria Serena; Santoiemma, Valentina; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2015-12-07

    The microbial communities that reside in the human gut (microbiota) and their impact on human health and disease are nowadays one of the most exciting new areas of research. A well-balanced microbial intestinal colonization in early postnatal life is necessary for the development of appropriate innate and adaptive immune responses and to establish immune homeostasis later in life. Although the composition and functional characteristics of a 'healthy' gut microbiota remain to be elucidated, perturbations in the microbial colonization of an infant's gastrointestinal tract have been associated with an increased risk of short- and long-term immunologically mediated diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota biomodulators, such as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics may support disease prevention in infants who tend to have a delayed and/or aberrant initial colonization with reduced microbiota diversity (delivery by caesarean section, premature delivery, and excessive use of perinatal antibiotics). Under these dysbiosis conditions probiotics could act as 'surrogate' colonizers to prevent immune-mediated diseases. This review focuses on the influence of delivery mode on the colonization of the infant gastro-intestinal tract. In particular, it examines the manipulation of the gut microbiota composition through the use of gut microbiota biomodulators, in the management of aberrant initial gut colonization and subsequent consequences for the health of the offspring.

  10. The Gut Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Friend or Foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday C. Ghoshal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, once thought to be a purely psychosomatic disease, has advanced considerably and low-grade inflammation and changes in the gut microbiota now feature as potentially important. The human gut harbours a huge microbial ecosystem, which is equipped to perform a variety of functions such as digestion of food, metabolism of drugs, detoxification of toxic compounds, production of essential vitamins, prevention of attachment of pathogenic bacteria to the gut wall, and maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. A subset of patients with IBS may have a quantitative increase in bacteria in the small bowel (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Qualitative changes in gut microbiota have also been associated with IBS. Targeting the gut microbiota using probiotics and antibiotics has emerged as a potentially effective approach to the treatment of this, hitherto enigmatic, functional bowel disorder. The gut microbiota in health, quantitative and qualitative microbiota changes, and therapeutic manipulations targeting the microbiota in patients with IBS are reviewed in this paper.

  11. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Loan Anh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes, cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism. Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  12. Influence of gut microbiota on immunological maturation in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    Maturation and function of the immune system is highly influenced by the establishment of the microbiota in the gut, which in turn, particularly in infancy, is influenced by factors such as maternal microbiota and the environment, including diet. Studies have shown that although lymph nodes...

  13. Manipulation of the Gut Microbiota Reveals Role in Colon Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackular, Joseph P.; Baxter, Nielson T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is growing evidence that individuals with colonic adenomas and carcinomas harbor a distinct microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbiota may allow the outgrowth of bacterial populations that induce genomic mutations or exacerbate tumor-promoting inflammation. In addition, it is likely that the loss of key bacterial populations may result in the loss of protective functions that are normally provided by the microbiota. We explored the role of the gut microbiota in colon tumorigenesis by using an inflammation-based murine model. We observed that perturbing the microbiota with different combinations of antibiotics reduced the number of tumors at the end of the model. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we successfully modeled the number of tumors that developed over the course of the model on the basis of the initial composition of the microbiota. The timing of antibiotic treatment was an important determinant of tumor outcome, as colon tumorigenesis was arrested by the use of antibiotics during the early inflammation period of the murine model. Together, these results indicate that it is possible to predict colon tumorigenesis on the basis of the composition of the microbiota and that altering the gut microbiota can alter the course of tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE Mounting evidence indicates that alterations to the gut microbiota, the complex community of bacteria that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract, are strongly associated with the development of colorectal cancer. We used antibiotic perturbations to a murine model of inflammation-driven colon cancer to generate eight starting communities that resulted in various severities of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we were able to quantitatively predict the final number of tumors on the basis of the initial composition of the gut microbiota. These results further bolster the evidence that the gut microbiota is involved in mediating the development of colorectal cancer. As a final proof of

  14. Gut-Brain Axis: The Role of Gut Microbiota in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Evrensel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is essential to human health, playing a major and important role in the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. There is significant evidence linking gut microbiota and metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, anxiety, depression. New studies show microbiota can activate immune system, neural pathways and central nervous system signaling systems, including commensal, probiotic and pathogenic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. This microorganisms are capable of producing and delivering neuroactive substances such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin, which act on the gut-brain axis. Preclinical evaluation in rodents suggests that certain probiotics possess antidepressant or anxiolytic activity. Effects may be mediated via the vagus nerve, spinal cord, immune system or neuroendocrine systems. Here we review recent literature that examines the impact of gut microbiota on the brain, behavior and psychiatric disorders.

  15. Challenges of metabolomics in human gut microbiota research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Kirill S; Maier, Tanja V; Walker, Alesia; Heinzmann, Silke S; Forcisi, Sara; Martinez, Inés; Walter, Jens; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The review highlights the role of metabolomics in studying human gut microbial metabolism. Microbial communities in our gut exert a multitude of functions with huge impact on human health and disease. Within the meta-omics discipline, gut microbiome is studied by (meta)genomics, (meta)transcriptomics, (meta)proteomics and metabolomics. The goal of metabolomics research applied to fecal samples is to perform their metabolic profiling, to quantify compounds and classes of interest, to characterize small molecules produced by gut microbes. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are main technologies that are applied in fecal metabolomics. Metabolomics studies have been increasingly used in gut microbiota related research regarding health and disease with main focus on understanding inflammatory bowel diseases. The elucidated metabolites in this field are summarized in this review. We also addressed the main challenges of metabolomics in current and future gut microbiota research. The first challenge reflects the need of adequate analytical tools and pipelines, including sample handling, selection of appropriate equipment, and statistical evaluation to enable meaningful biological interpretation. The second challenge is related to the choice of the right animal model for studies on gut microbiota. We exemplified this using NMR spectroscopy for the investigation of cross-species comparison of fecal metabolite profiles. Finally, we present the problem of variability of human gut microbiota and metabolome that has important consequences on the concepts of personalized nutrition and medicine.

  16. Brain-gut-microbiota axis in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-10-07

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alpha-synucleinopathy that affects all levels of the brain-gut axis including the central, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Recently, it has been recognized that the brain-gut axis interactions are significantly modulated by the gut microbiota via immunological, neuroendocrine, and direct neural mechanisms. Dysregulation of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in PD may be associated with gastrointestinal manifestations frequently preceding motor symptoms, as well as with the pathogenesis of PD itself, supporting the hypothesis that the pathological process is spread from the gut to the brain. Excessive stimulation of the innate immune system resulting from gut dysbiosis and/or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability may induce systemic inflammation, while activation of enteric neurons and enteric glial cells may contribute to the initiation of alpha-synuclein misfolding. Additionally, the adaptive immune system may be disturbed by bacterial proteins cross-reacting with human antigens. A better understanding of the brain-gut-microbiota axis interactions should bring a new insight in the pathophysiology of PD and permit an earlier diagnosis with a focus on peripheral biomarkers within the enteric nervous system. Novel therapeutic options aimed at modifying the gut microbiota composition and enhancing the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity in PD patients could influence the initial step of the following cascade of neurodegeneration in PD.

  17. Handling stress may confound murine gut microbiota studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary R. Allen-Blevins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO, the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis, a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004. Exposure to gut bacteria like B. infantisduring critical neurodevelopment windows in early life appears to have behavioral consequences; however, environmental, physical, and social stress during this period can also have behavioral and microbial consequences. While rodent models are a useful method for determining causal relationships between HMO, gut microbiota, and behavior, murine studies of gut microbiota usually employ oral gavage, a technique stressful to the mouse. Our aim was to develop a less-invasive technique for HMO administration to remove the potential confound of gavage stress. Under the hypothesis that stress affects gut microbiota, particularly B. infantis, we predicted the pups receiving a prebiotic solution in a less-invasive manner would have the highest amount of Bifidobacteria in their gut. Methods This study was designed to test two methods, active and passive, of solution administration to mice and the effects on their gut microbiome. Neonatal C57BL/6J mice housed in a specific-pathogen free facility received increasing doses of fructooligosaccharide (FOS solution or deionized, distilled water. Gastrointestinal (GI tracts were collected from five dams, six sires, and 41 pups over four time points. Seven fecal pellets from unhandled pups and two pellets from unhandled dams were also collected. Qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was used to quantify and compare the amount of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Bacteroidetes, and

  18. Handling stress may confound murine gut microbiota studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Blevins, Cary R.; You, Xiaomeng; Hinde, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004). Exposure to gut bacteria like B. infantisduring critical neurodevelopment windows in early life appears to have behavioral consequences; however, environmental, physical, and social stress during this period can also have behavioral and microbial consequences. While rodent models are a useful method for determining causal relationships between HMO, gut microbiota, and behavior, murine studies of gut microbiota usually employ oral gavage, a technique stressful to the mouse. Our aim was to develop a less-invasive technique for HMO administration to remove the potential confound of gavage stress. Under the hypothesis that stress affects gut microbiota, particularly B. infantis, we predicted the pups receiving a prebiotic solution in a less-invasive manner would have the highest amount of Bifidobacteria in their gut. Methods This study was designed to test two methods, active and passive, of solution administration to mice and the effects on their gut microbiome. Neonatal C57BL/6J mice housed in a specific-pathogen free facility received increasing doses of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) solution or deionized, distilled water. Gastrointestinal (GI) tracts were collected from five dams, six sires, and 41 pups over four time points. Seven fecal pellets from unhandled pups and two pellets from unhandled dams were also collected. Qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify and compare the amount of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes

  19. Handling stress may confound murine gut microbiota studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Blevins, Cary R; You, Xiaomeng; Hinde, Katie; Sela, David A

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004). Exposure to gut bacteria like B. infantisduring critical neurodevelopment windows in early life appears to have behavioral consequences; however, environmental, physical, and social stress during this period can also have behavioral and microbial consequences. While rodent models are a useful method for determining causal relationships between HMO, gut microbiota, and behavior, murine studies of gut microbiota usually employ oral gavage, a technique stressful to the mouse. Our aim was to develop a less-invasive technique for HMO administration to remove the potential confound of gavage stress. Under the hypothesis that stress affects gut microbiota, particularly B. infantis, we predicted the pups receiving a prebiotic solution in a less-invasive manner would have the highest amount of Bifidobacteria in their gut. This study was designed to test two methods, active and passive, of solution administration to mice and the effects on their gut microbiome. Neonatal C57BL/6J mice housed in a specific-pathogen free facility received increasing doses of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) solution or deionized, distilled water. Gastrointestinal (GI) tracts were collected from five dams, six sires, and 41 pups over four time points. Seven fecal pellets from unhandled pups and two pellets from unhandled dams were also collected. Qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify and compare the amount of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Our results demonstrate

  20. Gut Microbiota as Potential Orchestrators of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial functional disorder with no clearly defined etiology or pathophysiology. Modern culture-independent techniques have improved the understanding of the gut microbiota’s composition and demonstrated that an altered gut microbiota profile might be found in at least some subgroups of IBS patients. Research on IBS from a microbial perspective is gaining momentum and advancing. This review will therefore highlight potential links between the gut mic...

  1. The impact of the postnatal gut microbiota on animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Ejsing-Duun, Maria; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Quality control of laboratory animals has been mostly concentrated on eliminating and securing the absence of specific infections, but event barrier bred laboratory animals harbour a huge number of gut bacteria. There is scientific evidence that the nature of the gut microbiota especially in early...... correlated to factors related to early exposure to microorganisms, e.g. the so-called hygiene hypothesis claims that the increasing human incidence of allergy. T1D, RA and IBD may be due to the lack of such exposure. It is possible today by various molecular techniques to profile the gut microbiota...

  2. Gut microbiota promote hematopoiesis to control bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Arya; Yáñez, Alberto; Price, Jeremy G; Chow, Andrew; Merad, Miriam; Goodridge, Helen S; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2014-03-12

    The commensal microbiota impacts specific immune cell populations and their functions at peripheral sites, such as gut mucosal tissues. However, it remains unknown whether gut microbiota control immunity through regulation of hematopoiesis at primary immune sites. We reveal that germ-free mice display reduced proportions and differentiation potential of specific myeloid cell progenitors of both yolk sac and bone marrow origin. Homeostatic innate immune defects may lead to impaired early responses to pathogens. Indeed, following systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes, germ-free and oral-antibiotic-treated mice display increased pathogen burden and acute death. Recolonization of germ-free mice with a complex microbiota restores defects in myelopoiesis and resistance to Listeria. These findings reveal that gut bacteria direct innate immune cell development via promoting hematopoiesis, contributing to our appreciation of the deep evolutionary connection between mammals and their microbiota.

  3. The Role of the Gut Microbiota in Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Andreas Friis; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Stjernholm, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The pathogenesis of obesity is complex and multifactorial, in which genetic and environmental contributions seem important. The gut microbiota is increasingly documented to be involved in the dysmetabolism...... associated with obesity. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search for literature available before October 2015 in the PubMed and Scopus databases, focusing on the interplay between the gut microbiota, childhood obesity, and metabolism. RESULTS: The review discusses the potential role of the bacterial...... component of the human gut microbiota in childhood and adolescent-onset obesity, with a special focus on the factors involved in the early development of the gut bacterial ecosystem, and how modulation of this microbial community might serve as a basis for new therapeutic strategies in combating childhood...

  4. Beyond gut microbiota: understanding obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eva; Carvalho, Davide; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Barbosa, José-Adelino; Freitas, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are metabolic diseases that have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Although their etiology is complex, both result from interplay between behaviour, environment and genetic factors. Within ambient determinants, human overall gut bacteria have been identified as a crucial mediator of obesity and its consequences. Gut microbiota plays a crucial role in gastro-intestinal mucosa permeability and regulates the fermentation and absorption of dietary polyssacharides, which may explain its importance in the regulation of fat accumulation and the resultant development of obesity-related diseases. The main objective of this review is to address the pathogenic association between gut microbiota and obesity and to explore related innovative therapeutic targets. New insights into the role of the small bowel and gut microbiota in diabetes and obesity may make possible the development of integrated strategies to prevent and treat these metabolic disorders.

  5. Gut microbiota dictates the metabolic response of Drosophila to diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Adam C-N; Dobson, Adam J; Douglas, Angela E

    2014-06-01

    Animal nutrition is profoundly influenced by the gut microbiota, but knowledge of the scope and core mechanisms of the underlying animal-microbiota interactions is fragmentary. To investigate the nutritional traits shaped by the gut microbiota of Drosophila, we determined the microbiota-dependent response of multiple metabolic and performance indices to systematically varied diet composition. Diet-dependent differences between Drosophila bearing its unmanipulated microbiota (conventional flies) and experimentally deprived of its microbiota (axenic flies) revealed evidence for: microbial sparing of dietary B vitamins, especially riboflavin, on low-yeast diets; microbial promotion of protein nutrition, particularly in females; and microbiota-mediated suppression of lipid/carbohydrate storage, especially on high sugar diets. The microbiota also sets the relationship between energy storage and body mass, indicative of microbial modulation of the host signaling networks that coordinate metabolism with body size. This analysis identifies the multiple impacts of the microbiota on the metabolism of Drosophila, and demonstrates that the significance of these different interactions varies with diet composition and host sex.

  6. Manipulating the gut microbiota to maintain health and treat disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Scott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intestinal microbiota composition varies between healthy and diseased individuals for numerous diseases. Although any cause or effect relationship between the alterations in the gut microbiota and disease is not always clear, targeting the intestinal microbiota might offer new possibilities for prevention and/or treatment of disease. Objective: Here we review some examples of manipulating the intestinal microbiota by prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbial transplants. Results: Prebiotics are best known for their ability to increase the number of bifidobacteria. However, specific prebiotics could potentially also stimulate other species they can also stimulate other species associated with health, like Akkermansia muciniphila, Ruminococcus bromii, the Roseburia/Enterococcus rectale group, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Probiotics have beneficial health effects for different diseases and digestive symptoms. These effects can be due to the direct effect of the probiotic bacterium or its products itself, as well as effects of the probiotic on the resident microbiota. Probiotics can influence the microbiota composition as well as the activity of the resident microbiota. Fecal microbial transplants are a drastic intervention in the gut microbiota, aiming for total replacement of one microbiota by another. With numerous successful studies related to antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection, the potential of fecal microbial transplants to treat other diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders is under investigation. Conclusions: Improved knowledge on the specific role of gut microbiota in prevention and treatment of disease will help more targeted manipulation of the intestinal microbiota. Further studies are necessary to see the (long term effects for health of these interventions.

  7. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahe, Lena K; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli H

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity-related metabolic diseases and the potential of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease prevention and treatment.

  8. Interaction between dietary lipids and gut microbiota regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caesar, Robert; Nygren, Heli; Orešič, Matej;

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota influences many aspects of host metabolism. We have previously shown that the presence of a gut microbiota remodels lipid composition. Here we investigated how interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids regulates lipid composition in the liver and plasma, and gene...... of most lipid classes differed between mice fed lard and fish oil. However, the gut microbiota also affected lipid composition. The gut microbiota increased hepatic levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in mice fed lard, but not in mice fed fish oil. Serum levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl...... esters were not affected by the gut microbiota. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated by the gut microbiota in mice fed lard and were expressed at a low level in mice fed fish oil independent of microbial status. In summary, we show that gut microbiota...

  9. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity-related metabolic diseases and the potential of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease prevention and treatment. PMID:26773017

  10. Selective inbreeding does not increase gut microbiota similarity in BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Wanyong; Stradiotto, Damiano; Krych, Lukasz;

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases in mouse models are under strong impact from the gut microbiota. Therefore increased interindividual gut microbiota similarity may be seen as a way to reduce group sizes in mouse experiments. The composition of the gut microbiota is to a high extent defined by genetics......, and it is known that selecting siblings as mothers even in inbred colonies may increase the gut microbiota similarity among the mice with 3-4%. We therefore hypothesized that selective breeding of mice aiming at a high similarity in the gut microbiota would increase the interindividual similarity of the gut...... microbiota. BALB/cCrl mice were, however, found to have a mean heterozygosity of only 0.8% in their genome, and selection of breeders with a high similarity in the gut microbiota for three generations did not change the overall gut microbiota similarity, which was 66% in the P generation and 66%, 64% and 63...

  11. Interactions of gut microbiota with functional food components and nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laparra, J M; Sanz, Y

    2010-03-01

    The human gut is populated by an array of bacterial species, which develop important metabolic and immune functions, with a marked effect on the nutritional and health status of the host. Dietary component also play beneficial roles beyond basic nutrition, leading to the development of the functional food concept and nutraceuticals. Prebiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and phytochemicals are the most well characterized dietary bioactive compounds. The beneficial effects of prebiotics mainly relay on their influence on the gut microbiota composition and their ability to generate fermentation products (short-chain fatty acids) with diverse biological roles. PUFAs include the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, whose balance may influence diverse aspects of immunity and metabolism. Moreover, interactions between PUFAs and components of the gut microbiota may also influence their biological roles. Phytochemicals are bioactive non-nutrient plant compounds, which have raised interest because of their potential effects as antioxidants, antiestrogenics, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticarcinogenics. However, the bioavailability and effects of polyphenols greatly depend on their transformation by components of the gut microbiota. Phytochemicals and their metabolic products may also inhibit pathogenic bacteria while stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria, exerting prebiotic-like effects. Therefore, the intestinal microbiota is both a target for nutritional intervention and a factor influencing the biological activity of other food compounds acquired orally. This review focuses on the reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiota and functional food components, and the consequences of these interactions on human health. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Melatonin prevents obesity through modulation of gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Wang, Jialin; Hong, Fan; Wang, Sheng; Jin, Xi; Xue, Tingting; Jia, Li; Zhai, Yonggong

    2017-02-15

    Excess weight and obesity are severe public health threats worldwide. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to obesity and its comorbidities. The body weight-reducing and energy balancing effects of melatonin have been reported in several studies, but to date, no investigations toward examining whether the beneficial effects of melatonin are associated with gut microbiota have been carried out. In this study, we show that melatonin reduces body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as improving insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. High-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA demonstrated that melatonin treatment significantly changed the composition of the gut microbiota in mice fed an HFD. The richness and diversity of gut microbiota were notably decreased by melatonin. HFD feeding altered 69 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) compare with a normal chow diet (NCD) group, and melatonin supplementation reversed 14 OTUs to the same configuration than those present in the NCD group, thereby impacting various functions, in particular through its ability to decrease the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and increase the abundance of mucin-degrading bacteria Akkermansia, which is associated with healthy mucosa. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin may be used as a probiotic agent to reverse HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and help us to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms governing the various melatonin beneficial effects.

  13. Iron supplementation promotes gut microbiota metabolic activity but not colitis markers in human gut microbiota-associated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Alexandra; Lacroix, Christophe; Pham, Van T; Zimmermann, Michael B; Del'homme, Christophe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Chassard, Christophe

    2014-06-28

    The global prevalence of Fe deficiency is high and a common corrective strategy is oral Fe supplementation, which may affect the commensal gut microbiota and gastrointestinal health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different dietary Fe concentrations on the gut microbiota and gut health of rats inoculated with human faecal microbiota. Rats (8 weeks old, n 40) were divided into five (n 8 each) groups and fed diets differing only in Fe concentration during an Fe-depletion period (12 weeks) and an Fe-repletion period (4 weeks) as follows: (1) Fe-sufficient diet throughout the study period; (2) Fe-sufficient diet followed by 70 mg Fe/kg diet; (3) Fe-depleted diet throughout the study period; (4) Fe-depleted diet followed by 35 mg Fe/kg diet; (5) Fe-depleted diet followed by 70 mg Fe/kg diet. Faecal and caecal samples were analysed for gut microbiota composition (quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing) and bacterial metabolites (HPLC), and intestinal tissue samples were investigated histologically. Fe depletion did not significantly alter dominant populations of the gut microbiota and did not induce Fe-deficiency anaemia in the studied rats. Provision of the 35 mg Fe/kg diet after feeding an Fe-deficient diet significantly increased the abundance of dominant bacterial groups such as Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium cluster IV members compared with that of an Fe-deficient diet. Fe supplementation increased gut microbial butyrate concentration 6-fold compared with Fe depletion and did not affect histological colitis scores. The present results suggest that Fe supplementation enhances the concentration of beneficial gut microbiota metabolites and thus may contribute to gut health.

  14. Fecal menaquinone profiles of overweight adults are associated with gut microbiota composition during a gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Fu, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zhao, Yufeng; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Chenhong; Wolfe, Benjamin E; Saltzman, Edward; Zhao, Liping; Booth, Sarah L

    2015-07-01

    Emerging evidence supports novel roles for vitamin K in cardiometabolic health, some of which may be unique to the bacterially synthesized vitamin K forms known as menaquinones. However, factors influencing menaquinone biosynthesis by the gut microbiota and associations with cardiometabolic health have not been examined. The objective of this study was to identify associations between fecal menaquinone profiles, gut microbiota composition, and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health. The menaquinone profile and gut microbiota structure were periodically measured in fecal samples collected from 77 overweight Chinese adults who consumed a prescribed diet previously shown to alter gut microbiota composition and to improve cardiometabolic biomarkers. Covariance among menaquinones within individual fecal samples partitioned individuals into 2 distinct groups, herein introduced as menaquinotypes of the human gut. Menaquinotypes were characterized by differences in menaquinone (MK) 5 and MK9-MK13 and differences in the relative abundance of several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) delineated at the species level, predominantly within the genera Prevotella spp. and Bacteroides spp. Fecal MK4, MK6, and MK8 decreased during the intervention (P 100 OTUs were associated with altered fecal content of ≥1 individual menaquinone. The strongest and most consistent relations were between Prevotella spp. and MK5 and MK11-MK13, between Bacteroides spp. and MK9 and MK10, and between Escherichia/Shigella spp. and MK8. Neither individual menaquinones nor menaquinotypes were longitudinally associated with markers of glycemia, insulin resistance, or inflammation. These findings suggest that variability in fecal menaquinone content is predominantly determined by relatively few genera within the gut microbiota and that diet-mediated alterations in gut microbiota composition may provide a feasible approach for altering gut menaquinone content. This trial was registered at the Chinese

  15. Diet strongly influences the gut microbiota of surgeonfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Miyake, Sou

    2015-01-20

    Intestinal tracts are among the most densely populated microbial ecosystems. Gut microbiota and their influence on the host have been well characterized in terrestrial vertebrates but much less so in fish. This is especially true for coral reef fishes, which are among the most abundant groups of vertebrates on earth. Surgeonfishes (family: Acanthuridae) are part of a large and diverse family of reef fish that display a wide range of feeding behaviours, which in turn has a strong impact on the reef ecology. Here, we studied the composition of the gut microbiota of nine surgeonfish and three nonsurgeonfish species from the Red Sea. High-throughput pyrosequencing results showed that members of the phylum Firmicutes, especially of the genus Epulopiscium, were dominant in the gut microbiota of seven surgeonfishes. Even so, there were large inter- and intraspecies differences in the diversity of surgeonfish microbiota. Replicates of the same host species shared only a small number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), although these accounted for most of the sequences. There was a statistically significant correlation between the phylogeny of the host and their gut microbiota, but the two were not completely congruent. Notably, the gut microbiota of three nonsurgeonfish species clustered with some surgeonfish species. The microbiota of the macro- and microalgavores was distinct, while the microbiota of the others (carnivores, omnivores and detritivores) seemed to be transient and dynamic. Despite some anomalies, both host phylogeny and diet were important drivers for the intestinal microbial community structure of surgeonfishes from the Red Sea. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Composition of the gut microbiota modulates the severity of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, Nicolas F; LeCleir, Gary R; Denny, Joshua E; Dearth, Stephen P; Harding, Christopher L; Sloan, Sarah S; Gribble, Jennifer L; Campagna, Shawn R; Wilhelm, Steven W; Schmidt, Nathan W

    2016-02-23

    Plasmodium infections result in clinical presentations that range from asymptomatic to severe malaria, resulting in ∼1 million deaths annually. Despite this toll on humanity, the factors that determine disease severity remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the gut microbiota of mice influences the pathogenesis of malaria. Genetically similar mice from different commercial vendors, which exhibited differences in their gut bacterial community, had significant differences in parasite burden and mortality after infection with multiple Plasmodium species. Germfree mice that received cecal content transplants from "resistant" or "susceptible" mice had low and high parasite burdens, respectively, demonstrating the gut microbiota shaped the severity of malaria. Among differences in the gut flora were increased abundances of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in resistant mice. Susceptible mice treated with antibiotics followed by yogurt made from these bacterial genera displayed a decreased parasite burden. Consistent with differences in parasite burden, resistant mice exhibited an elevated humoral immune response compared with susceptible mice. Collectively, these results identify the composition of the gut microbiota as a previously unidentified risk factor for severe malaria and modulation of the gut microbiota (e.g., probiotics) as a potential treatment to decrease parasite burden.

  17. The endocannabinoid system links gut microbiota to adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccioli, Giulio G; Naslain, Damien; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Reigstad, Christopher S; Lambert, Didier M; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2010-07-01

    Obesity is characterised by altered gut microbiota, low-grade inflammation and increased endocannabinoid (eCB) system tone; however, a clear connection between gut microbiota and eCB signalling has yet to be confirmed. Here, we report that gut microbiota modulate the intestinal eCB system tone, which in turn regulates gut permeability and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. The impact of the increased plasma LPS levels and eCB system tone found in obesity on adipose tissue metabolism (e.g. differentiation and lipogenesis) remains unknown. By interfering with the eCB system using CB(1) agonist and antagonist in lean and obese mouse models, we found that the eCB system controls gut permeability and adipogenesis. We also show that LPS acts as a master switch to control adipose tissue metabolism both in vivo and ex vivo by blocking cannabinoid-driven adipogenesis. These data indicate that gut microbiota determine adipose tissue physiology through LPS-eCB system regulatory loops and may have critical functions in adipose tissue plasticity during obesity.

  18. Response of Gut Microbiota to Fasting and Hibernation in Syrian Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were all...

  19. The gut microbiota and its relationship to diet and obesity: New insights

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Siobhan F.; Murphy, Eileen F.; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Ross, Paul R.; Shanahan, Fergus; O’Toole, Paul W.; Cotter, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Obesity develops from a prolonged imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the relatively recent discovery that the composition and function of the gut microbiota impacts on obesity has lead to an explosion of interest in what is now a distinct research field. Here, research relating to the links between the gut microbiota, diet and obesity will be reviewed under five major headings: (1) the gut microbiota of lean and obese animals, (2) the composition of the gut microbiota...

  20. Gut Microbiota and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Insights on Mechanism and Application of Metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    Xuyun He; Guang Ji; Wei Jia; Houkai Li

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota are intricately involved in the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. In the current review, we discuss the role of gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD by focusing on the mechanisms of gut microbiota-mediated host energy metabolism, insulin resistance, regulation of bile acids and choline metabolism, as well as gut microbiota-targeted therapy. We also discuss the applic...

  1. Gut Microbiota: A Modulator of Brain Plasticity and Cognitive Function in Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Leung; Sandrine Thuret

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota have recently been a topic of great interest in the field of microbiology, particularly their role in normal physiology and its influence on human health in disease. A large body of research has supported the presence of a pathway of communication between the gut and the brain, modulated by gut microbiota, giving rise to the term “microbiota-gut-brain” axis. It is now thought that, through this pathway, microbiota can affect behaviour and modulate brain plasticity and cognitive...

  2. The gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bettina Merete Pyndt; Redrobe, Paul; Brønnum Pedersen, Tina

    The gut microbiota has major impact on the individual. Here we show that the gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia. The gut microbiota were changed in the group treated subchronic with PCP, and restoration coincided with normalisation...

  3. Human Gut Microbiota: Toward an Ecology of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber-Hnatiw, Susannah; Rukundo, Belise; Ahmadi, Masoumeh; Akoubi, Hayfa; Al-Bizri, Hend; Aliu, Adelekan F.; Ambeaghen, Tanyi U.; Avetisyan, Lilit; Bahar, Irmak; Baird, Alexandra; Begum, Fatema; Ben Soussan, Hélène; Blondeau-Éthier, Virginie; Bordaries, Roxane; Bramwell, Helene; Briggs, Alicia; Bui, Richard; Carnevale, Matthew; Chancharoen, Marisa; Chevassus, Talia; Choi, Jin H.; Coulombe, Karyne; Couvrette, Florence; D'Abreau, Samantha; Davies, Meghan; Desbiens, Marie-Pier; Di Maulo, Tamara; Di Paolo, Sean-Anthony; Do Ponte, Sabrina; dos Santos Ribeiro, Priscyla; Dubuc-Kanary, Laure-Anne; Duncan, Paola K.; Dupuis, Frédérique; El-Nounou, Sara; Eyangos, Christina N.; Ferguson, Natasha K.; Flores-Chinchilla, Nancy R.; Fotakis, Tanya; Gado Oumarou H D, Mariam; Georgiev, Metodi; Ghiassy, Seyedehnazanin; Glibetic, Natalija; Grégoire Bouchard, Julien; Hassan, Tazkia; Huseen, Iman; Ibuna Quilatan, Marlon-Francis; Iozzo, Tania; Islam, Safina; Jaunky, Dilan B.; Jeyasegaram, Aniththa; Johnston, Marc-André; Kahler, Matthew R.; Kaler, Kiranpreet; Kamani, Cedric; Karimian Rad, Hessam; Konidis, Elisavet; Konieczny, Filip; Kurianowicz, Sandra; Lamothe, Philippe; Legros, Karina; Leroux, Sebastien; Li, Jun; Lozano Rodriguez, Monica E.; Luponio-Yoffe, Sean; Maalouf, Yara; Mantha, Jessica; McCormick, Melissa; Mondragon, Pamela; Narayana, Thivaedee; Neretin, Elizaveta; Nguyen, Thi T. T.; Niu, Ian; Nkemazem, Romeo B.; O'Donovan, Martin; Oueis, Matthew; Paquette, Stevens; Patel, Nehal; Pecsi, Emily; Peters, Jackie; Pettorelli, Annie; Poirier, Cassandra; Pompa, Victoria R.; Rajen, Harshvardhan; Ralph, Reginald-Olivier; Rosales-Vasquez, Josué; Rubinshtein, Daria; Sakr, Surya; Sebai, Mohammad S.; Serravalle, Lisa; Sidibe, Fily; Sinnathurai, Ahnjana; Soho, Dominique; Sundarakrishnan, Adithi; Svistkova, Veronika; Ugbeye, Tsolaye E.; Vasconcelos, Megan S.; Vincelli, Michael; Voitovich, Olga; Vrabel, Pamela; Wang, Lu; Wasfi, Maryse; Zha, Cong Y.; Gamberi, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health. Emerging knowledge of the ecology of the microbiota-host synergy will have an impact on how we implement antibiotic treatment in therapeutics and prophylaxis and how we will consider alternative strategies of global remodeling of the microbiota such as fecal transplants. Here we examine the microbiota-human host relationship from the perspective of the microbial community dynamics. PMID:28769880

  4. Perinatal Programming of Asthma: The Role of Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan B. Azad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal programming, a dominant theory for the origins of cardiovascular disease, proposes that environmental stimuli influence developmental pathways during critical periods of prenatal and postnatal development, inducing permanent changes in metabolism. In this paper, we present evidence for the perinatal programming of asthma via the intestinal microbiome. While epigenetic mechanisms continue to provide new explanations for the programming hypothesis of asthma development, it is increasingly apparent that the intestinal microbiota plays an independent and potentially interactive role. Commensal gut bacteria are essential to immune system development, and exposures disrupting the infant gut microbiota have been linked to asthma. This paper summarizes the recent findings that implicate caesarean delivery, breastfeeding, perinatal stress, probiotics, and antibiotics as modifiers of infant gut microbiota in the development of asthma.

  5. From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eQuercia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The gut microbiota continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily variations in diet or specific host physiological and immunological needs at different ages. On the other hand, the microbiota plasticity was strategic to face changes in lifestyle and dietary habits along the course of the recent evolutionary history, that has driven the passage from Paleolithic hunter-gathering societies to Neolithic agricultural farmers to modern Westernized societies.

  6. Different Flavonoids Can Shape Unique Gut Microbiota Profile In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiacheng; Chen, Long; Xue, Bin; Liu, Qianyue; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2016-09-01

    The impact of flavonoids has been discussed on the relative viability of bacterial groups in human microbiota. This study was aimed to compare the modulation of various flavonoids, including quercetin, catechin and puerarin, on gut microbiota culture in vitro, and analyze the interactions between bacterial species using fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as carbon source under the stress of flavonoids. Three plant flavonoids, quercetin, catechin, and puerarin, were added into multispecies culture to ferment for 24 h, respectively. The bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons were sequenced, and the composition of microbiota community was analyzed. The results revealed that the tested flavonoids, quercetin, catechin, and puerarin, presented different activities of regulating gut microbiota; flavonoid aglycones, but not glycosides, may inhibit growth of certain species. Quercetin and catechin shaped unique biological webs. Bifidobacterium spp. was the center of the biological web constructed in this study.

  7. Gut Microbiota: Association with NAFLD and Metabolic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic expression of metabolic syndrome, being frequently associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Recent lines of evidence have demonstrated a role of gut microbiota in insulin resistance, obesity, and associated metabolic disturbances, raising the interest in its relationship with NAFLD pathogenesis. Therefore, intestinal microbiota has emerged as a potential factor involved in NAFLD, through different pathways, including its influence in energy storage, lipid and choline metabolism, ethanol production, immune balance, and inflammation. The main objective of this review is to address the pathogenic association of gut microbiota to NAFLD. This comprehension may allow the development of integrated strategies to modulate intestinal microbiota in order to treat NAFLD.

  8. Persistent Gut Microbiota Immaturity in Malnourished Bangladeshi Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sathish; Huq, Sayeeda; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Haque, Rashidul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Alam, Mohammed A.; Benezra, Amber; DeStefano, Joseph; Meier, Martin F.; Muegge, Brian D.; Barratt, Michael J.; VanArendonk, Laura G.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Province, Michael A.; Petri, William A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic food interventions have reduced mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) but incomplete restoration of healthy growth remains a major problem1,2. The relationships between the type of nutritional intervention, the gut microbiota, and therapeutic responses are unclear. In the current study, bacterial species whose proportional representation define a healthy gut microbiota as it assembles during the first two postnatal years were identified by applying a machine-learning-based approach to 16S rRNA datasets generated from monthly fecal samples obtained from a birth-cohort of children, living in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who exhibited consistently healthy growth. These age-discriminatory bacterial species were incorporated into a model that computes a ‘relative microbiota maturity index’ and ‘microbiota-for-age Z-score’ that compare development (defined here as maturation) of a child’s fecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronologic age. The model was applied to twins and triplets (to test for associations of these indices with genetic and environmental factors including diarrhea), children with SAM enrolled in a randomized trial of two food interventions, and children with moderate acute malnutrition. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with significant relative microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated following two widely used nutritional interventions. Immaturity is also evident in less severe forms of malnutrition and correlates with anthropometric measurements. Microbiota maturity indices provide a microbial measure of human postnatal development, a way of classifying malnourished states, and a parameter for judging therapeutic efficacy. More prolonged interventions with existing or new therapeutic foods and/or addition of gut microbes may be needed to achieve enduring repair of gut microbiota immaturity in childhood malnutrition and improve clinical outcomes. PMID

  9. Exercise training modifies gut microbiota in normal and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jennifer E; Myslicki, Jason P; Bomhof, Marc R; Belke, Darrell D; Shearer, Jane; Reimer, Raylene A

    2015-07-01

    Cecal microbiota from type 2 diabetic (db/db) and control (db/(+)) mice was obtained following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise activity. qPCR analysis revealed a main effect of exercise, with greater abundance of select Firmicutes species and lower Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. in both normal and diabetic exercised mice compared with sedentary counterparts. Conversely, Bifidobacterium spp. was greater in exercised normal but not diabetic mice (exercise × diabetes interaction). How exercise influences gut microbiota requires further investigation.

  10. Type 1 diabetes and gut microbiota: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changyun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2015-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Environmental factors play an important role in the initiation of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. With the improved control of infectious disease, the incidence of autoimmune diseases, particularly type 1 diabetes, has dramatically increased in developed countries. Increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Here we focus on recent advances in this field and provide a rationale for novel therapeutic strategies targeting gut microbiota for the prevention of type 1 diabetes.

  11. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  12. Gut microbiota and obesity: lessons from the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cani, Patrice D

    2013-07-01

    The distal gut harbours microbial communities that outnumber our own eukaryotic cells. The contribution of the gut microbiota to the development of several diseases (e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes, steatosis, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases) is becoming clear, although the causality remains to be proven in humans. Global changes in the gut microbiota have been observed by a number of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, and while the latter have mostly included 16S ribosomal RNA gene analyses, more recent studies have utilized DNA sequencing of whole-microbial communities. Altogether, these high-throughput methods have facilitated the identification of novel candidate bacteria and, most importantly, metabolic functions that might be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. This review discusses the association between specific taxa and obesity, together with the techniques that are used to characterize the gut microbiota in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent results are discussed in the framework of the interactions between gut microbiota and host metabolism.

  13. Alteration in the gut microbiota provokes susceptibility to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to the host. In particular, they regulate immune homeostasis. Recently, several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbial community can cause infectious and non-infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB is the most devastating disease, inflicting mortality and morbidity. It remains unexplored, whether changes in the gut microbiota can provoke or prevent TB. In the current study, we have demonstrated the antibiotics driven changes in the gut microbial composition and their impact on the survival of Mtb in the lungs, liver and spleen of infected mice, compared to those with intact microbiota. Interestingly, dysbiosis of microbes showed significant increase in the bacterial burden in lungs and dissemination of Mtb to spleen and liver. Further, elevation in the number of Tregs and decline in the pool of IFN-γ and TNF-α releasing CD4 T cells was noticed. Interestingly, fecal transplantation in the gut microbiota disrupted animals exhibited improved Th1 immunity and lesser Tregs population. Importantly, these animals displayed reduced severity to Mtb infection. This study for the first time demonstrated the novel role of gut microbes in the susceptibility to TB and its prevention by microbial implants. In future, microbial therapies may help in treating patients suffering from TB.

  14. The Gut Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Friend or Foe?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), once thought to be a purely psychosomatic disease, has advanced considerably and low-grade inflammation and changes in the gut microbiota now feature as potentially important. The human gut harbours a huge microbial ecosystem, which is equipped to perform a variety of functions such as digestion of food, metabolism of drugs, detoxification of toxic compounds, production of essential vitamins, prevention of...

  15. Cultivating Healthy Growth and Nutrition through the Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sathish; Blanton, Laura; Frese, Steven A.; Charbonneau, Mark; Mills, David A.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota assembly is perturbed in children with undernutrition, resulting in persistent microbiota immaturity that is not rescued by current nutritional interventions. Evidence is accumulating that this immaturity is causally related to the pathogenesis of undernutrition and its lingering sequelae. Preclinical models in which human gut communities are replicated in gnotobiotic mice have provided an opportunity to identify and predict the effects of different dietary ingredients on microbiota structure, expressed functions, and host biology. This capacity sets the stage for proof-of-concept tests designed to deliberately shape the developmental trajectory and configurations of microbiota in children representing different geographies, cultural traditions, and states of health. Developing these capabilities for microbial stewardship is timely given the global health burden of childhood undernutrition, the effects of changing eating practices brought about by globalization, and the realization that affordable nutritious foods need to be developed to enhance our capacity to cultivate healthier microbiota in populations at risk for poor nutrition. PMID:25815983

  16. Interactions between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumler, Andreas J; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2016-07-07

    The microbiome has an important role in human health. Changes in the microbiota can confer resistance to or promote infection by pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotics have a profound impact on the microbiota that alters the nutritional landscape of the gut and can lead to the expansion of pathogenic populations. Pathogenic bacteria exploit microbiota-derived sources of carbon and nitrogen as nutrients and regulatory signals to promote their own growth and virulence. By eliciting inflammation, these bacteria alter the intestinal environment and use unique systems for respiration and metal acquisition to drive their expansion. Unravelling the interactions between the microbiota, the host and pathogenic bacteria will produce strategies for manipulating the microbiota against infectious diseases.

  17. Melancholic microbes: a link between gut microbiota and depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing awareness of the potential for microbiota to influence gut-brain communication in health and disease. A variety of strategies have been used to study the impact of the microbiota on brain function and these include antibiotic use, probiotic treatments, fecal microbiota transplantation, gastrointestinal infection studies, and germ-free studies. All of these approaches provide evidence to support the view that the microbiota can influence brain chemistry and consequently behavior. Efforts are now turning to investigate the role of microbiota in animal models of psychopathology. Animal models of depression are thus essential in studying the complex interplay between the microbiota and brain. Recent studies published in this Journal and elsewhere demonstrate that there is a distinct perturbation of the composition of gut microbiota in animal models of depression and chronic stress. This has direct implications for the development of psychobiotic-based therapeutic strategies for psychiatric disorders. Moreover, given that affective co-morbidities, such as major depression and anxiety states, are common in patients presenting with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it may have implications for functional bowel disorders also. Further studies require appropriately phenotyped patients with depression and/or IBS using a judicious use of techniques including functional imaging and in depth microbial pyrosequencing.

  18. The gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyndt, Bettina Merete; Redrobe, Paul; Brønnum Pedersen, Tina;

    The gut microbiota has major impact on the individual. Here we show that the gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia. The gut microbiota were changed in the group treated subchronic with PCP, and restoration coincided with normalisation...... of memory performance in lister hooded rats. Furthermore the individual gut microbiota correlated to the individual behavior abserved in the tests conducted. In conclusion results show an influence of the gut microbiota on behavior in this model, and therefore it might be relavant to include the information...

  19. Human seroreactivity to gut microbiota antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Benjamin S; Abrahamsson, Thomas R; Bernstein, Charles N; Duck, L Wayne; Mannon, Peter J; Berg, Göran; Björkstén, Bengt; Jenmalm, Maria C; Elson, Charles O

    2015-11-01

    Although immune responses directed against antigens from the intestinal microbiota are observed in certain diseases, the normal human adaptive immune response to intestinal microbiota is poorly defined. Our goal was to assess the adaptive immune response to the intestinal microbiota present in 143 healthy adults and compare this response with the response observed in 52 children and their mothers at risk of having allergic disease. Human serum was collected from adults and children followed from birth to 7 years of age, and the serum IgG response to a panel of intestinal microbiota antigens was assessed by using a novel protein microarray. Nearly every subject tested, regardless of health status, had serum IgG that recognized a common set of antigens. Seroreactivity to the panel of antigens was significantly lower in atopic adults. Healthy infants expressed the highest level of IgG seroreactivity to intestinal microbiota antigens. This adaptive response developed between 6 and 12 months of age and peaked around 2 years of age. Low IgG responses to certain clusters of microbiota antigens during infancy were associated with allergy development during childhood. There is an observed perturbation of the adaptive response to antigens from the microbiota in allergic subjects. These perturbations are observable even in childhood, suggesting that optimal stimulation of the adaptive immune system by the microbiota might be needed to prevent certain immune-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Can we prevent obesity-related metabolic diseases by dietary modulation of the gut microbiota?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut...... microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic...... diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity...

  1. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  2. Phylogenetic and Metabolic Tracking of Gut Microbiota during Perinatal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chierico, Del F.; Vernocchi, P.; Petrucca, A.; Paci, P.; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Praticò, G.; Capuani, G.; Masotti, A.; Reddel, S.; Russo, A.; Vallone, C.; Salvatori, G.; Buffone, E.; Signore, F.; Rigon, G.; Dotta, A.; Miccheli, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Dallapiccola, B.; Putignani, L.

    2015-01-01

    The colonization and development of gut microbiota immediately after birth is highly variable and depends on several factors, such as delivery mode and modality of feeding during the first months of life. A cohort of 31 mother and neonate pairs, including 25 at-term caesarean (CS) and 6 vaginally (V

  3. Gut Microbiota and Autism: Key Concepts and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Helen T.; Taur, Ying; Walkup, John T.

    2017-01-01

    There is an emerging body of evidence linking the intestinal microbiota with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies have demonstrated differences in the composition of gut bacteria between children with ASD and controls. Certain intestinal bacteria have been observed in abundance and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD; including members…

  4. Gut Microbiota and Autism: Key Concepts and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Helen T.; Taur, Ying; Walkup, John T.

    2017-01-01

    There is an emerging body of evidence linking the intestinal microbiota with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies have demonstrated differences in the composition of gut bacteria between children with ASD and controls. Certain intestinal bacteria have been observed in abundance and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD; including members…

  5. Microbiota regulation of the Mammalian gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burokas, Aurelijus; Moloney, Rachel D; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-01-01

    The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease has emerged over the past decade. The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract. Regulation of the microbiota-brain-gut axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis, including that of the CNS. The routes of this communication are not fully elucidated but include neural, humoral, immune, and metabolic pathways. A number of approaches have been used to interrogate this axis including the use of germ-free animals, probiotic agents, antibiotics, or animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections. Together, it is clear that the gut microbiota can be a key regulator of mood, cognition, pain, and obesity. Understanding microbiota-brain interactions is an exciting area of research which may contribute new insights into individual variations in cognition, personality, mood, sleep, and eating behavior, and how they contribute to a range of neuropsychiatric diseases ranging from affective disorders to autism and schizophrenia. Finally, the concept of psychobiotics, bacterial-based interventions with mental health benefit, is also emerging.

  6. Alterations in the gut microbiota associated with HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozupone, Catherine A; Li, Marcella; Campbell, Thomas B; Flores, Sonia C; Linderman, Derek; Gebert, Matthew J; Knight, Rob; Fontenot, Andrew P; Palmer, Brent E

    2013-09-11

    Understanding gut microbiota alterations associated with HIV infection and factors that drive these alterations may help explain gut-linked diseases prevalent with HIV. 16S rRNA sequencing of feces from HIV-infected individuals revealed that HIV infection is associated with highly characteristic gut community changes, and antiretroviral therapy does not consistently restore the microbiota to an HIV-negative state. Despite the chronic gut inflammation characteristic of HIV infection, the associated microbiota showed limited similarity with other inflammatory states and instead showed increased, rather than decreased, diversity. Meta-analysis revealed that the microbiota of HIV-infected individuals in the U.S. was most similar to a Prevotella-rich community composition typically observed in healthy individuals in agrarian cultures of Malawi and Venezuela and related to that of U.S. individuals with carbohydrate-rich, protein- and fat-poor diets. By evaluating innate and adaptive immune responses to lysates from bacteria that differ with HIV, we explore the functional drivers of these compositional differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does whole grain consumption alter gut microbiota and satiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Both individual whole grain cereals and interventions with combined whole grain cereals were considered. Possible links between the fermentation of non-digestible c...

  8. Gut microbiota and probiotics: Focus on diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordalo Tonucci, Livia; Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; De Luces Fortes Ferreira, Celia Lucia; Ribeiro, Sonia Machado Rocha; De Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Martino, Hercia Stampini Duarte

    2017-07-24

    The characterization of gut microbiota has become an important area of research in several clinical conditions, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Changes in the composition and/or metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can contribute to human health. Thus, this review discusses the effects of probiotics and gut microbiota on metabolic control in these individuals. Relevant studies were obtained from electronic databases such as PubMed/Medline and ISI Web of Science. The main probiotics used in these studies belonged to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The authors found seven randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials and 13 experimental studies directly related to the effect of probiotics on metabolic control in the context of T2DM. The hypothesis that gut microbiota plays a role in the development of diabetes indicates an important beginning, and the potential of probiotics to prevent and reduce the severity of T2DM is better observed in animal studies. In clinical trials, the use of probiotics in glycemic control presented conflicting results, and only few studies have attempted to evaluate factors that justify metabolic changes, such as markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and incretins. Thus, further research is needed to assess the effects of probiotics in the metabolism of diabetic individuals, as well as the main mechanisms involved in this complex relationship.

  9. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Cooper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control.

  10. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S.

    2014-01-01

    inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters...... to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions....

  11. Metabolism of Cholesterol and Bile Acids by the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gérard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The human gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex and diverse microbial community, whose collective genetic coding capacity vastly exceeds that of the human genome. As a consequence, the gut microbiota produces metabolites from a large range of molecules that host’s enzymes are not able to convert. Among these molecules, two main classes of steroids, cholesterol and bile acids, denote two different examples of bacterial metabolism in the gut. Therefore, cholesterol is mainly converted into coprostanol, a non absorbable sterol which is excreted in the feces. Moreover, this conversion occurs in a part of the human population only. Conversely, the primary bile acids (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are converted to over twenty different secondary bile acid metabolites by the gut microbiota. The main bile salt conversions, which appear in the gut of the whole human population, include deconjugation, oxidation and epimerization of hydroxyl groups at C3, C7 and C12, 7-dehydroxylation, esterification and desulfatation. If the metabolisms of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota are known for decades, their consequences on human health and disease are poorly understood and only start to be considered.

  12. Colonization Resistance of the Gut Microbiota against Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Pérez-Cobas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics strongly disrupt the human gut microbiota, which in consequence loses its colonization resistance capacity, allowing infection by opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. This bacterium is the main cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and a current problem in developed countries, since its incidence and severity have increased during the last years. Furthermore, the emergence of antibiotic resistance strains has reduced the efficiency of the standard treatment with antibiotics, leading to a higher rate of relapses. Here, we review recent efforts focused on the impact of antibiotics in the gut microbiome and their relationship with C. difficile colonization, as well as, in the identification of bacteria and mechanisms involved in the protection against C. difficile infection. Since a healthy gut microbiota is able to avoid pathogen colonization, restoration of the gut microbiota seems to be the most promising approach to face C. difficile infection, especially for recurrent cases. Therefore, it would be possible to design probiotics for patients undergoing antimicrobial therapies in order to prevent or fight the expansion of the pathogen in the gut ecosystem.

  13. Evolution of the gut microbiota and the influence of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, M; Blaut, M

    2013-03-01

    Diet is a major force that shapes the composition and activity of the gut microbiota. This is evident from alterations in gut microbiota composition after weaning or drastic dietary changes. Owing to the complexity of the microbiota, interactions of intestinal bacteria with the host are difficult to study. Gnotobiotic animal models offer the opportunity to reduce the complexity and the interindividual variability of the intestinal microbiota. Germ-free animals were associated with a simplified microbial community consisting of eight bacterial species, that are found in the human gut. These microbes were selected because their genome sequences are available, and they mimic to some extent the metabolic activity of the human gut microbiota. The microbiota responded to dietary modifications by changes in the relative proportions of the community members. This model offers the chance to better define the role of intestinal bacteria in obesity development, but little is known on how diet affects intestinal bacteria at the cellular level. Mice monoassociated with Escherichia coli were used as a simplified model to investigate the influence of dietary factors on bacterial protein expression in the intestine. The mice were fed three different diets: a carbohydrate (lactose)-rich diet, a protein-rich diet and a diet rich in starch. The lactose-rich diet led to an induction of proteins involved in E. coli's oxidative stress response (Fur, AhpF, Dps). The corresponding genes are under control of the OxyR transcriptional regulator which is activated by oxidative stress. Further experiments demonstrated that osmotic stress exerted by various carbohydrates leads to an upregulation of proteins belonging to the oxyR regulon. The data suggest that the upregulated proteins enable intestinal E. coli to better cope with diet-induced osmotic stress. These examples demonstrate that gnotobiotic animal models are a valuable tool for studying diet-induced changes at the community and the

  14. Gut Microbiota: Modulate its Complexity to Restore the Balance

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    Fermín Mearin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut microbiota to health is becoming more widely appreciated. The range of commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals and in patients with a variety of digestive diseases is under active investigation, and evidence is accumulating to suggest that both the diversity and balance of bacterial species are important for health. Disturbance of the balance of microorganisms – dysbiosis – is associated with obesity and a variety of diseases. Restoring the balance by modulating the microbiota through diet, probiotics, or drugs is now being developed as a potential treatment for digestive diseases. Rifaximin has been shown to increase levels of beneficial bacterial species without perturbing the overall composition of the microbiota in patients with a variety of digestive diseases, making it a ‘eubiotic’ rather than an antibiotic. Rifaximin has demonstrated clinical benefit in the treatment of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, where changes in the colonic microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Modulating the microbiota is also a promising treatment for some types of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS that have been linked to an overgrowth of coliform and Aeromonas species in the small intestine. Rifaximin has demonstrated efficacy in relieving symptoms and reducing relapses in diarrhoeal IBS in the TARGET-1, 2, and 3 trials, without reducing microbial diversity or increasing antimicrobial resistance. While many aspects of the balance of gut microbiota in disease are not yet fully understood, the new understanding of rifaximin as a modulator of gut microbiota may open up new treatment options in digestive disease.

  15. Gut Microbiota: From Fundamental Research to Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Bi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiota is a hot topic at present because increasing evidences demonstrate that it should be considered an organ based on its importance to human health. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is significantly related to many human disorders. In turn, correcting such imbalances and taking advantage of gut microbes are possible methods for alleviating or even curing host diseases. A recent study published in Cell indicated that inhibition of gut microbial production of trimethylamine(TMA specifically prevents atherosclerosis in vivo. Another study found that a diet supplemented with TMA N-oxide (TMAO increased the level of atherosclerosis in mice, which suggested TMAO might be a causative factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, direct inhibition of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO3, a hepatic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of TMA to TMAO, results in TMA accumulation and several unpleasant side effects. The small-molecule 3, 3-dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB, identified by Wang et al., reduces TMAO through non-lethal inhibition of microbial TMA formation in mice, even when fed a western diet, including high choline. DMB is a non-toxic compound found naturally in foods such as olive oil and red wine. Therefore, the risk of CVD could be reduced by some dietary habits (such as a Mediterranean diet, which might stem from changes in gut microbiota. Although the impact of DMB on microbial TMA has only been observed in mouse models, it provides a guideline for the treatment of CVD in humans by regulating gut microbes. There are many similar studies that target gut microbes to treat host disorders. For example, Sarkis’ group verified that a human commensal bacterium could improve autism spectrum disorder (ASD-related gastrointestinal deficits and behavioral abnormalities in mice, which indicated that microbiome-mediated therapies might be a safe and effective treatment for ASD. In addition, fecal microbiota transplantation, which has

  16. Carbohydrate Staple Food Modulates Gut Microbiota of Mongolians in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hou, Qiangchuan; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Haiyan; Sun, Zhihong; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota is a determining factor in human physiological functions and health. It is commonly accepted that diet has a major influence on the gut microbial community, however, the effects of diet is not fully understood. The typical Mongolian diet is characterized by high and frequent consumption of fermented dairy products and red meat, and low level of carbohydrates. In this study, the gut microbiota profile of 26 Mongolians whom consumed wheat, rice and oat as the sole carbohydrate staple food for a week each consecutively was determined. It was observed that changes in staple carbohydrate rapidly (within a week) altered gut microbial community structure and metabolic pathway of the subjects. Wheat and oat favored bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifodobacteriumbifidum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis); whereas rice suppressed bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and wheat suppresses Lactobaciilus, Ruminococcus and Bacteroides. The study exhibited two gut microbial clustering patterns with the preference of fucosyllactose utilization linking to fucosidase genes (glycoside hydrolase family classifications: GH95 and GH29) encoded by Bifidobacterium, and xylan and arabinoxylan utilization linking to xylanase and arabinoxylanase genes encoded by Bacteroides. There was also a correlation between Lactobacillus ruminis and sialidase, as well as Butyrivibrio crossotus and xylanase/xylosidase. Meanwhile, a strong concordance was found between the gastrointestinal bacterial microbiome and the intestinal virome. Present research will contribute to understanding the impacts of the dietary carbohydrate on human gut microbiome, which will ultimately help understand relationships between dietary factor, microbial populations, and the health of global humans. PMID:28377764

  17. Impact of probiotics on colonizing microbiota of the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Although precise mechanisms responsible for all demonstrations of probiotic health benefits are not known, many lines of evidence suggest that probiotics function through direct or indirect impact on colonizing microbiota of the gut. Probiotics can directly influence colonizing microbes through multiple mechanisms, including the production of inhibitory compounds (bacteriocins, short chain fatty acids, and others), by producing substrates that might promote the growth of colonizing microbes (secreted exopolysaccharides, vitamins, fatty acids, sugars from undigested carbohydrates and others), and by promoting immune responses against specific microbes. Indirectly, probiotics can influence colonizing microbes by inhibiting attachment through stimulated mucin production, reinforcing gut barrier effects, and downregulation of gut inflammation, thereby promoting microbes that are associated with a healthier gut physiology. Although the value of targeted changes in populations of gut bacteria is a matter of debate, increased levels of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the gut correlate with numerous health endpoints. Microbiota changes due to probiotic intake include increased numbers of related phylotypes, decreasing pathogens and their toxins, altering bacterial community structure to enhance evenness, stabilizing bacterial communities when perturbed (eg, with antibiotics), or promoting a more rapid recovery from a perturbation. Further research will provide insight into the degree of permanence of probiotic-induced changes, although research to date suggests that continued probiotic consumption is needed for sustained impact.

  18. Long term effect of gut microbiota transfer on diabetes development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Marchesi, Julian R; Benson, Andrew; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2014-09-01

    The composition of the gut microbiome represents a very important environmental factor that influences the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that MyD88-deficient non-obese diabetic (MyD88-/-NOD) mice, that were protected from T1D development, had a different composition of gut microbiota compared to wild type NOD mice. The aim of our study was to investigate whether this protection could be transferred. We demonstrate that transfer of gut microbiota from diabetes-protected MyD88-deficient NOD mice, reduced insulitis and significantly delayed the onset of diabetes. Gut bacteria from MyD88-deficient mice, administered over a 3-week period, starting at 4 weeks of age, stably altered the family composition of the gut microbiome, with principally Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae increased and Lactobacillaceae decreased. The transferred mice had a higher concentration of IgA and TGFβ in the lumen that was accompanied by an increase in CD8(+)CD103(+) and CD8αβ T cells in the lamina propria of the large intestine. These data indicate not only that gut bacterial composition can be altered after the neonatal/weaning period, but that the composition of the microbiome affects the mucosal immune system and can delay the development of autoimmune diabetes. This result has important implications for the development of probiotic treatment for T1D.

  19. Gut microbiota and probiotics in colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanmin; Michelle Luo, T; Jobin, Christian; Young, Howard A

    2011-10-28

    The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and abundant microbial community reaching as high as 10(13)-10(14) microorganisms in the colon. This endogenous microbiota forms a symbiotic relationship with their eukaryotic host and this close partnership helps maintain homeostasis by performing essential and non-redundant tasks (e.g. nutrition/energy and, immune system balance, pathogen exclusion). Although this relationship is essential and beneficial to the host, various events (e.g. infection, diet, stress, inflammation) may impact microbial composition, leading to the formation of a dysbiotic microbiota, further impacting on health and disease states. For example, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively termed inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), have been associated with the establishment of a dysbiotic microbiota. In addition, extra-intestinal disorders such as obesity and metabolic syndrome are also associated with the development of a dysbiotic microbiota. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in harnessing the power of the microbiome and modulating its composition as a means to alleviate intestinal pathologies/disorders and maintain health status. In this review, we will discuss the emerging relationship between the microbiota and development of colorectal cancer as well as present evidence that microbial manipulation (probiotic, prebiotic) impacts disease development.

  20. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... with measurements of postprandial glucose tolerance and postprandial release of insulin and gut hormones were performed before, immediately after and 6 weeks after a 4-day, broad-spectrum, per oral antibiotic cocktail (vancomycin 500 mg, gentamycin 40 mg and meropenem 500 mg once-daily) in a group of 12 lean...... and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition. Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose...

  1. Transferring the blues : Depression-associated gut microbiota induces neurobehavioural changes in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, John R; Borre, Yuliya; O' Brien, Ciaran; Patterson, Elaine; El Aidy, Sahar; Deane, Jennifer; Kennedy, Paul J; Beers, Sasja; Scott, Karen; Moloney, Gerard; Hoban, Alan E; Scott, Lucinda; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, func

  2. The gut microbiota in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi eGkouskou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestine and the intestinal immune system have evolved through a symbiotic homeostasis under which a highly diverse microbial flora is maintained in the gastrointestinal tract while pathogenic bacteria are recognized and eliminated. Disruption of the balance between the immune system and the gut microbiota results in the development of multiple pathologies in humans. Inflammatory bowel diseases have been associated with alterations in the composition of intestinal flora but whether these changes are causal or result of inflammation is still under dispute. Various chemical and genetic models of inflammatory bowel diseases have been developed and utilized to elucidate the complex relationship between intestinal epithelium, immune system and the gut microbiota. In this review we describe some of the most commonly used mouse models of colitis and Crohn’s disease and summarize the current knowledge of how changes in microbiota composition may affect intestinal disease pathogenesis. The pursuit of gut-microbiota interactions will no doubt continue to provide invaluable insight into the complex biology of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  3. Incorporation of therapeutically modified bacteria into gut microbiota inhibits obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongyi; Guo, Lilu; Zhang, Yongqin; Walzem, Rosemary L; Pendergast, Julie S; Printz, Richard L; Morris, Lindsey C; Matafonova, Elena; Stien, Xavier; Kang, Li; Coulon, Denis; McGuinness, Owen P; Niswender, Kevin D; Davies, Sean S

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, are widespread in Westernized nations. Gut microbiota composition is a contributing factor to the susceptibility of an individual to the development of these disorders; therefore, altering a person's microbiota may ameliorate disease. One potential microbiome-altering strategy is the incorporation of modified bacteria that express therapeutic factors into the gut microbiota. For example, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are precursors to the N-acylethanolamide (NAE) family of lipids, which are synthesized in the small intestine in response to feeding and reduce food intake and obesity. Here, we demonstrated that administration of engineered NAPE-expressing E. coli Nissle 1917 bacteria in drinking water for 8 weeks reduced the levels of obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice that received modified bacteria had dramatically lower food intake, adiposity, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis compared with mice receiving standard water or control bacteria. The protective effects conferred by NAPE-expressing bacteria persisted for at least 4 weeks after their removal from the drinking water. Moreover, administration of NAPE-expressing bacteria to TallyHo mice, a polygenic mouse model of obesity, inhibited weight gain. Our results demonstrate that incorporation of appropriately modified bacteria into the gut microbiota has potential as an effective strategy to inhibit the development of metabolic disorders.

  4. Linking Gut Microbiota and Inflammation to Obesity and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M J A; Santos, A; Prada, P O

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are the major predisposing factors to comorbidities, such as Type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and several types of cancer. The prevalence of obesity is still increasing worldwide and now affects a large number of individuals. Here, we review the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance/obesity. The human intestine is colonized by ∼100 trillion bacteria, which constitute the gut microbiota. Studies have shown that lean and overweight rodents and humans may present differences in the composition of their intestinal flora. Over the past 10 years, data from different sources have established a causal link between the intestinal microbiota and obesity/insulin resistance. It is important to emphasize that diet-induced obesity promotes insulin resistance by mechanisms independent and dependent on gut microbiota. In this review, we present several mechanisms that contribute to explaining the link between intestinal flora and insulin resistance/obesity. The LPS from intestinal flora bacteria can induce a chronic subclinical inflammatory process and obesity, leading to insulin resistance through activation of TLR4. The reduction in circulating SCFA may also have an essential role in the installation of reduced insulin sensitivity and obesity. Other mechanisms include effects of bile acids, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), and some other lesser-known factors. In the near future, this area should open new therapeutic avenues for obesity/insulin resistance and its comorbidities. ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  5. Human gut microbiota changes reveal the progression of glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuying; Shen, Dongqian; Fang, Zhiwei; Jie, Zhuye; Qiu, Xinmin; Zhang, Chunfang; Chen, Yingli; Ji, Linong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationship of gut microbiota with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we analyzed 121 subjects who were divided into 3 groups based on their glucose intolerance status: normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 44), prediabetes (Pre-DM; n = 64), or newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 13). Gut microbiota characterizations were determined with 16S rDNA-based high-throughput sequencing. T2DM-related dysbiosis was observed, including the separation of microbial communities and a change of alpha diversity between the different glucose intolerance statuses. To assess the correlation between metabolic parameters and microbiota diversity, clinical characteristics were also measured and a significant association between metabolic parameters (FPG, CRP) and gut microbiota was found. In addition, a total of 28 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found to be related to T2DM status by the Kruskal-Wallis H test, most of which were enriched in the T2DM group. Butyrate-producing bacteria (e.g. Akkermansia muciniphila ATCCBAA-835, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii L2-6) had a higher abundance in the NGT group than in the pre-DM group. At genus level, the abundance of Bacteroides in the T2DM group was only half that of the NGT and Pre-DM groups. Previously reported T2DM-related markers were also compared with the data in this study, and some inconsistencies were noted. We found that Verrucomicrobiae may be a potential marker of T2DM as it had a significantly lower abundance in both the pre-DM and T2DM groups. In conclusion, this research provides further evidence of the structural modulation of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of diabetes.

  6. Gut microbiota, the pharmabiotics they produce and host health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Elaine; Cryan, John F; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Dinan, Timothy G; Stanton, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    A healthy gut microbiota plays many crucial functions in the host, being involved in the correct development and functioning of the immune system, assisting in the digestion of certain foods and in the production of health-beneficial bioactive metabolites or 'pharmabiotics'. These include bioactive lipids (including SCFA and conjugated linoleic acid) antimicrobials and exopolysaccharides in addition to nutrients, including vitamins B and K. Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota and reductions in microbial diversity are highlighted in many disease states, possibly rendering the host susceptible to infection and consequently negatively affecting innate immune function. Evidence is also emerging of microbially produced molecules with neuroactive functions that can have influences across the brain-gut axis. For example, γ-aminobutyric acid, serotonin, catecholamines and acetylcholine may modulate neural signalling within the enteric nervous system, when released in the intestinal lumen and consequently signal brain function and behaviour. Dietary supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics are the most widely used dietary adjuncts to modulate the gut microbiota. Furthermore, evidence is emerging of the interactions between administered microbes and dietary substrates, leading to the production of pharmabiotics, which may directly or indirectly positively influence human health.

  7. Impact of human milk bacteria and oligosaccharides on neonatal gut microbiota establishment and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Ted; Lacroix, Christophe; Braegger, Christian; Chassard, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal gut microbiota establishment represents a crucial stage for gut maturation, metabolic and immunologic programming, and consequently short- and long-term health status. Human milk beneficially influences this process due to its dynamic profile of age-adapted nutrients and bioactive components and by providing commensal maternal bacteria to the neonatal gut. These include Lactobacillus spp., as well as obligate anaerobes such as Bifidobacterium spp., which may originate from the maternal gut via an enteromammary pathway as a novel form of mother-neonate communication. Additionally, human milk harbors a broad range of oligosaccharides that promote the growth and activity of specific bacterial populations, in particular, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides spp. This review focuses on the diversity and origin of human milk bacteria, as well as on milk oligosaccharides that influence neonatal gut microbiota establishment. This knowledge can be used to develop infant formulae that more closely mimic nature's model and sustain a healthy gut microbiota. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Phylogeny, culturing, and metagenomics of the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alan W; Duncan, Sylvia H; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2014-05-01

    The human intestinal tract is colonised by a complex community of microbes, which can have major impacts on host health. Recent research on the gut microbiota has largely been driven by the advent of modern sequence-based techniques, such as metagenomics. Although these are powerful and valuable tools, they have limitations. Traditional culturing and phylogeny can mitigate some of these limitations, either by expanding reference databases or by assigning functionality to specific microbial lineages. As such, culture and phylogeny will continue to have crucially important roles in human microbiota research, and will be required for the development of novel therapeutics.

  9. Gut microbiota in 2015: Prevotella in the gut: choose carefully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Ruth E

    2016-02-01

    Gut microbial communities often contain many Bacteroides or their close relatives, Prevotella, but not both. Prevotella strains are associated with plant-rich diets but are also linked with chronic inflammatory conditions. In 2015, papers probed the genomic diversity of Prevotella strains and interactions of Prevotella copri with its host and other bacteria.

  10. The potential link between gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L K; Ward, Alister C; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-12-16

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  11. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Molloy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  12. Anti-obesity effects of gut microbiota are associated with lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Cheng, Po-Ching; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rapidly becoming endemic in industrialized countries and continues to increase in developing countries worldwide. Obesity predisposes people to an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have described an association between obesity and certain gut microbiota, suggesting that gut microbiota might play a critical role in the development of obesity. Although probiotics have many beneficial health effects in humans and animals, attention has only recently been drawn to manipulating the gut microbiota, such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), to influence the development of obesity. In this review, we first describe the causes of obesity, including the genetic and environmental factors. We then describe the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity, and the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influence energy metabolism and inflammation in obesity. Lastly, we focus on the potential role of LAB in mediating the effects of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity.

  13. Role of Gut Microbiota in Early Infant Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Wall

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Early colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract is crucial for the overall health of the infant, and establishment and maintenance of non-pathogenic intestinal microbiota may reduce several neonatal inflammatory conditions. Much effort has therefore been devoted to manipulation of the composition of the microbiota through 1 the role of early infant nutrition, particularly breast milk, and supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics that positively influence the enteric microbiota by selectively promoting growth of beneficial bacteria and 2 oral administration of probiotic bacteria which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. While the complex microbiota of the adult is difficult to change in the long-term, there is greater impact of the diet on infant microbiota as this is not as stable as in adults. Decreasing excessive use of antibiotics and increasing the use of pre- and probiotics have shown to be beneficial in the prevention of several important infant diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis and atopic eczema as well as improvement of short and long-term health. This review addresses how the composition of the gut microbiota becomes established in early life, its relevance to infant health, and dietary means by which it can be manipulated.

  14. Policing of gut microbiota by the adaptive immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollé, Laurent; Tran, Hao Q; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Chassaing, Benoit

    2016-02-12

    The intestinal microbiota is a large and diverse microbial community that inhabits the intestine, containing about 100 trillion bacteria of 500-1000 distinct species that, collectively, provide benefits to the host. The human gut microbiota composition is determined by a myriad of factors, among them genetic and environmental, including diet and medication. The microbiota contributes to nutrient absorption and maturation of the immune system. As reciprocity, the host immune system plays a central role in shaping the composition and localization of the intestinal microbiota. Secretory immunoglobulins A (sIgAs), component of the adaptive immune system, are important player in the protection of epithelium, and are known to have an important impact on the regulation of microbiota composition. A recent study published in Immunity by Fransen and colleagues aimed to mechanistically decipher the interrelationship between sIgA and microbiota diversity/composition. This commentary will discuss these important new findings, as well as how future therapies can ultimately benefit from such discovery.

  15. Obesity-driven gut microbiota inflammatory pathways to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Agra eCavalcante-Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signalling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome.

  16. Exploring the avian gut microbiota: current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, David W; Taylor, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill crucial roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Across the field of avian microbiology knowledge is extremely uneven, with several species accounting for an overwhelming majority of all microbiological investigations. These include agriculturally important birds, such as chickens and turkeys, as well as birds of evolutionary or conservation interest. In our previous study we attempted the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available data sets. We have now extended our analysis to explore the microbiology of several key species in detail, to consider the avian microbiota within the context of what is known about other vertebrates, and to identify key areas of interest in avian microbiology for future study.

  17. From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Sara; Candela, Marco; Giuliani, Cristina; Turroni, Silvia; Luiselli, Donata; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Franceschi, Claudio; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota (GM) is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The GM continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily variations in diet or specific host physiological and immunological needs at different ages. On the other hand, the microbiota plasticity was strategic to face changes in lifestyle and dietary habits along the course of the recent evolutionary history, that has driven the passage from Paleolithic hunter-gathering societies to Neolithic agricultural farmers to modern Westernized societies. PMID:25408692

  18. From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Sara; Candela, Marco; Giuliani, Cristina; Turroni, Silvia; Luiselli, Donata; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Franceschi, Claudio; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota (GM) is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The GM continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily variations in diet or specific host physiological and immunological needs at different ages. On the other hand, the microbiota plasticity was strategic to face changes in lifestyle and dietary habits along the course of the recent evolutionary history, that has driven the passage from Paleolithic hunter-gathering societies to Neolithic agricultural farmers to modern Westernized societies.

  19. Dysbiosis and compositional alterations with aging in the gut microbiota of patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Takehiro; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Suda, Wataru; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Shimizu, Yu; Yagi, Hiroki; Liu, Qing; Nomura, Seitaro; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Takeda, Norifumi; Harada, Mutsuo; Toko, Haruhiro; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Takimoto, Eiki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Honda, Kenya; Morita, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Masahira; Komuro, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested a potential impact of gut microbiota on the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). However, it is still unknown whether HF is associated with dysbiosis in gut microbiota. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in patients with HF to elucidate whether gut microbial dysbiosis is associated with HF. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of fecal samples obtained from 12 HF patients and 12 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects, and analyzed the differences in gut microbiota. We further compared the composition of gut microbiota of 12 HF patients younger than 60 years of age with that of 10 HF patients 60 years of age or older. The composition of gut microbial communities of HF patients was distinct from that of HC subjects in both unweighted and weighted UniFrac analyses. Eubacterium rectale and Dorea longicatena were less abundant in the gut microbiota of HF patients than in that of HC subjects. Compared to younger HF patients, older HF patients had diminished proportions of Bacteroidetes and larger quantities of Proteobacteria. The genus Faecalibacterium was depleted, while Lactobacillus was enriched in the gut microbiota of older HF patients. These results suggest that patients with HF harbor significantly altered gut microbiota, which varies further according to age. New concept of heart-gut axis has a great potential for breakthroughs in the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approach for HF.

  20. Does the Gut Microbiota Contribute to Obesity? Going beyond the Gut Feeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota is an environmental factor that plays a crucial role in obesity. However, the aetiology of obesity is rather complex and depends on different factors. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus about the exact role that this microbial community plays i

  1. Gut Microbiota and Allergic Disease. New Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Susan V

    2016-03-01

    The rapid rise in childhood allergies (atopy) in Westernized nations has implicated associated environmental exposures and lifestyles as primary drivers of disease development. Culture-based microbiological studies indicate that atopy has demonstrable ties to altered gut microbial colonization in very early life. Infants who exhibit more severe multisensitization to food- or aero-allergens have a significantly higher risk of subsequently developing asthma in childhood. Hence an emerging hypothesis posits that environment- or lifestyle-driven aberrancies in the early-life gut microbiome composition and by extension, microbial function, represent a key mediator of childhood allergic asthma. Animal studies support this hypothesis. Environmental microbial exposures epidemiologically associated with allergy protection in humans confer protection against airway allergy in mice. In addition, gut microbiome-derived short-chain fatty acids produced from a high-fiber diet have been shown to protect against allergy via modulation of both local and remote mucosal immunity as well as hematopoietic antigen-presenting cell populations. Here we review key data supporting the concept of a gut-airway axis and its critical role in childhood atopy.

  2. Obesity-Related Diseases Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    The prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically during the past four decades and worldwide more than half a billion adults are now obese. Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, effective ...... for prevention. The main purpose of this PhD was to explore the effect of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota on disease markers in obese individuals....

  3. Diversity analysis of gut microbiota in osteoporosis and osteopenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests that bone health can be regulated by gut microbiota. To better understand this, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to analyze the intestinal microbial diversity in primary osteoporosis (OP patients, osteopenia (ON patients and normal controls (NC. We observed an inverse correlation between the number of bacterial taxa and the value of bone mineral density. The diversity estimators in the OP and ON groups were increased compared with those in the NC group. Beta diversity analyses based on hierarchical clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA could discriminate the NC samples from OP and ON samples. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria constituted the four dominant phyla in all samples. Proportion of Firmicutes was significantly higher and Bacteroidetes was significantly lower in OP samples than that in NC samples (p < 0.05, Gemmatimonadetes and Chloroflexi were significantly different between OP and NC group as well as between ON and NC group (p < 0.01. A total of 21 genera with proportions above 1% were detected and Bacteroides accounted for the largest proportion in all samples. The Blautia, Parabacteroides and Ruminococcaceae genera differed significantly between the OP and NC group (p < 0.05. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA results showed one phylum community and seven phylum communities were enriched in ON and OP, respectively. Thirty-five genus communities, five genus communities and two genus communities were enriched in OP, ON and NC, respectively. The results of this study indicate that gut microbiota may be a critical factor in osteoporosis development, which can further help us search for novel biomarkers of gut microbiota in OP and understand the interaction between gut microbiota and bone health.

  4. The Gut Microbiota: Ecology and Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willing, B.P.; Jansson, J.K.

    2010-06-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is teeming with an extremely abundant and diverse microbial community. The members of this community have coevolved along with their hosts over millennia. Until recently, the gut ecosystem was viewed as black box with little knowledge of who or what was there or their specific functions. Over the past decade, however, this ecosystem has become one of fastest growing research areas of focus in microbial ecology and human and animal physiology. This increased interest is largely in response to studies tying microbes in the gut to important diseases afflicting modern society, including obesity, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diabetes. Although the importance of a resident community of microorganisms in health was first hypothesized by Pasteur over a century ago (Sears, 2005), the multiplicity of physiological changes induced by commensal bacteria has only recently been recognized (Hooper et al., 2001). The term 'ecological development' was recently coined to support the idea that development of the GI tract is a product of the genetics of the host and the host's interactions with resident microbes (Hooper, 2004). The search for new therapeutic targets and disease biomarkers has escalated the need to understand the identities and functions of the microorganisms inhabiting the gut. Recent studies have revealed new insights into the membership of the gut microbial community, interactions within that community, as well as mechanisms of interaction with the host. This chapter focuses on the microbial ecology of the gut, with an emphasis on information gleaned from recent molecular studies.

  5. Targeting gut microbiota: a potential promising therapy for diabetic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhonge; Zhu, Shuishan; Xu, Gaosi

    2016-01-01

    Conventional studies reveal a contributory role of gut microbiota in the process of diabetes mellitus (DM) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the mechanism through which gut microbiota influence diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is ignored. In the present article, we reviewed the changes in gut microbiota of patients with DM, DKD as well as ESRD, and how this may contribute to the progression of DKD. Although further studies are needed to either selectively change the composition of the...

  6. Impact of Gut Microbiota on Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Luca; Giorgio, Valentina; Alberelli, Maria Adele; De Candia, Erica; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Grieco, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Gut microbiota has been recently established to have a contributory role in the development of cardiometabolic disorders, such as atherosclerosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Growing interest has focused on the modulation of gut microbiota as a therapeutic strategy in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed the impact of gut microbiota on metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease risk, focusing on the newest findings in this field.

  7. The gut microbiota in human energy homeostasis and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Knight, Rob; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies of rodents suggest that the gut microbiota populations are sensitive to genetic and environmental influences, and can produce or influence afferent signals that directly or indirectly impinge on energy homeostatic systems affecting both energy balance (weight gain or loss) and energy stores. Fecal transplants from obese and lean human, and from mouse donors to gnotobiotic mice, result in adoption of the donor somatotype by the formerly germ-free rodents. Thus, the microbiota is certainly implicated in the development of obesity, adiposity-related comorbidities, and the response to interventions designed to achieve sustained weight reduction in mice. More studies are needed to determine whether the microbiota plays a similarly potent role in human body-weight regulation and obesity.

  8. The gut microbiota and host health: a new clinical frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Julian R; Adams, David H; Fava, Francesca; Hermes, Gerben D A; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Hold, Georgina; Quraishi, Mohammed Nabil; Kinross, James; Smidt, Hauke; Tuohy, Kieran M; Thomas, Linda V; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Hart, Ailsa

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, our understanding of the composition and functions of the human gut microbiota has increased exponentially. To a large extent, this has been due to new 'omic' technologies that have facilitated large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of this microbial community, revealing it to be comparable in influence to a new organ in the body and offering the possibility of a new route for therapeutic intervention. Moreover, it might be more accurate to think of it like an immune system: a collection of cells that work in unison with the host and that can promote health but sometimes initiate disease. This review gives an update on the current knowledge in the area of gut disorders, in particular metabolic syndrome and obesity-related disease, liver disease, IBD and colorectal cancer. The potential of manipulating the gut microbiota in these disorders is assessed, with an examination of the latest and most relevant evidence relating to antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, polyphenols and faecal microbiota transplantation.

  9. A Survey of Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Dietary Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Dueñas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols present in a broad range of plant foods have been related to beneficial health effects. This review aims to update the current information about the modulation of the gut microbiota by dietary phenolic compounds, from a perspective based on the experimental approaches used. After referring to general aspects of gut microbiota and dietary polyphenols, studies related to this topic are presented according to their experimental design: batch culture fermentations, gastrointestinal simulators, animal model studies, and human intervention studies. In general, studies evidence that dietary polyphenols may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal health by preserving the gut microbial balance through the stimulation of the growth of beneficial bacteria (i.e., lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and the inhibition of pathogenic bacteria, exerting prebiotic-like effects. Combination of in vitro and in vivo models could help to understand the underlying mechanisms in the polyphenols-microbiota-host triangle and elucidate the implications of polyphenols on human health. From a technological point of view, supplementation with rich-polyphenolic stuffs (phenolic extracts, phenolic-enriched fractions, etc. could be an effective option to improve health benefits of functional foods such as the case of dairy fermented foods.

  10. Reframing the Teenage Wasteland: Adolescent Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Luczynski, Pauline; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-04-01

    Human adolescence is arguably one of the most challenging periods of development. The young adult is exposed to a variety of stressors and environmental stimuli on a backdrop of significant physiological change and development, which is especially apparent in the brain. It is therefore unsurprising that many psychiatric disorders are first observable during this time. The human intestine is inhabited by trillions of microorganisms, and evidence from both preclinical and clinical research focusing on the established microbiota-gut-brain axis suggests that the etiology and pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders may be influenced by intestinal dysbiosis. Provocatively, many if not all of the challenges faced by the developing teen have a documented impact on these intestinal commensal microbiota. In this review, we briefly summarize what is known about the developing adolescent brain and intestinal microbiota, discuss recent research investigating the microbiota-gut-brain axis during puberty, and propose that pre- and probiotics may prove useful in both the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders specifically benefitting the young adult.

  11. Gut microbiota of the very-low-birth-weight infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Sharon; Stintzi, Alain; Shah, Prakeshkumar; Mack, David; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome, of which the bacterial component alone (microbiota), is estimated to include 10 times more cells than human cells of the body, blooms immediately after birth and evolves in composition and complexity throughout childhood. The gut microbiome has a profound impact on gastrointestinal tract development, maintenance of mucosal surface integrity, and contributes to the nutritional status of the host and thus plays a pivotal role in health and disease. New technologies have enabled the detailed characterization of normal microbial symbionts and dysbiosis-disease associations. This review summarizes the stepwise establishment of the intestinal microbiota, influential environmental factors, and how this may be perturbed in preterm very-low-birth-weight infants. The contribution of the microbiota to provision of energy and nutrients for intestinal development and the nutritional status of the host are reviewed. In addition, the crucial role of the gut microbiota in maintaining mucosal integrity is explored along with how its breakdown can lead to sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Finally, the role of enteral feeding type (human milk, formula, and nutrient fortification) in mediating these processes is discussed, and guidance is provided for nutritional strategies to promote health in these fragile infants.

  12. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S; Jakesevic, Maja; Rune, Ida; Tranberg, Britt; Vogensen, Finn K; Nielsen, Dennis S; Bahl, Martin I; Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Axel K; Hansen, Camilla H F

    2014-08-01

    Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize" the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly β cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions.

  13. Microbial diversity and digestive enzyme activities in the gut of earthworms found in sawmill industries in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele Julius A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for wood has resulted in large volumes of wood wastes that are daily released to the soil from the activities of sawmills in South-Western Nigeria. In an attempt to setup a bioremediation model for sawdust, this study therefore aimed at evaluating microbial diversity, and the level of digestive enzymes in the gut of earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae, Libyodrilus violaceous and Hyperiodrilus africanus of sawmill origin. Four major sawmills located in Abeokuta (7o9’12” N - 3o19’35” E, namely Lafenwa, Sapon, Isale-Ake and Kotopo sawmills were used for this study. The arboretum of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta was used as control. Gut microbial analysis was carried out using the pour-plate method while digestive enzyme activities in the earthworm guts were done by the spectrophotometric method. Higher microbial counts (28.5±0.1x10³-97.0±0.1x10³cfu for bacteria and 7.0±0.1x10³-96.0±0.1x10³cfu for fungi and microbial diversity were recorded in the gut of earthworms of the sawmill locations than those of the control site (17.5±0.1x10³cfu for bacteria and 4.5±0.1x10³cfu for fungi. Streptococcus mutans and Proteus spp.were common in the gut of E. eugeniae, and L. violaceous from the study sawmills, while Streptococcus mutans were also identified in H. africanus, but absent in the gut of E. eugeniae from the control site. Cellulase (48.67±0.02mg/g and lipase (1.81±0.01mg/g activities were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the gut of earthworms from the control site than those of the study sawmills. Furthermore, amylase (α and β activity was highest in the gut of earthworms from the sawmills. Variations observed in the gut microbial and digestive enzyme activities of earthworms from the study sawmills as compared to the control site suggests that earthworms, especially E. eugeniae, could be a better organism for use as bioremediator of wood wastes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3: 1241-1249. Epub 2014 September

  14. Influence of Gut Microbiota on Subclinical Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

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    Bruno Melo Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the main condition that is correlated with the appearance of insulin resistance, which is the major link among its comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and several types of cancer. Obesity affects a large number of individuals worldwide; it degrades human health and quality of life. Here, we review the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes, which is promoted by a bacterial diversity shift mediated by overnutrition. Whole bacteria, their products, and metabolites undergo increased translocation through the gut epithelium to the circulation due to degraded tight junctions and the consequent increase in intestinal permeability that culminates in inflammation and insulin resistance. Several strategies focusing on modulation of the gut microbiota (antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics are being experimentally employed in metabolic derangement in order to reduce intestinal permeability, increase the production of short chain fatty acids and anorectic gut hormones, and promote insulin sensitivity to counteract the inflammatory status and insulin resistance found in obese individuals.

  15. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-02-21

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required.

  16. Early Development of the Gut Microbiota and Immune Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Francino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increase in human microbiome research brought about by the rapidly evolving “omic” technologies has established that the balance among the microbial groups present in the human gut, and their multipronged interactions with the host, are crucial for health. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental support has also grown for the ‘early programming hypothesis’, according to which factors that act in utero and early in life program the risks for adverse health outcomes later on. The microbiota of the gut develops during infancy, in close interaction with immune development, and with extensive variability across individuals. It follows that the specific process of gut colonization and the microbe-host interactions established in an individual during this period have the potential to represent main determinants of life-long propensity to immune disease. Although much remains to be learnt on the progression of events by which the gut microbiota becomes established and initiates its intimate relationships with the host, and on the long-term repercussions of this process, recent works have advanced significatively in this direction.

  17. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required. PMID:26900286

  18. Effects of taurine on gut microbiota and metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Guo, Zhengzhao; Shen, Shengrong; Shan, Weiguang

    2016-07-01

    As being a necessary amino acid, taurine plays an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and nutrition. In this study, effects of taurine on mice gut microbes and metabolism were investigated. BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: The first group was administered saline (CK), the second was administered 165 mg/kg natural taurine (NE) and the third one administered 165 mg/kg synthetic taurine (CS). Gut microbiota composition in mice feces was analyzed by metagenomics technology, and the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in mice feces was detected by gas chromatography (GC), while the concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by a LPS ELISA kit and a SOD assay kit, respectively. The results showed that the effect of taurine on gut microbiota could reduce the abundance of Proteobacteria, especially Helicobacter. Moreover, we found that the SCFA content was increased in feces of the NE group while LPS content was decreased in serum of the NE group; the SOD activity in serum and livers of the NE and CS groups were not changed significantly compare to that of the CK group. In conclusion, taurine could regulate the gut micro-ecology, which might be of benefit to health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria, accelerating the production of SCFA and reducing LPS concentration.

  19. Prebiotics as a modulator of gut microbiota in paediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, A C; Reimer, R A

    2017-08-01

    This review highlights our current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in paediatric obesity and the potential role for dietary manipulation of the gut microbiota with prebiotics in managing paediatric obesity. The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial and is now known to include microbial dysbiosis in the gut. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which selectively modulate the number and/or composition of gut microbes. The goal of prebiotic consumption is to restore symbiosis and thereby confer health benefits to the host. There is convincing evidence that prebiotics can reduce adiposity and improve metabolic health in preclinical rodent models. Furthermore, there are several clinical trials in adult humans highlighting metabolic and appetite-regulating benefits of prebiotics. In paediatric obesity, however, there are very limited data regarding the potential role of prebiotics as a dietary intervention for obesity management. As the prevalence of paediatric obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities increases globally, interventions that target the progression of obesity from an early age are essential in slowing the obesity epidemic. This review emphasizes the need for further research assessing the role of prebiotics, particularly as an intervention in effectively managing paediatric obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Gut microbiota, epithelial function and derangements in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Helen E

    2012-02-01

    The gut epithelium is a barrier between the 'outside' and 'inside' world. The major function of the epithelium is to absorb nutrients, ions and water, yet it must balance these functions with that of protecting the 'inside' world from potentially harmful toxins, irritants, bacteria and other pathogens that also exist in the gut lumen. The health of an individual depends upon the efficient digestion and absorption of all required nutrients from the diet. This requires sensing of meal components by gut enteroendocrine cells, activation of neural and humoral pathways to regulate gastrointestinal motor, secretory and absorptive functions, and also to regulate food intake and plasma levels of glucose. In this way, there is a balance between the delivery of food and the digestive and absorptive capacity of the intestine. Maintenance of the mucosal barrier likewise requires sensory detection of pathogens, toxins and irritants; breakdown of the epithelial barrier is associated with gut inflammation and may ultimately lead to inflammatory bowel disease. However, disruption of the barrier alone is not sufficient to cause frank inflammatory bowel disease. Several recent studies have provided compelling new evidence to suggest that changes in epithelial barrier function and inflammation are associated with and may even lead to altered regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. This article provides a brief review of some recent evidence to support the hypothesis that changes in the gut microbiota and alteration of gut epithelial function will perturb the homeostatic humoral and neural pathways controlling food intake and body weight.

  1. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    of allergies. Methods: We investigated whether presence of older siblings, furred pets and early life infections affected gut microbial communities at 9 and 18 months of age and whether these differences were associated with the cumulative prevalence of atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis...... and the cumulative prevalence of diagnosed asthmatic bronchitis and self-reported eczema at three years of age. Results: The number of older siblings correlated positively with bacterial diversity (p = 0.030), diversity of the phyla Firmicutes (p = 0.014) and Bacteroidetes (p = 0.004) and bacterial richness (p = 0....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...

  2. Obesity-Related Diseases Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    The prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically during the past four decades and worldwide more than half a billion adults are now obese. Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, effective...... strategies to reduce obesity-related morbidity and mortality are essential. It has been hypothesized that the microbes in the human gut are involved in the development of obesity-related diseases and that intake of nutrients affecting the gut microbial community in specific ways, can be a new strategy...... for prevention. The main purpose of this PhD was to explore the effect of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota on disease markers in obese individuals....

  3. Gut microbiota signatures predict host and microbiota responses to dietary interventions in obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Korpela

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interactions between the diet and intestinal microbiota play a role in health and disease, including obesity and related metabolic complications. There is great interest to use dietary means to manipulate the microbiota to promote health. Currently, the impact of dietary change on the microbiota and the host metabolism is poorly predictable and highly individual. We propose that the responsiveness of the gut microbiota may depend on its composition, and associate with metabolic changes in the host. METHODOLOGY: Our study involved three independent cohorts of obese adults (n = 78 from Belgium, Finland, and Britain, participating in different dietary interventions aiming to improve metabolic health. We used a phylogenetic microarray for comprehensive fecal microbiota analysis at baseline and after the intervention. Blood cholesterol, insulin and inflammation markers were analyzed as indicators of host response. The data were divided into four training set - test set pairs; each intervention acted both as a part of a training set and as an independent test set. We used linear models to predict the responsiveness of the microbiota and the host, and logistic regression to predict responder vs. non-responder status, or increase vs. decrease of the health parameters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our models, based on the abundance of several, mainly Firmicute species at baseline, predicted the responsiveness of the microbiota (AUC  =  0.77-1; predicted vs. observed correlation  =  0.67-0.88. Many of the predictive taxa showed a non-linear relationship with the responsiveness. The microbiota response associated with the change in serum cholesterol levels with an AUC of 0.96, highlighting the involvement of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic health. CONCLUSION: This proof-of-principle study introduces the first potential microbial biomarkers for dietary responsiveness in obese individuals with impaired metabolic health, and reveals the

  4. Gut Microbiota Signatures Predict Host and Microbiota Responses to Dietary Interventions in Obese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Flint, Harry J.; Johnstone, Alexandra M.; Lappi, Jenni; Poutanen, Kaisa; Dewulf, Evelyne; Delzenne, Nathalie; de Vos, Willem M.; Salonen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Interactions between the diet and intestinal microbiota play a role in health and disease, including obesity and related metabolic complications. There is great interest to use dietary means to manipulate the microbiota to promote health. Currently, the impact of dietary change on the microbiota and the host metabolism is poorly predictable and highly individual. We propose that the responsiveness of the gut microbiota may depend on its composition, and associate with metabolic changes in the host. Methodology Our study involved three independent cohorts of obese adults (n = 78) from Belgium, Finland, and Britain, participating in different dietary interventions aiming to improve metabolic health. We used a phylogenetic microarray for comprehensive fecal microbiota analysis at baseline and after the intervention. Blood cholesterol, insulin and inflammation markers were analyzed as indicators of host response. The data were divided into four training set – test set pairs; each intervention acted both as a part of a training set and as an independent test set. We used linear models to predict the responsiveness of the microbiota and the host, and logistic regression to predict responder vs. non-responder status, or increase vs. decrease of the health parameters. Principal Findings Our models, based on the abundance of several, mainly Firmicute species at baseline, predicted the responsiveness of the microbiota (AUC  =  0.77–1; predicted vs. observed correlation  =  0.67–0.88). Many of the predictive taxa showed a non-linear relationship with the responsiveness. The microbiota response associated with the change in serum cholesterol levels with an AUC of 0.96, highlighting the involvement of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic health. Conclusion This proof-of-principle study introduces the first potential microbial biomarkers for dietary responsiveness in obese individuals with impaired metabolic health, and reveals the potential of

  5. Variation in the Gut Microbiota of Termites (Tsaitermes ampliceps) Against Different Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lijuan; Yang, Lele; Huang, Shi; Li, Yan; Su, Xiaoquan; Wang, Fengqin; Bo, Cunpei; Wang, En Tao; Song, Andong

    2017-01-01

    Termites are well recognized for their thriving on recalcitrant lignocellulosic diets through nutritional symbioses with gut-dwelling microbiota; however, the effects of diet changes on termite gut microbiota are poorly understood, especially for the lower termites. In this study, we employed high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S V1-V3 amplicons to compare gut microbiotas of Tsaitermes ampliceps fed with lignin-rich and lignin-poor cellulose diets after a 2-week-feeding period. As a result, the majority of bacterial taxa were shared across the treatments with different diets, but their relative abundances were modified. In particular, the relative abundance was reduced for Spirochaetes and it was increased for Proteobacteria and Bacteroides by feeding the lignin-poor diet. The evenness of gut microbiota exhibited a significant difference in response to the diet type (filter paper diets microbiota and suggest that the dietary lignocellulose composition could cause shifting rapidly in the termite gut microbiota.

  6. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Panda

    Full Text Available From birth onwards, the human gut microbiota rapidly increases in diversity and reaches an adult-like stage at three years of age. After this age, the composition may fluctuate in response to external factors such as antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that resilience is not complete months after cessation of the antibiotic intake. However, little is known about the short-term effects of antibiotic intake on the gut microbial community. Here we examined the load and composition of the fecal microbiota immediately after treatment in 21 patients, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. A fecal sample was collected from all participants before treatment and one week after for microbial load and community composition analyses by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Fluoroquinolones and β-lactams significantly decreased microbial diversity by 25% and reduced the core phylogenetic microbiota from 29 to 12 taxa. However, at the phylum level, these antibiotics increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (p = 0.0007, FDR = 0.002. At the species level, our findings unexpectedly revealed that both antibiotic types increased the proportion of several unknown taxa belonging to the Bacteroides genus, a Gram-negative group of bacteria (p = 0.0003, FDR<0.016. Furthermore, the average microbial load was affected by the treatment. Indeed, the β-lactams increased it significantly by two-fold (p = 0.04. The maintenance of or possible increase detected in microbial load and the selection of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria breaks the idea generally held about the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on gut microbiota.

  7. Recovery of the gut microbiome following fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekatz, Anna M; Aas, Johannes; Gessert, Charles E; Rubin, Timothy A; Saman, Daniel M; Bakken, Johan S; Young, Vincent B

    2014-06-17

    Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common health care-associated infections, and up to 40% of patients suffer from recurrence of disease following standard antibiotic therapy. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully used to treat recurrent C. difficile infection. It is hypothesized that FMT aids in recovery of a microbiota capable of colonization resistance to C. difficile. However, it is not fully understood how this occurs. Here we investigated changes in the fecal microbiota structure following FMT in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, and imputed a hypothetical functional profile based on the 16S rRNA profile using a predictive metagenomic tool. Increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased abundance of Proteobacteria were observed following FMT. The fecal microbiota of recipients following transplantation was more diverse and more similar to the donor profile than the microbiota prior to transplantation. Additionally, we observed differences in the imputed metagenomic profile. In particular, amino acid transport systems were overrepresented in samples collected prior to transplantation. These results suggest that functional changes accompany microbial structural changes following this therapy. Further identification of the specific community members and functions that promote colonization resistance may aid in the development of improved treatment methods for C. difficile infection. Within the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection has surpassed other bacterial infections to become the leading cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic use, which disrupts the gut microbiota and its capability in providing colonization resistance against C. difficile, is a known risk factor in C. difficile infection. In particular, recurrent C. difficile remains difficult to treat with standard antibiotic therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has provided a successful treatment method for

  8. HIV-induced alteration in gut microbiota: driving factors, consequences, and effects of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozupone, Catherine A; Rhodes, Matthew E; Neff, Charles P; Fontenot, Andrew P; Campbell, Thomas B; Palmer, Brent E

    2014-07-01

    Consistent with an important role for adaptive immunity in modulating interactions between intestinal bacteria and host, dramatic alteration in the composition of gut microbes during chronic HIV infection was recently reported by ourselves and independently by four other research groups. Here we evaluate our results in the context of these other studies and delve into the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although gut microbiota of HIV-positive individuals on ART usually does not resemble that of HIV-negative individuals, the degree to which ART restores health-associated prevalence varies across bacterial taxa. Finally, we discuss potential drivers and health consequences of gut microbiota alterations. We propose that understanding the mechanism of HIV-associated gut microbiota changes will elucidate the role of adaptive immunity in shaping gut microbiota composition, and lay the foundation for therapeutics targeting the microbiota to attenuate HIV disease progression and reduce the risk of gut-linked disease in people with HIV.

  9. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S.;

    2014-01-01

    an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after...... of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly beta cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions......Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize'' the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether...

  10. Relationship between gut microbiota and development of T cell associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiewicz, Michele M; Dryden, Gerald W; Chhabra, Anita; Alard, Pascale

    2014-11-17

    The interplay between the immune response and the gut microbiota is complex. Although it is well-established that the gut microbiota is essential for the proper development of the immune system, recent evidence indicates that the cells of the immune system also influence the composition of the gut microbiota. This interaction can have important consequences for the development of inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune diseases and allergy, and the specific mechanisms by which the gut commensals drive the development of different types of immune responses are beginning to be understood. Furthermore, sex hormones are now thought to play a novel role in this complex relationship, and collaborate with both the gut microbiota and immune system to influence the development of autoimmune disease. In this review, we will focus on recent studies that have transformed our understanding of the importance of the gut microbiota in inflammatory responses.

  11. The role of the adaptive immune system in regulation of gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Lucia M; Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2014-07-01

    The gut nourishes rich bacterial communities that affect profoundly the functions of the immune system. The relationship between gut microbiota and the immune system is one of reciprocity. The microbiota contributes to nutrient processing and the development, maturation, and function of the immune system. Conversely, the immune system, particularly the adaptive immune system, plays a key role in shaping the repertoire of gut microbiota. The fitness of host immune system is reflected in the gut microbiota, and deficiencies in either innate or adaptive immunity impact on diversity and structures of bacterial communities in the gut. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that underlie this reciprocity and emphasize how the adaptive immune system via immunoglobulins (i.e. IgA) contributes to diversification and balance of gut microbiota required for immune homeostasis.

  12. Relationships between gut microbiota, plasma metabolites, and metabolic syndrome traits in the METSIM cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Org, Elin; Blum, Yuna; Kasela, Silva; Mehrabian, Margarete; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Wang, Zeneng; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Hazen, Stanley L; Laakso, Markku; Lusis, Aldons J

    2017-04-13

    The gut microbiome is a complex and metabolically active community that directly influences host phenotypes. In this study, we profile gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in 531 well-phenotyped Finnish men from the Metabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study. We investigate gut microbiota relationships with a variety of factors that have an impact on the development of metabolic and cardiovascular traits. We identify novel associations between gut microbiota and fasting serum levels of a number of metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, lipids, and glucose. In particular, we detect associations with fasting plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels, a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite associated with coronary artery disease and stroke. We further investigate the gut microbiota composition and microbiota-metabolite relationships in subjects with different body mass index and individuals with normal or altered oral glucose tolerance. Finally, we perform microbiota co-occurrence network analysis, which shows that certain metabolites strongly correlate with microbial community structure and that some of these correlations are specific for the pre-diabetic state. Our study identifies novel relationships between the composition of the gut microbiota and circulating metabolites and provides a resource for future studies to understand host-gut microbiota relationships.

  13. Postprandial remodeling of the gut microbiota in Burmese pythons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Elizabeth K; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Secor, Stephen M; Knight, Rob

    2010-11-01

    The vertebrate gut microbiota evolved in an environment typified by periodic fluctuations in nutrient availability, yet little is known about its responses to host feeding and fasting. As many model species (for example, mice) are adapted to lifestyles of frequent small meals, we turned to the Burmese python, a sit-and-wait foraging snake that consumes large prey at long intervals (>1 month), to examine the effects of a dynamic nutrient milieu on the gut microbiota. We used multiplexed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities harvested from the intestines of fasted and digesting snakes, and from their rodent meal. In this unprecedented survey of a reptilian host, we found that Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes numerically dominated the python gut. In the large intestine, fasting was associated with increased abundances of the genera Bacteroides, Rikenella, Synergistes and Akkermansia, and with reduced overall diversity. A marked postprandial shift in bacterial community configuration occurred. Between 12 h and 3 days after feeding, Firmicutes, including the taxa Clostridium, Lactobacillus and Peptostreptococcaceae, gradually outnumbered the fasting-dominant Bacteroidetes, and overall 'species'-level diversity increased significantly. Most lineages seemed to be indigenous to the python rather than ingested with the meal, but a dietary source of Lactobacillus could not be ruled out. Thus, the observed large-scale alterations of the gut microbiota that accompany the Burmese python's own dramatic physiological and morphological changes during feeding and fasting emphasize the need to consider both microbial and host cellular responses to nutrient flux. The Burmese python may provide a unique model for dissecting these interrelationships.

  14. Gut Health in the era of the human gut microbiota: from metaphor to biovalue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Vincent; Mougin, Bruno; Dekeuwer, Catherine; Carret, Gérard

    2014-11-01

    The human intestinal ecosystem, previously called the gut microflora is now known as the Human Gut Microbiota (HGM). Microbiome research has emphasized the potential role of this ecosystem in human homeostasis, offering unexpected opportunities in therapeutics, far beyond digestive diseases. It has also highlighted ethical, social and commercial concerns related to the gut microbiota. As diet factors are accepted to be the major regulator of the gut microbiota, the modulation of its composition, either by antibiotics or by food intake, should be regarded as a fascinating tool for improving the human health. Scientists, the food industry, consumers and policymakers alike are involved in this new field of nutrition. Defining how knowledge about the HGM is being translated into public perception has never been addressed before. This raises the question of metaphors associated with the HGM, and how they could be used to improve public understanding, and to influence individual decision-making on healthcare policy. This article suggests that a meeting of stakeholders from the social sciences, basic research and the food industry, taking an epistemological approach to the HGM, is needed to foster close, innovative partnerships that will help shape public perception and enable novel behavioural interventions that would benefit public health.

  15. Obesity, inflammation, and the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Amanda J; West, Nicholas P; Cripps, Allan W

    2015-03-01

    As the prevalence of obesity and associated disease continues to rise and concerns for the spiralling economic and social costs also escalate, innovative management strategies beyond primary prevention and traditional lifestyle interventions are urgently needed. The biological basis of disease is one avenue for further exploration in this context. Several key inflammatory markers have been consistently associated with both obesity and risk of adverse outcomes in obesity-associated diseases, which suggests that a persistent, low-grade, inflammatory response is a potentially modifiable risk factor. In this Review, we provide evidence supporting perturbation of the intestinal microbiota and changes in intestinal permeability as potential triggers of inflammation in obesity. Further characterisation of the mechanisms underpinning the triggers of such inflammatory responses in overweight and obese individuals could offer unique opportunities for intervention strategies to help ameliorate the risk of obesity-associated disease.

  16. Gut microbiota in Malawian infants in a nutritional supplementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Xu, Ying; Mangani, Charles; Fan, Yue-Mei; Dewey, Kathryn G; Salminen, Seppo Jaakko; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether two forms of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) or a micronutrient-fortified corn-soya blend were associated with development of the gut microbiota in Malawian infants, to assess the microbiota profiles at the age of 6 and 18 months and to follow the changes during the 12-month period. This was a substudy of a 4-arm randomised controlled trial conducted in rural Malawi. Infants at the age of 6 months were randomised to receive no supplement during the primary follow-up period (control), 54 g/day of micronutrient-fortified LNS with milk protein base (milk LNS), 54 g/day of micronutrient-fortified LNS with soya protein base (soya LNS), or 71 g/day of micronutrient-fortified corn-soya blend for 12 months. Stool samples were collected at baseline (6 months) and end of trial (18 months). The 16S rRNA gene was amplified and subjected to multiplex sequencing. A total of 213 infants had paired microbiota data at 6 and 18 months of age. The Dirichlet-multinomial test showed no significant difference in microbiota profile between the four intervention groups at either age (each P > 0.10). Bifidobacterium longum was most abundant at both ages. Lactobacillus ruminis, Shigella and Salmonella were present. The abundance of Prevotella and Faecalibacterium increased with age (each P < 0.001), while Bifidobacteriaceae and Enterobacteriaceae exhibited significant decrease (each P < 0.001). Nutritional supplementation by LNS or corn-soya blend for twelve months did not affect the gut microbiota profile in the rural Malawian context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Beyond the gut bacterial microbiota: The gut virome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columpsi, Paola; Sacchi, Paolo; Zuccaro, Valentina; Cima, Serena; Sarda, Cristina; Mariani, Marcello; Gori, Andrea; Bruno, Raffaele

    2016-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is colonized with a highly different population of bacterial, viral, ad fungal species; viruses are reported to be dominant. The composition of gut virome is closely related to dietary habits and surrounding environment. Host and their intestinal microbes live in a dynamic equilibrium and viruses stimulate a low degree of immune responses without causing symptoms (host tolerance). However, intestinal phages could lead to a rupture of eubiosis and may contribute to the shift from health to disease in humans and animals. Viral nucleic acids and other products of lysis of bacteria serve as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and could trigger specific inflammatory modulations. At the same time, phages could elicit innate antiviral immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) operated as innate antiviral immune sensors and their activation triggers signaling cascades that lead to inflammatory response. J. Med. Virol. 88:1467-1472, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Gut microbiota and the development of obesity La microbiota intestinal y el desarrollo de la obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Boroni Moreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Advances in tools for molecular investigations have allowed deeper understanding of how microbes can influence host physiology. A very interesting field of research that has gained attention recently is the possible role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. Objective: The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms that explain the influence of gut microbiota on host metabolism. Results and discussion: The gut microbiota is important for normal physiology of the host. However, differences in their composition may have different impacts on host metabolism. It has been shown that obese and lean subjects present different microbiota composition profile. These differences in microbiota composition may contribute to weight imbalance and impaired metabolism. The evidences from animal models suggest that it is possible that the microbiota of obese subjects has higher capacity to harvest energy from the diet providing substrates that can activate lipogenic pathways. In addition, microorganisms can also influence the activity of lipoprotein lipase interfering in the accumulation of triglycerides in the adipose tissue. The interaction of gut microbiota with the endocannabinoid system provides a route through which intestinal permeability can be altered. Increased intestinal permeability allows the entrance of endotoxins to the circulation, which are related to the induction of inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. The impact of the proposed mechanisms for humans still needs further investigations. However, the fact that gut microbiota can be modulated through dietary components highlights the importance to study how fatty acids, carbohydrates, micronutrients, prebiotics, and probiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and the management of obesity. Gut microbiota seems to be an important and promising target in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related metabolic disturbances in

  19. Incorporating the gut microbiota into models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian gut is home to a diverse community of microbes. Advances in technology over the past two decades have allowed us to examine this community, the gut microbiota, in more detail, revealing a wide range of influences on host nutrition, health, and behavior. These host-gut microbe interactions appear to shape host plasticity and fitness in a variety of contexts, and therefore represent a key factor missing from existing models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution. However, current studies of the gut microbiota tend to include limited contextual data or are clinical, making it difficult to directly test broad anthropological hypotheses. Here, I review what is known about the animal gut microbiota and provide examples of how gut microbiota research can be integrated into the study of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution with targeted data collection. Specifically, I examine how the gut microbiota may impact primate diet, energetics, disease resistance, and cognition. While gut microbiota research is proliferating rapidly, especially in the context of humans, there remain important gaps in our understanding of host-gut microbe interactions that will require an anthropological perspective to fill. Likewise, gut microbiota research will be an important tool for filling remaining gaps in anthropological research.

  20. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  1. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-09-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  2. Molecular analysis of gut microbiota in obesity among Indian individuals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak P Patil; Dhiraj P Dhotre; Sachin G Chavan; Armiya Sultan; Dhawal S Jain; Vikram B Lanjekar; Jayshree Gangawani; Poonam S Shah; Jayshree S Todkar; Shashank Shah; Dilip R Ranade; Milind S Patole; Yogesh S Shouche

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is a consequence of a complex interplay between the host genome and the prevalent obesogenic factors among the modern communities. The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disorder was recently discovered; however, 16S-rRNA-based surveys revealed compelling but community-specific data. Considering this, despite unique diets, dietary habits and an uprising trend in obesity, the Indian counterparts are poorly studied. Here, we report a comparative analysis and quantification of dominant gut microbiota of lean, normal, obese and surgically treated obese individuals of Indian origin. Representative gut microbial diversity was assessed by sequencing fecal 16S rRNA libraries for each group (n=5) with a total of over 3000 sequences. We detected no evident trend in the distribution of the predominant bacterial phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. At the genus level, the bacteria of genus Bacteroides were prominent among the obese individuals, which was further confirmed by qPCR ( > 0.05). In addition, a remarkably high archaeal density with elevated fecal SCFA levels was also noted in the obese group. On the contrary, the treated-obese individuals exhibited comparatively reduced Bacteroides and archaeal counts along with reduced fecal SCFAs. In conclusion, the study successfully identified a representative microbial diversity in the Indian subjects and demonstrated the prominence of certain bacterial groups in obese individuals; nevertheless, further studies are essential to understand their role in obesity.

  3. Two distinct metacommunities characterize the gut microbiota in Crohn's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Qing; Gao, Yuan; Jie, Zhuye

    2017-01-01

    The inflammatory intestinal disorder Crohn's disease (CD) has become a health challenge worldwide. The gut microbiota closely interacts with the host immune system, but its functional impact in CD is unclear. Except for studies on a small number of CD patients, analyses of the gut microbiota in CD...

  4. The gut microbiota modulates host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Shoaie, Saeed; Bergentall, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been proposed as an environmental factor that promotes the progression of metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated how the gut microbiota modulates the global metabolic differences in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, liver, and two white adipose tissue depots obtained from...

  5. Interaction between dietary lipids and gut microbiota regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar, Robert; Nygren, Heli; Orešič, Matej; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-03-01

    The gut microbiota influences many aspects of host metabolism. We have previously shown that the presence of a gut microbiota remodels lipid composition. Here we investigated how interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids regulates lipid composition in the liver and plasma, and gene expression in the liver. Germ-free and conventionally raised mice were fed a lard or fish oil diet for 11 weeks. We performed lipidomics analysis of the liver and serum and microarray analysis of the liver. As expected, most of the variation in the lipidomics dataset was induced by the diet, and abundance of most lipid classes differed between mice fed lard and fish oil. However, the gut microbiota also affected lipid composition. The gut microbiota increased hepatic levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in mice fed lard, but not in mice fed fish oil. Serum levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters were not affected by the gut microbiota. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated by the gut microbiota in mice fed lard and were expressed at a low level in mice fed fish oil independent of microbial status. In summary, we show that gut microbiota-induced regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism is dependent on dietary lipid composition.

  6. Depletion of Gut Microbiota Protects against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emal, D.; Rampanelli, E.; Stroo, I.; Butter, L.M.; Teske, G.J.; Claessen, N.; Stokman, G.; Florquin, S.; Leemans, J.C.; Dessing, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    An accumulating body of evidence shows that gut microbiota fulfill an important role in health and disease by modulating local and systemic immunity. The importance of the microbiome in the development of kidney disease, however, is largely unknown. To study this concept, we depleted gut microbiota

  7. Development of gut microbiota in pigs and the effect of diet, antibiotics and other environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal tract of humans and animals is colonized by trillions of microorganisms that constitute a community or ecosystem known as the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota undergoes remarkable alterations during early age, reaches a relative stable state in adulthood, and is driven by internal

  8. Gut microbiota. Antimicrobial peptide resistance mediates resilience of prominent gut commensals during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, T W; Schofield, W B; Barry, N A; Putnam, E E; Rundell, E A; Trent, M S; Degnan, P H; Booth, C J; Yu, H; Goodman, A L

    2015-01-09

    Resilience to host inflammation and other perturbations is a fundamental property of gut microbial communities, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We have found that human gut microbes from all dominant phyla are resistant to high levels of inflammation-associated antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and have identified a mechanism for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification in the phylum Bacteroidetes that increases AMP resistance by four orders of magnitude. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron mutants that fail to remove a single phosphate group from their LPS were displaced from the microbiota during inflammation triggered by pathogen infection. These findings establish a mechanism that determines the stability of prominent members of a healthy microbiota during perturbation. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Gut microbiota and probiotics in maternal and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Yolanda

    2011-12-01

    The interplay between both heredity and environmental factors seems to affect every stage of development from conception to the early postnatal period with potential long-term effects on child and adult health. During pregnancy, immune and metabolic functions of the fetus are dependent on the mother; moreover, the refinement of these functions seems to commence inside the uterus and to be diet sensitive. The microbiota inhabiting the intestinal tract develop an array of physiologic roles within the human body, which influences both metabolic and immune functions, particularly during early neonatal life and possibly even in utero. Transmission of bacteria from the mother to the neonate through direct contact with maternal microbiota during birth and through breast milk during lactation also seems to influence the infant's gut colonization, with potential health consequences. In this context, intentional modulation of microbiota composition through the use of probiotics during the perinatal and early postnatal period has been proposed as a possible dietary strategy to reduce risk of disease. Herein, studies are reviewed on the composition of the intestinal microbiota during pregnancy and clinical trials evaluating the effects of perinatal administration of probiotics on different clinical outcomes.

  10. Gut microbiota in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarran Guldris, Secundino; González Parra, Emilio; Cases Amenós, Aleix

    The intestinal microflora maintains a symbiotic relationship with the host under normal conditions, but its imbalance has recently been associated with several diseases. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), dysbiotic intestinal microflora has been reported with an increase in pathogenic flora compared to symbiotic flora. An enhanced permeability of the intestinal barrier, allowing the passage of endotoxins and other bacterial products to the blood, has also been shown in CKD. By fermenting undigested products that reach the colon, the intestinal microflora produce indoles, phenols and amines, among others, that are absorbed by the host, accumulate in CKD and have harmful effects on the body. These gut-derived uraemic toxins and the increased permeability of the intestinal barrier in CKD have been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress and have been involved in various CKD-related complications, including cardiovascular disease, anaemia, mineral metabolism disorders or the progression of CKD. The use of prebiotics, probiotics or synbiotics, among other approaches, could improve the dysbiosis and/or the increased permeability of the intestinal barrier in CKD. This article describes the situation of the intestinal microflora in CKD, the alteration of the intestinal barrier and its clinical consequences, the harmful effects of intestinal flora-derived uraemic toxins, and possible therapeutic options to improve this dysbiosis and reduce CKD-related complications.

  11. Gut microbiota and obesity: role in aetiology and potential therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Carthage P; Shanahan, Fergus

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is epidemic; chronic energy surplus is clearly important in obesity development but other factors are at play. Indigenous gut microbiota are implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of obesity and obesity-related disorders. Evidence from murine models initially suggested a role for the gut microbiota in weight regulation and the microbiota has been shown to contribute to the low grade inflammation that characterises obesity. The microbiota and its metabolites mediate some of the alterations of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, the endocannabinoid system, and bile acid metabolism, found in obesity-related disorders. Modulation of the gut microbiota is an attractive proposition for prevention or treatment of obesity, particularly as traditional measures have been sub-optimal.

  12. A Dietary Fiber-Deprived Gut Microbiota Degrades the Colonic Mucus Barrier and Enhances Pathogen Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mahesh S; Seekatz, Anna M; Koropatkin, Nicole M; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Hickey, Christina A; Wolter, Mathis; Pudlo, Nicholas A; Kitamoto, Sho; Terrapon, Nicolas; Muller, Arnaud; Young, Vincent B; Henrissat, Bernard; Wilmes, Paul; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Núñez, Gabriel; Martens, Eric C

    2016-11-17

    Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier. Dietary fiber deprivation, together with a fiber-deprived, mucus-eroding microbiota, promotes greater epithelial access and lethal colitis by the mucosal pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. Our work reveals intricate pathways linking diet, the gut microbiome, and intestinal barrier dysfunction, which could be exploited to improve health using dietary therapeutics.

  13. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2016-01-01

    The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through...... vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born...... either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal...

  14. Formation of short chain fatty acids by the gut microbiota and their impact on human metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas J. Morrison; Preston, Tom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The formation of SCFA is the result of a complex interplay between diet and the gut microbiota within the gut lumen environment. The discovery of receptors, across a range of cell and tissue types for which short chain fatty acids SCFA appear to be the natural ligands, has led to increased interest in SCFA as signaling molecules between the gut microbiota and the host. SCFA represent the major carbon flux from the diet through the gut microbiota to the host and evidence is emerging f...

  15. Having older siblings is associated with gut microbiota development during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain;

    2015-01-01

    older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota...... of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes influence development of allergies later...

  16. Emerging aspects of food and nutrition on gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuan; Marco, Maria L; Slupsky, Carolyn M

    2013-10-09

    The human gastrointestinal tract contains a highly complex ecosystem that harbors various microorganisms, which together create a unique environment within each individual. There is growing awareness that dietary habits are one of the essential factors contributing to the microbial diversity and community configuration that ultimately affects human health. From an evolutionary perspective, human dietary history can be viewed as a central factor in the selection of the gut microbial community and stabilization of the mutualistic host-microbial interaction, that together drive host phenotype. Herein, current knowledge concerning the influence of major dietary macrostructure and individual food ingredients is presented. This knowledge will provide perspectives for personalized gut microbiota management and, ultimately, movement toward an era of personalized nutrition and medicine.

  17. High fat diet drives obesity regardless the composition of gut microbiota in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabot, Sylvie; Membrez, Mathieu; Blancher, Florence; Berger, Bernard; Moine, Déborah; Krause, Lutz; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bruneau, Aurélia; Gérard, Philippe; Siddharth, Jay; Lauber, Christian L.; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is involved in many aspects of host physiology but its role in body weight and glucose metabolism remains unclear. Here we studied the compositional changes of gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity mice that were conventionally raised or received microbiota transplantation. In conventional mice, the diversity of the faecal microbiota was weakly associated with 1st week weight gain but transferring the microbiota of mice with contrasting weight gain to germfree mice did not change obesity development or feed efficiency of recipients regardless whether the microbiota was taken before or after 10 weeks high fat (HF) feeding. Interestingly, HF-induced glucose intolerance was influenced by microbiota inoculation and improved glucose tolerance was associated with a low Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. Transplantation of Bacteroidetes rich microbiota compared to a control microbiota ameliorated glucose intolerance caused by HF feeding. Altogether, our results demonstrate that gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism and the abundance of Bacteroidetes significantly modulates HF-induced glucose intolerance but has limited impact on obesity in mice. Our results suggest that gut microbiota is a part of complex aetiology of insulin resistance syndrome, individual microbiota composition may cause phenotypic variation associated with HF feeding in mice. PMID:27577172

  18. Aberrant gut microbiota composition at the onset of type 1 diabetes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goffau, de M.C.; Fuentes, S.; Bogert, van den B.; Honkanen, H.; Vos, de W.M.; Welling, G.W.; Hyöty, H.; Harmsen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Recent studies indicate that an aberrant gut microbiota is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes, yet little is known about the microbiota in children who have diabetes at an early age. To this end, the microbiota of children aged 1–5 years with new-onset type 1 diabetes

  19. Aberrant gut microbiota composition at the onset of type 1 diabetes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goffau, Marcus C.; Fuentes, Susana; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Honkanen, Hanna; de Vos, Willem M.; Welling, Gjalt; Hyoty, Heikki; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Recent studies indicate that an aberrant gut microbiota is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes, yet little is known about the microbiota in children who have diabetes at an early age. To this end, the microbiota of children aged 1-5 years with new-onset type 1 diabetes

  20. New insights into therapeutic strategies for gut microbiota modulation in inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Angélica Thomaz; Fukumori, Claudio; Ferreira, Caroline Marcantonio

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the gut microbiota and the host immune system is very important for balancing and resolving inflammation. The human microbiota begins to form during childbirth; the complex interaction between bacteria and host cells becomes critical for the formation of a healthy or a disease-promoting microbiota. C-section delivery, formula feeding, a high-sugar diet, a high-fat diet and excess hygiene negatively affect the health of the microbiota. Considering that the majority of the global population has experienced at least one of these factors that can lead to inflammatory disease, it is important to understand strategies to modulate the gut microbiota. In this review, we will discuss new insights into gut microbiota modulation as potential strategies to prevent and treat inflammatory diseases. Owing to the great advances in tools for microbial analysis, therapeutic strategies such as prebiotic, probiotic and postbiotic treatment and fecal microbiota transplantation have gained popularity. PMID:27757227

  1. The Impact of the Milk Glycobiome on the Neonate Gut Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Alline R.; Barile, Daniela; Underwood, Mark A.; David A. Mills

    2014-01-01

    Human milk is a complete source of nourishment for the infant. Exclusive breastfeeding not only sustains the infant’s development but also guides the proliferation of a protective intestinal microbiota. Among the many components of milk that modulate the infant gut microbiota, the milk glycans, which comprise free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, are increasingly recognized as drivers of microbiota development and overall gut health. These glycans may display pleiotropic func...

  2. Tailoring Gut Microbiota for Enhanced Resilience and Performance Under Sleep-Deprived Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    To achieve these objectives, we will first develop a new humanized rat model harboring the gut microbiota from five-ten healthy normal human donors...fecal microbiota collected from normal healthy human donors will be used to inoculate pseudo germ-free (GF) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats to develop...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2017-0001 Tailoring Gut Microbiota for Enhanced Resilience and Performance under Sleep-Deprived Conditions. Victor T. Chan

  3. Is the Gut Microbiota a New Factor Contributing to Obesity and Its Metabolic Disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota refers to the trillions of microorganisms residing in the intestine and is integral in multiple physiological processes of the host. Recent research has shown that gut bacteria play a role in metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which the gut microbiota affects metabolic diseases are by two major routes: (1 the innate immune response to the structural components of bacteria (e.g., lipopolysaccharide resulting in inflammation and (2 bacterial metabolites of dietary compounds (e.g., SCFA from fiber, which have biological activities that regulate host functions. Gut microbiota has evolved with humans as a mutualistic partner, but dysbiosis in a form of altered gut metagenome and collected microbial activities, in combination with classic genetic and environmental factors, may promote the development of metabolic disorders. This paper reviews the available literature about the gut microbiota and aforementioned metabolic disorders and reveals the gaps in knowledge for future study.

  4. Shotgun metaproteomics of the human distal gut microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Russell, A.L.; Shah, M.; Godzik, A.; Rosenquist, M.; Halfvarsson, J.; Lefsrud, M.G.; Apajalahti, J.; Tysk, C.; Hettich, R.L.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2008-10-15

    The human gut contains a dense, complex and diverse microbial community, comprising the gut microbiome. Metagenomics has recently revealed the composition of genes in the gut microbiome, but provides no direct information about which genes are expressed or functioning. Therefore, our goal was to develop a novel approach to directly identify microbial proteins in fecal samples to gain information about the genes expressed and about key microbial functions in the human gut. We used a non-targeted, shotgun mass spectrometry-based whole community proteomics, or metaproteomics, approach for the first deep proteome measurements of thousands of proteins in human fecal samples, thus demonstrating this approach on the most complex sample type to date. The resulting metaproteomes had a skewed distribution relative to the metagenome, with more proteins for translation, energy production and carbohydrate metabolism when compared to what was earlier predicted from metagenomics. Human proteins, including antimicrobial peptides, were also identified, providing a non-targeted glimpse of the host response to the microbiota. Several unknown proteins represented previously undescribed microbial pathways or host immune responses, revealing a novel complex interplay between the human host and its associated microbes.

  5. Shotgun Metaproteomics of the Human Distal Gut Microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Erickson, Alison L [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Godzik, A [Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, CA; Rosenquist, M [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden; Halfvarsson, J [Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden; Lefsrud, Mark G [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Apajalahti, J. [Alimetrics Ltd,; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Jansson, J [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden

    2009-01-01

    The human gut contains a dense, complex, and diverse microbial community, comprising the gut microbiome. Metagenomics has recently revealed the composition of genes in the gut microbiome, but provides no direct information about which genes are expressed or functioning. Therefore, our goal was to develop a novel approach to directly identify microbial proteins in fecal samples to gain information about what genes were expressed and about key microbial functions in the human gut. We used a non-targeted, shotgun mass spectrometry-based whole community proteomics, or metaproteomics, approach for the first deep proteome measurements of thousands of proteins in human fecal samples, thus demonstrating this approach on the most complex sample type to date. The resulting metaproteomes had a skewed distribution relative to the metagenome, with more proteins for translation, energy production, and carbohydrate metabolism compared to what was earlier predicted from metagenomics. Human proteins, including antimicrobial peptides, were also identified, providing a non-targeted glimpse of the host response to the microbiota. Several unknown proteins represented previously undescribed microbial pathways or host immune responses, revealing a novel complex interplay between the human host and its associated microbes.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  7. Increased gut microbiota diversity and abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia after fasting: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Remely, Marlene; Hippe, Berit; Geretschlaeger, Isabella; Stegmayer, Sonja; Hoefinger, Ingrid; Haslberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background An impaired gut microbiota has been reported as an important factor in the pathogenesis of obesity. Weight reduction has already been mentioned to improve gut microbial subpopulations involved in inflammatory processes, though other subpopulations still need further investigation. Thus, weight reduction in the context of a fasting program together with a probiotic intervention may improve the abundance and diversity of gut microbiota. Methods In this pilot study, overweight...

  8. Gut Microbiota Modulation and Its Relationship with Obesity Using Prebiotic Fibers and Probiotics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Dinesh K.; Renuka; Puniya, Monica; Shandilya, Umesh K.; Dhewa, Tejpal; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Puniya, Anil K.; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2017-01-01

    In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions. Dysbiosis in gut microbiota causes disequilibrium in energy homeostasis that ultimately leads to obesity. Numerous mechanisms have been reported by which gut microbiota induces obesity in experimental models. However, which microbial community is directly linked to obesity is still unknown due to the complex nature of gut microbiota. Prebiotics and probiotics are the safer and effective dietary substances available, which can therapeutically alter the gut microbiota of the host. In this review, an effort was made to discuss the current mechanisms through which gut microbiota interacts with host energy metabolism in the context of obesity. Further, the therapeutic approaches (prebiotics/probiotics) that helped in positively altering the gut microbiota were discussed by taking experimental evidence from animal and human studies. In the closing statement, the challenges and future tasks within the field were discussed. PMID:28421057

  9. Gut Microbiota Modulation and Its Relationship with Obesity Using Prebiotic Fibers and Probiotics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K. Dahiya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions. Dysbiosis in gut microbiota causes disequilibrium in energy homeostasis that ultimately leads to obesity. Numerous mechanisms have been reported by which gut microbiota induces obesity in experimental models. However, which microbial community is directly linked to obesity is still unknown due to the complex nature of gut microbiota. Prebiotics and probiotics are the safer and effective dietary substances available, which can therapeutically alter the gut microbiota of the host. In this review, an effort was made to discuss the current mechanisms through which gut microbiota interacts with host energy metabolism in the context of obesity. Further, the therapeutic approaches (prebiotics/probiotics that helped in positively altering the gut microbiota were discussed by taking experimental evidence from animal and human studies. In the closing statement, the challenges and future tasks within the field were discussed.

  10. Gut microbiota interactions with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: did gut microbiote co-evolve with insulin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Eduardo; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, Jose-Manuel

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has steadily increased in the last decades. In addition to the genetic and environmental factors, gut microbiota may play an important role in the modulation of intermediary phenotypes leading to metabolic disease. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with specific changes in gut microbiota composition. The mechanisms underlying the association of specific gut microbiota and metabolic disease include increasing energy harvest from the diet, changes in host gene expression, energy expenditure and storage, and alterations in gut permeability leading to metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation and insulin resistance. In some studies, the modifications of gut microbiota induced by antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics led to improved inflammatory activity in parallel to amelioration of insulin sensitivity and decreased adiposity. However, these effects were mainly observed in animal models. Their extrapolation to humans awaits further studies. The fascinating role of gut microbiota on metabolic disease opens new avenues in the treatment of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A co-evolutionary clue for microbiota and insulin resistance is suggested.

  11. Transferring the blues: Depression-associated gut microbiota induces neurobehavioural changes in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R; Borre, Yuliya; O' Brien, Ciaran; Patterson, Elaine; El Aidy, Sahar; Deane, Jennifer; Kennedy, Paul J; Beers, Sasja; Scott, Karen; Moloney, Gerard; Hoban, Alan E; Scott, Lucinda; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-11-01

    The gut microbiota interacts with the host via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and neural pathways. These pathways are components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and preclinical evidence suggests that the microbiota can recruit this bidirectional communication system to modulate brain development, function and behaviour. The pathophysiology of depression involves neuroimmune-neuroendocrine dysregulation. However, the extent to which changes in gut microbiota composition and function mediate the dysregulation of these pathways is unknown. Thirty four patients with major depression and 33 matched healthy controls were recruited. Cytokines, CRP, Salivary Cortisol and plasma Lipopolysaccharide binding protein were determined by ELISA. Plasma tryptophan and kynurenine were determined by HPLC. Fecal samples were collected for 16s rRNA sequencing. A Fecal Microbiota transplantation was prepared from a sub group of depressed patients and controls and transferred by oral gavage to a microbiota-deficient rat model. We demonstrate that depression is associated with decreased gut microbiota richness and diversity. Fecal microbiota transplantation from depressed patients to microbiota-depleted rats can induce behavioural and physiological features characteristic of depression in the recipient animals, including anhedonia and anxiety-like behaviours, as well as alterations in tryptophan metabolism. This suggests that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of features of depression and may provide a tractable target in the treatment and prevention of this disorder.

  12. Gut microbiota and environment in patients with major burns – a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kentaro; Ogura, Hiroshi; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Matsushima, Asako; Hayakawa, Koichi; Ikegawa, Hitoshi; Tasaki, Osamu; Kuwagata, Yasuyuki; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    The gut is an important target organ after severe insult. Gut microbiota have an important role in immune response. However, the gut microbiota and environment have not been clarified in patients with burns. Therefore, we serially evaluated the gut microbiota and environment in patients with major burns. Fecal samples from five patients with major burns were measured for quantitative evaluation of the gut microbiota. In the four survivors of major burns, the numbers of beneficial bacteria, especially those of total obligate anaerobes and Bifidobacterium, initially decreased, but then increased as the condition of the survivors improved. By contrast, the numbers severely decreased in the non-survivor as gut failure and sepsis progressed. The number of pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Candida did not continue to increase in the survivors, whereas in the non-survivor the number increased and continued to higher counts. Short-chain fatty acids such as propionic and butyric acids decreased to lower-than-normal levels but tended to increase after recovery in the survivors. The levels remained below normal in the non-survivor. The gut microbiota and environment are severely altered in patients with major burns. Consequently, abnormal gut conditions may have an influence on the systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. A novel treatment to maintain the gut microbiota and environment is expected in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the avian gut microbiota: current trends and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David William Waite

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbour diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfil crucial roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Across the field of avian microbiology knowledge is extremely uneven, with several species accounting for an overwhelming majority of all microbiological investigations. These include agriculturally important birds, such as chickens and turkeys, as well as birds of evolutionary or conservation interest. In our previous study we attempted the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available data sets. We have now extended our analysis to explore the microbiology of several key species in detail, to consider the avian microbiota within the context of what is known about other vertebrates, and to identify key areas of interest in avian microbiology for future study.

  14. High-fat diet alters gut microbiota physiology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hannelore; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Berry, David; Desmarchelier, Charles; Hahne, Hannes; Loh, Gunnar; Mondot, Stanislas; Lepage, Patricia; Rothballer, Michael; Walker, Alesia; Böhm, Christoph; Wenning, Mareike; Wagner, Michael; Blaut, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is known to regulate host energy homeostasis and can be influenced by high-calorie diets. However, changes affecting the ecosystem at the functional level are still not well characterized. We measured shifts in cecal bacterial communities in mice fed a carbohydrate or high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks at the level of the following: (i) diversity and taxa distribution by high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing; (ii) bulk and single-cell chemical composition by Fourier-transform infrared- (FT-IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy and (iii) metaproteome and metabolome via high-resolution mass spectrometry. High-fat diet caused shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria and altered the proportion of Ruminococcaceae (decrease) and Rikenellaceae (increase). FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the impact of the diet on cecal chemical fingerprints is greater than the impact of microbiota composition. Diet-driven changes in biochemical fingerprints of members of the Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae were also observed at the level of single cells, indicating that there were distinct differences in cellular composition of dominant phylotypes under different diets. Metaproteome and metabolome analyses based on the occurrence of 1760 bacterial proteins and 86 annotated metabolites revealed distinct HF diet-specific profiles. Alteration of hormonal and anti-microbial networks, bile acid and bilirubin metabolism and shifts towards amino acid and simple sugars metabolism were observed. We conclude that a HF diet markedly affects the gut bacterial ecosystem at the functional level.

  15. Gastrointestinal cancers: influence of gut microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Daniela Elena

    2014-04-10

    Cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract continue to represent a major health problem, despite progress in therapy. Gut microbiota is a key element related to the genesis of GI cancers, countless papers addressing this burning issue across the world. We provide an updated knowledge of the involvement of gut microbiota in GI tumorigenesis, including its underlying mechanisms. We present also a comprehensive review of the evidence from animal and clinical studies using probiotics and/or prebiotics in the prevention and/or therapy of GI tumours, of GI cancer therapy-related toxicity and of post-operative complications. We summarize the anticarcinogenic mechanisms of these biotherapeutics from in vitro, animal and clinical interventions. More research is required to reveal the interactions of microflora with genetic, epigenetic and immunologic factors, diet and age, before any firm conclusion be drawn. Well-designed, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled human studies using probiotics and/or prebiotics, with adequate follow-up are necessary in order to formulate directions for prevention and therapy.

  16. Gut microbiota: the next-gen frontier in preventive and therapeutic medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder eNagpal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our gut harbors an extremely diverse collection of trillions of microbes that, besides degrading the complex dietary constituents, execute numerous activities vital for our metabolism and immune health. Although the importance of gut microbiota in maintaining digestive health has long been believed, its close correlation with numerous chronic ailments has recently been exposed, thanks to the innovative mechanistic studies on the compositional and functional aspects of gut microbial communities using germ-free or humanized animal models. Since a myriad of mysteries about the precise structures and functions of gut microbial communities in specific health situations still remains to be explicated, the emerging field of gut microbiota remains a foremost objective of research for microbiologists, computational biologists, clinicians, nutritionalists etc. Nevertheless, it is only after a comprehensive understanding of the structure, density and function of the gut microbiota that the new therapeutic targets could be captured and utilized for a healthier gut as well as overall wellbeing.

  17. The Second Brain: Is the Gut Microbiota a Link Between Obesity and Central Nervous System Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2016-03-01

    The gut-brain axis is a bi-directional integrated system composed by immune, endocrine, and neuronal components by which the gap between the gut microbiota and the brain is significantly impacted. An increasing number of different gut microbial species are now postulated to regulate brain function in health and disease. The westernized diet is hypothesized to be the cause of the current obesity levels in many countries, a major socio-economical health problem. Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggest that the gut microbiota is responsible for significant immunologic, neuronal, and endocrine changes that lead to obesity. We hypothesize that the gut microbiota, and changes associated with diet, affect the gut-brain axis and may possibly contribute to the development of mental illness. In this review, we discuss the links between diet, gut dysbiosis, obesity, and immunologic and neurologic diseases that impact brain function and behavior.

  18. Impact of whole grains on the gut microbiota: the next frontier for oats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J

    2014-10-01

    The gut microbiota plays important roles in proper gut function and can contribute to or help prevent disease. Whole grains, including oats, constitute important sources of nutrients for the gut microbiota and contribute to a healthy gut microbiome. In particular, whole grains provide NSP and resistant starch, unsaturated TAG and complex lipids, and phenolics. The composition of these constituents is unique in oats compared with other whole grains. Therefore, oats may contribute distinctive effects on gut health relative to other grains. Studies designed to determine these effects may uncover new human-health benefits of oat consumption.

  19. Phylogenetic and Metabolic Tracking of Gut Microbiota during Perinatal Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Del Chierico

    Full Text Available The colonization and development of gut microbiota immediately after birth is highly variable and depends on several factors, such as delivery mode and modality of feeding during the first months of life. A cohort of 31 mother and neonate pairs, including 25 at-term caesarean (CS and 6 vaginally (V delivered neonates (DNs, were included in this study and 121 meconium/faecal samples were collected at days 1 through 30 following birth. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assessed in 69 stool samples by phylogenetic microarray HITChip and inter- and intra-individual distributions were established by inter-OTUs correlation matrices and OTUs co-occurrence or co-exclusion networks. 1H-NMR metabolites were determined in 70 stool samples, PCA analysis was performed on 55 CS DNs samples, and metabolome/OTUs co-correlations were assessed in 45 CS samples, providing an integrated map of the early microbiota OTUs-metabolome. A microbiota "core" of OTUs was identified that was independent of delivery mode and lactation stage, suggesting highly specialized communities that act as seminal colonizers of microbial networks. Correlations among OTUs, metabolites, and OTUs-metabolites revealed metabolic profiles associated with early microbial ecological dynamics, maturation of milk components, and host physiology.

  20. Phylogenetic and Metabolic Tracking of Gut Microbiota during Perinatal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Chierico, Federica; Vernocchi, Pamela; Petrucca, Andrea; Paci, Paola; Fuentes, Susana; Praticò, Giulia; Capuani, Giorgio; Masotti, Andrea; Reddel, Sofia; Russo, Alessandra; Vallone, Cristina; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Buffone, Elsa; Signore, Fabrizio; Rigon, Giuliano; Dotta, Andrea; Miccheli, Alfredo; de Vos, Willem M.; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    The colonization and development of gut microbiota immediately after birth is highly variable and depends on several factors, such as delivery mode and modality of feeding during the first months of life. A cohort of 31 mother and neonate pairs, including 25 at-term caesarean (CS) and 6 vaginally (V) delivered neonates (DNs), were included in this study and 121 meconium/faecal samples were collected at days 1 through 30 following birth. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assessed in 69 stool samples by phylogenetic microarray HITChip and inter- and intra-individual distributions were established by inter-OTUs correlation matrices and OTUs co-occurrence or co-exclusion networks. 1H-NMR metabolites were determined in 70 stool samples, PCA analysis was performed on 55 CS DNs samples, and metabolome/OTUs co-correlations were assessed in 45 CS samples, providing an integrated map of the early microbiota OTUs-metabolome. A microbiota “core” of OTUs was identified that was independent of delivery mode and lactation stage, suggesting highly specialized communities that act as seminal colonizers of microbial networks. Correlations among OTUs, metabolites, and OTUs-metabolites revealed metabolic profiles associated with early microbial ecological dynamics, maturation of milk components, and host physiology. PMID:26332837

  1. The Food Contaminant Deoxynivalenol Exacerbates the Genotoxicity of Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Payros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of human beings from developed countries are colonized by Escherichia coli strains producing colibactin, a genotoxin suspected to be associated with the development of colorectal cancers. Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most prevalent mycotoxin that contaminates staple food—especially cereal products—in Europe and North America. This study investigates the effect of the food contaminant DON on the genotoxicity of the E. coli strains producing colibactin. In vitro, intestinal epithelial cells were coexposed to DON and E. coli producing colibactin. In vivo, newborn rats colonized at birth with E. coli producing colibactin were fed a DON-contaminated diet. Intestinal DNA damage was estimated by the phosphorylation of histone H2AX. DON exacerbates the genotoxicity of the E. coli producing colibactin in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. Although DON had no effect on the composition of the gut microbiota, and especially on the number of E. coli, a significant increase in DNA damage was observed in intestinal epithelial cells of animals colonized by E. coli strains producing colibactin and coexposed to DON compared to animals colonized with E. coli strains unable to produce colibactin or animals exposed only to DON. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the genotoxicity of E. coli strains producing colibactin, increasingly present in the microbiota of asymptomatic human beings, is modulated by the presence of DON in the diet. This raises questions about the synergism between food contaminants and gut microbiota with regard to intestinal carcinogenesis.

  2. The Food Contaminant Deoxynivalenol Exacerbates the Genotoxicity of Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payros, Delphine; Martin, Patricia; Secher, Thomas; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. L.; Boury, Michèle; Laffitte, Joelle; Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Eric

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT An increasing number of human beings from developed countries are colonized by Escherichia coli strains producing colibactin, a genotoxin suspected to be associated with the development of colorectal cancers. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent mycotoxin that contaminates staple food—especially cereal products—in Europe and North America. This study investigates the effect of the food contaminant DON on the genotoxicity of the E. coli strains producing colibactin. In vitro, intestinal epithelial cells were coexposed to DON and E. coli producing colibactin. In vivo, newborn rats colonized at birth with E. coli producing colibactin were fed a DON-contaminated diet. Intestinal DNA damage was estimated by the phosphorylation of histone H2AX. DON exacerbates the genotoxicity of the E. coli producing colibactin in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. Although DON had no effect on the composition of the gut microbiota, and especially on the number of E. coli, a significant increase in DNA damage was observed in intestinal epithelial cells of animals colonized by E. coli strains producing colibactin and coexposed to DON compared to animals colonized with E. coli strains unable to produce colibactin or animals exposed only to DON. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the genotoxicity of E. coli strains producing colibactin, increasingly present in the microbiota of asymptomatic human beings, is modulated by the presence of DON in the diet. This raises questions about the synergism between food contaminants and gut microbiota with regard to intestinal carcinogenesis. PMID:28292979

  3. Acute cholecystitis associated with infection of Enterobacteriaceae from gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Yan, Q; Luo, F; Shang, D; Wu, D; Zhang, H; Shang, X; Kang, X; Abdo, M; Liu, B; Ma, Y; Xin, Y

    2015-09-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) is one of the most common surgical diseases. Bacterial infection accounts for 50% to 85% of the disease's onset. Since there is a close relationship between the biliary system and the gut, the aims of this study were to characterize and determine the influence of gut microbiota on AC, to detect the pathogenic microorganism in the biliary system, and to explore the relationship between the gut and bile microbiota of patients with AC. A total of 185 713 high-quality sequence reads were generated from the faecal samples of 15 patients and 13 healthy controls by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Patients' samples were significantly enriched in Akkermansia, Enterobacter and Escherichia/Shigella group. The healthy controls, however, showed significant enrichment of Clostridiales, Coprococcus, Coprobacillaceae, Paraprevotella, Turicibacter and TM7-3 in their faecal samples. Escherichia coli was the main biliary pathogenic microorganism, among others such as Klebsiella spp., Clostridium perfringens, Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae in the bile of the patients. Additionally, the amount of bile endotoxin significantly correlated with the number of Enterobacteriaceae, especially E. coli. Our data indicate that Enterobacteriaceae might play essential role in the pathogenesis and/or progress of AC. This was verified in an in vivo model using a pathogenic E. coli isolated from one of the patients in guinea pigs and observed marked gallbladder inflammation and morphologic changes. This study thus provides insight which could be useful for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of AC and related diseases by controlling the growth of Enterobacteriaceae to alleviate the infection.

  4. Novel players in coeliac disease pathogenesis: role of the gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Elena F.; Galipeau, Heather J.; Jabri, Bana

    2016-01-01

    Several studies point towards alteration in gut microbiota composition and function in coeliac disease, some of which can precede the onset of disease and/or persist when patients are on a gluten-free diet. Evidence also exists that the gut microbiota might promote or reduce coeliac-disease-associated immunopathology. However, additional studies are required in humans and in mice (using gnotobiotic technology) to determine cause–effect relationships and to identify agents for modulating the gut microbiota as a therapeutic or preventative approach for coeliac disease. In this Review, we summarize the current evidence for altered gut microbiota composition in coeliac disease and discuss how the interplay between host genetics, environmental factors and the intestinal microbiota might contribute to its pathogenesis. Moreover, we highlight the importance of utilizing animal models and long-term clinical studies to gain insight into the mechanisms through which host–microbial interactions can influence host responses to gluten. PMID:26055247

  5. Distinct patterns in the gut microbiota after surgical or medical therapy in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery is highly successful in improving health compared to conventional dietary treatments. It has been suggested that the gut microbiota is a relevant factor in weight loss after bariatric surgery. Considering that bariatric procedures cause different rearrangements of the digestive tract, they probably have different effects on the gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the impact of medical treatment, sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the gut microbiota from obese subjects. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were registered before, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Fecal samples were collected and microbiota composition was studied before and six months post treatment using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR. In comparison to dietary treatment, changes in intestinal microbiota were more pronounced in patients subjected to surgery, observing a bloom in Proteobacteria. Interestingly, Bacteroidetes abundance was largely different after six months of each surgical procedure. Furthermore, changes in weight and BMI, or glucose metabolism, correlated positively with changes in these two phyla in these surgical procedures. These results indicate that distinct surgical procedures alter the gut microbiota differently, and changes in gut microbiota might contribute to health improvement. This study contributes to our understanding of the impact of weight loss surgery on the gut microbiota, and could be used to replicate this effect using targeted therapies.

  6. Application of NMR-based metabolomics to the study of gut microbiota in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Riccardo; Brasili, Elisa; Praticò, Giulia; Sciubba, Fabio; Roselli, Marianna; Finamore, Alberto; Marini, Federico; Marzetti, Emanuele; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle habits, host gene repertoire, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota concur to the development of obesity. A great deal of research has recently been focused on investigating the role gut microbiota plays in the pathogenesis of metabolic dysfunctions and increased adiposity. Altered microbiota can affect host physiology through several pathways, including enhanced energy harvest, and perturbations in immunity, metabolic signaling, and inflammatory pathways. A broad range of "omics" technologies is now available to help decipher the interactions between the host and the gut microbiota at detailed genetic and functional levels. In particular, metabolomics--the comprehensive analysis of metabolite composition of biological fluids and tissues--could provide breakthrough insights into the links among the gut microbiota, host genetic repertoire, and diet during the development and progression of obesity. Here, we briefly review the most insightful findings on the involvement of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity. We also discuss how metabolomic approaches based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy could help understand the activity of gut microbiota in relation to obesity, and assess the effects of gut microbiota modulation in the treatment of this condition.

  7. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in the Management of Metabolic Disorders: The Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota plays a number of important roles including digestion, metabolism, extraction of nutrients, synthesis of vitamins, prevention against pathogen colonization, and modulation of the immune system. Alterations or changes in composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiota have been associated with many gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Recent evidence suggests that altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota may play a role in the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases. This review article has two main objectives. First, it underscores approaches (such as probiotics, prebiotics, antimicrobial agents, bariatric surgery, and weight loss strategies and their prospects in modulating the gut microbiota in the management of metabolic diseases. Second, it highlights some of the current challenges and discusses areas of future research as it relates to the gut microbiota and metabolic diseases. The prospect of modulating the gut microbiota seems promising. However, considering that research investigating the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases is still in its infancy, more rigorous and well-designed in vitro, animal and clinical studies are needed.

  8. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in the Management of Metabolic Disorders: The Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Ab Wahab, Mohd S.

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays a number of important roles including digestion, metabolism, extraction of nutrients, synthesis of vitamins, prevention against pathogen colonization, and modulation of the immune system. Alterations or changes in composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiota have been associated with many gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Recent evidence suggests that altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota may play a role in the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases. This review article has two main objectives. First, it underscores approaches (such as probiotics, prebiotics, antimicrobial agents, bariatric surgery, and weight loss strategies) and their prospects in modulating the gut microbiota in the management of metabolic diseases. Second, it highlights some of the current challenges and discusses areas of future research as it relates to the gut microbiota and metabolic diseases. The prospect of modulating the gut microbiota seems promising. However, considering that research investigating the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases is still in its infancy, more rigorous and well-designed in vitro, animal and clinical studies are needed. PMID:24608927

  9. Modulation of gut microbiota in the management of metabolic disorders: the prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Sulaiman, Siti A; Ab Wahab, Mohd S

    2014-03-07

    The gut microbiota plays a number of important roles including digestion, metabolism, extraction of nutrients, synthesis of vitamins, prevention against pathogen colonization, and modulation of the immune system. Alterations or changes in composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiota have been associated with many gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Recent evidence suggests that altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota may play a role in the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases. This review article has two main objectives. First, it underscores approaches (such as probiotics, prebiotics, antimicrobial agents, bariatric surgery, and weight loss strategies) and their prospects in modulating the gut microbiota in the management of metabolic diseases. Second, it highlights some of the current challenges and discusses areas of future research as it relates to the gut microbiota and metabolic diseases. The prospect of modulating the gut microbiota seems promising. However, considering that research investigating the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases is still in its infancy, more rigorous and well-designed in vitro, animal and clinical studies are needed.

  10. Characterization of the gut microbiota in leptin deficient obese mice - Correlation to inflammatory and diabetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellekilde, M; Krych, L; Hansen, C H F; Hufeldt, M R; Dahl, K; Hansen, L H; Sørensen, S J; Vogensen, F K; Nielsen, D S; Hansen, A K

    2014-04-01

    Gut microbiota have been implicated as a relevant factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and its diversity might be a cause of variation in animal models of T2DM. In this study, we aimed to characterise the gut microbiota of a T2DM mouse model with a long term vision of being able to target the gut microbiota to reduce the number of animals used in experiments. Male B6.V-Lep(ob)/J mice were characterized according to a number of characteristics related to T2DM, inflammation and gut microbiota. All findings were thereafter correlated to one another in a linear regression model. The total gut microbiota profile correlated to glycated haemoglobin, and high proportions of Prevotellaceae and Lachnospiraceae correlated to impaired or improved glucose intolerance, respectively. In addition, Akkermansia muciniphila disappeared with age as glucose intolerance worsened. A high proportion of regulatory T cells correlated to the gut microbiota and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, high levels of IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α correlated to impaired glucose tolerance, blood glucose or glycated haemoglobin. The findings indicate that gut microbiota may contribute to variation in various disease read-outs in the B6.V-Lep(ob)/J model and considering them in both quality assurance and data evaluation for the B6.V-Lep(ob)/J model may have a reducing impact on the inter-individual variation.

  11. Dietary Keratan Sulfate from Shark Cartilage Modulates Gut Microbiota and Increases the Abundance of Lactobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qingsen; Li, Qinying; Zhang, Meifang; Song, Guanrui; Shi, Jingjing; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Chao; Hao, Jiejie; Li, Guoyun; Yu, Guangli

    2016-12-08

    Keratan sulfate (KS) represents an important family of glycosaminoglycans that are critical in diverse physiological processes. Recently, accumulating evidence has provided a wealth of information on the bioactivity of KS, which established it as an attractive candidate for drug development. However, although KS has been widely explored, less attention has been given to its effect on gut microbiota. Therefore, given that gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in health homeostasis and disease pathogenesis, we investigated here in detail the effect of KS on gut microbiota by high-throughput sequencing. As revealed by heatmap and principal component analysis, the mice gut microbiota was readily altered at different taxonomic levels by intake of low (8 mg/kg) and high dosage (40 mg/kg) of KS. Interestingly, KS exerted a differing effect on male and female microbiota. Specifically, KS induced a much more drastic increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in female (sixteen-fold) versus male mice (two-fold). In addition, combined with alterations in gut microbiota, KS also significantly reduced body weight while maintaining normal gut homeostasis. Altogether, we first demonstrated a sex-dependent effect of KS on gut microbiota and highlighted that it may be used as a novel prebiotic for disease management.

  12. Gut instincts: microbiota as a key regulator of brain development, ageing and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-15

    There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging. Disturbances of this composition by way of antibiotic exposure, lack of breastfeeding, infection, stress and the environmental influences coupled with the influence of host genetics can result in long-term effects on physiology and behaviour, at least in animal models. It is also worth noting that mode of delivery at birth influences microbiota composition with those born by Caesarean section having a distinctly different microbiota in early life to those born per vaginum. At the other extreme of life, ageing is associated with a narrowing in microbial diversity and healthy ageing correlates with a diverse microbiome. Recently, the gut microbiota has been implicated in a variety of conditions including depression, autism, schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. There is still considerable debate as to whether or not the gut microbiota changes are core to the pathophysiology of such conditions or are merely epiphenomenal. It is plausible that such neuropsychiatric disorders might be treated in the future by targeting the microbiota either by microbiota transplantation, antibiotics or psychobiotics.

  13. Immunomodulation by Gut Microbiota: Role of Toll-Like Receptor Expressed by T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia Valentini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A close relationship exists between gut microbiota and immune responses. An imbalance of this relationship can determine local and systemic immune diseases. In fact the immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis with the microbiota that normally resides in the gut, while, at the same time, the gut microbiota influences the immune system, modulating number and function of effector and regulatory T cells. To achieve this aim, mutual regulation between immune system and microbiota is achieved through several mechanisms, including the engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs, pathogen-specific receptors expressed on numerous cell types. TLRs are able to recognize ligands from commensal or pathogen microbiota to maintain the tolerance or trigger the immune response. In this review, we summarize the latest evidences about the role of TLRs expressed in adaptive T cells, to understand how the immune system promotes intestinal homeostasis, fights invasion by pathogens, and is modulated by the intestinal microbiota.

  14. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2016-01-01

    obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial......The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through...... either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal...

  15. Reshaping the gut microbiota at an early age: functional impact on obesity risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, R; Collado, M C; Salminen, S; Isolauri, E

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity can currently be considered a major threat to human health and well-being. Recent scientific advances point to an aberrant compositional development of the gut microbiota and low-grade inflammation as contributing factors, in conjunction with excessive energy intake. A high-fat/energy diet alters the gut microbiota composition, which reciprocally engenders excessive energy harvesting and storage. Further, microbial imbalance increases gut permeability, leading to metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation and insulin resistance. Local intestinal immunologic homeostasis is achieved by tolerogenic immune responses to microbial antigens. In the context of amelioration of insulin sensitivity and decreased adiposity, the potential of gut microbiota modulation with specific probiotics and prebiotics lies in the normalization of aberrant microbiota, improved gut barrier function and creation of an anti-inflammatory milieu. This would suggest a role for probiotic/prebiotic interventions in the search for preventive and therapeutic applications in weight management.

  16. The Gut Microbiota and Human Health with an Emphasis on the Use of Microencapsulated Bacterial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining health. Alterations of the gut bacterial population have been associated with a number of diseases. Past and recent studies suggest that one can positively modify the contents of the gut microbiota by introducing prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and other therapeutics. This paper focuses on probiotic modulation of the gut microbiota by their delivery to the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT. There are numerous obstacles to overcome before microorganisms can be utilized as therapeutics. One important limitation is the delivery of viable cells to the lower GIT without a significant loss of cell viability and metabolic features through the harsh conditions of the upper GIT. Microencapsulation has been shown to overcome this, with various types of microcapsules available for resolving this limitation. This paper discusses the gut microbiota and its role in disease, with a focus on microencapsulated probiotics and their potentials and limitations.

  17. Modulation of Gut Microbiota-Brain Axis by Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Cao, Shangqing; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-09-16

    There exists a bidirectional communication system between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. Increasing evidence shows that gut microbiota can play a critical role in this communication; thus, the concept of a gut microbiota and brain axis is emerging. Here, we review recent findings in the relationship between intestinal microbes and brain function, such as anxiety, depression, stress, autism, learning, and memory. We highlight the advances in modulating brain development and behavior by probiotics, prebiotics, and diet through the gut microbiota-brain axis. A variety of mechanisms including immune, neural, and metabolic pathways may be involved in modulation of the gut microbiota-brain axis. We also discuss some future challenges. A deeper understanding of the relationship between the gut bacteria and their hosts is implicated in developing microbial-based therapeutic strategies for brain disorders.

  18. Metagenome Sequencing of the Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelli, Simone; Schnorr, Stephanie L; Consolandi, Clarissa; Turroni, Silvia; Severgnini, Marco; Peano, Clelia; Brigidi, Patrizia; Crittenden, Alyssa N; Henry, Amanda G; Candela, Marco

    2015-06-29

    Through human microbiome sequencing, we can better understand how host evolutionary and ontogenetic history is reflected in the microbial function. However, there has been no information on the gut metagenome configuration in hunter-gatherer populations, posing a gap in our knowledge of gut microbiota (GM)-host mutualism arising from a lifestyle that describes over 90% of human evolutionary history. Here, we present the first metagenomic analysis of GM from Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania, showing a unique enrichment in metabolic pathways that aligns with the dietary and environmental factors characteristic of their foraging lifestyle. We found that the Hadza GM is adapted for broad-spectrum carbohydrate metabolism, reflecting the complex polysaccharides in their diet. Furthermore, the Hadza GM is equipped for branched-chain amino acid degradation and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. Resistome functionality demonstrates the existence of antibiotic resistance genes in a population with little antibiotic exposure, indicating the ubiquitous presence of environmentally derived resistances. Our results demonstrate how the functional specificity of the GM correlates with certain environment and lifestyle factors and how complexity from the exogenous environment can be balanced by endogenous homeostasis. The Hadza gut metagenome structure allows us to appreciate the co-adaptive functional role of the GM in complementing the human physiology, providing a better understanding of the versatility of human life and subsistence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Julian, Marc; Rocafort, Muntsa; Guillén, Yolanda; Rivera, Javier; Casadellà, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Hildebrand, Falk; Zeller, Georg; Parera, Mariona; Bellido, Rocío; Rodríguez, Cristina; Carrillo, Jorge; Mothe, Beatriz; Coll, Josep; Bravo, Isabel; Estany, Carla; Herrero, Cristina; Saz, Jorge; Sirera, Guillem; Torrela, Ariadna; Navarro, Jordi; Crespo, Manel; Brander, Christian; Negredo, Eugènia; Blanco, Julià; Guarner, Francisco; Calle, Maria Luz; Bork, Peer; Sönnerborg, Anders; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2016-03-01

    The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156) and Stockholm (n = 84), men who have sex with men (MSM) predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction.

  20. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Noguera-Julian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156 and Stockholm (n = 84, men who have sex with men (MSM predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction.

  1. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Julian, Marc; Rocafort, Muntsa; Guillén, Yolanda; Rivera, Javier; Casadellà, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Hildebrand, Falk; Zeller, Georg; Parera, Mariona; Bellido, Rocío; Rodríguez, Cristina; Carrillo, Jorge; Mothe, Beatriz; Coll, Josep; Bravo, Isabel; Estany, Carla; Herrero, Cristina; Saz, Jorge; Sirera, Guillem; Torrela, Ariadna; Navarro, Jordi; Crespo, Manel; Brander, Christian; Negredo, Eugènia; Blanco, Julià; Guarner, Francisco; Calle, Maria Luz; Bork, Peer; Sönnerborg, Anders; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156) and Stockholm (n = 84), men who have sex with men (MSM) predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction. PMID:27077120

  2. Obesity: An overview of possible role(s) of gut hormones, lipid sensing and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok Kumar; Dubey, Vinay; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major challenges for public health in 21st century, with 1.9 billion people being considered as overweight and 600 million as obese. There are certain diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and several forms of cancer which were found to be associated with obesity. Therefore, understanding the key molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of obesity could be beneficial for the development of a therapeutic approach. Hormones such as ghrelin, glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK) secreted by an endocrine organ gut, have an intense impact on energy balance and maintenance of homeostasis by inducing satiety and meal termination. Glucose and energy homeostasis are also affected by lipid sensing in which different organs respond in different ways. However, there is one common mechanism i.e. formation of esterified lipids (long chain fatty acyl CoAs) and the activation of protein kinase C δ (PKC δ) involved in all these organs. The possible role of gut microbiota and obesity has been addressed by several researchers in recent years, indicating the possible therapeutic approach toward the management of obesity by the introduction of an external living system such as a probiotic. The proposed mechanism behind this activity is attributed by metabolites produced by gut microbial organisms. Thus, this review summarizes the role of various physiological factors such as gut hormone and lipid sensing involved in various tissues and organ and most important by the role of gut microbiota in weight management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of the gut microbiota of three commercially valuable warmwater fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A M; Mohammed, H H; Arias, C R

    2014-06-01

    Due to the strong influence of the gut microbiota on fish health, dominant bacterial species in the gut are strong candidates for probiotics. This study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus to provide a baseline for future probiotic studies. The gut microbiota of five pooled individuals from each fish species was identified using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Microbiota differed significantly between fish species in terms of bacterial species evenness. However, all gut communities analysed were dominated by the phylum Fusobacteria, specifically the species Cetobacterium somerae. Relatively high abundances of the human pathogens Plesiomonas shigelloides and Fusobacterium mortiferum, as well as members of the genus Aeromonas, suggest these species are normal inhabitants of the gut. The overwhelming dominance of the genus Cetobacterium in all species warrants further investigation into its role in the fish gut microbiota. This study provides the first characterization of the gut microbiota of three economically significant fishes and establishes a baseline for future probiotic trials. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Comparative metabolomics in vegans and omnivores reveal constraints on diet-dependent gut microbiota metabolite production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary D; Compher, Charlene; Chen, Eric Z; Smith, Sarah A; Shah, Rachana D; Bittinger, Kyle; Chehoud, Christel; Albenberg, Lindsey G; Nessel, Lisa; Gilroy, Erin; Star, Julie; Weljie, Aalim M; Flint, Harry J; Metz, David C; Bennett, Michael J; Li, Hongzhe; Bushman, Frederic D; Lewis, James D

    2015-01-01

    Objective The consumption of an agrarian diet is associated with a reduced risk for many diseases associated with a ‘Westernised’ lifestyle. Studies suggest that diet affects the gut microbiota, which subsequently influences the metabolome, thereby connecting diet, microbiota and health. However, the degree to which diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota is controversial. Murine models and studies comparing the gut microbiota in humans residing in agrarian versus Western societies suggest that the influence is large. To separate global environmental influences from dietary influences, we characterised the gut microbiota and the host metabolome of individuals consuming an agrarian diet in Western society. Design and results Using 16S rRNA-tagged sequencing as well as plasma and urinary metabolomic platforms, we compared measures of dietary intake, gut microbiota composition and the plasma metabolome between healthy human vegans and omnivores, sampled in an urban USA environment. Plasma metabolome of vegans differed markedly from omnivores but the gut microbiota was surprisingly similar. Unlike prior studies of individuals living in agrarian societies, higher consumption of fermentable substrate in vegans was not associated with higher levels of faecal short chain fatty acids, a finding confirmed in a 10-day controlled feeding experiment. Similarly, the proportion of vegans capable of producing equol, a soy-based gut microbiota metabolite, was less than that was reported in Asian societies despite the high consumption of soy-based products. Conclusions Evidently, residence in globally distinct societies helps determine the composition of the gut microbiota that, in turn, influences the production of diet-dependent gut microbial metabolites. PMID:25431456

  5. Unraveling the environmental and genetic interactions in atherosclerosis: Central role of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have convincingly linked gut microbiota to traits relevant to atherosclerosis, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, and have revealed novel disease pathways involving microbe-derived metabolites. These results have important implications for understanding how environmental and genetic factors act together to influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, dietary constituents are not only absorbed and metabolized by the host but they also perturb the gut microbiota, which in turn influence host metabolism and inflammation. It also appears that host genetics helps to shape the gut microbiota community. Here, we discuss challenges in understanding these interactions and the role they play in CVD.

  6. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S.

    2014-01-01

    an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after...... of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly beta cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions...

  7. Unraveling the environmental and genetic interactions in atherosclerosis: Central role of the gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have convincingly linked gut microbiota to traits relevant to atherosclerosis, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, and have revealed novel disease pathways involving microbe-derived metabolites. These results have important implications for understanding how environmental and genetic factors act together to influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, dietary constituents are not only absorbed and metabolized by the host but they also perturb the gut microbiota, which in turn influence host metabolism and inflammation. It also appears that host genetics helps to shape the gut microbiota community. Here, we discuss challenges in understanding these interactions and the role they play in CVD. PMID:26071662

  8. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2016-01-01

    The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through...... either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal...

  9. Impact of the gut microbiota, prebiotics, and probiotics on human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Chang, Chih-Jung; Lu, Chia-Chen; Martel, Jan; Ojcius, David M; Ko, Yun-Fei; Young, John D; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota regulates many physiological functions, ranging from energy regulation and cognitive processes to toxin neutralization and immunity against pathogens. Accordingly, alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have been shown to contribute to the development of various chronic diseases. The main objectives of this review are to present recent breakthroughs in the study of the gut microbiota and show that intestinal bacteria play a critical role in the development of different disease conditions, including obesity, fatty liver disease, and lung infection. We also highlight the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics in maintaining optimal health and treating chronic inflammatory and immunity-related diseases.

  10. Commensal Gut Microbiota Immunomodulatory Actions in Bone Marrow and Liver have Catabolic Effects on Skeletal Homeostasis in Health

    OpenAIRE

    Novince, Chad M.; Whittow, Carolyn R.; Aartun, Johannes D.; Hathaway, Jessica D.; Poulides, Nicole; Chavez, Michael B.; Steinkamp, Heidi M.; Kirkwood, Kaeleigh A.; Huang, Emily; Westwater, Caroline; Kirkwood, Keith L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite knowledge the gut microbiota regulates bone mass, mechanisms governing the normal gut microbiota?s osteoimmunomodulatory effects on skeletal remodeling and homeostasis are unclear in the healthy adult skeleton. Young adult specific-pathogen-free and germ-free mice were used to delineate the commensal microbiota?s immunoregulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, marrow T-cell hematopoiesis, and extra-skeletal endocrine organ function. We report the commensal microbio...

  11. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Trolle, Ellen; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2016-01-01

    The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses, and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from early infant feeding to family foods is a major determinant for gut microbiota development. IMPORTANCE The potential influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Recent studies have suggested that the heritability of obesity may partly be caused by the transmission of "obesogenic" gut microbes. However, the findings presented here suggest that maternal obesity per

  12. Human Catestatin Alters Gut Microbiota Composition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Mohammad F.; Munyaka, Peris M.; Eissa, Nour; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean Eric

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a dense, complex, and diversified microbial populations. In healthy individuals, an array of epithelial antimicrobial agents is secreted in the gut to aid intestinal homeostasis. Enterochromaffin cells (EC) in the intestinal epithelium are a major source of chromogranin A (CgA), which is a pro-hormone and can be cleaved into many bioactive peptides that include catestatin (CST). This study was carried out to evaluate the possible impact of CST on gut microbiota in vivo using a mouse model. The CST (Human CgA352−372) or normal saline was intrarectally administered in C57BL/6 male mice for 6 days and then sacrificed. Feces and colonic mucosa tissue samples were collected, DNA was extracted, the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and subjected to MiSeq Illumina sequencing. The α-diversity was calculated using Chao 1 and β-diversity was determined using QIIME. Differences at the genus level were determined using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) was used to predict functional capacity of bacterial community. CST treatment did not modify bacterial richness in fecal and colonic mucosa-associated microbiota; however, treatment significantly modified bacterial community composition between the groups. Also, CST-treated mice had a significantly lower relative abundance of Firmicutes and higher abundance of Bacteroidetes, observed only in fecal samples. However, at lower phylogenetic levels, PLS-DA analysis revealed that some bacterial taxa were significantly associated with the CST-treated mice in both fecal and colonic mucosa samples. In addition, differences in predicted microbial functional pathways in both fecal and colonic mucosa samples were detected. The results support the hypothesis that CST treatment modulates gut microbiota composition under non-pathophysiological conditions

  13. Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J;

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control...... to control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota....... = 0.04). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies...

  14. Probiotics modulated gut microbiota suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Sung, Cecilia Ying Ju; Lee, Nikki; Ni, Yueqiong; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Panagiotou, Gianni; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-03-01

    The beneficial roles of probiotics in lowering the gastrointestinal inflammation and preventing colorectal cancer have been frequently demonstrated, but their immunomodulatory effects and mechanism in suppressing the growth of extraintestinal tumors remain unexplored. Here, we adopted a mouse model and metagenome sequencing to investigate the efficacy of probiotic feeding in controlling s.c. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanism suppressing the tumor progression. Our result demonstrated that Prohep, a novel probiotic mixture, slows down the tumor growth significantly and reduces the tumor size and weight by 40% compared with the control. From a mechanistic point of view the down-regulated IL-17 cytokine and its major producer Th17 cells, whose levels decreased drastically, played critical roles in tumor reduction upon probiotics feeding. Cell staining illustrated that the reduced Th17 cells in the tumor of the probiotic-treated group is mainly caused by the reduced frequency of migratory Th17 cells from the intestine and peripheral blood. In addition, shotgun-metagenome sequencing revealed the crosstalk between gut microbial metabolites and the HCC development. Probiotics shifted the gut microbial community toward certain beneficial bacteria, including Prevotella and Oscillibacter, that are known producers of antiinflammatory metabolites, which subsequently reduced the Th17 polarization and promoted the differentiation of antiinflammatory Treg/Tr1 cells in the gut. Overall, our study offers novel insights into the mechanism by which probiotic treatment modulates the microbiota and influences the regulation of the T-cell differentiation in the gut, which in turn alters the level of the proinflammatory cytokines in the extraintestinal tumor microenvironment.

  15. Probiotics modulated gut microbiota suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Sung, Cecilia Ying Ju; Lee, Nikki; Ni, Yueqiong; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Panagiotou, Gianni; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial roles of probiotics in lowering the gastrointestinal inflammation and preventing colorectal cancer have been frequently demonstrated, but their immunomodulatory effects and mechanism in suppressing the growth of extraintestinal tumors remain unexplored. Here, we adopted a mouse model and metagenome sequencing to investigate the efficacy of probiotic feeding in controlling s.c. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanism suppressing the tumor progression. Our result demonstrated that Prohep, a novel probiotic mixture, slows down the tumor growth significantly and reduces the tumor size and weight by 40% compared with the control. From a mechanistic point of view the down-regulated IL-17 cytokine and its major producer Th17 cells, whose levels decreased drastically, played critical roles in tumor reduction upon probiotics feeding. Cell staining illustrated that the reduced Th17 cells in the tumor of the probiotic-treated group is mainly caused by the reduced frequency of migratory Th17 cells from the intestine and peripheral blood. In addition, shotgun-metagenome sequencing revealed the crosstalk between gut microbial metabolites and the HCC development. Probiotics shifted the gut microbial community toward certain beneficial bacteria, including Prevotella and Oscillibacter, that are known producers of antiinflammatory metabolites, which subsequently reduced the Th17 polarization and promoted the differentiation of antiinflammatory Treg/Tr1 cells in the gut. Overall, our study offers novel insights into the mechanism by which probiotic treatment modulates the microbiota and influences the regulation of the T-cell differentiation in the gut, which in turn alters the level of the proinflammatory cytokines in the extraintestinal tumor microenvironment. PMID:26884164

  16. Exploring the influence of the gut microbiota and probiotics on health: a symposium report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linda V; Ockhuizen, Theo; Suzuki, Kaori

    2014-07-01

    The present report describes the presentations delivered at the 7th International Yakult Symposium, 'The Intestinal Microbiota and Probiotics: Exploiting Their Influence on Health', in London on 22-23 April 2013. The following two themes associated with health risks were covered: (1) the impact of age and diet on the gut microbiota and (2) the gut microbiota's interaction with the host. The strong influence of the maternal gut microbiota on neonatal colonisation was reported, as well as rapid changes in the gut microbiome of older people who move from community living to residential care. The effects of dietary changes on gut metabolism were described and the potential influence of inter-individual microbiota differences was noted, in particular the presence/absence of keystone species involved in butyrate metabolism. Several speakers highlighted the association between certain metabolic disorders and imbalanced or less diverse microbiota. Data from metagenomic analyses and novel techniques (including an ex vivo human mucosa model) provided new insights into the microbiota's influence on coeliac, obesity-related and inflammatory diseases, as well as the potential of probiotics. Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were suggested as targets for intervention. Host-microbiota interactions were explored in the context of gut barrier function, pathogenic bacteria recognition, and the ability of the immune system to induce either tolerogenic or inflammatory responses. There was speculation that the gut microbiota should be considered a separate organ, and whether analysis of an individual's microbiota could be useful in identifying their disease risk and/or therapy; however, more research is needed into specific diseases, different population groups and microbial interventions including probiotics.

  17. Pre-treatment with antibiotics and Escherichia coli to equalize the gut microbiota in conventional mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linninge, Caroline; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota can vary widely between individual mice of the same batch and thereby affect the resulting outcome in experimental studies. Therefore, an efficient method is needed to equalize the gut microbiota prior to the start of critical experiments. In order to minimize variations in gut microbiota between animals and provide the animals with a Gram-negative flora exposing lipopolysaccharides in the cell-walls, C57BL/6 mice were given a mixture of ampicillin, metronidazole and clindamycin in the drinking water for 3 days and then Escherichia coli for two additional days. Treatment with antibiotics alone or with antibiotics in combination with E. coli was well tolerated by all animals. Body weight and liver weight were not affected, although higher hepatic fat content was found in treated animals (p gut microbiota was strongly reduced in animals treated with antibiotics and antibiotics in combination with E. coli (p microbiota between different treatment groups. The described treatment efficiently equalized the gut microbiota and provided the animals with a strong abundance of Enterobacteriaceae without changing the total load of bacteria. This is a straightforward, lenient and efficient method of pre-treatment to equalize the gut microbiota of mice as a starting procedure of animal studies.

  18. Chemical communication in the gut: Effects of microbiota-generated metabolites on gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Stefanie L; Peña-Díaz, Jorge; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-08-01

    Gastrointestinal pathogens must overcome many obstacles in order to successfully colonize a host, not the least of which is the presence of the gut microbiota, the trillions of commensal microorganisms inhabiting mammals' digestive tracts, and their products. It is well established that a healthy gut microbiota provides its host with protection from numerous pathogens, including Salmonella species, Clostridium difficile, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, and Vibrio cholerae. Conversely, pathogenic bacteria have evolved mechanisms to establish an infection and thrive in the face of fierce competition from the microbiota for space and nutrients. Here, we review the evidence that gut microbiota-generated metabolites play a key role in determining the outcome of infection by bacterial pathogens. By consuming and transforming dietary and host-produced metabolites, as well as secreting primary and secondary metabolites of their own, the microbiota define the chemical environment of the gut and often determine specific host responses. Although most gut microbiota-produced metabolites are currently uncharacterized, several well-studied molecules made or modified by the microbiota are known to affect the growth and virulence of pathogens, including short-chain fatty acids, succinate, mucin O-glycans, molecular hydrogen, secondary bile acids, and the AI-2 quorum sensing autoinducer. We also discuss challenges and possible approaches to further study of the chemical interplay between microbiota and gastrointestinal pathogens.

  19. Transfer of dysbiotic gut microbiota has beneficial effects on host liver metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Simon; Blasco-Baque, Vincent; Fournel, Audren; Gilleron, Jerome; Klopp, Pascale; Waget, Aurelie; Ceppo, Franck; Marlin, Alysson; Padmanabhan, Roshan; Iacovoni, Jason S; Tercé, François; Cani, Patrice D; Tanti, Jean-François; Burcelin, Remy; Knauf, Claude; Cormont, Mireille; Serino, Matteo

    2017-03-16

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been implicated in a variety of systemic disorders, notably metabolic diseases including obesity and impaired liver function, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. To investigate this question, we transferred caecal microbiota from either obese or lean mice to antibiotic-free, conventional wild-type mice. We found that transferring obese-mouse gut microbiota to mice on normal chow (NC) acutely reduces markers of hepatic gluconeogenesis with decreased hepatic PEPCK activity, compared to non-inoculated mice, a phenotypic trait blunted in conventional NOD2 KO mice. Furthermore, transferring of obese-mouse microbiota changes both the gut microbiota and the microbiome of recipient mice. We also found that transferring obese gut microbiota to NC-fed mice then fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) acutely impacts hepatic metabolism and prevents HFD-increased hepatic gluconeogenesis compared to non-inoculated mice. Moreover, the recipient mice exhibit reduced hepatic PEPCK and G6Pase activity, fed glycaemia and adiposity. Conversely, transfer of lean-mouse microbiota does not affect markers of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Our findings provide a new perspective on gut microbiota dysbiosis, potentially useful to better understand the aetiology of metabolic diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in gastrointestinal disorders: stressed bugs, stressed brain or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F

    2014-07-15

    The gut-brain axis is the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain, which occurs through multiple pathways that include hormonal, neural and immune mediators. The signals along this axis can originate in the gut, the brain or both, with the objective of maintaining normal gut function and appropriate behaviour. In recent years, the study of gut microbiota has become one of the most important areas in biomedical research. Attention has focused on the role of gut microbiota in determining normal gut physiology and immunity and, more recently, on its role as modulator of host behaviour ('microbiota-gut-brain axis'). We therefore review the literature on the role of gut microbiota in gut homeostasis and link it with mechanisms that could influence behaviour. We discuss the association of dysbiosis with disease, with particular focus on functional bowel disorders and their relationship to psychological stress. This is of particular interest because exposure to stressors has long been known to increase susceptibility to and severity of gastrointestinal diseases. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  1. Effects of gluten-free, dairy-free diet on childhood nephrotic syndrome and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Natalie; Graf, Lauren; Lemley, Kevin V; Kaskel, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests an association between food sensitivity and gut microbiota in children with nephrotic syndrome. Diminished proteinuria resulted from eliminating cow's milk and the use of an oligoantigenic diet which excluded gluten, especially in patients with immune-related conditions, i.e., celiac disease and nephrotic syndrome. The mechanisms underlying the association of diet, gut microbiota, and dysregulation of the immune system are unknown. Gut microbiota is influenced by a number of factors including diet composition and other environmental epigenetic exposures. The imbalance in gut microbiota may be ameliorated by gluten-free and dairy-free diets. Gluten-free diet increased the number of unhealthy bacteria while reducing bacterial-induced cytokine production of IL-10. Thus, gluten-free diet may influence the composition and immune function of gut microbiota and should be considered a possible environmental factor associated with immune-related disease, including nephrotic syndrome. Furthermore, the imbalance of gut microbiota may be related to the development of cow's milk protein allergy. Investigations are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge concerning the associations between the gut microbiome, environmental exposures, epigenetics, racial influences, and the propensity for immune dysregulation with its inherent risk to the developing individual.

  2. Gut microbiota disturbance during helminth infection: can it affect cognition and behaviour of children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernier, Vanina; Brennan, Bradley; Yakob, Laith; Milinovich, Gabriel; Clements, Archie C A; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J

    2017-01-10

    Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood. We put forward the hypothesis that gastrointestinal infections with parasitic worms, such as helminths, induce an imbalance of the gut-brain axis, which, in turn, can detrimentally manifest in brain development. Factors supporting this hypothesis are: 1) research focusing on intelligence and school performance in school-aged children has shown helminth infections to be associated with cognitive impairment, 2) disturbances in gut microbiota have been shown to be associated with important cognitive developmental effects, and 3) helminth infections have been shown to alter the gut microbiota structure. Evidence on the complex interactions between extrinsic (parasite) and intrinsic (host-derived) factors has been synthesised and discussed. While evidence in favour of the helminth-gut microbiota-central nervous system hypothesis is circumstantial, it would be unwise to rule it out as a possible mechanism by which gastrointestinal helminth infections induce childhood cognitive morbidity. Further empirical studies are necessary to test an indirect effect of helminth infections on the modulation of mood and behaviour through its effects on the gut microbiota.

  3. Effects of the gut microbiota on bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Sjögren, Klara

    2015-02-01

    The gut microbiota (GM), the commensal bacteria living in our intestine, performs numerous useful functions, including modulating host metabolism and immune status. Recent studies demonstrate that the GM is also a regulator of bone mass and it is proposed that the effect of the GM on bone mass is mediated via effects on the immune system, which in turn regulates osteoclastogenesis. Under normal conditions, the skeleton is constantly remodeled by bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs) and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs), and imbalances in this process may lead to osteoporosis. Here we review current knowledge on the possible role for the GM in the regulation of bone metabolism and propose that the GM might be a novel therapeutic target for osteoporosis and fracture prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Endotoxemia in Young Obese Mexican Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Belén Radilla-Vázquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota plays an important role in human metabolism; previous studies suggest that the imbalance can cause a metabolic endotoxemia that may be linked to weight gain and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the gut microbiota composition, the lipopolysaccharide levels and the metabolic profile in obese and normal-weight young subjects. Methods: We studied 32 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and 32 normal-weight subjects (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, aged 18-25 years. Quantification of intestinal bacteria was performed by real-time PCR. Endotoxin units were determined with the test QCL-1000, and biochemical profile was performed under a standard protocol of Spinreact. Results: Obese individuals had a BMI of 34.5 (32.9-36.45 kg/m2, increased triglycerides (123 vs. 70 mg/dl, total cholesterol (168 vs. 142 mg/dl, and LDL-cholesterol (114 vs. 96.5 mg/dl. In obese subjects body temperature was higher than in normal-weight subjects. We found a greater number of Clostridum leptum and Lactobacillus (p Prevotella and Escherichia coli (p E. coli was associated with an increased risk of lipopolysaccharide levels ranging from 1 to 1.3 EU/ml. A positive correlation was found between serum lipopolysaccharides and BMI (r = 0.46, p = 0.008, triglyceride levels (r = 0.44, p = 0.011 as well as waist circumference (r = 0.34, p = 0.040, being more evident in young obese females. Conclusion: Subclinical metabolic endotoxemia determined by serum concentration of lipopolysaccharides was related to the smallest amount of E. coli, high triglyceride levels, and central adiposity in obese young persons.

  5. Effects of microbe- and mussel-based diets on the gut microbiota in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Nyman

    2017-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were a dominant fraction of the intestinal microbiota in Arctic charr. Microbial based feeds were associated with similar changes in microbiota composition, but contrasting to the fish-meal based reference diet. Microbiota composition was similar in the proximal and distal gut, but dietary responses were specific to gut segment.

  6. Role of gut microbiota and nutrients in amyloid formation and pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota might be associated with the onset of certain human pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease, a neurodegenerative syndrome associated with cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β fibrils. It has been shown that bacteria populating the gut microbiota can release significant amounts of amyloids and lipopolysaccharides, which might play a role in the modulation of signaling pathways and the production of proinflammatory cytokines related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Additionally, nutrients have been shown to affect the composition of the gut microbiota as well as the formation and aggregation of cerebral amyloid-β. This suggests that modulating the gut microbiome and amyloidogenesis through specific nutritional interventions might prove to be an effective strategy to prevent or reduce the risk of Alzheimer disease. This review examines the possible role of the gut in the dissemination of amyloids, the role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of the gut-brain axis, the potential amyloidogenic properties of gut bacteria, and the possible impact of nutrients on modulation of microbiota composition and amyloid formation in relation to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Gut microbiota controls adipose tissue expansion, gut barrier and glucose metabolism: novel insights into molecular targets and interventions using prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, L; Neyrinck, A M; Delzenne, N M; Knauf, C; Cani, P D

    2014-03-01

    Crosstalk between organs is crucial for controlling numerous homeostatic systems (e.g. energy balance, glucose metabolism and immunity). Several pathological conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are characterised by a loss of or excessive inter-organ communication that contributes to the development of disease. Recently, we and others have identified several mechanisms linking the gut microbiota with the development of obesity and associated disorders (e.g. insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis). Among these, we described the concept of metabolic endotoxaemia (increase in plasma lipopolysaccharide levels) as one of the triggering factors leading to the development of metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. Growing evidence suggests that gut microbes contribute to the onset of low-grade inflammation characterising these metabolic disorders via mechanisms associated with gut barrier dysfunctions. We have demonstrated that enteroendocrine cells (producing glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-2) and the endocannabinoid system control gut permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia. Recently, we hypothesised that specific metabolic dysregulations occurring at the level of numerous organs (e.g. gut, adipose tissue, muscles, liver and brain) rely from gut microbiota modifications. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms linking gut permeability, adipose tissue metabolism, and glucose homeostasis, and recent findings that show interactions between the gut microbiota, the endocannabinoid system and the apelinergic system. These specific systems are discussed in the context of the gut-to-peripheral organ axis (intestine, adipose tissue and brain) and impacts on metabolic regulation. In the present review, we also briefly describe the impact of a variety of non-digestible nutrients (i.e. inulin-type fructans, arabinoxylans, chitin glucans and polyphenols). Their effects on the composition of the gut microbiota and

  8. Gnotobiotic zebrafish reveal evolutionarily conserved responses to the gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, John F.; Samuel, Buck S.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2004-01-01

    Animals have developed the means for supporting complex and dynamic consortia of microorganisms during their life cycle. A transcendent view of vertebrate biology therefore requires an understanding of the contributions of these indigenous microbial communities to host development and adult physiology. These contributions are most obvious in the gut, where studies of gnotobiotic mice have disclosed that the microbiota affects a wide range of biological processes, including nutrient processing and absorption, development of the mucosal immune system, angiogenesis, and epithelial renewal. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides an opportunity to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions through genetic and chemical screens that take advantage of its transparency during larval and juvenile stages. Therefore, we developed methods for producing and rearing germ-free zebrafish through late juvenile stages. DNA microarray comparisons of gene expression in the digestive tracts of 6 days post fertilization germ-free, conventionalized, and conventionally raised zebrafish revealed 212 genes regulated by the microbiota, and 59 responses that are conserved in the mouse intestine, including those involved in stimulation of epithelial proliferation, promotion of nutrient metabolism, and innate immune responses. The microbial ecology of the digestive tracts of conventionally raised and conventionalized zebrafish was characterized by sequencing libraries of bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons. Colonization of germ-free zebrafish with individual members of its microbiota revealed the bacterial species specificity of selected host responses. Together, these studies establish gnotobiotic zebrafish as a useful model for dissecting the molecular foundations of host-microbial interactions in the vertebrate digestive tract. PMID:15070763

  9. Could the gut microbiota reconcile the oral bioavailability conundrum of traditional herbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Wen, Qi; Jiang, Jun; Li, Hai-Long; Tan, Yin-Feng; Li, Yong-Hui; Zeng, Nian-Kai

    2016-02-17

    A wealth of information is emerging about the impact of gut microbiota on human health and diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes. As we learn more, we find out the gut microbiota has the potential as new territory for drug targeting. Some novel therapeutic approaches could be developed through reshaping the commensal microbial structure using combinations of different agents. The gut microbiota also affects drug metabolism, directly and indirectly, particularly towards the orally administered drugs. Herbal products have become the basis of traditional medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine and also been being considered valuable materials in modern drug discovery. Of note, low oral bioavailability but high bioactivity is a conundrum not yet solved for some herbs. Since most of herbal products are orally administered, the herbs' constituents are inevitably exposed to the intestinal microbiota and the interplays between herbal constituents and gut microbiota are expected. Emerging explorations of herb-microbiota interactions have an opportunity to revolutionize the way we view herbal therapeutics. The present review aims to provide information regarding the health promotion and/or disease prevention by the interplay between traditional herbs with low bioavailability and gut microbiota through gut microbiota via two different types of mechanisms: (1) influencing the composition of gut microbiota by herbs and (2) metabolic reactions of herbal constituents by gut microbiota. The major data bases (PubMed and Web of Science) were searched using "gut microbiota", "intestinal microbiota", "gut flora", "intestinal flora", "gut microflora", "intestinal microflora", "herb", "Chinese medicine", "traditional medicine", or "herbal medicine" as keywords to find out studies regarding herb-microbiota interactions. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition, Volume I) was also used to collect the data of commonly used medicinal herbs and their quality

  10. “Lachnoclostridium touaregense,” a new bacterial species isolated from the human gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tidjani Alou; S. Khelaifia; B. La Scola; Cassir, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report the main characteristics of “Lachnoclostridium touaregense” strain Marseille-P2415T (= CSUR P2415 = DSM 102219), a new bacterial species isolated from the gut microbiota of a healthy young girl from Niger.

  11. ‘Lachnoclostridium massiliosenegalense’, a new bacterial species isolated from the human gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tidjani Alou; J.-C. Lagier; B. La Scola; Cassir, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report the main characteristics of ‘Lachnoclostridium massiliosenegalense’ strain mt23T (=CSUR P299 =DSM 102084), a new bacterial species isolated from the gut microbiota of a healthy young girl from Senegal.

  12. Impact of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich dietary sources on gut microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Usune; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I; Aguirre, Leixuri; Martínez, J Alfredo; Portillo, María P

    2013-10-09

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in host physiology and metabolism. Indeed, the relevance of a well-balanced gut microbiota composition to an individual's health status is essential for the person's well-being. Currently, investigations are focused on analyzing the effects of pre- and probiotics as new therapeutic tools to counteract the disruption of intestinal bacterial balance occurring in several diseases. Polyphenols exert a wide range of beneficial health effects. However, although specific attention has been paid in recent years to the function of this "biological entity" in the metabolism of polyphenols, less is known about the modulatory capacity of these bioactive compounds on gut microbiota composition. This review provides an overview of the latest investigations carried out with pure polyphenols, extracts rich in polyphenols, and polyphenol-rich dietary sources (such as cocoa, tea, wine, soy products, and fruits) and critically discusses the consequences to gut microbiota composition which are produced.

  13. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation: American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy.

  14. Influences of the Gut Microbiota on DNA Methylation and Histone Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianzhong; Wu, Wenrui; Li, Yating; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-05-01

    The gut microbiota is a vast ensemble of microorganisms inhabiting the mammalian gastrointestinal tract that can impact physiologic and pathologic processes. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanism for the dynamic interaction between host and gut microbiota is still in its infancy. The highly evolved epigenetic modifications allow hosts to reprogram the genome in response to environmental stimuli, which may play a key role in triggering multiple human diseases. In spite of increasing studies in gut microbiota and epigenetic modifications, the correlation between them has not been well elaborated. Here, we review current knowledge of gut microbiota impacts on epigenetic modifications, the major evidence of which centers on DNA methylation and histone modification of the immune system.

  15. Gut Microbiota Modification: Another Piece in the Puzzle of the Benefits of Physical Exercise in Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Begoña; Pérez, Margarita; Pérez-Santiago, Jennifer D.; Tornero-Aguilera, Jose F.; González-Soltero, Rocío; Larrosa, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise provides many health benefits, protecting against the development of chronic diseases, and improving quality of life. Some of the mechanisms by which exercise provides these effects are the promotion of an anti-inflammatory state, reinforcement of the neuromuscular function, and activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Recently, it has been proposed that physical exercise is able to modify gut microbiota, and thus this could be another factor by which exercise promotes well-being, since gut microbiota appears to be closely related to health and disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent findings on gut microbiota modification by exercise, proposing several mechanisms by which physical exercise might cause changes in gut microbiota. PMID:26924990

  16. Pterostilbene-induced changes in gut microbiota compositon in relation to obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Nutritional interventions based on the use of bioactive natural compounds might offer new possibilities for reshaping obesity-associated bacterial dysregulation or dysbiosis and improving health. We evaluated whether pterostilbene supplementation could induce changes in gut microbiota (GM) an...

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome, the microbiota and the gut-brain axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder and it is now evident that irritable bowel syndrome is a multi-factorial complex of changes in microbiota and immunology. The bidirectional neurohumoral integrated communication between the microbiota and the autonomous...... nervous system is called the gut-brain-axis, which integrates brain and GI functions, such as gut motility, appetite and weight. The gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of irritable bowel syndrome and the microbiota plays a critical role. The purpose of this article is to review...... recent research concerning the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of microbiota, probiota, gut-brain-axis, and possible treatment modalities on irritable bowel syndrome....

  18. Gut microbiota depletion from early adolescence in mice: Implications for brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbonnet, Lieve; Clarke, Gerard; Traplin, Alexander; O'Sullivan, Orla; Crispie, Fiona; Moloney, Rachel D; Cotter, Paul D; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-08-01

    There is growing appreciation for the importance of bacteria in shaping brain development and behaviour. Adolescence and early adulthood are crucial developmental periods during which exposure to harmful environmental factors can have a permanent impact on brain function. Such environmental factors include perturbations of the gut bacteria that may affect gut-brain communication, altering the trajectory of brain development, and increasing vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. Here we assess the effects of gut bacterial depletion from weaning onwards on adult cognitive, social and emotional behaviours and markers of gut-brain axis dysfunction in mice. Mice were treated with a combination of antibiotics from weaning onwards and effects on behaviours and potential gut-brain axis neuromodulators (tryptophan, monoamines, and neuropeptides) and BDNF expression were assessed in adulthood. Antibiotic-treatment depleted and restructured gut microbiota composition of caecal contents and decreased spleen weights in adulthood. Depletion of the gut microbiota from weaning onwards reduced anxiety, induced cognitive deficits, altered dynamics of the tryptophan metabolic pathway, and significantly reduced BDNF, oxytocin and vasopressin expression in the adult brain. Microbiota depletion from weaning onwards by means of chronic treatment with antibiotics in mice impacts on anxiety and cognitive behaviours as well as key neuromodulators of gut-brain communication in a manner that is similar to that reported in germ-free mice. This model may represent a more amenable alternative for germ-free mice in the assessment of microbiota modulation of behaviour. Finally, these data suggest that despite the presence of a normal gut microbiome in early postnatal life, reduced abundance and diversity of the gut microbiota from weaning influences adult behaviours and key neuromodulators of the microbiota-gut-brain axis suggesting that dysregulation of this axis in the post-weaning period may

  19. Circadian Rhythm Shapes the Gut Microbiota Affecting Host Radiosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Xiao, Huiwen; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Shuyi; Zheng, Qisheng; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Dong, Jiali; Li, Hang; Wang, Haichao; Fan, Saijun

    2016-10-26

    Modern lifestyles, such as shift work, nocturnal social activities, and jet lag, disturb the circadian rhythm. The interaction between mammals and the co-evolved intestinal microbiota modulates host physiopathological processes. Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of modern management of malignancies; however, it was previously unknown whether circadian rhythm disorder impairs prognosis after radiotherapy. To investigate the effect of circadian rhythm on radiotherapy, C57BL/6 mice were housed in different dark/light cycles, and their intestinal bacterial compositions were compared using high throughput sequencing. The survival rate, body weight, and food intake of mice in diverse cohorts were measured following irradiation exposure. Finally, the enteric bacterial composition of irradiated mice that experienced different dark/light cycles was assessed using 16S RNA sequencing. Intriguingly, mice housed in aberrant light cycles harbored a reduction of observed intestinal bacterial species and shifts of gut bacterial composition compared with those of the mice kept under 12 h dark/12 h light cycles, resulting in a decrease of host radioresistance. Moreover, the alteration of enteric bacterial composition of mice in different groups was dissimilar. Our findings provide novel insights into the effects of biological clocks on the gut bacterial composition, and underpin that the circadian rhythm influences the prognosis of patients after radiotherapy in a preclinical setting.

  20. The evolution of cooperation within the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Foster, Kevin R; Comstock, Laurie E

    2016-05-12

    Cooperative phenotypes are considered central to the functioning of microbial communities in many contexts, including communication via quorum sensing, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenesis. The human intestine houses a dense and diverse microbial community critical to health, yet we know little about cooperation within this important ecosystem. Here we test experimentally for evolved cooperation within the Bacteroidales, the dominant Gram-negative bacteria of the human intestine. We show that during growth on certain dietary polysaccharides, the model member Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron exhibits only limited cooperation. Although this organism digests these polysaccharides extracellularly, mutants lacking this ability are outcompeted. In contrast, we discovered a dedicated cross-feeding enzyme system in the prominent gut symbiont Bacteroides ovatus, which digests polysaccharide at a cost to itself but at a benefit to another species. Using in vitro systems and gnotobiotic mouse colonization models, we find that extracellular digestion of inulin increases the fitness of B. ovatus owing to reciprocal benefits when it feeds other gut species such as Bacteroides vulgatus. This is a rare example of naturally-evolved cooperation between microbial species. Our study reveals both the complexity and importance of cooperative phenotypes within the mammalian intestinal microbiota.

  1. Colonic lesions, cytokine profiles, and gut microbiota in plasminogen-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Krych, Lukasz; Lund, Leif R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen-deficient (FVB/NPan-plg(tm1Jld), plg(tm1Jld)) mice, which are widely used as a wound-healing model, are prone to spontaneous rectal prolapses. The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the fecal microbiome of plg(tm1Jld) mice for features that might contribute to the development of r...... the composition of the gut microbiota, and none of the clinical or biochemical parameters correlated with the gut microbiota composition....

  2. Beyond genetics. Influence of dietary factors and gut microbiota on type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Krych, Lukasz; Buschard, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    purely genetic are involved in disease development. Here we review the influence of dietary and environmental factors on T1D development in humans as well as animal models. Even though data are still inconclusive, there are strong indications that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in T1D...... development and evidence from animal models suggests that gut microbiota manipulation might prove valuable in future prevention of T1D in genetically susceptible individuals....

  3. Impact of the gut microbiota on the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel eMoreno Indias; Fernando eCardona; Francisco eTinahones; MARIA ISABEL eQUEIPO ORTUÑO

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated disorders are a major public health concern. Although obesity has been mainly related with perturbations of the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, other factors must nevertheless be considered. Recent insight suggests that an altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota could play an important role in the development of metabolic disorders. This review discusses research aimed at understanding the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of...

  4. Impact of dietary resistant starch type 4 on human gut microbiota and immunometabolic functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bijaya Upadhyaya; Lacey McCormack; Ali Reza Fardin-Kia; Robert Juenemann; Sailendra Nichenametla; Jeffrey Clapper; Bonny Specker; Moul Dey

    2016-01-01

    Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota impacts human health. Here we investigated the hitherto unknown effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4) enriched diet on gut microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in parallel with host immunometabolic functions in twenty individuals with signs of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cholesterols, fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and proinflammatory markers in the blood as well as waist circumference and % body fat wer...

  5. Gut microbiota disturbance during helminth infection: can it affect cognition and behaviour of children?

    OpenAIRE

    Guernier, V.; BRENNAN, B; Yakob, L; Milinovich, G; Clements, AC; Soares Magalhaes, RJ

    2017-01-01

    Background Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood. Discuss...

  6. Listening to Our Gut: Contribution of Gut Microbiota and Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daniel; Kirsop, Jennifer; Tang, W H Wilson

    2015-09-01

    What we understand about diabetes from decades of genetics research is now being supplemented with exciting new evidence based on a better understanding of how one of the biggest "environmental" factors the body is exposed to is influencing the pathogenesis of disease. The recent discovery that certain dietary nutrients possessing a trimethylamine (TMA) moiety (namely choline/phosphatidylcholine and L-carnitine) participate in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease has renewed attention towards the contributions of gut microbiota in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Collectively, animal and human studies reveal that conversion of these nutrient precursors to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) depends on both microbial composition and host factors, and can be induced by dietary exposures. In addition, circulating TMAO levels are strongly linked to cardiovascular disease risks and various adverse cardio-renal consequences. Our group and others have further demonstrated that circulating TMAO levels are elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to healthy controls and gut microbiota-dependent phosphatidylcholine metabolism has been implicated in metabolic dysregulation and insulin resistance in animal models. Therefore, preventive strategies to minimize adverse consequences associated with TMAO generation in the diabetic population are warranted.

  7. Changes in the gut microbiota of cloned and non-cloned control pigs during development of obesity: gut microbiota during development of obesity in cloned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity induced by a high-caloric diet has previously been associated with changes in the gut microbiota in mice and in humans. In this study, pigs were cloned to minimize genetic and biological variation among the animals with the aim of developing a controlled metabolomic model...... suitable for a diet-intervention study. Cloning of pigs may be an attractive way to reduce genetic influences when investigating the effect of diet and obesity on different physiological sites. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the changes in the composition of the gut microbiota of cloned vs....... non-cloned pigs during development of obesity by a high-fat/high-caloric diet. Furthermore, we investigated the association between diet-induced obesity and the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the fecal-microbiota. The fecal microbiota from obese cloned (n = 5) and non...

  8. Ontogenetic Differences in Dietary Fat Influence Microbiota Assembly in the Zebrafish Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sandi; Stephens, W Zac; Burns, Adam R; Stagaman, Keaton; David, Lawrence A; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Guillemin, Karen; Rawls, John F

    2015-09-29

    Gut microbiota influence the development and physiology of their animal hosts, and these effects are determined in part by the composition of these microbial communities. Gut microbiota composition can be affected by introduction of microbes from the environment, changes in the gut habitat during development, and acute dietary alterations. However, little is known about the relationship between gut and environmental microbiotas or about how host development and dietary differences during development impact the assembly of gut microbiota. We sought to explore these relationships using zebrafish, an ideal model because they are constantly immersed in a defined environment and can be fed the same diet for their entire lives. We conducted a cross-sectional study in zebrafish raised on a high-fat, control, or low-fat diet and used bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing to survey microbial communities in the gut and external environment at different developmental ages. Gut and environmental microbiota compositions rapidly diverged following the initiation of feeding and became increasingly different as zebrafish grew under conditions of a constant diet. Different dietary fat levels were associated with distinct gut microbiota compositions at different ages. In addition to alterations in individual bacterial taxa, we identified putative assemblages of bacterial lineages that covaried in abundance as a function of age, diet, and location. These results reveal dynamic relationships between dietary fat levels and the microbial communities residing in the intestine and the surrounding environment during ontogenesis. The ability of gut microbiota to influence host health is determined in part by their composition. However, little is known about the relationship between gut and environmental microbiotas or about how ontogenetic differences in dietary fat impact gut microbiota composition. We addressed these gaps in knowledge using zebrafish, an ideal model organism because their

  9. Microbiota and the gut-liver axis: bacterial translocation, inflammation and infection in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Valerio; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Iebba, Valerio; Giusto, Michela; Schippa, Serena; Merli, Manuela; Thalheimer, Ulrich

    2014-12-07

    Liver disease is associated with qualitative and quantitative changes in the intestinal microbiota. In cirrhotic patients the alteration in gut microbiota is characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria (i.e., gram negative species) and a decrease in autochthonous familiae. Here we summarize the available literature on the risk of gut dysbiosis in liver cirrhosis and its clinical consequences. We therefore described the features of the complex interaction between gut microbiota and cirrhotic host, the so called "gut-liver axis", with a particular attention to the acquired risk of bacterial translocation, systemic inflammation and the relationship with systemic infections in the cirrhotic patient. Such knowledge might help to develop novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of gut dysbiosis and its complication in liver cirrhosis.

  10. Characterization of the bacterial gut microbiota in new neonatal porcine diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise

    of this project was to investigate whether the aetiology to NNPD could be identified in the bacterial gut microbial changes. In order to be able to characterize the bacterial gut microbiota of numerous samples simultaneously the Gut Microbiotassay was developed. This is an assembly of 24 different primer sets...... targeting 16S or 23S rRNA genes of the major bacterial groups constituting the gut microbiota. This approach was applied due to the limited number of intestinal bacteria that currently can be cultivated. Primers were found in published literature, tested in silico and modified or designed if necessary...... of ileal and colonic contents of 50 control piglets and 52 case piglets from four Danish pig farms affected by NNPD were obtained and deeper taxonomic insight was acquired by sequencing the PCR amplicons. Statistic results from qPCR data revealed that the gut microbiota of NNPD-affected piglets differed...

  11. Probiotic modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and behaviour in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Luca; Aceto, Serena; Agnisola, Claudio; De Paolo, Sofia; Dipineto, Ludovico; Stilling, Roman M; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Menna, Lucia F; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2016-07-15

    The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the bi-directional gut-brain axis, a communication that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities. Animal studies reveal that gut bacteria influence behaviour, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels and serotonin metabolism. In the present study, we report for the first time an analysis of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in zebrafish (Danio rerio). After 28 days of dietary administration with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501, we found differences in shoaling behaviour, brain expression levels of bdnf and of genes involved in serotonin signalling/metabolism between control and treated zebrafish group. In addition, in microbiota we found a significant increase of Firmicutes and a trending reduction of Proteobacteria. This study demonstrates that selected microbes can be used to modulate endogenous neuroactive molecules in zebrafish.

  12. Individualized Responses of Gut Microbiota to Dietary Intervention Modeled in Humanized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Samuel A; Marcobal, Angela; Higginbottom, Steven; Sonnenburg, Justin L; Kashyap, Purna C

    2016-01-01

    Diet plays an important role in shaping the structure and function of the gut microbiota. The microbes and microbial products in turn can influence various aspects of host physiology. One promising route to affect host function and restore health is by altering the gut microbiome using dietary intervention. The individuality of the microbiome may pose a significant challenge, so we sought to determine how different microbiotas respond to the same dietary intervention in a controlled setting. We modeled gut microbiotas from three healthy donors in germfree mice and defined compositional and functional alteration following a change in dietary microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs). The three gut communities exhibited responses that differed markedly in magnitude and in the composition of microbiota-derived metabolites. Adjustments in community membership did not correspond to the magnitude of changes in the microbial metabolites, highlighting potential challenges in predicting functional responses from compositional data and the need to assess multiple microbiota parameters following dietary interventions. IMPORTANCE Dietary modification has long been used empirically to modify symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and a diverse group of diseases with gastrointestinal symptoms. There is both anecdotal and scientific evidence to suggest that individuals respond quite differently to similar dietary changes, and the highly individualized nature of the gut microbiota makes it a prime candidate for these differences. To overcome the typical confounding factors of human dietary interventions, here we employ ex-germfree mice colonized by microbiotas of three different humans to test how different microbiotas respond to a defined change in carbohydrate content of diet by measuring changes in microbiota composition and function using marker gene-based next-generation sequencing and metabolomics. Our findings suggest that the same diet has very

  13. Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: Modulator of Host Metabolism and Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wouw, Marcel; Schellekens, Harriët; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-05-01

    The gut harbors an enormous diversity of microbes that are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in health and disease. A growing body of evidence supports the role of this microbiota in influencing host appetite and food intake. Individual species within the gut microbiota are under selective pressure arising from nutrients available and other bacterial species present. Each bacterial species within the gut aims to increase its own fitness, habitat, and survival via specific fermentation of dietary nutrients and secretion of metabolites, many of which can influence host appetite and eating behavior by directly affecting nutrient sensing and appetite and satiety-regulating systems. These include microbiota-produced neuroactives and short-chain fatty acids. In addition, the gut microbiota is able to manipulate intestinal barrier function, interact with bile acid metabolism, modulate the immune system, and influence host antigen production, thus indirectly affecting eating behavior. A growing body of evidence indicates that there is a crucial role for the microbiota in regulating different aspects of eating-related behavior, as well as behavioral comorbidities of eating and metabolic disorders. The importance of intestinal microbiota composition has now been shown in obesity, anorexia nervosa, and forms of severe acute malnutrition. Understanding the mechanisms in which the gut microbiota can influence host appetite and metabolism will provide a better understanding of conditions wherein appetite is dysregulated, such as obesity and other metabolic or eating disorders, leading to novel biotherapeutic strategies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Response of gut microbiota to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-10-01

    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were allocated to either torpid, fed active, or fasted active groups. Hibernation was successfully induced by maintaining darkness at 4 degrees C. Flow cytometry analysis of cecal bacteria showed that 96-h fasting reduced the total gut bacteria. This period of fasting also reduced the concentrations of short chain fatty acids in the cecal contents. In contrast, total bacterial numbers and concentrations of short chain fatty acids were unaffected by hibernation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments indicated that fasting and hibernation modulated the cecal microbiota. Analysis of 16S rRNA clone library and species-specific real-time quantitative PCR showed that the class Clostridia predominated in both active and torpid hamsters and that populations of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, were increased by fasting but not by hibernation. From these results, we conclude that the gut microbiota responds differently to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

  15. The microbiota-gut-brain axis and its potential therapeutic role in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Zhou, J-M

    2016-06-02

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a series of neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact etiology and pathology of ASD remain unclear, a disorder of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging as a prominent factor in the generation of autistic behaviors. Clinical studies have shown that gastrointestinal symptoms and compositional changes in the gut microbiota frequently accompany cerebral disorders in patients with ASD. A disturbance in the gut microbiota, which is usually induced by a bacterial infection or chronic antibiotic exposure, has been implicated as a potential contributor to ASD. The bidirectional microbiota-gut-brain axis acts mainly through neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous mechanisms. Application of modulators of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, such as probiotics, helminthes and certain special diets, may be a promising strategy for the treatment of ASD. This review mainly discusses the salient observations of the disruptions of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in the pathogenesis of ASD and reveals its potential therapeutic role in autistic deficits.

  16. Feeding the microbiota-gut-brain axis: diet, microbiome, and neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Kiran V; Sherwin, Eoin; Schellekens, Harriët; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-01

    The microbial population residing within the human gut represents one of the most densely populated microbial niche in the human body with growing evidence showing it playing a key role in the regulation of behavior and brain function. The bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, occurs through various pathways including the vagus nerve, the immune system, neuroendocrine pathways, and bacteria-derived metabolites. This axis has been shown to influence neurotransmission and the behavior that are often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. Therefore, research targeting the modulation of this gut microbiota as a novel therapy for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric conditions is gaining interest. Numerous factors have been highlighted to influence gut microbiota composition, including genetics, health status, mode of birth, and environment. However, it is diet composition and nutritional status that has repeatedly been shown to be one of the most critical modifiable factors regulating the gut microbiota at different time points across the lifespan and under various health conditions. Thus the microbiota is poised to play a key role in nutritional interventions for maintaining brain health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Resting energy expenditure and gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocełak, P; Zak-Gołąb, A; Zahorska-Markiewicz, B; Aptekorz, M; Zientara, M; Martirosian, G; Chudek, J; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, M

    2013-10-01

    It is suggested that gut microbiota play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity enhancing energy utilization from digested food. The influence of gut microbiota on resting energy expenditure (REE) has not been evaluated yet. The aim of the study is to assess the composition on gut microbiota and its association with REE in obese and normal weight subjects. REE measurement and semi-quantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition in aerobic and anaerobic conditions were performed in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. A count of bacterial colony was greater in obese than in normal weight subjects. However, the proportion of Bacteroides spp. and Firmicutes was similar in both study groups. A positive correlation between REE (kcal/d) and total bacterial count (r = 0.26, p Bacteroides spp. and Firmicutes counts on REE. The composition of gut microbiota is not associated with the level of resting energy expenditure. The proportion of Bacteroides and Firmicutes in gut microbiota is not related to body mass.

  18. Neonatal Androgen Exposure Causes Persistent Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Related to Metabolic Disease in Adult Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Sánchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Ángel; Martín-Núñez, Gracia María; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Tinahones, Francisco J; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel

    2016-12-01

    Alterations of gut microbiome have been proposed to play a role in metabolic disease, but the major determinants of microbiota composition remain ill defined. Nutritional and sex hormone challenges, especially during early development, have been shown to permanently alter adult female phenotype and contribute to metabolic disturbances. In this study, we implemented large-scale microbiome analyses to fecal samples from groups of female rats sequentially subjected to various obesogenic manipulations, including sex hormone perturbations by means of neonatal androgenization or adult ovariectomy (OVX), as a model of menopause, to establish whether these phenomena are related to changes in gut microbiota. Basic metabolic profiles concerning glucose/insulin homeostasis were also explored. The effects of the sex hormonal perturbations, either developmentally (androgenization) or in adulthood (OVX), clearly outshone the impact of nutritional interventions, especially concerning the gut microbiota profile. Notably, we observed a lower diversity in the androgenized group, with the highest Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, supporting the occurrence of durable alterations in gut microbiota composition, even in adulthood. Moreover, the elimination of adult ovarian secretions by OVX affected the richness of gut microbiota. Our data are the first to document the durable impact of sex steroid manipulations, and particularly early androgenization, on gut microbiota composition. Such dysbiosis is likely to contribute to the metabolic perturbations of conditions of obesity linked to gonadal dysfunction in the female.

  19. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, T.J.; Lankelma, J.M.; Scicluna, B.P.; Melo, e F.S.; Roelofs, J.J.; Boer, de J.D.; Hoogendijk, A.J.; Beer, de R.; Vos, de A.; Belzer, C.; Vos, de W.M.; Poll, van der T.; Wiersinga, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia,

  20. Relationship between Human Gut Microbiota and Interleukin 6 Levels in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Gut microbial diversity and abundance can profoundly impact human health. Research has shown that obese individuals are likely to have altered microbiota compared to lean individuals. Obesity is often considered a pro-inflammatory state, however the relationship between microbiota and i...

  1. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, T.J.; Lankelma, J.M.; Scicluna, B.P.; Melo, e F.S.; Roelofs, J.J.; Boer, de J.D.; Hoogendijk, A.J.; Beer, de R.; Vos, de A.; Belzer, C.; Vos, de W.M.; Poll, van der T.; Wiersinga, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia,

  2. The Impact of Gut Microbiota on Gender-Specific Differences in Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Floris; van Beek, Adriaan A.; Borghuis, Theo; Meijer, Ben; Hugenholtz, Floor; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa; Savelkoul, Huub F.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Faas, Marijke M.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Smidt, Hauke; El Aidy, Sahar; de Vos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Males and females are known to have gender-specific differences in their immune system and gut microbiota composition. Whether these differences in gut microbiota composition are a cause or consequence of differences in the immune system is not known. To investigate this issue, gut microbiota from conventional males or females was transferred to germ-free (GF) animals of the same or opposing gender. We demonstrate that microbiota-independent gender differences in immunity are already present in GF mice. In particular, type I interferon signaling was enhanced in the intestine of GF females. Presumably, due to these immune differences bacterial groups, such as Alistipes, Rikenella, and Porphyromonadaceae, known to expand in the absence of innate immune defense mechanism were overrepresented in the male microbiota. The presence of these bacterial groups was associated with induction of weight loss, inflammation, and DNA damage upon transfer of the male microbiota to female GF recipients. In summary, our data suggest that microbiota-independent gender differences in the immune system select a gender-specific gut microbiota composition, which in turn further contributes to gender differences in the immune system. PMID:28713378

  3. Long Term Development of Gut Microbiota Composition in Atopic Children : Impact of Probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N B M M; Gorissen, D M W; Eck, A; Niers, L E M; Vlieger, A M; Besseling-van der Vaart, I; Budding, A E; Savelkoul, P H M; van der Ent, C K; Rijkers, G T; van der Ent, CK|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164028536

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Imbalance of the human gut microbiota in early childhood is suggested as a risk factor for immune-mediated disorders such as allergies. With the objective to modulate the intestinal microbiota, probiotic supplementation during infancy has been used for prevention of allergic diseases i

  4. Gut microbiota composition and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized elderly individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milani, Christian; Ticinesi, Andrea; Gerritsen, Jacoline; Nouvenne, Antonio; Andrea Lugli, Gabriele; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Turroni, Francesca; Duranti, Sabrina; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Ferrario, Chiara; Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; Vos, de Willem M.; Sinderen, Van Douwe; Meschi, Tiziana; Ventura, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota composition of elderly hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) exposed to previous antibiotic treatment is still poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the microbiota composition by means of 16S rRNA microbial profiling among three

  5. Gut microbiota inhibit Asbt-dependent intestinal bile acid reabsorption via Gata4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Out, Carolien; Patankar, Jay V.; Doktorova, Marcela; Boesjes, Marije; Bos, Trijnie; de Boer, Sanna; Havinga, Rick; Wolters, Henk; Boverhof, Renze; van Dijk, Theo H.; Smoczek, Anna; Bleich, Andre; Sachdev, Vinay; Kratky, Dagmar; Kuipers, Folkert; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims: Regulation of bile acid homeostasis in mammals is a complex process regulated via extensive cross-talk between liver, intestine and intestinal microbiota. Here we studied the effects of gut microbiota on bile acid homeostasis in mice. Methods: Bile acid homeostasis was assessed in

  6. The Gut Microbiota and their Metabolites : Potential Implications for the Host Epigenome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischke, Mona; Plösch, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota represents a metabolically active biomass of up to 2 kg in adult humans. Microbiota-derived molecules significantly contribute to the host metabolism. Large amounts of bacterial metabolites are taken up by the host and are subsequently utilized by the human body. For instance, sho

  7. Host age, social group, and habitat type influence the gut microbiota of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Genevieve; Malone, Matthew; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R; Amato, Katherine R

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. The composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. Therefore, understanding the factors determining gut microbiota diversity and composition can contribute to our knowledge of host ecology as well as to conservation efforts. Here we use high-throughput sequencing to describe variation in the gut microbiota of the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) in southwestern Madagascar. Specifically, we measured the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in relation to social group, age, sex, tooth wear and loss, and habitat disturbance. While we found no significant variation in the diversity of the ring-tailed lemur gut microbiota in response to any variable tested, the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was influenced by social group, age, and habitat disturbance. However, effect sizes were small and appear to be driven by the presence or absence of relatively low abundance taxa. These results suggest that habitat disturbance may not impact the lemur gut microbiota as strongly as it impacts the gut microbiota of other primate species, highlighting the importance of distinct host ecological and physiological factors on host-gut microbe relationships. Am. J. Primatol. 78:883-892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise R Morton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon.

  9. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Elise R; Lynch, Joshua; Froment, Alain; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Przeworski, Molly; Blekhman, Ran; Ségurel, Laure

    2015-11-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon.

  10. Gut microbiota and tacrolimus dosing in kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Lee

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus dosing to establish therapeutic levels in recipients of organ transplants is a challenging task because of much interpatient and intrapatient variability in drug absorption, metabolism, and disposition. In view of the reported impact of gut microbial species on drug metabolism, we investigated the relationship between the gut microbiota and tacrolimus dosing requirements in this pilot study of adult kidney transplant recipients. Serial fecal specimens were collected during the first month of transplantation from 19 kidney transplant recipients who either required a 50% increase from initial tacrolimus dosing during the first month of transplantation (Dose Escalation Group, n=5 or did not require such an increase (Dose Stable Group, n=14. We characterized bacterial composition in the fecal specimens by deep sequencing of the PCR amplified 16S rRNA V4-V5 region and we investigated the hypothesis that gut microbial composition is associated with tacrolimus dosing requirements. Initial tacrolimus dosing was similar in the Dose Escalation Group and in the Stable Group (4.2 ± 1.1 mg/day vs. 3.8 ± 0.8 mg/day, respectively, P=0.61, two-way between-group ANOVA using contrasts but became higher in the Dose Escalation Group than in the Dose Stable Group by the end of the first transplantation month (9.6 ± 2.4 mg/day vs. 3.3 ± 1.5 mg/day, respectively, P<0.001. Our systematic characterization of the gut microbial composition identified that fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was 11.8% in the Dose Escalation Group and 0.8% in the Dose Stable Group (P=0.002, Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, P<0.05 after Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple hypotheses. Fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in the first week of transplantation was positively correlated with future tacrolimus dosing at 1 month (R=0.57, P=0.01 and had a coefficient ± standard error of 1.0 ± 0.6 (P=0.08 after multivariable linear

  11. The Effect of Probiotics on Gut Microbiota during the Helicobacter pylori Eradication: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bumjo; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Jong Seung; Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Chun, Jongsik

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer, and has been treated with two antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, antibiotic treatment alters the indigenous gut microbiota to cause side effects. Therefore, the effects of probiotic supplementation on therapy have been studied. Although several studies have covered the probiotics' effects, details about the gut microbiota changes after H. pylori eradication have not been evaluated. Therefore, we analyzed the influences of antibiotics and their combination with probiotics on the composition of the gut microbiota using high-throughput sequencing. Subjects were divided into two groups. The antibiotics group was treated with general therapy, and the probiotics group with general therapy and probiotic supplementation. Fecal samples were collected from all subjects during treatments, and the influences on gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-pyrosequencing. Three phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, were predominant in the gut microbiota of all subjects. After treatment, the relative abundances of Firmicutes were reduced, whereas those of Proteobacteria were increased in both groups. However, the changed proportions of the gut microbiota in the antibiotics group were higher than those in the probiotics group. In addition, the increase in the levels of antibiotic-resistant bacteria was higher in the antibiotics group than in the probiotics one. Probiotic supplementation can reduce the antibiotic-induced alteration and imbalance of the gut microbiota composition. This effect may restrict the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the gut and improve the H. pylori eradication success rate. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Influence of gut microbiota on the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria Ghetti, Fabiana; Oliveira, Daiane Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Juliano Machado; de Castro Ferreira, Lincoln Eduardo Villela Vieira; Cesar, Dionéia Evangelista; Moreira, Ana Paula Boroni

    2017-09-05

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the presence of steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, with or without fibrosis. The prevalence of NASH has increased with the obesity epidemic, but its etiology is multifactorial. The current studies suggest the role of gut microbiota in the development and progression of NASH. The aim is to review the studies that investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and NASH. These review also discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms and the influence of diet on the gut-liver axis. The available literature has proposed mechanisms for an association between gut microbiota and NASH, such as: modification energy homeostasis, lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-endotoxemia, increased endogenous production of ethanol, and alteration in the metabolism of bile acid and choline. There is evidence to suggest that NASH patients have a higher prevalence of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine and changes in the composition of the gut microbiota. However, there is still a controversy regarding the microbiome profile in this population. The abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum may be increased, decreased, or unaltered in NASH patients. There is an increase in the Escherichia and Bacteroides genus. There is depletion of certain taxa, such as Prevotella and Faecalibacterium. Although few studies have evaluated the composition of the gut microbiota in patients with NASH, it is observed that these individuals have a distinct gut microbiota, compared to the control groups, which explains, at least in part, the genesis and progression of the disease through multiple mechanisms. Modulation of the gut microbiota through diet control offers new challenges for future studies.

  13. Drug Metabolism by the Host and Gut Microbiota: A Partnership or Rivalry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the gut microbiome in determining not only overall health, but also in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics, is rapidly emerging. It is becoming increasingly clear that the gut microbiota can act in concert with the host cells to maintain intestinal homeostasis, cometabolize drugs and xenobiotics, and alter the expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and the expression and activity levels of nuclear receptors. In this myriad of activities, the impact of the microbiota may be beneficial or detrimental to the host. Given that the interplay between the gut microbiota and host cells is likely subject to high interindividual variability, this work has tremendous implications for our ability to predict accurately a particular drug’s pharmacokinetics and a given patient population’s response to drugs. In this issue of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, a series of articles is presented that illustrate the progress and challenges that lie ahead as we unravel the intricacies associated with drug and xenobiotic metabolism by the gut microbiota. These articles highlight the underlying mechanisms that are involved and the use of in vivo and in vitro approaches that are currently available for elucidating the role of the gut microbiota in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. These articles also shed light on exciting new avenues of research that may be pursued as we consider the role of the gut microbiota as an endocrine organ, a component of the brain-gut axis, and whether the gut microbiota is an appropriate and amenable target for new drugs. PMID:26261284

  14. Evolution of gut microbiota composition from birth to 24 weeks in the INFANTMET Cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, Cian J

    2017-01-17

    The gut is the most extensively studied niche of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) from 1 to 24 weeks of age.

  15. The microbial eukaryote Blastocystis is a prevalent and diverse member of the healthy human gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlan, P.D.; Stensvold, C.R.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Heilig, H.G.; Vos, de W.M.; O'Toole, P.W.; Cotter, P.D.

    2014-01-01

    To date, the majority of research into the human gut microbiota has focused on the bacterial fraction of the community. Inevitably, this has resulted in a poor understanding of the diversity and functionality of other intestinal microorganisms in the human gut. One such nonbacterial member is the mi

  16. Does the Gut Microbiota Influence Immunity and Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis Pathophysiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Madej, Paulina; Michlicka, Wirginia; Dobrakowski, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Evaluation of the impact of gut microflora on the pathophysiology of MS. Results. The etiopathogenesis of MS is not fully known. Gut microbiota may be of a great importance in the pathogenesis of MS, since recent findings suggest that substitutions of certain microbial population in the gut can lead to proinflammatory state, which can lead to MS in humans. In contrast, other commensal bacteria and their antigenic products may protect against inflammation within the central nervous system. The type of intestinal flora is affected by antibiotics, stress, or diet. The effects on MS through the intestinal microflora can also be achieved by antibiotic therapy and Lactobacillus. EAE, as an animal model of MS, indicates a strong influence of the gut microbiota on the immune system and shows that disturbances in gut physiology may contribute to the development of MS. Conclusions. The relationship between the central nervous system, the immune system, and the gut microbiota relates to the influence of microorganisms in the development of MS. A possible interaction between gut microbiota and the immune system can be perceived through regulation by the endocannabinoid system. It may offer an opportunity to understand the interaction comprised in the gut-immune-brain axis. PMID:28316999

  17. Meta-analysis to define a core microbiota in the swine gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The swine gut microbiota encompasses a large and diverse population of bacteria that play a significant role in pig health. As such, a number of recent studies have utilized high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition and structure of the swine gut micr...

  18. Signals from the gut microbiota to distant organs in physiology and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Bjoern O; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    and hormone system, to the brain (the gut-brain axis) and to host metabolism, as well as other functions of the host. This microbe-host communication is essential to maintain vital functions of the healthy host. Recently, however, the gut microbiota has been associated with a number of diseases, ranging from...

  19. Impact of the gut microbiota on the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eMoreno Indias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its associated disorders are a major public health concern. Although obesity has been mainly related with perturbations of the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, other factors must nevertheless be considered. Recent insight suggests that an altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota could play an important role in the development of metabolic disorders. This review discusses research aimed at understanding the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The establishment of gut microbiota is dependent on the type of birth. With effect from this point, gut microbiota remain quite stable, although changes take place between birth and adulthood due to external influences, such as diet, disease and environment. Understand these changes is important to predict diseases and develop therapies. A new theory suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis, provoking the development of an impairment in energy homeostasis and causing metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. The metabolic endotoxemia, modifications in the secretion of incretins and butyrate production might explain the influence of the microbiota in these diseases.

  20. Embracing the gut microbiota: the new frontier for inflammatory and infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, Lieke WJ; Poyntz, Hazel C; Weyrich, Laura S; Young, Wayne; Forbes-Blom, Elizabeth E

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota provides essential signals for the development and appropriate function of the immune system. Through this critical contribution to immune fitness, the gut microbiota has a key role in health and disease. Recent advances in the technological applications to study microbial communities and their functions have contributed to a rapid increase in host–microbiota research. Although it still remains difficult to define a so-called ‘normal' or ‘healthy' microbial composition, alterations in the gut microbiota have been shown to influence the susceptibility of the host to different diseases. Current translational research combined with recent technological and computational advances have enabled in-depth study of the link between microbial composition and immune function, addressing the interplay between the gut microbiota and immune responses. As such, beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota is a promising clinical target for many prevalent diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, metabolic abnormalities such as obesity, reduced insulin sensitivity and low-grade inflammation, allergy and protective immunity against infections.

  1. The Maturing Development of Gut Microbiota in Commercial Piglets during the Weaning Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Early weaned piglets are vulnerable to diarrhea because of weaning stress and immaturity of intestinal tract. Compelling evidence suggests that gut microbiota is vital to host health. However, it is not well understood on the composition and succession of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. In our two trials, total 17 commercial piglets were studied in a pig farm in Jiangxi Province, China. Fresh feces were collected for four times (10 days before weaned, weaned day, 10 days after weaned, 21 days after weaned by rectal massage. Fecal bacterial composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene V3–V4 regions sequencing by Illumina Miseq platform. The results showed that the gut microbiota of piglets shifted quickly after weaned and reached relatively stable level in 10 days after weaned. The alpha diversity increased significantly with the age of piglets. The microbiota of suckling piglets was mainly represented by Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, and Megasphaera. This pattern contrasted with that of Clostridium sensu stricto, Roseburia, Paraprevotella, Clostridium XIVa, and Blautia, which were major representative genera after weaned. In summary, we delineated the development of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. This study helps us understand the maturing development of gut microbiota in commercial piglets.

  2. Impact of the gut microbiota on the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Cardona, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated disorders are a major public health concern. Although obesity has been mainly related with perturbations of the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, other factors must nevertheless be considered. Recent insight suggests that an altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota could play an important role in the development of metabolic disorders. This review discusses research aimed at understanding the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (TDM2). The establishment of gut microbiota is dependent on the type of birth. With effect from this point, gut microbiota remain quite stable, although changes take place between birth and adulthood due to external influences, such as diet, disease and environment. Understand these changes is important to predict diseases and develop therapies. A new theory suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis, provoking the development of an impairment in energy homeostasis and causing metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance or TDM2. The metabolic endotoxemia, modifications in the secretion of incretins and butyrate production might explain the influence of the microbiota in these diseases.

  3. The gut microbiota modulates glycaemic control and serum metabolite profiles in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Thomas U; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Knip, Mikael; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Orešič, Matej

    2014-01-01

    Islet autoimmunity in children who later progress to type 1 diabetes is preceded by dysregulated serum metabolite profiles, but the origin of these metabolic changes is unknown. The gut microbiota affects host metabolism and changes in its composition contribute to several immune-mediated diseases; however, it is not known whether the gut microbiota is involved in the early metabolic disturbances in progression to type 1 diabetes. We rederived non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice as germ free to explore the potential role of the gut microbiota in the development of diabetic autoimmunity and to directly investigate whether the metabolic profiles associated with the development of type 1 diabetes can be modulated by the gut microbiota. The absence of a gut microbiota in NOD mice did not affect the overall diabetes incidence but resulted in increased insulitis and levels of interferon gamma and interleukin 12; these changes were counterbalanced by improved peripheral glucose metabolism. Furthermore, we observed a markedly increased variation in blood glucose levels in the absence of a microbiota in NOD mice that did not progress to diabetes. Additionally, germ-free NOD mice had a metabolite profile similar to that of pre-diabetic children. Our data suggest that germ-free NOD mice have reduced glycaemic control and dysregulated immunologic and metabolic responses.

  4. Degradation of Marine Algae-Derived Carbohydrates by Bacteroidetes Isolated from Human Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaomiao; Shang, Qingsen; Li, Guangsheng; Wang, Xin; Yu, Guangli

    2017-03-24

    Carrageenan, agarose, and alginate are algae-derived undigested polysaccharides that have been used as food additives for hundreds of years. Fermentation of dietary carbohydrates of our food in the lower gut of humans is a critical process for the function and integrity of both the bacterial community and host cells. However, little is known about the fermentation of these three kinds of seaweed carbohydrates by human gut microbiota. Here, the degradation characteristics of carrageenan, agarose, alginate, and their oligosaccharides, by Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Bacteroides ovatus, and Bacteroides uniforms, isolated from human gut microbiota, are studied.

  5. Characterisation of the gut microbiota in three porcine models of obesity and metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca

    Obesity is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate which has reached epidemic proportions. Obesity and its co‐morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type‐2 diabetes and cancer are of great economical burden to the countries affected. Efforts have been made to identify the causal factors...... that lead to obesity and maintenance of the obese state. Recently the gut microbiota has been implicated of being a contributing factor to obesity. Therefore the gut microbiota is a potential target for management of obesity and its co‐associated morbidities by changing the composition of the microbiota...... by pre‐ and probiotics diet supplements. In order to investigate the impact of diet and obesity on gut microbiota and vice versa in humans, there is a need for translational animal models that can contribute to the understanding of obesity and its related diseases. Pigs are often used in intervention...

  6. The impact of the milk glycobiome on the neonate gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Alline R; Barile, Daniela; Underwood, Mark A; Mills, David A

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is a complete source of nourishment for the infant. Exclusive breastfeeding not only sustains the infant's development but also guides the proliferation of a protective intestinal microbiota. Among the many components of milk that modulate the infant gut microbiota, the milk glycans, which comprise free oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, are increasingly recognized as drivers of microbiota development and overall gut health. These glycans may display pleiotropic functions, conferring protection against infectious diseases and also acting as prebiotics, selecting for the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria. The prebiotic effect of milk glycans has direct application to prevention of diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis, a common and devastating disease of preterm infants. In this article, we review the impact of the human (and bovine) milk glycome on gut health through establishment of a milk-oriented microbiota in the neonate.

  7. Modulating Composition and Metabolic Activity of the Gut Microbiota in IBD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijašić, Mario; Meštrović, Tomislav; Perić, Mihaela; Čipčić Paljetak, Hana; Panek, Marina; Vranešić Bender, Darija; Ljubas Kelečić, Dina; Krznarić, Željko; Verbanac, Donatella

    2016-04-19

    The healthy intestine represents a remarkable interface where sterile host tissues come in contact with gut microbiota, in a balanced state of homeostasis. The imbalance of gut homeostasis is associated with the onset of many severe pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic gastrointestinal disorder increasing in incidence and severely influencing affected individuals. Despite the recent development of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics, the current scientific knowledge of specific triggers and diagnostic markers to improve interventional approaches in IBD is still scarce. In this review we present and discuss currently available and emerging therapeutic options in modulating composition and metabolic activity of gut microbiota in patients affected by IBD. Therapeutic approaches at the microbiota level, such as dietary interventions alone or with probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics, administration of antibiotics, performing fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and the use of nematodes, all represent a promising opportunities towards establishing and maintaining of well-being as well as improving underlying IBD symptoms.

  8. Impact of the gut microbiota on rodent models of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Krych, Lukasz; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2014-12-21

    Traditionally bacteria have been considered as either pathogens, commensals or symbionts. The mammal gut harbors 10(14) organisms dispersed on approximately 1000 different species. Today, diagnostics, in contrast to previous cultivation techniques, allow the identification of close to 100% of bacterial species. This has revealed that a range of animal models within different research areas, such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, allergy, behavior and colitis, are affected by their gut microbiota. Correlation studies may for some diseases show correlation between gut microbiota composition and disease parameters higher than 70%. Some disease phenotypes may be transferred when recolonizing germ free mice. The mechanistic aspects are not clear, but some examples on how gut bacteria stimulate receptors, metabolism, and immune responses are discussed. A more deeper understanding of the impact of microbiota has its origin in the overall composition of the microbiota and in some newly recognized species, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Segmented filamentous bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which seem to have an impact on more or less severe disease in specific models. Thus, the impact of the microbiota on animal models is of a magnitude that cannot be ignored in future research. Therefore, either models with specific microbiota must be developed, or the microbiota must be characterized in individual studies and incorporated into data evaluation.

  9. Understanding the Impact of Omega-3 Rich Diet on the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca S. Noriega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, the importance of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of several disorders has gained clinical interests. Among exogenous factors affecting gut microbiome, diet appears to have the largest effect. Fatty acids, especially omega-3 polyunsaturated, ameliorate a range of several diseases, including cardiometabolic and inflammatory and cancer. Fatty acids associated beneficial effects may be mediated, to an important extent, through changes in gut microbiota composition. We sought to understand the changes of the gut microbiota in response to an omega-3 rich diet. Case Presentation. This case study investigated changes of gut microbiota with an omega-3 rich diet. Fecal samples were collected from a 45-year-old male who consumed 600 mg of omega-3 daily for 14 days. After the intervention, species diversity was decreased, but several butyrate-producing bacteria increased. There was an important decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia spp. Gut microbiota changes were reverted after the 14-day washout. Conclusion. Some of the health-related benefits of omega-3 may be due, in part, to increases in butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings may shed light on the mechanisms explaining the effects of omega-3 in several chronic diseases and may also serve as an existing foundation for tailoring personalized medical treatments.

  10. The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Glick-Bauer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits.

  11. The health advantage of a vegan diet: exploring the gut microbiota connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick-Bauer, Marian; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2014-10-31

    This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits.

  12. Diet shapes the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica.

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    Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Maiques, Elisa; Angelova, Alexandra; Carrasco, Purificación; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The gut microbiota of insects contributes positively to the physiology of its host mainly by participating in food digestion, protecting against pathogens, or provisioning vitamins or amino acids, but the dynamics of this complex ecosystem is not well understood so far. In this study, we have characterized the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica by pyrosequencing the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S rRNA gene of the whole bacterial community. Three diets differing in the protein content (0, 24 and 50%) were tested at two time points in lab-reared individuals. In addition, the gut microbiota of wild adult cockroaches was also analyzed. In contrast to the high microbial richness described on the studied samples, only few species are shared by wild and lab-reared cockroaches, constituting the bacterial core in the gut of B. germanica. Overall, we found that the gut microbiota of B. germanica is highly dynamic as the bacterial composition was reassembled in a diet-specific manner over a short time span, with no-protein diet promoting high diversity, although the highest diversity was found in the wild cockroaches analyzed. We discuss how the flexibility of the gut microbiota is probably due to its omnivorous life style and varied diets.

  13. Novel developmental analyses identify longitudinal patterns of early gut microbiota that affect infant growth.

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    Richard A White

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that some obesity trajectories are set early in life, and that rapid weight gain in infancy is a risk factor for later development of obesity. Identifying modifiable factors associated with early rapid weight gain is a prerequisite for curtailing the growing worldwide obesity epidemic. Recently, much attention has been given to findings indicating that gut microbiota may play a role in obesity development. We aim at identifying how the development of early gut microbiota is associated with expected infant growth. We developed a novel procedure that allows for the identification of longitudinal gut microbiota patterns (corresponding to the gut ecosystem developing, which are associated with an outcome of interest, while appropriately controlling for the false discovery rate. Our method identified developmental pathways of Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli that were associated with expected growth, and traditional methods indicated that the detection of Bacteroides species at day 30 was associated with growth. Our method should have wide future applicability for studying gut microbiota, and is particularly important for translational considerations, as it is critical to understand the timing of microbiome transitions prior to attempting to manipulate gut microbiota in early life.

  14. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

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    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  15. Lotus Seed Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota and Increases SCFAs Production and Mineral Absorption in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hongliang; Huang, Cancan; Lin, Shan; Zheng, Mingjing; Chen, Chuanjie; Zheng, Baodong; Zhang, Yi

    2017-09-27

    Lotus seed resistant starch, known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3), was orally administered to mice to investigate its effects on the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and mineral absorption. The results showed that mice fed LRS3 displayed a lower level of gut bacterial diversity than other groups. The numbers of starch-utilizing and butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridium, respectively, in mice increased after the administration of medium and high doses of LRS3, while those of Rikenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae decreased. Furthermore, SCFAs and lactic acid in mice feces were affected by LRS3, and lactate was fermented to butyrate by gut microbiota. LRS3 enhanced the intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and iron, and this was dependent on the type and concentration of SCFAs, especially butyrate. Thus, LRS3 promoted the production of SCFAs and mineral absorption by regulating gut microbiota in mice.

  16. Cultivation-based multiplex phenotyping of human gut microbiota allows targeted recovery of previously uncultured bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rettedal, Elizabeth; Gumpert, Heidi; Sommer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is linked to a variety of human health issues and implicated in antibiotic resistance gene dissemination. Most of these associations rely on culture-independent methods, since it is commonly believed that gut microbiota cannot be easily or sufficiently cultured. Here, we...... show that carefully designed conditions enable cultivation of a representative proportion of human gut bacteria, enabling rapid multiplex phenotypic profiling. We use this approach to determine the phylogenetic distribution of antibiotic tolerance phenotypes for 16 antibiotics in the human gut...... microbiota. Based on the phenotypic mapping, we tailor antibiotic combinations to specifically select for previously uncultivated bacteria. Utilizing this method we cultivate and sequence the genomes of four isolates, one of which apparently belongs to the genus Oscillibacter; uncultivated Oscillibacter...

  17. Obese-type gut microbiota induce neurobehavioral changes in the absence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Salbaum, J Michael; Luo, Meng; Blanchard, Eugene; Taylor, Christopher M; Welsh, David A; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of mental illness, particularly depression and dementia, is increased by obesity. Here, we test the hypothesis that obesity-associated changes in gut microbiota are intrinsically able to impair neurocognitive behavior in mice. Conventionally housed, nonobese, adult male C57BL/6 mice maintained on a normal chow diet were subjected to a microbiome depletion/transplantation paradigm using microbiota isolated from donors on either a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet. Following re-colonization, mice were subjected to comprehensive behavioral and biochemical analyses. The mice given HFD microbiota had significant and selective disruptions in exploratory, cognitive, and stereotypical behavior compared with mice with control diet microbiota in the absence of significant differences in body weight. Sequencing-based phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of distinct core microbiota between groups, with alterations in α- and β-diversity, modulation in taxonomic distribution, and statistically significant alterations to metabolically active taxa. HFD microbiota also disrupted markers of intestinal barrier function, increased circulating endotoxin, and increased lymphocyte expression of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1, toll-like receptor 2, and toll-like receptor 4. Finally, evaluation of brain homogenates revealed that HFD-shaped microbiota increased neuroinflammation and disrupted cerebrovascular homeostasis. Collectively, these data reinforce the link between gut dysbiosis and neurologic dysfunction and suggest that dietary and/or pharmacologic manipulation of gut microbiota could attenuate the neurologic complications of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial Use, Human Gut Microbiota and Clostridium difficile Colonization and Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vincent

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is the most important cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials have profound detrimental effects on the structure and diversity of the indigenous intestinal microbiota. These alterations often impair colonization resistance, allowing the establishment and proliferation of C. difficile in the gut. Studies involving animal models have begun to decipher the precise mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota mediates colonization resistance against C. difficile and numerous investigations have described gut microbiota alterations associated with C. difficile colonization or infection in human subjects. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is a highly effective approach for the treatment of recurrent CDI that allows the restoration of a healthy intestinal ecosystem via infusion of fecal material from a healthy donor. The recovery of the intestinal microbiota after FMT has been examined in a few reports and work is being done to develop custom bacterial community preparations that could be used as a replacement for fecal material.

  19. Metagenomic profiles and antibiotic resistance genes in gut microbiota of mice exposed to arsenic and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuechao; Liu, Su; Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-xiang; Li, Mei; Wu, Bing

    2014-10-01

    Iron (Fe) has been widely applied to treat arsenic (As)-contaminated water, and Fe could influence bioavailability and toxicity of As. However, little is known about the impact of As and/or Fe on gut microbiota, which plays important roles in host health. In this study, high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real time PCR were applied to analyze the impact of As and Fe on mouse gut microbiota. Co-exposure of As and Fe mitigated effects on microbial community to a certain extent. Correlation analysis showed the shifts in gut microbiota caused by As and/or Fe exposure might be important reason of changes in metabolic profiles of mouse. For antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), co-exposure of As and Fe increased types and abundance of ARGs. But for high abundance ARGs, such as tetQ, tetO and tetM, co-exposure of As and Fe mitigated effects on their abundances compared to exposure to As and Fe alone. No obvious relationship between ARGs and mobile genetic elements were found. The changes in ARGs caused by metal exposure might be due to the alteration of gut microbial diversity. Our results show that changes of gut microbial community caused by As and/or Fe can influence host metabolisms and abundances of ARGs in gut, indicating that changes of gut microbiota should be considered during the risk assessment of As and/or Fe.

  20. The severity of NAFLD is associated with gut dysbiosis and shift in the metabolic function of the gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, Jérôme; Mueller, Olaf; Barret, Matthieu; Machado, Mariana; Fizanne, Lionel; Araujo-Perez, Felix; Guy, Cynthia D.; Seed, Patrick C.; Rawls, John F.; David, Lawrence A.; Hunault, Gilles; Oberti, Frédéric; Calès, Paul; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims Several animal studies have emphasized the role of gut microbiota in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, data about gut dysbiosis in human NAFLD remains scarce in the literature, especially studies including the whole spectrum of NAFLD lesions. We aimed to evaluate the association between gut dysbiosis and severe NAFLD lesions, i.e. non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis, in a well-characterized population of adult NAFLD. Methods 57 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were enrolled. The taxonomic composition of gut microbiota was determined using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of stool samples. Results 30 patients had F0/1 fibrosis stage at liver biopsy (10 with NASH), and 27 patients had significant F≥2 fibrosis (25 with NASH). Bacteroides abundance was significantly increased in NASH and F≥2 patients, whereas Prevotella abundance was decreased. Ruminococcus abundance was significantly higher in F≥2 patients. By multivariate analysis, Bacteroides abundance was independently associated with NASH and Ruminococcus with F≥2 fibrosis. Stratification according to the abundance of these 2 bacteria generated 3 patient subgroups with increasing severity of NAFLD lesions. Based on imputed metagenomic profiles, KEGG pathways significantly related to NASH and fibrosis F≥2 were mostly related to carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. Conclusion NAFLD severity associates with gut dysbiosis and a shift in metabolic function of the gut microbiota. We identified Bacteroides as independently associated with NASH and Ruminococcus with significant fibrosis. Thus, gut microbiota analysis adds information to classical predictors of NAFLD severity and suggests novel metabolic targets for pre/probiotics therapies. PMID:26600078

  1. Diversity of the gut microbiota and eczema in early life

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    Litonjua Augusto A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A modest number of prospective studies of the composition of the intestinal microbiota and eczema in early life have yielded conflicting results. Objective To examine the relationship between the bacterial diversity of the gut and the development of eczema in early life by methods other than stool culture. Methods Fecal samples were collected from 21 infants at 1 and 4 months of life. Nine infants were diagnosed with eczema by the age of 6 months (cases and 12 infants were not (controls. After conducting denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of stool samples, we compared the microbial diversity of cases and controls using the number of electrophoretic bands and the Shannon index of diversity (H' as indicators. Results Control subjects had significantly greater fecal microbial diversity than children with eczema at ages 1 (mean H' for controls = 0.75 vs. 0.53 for cases, P = 0.01 and 4 months (mean H' for controls = 0.92 vs. 0.59 for cases, P = 0.02. The increase in diversity from 1 to 4 months of age was significant in controls (P = 0.04 but not in children who developed eczema by 6 months of age (P = 0.32. Conclusion Our findings suggest that reduced microbial diversity is associated with the development of eczema in early life.

  2. The role of gut microbiota in health and disease : In vitro modeling of host-microbe interactions at the aerobe-anaerobe interphase of the human gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Martels, Julius Z H; Sadaghian Sadabad, Mehdi; Bourgonje, Arno R; Blokzijl, Tjasso; Dijkstra, Gerard; Faber, Klaas Nico; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2017-01-01

    The microbiota of the gut has many crucial functions in human health. Dysbiosis of the microbiota has been correlated to a large and still increasing number of diseases. Recent studies have mostly focused on analyzing the associations between disease and an aberrant microbiota composition. Functiona

  3. The Underlying Ecological Processes of Gut Microbiota Among Cohabitating Retarded, Overgrown and Normal Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Dai, Wenfang; Zhu, Jinyong; Liu, Keshao; Dong, Chunming; Qiu, Qiongfen

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence of tight links among the gut microbiota, obesity, and host health has emerged, but knowledge of the ecological processes that shape the variation in microbial assemblages across growth rates remains elusive. Moreover, inadequately control for differences in factors that profoundly affect the gut microbial community, hampers evaluation of the gut microbiota roles in regulating growth rates. To address this gap, we evaluated the composition and ecological processes of the gut bacterial community in cohabitating retarded, overgrown, and normal shrimps from identically managed ponds. Gut bacterial community structures were distinct (P = 0.0006) among the shrimp categories. Using a structural equation modeling (SEM), we found that changes in the gut bacterial community were positively related to digestive activities, which subsequently affected shrimp growth rate. This association was further supported by intensified interspecies interaction and enriched lineages with high nutrient intake efficiencies in overgrown shrimps. However, the less phylogenetic clustering of gut microbiota in overgrown and retarded subjects may offer empty niches for pathogens invasion, as evidenced by higher abundances of predicted functional pathways involved in disease infection. Given no differences in biotic and abiotic factors among the cohabitating shrimps, we speculated that the distinct gut community assembly could be attributed to random colonization in larval shrimp (e.g., priority effects) and that an altered microbiota could be a causative factor in overgrowth or retardation in shrimp. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an integrated overview of the direct roles of gut microbiota in shaping shrimp growth rate and the underlying ecological mechanisms.

  4. Gut microbiota and sirtuins in obesity-related inflammation and bowel dysfunction

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    Lakhan Shaheen E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by persistent low-grade inflammation with alterations in gut motility. Motor abnormalities suggest that obesity has effects on the enteric nervous system (ENS, which controls virtually all gut functions. Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota can affect obesity and increase inflammatory tone by modulating mucosal barrier function. Furthermore, the observation that inflammatory conditions influence the excitability of enteric neurons may add to the gut dysfunction in obesity. In this article, we discuss recent advances in understanding the role of gut microbiota and inflammation in the pathogenesis of obesity and obesity-related gastrointestinal dysfunction. The potential contribution of sirtuins in protecting or regulating the circuitry of the ENS under inflamed states is also considered.

  5. Gut microbiota trajectory in patients with severe burn: A time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinying; Yang, Jianbo; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Li; Lei, Qiucheng; Jiang, Tingting; Zhou, Jihong; Yuan, Siming; Wang, Jun; Feng, Zhijian; Li, Jieshou

    2017-08-12

    This time series experiments aimed to investigate the dynamic change of gut microbiomes after severe burn and its association with enteral nutrition (EN). Seven severely burned patients who suffered from a severe metal dust explosion injury were recruited in this study. The dynamic changes of gut microbiome of fecal samples at six time points (1-3days, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6weeks after severe burn) were detected using 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing technology. Following the post-burn temporal order, gut microbiota dysbiosis was detected in the gut microbiome after severe burn, then it was gradually resolved. The bio-diversity of gut bacteria was initially decreased, and then returned to normal level. In addition, at the early stage (from 2 to 4weeks), the majority of those patients' gut microbiome were opportunistic pathogen genus, Enterococcus and Escherichia; while at the end of this study, the majority was a beneficial genus, Bacteroides. EN can promote the recovery of gut microbiota, especially in EN well-tolerated patients. Severe burn injury can cause a dramatic dysbiosis of gut microbiota. A trend of enriched beneficial bacteria and diminished opportunistic pathogen bacteria may serve as prognosis microbiome biomarkers of severe burn patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Principles of DNA-Based Gut Microbiota Assessment and Therapeutic Efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Pecere, Silvia; Ianiro, Gianluca; Masucci, Luca; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a process by which the normal gastrointestinal microbiota is restored, has demonstrated extraordinary cure rates for Clostridium difficile infection and low recurrence. The community of microorganisms within the human gut (or microbiota) is critical to health status and functions; therefore, together with the rise of FMT, the gastrointestinal microbiota has emerged as a 'virtual' organ with a level of complexity comparable to that of any other organ system and capable to compete with powerful known antibiotics for the treatment of several disorders. Although treatment protocols, donor selection, stool preparation and delivery methods varied widely, with a few reports following an identical protocol, FMT has diffused to other areas where the alterations of the gut microbiota ecology (or dysbiosis) have been theorized to play a causative role, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), among several other extra-intestinal disorders (i.e. metabolic syndrome and obesity, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular diseases). FMT can be relatively simple to perform, but a number of challenges need to be overcome before this procedure is widely accepted in clinical practice, and currently, there is no consensus between the various gastrointestinal organizations and societies regarding the FMT procedure. In this article, we describe the modern high-throughput sequencing techniques to characterize the composition of gut microbiota and the potential for therapeutics by manipulating microbiota with FMT in several gastrointestinal disorders (C. difficile-associated diarrhea, IBD and IBS), with a look on the potential future directions of FMT. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Contributions of the Interaction between Dietary Protein and Gut Microbiota to Intestinal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Tian, Yanan; Wu, Yi; Ma, Xi

    2017-02-16

    There is growing recognition that composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can be modulated by the dietary proteins which in turn impact health. The amino acid composition and digestibility of proteins, which are influenced by its source and amount of intake, play a pivotal role in determining the microbiota. Reciprocally, it appears that the gut microbiota is also able to affect protein metabolism which give rise to the view that function between the microbiota and protein can proceed in both directions. In response to the alterations in dietary protein components, there are significant changes in the microbial metabolites including short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ammonia, amines, gases such as hydrogen, sulfide and methane which are cytotoxins, genotoxins and carcinogens associated with development of colon cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases. A suitable ratio between protein and carbohydrate or even a low protein diet is recommended based on the evidence that excessive protein intake adversely affect health. Supplying high and undigested proteins will encourage pathogens and protein-fermenting bacteria to increase the risk of diseases. These changes of microbiota can affect gut barrier and immune system by regulating genes expression in relevant signaling pathways and by regulating the secretion of metabolites. The objective of this review is to assess the impact of dietary proteins on microbiota composition and activity in the gastro-intestinal tract. The attention should be give to the dietary strategies with judicious selection of source and supplementation of dietary protein to benefit gut health.

  8. Temporal changes and the effect of subtherapeutic concentrations of antibiotics in the gut microbiota of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2014-12-01

    The use of antibiotics in swine production for the purpose of growth promotion dates back to the 1950s. Despite this long history of use, the exact mechanism(s) responsible for the growth-promoting effects of antibiotics in swine remain largely unknown. It is believed, however, that growth promotion is due to antibiotics having a direct impact on the gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of two antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota over a 19-week monitoring period was investigated using Illumina-based sequencing. A shift in the relative abundance of several taxa and in 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was observed in pigs fed subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin (44-11 mg kg(-1) feed). Only minor alterations were noted with the administration of chlortetracycline at 5.5 mg kg(-1) feed. The most notable changes in the relative abundance of taxa and OTUs were noted between suckling piglets and postweaned pigs. Diversity was also reduced in the gut microbiota of suckling piglets as measured using the Shannon, Chao1, and phylogenetic diversity indices. These results show that the effect of antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota is variable based on dosage and duration and that the swine gut microbiota exhibits considerable resilience to long-term changes due to antibiotic perturbations.

  9. Insight into alteration of gut microbiota in Clostridium difficile infection and asymptomatic C. difficile colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihua; Dong, Danfeng; Jiang, Cen; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuefeng; Peng, Yibing

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is well recognized as the common pathogen of nosocomial diarrhea, meanwhile, asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile in part of the population has also drawn public attention. Although gut microbiota is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI), whether there is any alteration of gut microbial composition in asymptomatic C. difficile carriers hasn't been clearly described. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in gut microbiome among CDI patients, asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and healthy individuals. We performed fecal microbiota analysis on the samples of eight CDI patients, eight asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and nine healthy subjects using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers showed reduced microbial richness and diversity compared with healthy subjects, accompanied with a paucity of phylum Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes as well as an overabundance of Proteobacteria. Some normally commensal bacteria, especially butyrate producers, were significantly depleted in CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers. Furthermore, the differences observed in microbial community structure between CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers suggested that the gut microbiota may be a potential factor of disease state for CDI. Our study demonstrates the characterization and diversity of gut microbiota in CDI and asymptomatic C. difficile colonization, which will provide new ideas for surveillance of the disease state and development of microbiota-targeted agents for CDI prevention and treatment.

  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: for better or worse, blame the gut microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ding-You; Yang, Min; Edwards, Sarah; Ye, Shui-Qing

    2013-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major clinical consequence for people with obesity and metabolic syndrome and is also associated with enteral and parenteral nutrition. Early studies suggested that altered gut microbiota might contribute to obesity by affecting energy harvest from the diet and energy storage in the host. Recent evidence in humans as well as in animal models has linked gut microbiota to the development of NAFLD through the gut-liver axis. With bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability observed in patients with NAFLD and in animal models, gut-derived bacterial products such as endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) and bacterial DNA are being delivered to the liver through the portal vein and then activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), mainly TLR4 and TLR9, and their downstream cytokines and chemokines, leading to the development and progression of NAFLD. Given the limited data in humans, the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is still open to discussion. Prebiotics and probiotics have been attempted to modify the microbiota as preventive or therapeutic strategies on this pathological condition. Their beneficial effects on NALFD have been demonstrated in animal models and limited human studies. However, prospective, appropriately powered, randomized, controlled clinical trials are needed to determine whether prebiotics and probiotics and other integrated strategies to modify intestinal microbiota are efficacious therapeutic modalities to treat NALFD.

  11. The clinical significance of the gut microbiota in cystic fibrosis and the potential for dietary therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by many comorbidities related to aberrant mucosa and chronic inflammation in the respiratory and digestive systems. The intestinal mucosa serves as the primary interface between the gut microbiota and endocrine, neural and immune systems. There is emerging evidence that aberrant intestinal mucosa in CF may associate with an altered gut microbiota. Compared to healthy subjects, the overall bacterial abundance and species richness seems to be reduced in CF, accompanied by a trend in suppression of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes spp. and an augmentation of potentially pathogenic species. There is also some concordance of gut and respiratory microbiotas in CF infants over time. The clinical significance of these observations awaits investigation. The gut microbiota have some potential in CF management by affecting inflammatory and immune responses, and influencing aberrant mucosa. As an important modifiable factor, diet therapies such as probiotics and prebiotics have shown initial promise in improving CF related conditions associated with chronic inflammation. More studies are needed to confirm this, as well as the efficacy of other dietary strategies such as modulating dietary fat and indigestible carbohydrate. Similarly, dietary modification of gut microbiota to optimise nutritional status in CF may be feasible, although more CF-specific studies are warranted.

  12. Mechanisms in endocrinology: Gut microbiota in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Kristine H; Nielsen, Trine; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-04-01

    Perturbations of the composition and function of the gut microbiota have been associated with metabolic disorders including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Studies on mice have demonstrated several underlying mechanisms including host signalling through bacterial lipopolysaccharides derived from the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, bacterial fermentation of dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids and bacterial modulation of bile acids. On top of this, an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium may lead to increased absorption of macromolecules from the intestinal content resulting in systemic immune responses, low-grade inflammation and altered signalling pathways influencing lipid and glucose metabolism. While mechanistic studies on mice collectively support a causal role of the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, the majority of studies in humans are correlative of nature and thus hinder causal inferences. Importantly, several factors known to influence the risk of type 2 diabetes, e.g. diet and age, have also been linked to alterations in the gut microbiota complicating the interpretation of correlative studies. However, based upon the available evidence, it is hypothesised that the gut microbiota may mediate or modulate the influence of lifestyle factors triggering development of type 2 diabetes. Thus, the aim of this review is to critically discuss the potential role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Microbes on-air: gut and tissue microbiota as targets in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serino, Matteo; Blasco-Baque, Vincent; Burcelin, Remy

    2012-10-01

    Each individual can be distinguished by the heterogeneity of the trillions of microbes inhabiting his gastrointestinal tract. This concept, together with the role that gut microbiota is considered to play in the induction of metabolic diseases, paves the way for the development of personalized medicine. By exploiting our unique animal model of metabolic adaptation to a high-fat diet, we have recently shown that differential gut microbiota lead to different metabolic phenotypes--metabotypes. Moreover, we have also reported that a given metabotype can be distinguished by different profiles of gut microbes, symptomatic of the complexity of the regulation of host physiology by gut microbiota. Furthermore, in an effort to find bacterial predictors of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we discovered that in a healthy population, subjects who subsequently developed T2D had increased blood levels of bacterial 16S rDNA well before. In addition, tissue (blood) microbiota, mainly characterized by Proteobacteria (up to 90%), has been discovered both in healthy individuals and in diabetic patients. Altogether, our results confirm the presence of gut microbes and propose tissue microbiota as new targets for the innovative treatment of T2D.

  14. Stress and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Visceral Pain: Relevance to Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Rachel D; Johnson, Anthony C; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Dinan, Timothy G; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Cryan, John F

    2016-02-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs of the body, which affects a significant proportion of the population and is a common feature of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). While IBS is multifactorial, with no single etiology to completely explain the disorder, many patients also experience comorbid behavioral disorders, such as anxiety or depression; thus, IBS is described as a disorder of the gut-brain axis. Stress is implicated in the development and exacerbation of visceral pain disorders. Chronic stress can modify central pain circuitry, as well as change motility and permeability throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. More recently, the role of the gut microbiota in the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain axis, and subsequent changes in behavior, has emerged. Thus, stress and the gut microbiota can interact through complementary or opposing factors to influence visceral nociceptive behaviors. This review will highlight the evidence by which stress and the gut microbiota interact in the regulation of visceral nociception. We will focus on the influence of stress on the microbiota and the mechanisms by which microbiota can affect the stress response and behavioral outcomes with an emphasis on visceral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Interactions between Gut Microbiota, Host Genetics and Diet Modulate the Predisposition to Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussar, Siegfried; Griffin, Nicholas W; Bezy, Olivier; Fujisaka, Shiho; Vienberg, Sara; Softic, Samir; Deng, Luxue; Bry, Lynn; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Kahn, C Ronald

    2015-09-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including the gut microbiota. To dissect these interactions, we utilized three commonly used inbred strains of mice-obesity/diabetes-prone C57Bl/6J mice, obesity/diabetes-resistant 129S1/SvImJ from Jackson Laboratory, and obesity-prone but diabetes-resistant 129S6/SvEvTac from Taconic-plus three derivative lines generated by breeding these strains in a new, common environment. Analysis of metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in all strains and their environmentally normalized derivatives revealed strong interactions between microbiota, diet, breeding site, and metabolic phenotype. Strain-dependent and strain-independent correlations were found between specific microbiota and phenotypes, some of which could be transferred to germ-free recipient animals by fecal transplantation. Environmental reprogramming of microbiota resulted in 129S6/SvEvTac becoming obesity resistant. Thus, development of obesity/metabolic syndrome is the result of interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics, and diet. In permissive genetic backgrounds, environmental reprograming of microbiota can ameliorate development of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gut microbiota: a key player in health and disease. A review focused on obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Millán, M J; Pérez-Matute, P; Oteo, J A

    2015-09-01

    Gut microbiota, its evolutive dynamics and influence on host through its protective, trophic and metabolic actions, has a key role in health and opens unique opportunities for the identification of new markers of the physiopathological state of each individual. Alterations in gut microbiota composition have been associated with plenty disorders. Of interest, the vast number of studies demonstrates the role of microbiota in obesity, a serious public health problem that has reached epidemic proportions in many developed and middle-income countries. The economic and health costs of this condition and its comorbidities such as fatty liver, insulin resistance/diabetes, or cardiovascular events are considerable. Therefore, every strategy designed to reduce obesity would imply important savings. Targeting microbiota, in order to restore/modulate the microbiota composition with antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, or even fecal transplants, is considered as a promising strategy for the development of new solutions for the treatment of obesity. However, there is still lot to do in this field in order to identify the exact composition of microbiota in "health" and the specific mechanisms that regulate the host-microbiotal crosstalk. In addition, it is important to note that changes not only in the gut microbiota profile (abundance) but also in its metabolism and functions need to be taken into account in the context of contribution in the physiopathology of obesity and related disorders.

  17. How to Feed the Mammalian Gut Microbiota: Bacterial and Metabolic Modulation by Dietary Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ferrario

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the gut microbiota of mammals is greatly influenced by diet. Therefore, evaluation of different food ingredients that may promote changes in the gut microbiota composition is an attractive approach to treat microbiota disturbances. In this study, three dietary fibers, such as inulin (I, 10%, resistant starch (RS, 10%, and citrus pectin (3%, were employed as supplements to normal chow diet of adult male rats for 2 weeks. Fecal microbiota composition and corresponding metabolite profiles were assessed before and after prebiotics supplementation. A general increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was detected with a concurrent reduction in Firmicutes, in particular for I and RS experiments, while additional changes in the microbiota composition were evident at lower taxonomic levels for all the three substrates. Such modifications in the microbiota composition were correlated with changes in metabolic profiles of animals, in particular changes in acetate and succinate levels. This study represents a first attempt to modulate selectively the abundance and/or metabolic activity of various members of the gut microbiota by means of dietary fiber.

  18. The Central Role of the Gut Microbiota in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The commensal microbiota is in constant interaction with the immune system, teaching immune cells to respond to antigens. Studies in mice have demonstrated that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota alters host immune cell homeostasis. Additionally, metagenomic-sequencing analysis has revealed alterations in intestinal microbiota in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and obesity. Perturbations in the microbiota composition result in a deficient immune response and impaired tolerance to commensal microorganisms. Due to altered microbiota composition which is associated to some inflammatory diseases, several strategies, such as the administration of probiotics, diet, and antibiotic usage, have been utilized to prevent or ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss recent evidence showing that the gut microbiota controls immune system function and onset, development, and resolution of some common inflammatory diseases.

  19. Metabolic adaptation to a high-fat diet is associated with a change in the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serino, Matteo; Luche, Elodie; Gres, Sandra; Baylac, Audrey; Bergé, Mathieu; Cenac, Claire; Waget, Aurelie; Klopp, Pascale; Iacovoni, Jason; Klopp, Christophe; Mariette, Jerome; Bouchez, Olivier; Lluch, Jerome; Ouarné, Francoise; Monsan, Pierre; Valet, Philippe; Roques, Christine; Amar, Jacques; Bouloumié, Anne; Théodorou, Vassilia; Burcelin, Remy

    2012-04-01

    The gut microbiota, which is considered a causal factor in metabolic diseases as shown best in animals, is under the dual influence of the host genome and nutritional environment. This study investigated whether the gut microbiota per se, aside from changes in genetic background and diet, could sign different metabolic phenotypes in mice. The unique animal model of metabolic adaptation was used, whereby C57Bl/6 male mice fed a high-fat carbohydrate-free diet (HFD) became either diabetic (HFD diabetic, HFD-D) or resisted diabetes (HFD diabetes-resistant, HFD-DR). Pyrosequencing of the gut microbiota was carried out to profile the gut microbial community of different metabolic phenotypes. Inflammation, gut permeability, features of white adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle were studied. Furthermore, to modify the gut microbiota directly, an additional group of mice was given a gluco-oligosaccharide (GOS)-supplemented HFD (HFD+GOS). Despite the mice having the same genetic background and nutritional status, a gut microbial profile specific to each metabolic phenotype was identified. The HFD-D gut microbial profile was associated with increased gut permeability linked to increased endotoxaemia and to a dramatic increase in cell number in the stroma vascular fraction from visceral white adipose tissue. Most of the physiological characteristics of the HFD-fed mice were modulated when gut microbiota was intentionally modified by GOS dietary fibres. The gut microbiota is a signature of the metabolic phenotypes independent of differences in host genetic background and diet.

  20. A gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention for amelioration of chronic inflammation underlying metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuiming; Fei, Na; Pang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Baorang; Zhang, Menghui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Li, Min; Sun, Lifeng; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Jingjing; Feng, Jie; Yan, Feiyan; Zhao, Naisi; Liu, Jiaqi; Long, Wenmin; Zhao, Liping

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation induced by endotoxin from a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by a diet to balance its composition becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. A dietary scheme based on whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods, and prebiotics (WTP diet) was designed to meet human nutritional needs as well as balance the gut microbiota. Ninety-three of 123 central obese volunteers (BMI ≥ 28 kg m(-2) ) completed a self-controlled clinical trial consisting of 9-week intervention on WTP diet followed by a 14-week maintenance period. The average weight loss reached 5.79 ± 4.64 kg (6.62 ± 4.94%), in addition to improvement in insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Pyrosequencing of fecal samples showed that phylotypes related to endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens of Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were reduced significantly, while those related to gut barrier-protecting bacteria of Bifidobacteriaceae increased. Gut permeability, measured as lactulose/mannitol ratio, was decreased compared with the baseline. Plasma endotoxin load as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was also significantly reduced, with concomitant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and an increase in adiponectin. These results suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota via dietary intervention may enhance the intestinal barrier integrity, reduce circulating antigen load, and ultimately ameliorate the inflammation and metabolic phenotypes.

  1. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born...... either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal...... composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from...

  2. Gut brain axis: diet microbiota interactions and implications for modulation of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Ruth Ann; Foster, Jane A

    2015-04-01

    The human gut microbiome is composed of an enormous number of microorganisms, generally regarded as commensal bacteria. Without this inherent microbial community, we would be unable to digest plant polysaccharides and would have trouble extracting lipids from our diet. Resident gut bacteria are an important contributor to healthy metabolism and there is significant evidence linking gut microbiota and metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. In the past few years, neuroscience research has demonstrated the importance of microbiota in the development of brain systems that are vital to both stress reactivity and stress-related behaviours. Here we review recent literature that examines the impact of diet-induced changes in the microbiota on stress-related behaviours including anxiety and depression.

  3. Habitat fragmentation is associated to gut microbiota diversity of an endangered primate: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Claudia; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Pindo, Massimo; Dallago, Chiara; Rovero, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Tuohy, Kieran Michael; Hauffe, Heidi Christine; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2015-10-07

    The expansion of agriculture is shrinking pristine forest areas worldwide, jeopardizing the persistence of their wild inhabitants. The Udzungwa red colobus monkey (Procolobus gordonorum) is among the most threatened primate species in Africa. Primarily arboreal and highly sensitive to hunting and habitat destruction, they provide a critical model to understanding whether anthropogenic disturbance impacts gut microbiota diversity. We sampled seven social groups inhabiting two forests (disturbed vs. undisturbed) in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania. While Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae dominated in all individuals, reflecting their role in extracting energy from folivorous diets, analysis of genus composition showed a marked diversification across habitats, with gut microbiota α-diversity significantly higher in the undisturbed forest. Functional analysis suggests that such variation may be associated with food plant diversity in natural versus human-modified habitats, requiring metabolic pathways to digest xenobiotics. Thus, the effects of changes in gut microbiota should not be ignored to conserve endangered populations.

  4. Effect of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota of elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toward, Ruth; Montandon, Samantha; Walton, Gemma; Gibson, Glenn R

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbiota undergoes certain age related changes that may affect health. For example, above the age of 55-65 y, populations of bifidobacteria are known to decrease markedly. Bifidobacteria are known inhibitors of pathogenic microbes and a decrease in their activities may increase susceptibility to infections. There is therefore interest in trying to reverse their decline in aged persons. As the gut microbiota responds to dietary intervention, both probiotics and prebiotics have been tested in this regard. Probiotics are live microbes in the diet, whereas prebiotics are fermentable ingredients that specifically target components of the indigenous microbiota seen to be beneficial. We have published a recent paper demonstrating that prebiotic galactooligosaccharides can exert power effects upon bifidobacteria in the gut flora of elderly persons (both in vivo and in vitro). This addendum summarizes research that led up to this study and discusses the possible impact of prebiotics in impacting upon the gut health of aged persons.

  5. Modulation of Multiple Sclerosis and Its Animal Model Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Food and Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward J. van den Hoogen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS, leading to demyelination, axonal damage, and symptoms such as fatigue and disability. Although the cause of MS is not known, the infiltration of peripherally activated immune cells into the CNS has a key pathogenic role. Accumulating evidence supports an important role of diet and gut microbiota in immune-mediated diseases. Preclinical as well as clinical studies suggest a role for gut microbiota and dietary components in MS. Here, we review these recent studies on gut microbiota and dietary interventions in MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We also propose directions for future research.

  6. The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootte, R S; Vrieze, A; Holleman, F; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Zoetendal, E G; de Vos, W M; Groen, A K; Hoekstra, J B L; Stroes, E S; Nieuwdorp, M

    2012-02-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important contributor to the obesity--and T2DM--epidemic proposed to act by increasing energy harvest from the diet. Although obesity is associated with substantial changes in the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota, the pathophysiological processes remain only partly understood. In this review we will describe the development of the adult human microbiome and discuss how the composition of the gut microbiota changes in response to modulating factors. The influence of short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and microbial transplantation is discussed from studies using animal and human models. Ultimately, we aim to translate these findings into therapeutic pathways for obesity and T2DM in humans.

  7. Gut microbiota and energy balance: role in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaut, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The microbial community populating the human digestive tract has been linked to the development of obesity, diabetes and liver diseases. Proposed mechanisms on how the gut microbiota could contribute to obesity and metabolic diseases include: (1) improved energy extraction from diet by the conversion of dietary fibre to SCFA; (2) increased intestinal permeability for bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in response to the consumption of high-fat diets resulting in an elevated systemic LPS level and low-grade inflammation. Animal studies indicate differences in the physiologic effects of fermentable and non-fermentable dietary fibres as well as differences in long- and short-term effects of fermentable dietary fibre. The human intestinal microbiome is enriched in genes involved in the degradation of indigestible polysaccharides. The extent to which dietary fibres are fermented and in which molar ratio SCFA are formed depends on their physicochemical properties and on the individual microbiome. Acetate and propionate play an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. Acetate serves as a substrate for de novo lipogenesis in liver, whereas propionate can be utilised for gluconeogenesis. The conversion of fermentable dietary fibre to SCFA provides additional energy to the host which could promote obesity. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that diets rich in fibre rather prevent than promote obesity development. This may be due to the fact that SCFA are also ligands of free fatty acid receptors (FFAR). Activation of FFAR leads to an increased expression and secretion of enteroendocrine hormones such as glucagon-like-peptide 1 or peptide YY which cause satiety. In conclusion, the role of SCFA in host energy balance needs to be re-evaluated.

  8. Gut microbiota: the next-gen frontier in preventive and therapeutic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Yadav, Hariom; Marotta, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Our gut harbors an extremely diverse collection of trillions of microbes that, besides degrading the complex dietary constituents, execute numerous activities vital for our metabolic and immune health. Although the importance of gut microbiota in maintaining digestive health has long been believed, its close correlation with numerous chronic ailments has recently been noticed, thanks to the innovative mechanistic studies on the compositional and functional aspects of gut microbial communities using germ-free or humanized animal models. Since a myriad of mysteries about the precise structures and functions of gut microbial communities in specific health situations still remains to be explicated, the emerging field of gut microbiota remains a foremost objective of research for microbiologists, immunologists, computational biologists, clinicians, food and nutrition experts, etc. Nevertheless, it is only after a comprehensive understanding of the structure, density, and function of the gut microbiota that the new therapeutic targets could be captured and utilized for a healthier gut as well as improved overall well-being.

  9. Impact of the gut microbiota on inflammation, obesity, and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulangé, Claire L; Neves, Ana Luisa; Chilloux, Julien; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel

    2016-04-20

    The human gut harbors more than 100 trillion microbial cells, which have an essential role in human metabolic regulation via their symbiotic interactions with the host. Altered gut microbial ecosystems have been associated with increased metabolic and immune disorders in animals and humans. Molecular interactions linking the gut microbiota with host energy metabolism, lipid accumulation, and immunity have also been identified. However, the exact mechanisms that link specific variations in the composition of the gut microbiota with the development of obesity and metabolic diseases in humans remain obscure owing to the complex etiology of these pathologies. In this review, we discuss current knowledge about the mechanistic interactions between the gut microbiota, host energy metabolism, and the host immune system in the context of obesity and metabolic disease, with a focus on the importance of the axis that links gut microbes and host metabolic inflammation. Finally, we discuss therapeutic approaches aimed at reshaping the gut microbial ecosystem to regulate obesity and related pathologies, as well as the challenges that remain in this area.

  10. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  11. Disentangling type 2 diabetes and metformin treatment signatures in the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Kristoffer; Hildebrand, Falk; Nielsen, Trine; Falony, Gwen; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Prifti, Edi; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Krogh Pedersen, Helle; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Kristiansen, Karsten; Voigt, Anita Yvonne; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hercog, Rajna; Igor Costea, Paul; Kultima, Jens Roat; Li, Junhua; Jørgensen, Torben; Levenez, Florence; Dore, Joël; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Brunak, Søren; Raes, Jeroen; Hansen, Torben; Wang, Jun; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Bork, Peer; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-12-10

    In recent years, several associations between common chronic human disorders and altered gut microbiome composition and function have been reported. In most of these reports, treatment regimens were not controlled for and conclusions could thus be confounded by the effects of various drugs on the microbiota, which may obscure microbial causes, protective factors or diagnostically relevant signals. Our study addresses disease and drug signatures in the human gut microbiome of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Two previous quantitative gut metagenomics studies of T2D patients that were unstratified for treatment yielded divergent conclusions regarding its associated gut microbial dysbiosis. Here we show, using 784 available human gut metagenomes, how antidiabetic medication confounds these results, and analyse in detail the effects of the most widely used antidiabetic drug metformin. We provide support for microbial mediation of the therapeutic effects of metformin through short-chain fatty acid production, as well as for potential microbiota-mediated mechanisms behind known intestinal adverse effects in the form of a relative increase in abundance of Escherichia species. Controlling for metformin treatment, we report a unified signature of gut microbiome shifts in T2D with a depletion of butyrate-producing taxa. These in turn cause functional microbiome shifts, in part alleviated by metformin-induced changes. Overall, the present study emphasizes the need to disentangle gut microbiota signatures of specific human diseases from those of medication.

  12. Complexity and variability of gut commensal microbiota in polyphagous lepidopteran larvae.

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    Xiaoshu Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gut of most insects harbours nonpathogenic microorganisms. Recent work suggests that gut microbiota not only provide nutrients, but also involve in the development and maintenance of the host immune system. However, the complexity, dynamics and types of interactions between the insect hosts and their gut microbiota are far from being well understood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the composition of the gut microbiota of two lepidopteran pests, Spodoptera littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera, we applied cultivation-independent techniques based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and microarray. The two insect species were very similar regarding high abundant bacterial families. Different bacteria colonize different niches within the gut. A core community, consisting of Enterococci, Lactobacilli, Clostridia, etc. was revealed in the insect larvae. These bacteria are constantly present in the digestion tract at relatively high frequency despite that developmental stage and diet had a great impact on shaping the bacterial communities. Some low-abundant species might become dominant upon loading external disturbances; the core community, however, did not change significantly. Clearly the insect gut selects for particular bacterial phylotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their importance as agricultural pests, phytophagous Lepidopterans are widely used as experimental models in ecological and physiological studies. Our results demonstrated that a core microbial community exists in the insect gut, which may contribute to the host physiology. Host physiology and food, nevertheless, significantly influence some fringe bacterial species in the gut. The gut microbiota might also serve as a reservoir of microorganisms for ever-changing environments. Understanding these interactions might pave the way for developing novel pest control strategies.

  13. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Link between Gut Microbiota and the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Horta-Baas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization and understanding of gut microbiota has recently increased representing a wide research field, especially in autoimmune diseases. Gut microbiota is the major source of microbes which might exert beneficial as well as pathogenic effects on human health. Intestinal microbiome’s role as mediator of inflammation has only recently emerged. Microbiota has been observed to differ in subjects with early rheumatoid arthritis compared to controls, and this finding has commanded this study as a possible autoimmune process. Studies with intestinal microbiota have shown that rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by an expansion and/or decrease of bacterial groups as compared to controls. In this review, we present evidence linking intestinal dysbiosis with the autoimmune mechanisms involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. Preventing Age-Related Decline of Gut Compartmentalization Limits Microbiota Dysbiosis and Extends Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Qi, Yanyan; Jasper, Heinrich

    2016-02-10

    Compartmentalization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of metazoans is critical for health. GI compartments contain specific microbiota, and microbiota dysbiosis is associated with intestinal dysfunction. Dysbiosis develops in aging intestines, yet how this relates to changes in GI compartmentalization remains unclear. The Drosophila GI tract is an accessible model to address this question. Here we show that the stomach-like copper cell region (CCR) in the middle midgut controls distribution and composition of the microbiota. We find that chronic activation of JAK/Stat signaling in the aging gut induces a metaplasia of the gastric epithelium, CCR decline, and subsequent commensal dysbiosis and epithelial dysplasia along the GI tract. Accordingly, inhibition of JAK/Stat signaling in the CCR specifically prevents age-related metaplasia, commensal dysbiosis and functional decline in old guts, and extends lifespan. Our results establish a mechanism by which age-related chronic inflammation causes the decline of intestinal compartmentalization and microbiota dysbiosis, limiting lifespan.

  15. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous...... gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults. Therefore, potential effects of probiotic...... intervention on gut microbiota may be easier detectable in early life. We thus investigated the effects of a 6 month placebo-controlled probiotic intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) on gut microbiota composition and diversity in more than 200...

  16. Dietary magnesium deficiency affects gut microbiota and anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6N mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyndt Jørgensen, Bettina; Winther, Gudrun; Kihl, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Magnesium deficiency has been associated with anxiety in humans, and rodent studies have demonstrated the gut microbiota to impact behaviour. METHODS: We investigated the impact of 6 weeks of dietary magnesium deficiency on gut microbiota composition and anxiety-like behaviour...... and whether there was a link between the two. A total of 20 C57BL/6 mice, fed either a standard diet or a magnesium-deficient diet for 6 weeks, were tested using the light-dark box anxiety test. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: We demonstrated...... that the gut microbiota composition correlated significantly with the behaviour of dietary unchallenged mice. A magnesium-deficient diet altered the gut microbiota, and was associated with altered anxiety-like behaviour, measured by decreased latency to enter the light box. CONCLUSION: Magnesium deficiency...

  17. Dietary magnesium deficiency affects gut microbiota and anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6N mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndt Jørgensen, Bettina; Winther, Gudrun; Kihl, Pernille; Nielsen, Dennis S; Wegener, Gregers; Hansen, Axel K; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been associated with anxiety in humans, and rodent studies have demonstrated the gut microbiota to impact behaviour. We investigated the impact of 6 weeks of dietary magnesium deficiency on gut microbiota composition and anxiety-like behaviour and whether there was a link between the two. A total of 20 C57BL/6 mice, fed either a standard diet or a magnesium-deficient diet for 6 weeks, were tested using the light-dark box anxiety test. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis. We demonstrated that the gut microbiota composition correlated significantly with the behaviour of dietary unchallenged mice. A magnesium-deficient diet altered the gut microbiota, and was associated with altered anxiety-like behaviour, measured by decreased latency to enter the light box. Magnesium deficiency altered behavior. The duration of magnesium deficiency is suggested to influence behaviour in the evaluated test.

  18. The role of gut microbiota in the development of type 1, type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Ningwen; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia and has become a major public health concern. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) and insulin resistant type 2 diabetes (T2D) are the two main types. A combination of genetic and environmental factors contributes to the development of these diseases. Gut microbiota have emerged recently as an essential player in the development of T1D, T2D and obesity. Altered gut microbiota have been strongly linked to disease in both rodent models and humans. Both classic 16S rRNA sequencing and shot-gun metagenomic pyrosequencing analysis have been successfully applied to explore the gut microbiota composition and functionality. This review focuses on the association between gut microbiota and diabetes and discusses the potential mechanisms by which gut microbiota regulate disease development in T1D, T2D and obesity.

  19. Housing Systems Influence Gut Microbiota Composition of Sows but Not of Their Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasova, Tereza; Davidova-Gerzova, Lenka; Merlot, Elodie; Medvecky, Matej; Polansky, Ondrej; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Quesnel, Helene; Rychlik, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Different housing systems can be used in pig production and little is known about their effect on gut microbiota composition. In this study we characterized fecal microbiota by sequencing the rRNA genes in sows kept during gestation in conventional pens with a slatted floor and in