Sample records for earth times microfossils

  1. Identifying early Earth microfossils in unsilicified sediments (United States)

    Javaux, Emmanuelle J.; Asael, Dan; Bekker, Andrey; Debaille, Vinciane; Derenne, Sylvie; Hofmann, Axel; Mattielli, Nadine; Poulton, Simon


    The search for life on the early Earth or beyond Earth requires the definition of biosignatures, or "indices of life". These traditionally include fossil molecules, isotopic fractionations, biosedimentary structures and morphological fossils interpreted as remnants of life preserved in rocks. This research focuses on traces of life preserved in unsilicified siliciclastic sediments. Indeed, these deposits preserve well sedimentary structures indicative of past aqueous environments and organic matter, including the original organic walls of microscopic organisms. They also do not form in hydrothermal conditions which may be source of abiotic organics. At our knowledge, the only reported occurrence of microfossils preserved in unsilicified Archean sediments is a population of large organic-walled vesicles discovered in shales and siltstones of the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, South Africa. (Javaux et al, Nature 2010). These have been interpreted as microfossils based on petrographic and geochemical evidence for their endogenicity and syngeneity, their carbonaceous composition, cellular morphology and ultrastructure, occurrence in populations, taphonomic features of soft wall deformation, and the geological context plausible for life, as well as lack of abiotic explanation falsifying a biological origin. Demonstrating that carbonaceous objects from Archaean rocks are truly old and truly biological is the subject of considerable debate. Abiotic processes are known to produce organics and isotopic signatures similar to life. Spheroidal pseudofossils may form as self-assembling vesicles from abiotic CM, e.g. in prebiotic chemistry experiments (Shoztak et al, 2001), from meteoritic lipids (Deamer et al, 2006), or hydrothermal fluids (Akashi et al, 1996); by artifact of maceration; by migration of abiotic or biotic CM along microfractures (VanZuilen et al, 2007) or along mineral casts (Brasier et al, 2005), or around silica spheres formed in silica-saturated water (Jones and

  2. Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences (United States)

    Moczydlowska-Vidal, Malgorzata


    Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences Małgorzata Moczydłowska-Vidal Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Villavägen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden ( Morphological and reproductive features and cell wall ultrastructure and biochemistry of Proterozoic acritarchs are used to determine their affinity to modern algae. The first appearance datum of these microbiota is traced to infer a minimum age of the divergence of the algal classes to which they may belong. The chronological appearance of microfossils that represent phycoma-like and zygotic cysts and vegetative cells and/or aplanospores, respectively interpreted as prasinophyceaen and chlorophyceaen microalgae, is related to the Viridiplantae phylogeny. These divergence times differ from molecular clock estimates, and the palaeontological evidence suggests that they are older. The best examples of unicellular, organic-walled microfossils (acritarchs) from the Mesoproterozoic to Early Ordovician are reviewed to demonstrate features, which are indicative of their affinity to photosynthetic microalgae. The first indication that a microfossil may be algal is a decay- and acid-resistant cell wall, which reflects its biochemistry and ultrastructure, and probably indicates the ability to protect a resting/reproductive cyst. The biopolymers synthesized in the cell walls of algae and in land plants ("plant cells"), such as sporopollenin/algaenan, are diagnostic for photosynthetic taxa and were inherited from early unicellular ancestors. These preservable cell walls are resistant to acetolysis, hydrolysis and acids, and show diagnostic ultrastructures such as the trilaminar sheath structure (TLS). "Plant cell" walls differ in terms of chemical compounds, which give high preservation potential, from fungal and animal cell walls. Fungal and animal cells are fossilized only by syngenetic permineralization, whereas "plant cells" are fossilized as body

  3. Search for supernova produced {sup 60}Fe in Earth's microfossil record

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    Ludwig, Peter; Bishop, Shawn; Chernenko, Valentyna; Faestermann, Thomas; Fimiani, Leticia; Gomez, Jose; Hain, Karin; Korschinek, Gunther [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Egli, Ramon [Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria)


    The detection of supernova debris on Earth can be achieved by use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to search for radionuclides like {sup 60}Fe. This long-lived isotope (T{sub 1/2}=2.6 Myr) is produced in massive stars and is expected to be present in the debris of type II supernovae. The discovery of {sup 60}Fe in a ferromanganese crust from the Pacific ocean (Knie et al., 2004) was interpreted as the input of a supernova explosion about 2.2 Myr ago. Currently, several projects are aiming for the confirmation of the signature of {sup 60}Fe in terrestrial and lunar samples. In this talk, the search for this {sup 60}Fe signature in Earth's microfossil record is presented. The sample material for this study is marine sediment from the eastern equatorial Pacific. A specific kind of secondary (formed in situ) magnetite mineral contained in the sample material are magnetofossils, which are the remains of magnetotactic bacteria, which are the target for extraction. The chemical extraction technique used to produce AMS samples has been characterized using newly developed magnetic analysis methods and has been shown to be extremely selective towards secondary magnetite. The AMS samples produced in this way are uniquely suited for the search for supernova {sup 60}Fe. Preliminary AMS results are presented.

  4. Dynamic hierarchical algorithm for accelerated microfossil identification (United States)

    Wong, Cindy M.; Joseph, Dileepan


    Marine microfossils provide a useful record of the Earth's resources and prehistory via biostratigraphy. To study Hydrocarbon reservoirs and prehistoric climate, geoscientists visually identify the species of microfossils found in core samples. Because microfossil identification is labour intensive, automation has been investigated since the 1980s. With the initial rule-based systems, users still had to examine each specimen under a microscope. While artificial neural network systems showed more promise for reducing expert labour, they also did not displace manual identification for a variety of reasons, which we aim to overcome. In our human-based computation approach, the most difficult step, namely taxon identification is outsourced via a frontend website to human volunteers. A backend algorithm, called dynamic hierarchical identification, uses unsupervised, supervised, and dynamic learning to accelerate microfossil identification. Unsupervised learning clusters specimens so that volunteers need not identify every specimen during supervised learning. Dynamic learning means interim computation outputs prioritize subsequent human inputs. Using a dataset of microfossils identified by an expert, we evaluated correct and incorrect genus and species rates versus simulated time, where each specimen identification defines a moment. The proposed algorithm accelerated microfossil identification effectively, especially compared to benchmark results obtained using a k-nearest neighbour method.

  5. A hypothesis linking chrysophyte microfossils to lake carbon dynamics on ecological and evolutionary time scales (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Siver, Peter A.


    Chrysophyte algae are common in the plankton of oligotrophic lakes and produce a rich microfossil record of siliceous cysts and scales. Paleolimnological investigations and phytoplankton records suggest that chrysophyte populations are increasing in a wide range of boreal and arctic lakes, ultimately representing one component of the limnological response to contemporary global changes. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for widespread increases of chrysophyte populations remain elusive. We hypothesize that recent increases in chrysophytes are related to rising pCO2 in lakes, in part because these algae lack carbon concentrating mechanisms and therefore rely on diffusive entry of CO2 to Rubisco during photosynthesis. We assessed the abundance of modern sediment chrysophyte microfossils in relation to summer CO2 relative saturation in 46 New England (USA) lakes, revealing significant positive relationships for both cysts and scales. These observations imply that correlations between chrysophytes and limnological conditions including low pH, oligotrophy, and elevated dissolved organic matter are ultimately underscored by the high pCO2 associated with these conditions. In lakes where chrysophyte populations have expanded over recent decades, we infer that increasingly heterotrophic conditions with respect to CO2 have stimulated production by these organisms. This linkage is supported by the remarkable abundance and diversity of chrysophytes from middle Eocene lake sediments, deposited under atmospheric CO2 concentrations significantly higher than present. The Eocene assemblages suggest that any chrysophyte-CO2 connection borne out of results from modern and sub-recent sediments also operated on evolutionary time scales, and thus the absence of carbon concentrating mechanisms appears to be an ancient feature within the group. Chrysophyte microfossils may potentially provide important insights concerning the temporal dynamics of carbon cycling in aquatic

  6. A morphogram for silica-witherite biomorphs and its application to microfossil identification in the early earth rock record. (United States)

    Rouillard, J; García-Ruiz, J-M; Gong, J; van Zuilen, M A


    Archean hydrothermal environments formed a likely site for the origin and early evolution of life. These are also the settings, however, were complex abiologic structures can form. Low-temperature serpentinization of ultramafic crust can generate alkaline, silica-saturated fluids in which carbonate-silica crystalline aggregates with life-like morphologies can self-assemble. These "biomorphs" could have adsorbed hydrocarbons from Fischer-Tropsch type synthesis processes, leading to metamorphosed structures that resemble carbonaceous microfossils. Although this abiogenic process has been extensively cited in the literature and has generated important controversy, so far only one specific biomorph type with a filamentous shape has been discussed for the interpretation of Archean microfossils. It is therefore critical to precisely determine the full distribution in morphology and size of these biomorphs, and to study the range of plausible geochemical conditions under which these microstructures can form. Here, a set of witherite-silica biomorph synthesis experiments in silica-saturated solutions is presented, for a range of pH values (from 9 to 11.5) and barium ion concentrations (from 0.6 to 40 mmol/L BaCl 2 ). Under these varying conditions, a wide range of life-like structures is found, from fractal dendrites to complex shapes with continuous curvature. The size, spatial concentration, and morphology of the biomorphs are strongly controlled by environmental parameters, among which pH is the most important. This potentially limits the diversity of environments in which the growth of biomorphs could have occurred on Early Earth. Given the variety of the observed biomorph morphologies, our results show that the morphology of an individual microstructure is a poor criterion for biogenicity. However, biomorphs may be distinguished from actual populations of cellular microfossils by their wide, unimodal size distribution. Biomorphs grown by diffusion in silica gel can

  7. Microfossils as biosignatures (United States)

    Beraldi-Campesi, Hugo


    As technology advances, we have more possibilities to search for past life, looking for biosignatures in the rock record. Even when these biosignatures can be chemical compounds, the irrevocable evidence of past life would be life itself preserved as fossils. Besides the pure shape, extra information such as the paleoenvironment, biotic associations, and the age of the rocks, can be retrieved from fossils to understand their significance and the context in which they developed. However, much of that information is rarely well preserved, giving fossils a wide range for speculation. Furthermore, abiotic structures can sometimes be easily mistaken as fossils, leading to wrong interpretations. Depending on the mode of fossilization and the type of organism, more or fewer characteristics would be available for interpretation, and depending on the techniques used for observation, those characteristics would be more or less appreciated. In permineralized organisms, internal and external structures can be observable with simple techniques (e.g. thin sections), revealing basic anatomic features that can yield trusty identifications. An example of remarkable organisms with these characteristics is found in the North-East region of Sonora, Mexico. Cretaceous sequences (70-72 Ma old) from the Tarahumara Formation contain several chert horizons where palm roots, freshwater aquatic plants, pollen grains, flowers, seeds, small crustaceans, algae, and cyanobacteria (among others) are commonly found, reflecting the extense diversity existing at that time. One of the Formation's localities, the Huepac Chert, exhibits several stromatolitic horizons in close relation with black chert that harbors a number of permineralized microfossils. About 65 different morphotypes have been described and some have been identified as cyanobacteria, chlorophyceans, and diatoms. These comparisions allowed us to conclude that some had benthonic habits, being perhaps stromatolite constructors. Others

  8. Microfossil measures of rapid sea-level rise: Timing of response of two microfossil groups to a sudden tidal-flooding experiment in Cascadia (United States)

    Horton, B.P.; Milker, Yvonne; Dura, T.; Wang, Kelin; Bridgeland, W.T.; Brophy, Laura S.; Ewald, M.; Khan, Nicole; Engelhart, S.E.; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.


    Comparisons of pre-earthquake and post-earthquake microfossils in tidal sequences are accurate means to measure coastal subsidence during past subduction earthquakes, but the amount of subsidence is uncertain, because the response times of fossil taxa to coseismic relative sea-level (RSL) rise are unknown. We measured the response of diatoms and foraminifera to restoration of a salt marsh in southern Oregon, USA. Tidal flooding following dike removal caused an RSL rise of ∼1 m, as might occur by coseismic subsidence during momentum magnitude (Mw) 8.1–8.8 earthquakes on this section of the Cascadia subduction zone. Less than two weeks after dike removal, diatoms colonized low marsh and tidal flats in large numbers, showing that they can record seismically induced subsidence soon after earthquakes. In contrast, low-marsh foraminifera took at least 11 months to appear in sizeable numbers. Where subsidence measured with diatoms and foraminifera differs, their different response times may provide an estimate of postseismic vertical deformation in the months following past megathrust earthquakes.

  9. Microfossils' diversity from the Proterozoic Taoudeni Basin, Mauritania (United States)

    Beghin, Jérémie; Houzay, Jean-Pierre; Blanpied, Christian; Javaux, Emmanuelle


    Prokaryotes and microscopic eukaryotes are known to have appeared well before the Cambrian's adaptative radiation which flourished perceptibly as a generalized macroscopic world. What do we know about the trigger events which stimulated eukaryotic diversification during the Proterozoic? Biological innovations or environmental changes, and indeed probably both (Knoll et al., 2006), played a fundamental role controlling this important step of life's evolution on Earth. Javaux (2011), proposed a diversification pattern of early eukaryotes divided into three steps and focusing on different taxonomic levels, from stem group to within crown group, of the domain Eukarya. Here, we present a new, exquisitely preserved and morphologically diverse assemblage of organic-walled microfossils from the 1.1 Ga El Mreiti Group of the Taoudeni Basin (Mauritania). The assemblage includes beautifully preserved microbial mats comprising pyritized filaments, prokaryotic filamentous sheaths and filaments, microfossils of uncertain biological affinity including smooth isolated and colonial sphaeromorphs (eukaryotes and/or prokaryotes), diverse protists (ornamented and process-bearing acritarchs), as well multicellular microfossils interpreted in the literature as possible xanthophyte algae. Several taxa are reported for the first time in Africa, but are known worldwide. This study improves microfossil diversity previously reported by Amard (1986) and shows purported xanthophyte algae contrary to a previous biomarker study suggesting the absence of eukaryotic algae, other than acritarchs, in the basin (Blumenberg et al., 2012). This new microfossil assemblage and others provide, all together, evidences of early and worldwide diversification of eukaryotes. Thereby, those first qualitative results also provide a basis for further and larger quantitative studies on the Taoudeni Basin. To better understand the palaeobiology (stem or crown group, aerobic or anaerobic metabolism) and

  10. Fourteen Times the Earth (United States)


    ESO HARPS Instrument Discovers Smallest Ever Extra-Solar Planet Summary A European team of astronomers [1] has discovered the lightest known planet orbiting a star other than the sun (an "exoplanet"). The new exoplanet orbits the bright star mu Arae located in the southern constellation of the Altar. It is the second planet discovered around this star and completes a full revolution in 9.5 days. With a mass of only 14 times the mass of the Earth, the new planet lies at the threshold of the largest possible rocky planets, making it a possible super Earth-like object. Uranus, the smallest of the giant planets of the Solar System has a similar mass. However Uranus and the new exoplanet differ so much by their distance from the host star that their formation and structure are likely to be very different. This discovery was made possible by the unprecedented accuracy of the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, which allows radial velocities to be measured with a precision better than 1 m/s. It is another clear demonstration of the European leadership in the field of exoplanet research. PR Photo 25a/04: The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope PR Photo 25b/04: Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae (3.6m/HARPS, 1.2m Swiss/CORALIE, AAT/UCLES) PR Photo 25c/04: Velocity Variation of mu Arae Observed by HARPS (3.6m/HARPS) PR Photo 25d/04: "Velocity Curve" of mu Arae A unique planet hunting machine ESO PR Photo 25a/04 ESO PR Photo 25a/04 The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope [Preview - JPEG: 602 x 400 pix - 211k] [Normal - JPEG: 1202 x 800 pix - 645k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25a/04 represents a montage of the HARPS spectrograph and the 3.6m telescope at La Silla. The upper left shows the dome of the telescope, while the upper right illustrates the telescope itself. The HARPS spectrograph is shown in the lower image during laboratory tests. The vacuum tank is open so that some of the high-precision components inside can be seen. Since the first

  11. Time-resolved 2-million-year-old supernova activity discovered in Earth’s microfossil record (United States)

    Ludwig, Peter; Bishop, Shawn; Egli, Ramon; Chernenko, Valentyna; Deneva, Boyana; Faestermann, Thomas; Famulok, Nicolai; Fimiani, Leticia; Gómez-Guzmán, José Manuel; Hain, Karin; Korschinek, Gunther; Hanzlik, Marianne; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg


    Massive stars (M≳10 M⊙), which terminate their evolution as core-collapse supernovae, are theoretically predicted to eject >10−5M⊙ of the radioisotope 60Fe (half-life 2.61 Ma). If such an event occurs sufficiently close to our solar system, traces of the supernova debris could be deposited on Earth. Herein, we report a time-resolved 60Fe signal residing, at least partially, in a biogenic reservoir. Using accelerator mass spectrometry, this signal was found through the direct detection of live 60Fe atoms contained within secondary iron oxides, among which are magnetofossils, the fossilized chains of magnetite crystals produced by magnetotactic bacteria. The magnetofossils were chemically extracted from two Pacific Ocean sediment drill cores. Our results show that the 60Fe signal onset occurs around 2.6 Ma to 2.8 Ma, near the lower Pleistocene boundary, terminates around 1.7 Ma, and peaks at about 2.2 Ma. PMID:27503888

  12. Microfossils in Carbonaceous Meteorites (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    Microfossils of large filamentous trichomic prokaryotes have been detected during in-situ investigations of carbonaceous meteorites. This research has been carried out using the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) to examine freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorites. The images obtained reveal that many of these remains are embedded in the meteorite rock matrix. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) studies establish that the filamentous microstructures have elemental compositions consistent with the meteorite matrix, but are often encased within carbon-rich electron transparent sheath-like structures infilled with magnesium sulfate. This is consistent with the taphonomic modes of fossilization of cyanobacteria and sulphur bacteria, since the life habits and processes of these microorganisms frequently result in distinctive chemical biosignatures associated with the properties of their cell-walls, trichomes, and the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the sheath. In this paper the evidence for biogenicity presented includes detailed morphological and morphometric data consistent with known characteristics of uniseriate and multiseriate cyanobacteria. Evidence for indigeneity includes the embedded nature of the fossils and elemental compositions inconsistent with modern biocontaminants.

  13. a Walk Through Earth's Time (United States)

    Turrin, B. D.; Turrin, M.


    After "What is this rock?" the most common questions that is asked of Geologists is "How old is this rock/fossil?" For geologists considering ages back to millions of years is routine. Sorting and cataloguing events into temporal sequences is a natural tendency for all humans. In fact, it is an everyday activity for humans, i.e., keeping track of birthdays, anniversaries, appointments, meetings, AGU abstract deadlines etc… However, the time frames that are most familiar to the non scientist (seconds, minutes, hours, days, years) generally extend to only a few decades or at most centuries. Yet the vast length of time covered by Earth's history, 4.56 billion years, greatly exceeds these timeframes and thus is commonly referred to as "Deep Time". This is a challenging concept for most students to comprehend as it involves temporal and abstract thinking, yet it is key to their successful understanding of numerous geologic principles. We have developed an outdoor learning activity for general Introductory Earth Science courses that incorporates several scientific and geologic concepts such as: linear distance or stratigraphic thickness representing time, learning about major events in Earth's history and locating them in a scaled temporal framework, field mapping, abstract thinking, scaling and dimensional analysis, and the principles of radio isotopic dating. The only supplies needed are readily available in local hardware stores i.e. a 300 ft. surveyor's tape marked in feet, and tenths and hundredths of a foot, and the student's own introductory geology textbook. The exercise employs a variety of pedagogical learning modalities, including traditional lecture-based, the use of Art/Drawing, use of Visualization, Collaborative learning, and Kinesthetic and Experiential learning. Initially the students are exposed to the concept of "Deep Time" in a short conventional introductory lecture; this is followed by a 'field day'. Prior to the field exercise, students work with

  14. Microfossils, a Key to Unravel Cold-Water Carbonate Mound Evolution through Time: Evidence from the Eastern Alboran Sea.

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    Claudio Stalder

    Full Text Available Cold-water coral (CWC ecosystems occur worldwide and play a major role in the ocean's carbonate budget and atmospheric CO2 balance since the Danian (~65 m.y. ago. However their temporal and spatial evolution against climatic and oceanographic variability is still unclear. For the first time, we combine the main macrofaunal components of a sediment core from a CWC mound of the Melilla Mounds Field in the Eastern Alboran Sea with the associated microfauna and we highlight the importance of foraminifera and ostracods as indicators of CWC mound evolution in the paleorecord. Abundances of macrofauna along the core reveal alternating periods dominated by distinct CWC taxa (mostly Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata that correspond to major shifts in foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages. The period dominated by M. oculata coincides with a period characterized by increased export of refractory organic matter to the seafloor and rather unstable oceanographic conditions at the benthic boundary layer with periodically decreased water energy and oxygenation, variable bottom water temperature/density and increased sediment flow. The microfaunal and geochemical data strongly suggest that M. oculata and in particular Dendrophylliidae show a higher tolerance to environmental changes than L. pertusa. Finally, we show evidence for sustained CWC growth during the Alleröd-Younger-Dryas in the Eastern Alboran Sea and that this period corresponds to stable benthic conditions with cold/dense and well oxygenated bottom waters, high fluxes of labile organic matter and relatively strong bottom currents.

  15. Microfossils, a Key to Unravel Cold-Water Carbonate Mound Evolution through Time: Evidence from the Eastern Alboran Sea. (United States)

    Stalder, Claudio; Vertino, Agostina; Rosso, Antonietta; Rüggeberg, Andres; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Spezzaferri, Silvia; Camozzi, Osvaldo; Rappo, Sacha; Hajdas, Irka


    Cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems occur worldwide and play a major role in the ocean's carbonate budget and atmospheric CO2 balance since the Danian (~65 m.y. ago). However their temporal and spatial evolution against climatic and oceanographic variability is still unclear. For the first time, we combine the main macrofaunal components of a sediment core from a CWC mound of the Melilla Mounds Field in the Eastern Alboran Sea with the associated microfauna and we highlight the importance of foraminifera and ostracods as indicators of CWC mound evolution in the paleorecord. Abundances of macrofauna along the core reveal alternating periods dominated by distinct CWC taxa (mostly Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata) that correspond to major shifts in foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages. The period dominated by M. oculata coincides with a period characterized by increased export of refractory organic matter to the seafloor and rather unstable oceanographic conditions at the benthic boundary layer with periodically decreased water energy and oxygenation, variable bottom water temperature/density and increased sediment flow. The microfaunal and geochemical data strongly suggest that M. oculata and in particular Dendrophylliidae show a higher tolerance to environmental changes than L. pertusa. Finally, we show evidence for sustained CWC growth during the Alleröd-Younger-Dryas in the Eastern Alboran Sea and that this period corresponds to stable benthic conditions with cold/dense and well oxygenated bottom waters, high fluxes of labile organic matter and relatively strong bottom currents.

  16. The simulated silicification of bacteria--new clues to the modes and timing of bacterial preservation and implications for the search for extraterrestrial microfossils. (United States)

    Toporski, Jan K W; Steele, Andrew; Westall, Frances; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L; McKay, David S


    Evidence of microbial life on Earth has been found in siliceous rock formations throughout the geological and fossil record. To understand the mechanisms of silicification and thus improve our search patterns for evidence of fossil microbial life in rocks, a series of controlled laboratory experiments were designed to simulate the silicification of microorganisms. The bacterial strains Pseudomonas fluorescens and Desulphovibrio indonensis were exposed to silicifying media. The experiments were designed to determine how exposure time to silicifying solutions and to silicifying solutions of different Si concentration affect the fossilization of microbial biofilms. The silicified biofilms were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Both bacterial species showed evidence of silicification after 24 h in 1,000 ppm silica solution, although D. indonensis was less prone to silicification. The degree of silicification of individual cells of the same sample varied, though such variations decreased with increasing exposure time. High Si concentration resulted in better preservation of cellular detail; the Si concentration was more important than the duration in Si solution. Even though no evidence of amorphous silica precipitation was observed, bacterial cells became permineralized. High-resolution TEM analysis revealed nanometer-sized crystallites characterized by lattice fringe-spacings that match the (10-11) d-spacing of quartz formed within bacterial cell walls after 1 week in 5,000 ppm silica solution. The mechanisms of silicification under controlled laboratory conditions and the implication for silicification in natural environments are discussed, along with the relevance of our findings in the search for early life on Earth and extraterrestrial life.

  17. Siliceous microfossil extraction from altered Monterey rocks

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    Nelson, C.O.; Casey, R.E.


    Samples of altered Monterey rocks of differing lithologies were processed by various methods to develop new techniques for extracting siliceous microfossils. The preliminary use of thin sections made from the same rocks reduced the number of probable samples (samples worth further processing) by about one-third. Most of the siliceous microfossils contained in altered Monterey rocks appear to be highly recrystallized and are extremely fragile; however, some contained silicified and silica-infilled radiolarians and planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, which are very tough. In general the most useful techniques were gently hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, formic acid, monosodium glutamate, and regular siliceous microfossil extraction techniques. Unsuccessful techniques and a new siliceous microfossil flotation technique are also documented.

  18. Microanalyzes of remarkable microfossils of the Late Mesoproterozoic-Early Neoproterozoic (United States)

    Cornet, Yohan; Beghin, Jérémie; Baludikay, Blaise; François, Camille; Storme, Jean-Yves; Compère, Philippe; Javaux, Emanuelle


    of the species Jacutianema solubila from the Svanbergfjellet Formation, Spitsbergen and from the Taoudeni Basin, Mauritania, are also characterized with infrared and Raman microspectroscopy as well as with TEM, permitting to test a previous hypothesis proposing that Jacutianema represents part of the life cycle of a Vaucherian alga [4]. Deciphering the identity of these distinctive microfossils will improve our understanding of the timing and pattern of eukaryote stem and crown group diversification in the mid-Proterozoic, prior to large "snowball Earth" glaciations and during time of changing ocean chemistry. [1] Knoll et al. (2006) Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 361 1023-1038 [2] Butterfield et al. (1994) Fossils and Strata 34 82p [3] Cornet et al. (in preparation) [4] Butterfield (2004) Paleobiology 30 (2), 231-25

  19. Earth System Stability Through Geologic Time (United States)

    Rothman, D.; Bowring, S. A.


    Five times in the past 500 million years, mass extinctions haveresulted in the loss of greater than three-fourths of living species.Each of these events is associated with significant environmentalchange recorded in the carbon-isotopic composition of sedimentaryrocks. There are also many such environmental events in the geologicrecord that are not associated with mass extinctions. What makes themdifferent? Two factors appear important: the size of theenvironmental perturbation, and the time scale over which it occurs.We show that the natural perturbations of Earth's carbon cycle during thepast 500 million years exhibit a characteristic rate of change overtwo orders of magnitude in time scale. This characteristic rate isconsistent with the maximum rate that limits quasistatic (i.e., nearsteady-state) evolution of the carbon cycle. We identify this rate withmarginal stability, and show that mass extinctions occur on the fast,unstable side of the stability boundary. These results suggest thatthe great extinction events of the geologic past, and potentially a"sixth extinction" associated with modern environmental change, arecharacterized by common mechanisms of instability.

  20. Combining marine macroecology and palaeoecology in understanding biodiversity: microfossils as a model. (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Tittensor, Derek P; Hillebrand, Helmut; Worm, Boris


    There is growing interest in the integration of macroecology and palaeoecology towards a better understanding of past, present, and anticipated future biodiversity dynamics. However, the empirical basis for this integration has thus far been limited. Here we review prospects for a macroecology-palaeoecology integration in biodiversity analyses with a focus on marine microfossils [i.e. small (or small parts of) organisms with high fossilization potential, such as foraminifera, ostracodes, diatoms, radiolaria, coccolithophores, dinoflagellates, and ichthyoliths]. Marine microfossils represent a useful model system for such integrative research because of their high abundance, large spatiotemporal coverage, and good taxonomic and temporal resolution. The microfossil record allows for quantitative cross-scale research designs, which help in answering fundamental questions about marine biodiversity, including the causes behind similarities in patterns of latitudinal and longitudinal variation across taxa, the degree of constancy of observed gradients over time, and the relative importance of hypothesized drivers that may explain past or present biodiversity patterns. The inclusion of a deep-time perspective based on high-resolution microfossil records may be an important step for the further maturation of macroecology. An improved integration of macroecology and palaeoecology would aid in our understanding of the balance of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped the biosphere we inhabit today and affect how it may change in the future. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. Manganese Oxides Resembling Microbial Fabrics and Their Implications for Recognizing Inorganically Preserved Microfossils. (United States)

    Muscente, A D; Czaja, Andrew D; Tuggle, James; Winkler, Christopher; Xiao, Shuhai


    In the search for microfossils of early life on Earth, the demonstration of biogenicity is paramount. Traditionally, only syngenetic structures with cellular elaboration, hollow sheaths/cell walls, and indigenous kerogen have been considered bona fide fossils. Recent reports of inorganically preserved microfossils represent a shift from this practice. Such a shift, if accompanied by a robust set of biogenicity criteria, could have profound implications for the identification of biosignatures on early Earth and extraterrestrial bodies. Here, we reaffirm the conventional criteria by examining aggregates of inorganic filaments from the Pilbara region of Western Australia. These aggregates are preserved in bedded chert, and the filaments measure up to 1 μm in diameter and 100 μm in length. The aggregates superficially resemble kerogenous microbial fabrics and mycelial organisms. However, the filaments consist of manganese oxide, lack cellular elaboration, and show no evidence for hollow sheaths or cell walls. We conclude that the filaments are fibrous minerals of abiotic origin. The similarities between these pseudofossils and some filamentous fossils highlight the need for strict application of the conventional criteria for recognizing microfossils. In the absence of kerogen, morphologically simple structures should, at least, show evidence of cellular features to be considered bona fide fossils. Key Words: Fossil-Manganese oxide-Pilbara-Precambrian-Pseudofossil. Astrobiology 18, 249-258.

  2. Preservation and fluorescence of the microfossils from Neoproterozoic Doushantuo formation. (United States)

    Chi, Huimei; Feng, Man; Xiao, Zhongdang; Lu, Zuhong


    The phosphatized microfossils from Doushantuo Formation, Southeast China show us the biodiversity about 600 million years ago, which is a unique window for the evolution of the early life on earth. However, the process of phosphatic fossilization in detail still remains unknown. Here we report our study on the preservation state of the fossils by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found that fluorescent signal of the fossil could reflect the preservation state when compared with the transmission light microscopy. First, we found the fluorescent signal of the decayed cells of the fossil was weaker than that of the nondecayed part. Second, we found that the three-dimensional reconstruction of the fluorescent signals could help to judge the degree of mineralization of the fossil cells, compared with the observation by transmission light microscope. Third, we found that almost all of the fossil specimens we observed could fluoresce more or less when excited by laser light. Therefore, the fluorescent microscopy provides a useful method for the study of the preservation state of the phosphatic fossil cells. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Compaction of microfossil and clay-rich chalk sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of microfossils and clay in the compaction of chalk facies sediments. To meet this aim, chalk sediments with varying micro texture were studied. The sediments have been tested uniaxially confined in a stainless-steel compaction cell. The sediments are......: 1) Pure carbonate chalk with mudstone texture from Stevns Klint (Denmark), 2) Relatively pure chalk sediments with varying content of microfossils from the Ontong Java Plateau (Western Pacific), 3) Clay-rich chalk and mixed sediments from the Caribbean. The tested samples were characterised...... of microfossils and fine-grained silica and clay. Samples with relatively pure chalk mud supported texture compact along a common stress - matrix porosity trend. Microfossils thus have a passive role, apparently because they are supported by the chalk mud. Samples with fine-grained silica and clay can be modelled...

  4. Remarkably preserved tephra from the 3430 Ma Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia: Implications for the interpretation of Precambrian microfossils (United States)

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Kong, Charlie


    The ∼3430 Ma Strelley Pool Formation (SPF), Pilbara, Western Australia contains some of the most diverse microfossil evidence for early life on Earth. Here we report an assemblage of tephra (scoria, tubular pumice, plus vesicular and non-vesicular volcanic glass shards) from two stratigraphic levels in the SPF, including morphotypes that closely resemble previously described microfossils from this unit and elsewhere. Clasts of scoria are characterised by numerous spheroidal vesicles, with subordinate eye- and lens-shaped morphotypes, commonly lined with anatase (TiO2) and small amounts of organic material. Their diameters range from 5-180 μm with 80% in the 10-50 μm range. Fragments of tubular pumice are also lined with anatase + / - carbon and have tube diameters of 5-15 μm. Other volcanic ejecta particles include a multitude of sub-angular shard particles with or without vesicles, plus more rounded vase-shaped, eye-shaped, and hair-like morphologies; once again, most of these are coated by anatase + / - carbon and are several tens of micrometres in size. Many of the tephra fragments are now entirely silicified with no compositional difference between the former volcanic glass, the vesicle infill and the clast matrix. However, some examples retain a partial aluminosilicate composition, either as a vesicle infilling phase or as isolated lath-like grains within the formerly glassy groundmass. Isolated occurrences of some of these tephra morphotypes strongly resemble simple microbial morphologies including pairs and clusters of cells (cf. scoria), filamentous microbes (cf. tubular pumice) and larger sheaths/cysts (cf. sub-rounded glass shards). Furthermore, some tephra-containing clasts occur in a SPF sandstone unit that hosts previously described microfossils, while others are interbedded with chert layers from which microfossils have also been described. In light of our new volcanogenic data, we evaluate the robustness of previous microfossil evidence from the

  5. Morphology of the Proterozoic eukaryotic microfossils as a reflection of their intracellular complexity


    Agić, Heda; Moczydłowska, Małgorzata; Yin, Leiming


    Mesoproterozoic is a time of increasing diversity of microscopic life and appearance of intricate new cell morphologies. First eukaryotes may have evolved around 2.4 Ga, but the first microbiota with intricate sculpture and ornamentation are found in the younger, 1.8.-1.6 Ga successions worldwide. Such microfossils were uncovered from the Ruyang Formation in Shanxi, China and Roper Group, Northern Territories, Australia, dating back to 1.6-1.0 Ga ago. Some of these unicellular organic-walled ...

  6. New Data on Microfossils from Shungites (United States)

    Hoover, Robert B.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)


    Shungites are pre-cambrian (2Gya) carbon-rich, silicate rocks known from deposits in the north-western part of lake Onega, near the city of Petrozavodsk in Karelia (North from St. Petersburg, Russia). Shungites are extremely rich in carbon, with carbon accounting for 98% in vein shungites. Shungites have been found to exhibit interesting optical, ultrasonic, thermal, mechanical, electrical properties and have recently been found to contain small amounts of C60 fullerene. Shungite rocks from Karelia have a characteristic globular structure and are chemically inert and metastable. As part of our ongoing search for biomarkers in ancient terrestrial rocks that are of potential significance to Astrobiology, we have conducted Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrographs of freshly fractured interior surfaces of Shungites. We find them to contain indigenous miocrofossils, similar to cyanobacteria known from the phosphorites of Khubsugul, Mongolia. We describe this investigation and provide ESEM and FESEM images of biomorphic microstructures that we interpret as indigenous microfossils in Shungites.

  7. Early evolution of large micro-organisms with cytological complexity revealed by microanalyses of 3.4 Ga organic-walled microfossils. (United States)

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Lepot, K; Ito, S; Javaux, E J


    The Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) is widely distributed in the East Pilbara Terrane (EPT) of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, and represents a Paleoarchean shallow-water to subaerial environment. It was deposited ~3.4 billion years ago and displays well-documented carbonate stromatolites. Diverse putative microfossils (SPF microfossils) were recently reported from several localities in the East Strelley, Panorama, Warralong, and Goldsworthy greenstone belts. Thus, the SPF provides unparalleled opportunities to gain insights into a shallow-water to subaerial ecosystem on the early Earth. Our new micro- to nanoscale ultrastructural and microchemical studies of the SPF microfossils show that large (20-70 μm) lenticular organic-walled flanged microfossils retain their structural integrity, morphology, and chain-like arrangements after acid (HF-HCl) extraction (palynology). Scanning and transmitted electron microscopy of extracted microfossils revealed that the central lenticular body is either alveolar or hollow, and the wall is continuous with the surrounding smooth to reticulated discoidal flange. These features demonstrate the evolution of large micro-organisms able to form an acid-resistant recalcitrant envelope or cell wall with complex morphology and to form colonial chains in the Paleoarchean era. This study provides evidence of the evolution of very early and remarkable biological innovations, well before the presumed late emergence of complex cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, M.L.; Haar, S.V.


    To aid in a paleonenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. Foraminifera was found in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples and mannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscus, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations at this time cannot be made because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350/sup 0/C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to backish water inviroments that correspond in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-m.y.-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  9. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, M.L.; Vonder Haar, S.


    To aid in a paleoenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495 m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. We found foraminifera in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples, and nannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscs, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations are not possible at this time because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350{sup 0}C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to brackish water environments that correspond, in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-My-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500 m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet, have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  10. The Rheology of the Earth in the Intermediate Time Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The evidence bearing upon the rheology of the " tectonically
    significant layers" of the Earth (" tectonosphere " in the intermediate
    time range (4 hours to 15000 years is analyzed. This evidence is
    based upon observations of rock-behavior in the laboratory, of seismic
    aftershock sequences, of Earth tides and of the decay of the Chandler wobble.
    It is shown that of the rheological models (Maxwell-material, Kelvin-material,
    and logarithmically creeping material advocated in the literature, only that
    based on logarithmic creep does not contradict any of the observational
    evidence available to date. In addition, a strength limit may be present.

  11. Compaction of microfossil and clay-rich chalk sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of microfossils and clay in the compaction of chalk facies sediments. To meet this aim, chalk sediments with varying micro texture were studied. The sediments have been tested uniaxially confined in a stainless-steel compaction cell. The sediments ar...

  12. Modeling the Earth's Gravity Field in Space and Time (United States)

    WANG, S.; Panet, I.; Ramillien, G.; Guilloux, F.


    The Earth constantly deforms as it undergoes dynamic phenomena, such as earthquakes, post-glacial rebound and water displacement in its fluid envelopes. These processes have different spatial and temporal scales and are accompanied by mass displacements, which create temporal variations of the gravity field. Since 2002, satellite missions such as GOCE and GRACE provide an unprecedented view of the spatial and temporal variations of the Earth's gravity field. Gravity models built from these data are essential to study the Earth's dynamic processes. The gravity field and its time variations are usually modelled using spatial spherical harmonics functions averaged over a fixed period, as 10 days or 1 month. This approach is well suited for modeling global phenomena. To better estimate gravity variations related to local and/or transient processes, such as earthquakes or floods, and take into account the trade-off between temporal and spatial resolution resulting from the satellites sampling, we propose to model the gravity field as a four-dimensional quantity using localized functions in space and time. For that, we first design a four-dimensional multi-scale basis, well localized both in space and time, by combining spatial Poisson wavelets with an orthogonal temporal wavelet basis. In such approach, the temporal resolution can be adjusted to the spatial one. Then, we set-up the inverse problem to model potential differences between the twin GRACE satellites in 4D, and propose a regularization using prior knowledge on the water cycle signal amplitude. We validate our 4D modelling method on a synthetic test over Africa, using synthetic data on potential differences along the orbits constructed from a global hydrological model. A perspective of this work is to apply it on real data, in order to better model and understand the non-stationnary gravity field variations and associated processes at regional scales.

  13. Time to reorganize federal Earth system science and technology? (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    My usual reaction to plans to reorganize activities in the federal government is that these are the last resort of a bureaucrat who is faced with a tough problem and has no idea how to solve it. However, this may be the time to consider seriously a reorganization that would assemble key elements of Earth-oriented science and technology into a single federal agency. This is not a new idea, as proposals to achieve this goal have been formulated in the past and wiring diagrams for a new agency have been developed. These proposals have faded away in the face of resistance to substantial structural change that characterizes the federal bureaucracy.

  14. Thermal maturity of Tasmanites microfossils from confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Kus, Jolanta


    We report here, for the first time, spectral properties of Tasmanites microfossils determined by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (CLSM, using Ar 458 nm excitation). The Tasmanites occur in a well-characterized natural maturation sequence (Ro 0.48–0.74%) of Devonian shale (n = 3 samples) from the Appalachian Basin. Spectral property λmax shows excellent agreement (r2 = 0.99) with extant spectra from interlaboratory studies which used conventional fluorescence microscopy techniques. This result suggests spectral measurements from CLSM can be used to infer thermal maturity of fluorescent organic materials in geologic samples. Spectra of regions with high fluorescence intensity at fold apices and flanks in individual Tasmanites are blue-shifted relative to less-deformed areas in the same body that have lower fluorescence intensity. This is interpreted to result from decreased quenching moiety concentration at these locations, and indicates caution is needed in the selection of measurement regions in conventional fluorescence microscopy, where it is common practice to select high intensity regions for improved signal intensity and better signal to noise ratios. This study also documents application of CLSM to microstructural characterization of Tasmanites microfossils. Finally, based on an extant empirical relation between conventional λmax values and bitumen reflectance, λmax values from CLSM of Tasmanites microfossils can be used to calculate a bitumen reflectance equivalent value. The results presented herein can be used as a basis to broaden the future application of CLSM in the geological sciences into hydrocarbon prospecting and basin analysis.

  15. Computer network time synchronization the network time protocol on earth and in space

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David L


    Carefully coordinated, reliable, and accurate time synchronization is vital to a wide spectrum of fields-from air and ground traffic control, to buying and selling goods and services, to TV network programming. Ill-gotten time could even lead to the unimaginable and cause DNS caches to expire, leaving the entire Internet to implode on the root servers.Written by the original developer of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol on Earth and in Space, Second Edition addresses the technological infrastructure of time dissemination, distrib

  16. Fire in the Earth System: A deep time perspective (United States)

    Scott, Andrew C.; Glasspool, Ian J.; Bond, William J.; Collinson, Margaret E.


    Although the earliest evidence of fire, determined from the presence of fossil charcoal, is late Silurian, it is not until the end of the Devonian that there is evidence of a widespread rise of fire events. This increase appears after the rise of forests in the mid-late Devonian and has been linked to a rise in atmospheric oxygen concentration. From that time onward there is extensive evidence of fire as a major Earth System process. With the occurrence of widespread fires comes the development of several important feedback mechanisms. In the short term, fires may be considered "reverse photosynthesis", as they release CO2 into the atmosphere. However, the production of charcoal, that remains inert on burial, acts as a long-term carbon sink. This charcoal (carbon) burial leads to a reduction of atmospheric CO2 but an increase in O2. Experiments have shown that widespread fires require between 13-15% atmospheric O2 to burn and spread. In addition, increasing atmospheric O2 concentration promotes hotter fires and the combustion of higher moisture content plant matter. More intense fires burning a greater range of vegetation provides further feedback: frequent and intense fires typically lead to extensive post-fire erosion, which in turn causes the rapid burial of more plant material, which again in turn leads to further carbon drawdown. In general, fires occur during drier periods, when potential fuel builds up, but during periods of elevated O2 concentration, such as in the Permian and mid-late Cretaceous, may occur more frequently than at the present day. Ferns, conifers and angiosperms radiated and diversified during periods of high fire activity and there may be a linkage. Both ferns and weedy angiosperms favour disturbed habitats, while early conifers appear to be adapted to drier environments and many of the earliest are preserved as charcoalified remains. Of particular significance is the interlinkage between increased fire activity and evolution of the

  17. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason


    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  18. An Ecometric Study of Recent Microfossils using High-throughput Imaging (United States)

    Elder, L. E.; Hull, P. M.; Hsiang, A. Y.; Kahanamoku, S.


    The era of Big Data has ushered in the potential to collect population level information in a manageable time frame. Taxon-free morphological trait analysis, referred to as ecometrics, can be used to examine and compare ecological dynamics between communities with entirely different species compositions. Until recently population level studies of morphology were difficult because of the time intensive task of collecting measurements. To overcome this, we implemented advances in imaging technology and created software to automate measurements. This high-throughput set of methods collects assemblage-scale data, with methods tuned to foraminiferal samples (e.g., light objects on a dark background). Methods include serial focused dark-field microscopy, custom software (Automorph) to batch process images, extract 2D and 3D shape parameters and frames, and implement landmark-free geometric morphometric analyses. Informatics pipelines were created to store, catalog and share images through the Yale Peabody Museum(YPM; We openly share software and images to enhance future data discovery. In less than a year we have generated over 25TB of high resolution semi 3D images for this initial study. Here, we take the first step towards developing ecometric approaches for open ocean microfossil communities with a calibration study of community shape in recent sediments. We will present an overview of the `shape' of modern planktonic foraminiferal communities from 25 Atlantic core top samples (23 sites in the North and Equatorial Atlantic; 2 sites in the South Atlantic). In total, more than 100,000 microfossils and fragments were imaged from these sites' sediment cores, an unprecedented morphometric sample set. Correlates of community shape, including diversity, temperature, and latitude, will be discussed. These methods have also been applied to images of limpets and fish teeth to date, and have the potential to be used on modern taxa to extract meaningful

  19. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy (United States)

    Green, Robert O.


    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  20. Microfossils With Suggested Affinities To The Pyramimonadales (Pyramimonadophyceae, Chlorophyta From The Lower Devonian Rhynie Chert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustatscher Evelyn


    Full Text Available An assemblage of unusual microfossils occurs within an accumulation of plant debris, hyphae, and various types of propagules in the Early Devonian Rhynie chert. Specimens consist of a vesicle with one or more prominent wings (alae arising from the surface; one wing forms a rim around the equator of the vesicle. The microfossils are interpreted as phycomata of a prasinophycean green alga based on morphological similarities to Pterospermella, a microfossil similar to phycoma stages of the extant Pterosperma (Pyramimonadales. This report represents the third record of phycomata in the Rhynie chert, suggesting that this Early Devonian ecosystem served as habitat to a variety of prasinophyte algae. Moreover, the new microfossils add to the inventory of fossil freshwater representatives of this predominantly marine group of algae.

  1. Time delay of interplanetary magnetic field penetration into Earth's magnetotail (United States)

    Rong, Z. J.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Wan, W. X.; Yang, Y. Y.; Shen, C.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, T. L.; Wei, Y.


    Many previous studies have demonstrated that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) can control the magnetospheric dynamics. Immediate magnetospheric responses to the external IMF have been assumed for a long time. The specific processes by which IMF penetrates into magnetosphere, however, are actually unclear. Solving this issue will help to accurately interpret the time sequence of magnetospheric activities (e.g., substorm and tail plasmoids) exerted by IMF. With two carefully selected cases, we found that the penetration of IMF into magnetotail is actually delayed by 1-1.5 h, which significantly lags behind the magnetotail response to the solar wind dynamic pressure. The delayed time appears to vary with different auroral convection intensity, which may suggest that IMF penetration in the magnetotail is controlled considerably by the dayside reconnection. Several unfavorable cases demonstrate that the penetration lag time is more clearly identified when storm/substorm activities are not involved.

  2. The time delay of IMF penetration into Earth's magnetotail (United States)

    Rong, Zhaojin; Lui, Anthony; Wan, Weixing; Yang, Yanyan; Shen, Chao; Petrukovich, Anatoli; Zhang, Yongcun; Wei, Yong


    Many previous studies have demonstrated that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) can control the magnetospheric dynamics. Immediate magnetospheric responses to the external IMF have been assumed for a long time. The specific processes by which IMF penetrates into magnetosphere, however, are actually unclear. Solving this issue will help to accurately interpret the time sequence of magnetospheric activities (e.g., substorm and tail plasmoids) exerted by IMF. With two carefully selected cases, we found that the penetration of IMF into magnetotail is actually delayed by 1-1.5 h, which significantly lags behind the magnetotail response to the solar wind dynamic pressure. The delayed time appears to vary with different auroral convection intensity, which may suggest that IMF penetration in the magnetotail is controlled considerably by the dayside reconnection. Several unfavorable cases demonstrate that the penetration lag time is more clearly identified when storm/substorm activities are not involved.

  3. Optimization of the Acetic Acid method for microfossil extraction from lithified carbonate rocks: Examples from the Jurassic and Miocene of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Chan, Septriandi; Malik, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Babalola, Lamidi


    We report the first ever use of the acetic acid processing method for the extraction of microfossils from indurated limestones in Saudi Arabia. Two different limestone samples from Middle Jurassic and Middle Miocene formation in Saudi Arabia were tested under different concentrations of acid from 50% to 100% and with processing times from 2 hours to 10 hours, in an attempt to optimize the processing methodology. The recovery of acid residues shows a similar trend for both Jurassic and Miocene samples. The weight percentage of residue particle size > 1 mm decreases as acid concentration increases, especially in the 50 to 80% acid concentration range, and the weight percentage of the smallest size particles >0.063 mm increases as acid concentration increases. The small fraction of residue between 0.50 - 0.063 mm was split into 3 g subsamples and picked for microfossils in order to assess their preservation. All concentrations of acetic acid tested show promising results for both the Jurassic Dhruma and Miocene Dam formation carbonates. Higher acid concentrations with longer reaction times yield better recovery than higher concentrations with less reaction time. Based on our experiment, we recommended a 60% concentration of acetic acid to be the optimal concentration for use on routine micropaleontological samples of Saudi Arabian carbonate rocks. By lowering the concentration of acetic acid from 80% to 60%, the consumption of acid is reduced without compromising the recovery of microfossils, and the sample can be processed in a more environmentally friendly manner.

  4. Microfossils in the Antarctic cold desert: Possible implications for Mars (United States)

    Friedmann, E. I.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.


    In the Ross Desert of Antarctica, the principal life form is the cryptoendolithic microbial community in the near-surface layers of porous sandstone rocks. Biological, geological, and climatic factors interact in a complex and precarious balance, making life possible in an otherwise hostile environment. Once this balance is tipped, fossilization sets in. In the reverse case, new colonization of the rock surface may be initiated. As a result, fossilization is contemporary with modern life and both may be simultaneously present in a mosaic pattern. Also, different stages of fossilization are present. The process of fossilization takes place in a nonaquatic environment. If primitive life ever appeared on Mars, it is possible that with increasing aridity, life withdrew into an endolithic niche similar to that in the Antarctic desert. Fossilization in a nonaquatic environment may have set in with the result that traces of past life could be preserved. If such was the case, the study of the fossilization process in Antarctica may hold useful information for the analysis of Martian samples for microfossils.

  5. Calcareous microfossil-based orbital cyclostratigraphy in the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Marzen, Rachel E.; DeNinno, Lauren H.; Cronin, Thomas M.


    Microfaunal and geochemical proxies from marine sediment records from central Arctic Ocean (CAO) submarine ridges suggest a close relationship over the last 550 thousand years (kyr) between orbital-scale climatic oscillations, sea-ice cover, marine biological productivity and other parameters. Multiple paleoclimate proxies record glacial to interglacial cycles. To understand the climate-cryosphere-productivity relationship, we examined the cyclostratigraphy of calcareous microfossils and constructed a composite Arctic Paleoclimate Index (API) "stack" from benthic foraminiferal and ostracode density from 14 sediment cores. Following the hypothesis that API is driven mainly by changes in sea-ice related productivity, the API stack shows the Arctic experienced a series of highly productive interglacials and interstadials every ∼20 kyr. These periods signify minimal ice shelf and sea-ice cover and maximum marine productivity. Rapid transitions in productivity are seen during shifts from interglacial to glacial climate states. Discrepancies between the Arctic API curves and various global climatic, sea-level and ice-volume curves suggest abrupt growth and decay of Arctic ice shelves related to climatic and sea level oscillations.

  6. Calcareous microfossil-based orbital cyclostratigraphy in the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Marzen, Rachel; DeNinno, Lauren H.; Cronin, Thomas M.


    Microfaunal and geochemical proxies from marine sediment records from central Arctic Ocean (CAO) submarine ridges suggest a close relationship over the last 550 thousand years (kyr) between orbital-scale climatic oscillations, sea-ice cover, marine biological productivity and other parameters. Multiple paleoclimate proxies record glacial to interglacial cycles. To understand the climate-cryosphere-productivity relationship, we examined the cyclostratigraphy of calcareous microfossils and constructed a composite Arctic Paleoclimate Index (API) "stack" from benthic foraminiferal and ostracode density from 14 sediment cores. Following the hypothesis that API is driven mainly by changes in sea-ice related productivity, the API stack shows the Arctic experienced a series of highly productive interglacials and interstadials every ∼20 kyr. These periods signify minimal ice shelf and sea-ice cover and maximum marine productivity. Rapid transitions in productivity are seen during shifts from interglacial to glacial climate states. Discrepancies between the Arctic API curves and various global climatic, sea-level and ice-volume curves suggest abrupt growth and decay of Arctic ice shelves related to climatic and sea level oscillations.

  7. Laser propulsion to earth orbit. Has its time come? (United States)

    Kantrowitz, Arthur


    Recent developments in high energy lasers, adaptive optics, and atmospheric transmission bring laser propulsion much closer to realization. Proposed here is a reference vehicle for study which consists of payload and solid propellant (e.g. ice). A suitable laser pulse is proposed for using a Laser Supported Detonation wave to produce thrust efficiently. It seems likely that a minimum system (10 Mw CO2 laser and 10 m dia. mirror) could be constructed for about $150 M. This minimum system could launch payloads of about 13 kg to a 400 km orbit every 10 minutes. The annual launch capability would be about 683 tons times the duty factor. Laser propulsion would be an order of magnitude cheaper than chemical rockets if the duty factor was 20 percent (10,000 launches/yr). Launches beyond that would be even cheaper. The chief problem which needs to be addressed before these possibilities could be realized is the design of a propellant to turn laser energy into thrust efficiently and to withstand the launch environment.

  8. Temporal Patterns in Diversity Change on Earth Over Time (United States)

    Bambach, Richard


    Multi-celled animals and plants did not originate until about 600 million years ago. Since then the diversity of life has expanded greatly, but this has not been a monotonic increase. Diversity, as taxonomic variety or richness, is produced by the interaction of origination and extinction. Origination and extinction are almost equally balanced; it has taken 600 million years to accumulate 10 to 30 million living species. With most species life spans in the range of one to fifteen million years most species that have ever originated are extinct and global diversity has “turned over” many times. Paleontologists recognize about 18 short-term events of elevated extinction intensity and diversity loss of sufficient magnitude to warrant the term “mass extinction.” Interestingly, in only one instance, the end-Cretaceous extinction, is there a consensus for the triggering event, but the kill mechanism or mechanisms that caused the widespread death of lineages is not established. We know less about the cause-effect relationships for other events. Recently a 62 million-year periodicity in the fluctuation of diversity has been documented, expressed primarily in the variation of diversity of marine genera that survived 45 million years or less. Analysis of the pattern of diversity change at the finest temporal scale possible suggests that the short-term mass extinctions are superimposed on this regular pattern of diversity fluctuations, rather than causal of them. However, most mass extinctions (14 of 18) occurred during the intervals of general diversity loss. It remains to be seen how origination and extinction interact to produce the periodic fluctuation in diversity.

  9. Microfossils, biomolecules and biominerals in carbonaceous meteorites: implications to the origin of life (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM and FESEM) investigations have shown that a wide variety of carbonaceous meteorites contain the remains of large filaments embedded within freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorite rock matrix. The filaments occur singly or in dense assemblages and mats and are often encased within carbon-rich, electron transparent sheaths. Electron Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) spot analysis and 2D X-Ray maps indicate the filaments rarely have detectable nitrogen levels and exhibit elemental compositions consistent with that interpretation that of the meteorite rock matrix. Many of the meteorite filaments are exceptionally well-preserved and show evidence of cells, cell-wall constrictions and specialized cells and processes for reproduction, nitrogen fixation, attachment and motility. Morphological and morphometric analyses permit many of the filaments to be associated with morphotypes of known genera and species of known filamentous trichomic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria and sulfur bacteria). The presence in carbonaceous meteorites of diagenetic breakdown products of chlorophyll (pristane and phytane) along with indigenous and extraterrestrial chiral protein amino acids, nucleobases and other life-critical biomolecules provides strong support to the hypothesis that these filaments represent the remains of cyanobacteria and other microorganisms that grew on the meteorite parent body. The absence of other life-critical biomolecules in the meteorites and the lack of detectable levels of nitrogen indicate the filaments died long ago and can not possibly represent modern microbial contaminants that entered the stones after they arrived on Earth. This paper presents new evidence for microfossils, biomolecules and biominerals in carbonaceous meteorites and considers the implications to some of the major hypotheses for the Origin of Life.

  10. Time and Energy, Exploring Trajectory Options Between Nodes in Earth-Moon Space (United States)

    Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob


    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) was released by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) in September of 2011. It describes mission scenarios that begin with the International Space Station and utilize it to demonstrate necessary technologies and capabilities prior to deployment of systems into Earth-Moon space. Deployment of these systems is an intermediate step in preparation for more complex deep space missions to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. In one of the scenarios described in the GER, "Asteroid Next", there are activities that occur in Earth-Moon space at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange (libration) points. In this regard, the authors examine the possible role of an intermediate staging point in an effort to illuminate potential trajectory options for conducting missions in Earth-Moon space of increasing duration, ultimately leading to deep space missions. This paper will describe several options for transits between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the libration points, transits between libration points, and transits between the libration points and interplanetary trajectories. The solution space provided will be constrained by selected orbital mechanics design techniques and physical characteristics of hardware to be used in both crewed missions and uncrewed missions. The relationships between time and energy required to transfer hardware between these locations will provide a better understanding of the potential trade-offs mission planners could consider in the development of capabilities, individual missions, and mission series in the context of the ISECG GER.

  11. Microfossils of filamentous prokaryotes in CI1 and CM2 meteorites (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) studies of recently obtained samples of Orgueil, Ivuna and Murchison meteorites have provided further evidence for the existence of indigenous filamentous microfossils embedded in the mineral matrix of CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) spot data and 2-D elemental X-ray maps establish that the nitrogen and sulphur content of the forms found in the meteorites are dramatically different from modern prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. These results are interpreted as providing additional evidence for the existence of a complex suite of indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites.

  12. How Successful Has Earth Science Education Been in Teaching Deep Time and Terminology of the Earth's Structure? (United States)

    Murphy, Phil


    A very limited questioning of undergraduate Environmental Science students at the start of their studies suggests the age of the Earth is being successfully taught in high schools. The same cannot be said for the teaching of the structure of the Earth.

  13. Possible Microfossils (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, Australia, approximately 3.3 - 3.5 Ga) (United States)

    Morris, P. A.; Wentworth, S. J.; Allen, C. C.; McKay, D. S.


    Early in the twentieth century there were reports of Archean stromatolite-like structures that were similar to organic rich stromatolites from the base of the Cambrian (600 m.y.). It was not until the latter half of this century that fossilized Archean-age (3.9-2.5 Ga) life forms were found in the Fig Tree Formation of South Africa and the Towers Formation of Australia. Some of the ancient stromatolites contained streaks and clots of kerogen, pyrite grains, remnants of microbial cells, and filaments that represented various stages of preservation, while others appeared to lack fossils. A set of physical criteria was established for evaluating the biogenicity of these Archean discoveries: (1) rocks of unquestionable Archean age; (2) microfossils indigenous to Archean sediments; and (3) microfossils occurring in clasts that are syngenetic with deposition of the sedimentary unit. In the case of bedded cherts, the fossils should predate the cherts; (4) the microfossils are biogenic; and (5) replicate sampling of the fossil-iferous outcrop firmly demonstrates the provenance of these microfossils. Sample 002 from the Precambrian Paleobiology Research Group (PPRG) was examined. This stromatolitic carbonaceous chert contains microbial remains that meet the established criteria [10]. Using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), we have analyzed the morphologies and chemistry of these possible microbial remains.

  14. Long Mantle Mixing Times for the early Earth Inferred from Convection Models with Grain-Damage (United States)

    Foley, B. J.; Rizo, H.


    Mantle dynamics on the Hadean and Archean Earth, particularly whether plate tectonics was in operation or not, is hotly debated. One important constraint comes from evidence for long mantle mixing timescales in the early Earth based on observations of early-formed geochemical heterogeneities. Specifically, 142Nd anomalies recorded in 3.8 to 3.4 Ga rocks from southwest Greenland [e.g. 1] and 2.7 Ga rocks from the Superior Province (Canada) [2] indicate that chemically heterogeneous reservoirs, formed during the first ~ 10-100 million years of Earths' history, survived their remixing into the mantle for over 1 Gyr. Such a long mantle mixing time is difficult to explain with a traditional model of plate tectonics, where plate speeds increase significantly in the past due to a hotter mantle, thus prompting appeals to stagnant lid convection on the early Earth [e.g. 2]. However, a new model for generating plate tectonics from mantle convection based on grainsize reduction (called grain-damage) proposes that plate speeds may have decreased with increasing mantle temperature. Higher mantle temperatures lead to higher grain-growth rates that inhibit the formation of weak lithospheric shear zones. As a result, plate boundaries are more viscous and provide a stronger resistance to plate motions, and thus mantle-mixing times in the mobile lid regime may still be long even at Hadean or Archean mantle temperatures. We use new numerical models of convection with grain-damage to constrain mantle-mixing times for the early Earth with the effects of grainsize variation included. We find that mantle mixing times for mobile lid convection remain long as mantle temperature increases because of faster grain-growth rates in the mantle and lithosphere. Therefore the preservation of chemical heterogeneities for over 1 Gyr in the Hadean-Archean mantle is not inconsistent with the operation of mobile lid convection and subduction at this time. Early Earth subduction may still have differed

  15. Facilitating Identification of Poorly Preserved Marine Microfossils through 3D Printing (United States)

    Christensen, R. V.; Robinson, M. M.; Sessa, J.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a period of sudden and intense global warming that occurred 56 Myr, and is widely considered a possible analogue for future climatic changes. Marine microfossils are important proxies used in the reconstruction of PETM paleoenvironments and paleoclimate. The correct species-level identification of foraminifera and pteropod specimens is necessary to understand ocean temperature, chemistry, nutrient availability, and ecosystem structure during this hyperthermal event. During periods of extreme or rapid environmental perturbations foraminifera can be poorly preserved. Pteropod identification is equally challenging as aragonitic shells are vulnerable to changing ocean acidity and often only internal molds are left to be identified. The macroscopic rendering of the internal and external test morphology of marine microfossils via 3D printing allows for a more experiential species-recognition education, especially of difficult to identify specimens. A selected microfossil specimen is scanned using computerized tomography (CT), creating x-ray slices of the specimen that are then processed into a digital model. The digitized fossil can then be analyzed using 3D software and subsequently printed using a wide variety of materials. The magnified model can be easily manipulated in a student's hand, and thus can be studied in a more visible and tactile way than traditional methods allow. This invaluable teaching tool physically manifests what was previously limited to textbook images and illustrations or the view field of a microscope. We show the step-by-step 3-D printing process of several PETM marine microfossil specimens from CT scans and demonstrate their advantage over 2-D SEM images for learning to identify microfossils to the species level. In addition, we provide samples to demonstrate the utility of 3-D models in identifying poorly preserved foraminifer specimens and species of pteropods from internal molds.

  16. Land and Atmosphere Near-Real-Time Capability for Earth Observing System (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin J.


    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near-real-time data from satellite sensors. The EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) was not originally designed to provide data with sufficiently low latency to satisfy the requirements for near-real-time users. The EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments aboard the Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites make global measurements daily, which are processed into higher-level 'standard' products within 8-40 hours of observation and then made available to users, primarily earth science researchers. However, applications users, operational agencies, and even researchers desire EOS products in near-real-time to support research and applications, including numerical weather and climate prediction and forecasting, monitoring of natural hazards, ecological/invasive species, agriculture, air quality, disaster relief and homeland security. These users often need data much sooner than routine science processing allows, usually within 3 hours, and are willing to trade science product quality for timely access. While Direct Broadcast provides more timely access to data, it does not provide global coverage. In 2002, a joint initiative between NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), and the DOD (Department of Defense) was undertaken to provide data from EOS instruments in near-real-time. The NRTPE (Near Real Time Processing Effort) provided products within 3 hours of observation on a best-effort basis. As the popularity of these near-real-time products and applications grew, multiple near-real-time systems began to spring up such as the Rapid Response System. In recognizing the dependence of customers on this data and the need for highly reliable and timely data access, NASA's Earth Science Division sponsored the Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS)-led development of a new near-real-time system called

  17. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian


    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  18. Excitation of Earth Rotation Variations "Observed" by Time-Variable Gravity (United States)

    Chao, Ben F.; Cox, C. M.


    Time variable gravity measurements have been made over the past two decades using the space geodetic technique of satellite laser ranging, and more recently by the GRACE satellite mission with improved spatial resolutions. The degree-2 harmonic components of the time-variable gravity contain important information about the Earth s length-of-day and polar motion excitation functions, in a way independent to the traditional "direct" Earth rotation measurements made by, for example, the very-long-baseline interferometry and GPS. In particular, the (degree=2, order= 1) components give the mass term of the polar motion excitation; the (2,O) component, under certain mass conservation conditions, gives the mass term of the length-of-day excitation. Combining these with yet another independent source of angular momentum estimation calculated from global geophysical fluid models (for example the atmospheric angular momentum, in both mass and motion terms), in principle can lead to new insights into the dynamics, particularly the role or the lack thereof of the cores, in the excitation processes of the Earth rotation variations.

  19. Creating the Public Connection: Interactive Experiences with Real-Time Earth and Space Science Data (United States)

    Reiff, Patricia H.; Ledley, Tamara S.; Sumners, Carolyn; Wyatt, Ryan


    The Houston Museum of Natural Sciences is less than two miles from Rice University, a major hub on the Internet. This project links these two institutions so that NASA real-time data and imagery can flow via Rice to the Museum where it reaches the public in the form of planetarium programs, computer based interactive kiosks, and space and Earth science problem solving simulation. Through this program at least 200,000 visitors annually (including every 4th and 7th grader in the Houston Independent School District) will have direct exposure to the Earth and space research being conducted by NASA and available over the Internet. Each information conduit established between Rice University and the Houston Museum of Natural Science will become a model for public information dissemination that can be replicated nationally in museums, planetariums, Challenger Centers, and schools.

  20. Quaternary and Tertiary microfossils from beneath Ice Stream B: Evidence for a dynamic West Antarctic Ice Sheet history (United States)

    Scherer, Reed P.


    Some glaciologists have suggested that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which is grounded well below sea level, may be susceptible to rapid grounding-line retreat and disintegration. However, until now, geologic evidence of previous ice sheet "collapses" has been lacking. Sediments that have recently been collected from beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet at Ice Stream B contain direct evidence of ice-free conditions in the West Antarctic interior during certain Cenozoic intervals, both prior to and subsequent to the development of grounded ice sheets in West Antarctica. The sediments contain rare but diverse microfossils that represent a wide variety of biostratigraphic ages and depositional environments. Microfossils present include relatively common marine and non-marine diatoms and sponge spicules, plus rare foraminifera, nannofossils, radiolarians, silicoflagellates, chrysophyte cysts and palynomorphs. Clasts of Neogene freshwater diatomite demonstrate the former presence of large lake systems in West Antarctica, possibly as part the Cenozoic West Antarctica rift system. Age-diagnostic marine fossils in the sediment include Late Paleogene calcareous nannofossils and planktonic foraminifera, Miocene marine planktonic diatoms and, significantly, late Pleistocene marine diatoms. Relatively common late Miocene diatoms probably reflect marine deposition prior to initiation of a dominantly glacial phase in West Antarctica. It is likely that Pliocene and early Pleistocene diatoms were deposited in the West Antarctic interior during certain warm interglacials, but these have been eroded and transported toward the continental shelf edge during repeated ice sheet expansions. The late Pleistocene diatoms from Upstream B were deposited in the West Antarctic interior basins during a marine phase, subsequent to an ice sheet collapse, during at least one late Pleistocene interglacial. This discovery provides an indication of the complex history of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

  1. Federated Space-Time Query for Earth Science Data Using OpenSearch Conventions (United States)

    Lynnes, C.; Beaumont, B.; Duerr, R. E.; Hua, H.


    The past decade has seen a burgeoning of remote sensing and Earth science data providers, as evidenced in the growth of the Earth Science Information Partner (ESIP) federation. At the same time, the need to combine diverse data sets to enable understanding of the Earth as a system has also grown. While the expansion of data providers is in general a boon to such studies, the diversity presents a challenge to finding useful data for a given study. Locating all the data files with aerosol information for a particular volcanic eruption, for example, may involve learning and using several different search tools to execute the requisite space-time queries. To address this issue, the ESIP federation is developing a federated space-time query framework, based on the OpenSearch convention (, with Geo and Time extensions. In this framework, data providers publish OpenSearch Description Documents that describe in a machine-readable form how to execute queries against the provider. The novelty of OpenSearch is that the space-time query interface becomes both machine callable and easy enough to integrate into the web browser's search box. This flexibility, together with a simple REST (HTTP-get) interface, should allow a variety of data providers to participate in the federated search framework, from large institutional data centers to individual scientists. The simple interface enables trivial querying of multiple data sources and participation in recursive-like federated searches--all using the same common OpenSearch interface. This simplicity also makes the construction of clients easy, as does existing OpenSearch client libraries in a variety of languages. Moreover, a number of clients and aggregation services already exist and OpenSearch is already supported by a number of web browsers such as Firefox and Internet Explorer.

  2. Geological constraints on Earth system sensitivity to CO2 during glacial and non-glacial times (United States)

    Royer, D. L.; Park, J. J.; Pagani, M.; Beerling, D. J.


    Earth system climate sensitivity (ESS) is the long-term (>103 yr) response of global surface temperature to doubled CO2 that integrates fast and slow climate feedbacks. ESS has energy policy implications because global temperatures are not expected to decline appreciably for many centuries, even if anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions drop to zero. We report ESS estimates for the last 420 Myr of Earth history of 3 °C or higher during many non-glacial times and ~6-8 °C during glacial times. Analyses include both direct comparison of CO2 and temperature records, and fitting Berner's long-term carbon cycle model GEOCARBSULFvolc to proxy CO2 records while using ESS as a tunable parameter (Park & Royer, 2011, American Journal of Science 311: 1-26). Our ESS estimates are generally higher than climate sensitivities simulated from global climate models for the same ancient periods (~3 °C). Our two-fold amplification during glacial times is probably caused by long-term continental ice-sheet dynamics, a mechanism consistent with other studies. Even for non-glacial times, climate models do not capture the full suite of positive climate feedbacks. These absent feedbacks may be related to clouds, trace greenhouse gases, seasonal snow cover, and/or vegetation, especially in polar regions. Better characterization and quantification of these feedbacks is a priority given the current accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases.

  3. International two-way satellite time transfers using INTELSAT space segment and small Earth stations (United States)

    Veenstra, Lester B.


    The satellite operated by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) provides new and unique capabilities for the coordinates of international time scales on a world wide basis using the two-way technique. A network of coordinated clocks using small earth stations collocated with the scales is possible. Antennas as small as 1.8 m at K-band and 3 m at C-band transmitting powers of less than 1 W will provide signals with time jitters of less than 1 ns existing spread spectrum modems. One way time broadcasting is also possible, under the INTELSAT INTELNET system, possibly using existing international data distribution (press and financial) systems that are already operating spread spectrum systems. The technical details of the satellite and requirements on satellite earth stations are given. The resources required for a regular operational international time transfer service are analyzed with respect to the existing international digital service offerings of the INTELSAT Business Service (IBS) and INTELNET. Coverage areas, typical link budgets, and a summary of previous domestic and international work using this technique are provided. Administrative procedures for gaining access to the space segment are outlined. Contact information for local INTELSAT signatories is listed.

  4. Resistant tissues of modern marchantioid liverworts resemble enigmatic Early Paleozoic microfossils. (United States)

    Graham, Linda E; Wilcox, Lee W; Cook, Martha E; Gensel, Patricia G


    Absence of a substantial pretracheophyte fossil record for bryophytes (otherwise predicted by molecular systematics) poses a major problem in our understanding of earliest land-plant structure. In contrast, there exist enigmatic Cambrian-Devonian microfossils (aggregations of tubes or sheets of cells or possibly a combination of both) controversially interpreted as an extinct group of early land plants known as nematophytes. We used an innovative approach to explore these issues: comparison of tube and cell-sheet microfossils with experimentally degraded modern liverworts as analogues of ancient early land plants. Lower epidermal surface tissues, including rhizoids, of Marchantia polymorpha and Conocephalum conicum were resistant to breakdown after rotting for extended periods or high-temperature acid treatment (acetolysis), suggesting fossilization potential. Cell-sheet and rhizoid remains occurred separately or together depending on the degree of body degradation. Rhizoid break-off at the lower epidermal surface left rimmed pores at the centers of cell rosettes; these were similar in structure, diameter, and distribution to pores characterizing nematophyte cell-sheet microfossils known as Cosmochlaina. The range of Marchantia rhizoid diameters overlapped that of Cosmochlaina pores. Approximately 14% of dry biomass of Marchantia vegetative thalli and 40% of gametangiophores was resistant to acetolysis. Pre- and posttreatment cell-wall autofluorescence suggested the presence of phenolic compounds that likely protect lower epidermal tissues from soil microbe attack and provide dimensional stability to gametangiophores. Our results suggest that at least some microfossils identified as nematophytes may be the remains of early marchantioid liverworts similar in some ways to modern Marchantia and Conocephalum.

  5. Using Soft Sculpture Microfossils and Other Crafted Models to Teach Geoscience (United States)

    Spinak, N. R.


    For the past 5 years, the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) has been using the author's sewn models of microfossils to help learners understand the shapes and design of these tiny fossils. These tactile objects make the study of ancient underwater life more tangible. Multiple studies have shown that interactive models can help many learners understand science. The Montessori and Waldorf education programs are based in large part on earlier insights into meeting these needs. The act of drawing has been an essential part of medical education. The STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math) movement has advocated for STEM supporters to recognize the inseparability of science and art. This presentation describes how the author's knitted or sewn models of microfossils incorporate art and design into geoscience education. The geoscience research and art processes used in developing and creating these educational soft sculptures will be described. In multiple entry points to science study, specific reciprocal benefits to boundary crossing among the arts and sciences for those who have primary talents in a particular area of study will be discussed. Geoscience education can benefit from using art and craft items such as models. Many websites now offer soft sculptures for biology study such as organs and germs (e.g. ( The Wortheim project involving community and crochet is another approach ( These tactile artifacts give learners an entry-level experience with biology. Three dimensional models are multisensory. The enlarged manipulative microfossil models invite learners to make comparisons and gain insights when microscopes are not available or appropriate for the audience. Adding the physical involvement of creating a microfossil yourself increases the multi-sensory experience even further. Learning craft skills extends the cross-cutting concepts of the NGSS to a mutual

  6. Uncertainty in Earthquake Source Imaging Due to Variations in Source Time Function and Earth Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Razafindrakoto, H. N. T.


    One way to improve the accuracy and reliability of kinematic earthquake source imaging is to investigate the origin of uncertainty and to minimize their effects. The difficulties in kinematic source inversion arise from the nonlinearity of the problem, nonunique choices in the parameterization, and observational errors. We analyze particularly the uncertainty related to the choice of the source time function (STF) and the variability in Earth structure. We consider a synthetic data set generated from a spontaneous dynamic rupture calculation. Using Bayesian inference, we map the solution space of peak slip rate, rupture time, and rise time to characterize the kinematic rupture in terms of posterior density functions. Our test to investigate the effect of the choice of STF reveals that all three tested STFs (isosceles triangle, regularized Yoffe with acceleration time of 0.1 and 0.3 s) retrieve the patch of high slip and slip rate around the hypocenter. However, the use of an isosceles triangle as STF artificially accelerates the rupture to propagate faster than the target solution. It additionally generates an artificial linear correlation between rupture onset time and rise time. These appear to compensate for the dynamic source effects that are not included in the symmetric triangular STF. The exact rise time for the tested STFs is difficult to resolve due to the small amount of radiated seismic moment in the tail of STF. To highlight the effect of Earth structure variability, we perform inversions including the uncertainty in the wavespeed only, and variability in both wavespeed and layer depth. We find that little difference is noticeable between the resulting rupture model uncertainties from these two parameterizations. Both significantly broaden the posterior densities and cause faster rupture propagation particularly near the hypocenter due to the major velocity change at the depth where the fault is located.

  7. STEPPE: Supporting collaborative research and education on Earth's deep-time sedimentary crust. (United States)

    Smith, D. M.


    STEPPE—Sedimentary geology, Time, Environment, Paleontology, Paleoclimate, and Energy—is a National Science Foundation supported consortium whose mission is to promote multidisciplinary research and education on Earth's deep-time sedimentary crust. Deep-time sedimentary crust research includes many specialty areas—biology, geography, ecology, paleontology, sedimentary geology, stratigraphy, geochronology, paleoclimatology, sedimentary geochemistry, and more. In fact, the diversity of disciplines and size of the community (roughly one-third of Earth-science faculty in US universities) itself has been a barrier to the formation of collaborative, multidisciplinary teams in the past. STEPPE has been working to support new research synergies and the development of infrastructure that will encourage the community to think about the big problems that need to be solved and facilitate the formation of collaborative research teams to tackle these problems. Toward this end, STEPPE is providing opportunities for workshops, working groups and professional development training sessions, web-hosting and database services and an online collaboration platform that facilitates interaction among participants, the sharing of documentation and workflows and an ability to push news and reports to group participants and beyond using social media tools. As such, STEPPE is working to provide an interactive space that will serve as both a gathering place and clearinghouse for information, allowing for broader integration of research and education across all STEPPE-related sub disciplines.

  8. Large spinose microfossils in Ediacaran rocks as resting stages of early animals. (United States)

    Cohen, Phoebe A; Knoll, Andrew H; Kodner, Robin B


    Large (>100 microm), profusely ornamented microfossils comprise a distinctive paleontological component of sedimentary rocks deposited during the Ediacaran Period (635-542 million years ago). Smaller spinose fossils in Paleozoic rocks have commonly been interpreted as algal cysts or phycomata, but the Ediacaran populations differ from modern algal analogs in size, shape, ultrastructure, and internal contents. In contrast, cysts formed during the diapause egg-resting stages of many metazoans share features of size, ornamentation, and internal contents with large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs). Moreover, transmission electron microscopic observations of animal-resting cysts reveal a 3-layer wall ultrastructure comparable to that of LOEM taxa. Interpretation of these distinctive Ediacaran microfossils as resting stages in early metazoan life cycles offers additional perspectives on their functional morphology and stratigraphic distribution. Based on comparisons with modern marine invertebrates, the recalcitrant life stage represented by LOEMs is interpreted as an evolutionary response to prolonged episodes of bottom water anoxia in Ediacaran shelf and platform environments. As predicted by this hypothesis, the later Ediacaran disappearance of LOEM taxa coincides with geochemical evidence for a marked decline in the extent of oxygen-depleted waters impinging on continental shelves and platforms. Thus, the form, diversity, and stratigraphic range of LOEMs illuminate life cycle evolution in early animals as influenced by the evolving redox state of the oceans.

  9. Magnetic Local Time dependency in modeling of the Earth radiation belts (United States)

    Herrera, Damien; Maget, Vincent; Bourdarie, Sébastien; Rolland, Guy


    For many years, ONERA has been at the forefront of the modeling of the Earth radiation belts thanks to the Salammbô model, which accurately reproduces their dynamics over a time scale of the particles' drift period. This implies that we implicitly assume an homogeneous repartition of the trapped particles along a given drift shell. However, radiation belts are inhomogeneous in Magnetic Local Time (MLT). So, we need to take this new coordinate into account to model rigorously the dynamical structures, particularly induced during a geomagnetic storm. For this purpose, we are working on both the numerical resolution of the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation included in the model and on the MLT dependency of physic-based processes acting in the Earth radiation belts. The aim of this talk is first to present the 4D-equation used and the different steps we used to build Salammbô 4D model before focusing on physical processes taken into account in the Salammbô code, specially transport due to convection electric field. Firstly, we will briefly introduce the Salammbô 4D code developped by talking about its numerical scheme and physic-based processes modeled. Then, we will focus our attention on the impact of the outer boundary condition (localisation and spectrum) at lower L∗ shell by comparing modeling performed with geosynchronous data from LANL-GEO satellites. Finally, we will discuss the prime importance of the convection electric field to the radial and drift transport of low energy particles around the Earth.

  10. Antarctic Rebound and the Time-Dependence of the Earth's Shape (United States)

    Ivins, Erik R.; James, Thomas S.


    Great strides have been made during the past 30 years in refining models of the last global glaciation. The refinements draw upon a vastly expanded relative sea level and sedimentary core record. Furthermore, we now possess a sharpened understanding of the mechanisms that drive climate changes associated with deglaciation. Some 15 years ago, using only 5.5 years of ranging data, analyses of the drift in LAGEOS I node acceleration was used to infer that postglacial rebound was responsible for a secular change in the Earth's ellipsoidal shape (Yoder et al., .1983]. Today there exists a wealth of geodynamics satellite orbit data that constrain the secular time-dependence of the Earth's shape and low order gravity field, which includes mass redistribution from present-day glacier and great ice sheet imbalance and from postglacial rebound. We have shown that an unambiguous determination of the secular variation in the Earth's pear shaped harmonic (l = 3, m = 0) might provide information that bears on the present-day mass balance of Antarctica. This issue is revisited in light of new constraints on glacial loading during the late-Pleistocene and Holocene. An especially critical issue for the interpretation of secular odd degree zonal harmonics, l = 3 to 7, is the timing and magnitude of the deglaciation of Antarctica from Last Glacial Maximum. We explore ways in which the recovery of secular variation in both zonal and non-zonal harmonics for l = 2 through 7 can improve constraints on both rebound and present-day ice sheet balance.

  11. Earth System Models Underestimate Soil Carbon Diagnostic Times in Dry and Cold Regions. (United States)

    Jing, W.; Xia, J.; Zhou, X.; Huang, K.; Huang, Y.; Jian, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xu, X.; Liang, J.; Wang, Y. P.; Luo, Y.


    Soils contain the largest organic carbon (C) reservoir in the Earth's surface and strongly modulate the terrestrial feedback to climate change. Large uncertainty exists in current Earth system models (ESMs) in simulating soil organic C (SOC) dynamics, calling for a systematic diagnosis on their performance based on observations. Here, we built a global database of SOC diagnostic time (i.e.,turnover times; τsoil) measured at 320 sites with four different approaches. We found that the estimated τsoil was comparable among approaches of 14C dating () (median with 25 and 75 percentiles), 13C shifts due to vegetation change () and the ratio of stock over flux (), but was shortest from laboratory incubation studies (). The state-of-the-art ESMs underestimated the τsoil in most biomes, even by >10 and >5 folds in cold and dry regions, respectively. Moreover,we identified clear negative dependences of τsoil on temperature and precipitation in both of the observational and modeling results. Compared with Community Land Model (version 4), the incorporation of soil vertical profile (CLM4.5) could substantially extend the τsoil of SOC. Our findings suggest the accuracy of climate-C cycle feedback in current ESMs could be enhanced by an improved understanding of SOC dynamics under the limited hydrothermal conditions.

  12. A new time tree reveals Earth history's imprint on the evolution of modern birds. (United States)

    Claramunt, Santiago; Cracraft, Joel


    Determining the timing of diversification of modern birds has been difficult. We combined DNA sequences of clock-like genes for most avian families with 130 fossil birds to generate a new time tree for Neornithes and investigated their biogeographic and diversification dynamics. We found that the most recent common ancestor of modern birds inhabited South America around 95 million years ago, but it was not until the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition (66 million years ago) that Neornithes began to diversify rapidly around the world. Birds used two main dispersion routes: reaching the Old World through North America, and reaching Australia and Zealandia through Antarctica. Net diversification rates increased during periods of global cooling, suggesting that fragmentation of tropical biomes stimulated speciation. Thus, we found pervasive evidence that avian evolution has been influenced by plate tectonics and environmental change, two basic features of Earth's dynamics.

  13. Relative time and frequency alignment between two low Earth orbiters, GRACE (United States)

    Bertiger, W.; Dunn, C.; Harris, I.; Kruizinga, G.; Romans, L.; Watkins, M.; Wu, S.


    The two GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) spacecraft were launched into a near polar circular orbit around the earth in March of 2002. The two spacecraft serve as test masses to measure the Earth's gravitational field.

  14. A new plant assemblage (microfossil and megafossil) from the Lower Old Red Sandstone of the Anglo-Welsh Basin: its implications for the palaeoecology of early terrestrial ecosystems. (United States)

    Wellman; Habgood; Jenkins; Richardson


    Lower Old Red Sandstone deposits penetrated by a series of cored boreholes near Newport (South Wales) have been sedimentologically logged, and recovered plant assemblages (microfossil and megafossil) investigated. Sedimentological logging indicates that the deposits are typical of the extensive terrestrial-fluviatile floodplain deposits of the Anglo-Welsh Basin. Palynomorph assemblages have been recovered from a number of horizons and comprise entirely terrestrial forms (spores and phytodebris). They essentially represent a single assemblage, belonging to the middle subzone of the micrornatus-newportensis sporomorph assemblage biozone, and indicate an Early Devonian (mid-Lochkovian) age. The new biostratigraphical data enables correlation with other Lower Old Red Sandstone deposits of the Anglo-Welsh Basin, and the deposits are assigned to the lower part of the St. Maughan's Group. A plant megafossil/mesofossil assemblage recovered from one of the spore-bearing horizons includes a zosterophyll assigned to Zosterophyllum cf. fertile. This is the earliest reported zosterophyll from the Anglo-Welsh Basin. The new palynological/palaeobotanical data provide important information on the palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the vegetation of the southeastern margin of the Old Red Sandstone continent during Lochkovian times. Palaeogeographical variation in the distribution of plant microfossils and megafossils is interpreted as reflecting differences between the flora of the lowland floodplain and inland intermontaine basins, although this is to a certain extent overprinted by variation due to localized differences in environmental conditions.

  15. Near real-time qualitative monitoring of lake water chlorophyll globally using GoogleEarth Engine (United States)

    Zlinszky, András; Supan, Peter; Koma, Zsófia


    Monitoring ocean chlorophyll and suspended sediment has been made possible using optical satellite imaging, and has contributed immensely to our understanding of the Earth and its climate. However, lake water quality monitoring has limitations due to the optical complexity of shallow, sediment- and organic matter-laden waters. Meanwhile, timely and detailed information on basic lake water quality parameters would be essential for sustainable management of inland waters. Satellite-based remote sensing can deliver area-covering, high resolution maps of basic lake water quality parameters, but scientific application of these datasets for lake monitoring has been hindered by limitations to calibration and accuracy evaluation, and therefore access to such data has been the privilege of scientific users. Nevertheless, since for many inland waters satellite imaging is the only source of monitoring data, we believe it is urgent to make map products of chlorophyll and suspended sediment concentrations available to a wide range of users. Even if absolute accuracy can not be validated, patterns, processes and qualitative information delivered by such datasets in near-real time can act as an early warning system, raise awareness to water quality processes and serve education, in addition to complementing local monitoring activities. By making these datasets openly available on the internet through an easy to use framework, dialogue between stakeholders, management and governance authorities can be facilitated. We use GoogleEarthEngine to access and process archive and current satellite data. GoogleEarth Engine is a development and visualization framework that provides access to satellite datasets and processing capacity for analysis at the Petabyte scale. Based on earlier investigations, we chose the fluorescence line height index to represent water chlorophyll concentration. This index relies on the chlorophyll fluorescence peak at 680 nm, and has been tested for open ocean

  16. Is there a connection between Earth's core and climate at multidecadal time scales? (United States)

    Lambert, Sébastien; Marcus, Steven; de Viron, Olivier


    The length-of-day (LOD) undergoes multidecadal variations of several milliseconds (ms) attributed to changes in the fluid outer core angular momentum. These variations resemble a quasi-periodic oscillation of duration 60 to 70 years, although the periodicity (and its accurate length) are disputable because of the relatively short observational time span and the lower quality of the observations before the 20th century. Interestingly, similar variations show up in various measured or reconstructed climate indices including the sea surface (SST) and surface air (SAT) temperatures. It has been shown in several studies that LOD variations lead SST and SAT variations by a few years. No clear scenarios have been raised so far to explain the link between external, astronomical forcing (e.g., Solar wind), Earth's rotation (core-driven torsional) oscillations, and Earth's surface processes (climate variations) at these time scales. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests the centrifugal tides generated by multidecadal LOD variations as a 'valve' to control the transfer of thermal energy from the lithosphere to the surface via geothermal fluxes. This hypothesis is supported by recent studies reporting significant correlations between tidal and rotational excitation and seafloor and surface volcanism. In this study, we extend recent works from us and other independent authors by re-assessing the correlations between multidecadal LOD, climate indices, Solar and magnetic activities, as well as gridded data including SST, SAT, and cloud cover. We pay a special attention to the time lags: when a significant correlation is found, the value of the lag may help to discriminate between various possible scenarios. We locate some `hot spots', particularly in the Atlantic ocean and along the trajectory of the upper branch of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), where the 70-yr oscillation is strongly marked. In addition, we discuss the possibility for centrifugal

  17. Hydrostatic-Season-Time model for Montedoglio earth dam (Italy) rapid drawdown (United States)

    Rossi, Giuseppe; Lucioli, Elisa; Caporali, Enrica


    Understanding the long-term behaviour of an earth dam is essential to interpret the measured data, in order to be able to distinguish the deformations caused by irreversible events and factors as the ageing of the dam in order to ensure its structural safety. Moreover, detecting alarming behaviour on time is difficult because the effects of the involved processes are correlated. In order to minimize the uncertainty in data interpretation, a continuous monitoring and a numerical modelling of the pressures in dam body, is required. The polynomial Hydrostatic-Season-Time (HST) model is applied in order to individuate the correlation between the variation of the pore pressures measured by the piezometers and by manometers and the variation of the water level in the reservoir. The HST model allows to evaluate the long term behaviour of earth dam considering three main components: effects of the reservoir level, seasonal effects, the time drift and the rainfall. This last term must be taken into account when analysing hydraulic related measurements. In the night between 29th and 30th December 2010 during the filling test of the reservoir an incident occurred to the main body of the Montedoglio earth dam, located in Sansepolcro, Tuscany (Italy). Using the HST Model, this study aims to assess the behaviour of the dam core during the rapid drawdown that follows the event. The applicability of the model is verified with a finite elements method passing through different steps. At first step a simplified levee scheme and a simplified hydrograph of the reservoir level are used to determine the flow line with the solver. The results are compared with the ones estimated through the Pavlovsky method. Then the real model of the levee and the real hydrograph of the reservoir level are utilized to find a second flow line. This line is compared with the real pore pressure measurements to obtain the validation of the solver model and then with the HST predicted values. The obtained

  18. On the nature of gravity and possible change of Earth mass during geological time (United States)

    Sapunov, Valentin


    A number of circumstances can't be explained based on view of the constant force of gravity on the Earth: 1. Dimensions of fossil animals and plants. According to the laws of biomechanics of the giant dinosaurs could not move and fly. 2. The movement of continents, reliably described by A.Vegener, can only be explained on the basis of the model increasing the Earth. Gravity is only one of the fields that define the existence of the world. Field and matter are forms that can be converted into each other. Transition is described, in particular, by Poincare, perhaps not quite accurate: E = (K) mc2. There are indications of the existence of the time field (Kozyrev, 1978), which generates energy, and then the following conditional equation: T, where T is a time. Through this relationship generated energy glow of stars and planets, the mass increases. In particular, there is an increase in the mass of the Earth. This confirms the divergence of the continents and reducing the size of the animals and plants in the Earth's history. According to presented model, the size of Earth increased during 100 millions years two times in linear scale and 8 times in volume and mass scales. Understanding of general principle of space development needs collaboration of different specialists and branches of geosciences. The basis of possible scheme is: 1. The nature of gravity is not explained by science, although some of its properties are described with high accuracy, and these descriptions have predictive power. Indeed, what attracted threads of the body without physical contact? 2. The velocity of propagation of gravitational forces in the universe is many times the speed of light. Perhaps it is infinite, although it is not proven. 3. The universe is infinite, as is clear from logical calculations thinkers more ancient period. However, our universe, i.e. of the universe, available to our senses and instruments, is finite. The volume of our universe is 1070 cubic kilometers. The total

  19. Multi-scale modeling of Earth's gravity field in space and time (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Panet, Isabelle; Ramillien, Guillaume; Guilloux, Frédéric


    Since 2002, the GRACE mission has been providing an unprecedented view of the Earth's gravity field spatial and temporal variations. The gravity field models built from these satellite data are essential in order to study the mass redistributions within the Earth system. Often, they are modelled using spatial functions, such as spherical harmonics, averaged over a fixed time window. However, the satellite sampling naturally leads to a trade-off between the achievable spatial and temporal resolutions. In addition, the gravity variations are made of local components in space and time, reflecting the superimposition of sources. With the final aim to better estimate gravity variations related to local processes at different spatial and temporal scales, and adapt the temporal resolution of the model to its spatial resolution, we present an attempt at 4D gravity field modelling using localized functions in space and time. For that, we develop a four-dimensional wavelet basis, well localized in space and time and orthogonal in time. We then analyze the inverse problem of 4D gravity field estimation from GRACE synthetic inter-satellites potential differences along the orbit, and its regularization in a Bayesian framework, using a prior knowledge on the mass sources. We then test our approach in a simplified synthetic test setting, where only one mass source is present: hydrological mass variations over Africa during the year 2005. Applying a purely regional approach, we are able to reconstruct, regionally, the water height signal with a ≈2.5 cm accuracy at 450 km, 21 days resolution. We test the influence of the geophysical prior on this result, and conclude that it cannot explain alone the residuals between original and reconstructed mass signal. redIn contrast, an ideal test case with a perfect adequacy between the 4D basis and the synthetic data, without approximations nor regularization in solving the normal system, leads to a significantly improved reconstruction of

  20. Precision Assessment of Near Real Time Precise Orbit Determination for Low Earth Orbiter (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Yeoun; Lee, Sang-Jeong


    The precise orbit determination (POD) of low earth orbiter (LEO) has complied with its required positioning accuracy by the double-differencing of observations between International GNSS Service (IGS) and LEO to eliminate the common clock error of the global positioning system (GPS) satellites and receiver. Using this method, we also have achieved the 1 m positioning accuracy of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT)-2. However double-differencing POD has huge load of processing the global network of lots of ground stations because LEO turns around the Earth with rapid velocity. And both the centimeter accuracy and the near real time (NRT) processing have been needed in the LEO POD applications--atmospheric sounding or urgent image processing--as well as the surveying. An alternative to differential GPS for high accuracy NRT POD is precise point positioning (PPP) to use measurements from one satellite receiver only, to replace the broadcast navigation message with precise post processed values from IGS, and to have phase measurements of dual frequency GPS receiver. PPP can obtain positioning accuracy comparable to that of differential positioning. KOMPSAT-5 has a precise dual frequency GPS flight receiver (integrated GPS and occultation receiver, IGOR) to satisfy the accuracy requirements of 20 cm positioning accuracy for highly precise synthetic aperture radar image processing and to collect GPS radio occultation measurements for atmospheric sounding. In this paper we obtained about 3-5 cm positioning accuracies using the real GPS data of the Gravity Recover and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites loaded the Blackjack receiver, a predecessor of IGOR. And it is important to reduce the latency of orbit determination processing in the NRT POD. This latency is determined as the volume of GPS measurements. Thus changing the sampling intervals, we show their latency to able to reduce without the precision degradation as the assessment of their precision.

  1. The Potential of Time Series Based Earth Observation for the Monitoring of Large River Deltas (United States)

    Kuenzer, C.; Leinenkugel, P.; Huth, J.; Ottinger, M.; Renaud, F.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Vo Khac, T.; Trinh Thi, L.; Dech, S.; Koch, P.; Le Tissier, M.


    Although river deltas only contribute 5% to the overall land surface, nearly six hundred million people live in these complex social-ecological environments, which combine a variety of appealing locational advantages. In many countries deltas provide the major national contribution to agricultural and industrial production. At the same time these already very dynamic environments are exposed to a variety of threats, including the disturbance and replacement of valuable ecosystems, increasing water, soil, and air pollution, human induced land subsidence, sea level rise, as well upstream developments impacting water and sediment supplies. A constant monitoring of delta systems is thus of utmost relevance for understanding past and current land surface change and anticipating possible future developments. We present the potential of Earth Observation based analyses and derived novel information products that can play a key role in this context. Along with the current trend of opening up numerous satellite data archives go increasing capabilities to explore big data. Whereas in past decades remote sensing data were analysed based on the spectral-reflectance-defined 'finger print' of individual surfaces, we mainly exploit the 'temporal fingerprints' of our land surface in novel pathways of data analyses at differing spatial-, and temporally-dense scales. Following our results on an Earth Observation based characterization of large deltas globally, we present in depth results from the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, the Yellow River Delta in China, the Niger Delta in Nigeria, as well as additional deltas, focussing on the assessment of river delta flood and inundation dynamics, river delta coastline dynamics, delta morphology dynamics including the quantification of erosion and accretion processes, river delta land use change and trends, as well as the monitoring of compliance to environmental regulations.

  2. Microfossils in the Ordovician erratic boulders from South-western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nõlvak, J.


    Full Text Available Chitinozoans, ostracods and acritarchs found in four glacially transported limestone boulders from the south-western coast of Finland have been studied in order to test the usefulness of these microfossil groups in age determinations. Also rare specimens of conodonts, inarticulated brachiopods and foraminifers were found. Baltic limestone (or Östersjö limestone was the most problematic, because only fossils with calcitic or phosphatic shells are preserved. It is concluded that the boulders identified correlate with the Uhaku and Rakvere stages of the Middle Ordovician.

  3. Investigation of the Geochemical Preservation of ca. 3.0 Ga Permineralized and Encapsulated Microfossils by Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Delarue, Frédéric; Robert, François; Sugitani, Kenichiro; Tartèse, Romain; Duhamel, Rémi; Derenne, Sylvie


    Observations of Archean organic-walled microfossils suggest that their fossilization took place through both encapsulation and permineralization. In this study, we investigated microfossils from the ca. 3.0 Ga Farrel Quartzite (Pilbara, Western Australia) using transmitted light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman microspectrometry, and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) ion microprobe analyses. In contrast to previous studies, we demonstrated that permineralized microfossils were not characterized by the micrometric spatial relationships between Si and C-N as observed in thin sections. Permineralized microfossils are composed of carbonaceous globules that did not survive the acid treatment, whereas encapsulated microfossils were characterized due to their resistance to the acid maceration procedure. We also investigated the microscale relationship between the 12 C 14 N - and 12 C 2 - ion emission as a proxy of the N/C atomic ratio in both permineralized and encapsulated microfossils. After considering any potential matrix and microtopography effects, we demonstrate that the encapsulated microfossils exhibit the highest level of geochemical preservation. This finding shows that the chemical heterogeneity of the microfossils, observed at a spatial resolution of a few hundreds of micrometers, can be related to fossilization processes. Key Words: Carbonaceous matter-Farrel Quartzite-Fossilization-NanoSIMS-Nitrogen-Permineralization. Astrobiology 17, 1192-1202.

  4. Investigation of the Geochemical Preservation of ca. 3.0 Ga Permineralized and Encapsulated Microfossils by Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Delarue, Frédéric; Robert, François; Sugitani, Kenichiro; Tartèse, Romain; Duhamel, Rémi; Derenne, Sylvie


    Observations of Archean organic-walled microfossils suggest that their fossilization took place through both encapsulation and permineralization. In this study, we investigated microfossils from the ca. 3.0 Ga Farrel Quartzite (Pilbara, Western Australia) using transmitted light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman microspectrometry, and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) ion microprobe analyses. In contrast to previous studies, we demonstrated that permineralized microfossils were not characterized by the micrometric spatial relationships between Si and C-N as observed in thin sections. Permineralized microfossils are composed of carbonaceous globules that did not survive the acid treatment, whereas encapsulated microfossils were characterized due to their resistance to the acid maceration procedure. We also investigated the microscale relationship between the 12C14N- and 12C2- ion emission as a proxy of the N/C atomic ratio in both permineralized and encapsulated microfossils. After considering any potential matrix and microtopography effects, we demonstrate that the encapsulated microfossils exhibit the highest level of geochemical preservation. This finding shows that the chemical heterogeneity of the microfossils, observed at a spatial resolution of a few hundreds of micrometers, can be related to fossilization processes.

  5. Mechanisms and time scales of glacial inception simulated with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Calov


    Full Text Available We investigate glacial inception and glacial thresholds in the climate-cryosphere system utilising the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2, which includes modules for atmosphere, terrestrial vegetation, ocean and interactive ice sheets. The latter are described by the three-dimensional polythermal ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS. A bifurcation which represents glacial inception is analysed with two different model setups: one setup with dynamical ice-sheet model and another setup without it. The respective glacial thresholds differ in terms of maximum boreal summer insolation at 65° N (hereafter referred as Milankovitch forcing (MF. The glacial threshold of the configuration without ice-sheet dynamics corresponds to a much lower value of MF compared to the full model. If MF attains values only slightly below the aforementioned threshold there is fast transient response. Depending on the value of MF relative to the glacial threshold, the transient response time of inland-ice volume in the model configuration with ice-sheet dynamics ranges from 10 000 to 100 000 years. Due to these long response times, a glacial threshold obtained in an equilibrium simulation is not directly applicable to the transient response of the climate-cryosphere system to time-dependent orbital forcing. It is demonstrated that in transient simulations just crossing of the glacial threshold does not imply large-scale glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere. We found that in transient simulations MF has to drop well below the glacial threshold determined in an equilibrium simulation to initiate glacial inception. Finally, we show that the asynchronous coupling between climate and inland-ice components allows one sufficient realistic simulation of glacial inception and, at the same time, a considerable reduction of computational costs.

  6. The Earth Through Time: Implications for Searching for Habitability and Life on Exoplanets (United States)

    Pilcher, Carl B.


    The Earth has been both a habitable and inhabited planet for around 4 billion years, yet distant observers studying Earth at different epochs in our history would have detected substantially different and probably varying conditions. Understanding Earth's history thus has much to tell us about how to interpret observations of potentially habitable exoplanets. In this talk I will review the history of life on Earth, from the earliest microbial biosphere living under a relatively methane-rich atmosphere to the modern world of animals, plants, and atmospheric oxygen, with a focus on how observable conditions on Earth changed as the planet and its biosphere evolved. I'll discuss the implications of this history for assessing the habitability of-or presence of life on-planets around other stars.

  7. Optimizing Earth Data Search Ranking using Deep Learning and Real-time User Behaviour (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Yang, C. P.; Armstrong, E. M.; Huang, T.; Moroni, D. F.; McGibbney, L. J.; Greguska, F. R., III


    Finding Earth science data has been a challenging problem given both the quantity of data available and the heterogeneity of the data across a wide variety of domains. Current search engines in most geospatial data portals tend to induce end users to focus on one single data characteristic dimension (e.g., term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) score, popularity, release date, etc.). This approach largely fails to take account of users' multidimensional preferences for geospatial data, and hence may likely result in a less than optimal user experience in discovering the most applicable dataset out of a vast range of available datasets. With users interacting with search engines, sufficient information is already hidden in the log files. Compared with explicit feedback data, information that can be derived/extracted from log files is virtually free and substantially more timely. In this dissertation, I propose an online deep learning framework that can quickly update the learning function based on real-time user clickstream data. The contributions of this framework include 1) a log processor that can ingest, process and create training data from web logs in a real-time manner; 2) a query understanding module to better interpret users' search intent using web log processing results and metadata; 3) a feature extractor that identifies ranking features representing users' multidimensional interests of geospatial data; and 4) a deep learning based ranking algorithm that can be trained incrementally using user behavior data. The search ranking results will be evaluated using precision at K and normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG).

  8. Microfossil response to the PETM at DSDP Site 401 (eastern North Atlantic) (United States)

    Bornemann, A.; Walther, R.; D'haenens, S.; Joachim, C.; Speijer, R. P.; Mutterlose, J.; Norris, R. D.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 55.8 Ma) is the most prominent of a number of global transient warming events during the Paleocene and Eocene epochs. This so-called hyperthermal has been studied in numerous sites with deep and shallow marine sediments as well as in terrestrial archives. Nearly all of these sections show indications of substantial warming based on temperature-sensitive geochemical proxies and a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion accompanied by biotic changes. However, only few complete deep-sea records exist from the North Atlantic region. In the Bay of Biscay at DSDP Site 401 the PETM is well developed and consists of a fairly thick sequence of clay-rich sediments providing well preserved calcareous microfossils. So far foraminiferal calcite has been used to compile high resolution carbon and oxygen isotope records for the sea-floor and the surface ocean from this site. Carbon isotopes represent the typical asymmetric, negative anomaly of about 2 per mil; oxygen isotope data suggest high rates of freshwater supply into the Bay of Biscay resulting in enhanced water column stratification during both the core of the carbon isotope excursion and the recovery phase. In this contribution we combine detailed assemblage records of planktic and benthic foraminifera as well as calcareous nannofossils studied from the same sample material in order to reconstruct the biotic response to this severe warming event. This allows us to detect differences and similarities between these microfossil groups that represent different life habitats and trophic strategies.

  9. Real Time Mash-Up of Earth Data and Information Through RSS Feed Correlation (United States)

    Bingham, A.; Chung, N. T.; Roberts, J.; Stough, T.; Deen, R.


    The availability of timely and accurate information helps natural resource mangers to make informed decisions following the occurrence of an event. Data collected by earth observing instrumentation coupled with information and assessments provided by first responders, forecasters, eyewitnesses, reporters and experts help provide a complete picture of the extent and magnitude of the impact of the event. Much of the data and information are published immediately on the Internet, but it is impossible for an individual to sift through the disparate sources and extract those data and information relevant to a specific event. We solve this problem by correlating metadata contained in RSS, GeoRSS and DatacastingRSS feeds to form a single feed that references all data (satellite imagery, in situ measurements etc.) and information (news articles, photos, videos, blogs, reports, assessments etc.) related to an individual event of interest. In this paper, we will discuss our concept of cross-feed correlation for the purpose of classifying data and information by events. We will also describe the implementation of cross-feed correlation and show how software applications and decision support systems can leverage the technology to pull in data and information tailored to the needs of a specific user community.Even Viewer. Application showing a mashup of satellite data, forecast information, news articles and blogs categorized by natural event.

  10. Statistical analysis of storm-time near-Earth current systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Liemohn


    Full Text Available Currents from the Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI inner magnetospheric model results for all of the 90 intense storms (disturbance storm-time (Dst minimum < −100 nT from solar cycle 23 (1996–2005 are calculated, presented, and analyzed. We have categorized these currents into the various systems that exist in near-Earth space, specifically the eastward and westward symmetric ring current, the partial ring current, the banana current, and the tail current. The current results from each run set are combined by a normalized superposed epoch analysis technique that scales the timeline of each phase of each storm before summing the results. It is found that there is a systematic ordering to the current systems, with the asymmetric current systems peaking during storm main phase (tail current rising first, then the banana current, followed by the partial ring current and the symmetric current systems peaking during the early recovery phase (westward and eastward symmetric ring current having simultaneous maxima. The median and mean peak amplitudes for the current systems ranged from 1 to 3 MA, depending on the setup configuration used in HEIDI, except for the eastward symmetric ring current, for which the mean never exceeded 0.3 MA for any HEIDI setup. The self-consistent electric field description in HEIDI yielded larger tail and banana currents than the Volland–Stern electric field, while the partial and symmetric ring currents had similar peak values between the two applied electric field models.

  11. Implementation of methane cycling for deep time, global warming simulations with the DCESS Earth System Model (Version 1.2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaffer, Gary; Villanueva, Esteban Fernández; Rondanelli, Roberto


    Geological records reveal a number of ancient, large and rapid negative excursions of carbon-13 isotope. Such excursions can only be explained by massive injections of depleted carbon to the Earth System over a short duration. These injections may have forced strong global warming events, sometimes....... With this improved DCESS model version and paleo-reconstructions, we are now better armed to gauge the amounts, types, time scales and locations of methane injections driving specific, observed deep time, global warming events......., or from warming-induced dissociation of methane hydrate, a solid compound of methane and water found in ocean sediments. As a consequence of the ubiquity and importance of methane in major Earth events, Earth System models should include a comprehensive treatment of methane cycling but such a treatment...

  12. In-situ buildup of cosmogenic isotopes at the earth`s surface: measurement of erosion rates and exposure times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Stone, J.O.H.; Evans, J.M.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)


    Cosmic rays produce a number of nuclides in rocks that can be used to determine the geomorphic history of surfaces. The most useful are the radioactive isotopes {sup 10}Be (t{sub 1/2} = 1.5Ma), {sup 26}Al (0.7Ma) and {sup 36}Cl (0.3Ma). Within the top 2m of the surface, these are produced principally by fast neutrons. At greater depths, production is dominated by the capture of negative muons. Measurements of a single nuclide produced in situ can be used to determine total exposure times or erosion rates. The use of multiple nuclides with different half-lives makes it possible to determine more complex histories, such as exposures interrupted by periods of burial. At the ANU, all three of the isotopes above are being used to study a variety of problems in geomorphology and paleoclimatology, although to date, most of the work has concentrated on {sup 36}Cl. The accumulation of cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl in calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) provides a means of measuring erosion rates on limestone surfaces. Sensitivity is achieved over a wide range of erosion rates due to the high production rate of {sup 36}Cl in calcite (typically greater than 30 atoms/g/yr) and a detection limit of ca. 5000 atoms/g attainable with the ANU AMS system. The method is simplified by the predominance of Ca reactions (principally spallation) over other sources of {sup 36}Cl in calcite, and the ease of sample preparation. This presentation discuss the results of measurements of {sup 36}Cl in calcite from limestone samples from Australia and Papua New Guinea. Erosion rates derived from these measurements range from 3 microns per year (Australia) to over 200 microns per year in the New Guinea highlands. 3 refs.

  13. Earth-to-Satellite Quantum Key Distribution with Noise Reduction via Entangled Photon Time Correlation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to establish a provably secure communication link between ground and low-earth-orbit (LEO). Current communication technologies rely...

  14. Sunwatchers Across Time: Sun-Earth Day from Ancient and Modern Solar Observatories (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Vondrak, R.

    Humans across all cultures have venerated, observed, and studied the Sun for thousands of years. The Sun, our nearest star, provides heat and energy, is the cause of the seasons, and causes space weather effects that influence our technology-dependent society. The Sun is also part of indigenous tradition and culture. The Inca believed that the Sun had the power to make things grow, and it does, providing us with the heat and energy that are essential to our survival. From a NASA perspective, Sun-Earth Connection research investigates the effects of our active Sun on the Earth and other planets, namely, the interaction of the solar wind and other dynamic space weather phenomena with the solar system. We present plans for Sun-Earth Day 2005, a yearly celebration of the Sun-Earth Connection sponsored by the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF). SECEF is one of four national centers of space science education and public outreach funded by NASA Office of Space Science. Sun-Earth Day involves an international audience of schools, science museums, and the general public in activities and events related to learning about the Sun-Earth Connection. During the year 2005, the program will highlight cultural and historical perspectives, as well as NASA science, through educational and public outreach events intended to involve diverse communities. Sun-Earth Day 2005 will include a series of webcasts from solar observatories produced by SECEF in partnership with the San Francisco Exploratorium. Webcasts from Chaco Culture National Historical Park in New Mexico, USA, and from Chichen Itza, Mexico, will be accessed by schools and the public. Sun-Earth Day will also feature NASA Sun-Earth Connection research, missions, and the people who make it possible. One of the goals of this talk is to inform and engage COSPAR participants in these upcoming public events sponsored by NASA. Another goal is to share best practices in public event programming, and present impact

  15. Late Silurian fish microfossils from an East Baltic-derived erratic from Oosterhaule, with a description of new acanthodian taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergoossen, JMJ


    Fish microfossils were extracted from an erratic. The taxa from the rich microvertebrate fauna of late Pridolian (latest Silurian) age ( P. punctatus Zone) are listed. A full description is given of two new Gomphonchus taxa, G. mediocostatus and G. boekschoteni. On the basis of old and new material,

  16. Historical trends of hypoxia in Changjiang River estuary: Applications of chemical biomarkers and microfossils (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Yang, Zuosheng; Osterman, Lisa E.; Allison, Mead A.; DiMarco, Steven F.; Yang, Guipeng


    Over the past two decades China has become the largest global consumer of fertilizers, which has enhanced river nutrient fluxes and caused eutrophication and hypoxia in the Yangtze (Changjiang) large river delta-front estuary (LDE). In this study, we utilized plant pigments, lignin-phenols, stable isotopes (δ 13C and δ 15N) and foraminiferal microfossils in 210Pb dated cores to examine the history of hypoxia in the Changjiang LDE. Two sediment cores were collected onboard R/V Dong Fang Hong 2 using a stainless-steel box-corer; one at a water depth of 24.7 m on Jun. 15, 2006 and the other at 52 m on Nov. 20, 2007, both in the hypoxic region off the Changjiang LDE. There has been a significant increase in the abundance of plant pigments after 1979 that are indicators of enhanced diatom and cyanobacterial abundance, which agrees with post-1980 record of increasing nutrient loads in the Changjiang River. The increased inputs of terrestrially derived materials to the LDE are largely woody plant sources and most likely due to deforestation that began in the early 1950s. However, post-1960 lignin data did not reflect enhanced loading of woody materials despite continued deforestation possibly due to increased trapping from greater dam construction, a reduction of deforestation in the drainage basin since the last 1990s, and soil conservation practices. The lack of linkages between bulk indices (stable isotopes, % OC, molar C/N ratios) and microfossil/chemical biomarkers may reflect relative differences in the amount of carbon tracked by these different proxies. Although NO 3- is likely responsible for most of the changes in phytoplankton production (post 1970s), historical changes in N loading from the watershed and hypoxia on the LDE shelf may not be as well linked in East China Sea (ECS) sediments due to possible denitrification/ammonification processes; finally, increases in low-oxygen tolerant foraminiferal microfossils indicate there has been an increase in the

  17. Historical trends of hypoxia in Changjiang River estuary: Applications of chemical biomarkers and microfossils (United States)

    Li, X.; Bianchi, T.S.; Yang, Z.; Osterman, L.E.; Allison, M.A.; DiMarco, Steven F.; Yang, G.


    Over the past two decades China has become the largest global consumer of fertilizers, which has enhanced river nutrient fluxes and caused eutrophication and hypoxia in the Yangtze (Changjiang) large river delta-front estuary (LDE). In this study, we utilized plant pigments, lignin-phenols, stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) and foraminiferal microfossils in 210Pb dated cores to examine the history of hypoxia in the Changjiang LDE. Two sediment cores were collected onboard R/V Dong Fang Hong 2 using a stainless-steel box-corer; one at a water depth of 24.7 m on Jun. 15, 2006 and the other at 52 m on Nov. 20, 2007, both in the hypoxic region off the Changjiang LDE. There has been a significant increase in the abundance of plant pigments after 1979 that are indicators of enhanced diatom and cyanobacterial abundance, which agrees with post-1980 record of increasing nutrient loads in the Changjiang River. The increased inputs of terrestrially derived materials to the LDE are largely woody plant sources and most likely due to deforestation that began in the early 1950s. However, post-1960 lignin data did not reflect enhanced loading of woody materials despite continued deforestation possibly due to increased trapping from greater dam construction, a reduction of deforestation in the drainage basin since the last 1990s, and soil conservation practices. The lack of linkages between bulk indices (stable isotopes, % OC, molar C/N ratios) and microfossil/chemical biomarkers may reflect relative differences in the amount of carbon tracked by these different proxies. Although NO3− is likely responsible for most of the changes in phytoplankton production (post 1970s), historical changes in N loading from the watershed and hypoxia on the LDE shelf may not be as well linked in East China Sea (ECS) sediments due to possible denitrification/ammonification processes; finally, increases in low-oxygen tolerant foraminiferal microfossils indicate there has been an increase in the

  18. Time Domain Feature Extraction Technique for earth's electric field signal prior to the Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astuti, W; Sediono, W; Akmeliawati, R; Salami, M J E


    Earthquake is one of the most destructive of natural disasters that killed many people and destroyed a lot of properties. By considering these catastrophic effects, it is highly important of knowing ahead of earthquakes in order to reduce the number of victims and material losses. Earth's electric field is one of the features that can be used to predict earthquakes (EQs), since it has significant changes in the amplitude of the signal prior to the earthquake. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the earth's electric field due to earthquakes which occurred in Greece, between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2008. In that period of time, 13 earthquakes had occurred. 6 of them were recorded with magnitudes greater than Ms=5R (5R), while 7 of them were recorded with magnitudes greater than Ms=6R (6R). Time domain feature extraction technique is applied to analyze the 1st significant changes in the earth's electric field prior to the earthquake. Two different time domain feature extraction techniques are applied in this work, namely Simple Square Integral (SSI) and Root Mean Square (RMS). The 1st significant change of the earth's electric field signal in each of monitoring sites is extracted using those two techniques. The feature extraction result can be used as input parameter for an earthquake prediction system

  19. A comprehensive model of the quiet-time, near-Earth magnetic field: phase 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, T.J.; Olsen, Nils; Langel, R.A.


    The near-Earth magnetic field is caused by sources in the Earth's core, ionosphere, magnetosphere, lithosphere and from coupling currents between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, and between hemispheres. Traditionally, the main field (low degree internal field) and magnetospheric field have......, and includes an accounting for main field influences on the magnetosphere, main field and solar activity influences on the ionosphere, seasonal influences on the coupling currents, a priori characterization of the influence of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere on Earth-induced fields, and an explicit...... been modelled simultaneously, with fields from other sources being modelled separately. Such a scheme, however, can introduce spurious features, especially when the spatial and temporal scales of the fields overlap. A new model, designated CM3 (Comprehensive Model: phase 3), is the third in a series...

  20. Reproductive cyst and operculum formation in the Cambrian-Ordovician galeate-plexus microfossils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Heda; Moczydlowska, Malgorzata; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    Unicellular organic-walled microfossils from the Cambrian-Ordovician transition in Estonia (ca. 490-480million years ago) exhibit rare characters reflecting their function as reproductive algal cysts. The studied assemblages record the evolutionary history of phytoplankton in the early Palaeozoic...... Era: novel morphologies appearing through the Cambrian and subsequently diversifying in the Ordovician. Well-preserved specimens were extracted following a standard palynological method and studied by light-transmitted microscopy. The galeate plexus acritarchs Caldariola, Priscogalea...... alga Acetabularia (Chlorophyta), which possesses an intrinsic lid-forming apparatus used during the organism's reproductive stage. Based on the observations on the fossil material and studies on the Acetabularia lid formation, we propose a model of operculum formation in the galeate plexus micro...

  1. Biomineralization by a Newly-Isolated Stalk-Forming Fe-oxidizing Bacterium: Towards Interpretation of Putative Fe Microfossils (United States)

    Krepski, S. T.; Chan, C. S.


    Diverse aerobic, lithotrophic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) produce distinctive extracellular Fe-rich filaments, which resemble putative Fe microfossils dating from recent to 1.7 Ga (Slack et al., 2007, EPSL: 243). The filament morphology, texture, and composition are promising biosignatures for these FeOB; however, somewhat similar morphologies have been shown to result from chemical precipitates. In order to accurately identify and interpret such biosignatures, morphology must described in detail and be linked to physiological function and growth conditions in extant organisms. Towards this goal, we aimed to isolate a novel, stalk-forming microaerophilic FeOB, since there exist few isolates. We successfully obtained a pure strain (named R-1) from a circumneutral, freshwater Fe seep in Christiana Creek, Newark, DE. This strain produces a twisted stalk, similar to Gallionella and Mariprofundus in morphology and in mineralogy. Our work shows that R-1 is a neutrophilic obligate FeOB, unable to oxidize other organic or inorganic substrates. It is a Beta-Proteobacterium in the Gallionellaceae family but is phylogenetically distinct from previously isolated Gallionella sp. and Sideroxydans sp. The closest cultured relative is S. lithotrophicus (97% similar) and the closest environmental clone is 98% similar. We have begun growing R-1 and the marine stalk-forming FeOB Mariprofundus ferrooxydans in microslide cultures, which allow direct microscope observation without disturbing growth. We are monitoring oxygen concentration gradients and FeOB response to oxygen levels. In order to link morphology to biological function and growth conditions, we will observe stalk formation under various conditions and document various morphological and textural parameter (e.g. branching and orientation) to establish criteria for biogenicity. No organisms are known to make stalks under anaerobic conditions, so if these structures are detected in the rock record, they could be used as

  2. Climate. The earth and its atmosphere in the changing times. 3. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchal, Christoph; Schoenwiese, Christian-Dietrich


    The Climate Change Challenge. Throughout the world, great efforts are being made to better understanding the development of the global climate and to model future trends. What characterizes the weather what the climate? How did the climate history of the Earth? What factors are affecting the climate? In the third, updated edition 2016 of the widespread attractive and scientifically-based four-volume nonfiction series ENERGY, AIR, POWER and MOBILITY which clearly explained basic knowledge of the climate system is expanded to include the latest information about the IPCC and keep up-to-date insight into modern research, especially the REKLIM project of the Helmholtz Association of German research Centres. [de

  3. Comparison of the Mercury and earth magnetospheres - electron measurements and substorm time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christon, S.P.


    The present search for similarities between earth and Mercury plasma electron distribution and large-scale dynamics notes that both spectral shapes are similar to a kappa-distribution. A model distribution of this type which incorporates convective flow is used to simulate the observed plasma electron spectral variations near the Mariner 10-Mercury 1 A event; convection appears to be stronger before, rather than during, the A event, in contradiction to the Baker (1986) convective injection model for Mercury's two relativistic electron flux enhancements. Mercury's postmidnight energetic electron B and B-prime events seem to be multiple onsets in the course of a substorm. 65 references

  4. Demonstrating the Value of Near Real-time Satellite-based Earth Observations in a Research and Education Framework (United States)

    Chiu, L.; Hao, X.; Kinter, J. L.; Stearn, G.; Aliani, M.


    The launch of GOES-16 series provides an opportunity to advance near real-time applications in natural hazard detection, monitoring and warning. This study demonstrates the capability and values of receiving real-time satellite-based Earth observations over a fast terrestrial networks and processing high-resolution remote sensing data in a university environment. The demonstration system includes 4 components: 1) Near real-time data receiving and processing; 2) data analysis and visualization; 3) event detection and monitoring; and 4) information dissemination. Various tools are developed and integrated to receive and process GRB data in near real-time, produce images and value-added data products, and detect and monitor extreme weather events such as hurricane, fire, flooding, fog, lightning, etc. A web-based application system is developed to disseminate near-real satellite images and data products. The images are generated with GIS-compatible format (GeoTIFF) to enable convenient use and integration in various GIS platforms. This study enhances the capacities for undergraduate and graduate education in Earth system and climate sciences, and related applications to understand the basic principles and technology in real-time applications with remote sensing measurements. It also provides an integrated platform for near real-time monitoring of extreme weather events, which are helpful for various user communities.

  5. The environmental response of Middle Ordovician large organic walled microfossils from the Goldwyer and Nita Formations, Canning Basin, Western Australia. (United States)

    Winchester-Seeto, T; Foster, C; O'Leary, T


    Middle Ordovician large organic walled microfossils (chitinozoans, scolecodonts, hydrozoans and foraminiferal linings) were recovered from the upper Goldwyer and lower Nita formations, Canning Basin, Western Australia, from three cores (WMC Santalum 1A, Kunzea 1 and Acacia 2). Petrophysical logs of these cores reveal an overall upward shallowing supersequence, overprinted by numerous transgression/regression couplets that can be correlated over 100km.Analysis of the abundance of the microfossils with respect to the gamma log signatures reveals that both chitinozoan abundance and diversity decrease as water depth shallows; however, the opposite is not always true and other factors probably intervene. Scolecodonts show an increase in abundance in transgressions, while hydrozoans and foraminiferal linings show no consistent response to trangressive or regressive phases. Cyathochitina hunderumensis tends to dominate chitinozoan assemblages where there is a transgression, while species of Belonechitina replace Cy. hunderumensis in regressive phases.

  6. A MATLAB based Distributed Real-time Simulation of Lander-Orbiter-Earth Communication for Lunar Missions (United States)

    Choudhury, Diptyajit; Angeloski, Aleksandar; Ziah, Haseeb; Buchholz, Hilmar; Landsman, Andre; Gupta, Amitava; Mitra, Tiyasa

    Lunar explorations often involve use of a lunar lander , a rover [1],[2] and an orbiter which rotates around the moon with a fixed radius. The orbiters are usually lunar satellites orbiting along a polar orbit to ensure visibility with respect to the rover and the Earth Station although with varying latency. Communication in such deep space missions is usually done using a specialized protocol like Proximity-1[3]. MATLAB simulation of Proximity-1 have been attempted by some contemporary researchers[4] to simulate all features like transmission control, delay etc. In this paper it is attempted to simulate, in real time, the communication between a tracking station on earth (earth station), a lunar orbiter and a lunar rover using concepts of Distributed Real-time Simulation(DRTS).The objective of the simulation is to simulate, in real-time, the time varying communication delays associated with the communicating elements with a facility to integrate specific simulation modules to study different aspects e.g. response due to a specific control command from the earth station to be executed by the rover. The hardware platform comprises four single board computers operating as stand-alone real time systems (developed by MATLAB xPC target and inter-networked using UDP-IP protocol). A time triggered DRTS approach is adopted. The earth station, the orbiter and the rover are programmed as three standalone real-time processes representing the communicating elements in the system. Communication from one communicating element to another constitutes an event which passes a state message from one element to another, augmenting the state of the latter. These events are handled by an event scheduler which is the fourth real-time process. The event scheduler simulates the delay in space communication taking into consideration the distance between the communicating elements. A unique time synchronization algorithm is developed which takes into account the large latencies in space

  7. New Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossils from Ecuador: Invertebrates, vertebrates, plants, and microfossils (United States)

    Cadena, Edwin A.; Mejia-Molina, Alejandra; Brito, Carla M.; Peñafiel, Sofia; Sanmartin, Kleber J.; Sarmiento, Luis B.


    Ecuador is well known for its extensive extant biodiversity, however, its paleobiodiversity is still poorly explored. Here we report seven new Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil localities from the Pacific coast, inter-Andean depression and Napo basin of Ecuador, including vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, and microfossils. The first of these localities is called El Refugio, located near the small town of Chota, Imbabura Province, from where we report several morphotypes of fossil leaves and a mycetopodid freshwater mussel of the Upper Miocene Chota Formation. A second site is also located near the town of Chota, corresponding to potentially Pleistocene to Holocene lake deposits from which we report the occurrence of leaves and fossil diatoms. A third locality is at the Pacific coast of the country, near Rocafuerte, a town in Esmeraldas Province, from which we report a late Miocene palm leaf. We also report the first partially articulated skull with teeth from a Miocene scombridid (Mackerels) fish from El Cruce locality, and completely preserved seeds from La Pila locality, both sites from Manabí Province. Two late Cretaceous fossil sites from the Napo Province, one near Puerto Napo showing a good record of fossil shrimps and a second near the town of Loreto shows the occurrence of granular amber and small gymnosperms seeds and cuticles. All these new sites and fossils show the high potential of the sedimentary sequences and basins of Ecuador for paleontological studies and for a better understanding of the fossil record of the country and northern South America.

  8. Phylogenomic resolution of the class Ophiuroidea unlocks a global microfossil record. (United States)

    O'Hara, Timothy D; Hugall, Andrew F; Thuy, Ben; Moussalli, Adnan


    Our understanding of the origin, evolution, and biogeography of seafloor fauna is limited because we have insufficient spatial and temporal data to resolve underlying processes. The abundance and wide distribution of modern and disarticulated fossil Ophiuroidea, including brittle stars and basket stars, make them an ideal model system for global marine biogeography if we have the phylogenetic framework necessary to link extant and fossil morphology in an evolutionary context. Here we construct a phylogeny from a highly complete 425-gene, 61-taxa transcriptome-based data set covering 15 of the 18 ophiuroid families and representatives of all extant echinoderm classes. We calibrate our phylogeny with a series of novel fossil discoveries from the early Mesozoic. We confirm the traditional paleontological view that ophiuroids are sister to the asteroids and date the crown group Ophiuroidea to the mid-Permian (270 ± 30 mega-annum). We refute all historical classification schemes of the Ophiuroidea based on gross structural characters but find strong congruence with schemes based on lateral arm plate microstructure and the temporal appearance of various plate morphologies in the fossil record. The verification that these microfossils contain phylogenetically informative characters unlocks their potential to advance our understanding of marine biogeographical processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An analysis of simultaneous satellite visibility time spans for two Earth observation stations (United States)

    Chan, F. K.


    The analysis covers topics such as time average population, average population times and also the percentage visibility times for a given number of satellites. These results are useful for specific communications satellite applications. Numerical results are obtained for various configurations of a ground station and a ship.

  10. Time-domain modeling of high-frequency electromagnetic wave propagation, overhead wires, and earth (United States)

    Stenvig, Nils Markus


    Prediction of radiated fields from transmission lines has not previously been studied from a panoptical power system perspective. The application of BPL technologies to overhead transmission lines would benefit greatly from an ability to simulate real power system environments, not limited to the transmission lines themselves. Presently circuit-based transmission line models used by EMTP-type programs utilize Carson's formula for a waveguide parallel to an interface. This formula is not valid for calculations at high frequencies, considering effects of earth return currents. This thesis explains the challenges of developing such improved models, explores an approach to combining circuit-based and electromagnetics modeling to predict radiated fields from transmission lines, exposes inadequacies of simulation tools, and suggests methods of extending the validity of transmission line models into very high frequency ranges. Electromagnetics programs are commonly used to study radiated fields from transmission lines. However, an approach is proposed here which is also able to incorporate the components of a power system through the combined use of EMTP-type models. Carson's formulas address the series impedance of electrical conductors above and parallel to the earth. These equations have been analyzed to show their inherent assumptions and what the implications are. Additionally, the lack of validity into higher frequencies has been demonstrated, showing the need to replace Carson's formulas for these types of studies. This body of work leads to several conclusions about the relatively new study of BPL. Foremost, there is a gap in modeling capabilities which has been bridged through integration of circuit-based and electromagnetics modeling, allowing more realistic prediction of BPL performance and radiated fields. The proposed approach is limited in its scope of validity due to the formulas used by EMTP-type software. To extend the range of validity, a new set of

  11. 3D Visualization of near real-time remote-sensing observation for hurricanes field campaign using Google Earth API (United States)

    Li, P.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q.; Knosp, B.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Poulsen, W. L.; Licata, S.


    NASA is planning a new field experiment, the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP), in the summer of 2010 to better understand how tropical storms form and develop into major hurricanes. The DC-8 aircraft and the Global Hawk Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) will be deployed loaded with instruments for measurements including lightning, temperature, 3D wind, precipitation, liquid and ice water contents, aerosol and cloud profiles. During the field campaign, both the spaceborne and the airborne observations will be collected in real-time and integrated with the hurricane forecast models. This observation-model integration will help the campaign achieve its science goals by allowing team members to effectively plan the mission with current forecasts. To support the GRIP experiment, JPL developed a website for interactive visualization of all related remote-sensing observations in the GRIP’s geographical domain using the new Google Earth API. All the observations are collected in near real-time (NRT) with 2 to 5 hour latency. The observations include a 1KM blended Sea Surface Temperature (SST) map from GHRSST L2P products; 6-hour composite images of GOES IR; stability indices, temperature and vapor profiles from AIRS and AMSU-B; microwave brightness temperature and rain index maps from AMSR-E, SSMI and TRMM-TMI; ocean surface wind vectors, vorticity and divergence of the wind from QuikSCAT; the 3D precipitation structure from TRMM-PR and vertical profiles of cloud and precipitation from CloudSAT. All the NRT observations are collected from the data centers and science facilities at NASA and NOAA, subsetted, re-projected, and composited into hourly or daily data products depending on the frequency of the observation. The data products are then displayed on the 3D Google Earth plug-in at the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) website. The data products offered by the TCIS in the Google Earth display include image overlays, wind vectors, clickable

  12. Stratigraphic and microfossil evidence for a 4500-year history of Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis at Yaquina River estuary, Oregon, USA (United States)

    Graehl, Nicholas A; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Witter, Robert C.; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Engelhart, Simon E.


    The Sallys Bend swamp and marsh area on the central Oregon coast onshore of the Cascadia subduction zone contains a sequence of buried coastal wetland soils that extends back ∼4500 yr B.P. The upper 10 of the 12 soils are represented in multiple cores. Each soil is abruptly overlain by a sandy deposit and then, in most cases, by greater than 10 cm of mud. For eight of the 10 buried soils, times of soil burial are constrained through radiocarbon ages on fine, delicate detritus from the top of the buried soil; for two of the buried soils, diatom and foraminifera data constrain paleoenvironment at the time of soil burial.We infer that each buried soil represents a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake because the soils are laterally extensive and abruptly overlain by sandy deposits and mud. Preservation of coseismically buried soils occurred from 4500 yr ago until ∼500–600 yr ago, after which preservation was compromised by cessation of gradual relative sea-level rise, which in turn precluded drowning of marsh soils during instances of coseismic subsidence. Based on grain-size and microfossil data, sandy deposits overlying buried soils accumulated immediately after a subduction zone earthquake, during tsunami incursion into Sallys Bend. The possibility that the sandy deposits were sourced directly from landslides triggered upstream in the Yaquina River basin by seismic shaking was discounted based on sedimentologic, microfossil, and depositional site characteristics of the sandy deposits, which were inconsistent with a fluvial origin. Biostratigraphic analyses of sediment above two buried soils—in the case of two earthquakes, one occurring shortly after 1541–1708 cal. yr B.P. and the other occurring shortly after 3227–3444 cal. yr B.P.—provide estimates that coseismic subsidence was a minimum of 0.4 m. The average recurrence interval of subduction zone earthquakes is 420–580 yr, based on an ∼3750–4050-yr-long record and seven to nine interearthquake

  13. Deriving the geomagnetically induced electric field at the Earth's surface from the time derivative of the vertical magnetic field (United States)

    Vanhamäki, Heikki; Viljanen, Ari; Pirjola, Risto; Amm, Olaf


    We present a new method for estimating the geomagnetically induced electric field at the Earth's surface directly from the time derivative of the vertical magnetic field, without any need for additional information about the Earth's electric conductivity. This is a simplification compared to the presently used calculation methods, which require both the magnetic variation field and ground conductivity model as input data. The surface electric field is needed e.g. in modeling Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC) that flow in man-made conductor systems, such as gas and oil pipelines or high-voltage power grids. We solve the induced electric field directly from Faraday's law, by representing the magnetic variation field in terms of external equivalent current and taking time derivative of the associated vector potential. This gives an approximative solution, where the divergence-free part of the electric field is reproduced accurately (at least in principle), but the curl-free part related to lateral variations in ground conductivity is completely neglected. We test the new calculation method with several realistic models of typical ionospheric current systems, as well as actual data from the Baltic Electromagnetic Array Research (BEAR) network. We conclude that the principle of calculating the (divergence-free part of the) surface electric field from time derivative of the vertical magnetic field is sound, and the method works reasonably well also in practice. However, practical applications may be rather limited as the method seems to require data from a quite dense and spatially extended magnetometer network.

  14. High Performance Real-Time Visualization of Voluminous Scientific Data Through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Hackathorn, E. J.; Joyce, J.; Smith, J. S.


    Within our community data volume is rapidly expanding. These data have limited value if one cannot interact or visualize the data in a timely manner. The scientific community needs the ability to dynamically visualize, analyze, and interact with these data along with other environmental data in real-time regardless of the physical location or data format. Within the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's), the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is actively developing the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). Previously, the NEIS team investigated methods of data discovery and interoperability. The recent focus shifted to high performance real-time visualization allowing NEIS to bring massive amounts of 4-D data, including output from weather forecast models as well as data from different observations (surface obs, upper air, etc...) in one place. Our server side architecture provides a real-time stream processing system which utilizes server based NVIDIA Graphical Processing Units (GPU's) for data processing, wavelet based compression, and other preparation techniques for visualization, allows NEIS to minimize the bandwidth and latency for data delivery to end-users. Client side, users interact with NEIS services through the visualization application developed at ESRL called TerraViz. Terraviz is developed using the Unity game engine and takes advantage of the GPU's allowing a user to interact with large data sets in real time that might not have been possible before. Through these technologies, the NEIS team has improved accessibility to 'Big Data' along with providing tools allowing novel visualization and seamless integration of data across time and space regardless of data size, physical location, or data format. These capabilities provide the ability to see the global interactions and their importance for weather prediction. Additionally, they allow greater access than currently exists helping to foster scientific collaboration and new

  15. Time-Dependent Cryospheric Longwave Surface Emissivity Feedback in the Community Earth System Model (United States)

    Kuo, Chaincy; Feldman, Daniel R.; Huang, Xianglei; Flanner, Mark; Yang, Ping; Chen, Xiuhong


    Frozen and unfrozen surfaces exhibit different longwave surface emissivities with different spectral characteristics, and outgoing longwave radiation and cooling rates are reduced for unfrozen scenes relative to frozen ones. Here physically realistic modeling of spectrally resolved surface emissivity throughout the coupled model components of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is advanced, and implications for model high-latitude biases and feedbacks are evaluated. It is shown that despite a surface emissivity feedback amplitude that is, at most, a few percent of the surface albedo feedback amplitude, the inclusion of realistic, harmonized longwave, spectrally resolved emissivity information in CESM1.2.2 reduces wintertime Arctic surface temperature biases from -7.2 ± 0.9 K to -1.1 ± 1.2 K, relative to observations. The bias reduction is most pronounced in the Arctic Ocean, a region for which Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 (CMIP5) models exhibit the largest mean wintertime cold bias, suggesting that persistent polar temperature biases can be lessened by including this physically based process across model components. The ice emissivity feedback of CESM1.2.2 is evaluated under a warming scenario with a kernel-based approach, and it is found that emissivity radiative kernels exhibit water vapor and cloud cover dependence, thereby varying spatially and decreasing in magnitude over the course of the scenario from secular changes in atmospheric thermodynamics and cloud patterns. Accounting for the temporally varying radiative responses can yield diagnosed feedbacks that differ in sign from those obtained from conventional climatological feedback analysis methods.

  16. Use-inspired Paleoenvironmental Science and Data: A Deep Whole-Earth Time Dimension (United States)

    Overpeck, J. T.


    The field of paleoenvironmental science has matured dramatically over the last 30 years, and paleo-data are now widely used to inform policy and other decision-making. The IPCC now incorporates paleo-perspectives in a prominent manner - centuries to millennia-long paleo records are key to assessing the full range of possible climate system behavior, how the Earth's climate system responds to large changes in forcing, how climate change may impact ecological, hydrological, oceanographic and many other systems that humans are concerned about. Paleohydroclimatic data increasingly are used by water managers, just as forest managers use paleo-fire data to understand the natural rhythms and processes so critical to healthy ecosystems and the services they provide. Paleo-data are now widely used for model evaluation, and for understanding what models may be missing - in this sense, the millennia-long observational record provided by paleoenvironmental data helps us avoid costly surprises. Success comes with responsibility, however. The more paleo-data and paleo-based understanding informs policy and other decisions, the more critical it is that paleo-data and the results built on them need to be openly shared, easily accessible and reproducible. The value of paleo-data grows with use, and thus data sharing serves to grow value to the society that ultimately pays for the research. The tradition of sharing paleo-data is built on an even longer tradition of sharing samples, and yet innovations are still needed to make sure samples are managed for future use, particularly as natural archives like glaciers, caves and corals are lost to climate change and other human activity. Scientific journals and data centers are constantly innovating; paleoenvironmental scientists must all play their part as well.

  17. Crossing the digital divide: an interoperable solution for sharing time series and coverages in Earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Salas


    Full Text Available In a world driven by the Internet and the readily accessible information it provides, there exists a high demand to easily discover and collect vast amounts of data available over several scientific domains and numerous data types. To add to the complexity, data is not only available through a plethora of data sources within disparate systems but also represents differing scales of space and time. One clear divide that exists in the world of information science and technology is the disjoint relationship between hydrologic and atmospheric science information. These worlds have long been split between observed time series at discrete geographical features in hydrologic science and modeled or remotely sensed coverages or grids over continuous space and time domains in atmospheric science. As more information becomes widely available through the Web, data are being served and published as Web services using standardized implementations and encodings. This paper illustrates a framework that utilizes Sensor Observation Services, Web Feature Services, Web Coverage Services, Catalog Services for the Web and GI-cat Services to index and discover data offered through different classes of information. This services infrastructure supports multiple servers of time series and gridded information, which can be searched through multiple portals, using a common set of time, space and concept query filters.

  18. Microfossils from cap dolomites of the Lower Vendian Churochnaya Formation in the Polyudov Range (North Urals): Paleoecological approach to interpretation of Late Proterozoic glaciations (United States)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Chumakov, N. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Vorob'eva, N. G.


    Microfossils from silicified varieties of cap dolomites crowning the section of the tillite-bearing Lower Vendian (Ediacaran) Churochnaya Formation in the Polyudov Range (North Urals) are characterized. These microfossils are the first to be found from Vendian sections of the region and from all the terminal post-glacial sediments, one of the most significant global glaciation Marinoan of the African Glacial Era, when glaciers reached the equator. They are represented by remains of hormogonian and chrococcacean cyanobacteria as well as possible green filamentous algae. This microbiotic assemblage is of relatively low diversity, being composed of taxa with wide stratigraphic ranges characteristic of Proterozoic conservative microbiotas developed in shallow-water siliceous-carbonate facies. The lack of phytoplanktonic microfossils in this biota including Pertatataka-type acanthomorphic acritarchs or Ediacaran Complex Acanthomorph Palynoflora (ECAP) is also consistent with the conclusion on shallow-water deposition of the Churochnaya Formation. Moreover, most cyanobacteria representatives occurring in the latter are characteristic of shallow-water arid environments that confirm a theory of significant temperature increase during accumulation of the cap dolomites after termination of the above-mentioned glaciation. In addition to these microfossils, the cap dolomite member of the Churochnaya Formation contains filamentous and coccoidal pseudofossils formed under influence of post-sedimentary fluids. In their morphometric parameters, they resemble structures described from Archean sections as microfossil remains, which may be a key to interpreting their nature.

  19. Landsat-based Earth Observations and Crowd-sourced Data Provide Near Real-time Monitoring of Chimpanzee Habitat (United States)

    Nackoney, J.; Pintea, L.; Jantz, S.; Hansen, M.


    The endangered chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is threatened by habitat loss from resource extraction and land conversion, as well as hunting, disease and the illegal pet trade. It has been estimated that more than 70% of chimpanzee's tropical forest habitats in Africa are now threatened by land use change. Recent developments in remote sensing and cloud computing enable the use of satellite observations to provide a synoptic view of chimpanzee habitats at finer spatial and temporal resolutions that are locally relevant and consistent across the entire species' range. We present a practical Decision Support System to be used by the Jane Goodall Institute and partners to annually monitor and forecast chimpanzee habitat health in Africa. The system integrates Earth observations from 30-meter resolution Landsat data with a species-specific habitat model and a model forecasting future land use change, enhanced by crowd-sourced field data collected by local communities and rangers using the Open Data Kit app and Android mobile smartphones and tablets. While coarser-scale and static chimpanzee habitat models have been previously developed, this project is the first to develop a dynamic monitoring system updated annually via Earth observations data that will systematically monitor threats and changes in habitat over time. Since the chimpanzee is an important keystone, flagship and umbrella species, an annual chimpanzee habitat health index would support conservation goals of other species within its large 2.5 million sq. km range and could be an important indicator of overall ecosystem health of tropical forests in Africa.

  20. Time-dependent electrochemical characterization of the corrosion of a magnesium rare-earth alloy in simulated body fluids. (United States)

    Rettig, Ralf; Virtanen, Sannakaisa


    The electrochemistry of the corrosion process of a magnesium rare-earth-alloy is studied in detail in simulated body fluid (m-SBF) over the first 5 days. The aim is to investigate the corrosion mechanism under in vitro conditions. For this purpose we also used electrolytes that contain only some of the components of SBF, they were compared to SBF to investigate the influence of the different ions in SBF. The influence of albumin on the corrosion process was studied with a solution containing m-SBF and albumin in physiological concentration. For this study, impedance spectroscopy series measurements were performed. Additional results were gained from polarization curves. We conclude from the study that the corrosion resistance is significantly lower in m-SBF than in simple isotonic NaCl-solution. Albumin may form a blocking layer on the surface in the first hours of exposure. The formed corrosion layers consisting of amorphous apatite have only a low protective ability. Further results show that the corrosion processes in SBFs follow a linear time-law. The results elucidate critical factors and mechanisms of the electrochemical corrosion process of magnesium rare-earth alloys in SBFs, this understanding is crucial for a successful application of Mg alloys in biomedical applications. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Brief Description of Recovery Process of Coastal Vegetation after Tsunami: A Google Earth Time-Series Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Candra Wirawan Arief


    Full Text Available The recovery of land cover/use after the disaster is sometimes disorderly, especially in developing countries. It is necessary to continuously monitor the progress of land cover/use recovery after disaster in order to sustain vegetation around estuarine and coastal areas. The purpose of this study was to assess the recovery progress of vegetation around estuarine and coastal areas after the Indian Ocean tsunami using a simplified method which consisting Google Earth and visual photo interpretation. Vegetation areas were able to be detected with high accuracy (80%−100% using simplified method which consisting Google Earth and visual photo interpretation. We were able to show that all most of area including mangrove forests recovered relatively smoothly. However, the area which has a large vegetation areas have not enough recovered, which reached to half or less than half compare with before tsunami. This may be significant in affecting the role of the coastal ecosystem and bioshield. A large number of small mangrove patches (less than 0.1 ha were able to found around ponds, a number that rapidly increased after the tsunami. Some site in 2013 was double that in 2004. Fish farmers might have planted them for supplying nutrients to ponds and maintain the water quality. Dozen years have passed since the 2004 tsunami, and it might be time to more focus on the recovery of large vegetation area

  2. Planetary gyre, time-dependent eddies, torsional waves, and equatorial jets at the Earth's core surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillet, N.; Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris


    We report a calculation of time-dependent quasi-geostrophic core flows for 1940–2010. Inverting recursively for an ensemble of solutions, we evaluate the main source of uncertainties, namely, the model errors arising from interactions between unresolved core surface motions and magnetic fields...... between the magnetic field and subdecadal nonzonal motions within the fluid outer core. Both the zonal and the more energetic nonzonal interannual motions were particularly intense close to the equator (below 10∘ latitude) between 1995 and 2010. We revise down the amplitude of the decade fluctuations...... of the planetary-scale circulation and find that electromagnetic core-mantle coupling is not the main mechanism for angular momentum exchanges on decadal time scales if mantle conductance is 3 × 108 S or lower....

  3. A new time tree reveals Earth history’s imprint on the evolution of modern birds (United States)

    Claramunt, Santiago; Cracraft, Joel


    Determining the timing of diversification of modern birds has been difficult. We combined DNA sequences of clock-like genes for most avian families with 130 fossil birds to generate a new time tree for Neornithes and investigated their biogeographic and diversification dynamics. We found that the most recent common ancestor of modern birds inhabited South America around 95 million years ago, but it was not until the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition (66 million years ago) that Neornithes began to diversify rapidly around the world. Birds used two main dispersion routes: reaching the Old World through North America, and reaching Australia and Zealandia through Antarctica. Net diversification rates increased during periods of global cooling, suggesting that fragmentation of tropical biomes stimulated speciation. Thus, we found pervasive evidence that avian evolution has been influenced by plate tectonics and environmental change, two basic features of Earth’s dynamics. PMID:26824065

  4. Correlation-based characterisation of time-varying dynamical complexity in the Earth's magnetosphere (United States)

    Donner, Reik V.; Balasis, George; Kurths, Jürgen


    The dynamical behaviour of the magnetosphere is known to be a sensitive indicator for the response of the system to solar wind coupling. Since the solar activity commonly displays very interesting non-stationary and multi-scale dynamics, the magnetospheric response also exhibits a high degree of dynamical complexity associated with fundamentally different characteristics during periods of quiescence and magnetic storms. The resulting temporal complexity profile has been explored regarding several approaches from applied statistics, dynamical systems theory and statistical mechanics. Here, we propose an alternative way of looking at time-varying dynamical complexity of nonlinear geophysical time series utilising subtle but significant changes in the linear auto-correlation structure of the recorded data. Our approach is demonstrated to sensitively trace the dynamic signatures associated with intense magnetic storms, and to display reasonable skills in distinguishing between quiescence and storm periods. The potentials and methodological limitations of this new viewpoint are discussed in some detail.

  5. Sulfide-Sulfate Equilibria in Subducted Lithosphere, Mantle Redox and the Deep Earth Sulfur Cycle in Space and Time (United States)

    Canil, D.


    The redox budget during subduction affects the deep-earth S cycle, and is tied to the evolution of oxygen and biogeochemical cycles on Earth's surface over time. One component in the deep S cycle and its redox is the sedimentary veneer that sits atop the subducted oceanic basalt crust. The conversion of subducted sulfide to sulfate (or vice versa) is an eight-electron change in redox state, with significant oxidation/ reduction capacity of mantle sources for magmas, and for controlling the mobility or extraction of chalcophile metals from the arc mantle. I calculate buffers on sulfate - sulfide stability in subducted oceanic crust within the eclogite facies, and their disposition relative to other redox couples in the mantle along both `hot' and `warm' P-T trajectories for subducted lithosphere. To a first order, sulfide stability in subducted crust passing through the eclogite facies beneath an arc is shifted 0.5-1 logfO2 units by variations in the bulk Ca/Fe of the subducting crust alone. Because sulfate is highly soluble, its liberation from subducted crust by either melting or fluid flow into the arc source region can vary in space or time, depending on bulk composition of subducted crust or on variations in subduction P-T trajectories. The released sulfate may be one cause of the increase in the fO2 of the arc mantle. Experimental data on melts of subducted sediment show the control of sulfide-sulfate stability on the solubility of chalcophile metals (Cu, As, Mo, Pb). By assuming the normalized abundances of Cu as a proxy for S, the effect of variable subducted sediment composition on sulfide-sulfate stability and release of chalcophiles beneath convergent margins can be recognized in arc basalts and andesites from several modern subduction zones. The release of S and chalcophiles in the convergent margin setting may have changed with time, however, simply due to changes in the nature of sedimentation in the oceans over the course of earth history.

  6. Solar Atmosphere to Earth's Surface: Long Lead Time dB/dt Predictions with the Space Weather Modeling Framework (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Manchester, W.; Savani, N.; Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Jin, M.; Toth, G.; Liemohn, M. W.; Gombosi, T. I.


    The future of space weather prediction depends on the community's ability to predict L1 values from observations of the solar atmosphere, which can yield hours of lead time. While both empirical and physics-based L1 forecast methods exist, it is not yet known if this nascent capability can translate to skilled dB/dt forecasts at the Earth's surface. This paper shows results for the first forecast-quality, solar-atmosphere-to-Earth's-surface dB/dt predictions. Two methods are used to predict solar wind and IMF conditions at L1 for several real-world coronal mass ejection events. The first method is an empirical and observationally based system to estimate the plasma characteristics. The magnetic field predictions are based on the Bz4Cast system which assumes that the CME has a cylindrical flux rope geometry locally around Earth's trajectory. The remaining plasma parameters of density, temperature and velocity are estimated from white-light coronagraphs via a variety of triangulation methods and forward based modelling. The second is a first-principles-based approach that combines the Eruptive Event Generator using Gibson-Low configuration (EEGGL) model with the Alfven Wave Solar Model (AWSoM). EEGGL specifies parameters for the Gibson-Low flux rope such that it erupts, driving a CME in the coronal model that reproduces coronagraph observations and propagates to 1AU. The resulting solar wind predictions are used to drive the operational Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) for geospace. Following the configuration used by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center, this setup couples the BATS-R-US global magnetohydromagnetic model to the Rice Convection Model (RCM) ring current model and a height-integrated ionosphere electrodynamics model. The long lead time predictions of dB/dt are compared to model results that are driven by L1 solar wind observations. Both are compared to real-world observations from surface magnetometers at a variety of geomagnetic latitudes

  7. Time dependent neural network models for detecting changes of state in complex processes: applications in earth sciences and astronomy. (United States)

    Valdés, Julio J; Bonham-Carter, Graeme


    A computational intelligence approach is used to explore the problem of detecting internal state changes in time dependent processes; described by heterogeneous, multivariate time series with imprecise data and missing values. Such processes are approximated by collections of time dependent non-linear autoregressive models represented by a special kind of neuro-fuzzy neural network. Grid and high throughput computing model mining procedures based on neuro-fuzzy networks and genetic algorithms, generate: (i) collections of models composed of sets of time lag terms from the time series, and (ii) prediction functions represented by neuro-fuzzy networks. The composition of the models and their prediction capabilities, allows the identification of changes in the internal structure of the process. These changes are associated with the alternation of steady and transient states, zones with abnormal behavior, instability, and other situations. This approach is general, and its sensitivity for detecting subtle changes of state is revealed by simulation experiments. Its potential in the study of complex processes in earth sciences and astrophysics is illustrated with applications using paleoclimate and solar data.

  8. How to fully exploit frequency-dependent S-wave travel times for refining the Earth's mantle imaging? (United States)

    Zaroli, C.; Nolet, G.; Charlety, J.; Debayle, E.; Sambridge, M.


    To better constrain the structure of the Earth's interior, new theoretical developments on seismic wave propagation have emerged in recent years, and received increasing attention in global tomography. A recent focus has been to take into account the "Finite-Frequency" (FF) behaviour of seismic waves (e.g. wavefront-healing). We have chosen to use the FF approach by Dahlen et al. (2000) in multiple frequency bands, based on a ray-Born approximation, also known as Multiple-Frequency Tomography (MFT). The principle of MFT is to invert delay times measured in several frequency bands, using 3-D FF sensitivity kernels for modeling single-scattering phenomena undergone by seismic waves. Such FF effects are intrinsically always present in delay times measured by waveform cross-correlation (as opposed to onset measurements in ray theory). In this study, we pose the question how much MFT really contributes to improving the 3-D imaging of the deep Earth structure? We investigate the role of the model parameterization and regularization when using MFT, in our ability/unability to map the structural dispersion present in the data into a tomographic model. Our data consist of 274 066 globally distributed S, ScS and SS time residuals measured at 10, 15, 22 and 34 s period (Zaroli et al., 2010). Two ways of parameterizing the Earth's mantle, and their implications on the model obtained using MFT, are presented. One is based on irregularly spaced spherical triangular prisms, with nodes spacing ranging from 200 to 900 km, i.e. a "coarse" parameterization. The other is based on a "cubed Earth", that consists of cubic cells of 70 km size near the top, down to 35 km near the base of the mantle, i.e. a "fine" parameterization. We also investigate how the model regularization (i.e. choice of the damping parameter in the inversion) may prevent us from fully exploiting the extra information, on the 3-D structure, present in our multi-band dataset. We present a comparison of a multi

  9. Unravelling earth flow dynamics with 3-D time series derived from UAV-SfM models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Clapuyt


    Full Text Available Accurately assessing geo-hazards and quantifying landslide risks in mountainous environments are gaining importance in the context of the ongoing global warming. For an in-depth understanding of slope failure mechanisms, accurate monitoring of the mass movement topography at high spatial and temporal resolutions remains essential. The choice of the acquisition framework for high-resolution topographic reconstructions will mainly result from the trade-off between the spatial resolution needed and the extent of the study area. Recent advances in the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based image acquisition combined with the structure-from-motion (SfM algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D reconstruction make the UAV-SfM framework a competitive alternative to other high-resolution topographic techniques. In this study, we aim at gaining in-depth knowledge of the Schimbrig earthflow located in the foothills of the Central Swiss Alps by monitoring ground surface displacements at very high spatial and temporal resolution using the efficiency of the UAV-SfM framework. We produced distinct topographic datasets for three acquisition dates between 2013 and 2015 in order to conduct a comprehensive 3-D analysis of the landslide. Therefore, we computed (1 the sediment budget of the hillslope, and (2 the horizontal and (3 the three-dimensional surface displacements. The multitemporal UAV-SfM based topographic reconstructions allowed us to quantify rates of sediment redistribution and surface movements. Our data show that the Schimbrig earthflow is very active, with mean annual horizontal displacement ranging between 6 and 9 m. Combination and careful interpretation of high-resolution topographic analyses reveal the internal mechanisms of the earthflow and its complex rotational structure. In addition to variation in horizontal surface movements through time, we interestingly showed that the configuration of nested rotational units changes through

  10. Unravelling earth flow dynamics with 3-D time series derived from UAV-SfM models (United States)

    Clapuyt, François; Vanacker, Veerle; Schlunegger, Fritz; Van Oost, Kristof


    Accurately assessing geo-hazards and quantifying landslide risks in mountainous environments are gaining importance in the context of the ongoing global warming. For an in-depth understanding of slope failure mechanisms, accurate monitoring of the mass movement topography at high spatial and temporal resolutions remains essential. The choice of the acquisition framework for high-resolution topographic reconstructions will mainly result from the trade-off between the spatial resolution needed and the extent of the study area. Recent advances in the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based image acquisition combined with the structure-from-motion (SfM) algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction make the UAV-SfM framework a competitive alternative to other high-resolution topographic techniques. In this study, we aim at gaining in-depth knowledge of the Schimbrig earthflow located in the foothills of the Central Swiss Alps by monitoring ground surface displacements at very high spatial and temporal resolution using the efficiency of the UAV-SfM framework. We produced distinct topographic datasets for three acquisition dates between 2013 and 2015 in order to conduct a comprehensive 3-D analysis of the landslide. Therefore, we computed (1) the sediment budget of the hillslope, and (2) the horizontal and (3) the three-dimensional surface displacements. The multitemporal UAV-SfM based topographic reconstructions allowed us to quantify rates of sediment redistribution and surface movements. Our data show that the Schimbrig earthflow is very active, with mean annual horizontal displacement ranging between 6 and 9 m. Combination and careful interpretation of high-resolution topographic analyses reveal the internal mechanisms of the earthflow and its complex rotational structure. In addition to variation in horizontal surface movements through time, we interestingly showed that the configuration of nested rotational units changes through time. Although

  11. Taxonomic composition and biostratigraphic value of the Early Riphean organic-walled microfossil association from the Ust'-Il'ya Formation of the Anabar Uplift, Northern Siberia (United States)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Vorob'eva, N. G.; Petrov, P. Yu.; Semikhatov, M. A.


    It is demonstrated on the basis of the first monographic study of multiple and taxonomically variable organic-walled microfossils from the Ust'-Il'ya Formation of the Anabar Uplift that both prokaryotic and eukaryotic forms are present in the composition of this microbiota. They are divided into four formal groups on the basis of the specifics of the morphological indicators of the identified taxa. The review of the data on the isotopic age of hosting deposits showed that the Ust'-Il'ya Formation is of the Early Riphean in age which are currently evaluated as 1750 ± 10-1400 Ma. Relatively large and morphologically complex eukaryotic forms present in the Ust'-Il'ya Formation served in due time as the basis for an erroneous conclusion on the Late Riphean age of the specified formation and the overlying Lower Kotuikan Subformation of the Anabar Uplift. The paper provides a global comparative analysis of the Early Riphean microbiotas, demonstrates the position of the Ust'-Il'ya and Kotuikan microbiotas amidst the microbiotas of the same age, and shows that the relatively large acanthomorphic acritarchs Tappania, Valeria, Dictiosphaera, Satka, and Shuiyousphaeridium appeared in the geological history already during the Early Riphean Erathem. Moreover, the paper discusses the recently published data on the distribution of aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the Early Riphean paleobasins and provides the conclusion on the impact of the lateral change of these conditions on the taxonomic composition of the microbiota.

  12. Diet Reconstructed From an Analysis of Plant Microfossils in Human Dental Calculus From the Bronze Age Site of Shilinggang, Southwestern China (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Dong, G.; Yang, X.; Zuo, X.; Kang, L.; Ren, L.; Liu, H.; Li, H.; Min, R.; Liu, X.; Zhang, D.; Chen, F.


    The extracted microfossils from the dental calculus of ancient teeth are a new form of archaeological evidence which can provide direct information on the plant diet of a population. Here, we present the results of analyses of starch grains and phytoliths trapped in the dental calculus of humans who occupied the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang ( 2500 cal yr BP) in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. The results demonstrate that the inhabitants consumed a wide range of plants, including rice, millet, and palms, together with other food plants which have not previously been detected in Yunnan. The discovery of various underground storage organs (USOs; tubers, roots, bulbs, and rhizomes) and acorns complements the application of conventional macrofossil and isotope studies to understand the diet of the Bronze Age human population of Yunnan. The wide variety of plant foods consumed suggests that the inhabitants adopted a broad-spectrum strategy of gathering food and cultivating crops in northwest Yunnan Province in the late Bronze Age at a time when agricultural societies were developed in the central plains of China.

  13. The Earth's revolution, Moon phase, Syzygy astronomy events, their effect in disturbances of the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the ``Magnetic Storm Double Time Method'' for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of earthquakes (United States)

    Chen, I. W.


    An increasing number of geomagnetic observation stations were established and operated in China since 1966 to the 1980s (and until present), effectively covering a large area of the nation. Close relativity between magnetic storms and earthquakes, as well as close relativity between the regional differences of magnetic disturbance recorded by these stations and the epicenter location of earthquakes, was discovered and observed by Tie-zheng Zhang during1966 - 1969. On such basis during 1969/1970, Zhang developed the “Magnetic Storm Double Time Method” for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of EQs. By this method,.Zhang successfully predicted the Yunnan Tonghai Ms7.7 EQ Jan. 5, 1970 (occurrence date only), the Bohai ML5.2 EQ, Feb. 12, 1970 and other EQs, including the Haicheng Ms7.3 EQ Feb. 4, 1975, and the Tangshan Ms7.8 EQ July 28, 1976. On the basis of this method, Z.P. Shen developed the “Geomagnetic Deflection Angle Double Time Method” in 1970, and later developed the “Magnetic Storm - Moon Phase Double Time Method” in 1990s. With this method, Shen is able to predict the occurrence dates of most of the strongest EQs Ms37.5 on the Earth since 1991. Zhang also discovered that strong EQs often correspond with a number of sets of magnetic storms. Z.Q. Ren discovered close relativity exists between Syzygy astronomy events and such sets of magnetic storm as well as the occurrence dates of strong EQs. Computerized calculation of historical magnetic storm and EQ data proves the effectiveness of this method. Over 3,000 days of geomagnetic isoline images are computer processed by the Author from over 400,000 geomagnetic field data obtained by Zhang from over 100 geomagnetic observation stations during 1966 - 1984. Clear relativity is shown between the Earth’s revolution, Moon phases, Syzygy astronomy events related to the Earth, and their disturbance effect on the Earth’s geomagnetic field and the occurrence of EQs.

  14. Reproducing the energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during quiet times (United States)

    Ripoll, J. F.; Reeves, G. D.; Santolik, O.; Cunningham, G.; Loridan, V.; Denton, M.; Kurth, W. S.; Turner, D. L.; Kletzing, C.; Henderson, M. G.; Ukhorskiy, S.


    We present and discuss dynamic simulations of energy-dependent losses in the radiation belt "slot region" and the formation of the two-belt structure for the quiet days after the 1 March storm. The simulations combine radial diffusion with a realistic scattering model, based data-driven spatially and temporally resolved whistler-mode hiss wave observations from the Van Allen Probes satellites. We will describe how the latter is generated from massively parallel computations of pitch angle diffusion at a scale never achieved in the past. The simulations reproduce Van Allen Probes observations for all energies and L shells (2-6) including (a) the strong energy dependence to the radiation belt dynamics (b) an energy-dependent outer boundary to the inner zone that extends to higher L shells at lower energies and (c) an "S-shaped" energy-dependent inner boundary to the outer zone that results from the competition between diffusive radial transport and losses. We find that the characteristic energy-dependent structure of the radiation belts and slot region is dynamic and can be formed gradually in 15 days, although the "S shape" can also be reproduced by assuming equilibrium conditions. But we will show that equilibrium states are usually not reachable as it requires very long times for most energy electrons and L-shells. The highest-energy electrons (E>300 keV) of the inner region of the outer belt (L 4-5) also constantly decay, demonstrating that hiss wave scattering affects the outer belt during times of extended plasmasphere. Through these simulations, we explain the full structure in energy and L shell of the belts and the slot formation by hiss scattering during storm recovery. We show the power and complexity of looking dynamically at the effects over all energies and L shells and the need for using data-driven and event-specific conditions.

  15. Connecting real-time data to algorithms and databases: EarthCube's Cloud-Hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences (CHORDS) (United States)

    Daniels, M. D.; Graves, S. J.; Kerkez, B.; Chandrasekar, V.; Vernon, F.; Martin, C. L.; Maskey, M.; Keiser, K.; Dye, M. J.


    The Cloud-Hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences (CHORDS) project was funded under the National Science Foundation's EarthCube initiative. CHORDS addresses the ever-increasing importance of real-time scientific data in the geosciences, particularly in mission critical scenarios, where informed decisions must be made rapidly. Access to constant streams of real-time data also allow many new transient phenomena in space-time to be observed, however, much of these streaming data are either completely inaccessible or only available to proprietary in-house tools or displays. Small research teams do not have the resources to develop tools for the broad dissemination of their unique real-time data and require an easy to use, scalable, cloud-based solution to facilitate this access. CHORDS will make these diverse streams of real-time data available to the broader geosciences community. This talk will highlight a recently developed CHORDS portal tools and processing systems which address some of the gaps in handling real-time data, particularly in the provisioning of data from the "long-tail" scientific community through a simple interface that is deployed in the cloud, is scalable and is able to be customized by research teams. A running portal, with operational data feeds from across the nation, will be presented. The processing within the CHORDS system will expose these real-time streams via standard services from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) in a way that is simple and transparent to the data provider, while maximizing the usage of these investments. The ingestion of high velocity, high volume and diverse data has allowed the project to explore a NoSQL database implementation. Broad use of the CHORDS framework by geoscientists will help to facilitate adaptive experimentation, model assimilation and real-time hypothesis testing.

  16. Energy time dispersion of a new class of magnetospheric ion events observed near the Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Anagnostopoulos


    Full Text Available We have analyzed high time resolution (\\geq6 s data during the onset and the decay phase of several energetic (\\geq35 keV ion events observed near the Earth's bow shock by the CCE/AMPTE and IMP-7/8 spacecraft, during times of intense substorm/geomagnetic activity. We found that forward energy dispersion at the onset of events (earlier increase of middle energy ions and/or a delayed fall of the middle energy ion fluxes at the end of events are often evident in high time resolution data. The energy spectra at the onset and the decay of this kind of events show a characteristic hump at middle (50-120 keV energies and the angular distributions display either anisotropic or broad forms. The time scale of energy dispersion in the ion events examined was found to range from several seconds to \\sim1 h depending on the ion energies compared and on the rate of variation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF direction. Several canditate processes are discussed to explain the observations and it is suggested that a rigidity dependent transport process of magnetospheric particles within the magnetosheath is most probably responsible for the detection of this new type of near bow shock magnetospheric ion events. The new class of ion events was observed within both the magnetosheath and the upstream region.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks

  17. Processes Influencing the Timing and Volume of Eruptions From the Youngest Supervolcano on Earth (United States)

    Wilson, C. J. N.; Barker, S. J.; Morgan, D. J.; Rowland, J. V.; Schipper, I.


    In their stratigraphic records, silicic caldera volcanoes display wide ranges of eruptive styles and volumes. However, relationships between frequency and magnitude are often complex, and the forecasting of future activity is inherently problematic. Taupo volcano, New Zealand, provides a unique opportunity to investigate eruptive histories from a hyperactive, large silicic magmatic system with eruptive volumes that span 3-4 orders of magnitude, and show no clear relationships with the repose period. Taupo hosted the world's most recent supereruption at 25.4 ka, which discharged 530 km3 of magma in the episodic 10-phase Oruanui event. Only 5 kyr later, Taupo revived, with 3 dacitic eruptions from 21.5-17 ka and 25 rhyolite eruptions from 12-1.7 ka. Here we use trends in whole rock, glass and mineral chemistry to show how the magma system reestablished following the Oruanui event, and to consider what processes influence the state of the modern volcano. The post-Oruanui dacites reflect the first products of the rebuilding silicic magma system, as most of the Oruanui mush was reconfigured or significantly modified in composition following thermal fluxing accompanying post-caldera collapse readjustment. Compositional variations within the younger rhyolites at priming of the silicic mush occurred multiple controls on the timing of eruptions, and demonstrate how the magmatic system can rapidly change behavior to generate large eruptible melt bodies on timescales of direct relevance to humans and monitoring initiatives.

  18. A detailed view of Earth across space and time: our changing planet through a 32-year global Landsat and Sentinel-2 timelapse video (United States)

    Herwig, C.


    The Landsat program offers an unparalleled record of our changing planet, with satellites that have been observing the Earth since 1972 to the present day. However, clouds, seasonal variation, and technical challenges around access to large volumes of data make it difficult for researchers and the public to understand global and regional scale changes across time through the planetary dataset. Earth Timelapse is a global, zoomable video that has helped revolutionize how users - millions of which have never been capable of utilizing Landsat data before - monitor and understand a changing planet. It is made from 33 cloud-free annual mosaics, one for each year from 1984 to 2016, which are made interactively explorable by Carnegie Mellon University CREATE Lab's Time Machine library, a technology for creating and viewing zoomable and pannable timelapses over space and time. Using Earth Engine, we combined over 5 million satellite images acquired over the past three decades by 5 different satellites. The majority of the images come from Landsat, a joint USGS/NASA Earth observation program that has observed the Earth since the 1970s. For 2015 and 2016, we combined Landsat 8 imagery with imagery from Sentinel-2A, part of the European Commission and European Space Agency's Copernicus Earth observation program. Along with the interactive desktop Timelapse application, we created a 200-video YouTube playlist highlighting areas across the world exhibiting change in the dataset.Earth Timelapse is an example that illustrates the power of Google Earth Engine's cloud-computing platform, which enables users such as scientists, researchers, and journalists to detect changes, map trends, and quantify differences on the Earth's surface using Google's computational infrastructure and the multi-petabyte Earth Engine data catalog. Earth Timelapse also highlights the value of data visualization to communicate with non-scientific audiences with varied technical and internet connectivity

  19. Integrated Solid Earth Science: the right place and time to discover the unexpected? (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture) (United States)

    Cloetingh, Sierd


    The fascination of learning more about the way system Earth operates has driven generations of Earth scientists. This has been the case for early pioneers such as Arthur Holmes, focusing on the geological record in continental settings, as well as for the founding fathers of plate tectonics, who built upon the results of exploring the ocean floor. Two years ago we celebrated the centenary of the discovery by Mohorovicic of the seismic discontinuity that separates the crust from the mantle, which now carries his name. Reading the rocks and mapping the (sub)surface of the Earth has provided the foundation for a great deal of what we conceptually pursue today in developing and validating coupled deep Earth and surface processes. The unexpected is probably characterizing most of my scientific career. It started in 1968 when, as a student, entering the geology program of Groningen University headed by Professor Philip Kuenen, a pioneer in marine geology and sedimentology, the textbook of Arthur Holmes just happened to be my first purchase. It was during those years that plate tectonics drastically changed everything we were learning. I was also privileged to enter a few years later as an MSc student the Utrecht geophysics school at a time where Nico Vlaar as a young professor was developing a vigorous research program with a focus on seismology, attracting and stimulating many talented students. When he and Rinus Wortel started research on Tectonophysics in Utrecht, I decided to go for a PhD research project tackling the problem of the initiation of subduction, a first order problem in geodynamics, with still many aspects to be resolved. This research and the joint work with Rinus Wortel on modeling intraplate stresses in the Faralon, Nazca and Indo-Australian plates led quite unexpectedly to exploring, together with Kurt Lambeck, intraplate stress fluctuations in the lithosphere as possible tectonic causes for the origin of third-order cycles in relative sea

  20. Rapid Diversification and Time Explain Amphibian Richness at Different Scales in the Tropical Andes, Earth's Most Biodiverse Hotspot. (United States)

    Hutter, Carl R; Lambert, Shea M; Wiens, John J


    The Tropical Andes make up Earth's most species-rich biodiversity hotspot for both animals and plants. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary processes underlying this extraordinary richness remain uncertain. Here, we examine the processes that generate high richness in the Tropical Andes relative to other regions in South America and across different elevations within the Andes, using frogs as a model system. We combine distributional data, a newly generated time-calibrated phylogeny for 2,318 frog species, and phylogenetic comparative methods to test the relative importance of diversification rates and colonization times for explaining Andean diversity at different scales. At larger scales (among regions and families), we find that faster diversification rates in Andean clades most likely explain high Andean richness. In contrast, at smaller temporal and spatial scales (within family-level clades within the Andes), diversification rates rarely explain richness patterns. Instead, we show that colonization times are important for shaping elevational richness patterns within the Andes, with more species found in habitats colonized earlier. We suggest that these scale-dependent patterns might apply to many other richness gradients. Recognition of this scale dependence may help to reconcile conflicting results among studies of richness patterns across habitats, regions, and organisms.

  1. Microfossil and Fourier transform infrared analyses of Lapita and post-Lapita human dental calculus from Vanuatu, southwest Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Nieuwoudt, M.K.; Kinaston, R.; Buckley, H.; Bedford, S.


    Here we report on microfossil analysis of human dental calculus from Lapita (3000-2600 yr BP) and post-Lapita (2300-2000 yr BP) burials from Vao and Uripiv, Vanuatu. Phytoliths of introduced Musa and indigenous Heliconia in the calculus suggest the use of these taxa as food wrappings. Phytoliths and most other material in the calculus, namely sponge spicules, calcium oxalate crystals, xylem and charcoal, are unequivocal identifications. Another type of material, comprising degraded objects with a general morphology suggesting starch grains, is uncertain, however, as the unequivocal starch indicator, the Maltese cross, was not observed. We used a new method for calculus analysis, Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR), comparing the suspected starch with modern reference starch of prehistoric Pacific crops. Although the ancient FTIR analysis was limited to a small number of suspected starch grains, the results provide another line of evidence for starch. The calculus data are consistent with previous microfossil studies of Lapita deposits at the sites, and demonstrate the efficacy of this technique in contributing to the definition of the history of plant use and diet of early Pacific Island populations. (author)

  2. A DTN-ready application for the real-time dissemination of Earth Observation data received by Direct Readout stations (United States)

    Paronis, Dimitris; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Diamantopoulos, Sotirios; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Tsigkanos, Antonis; Ghita, Bogdan; Evans, Michael


    The majority of Earth observation satellites operate in low Earth sun-synchronous orbit and transmit data captured by a variety of sensors. The effective dissemination of satellite data in real-time is a crucial parameter for disaster monitoring in particular. Generally, a spacecraft collects data and then stores it on-board until it passes over dedicated ground stations to transmit the data. Additionally, some satellites (e.g. Terra, Aqua, Suomi-NPP, NOAA series satellites) have the so-called Direct Broadcast (DB) capability, which is based on a real-time data transmission sub-system. Compatible Direct Readout (DR) stations in direct line of sight are able to receive these transmissions. To date data exchange between DR stations have not been fully exploited for real-time data dissemination. Stations around the world store data locally, which is then disseminated on demand via Internet gateways based on the standard TCP-IP protocols. On the other hand, Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), which deliver data by enabling store-and-forward transmission in order to cope with link failures, service disruptions and network congestion, could prove as an alternative/complementary transmission mechanism for the efficient dissemination of data. The DTN architecture allows for efficient utilization of the network, using in-network storage and taking advantage of the network availability among the interconnected nodes. Although DTNs were originally developed for high-propagation delay, challenged connectivity environments such as deep space, the broader research community has investigated possible architectural enhancements for various emerging applications (e.g., terrestrial infrastructure, ground-to-air communications, content retrieval and dissemination). In this paper, a scheme for the effective dissemination of DB data is conceptualized, designed and implemented based on store-and-forward transmission capabilities provided by DTNs. For demonstration purposes, a set-up has

  3. Impacts of Earth rotation parameters on GNSS ultra-rapid orbit prediction: Derivation and real-time correction (United States)

    Wang, Qianxin; Hu, Chao; Xu, Tianhe; Chang, Guobin; Hernández Moraleda, Alberto


    Analysis centers (ACs) for global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) cannot accurately obtain real-time Earth rotation parameters (ERPs). Thus, the prediction of ultra-rapid orbits in the international terrestrial reference system (ITRS) has to utilize the predicted ERPs issued by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) or the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this study, the accuracy of ERPs predicted by IERS and IGS is analyzed. The error of the ERPs predicted for one day can reach 0.15 mas and 0.053 ms in polar motion and UT1-UTC direction, respectively. Then, the impact of ERP errors on ultra-rapid orbit prediction by GNSS is studied. The methods for orbit integration and frame transformation in orbit prediction with introduced ERP errors dominate the accuracy of the predicted orbit. Experimental results show that the transformation from the geocentric celestial references system (GCRS) to ITRS exerts the strongest effect on the accuracy of the predicted ultra-rapid orbit. To obtain the most accurate predicted ultra-rapid orbit, a corresponding real-time orbit correction method is developed. First, orbits without ERP-related errors are predicted on the basis of ITRS observed part of ultra-rapid orbit for use as reference. Then, the corresponding predicted orbit is transformed from GCRS to ITRS to adjust for the predicted ERPs. Finally, the corrected ERPs with error slopes are re-introduced to correct the predicted orbit in ITRS. To validate the proposed method, three experimental schemes are designed: function extrapolation, simulation experiments, and experiments with predicted ultra-rapid orbits and international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) products. Experimental results show that using the proposed correction method with IERS products considerably improved the accuracy of ultra-rapid orbit prediction (except the geosynchronous BeiDou orbits). The accuracy of orbit prediction is enhanced by at least 50

  4. Standardized Access and Processing of Multi-Source Earth Observation Time-Series Data within a Regional Data Middleware (United States)

    Eberle, J.; Schmullius, C.


    Increasing archives of global satellite data present a new challenge to handle multi-source satellite data in a user-friendly way. Any user is confronted with different data formats and data access services. In addition the handling of time-series data is complex as an automated processing and execution of data processing steps is needed to supply the user with the desired product for a specific area of interest. In order to simplify the access to data archives of various satellite missions and to facilitate the subsequent processing, a regional data and processing middleware has been developed. The aim of this system is to provide standardized and web-based interfaces to multi-source time-series data for individual regions on Earth. For further use and analysis uniform data formats and data access services are provided. Interfaces to data archives of the sensor MODIS (NASA) as well as the satellites Landsat (USGS) and Sentinel (ESA) have been integrated in the middleware. Various scientific algorithms, such as the calculation of trends and breakpoints of time-series data, can be carried out on the preprocessed data on the basis of uniform data management. Jupyter Notebooks are linked to the data and further processing can be conducted directly on the server using Python and the statistical language R. In addition to accessing EO data, the middleware is also used as an intermediary between the user and external databases (e.g., Flickr, YouTube). Standardized web services as specified by OGC are provided for all tools of the middleware. Currently, the use of cloud services is being researched to bring algorithms to the data. As a thematic example, an operational monitoring of vegetation phenology is being implemented on the basis of various optical satellite data and validation data from the German Weather Service. Other examples demonstrate the monitoring of wetlands focusing on automated discovery and access of Landsat and Sentinel data for local areas.

  5. Raman Imaging Spectroscopy of a Putative Microfossil from the ∼3.46 Ga Apex Chert: Insights from Quartz Grain Orientation. (United States)

    Bower, D M; Steele, A; Fries, M D; Green, O R; Lindsay, J F


    The utility of nondestructive laser Raman for testing the biogenicity of microfossil-like structures in ancient rocks is promising, yet results from deposits like the ∼3.46 Ga Apex chert remain contentious. The essence of the debate is that associated microstructures, which are not purported to be microfossils, also contain reduced carbon that displays Raman D- and G-band peaks similar to those seen in the purported microfossils. This has led to the hypothesis that all features including reported microfossils are due to compression of nonfossil carbon during crystal growth around quartz spherulites or more angular crystals. In this scenario, the precursor to this macromolecular carbon may or may not have been of biogenic origin, while the arcuate and linear features described would be pseudofossils. To test this hypothesis, we have undertaken 2-D micro-Raman imaging of the Eoleptonema apex holotype and associated features using instrumentation with a high spatial and spectral resolution. In addition to this, we utilized the ratio of two Raman active quartz mode intensities (I129/I461) to assess quartz grain orientation and grain-splitting artifacts. These data lead us to conclude that the holotype of Eoleptonema apex is a sheet-shaped pseudofossil that appears to be a carbon infilled intragranular crack; therefore other holotypes should be carefully reexamined for syngenicity.

  6. Time variability in Cenozoic reconstructions of mantle heat flow: plate tectonic cycles and implications for Earth's thermal evolution. (United States)

    Loyd, S J; Becker, T W; Conrad, C P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C; Corsetti, F A


    The thermal evolution of Earth is governed by the rate of secular cooling and the amount of radiogenic heating. If mantle heat sources are known, surface heat flow at different times may be used to deduce the efficiency of convective cooling and ultimately the temporal character of plate tectonics. We estimate global heat flow from 65 Ma to the present using seafloor age reconstructions and a modified half-space cooling model, and we find that heat flow has decreased by approximately 0.15% every million years during the Cenozoic. By examining geometric trends in plate reconstructions since 120 Ma, we show that the reduction in heat flow is due to a decrease in the area of ridge-proximal oceanic crust. Even accounting for uncertainties in plate reconstructions, the rate of heat flow decrease is an order of magnitude faster than estimates based on smooth, parameterized cooling models. This implies that heat flow experiences short-term fluctuations associated with plate tectonic cyclicity. Continental separation does not appear to directly control convective wavelengths, but rather indirectly affects how oceanic plate systems adjust to accommodate global heat transport. Given that today's heat flow may be unusually low, secular cooling rates estimated from present-day values will tend to underestimate the average cooling rate. Thus, a mechanism that causes less efficient tectonic heat transport at higher temperatures may be required to prevent an unreasonably hot mantle in the recent past.

  7. Remarkable preservation of microfossils and biofilms in mesoproterozoic silicified bitumen concretions from Northern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Huajian


    Prokaryotes, often generally referred to as “bacteria,” are the original and thus oldest life on Earth. They have shaped the chemical environment of the Earth, but they are difficult to find as ancient fossils due to their subtle structure. Here we report well-preserved fossilized microbial...... communities in silicified bitumen concretions from unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation (1.39 Ga) in northern China. The numerous silicified bitumen concretions are in a variety of forms including ellipsoidal, spindle, and pancake ones, with diameters of 1~16 cm and thicknesses of 0.5~3 cm. The principal planes...

  8. SIMS analyses of the oldest known assemblage of microfossils document their taxon-correlated carbon isotope compositions. (United States)

    Schopf, J William; Kitajima, Kouki; Spicuzza, Michael J; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B; Valley, John W


    Analyses by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) of 11 specimens of five taxa of prokaryotic filamentous kerogenous cellular microfossils permineralized in a petrographic thin section of the ∼3,465 Ma Apex chert of northwestern Western Australia, prepared from the same rock sample from which this earliest known assemblage of cellular fossils was described more than two decades ago, show their δ 13 C compositions to vary systematically taxon to taxon from -31‰ to -39‰. These morphospecies-correlated carbon isotope compositions confirm the biogenicity of the Apex fossils and validate their morphology-based taxonomic assignments. Perhaps most significantly, the δ 13 C values of each of the five taxa are lower than those of bulk samples of Apex kerogen (-27‰), those of SIMS-measured fossil-associated dispersed particulate kerogen (-27.6‰), and those typical of modern prokaryotic phototrophs (-25 ± 10‰). The SIMS data for the two highest δ 13 C Apex taxa are consistent with those of extant phototrophic bacteria; those for a somewhat lower δ 13 C taxon, with nonbacterial methane-producing Archaea; and those for the two lowest δ 13 C taxa, with methane-metabolizing γ-proteobacteria. Although the existence of both methanogens and methanotrophs has been inferred from bulk analyses of the carbon isotopic compositions of pre-2,500 Ma kerogens, these in situ SIMS analyses of individual microfossils present data interpretable as evidencing the cellular preservation of such microorganisms and are consistent with the near-basal position of the Archaea in rRNA phylogenies.

  9. SIMS analyses of the oldest known assemblage of microfossils document their taxon-correlated carbon isotope compositions (United States)

    Schopf, J. William; Kitajima, Kouki; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B.; Valley, John W.


    Analyses by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) of 11 specimens of five taxa of prokaryotic filamentous kerogenous cellular microfossils permineralized in a petrographic thin section of the ˜3,465 Ma Apex chert of northwestern Western Australia, prepared from the same rock sample from which this earliest known assemblage of cellular fossils was described more than two decades ago, show their δ13C compositions to vary systematically taxon to taxon from ‑31‰ to ‑39‰. These morphospecies-correlated carbon isotope compositions confirm the biogenicity of the Apex fossils and validate their morphology-based taxonomic assignments. Perhaps most significantly, the δ13C values of each of the five taxa are lower than those of bulk samples of Apex kerogen (‑27‰), those of SIMS-measured fossil-associated dispersed particulate kerogen (‑27.6‰), and those typical of modern prokaryotic phototrophs (‑25 ± 10‰). The SIMS data for the two highest δ13C Apex taxa are consistent with those of extant phototrophic bacteria; those for a somewhat lower δ13C taxon, with nonbacterial methane-producing Archaea; and those for the two lowest δ13C taxa, with methane-metabolizing γ-proteobacteria. Although the existence of both methanogens and methanotrophs has been inferred from bulk analyses of the carbon isotopic compositions of pre-2,500 Ma kerogens, these in situ SIMS analyses of individual microfossils present data interpretable as evidencing the cellular preservation of such microorganisms and are consistent with the near-basal position of the Archaea in rRNA phylogenies.

  10. The effect of the Earth's oblate spheroid shape on the accuracy of a time-of-arrival lightning ground strike locating system (United States)

    Casper, Paul W.; Bent, Rodney B.


    The algorithm used in previous technology time-of-arrival lightning mapping systems was based on the assumption that the earth is a perfect spheroid. These systems yield highly-accurate lightning locations, which is their major strength. However, extensive analysis of tower strike data has revealed occasionally significant (one to two kilometer) systematic offset errors which are not explained by the usual error sources. It was determined that these systematic errors reduce dramatically (in some cases) when the oblate shape of the earth is taken into account. The oblate spheroid correction algorithm and a case example is presented.

  11. Rare Earth Elements as Potential Biosignatures on Mars in SuperCam Time Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy Data (United States)

    Ollila, A.; Beyssac, O.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Clegg, S. M.; Gauthier, M.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Lanza, N.


    The rare earth elements (REE, La to Lu) are a group of elements with similar chemical properties that are generally present in geologic materials at trace concentrations. REEs may be concentrated via processes such as igneous fractional crystallization in accessory minerals, e.g. apatite, zircon, and titanite. Additionally, however, concentrations of REE may serve to identify regions of high astrobiological interest. For example, Fe-oxyhydroxide deposits in hydrothermal vent systems and biologically related manganese nodules may be enriched in REEs. REEs have not been measured in situ on Mars, therefore their prevalence and distribution on Mars is as yet unknown, except as observed in martian meteorites. SuperCam is a survey instrument that will analyze materials around the Mars 2020 rover using a variety of spectral techniques including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman, VIS-IR, and time-resolved laser fluorescence (TRLF) spectroscopy. Recently, the SuperCam Engineering Development Unit was tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for its capabilities to detect REEs in minerals using TRLF spectroscopy. While this instrument was not designed to precisely replicate the flight model, the spectral resolution and light transmission was sufficient to obtain TRLF spectra on a number of minerals demonstrating a variety of REE luminescent centers. These include apatite (Sm3+, Nd3+, Eu3+, Dy3+), fluorite (Ho3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Nd3+), and zircon (Er3+, Pr3+, Nd3+). Future work includes expanding this suite to include minerals associated with biological activities, for example Mn-oxides (desert varnish and manganese nodules), hydrothermal Fe-oxides, and stromatolite-associated carbonates. In this way and in combination with its other techniques, SuperCam may direct the rover team to perform further analyses of similar samples by the in situ chemical and mineralogical suite of instruments, or aid in prioritization for sample return.

  12. Teaching future teachers basic astronomy concepts Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements at a time of reform in science education (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo


    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases, Sun and Moon eclipses, and others. The activities concerning the characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements and their results are reported. The experimental class as well as the control groups improved their grasp of basic astronomy concepts at a statistically significant level. Regarding subjects relevant to this study (Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements), only the experimental class and one of the control groups showed a statistically significant improvement, and in both cases the experimental class made the most impressive progress of all.

  13. Time of Formation of Earth and Mars Constrained by Siderophile Element Geochemistry and the 182Hf-182W Isotope System


    Yu, Gang


    \\(^{182}Hf-^{182}W\\) chronometry is considered the most powerful tool to determine the formation timescale of the terrestrial planets. However, previous work employed oversimplified accretion and core formation models. The accretion and core formation models presented here for the \\(^{182}W \\) isotopic evolution in the mantles of the accreting Earth and Mars, can incorporate the core formation conditions constrained by siderophile element geochemistry and can be succes...

  14. High-resolution imaging of sulfur oxidation states, trace elements, and organic molecules distribution in individual microfossils and contempo rary microbial filaments (United States)

    Foriel, Julien; Philippot, Pascal; Susini, Jean; Dumas, Paul; Somogyi, Andrea; Salomé, Murielle; Khodja, Hicham; Ménez, Bénédicte; Fouquet, Yves; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación


    Owing to the delicate nature of fossil microorganisms and inherent difficulties for discriminating true fossils from artifacts, an important challenge is to extract unequivocal biogenic information from individual microfossils using high-resolution, nondestructive and sensitive techniques. Here, we use combined synchrotron (X-ray microfluorescence, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and infrared microspectroscopies) and particle-induced X-ray emission analyses to image the spatial distribution at a μm-scale of a variety of potential biogenic markers (major and trace elements, C-H bonds, and sulfur-oxidation states) in individual prokaryotic microfossils. In particular, we analyzed iron-oxide fossil filaments of putative biogenic origin encapsulated with amorphous silica from a fragment of an inactive hydrothermal chimney of the East Pacific Rise. In order to test the biogenic origin of the markers studied, we performed the same analyses on filamentous bacteria corresponding most likely to the ɛ-Proteobacteria, and collected from substrates exposed to a hydrothermal fluid vent at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In both types of fossil and contemporary filaments, the occurrence of CH2 groups and of three sulfur species (sulfate, sulfite, organic S) showing heterogeneous distribution that underline the cytoplasm of individual cells in the case of the present-day filament, suggests that the original microorganisms were actively metabolizing sulfur. These results show the large potential of combining high-resolution synchrotron techniques to analyze individual microfossils for extracting unequivocal biogenic information. Furthermore, they also suggest that cooccurrence of different sulfur oxidation states within single microfossils could constitute a biogenic metabolic marker indicating S-metabolizing activities.

  15. Remarkable Preservation of Microfossils and Biofilms in Mesoproterozoic Silicified Bitumen Concretions from Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Wang


    Full Text Available Prokaryotes, often generally referred to as “bacteria,” are the original and thus oldest life on Earth. They have shaped the chemical environment of the Earth, but they are difficult to find as ancient fossils due to their subtle structure. Here we report well-preserved fossilized microbial communities in silicified bitumen concretions from unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation (1.39 Ga in northern China. The numerous silicified bitumen concretions are in a variety of forms including ellipsoidal, spindle, and pancake ones, with diameters of 1~16 cm and thicknesses of 0.5~3 cm. The principal planes of the concretions are at low angle or directly parallel to the depositional plane level, showing obvious depositional characteristics. The concretions are silicified with abundant bitumen inside. Many different kinds of microbial fossils are found in the bitumen, including spherical forms, rods, and filaments, and some of the microbes are aggregated together in the forms of multicellular structures. These concretions preserve a delicate Mesoproterozoic biotic community.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wu


    Full Text Available The ocean carbon cycle has a significant influence on global climate, and is commonly evaluated using time-series satellite-derived CO2 flux data. Location-aware and globe-based visualization is an important technique for analyzing and presenting the evolution of climate change. To achieve realistic simulation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of ocean carbon, a cloud-driven digital earth platform is developed to support the interactive analysis and display of multi-geospatial data, and an original visualization method based on our digital earth is proposed to demonstrate the spatiotemporal variations of carbon sinks and sources using time-series satellite data. Specifically, a volume rendering technique using half-angle slicing and particle system is implemented to dynamically display the released or absorbed CO2 gas. To enable location-aware visualization within the virtual globe, we present a 3D particlemapping algorithm to render particle-slicing textures onto geospace. In addition, a GPU-based interpolation framework using CUDA during real-time rendering is designed to obtain smooth effects in both spatial and temporal dimensions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method, a series of satellite data is applied to simulate the air-sea carbon cycle in the China Sea. The results show that the suggested strategies provide realistic simulation effects and acceptable interactive performance on the digital earth.

  17. A comparison of Frequency Domain Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) approaches to satellite service for low data rate Earth stations (United States)

    Stevens, G.


    A technological and economic assessment is made of providing low data rate service to small earth stations by satellite at Ka-band. Various Frequency Domain Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) scenarios are examined and compared on the basis of cost to the end user. Very small stations (1 to 2 meters in diameter) are found not to be viable alternatives to available terrestrial services. However, medium size (3 to 5 meters) earth stations appear to be very competitive if a minimum throughput of about 1.5 Mbs is maintained. This constrains the use of such terminals to large users and shared use by smaller users. No advantage was found to the use of FDMA. TDMA had a slight advantage from a total system viewpoint and a very significant advantage in the space segment (about 1/3 the required payload weight for an equivalent capacity).

  18. Arrival times of Flare/Halo CME associated shocks at the Earth: comparison of the predictions of three numerical models with these observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor


    Full Text Available The arrival times at L1 of eleven travelling shocks associated both with X-ray flaring and with halo CMEs recorded aboard SOHO/LASCO have been considered. Close to the Sun the velocities of these events were estimated using either Type II radio records or CME speeds. Close to the Earth the shocks were detected in the data of various solar wind plasma, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and energetic particle experiments aboard SOHO, ACE, WIND, INTERBALL-1 and IMP-8. The real-time shock arrival predictions of three numerical models, namely the Shock Time of Arrival Model (STOA, the Interplanetary Shock Propagation Model (ISPM and the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry Solar Wind Model (HAFv.2 were tested against these observations. This is the first time that energetic protons (tens of keV to a few MeV have been used to complement plasma and IMF data in validating shock propagation models. The models were all generally successful in predicting shock arrivals. STOA provided the smallest values of the "predicted minus measured" arrival times and displayed a typical predictive precision better than about 8 h. The ratio of the calculated standard deviation of the transit times to Earth to the standard deviation of the measurements was estimated for each model (treating interacting events as composite shocks and these ratios turned out to be 0.60, 1.15 and 1.02 for STOA, ISPM and HAFv.2, respectively. If an event in the sample for which the shock velocity was not well known is omitted from consideration, these ratios become 0.36, 0.76 and 0.81, respectively. Larger statistical samples should now be tested. The ratio of the in situ shock velocity and the "Sun to L1" transit velocity (Vsh /Vtr was in the range of 0.7–0.9 for individual, non-interacting, shock events. HAFv.2 uniquely provided information on those changes in the COBpoint (the moving Connection point on the shock along the IMF to the OBserver which directly influenced energetic particle rise times

  19. Mitigating Space Weather Impacts on the Power Grid in Real-Time: Applying 3-D EarthScope Magnetotelluric Data to Forecasting Reactive Power Loss in Power Transformers (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Bonner, L. R., IV


    Current efforts to assess risk to the power grid from geomagnetic disturbances (GMDs) that result in geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) seek to identify potential "hotspots," based on statistical models of GMD storm scenarios and power distribution grounding models that assume that the electrical conductivity of the Earth's crust and mantle varies only with depth. The NSF-supported EarthScope Magnetotelluric (MT) Program operated by Oregon State University has mapped 3-D ground electrical conductivity structure across more than half of the continental US. MT data, the naturally occurring time variations in the Earth's vector electric and magnetic fields at ground level, are used to determine the MT impedance tensor for each site (the ratio of horizontal vector electric and magnetic fields at ground level expressed as a complex-valued frequency domain quantity). The impedance provides information on the 3-D electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's crust and mantle. We demonstrate that use of 3-D ground conductivity information significantly improves the fidelity of GIC predictions over existing 1-D approaches. We project real-time magnetic field data streams from US Geological Survey magnetic observatories into a set of linear filters that employ the impedance data and that generate estimates of ground level electric fields at the locations of MT stations. The resulting ground electric fields are projected to and integrated along the path of power transmission lines. This serves as inputs to power flow models that represent the power transmission grid, yielding a time-varying set of quasi-real-time estimates of reactive power loss at the power transformers that are critical infrastructure for power distribution. We demonstrate that peak reactive power loss and hence peak risk for transformer damage from GICs does not necessarily occur during peak GMD storm times, but rather depends on the time-evolution of the polarization of the GMD's inducing fields

  20. Gypsum-permineralized microfossils and their relevance to the search for life on Mars. (United States)

    Schopf, J William; Farmer, Jack D; Foster, Ian S; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B; Gallardo, Victor A; Espinoza, Carola


    Orbital and in situ analyses establish that aerially extensive deposits of evaporitic sulfates, including gypsum, are present on the surface of Mars. Although comparable gypsiferous sediments on Earth have been largely ignored by paleontologists, we here report the finding of diverse fossil microscopic organisms permineralized in bottom-nucleated gypsums of seven deposits: two from the Permian (∼260 Ma) of New Mexico, USA; one from the Miocene (∼6 Ma) of Italy; and four from Recent lacustrine and saltern deposits of Australia, Mexico, and Peru. In addition to presenting the first report of the widespread occurrence of microscopic fossils in bottom-nucleated primary gypsum, we show the striking morphological similarity of the majority of the benthic filamentous fossils of these units to the microorganisms of a modern sulfuretum biocoenose. Based on such similarity, in morphology as well as habitat, these findings suggest that anaerobic sulfur-metabolizing microbial assemblages have changed relatively little over hundreds of millions of years. Their discovery as fossilized components of the seven gypsiferous units reported suggests that primary bottom-nucleated gypsum represents a promising target in the search for evidence of past life on Mars. Key Words: Confocal laser scanning microscopy-Gypsum fossils-Mars sample return missions-Raman spectroscopy-Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument-Sulfuretum.

  1. Revision of species of Minerisporites, Azolla and associated plant microfossils from deposits of the Upper Palaeocene and Palaeocene/Eocene transition in the Netherlands, Belgium and the USA. (United States)

    Batten, D J.; Collinson, M E.


    Species of the megaspore genus Minerisporites Potonié, megaspore apparatuses of species of the water fern Azolla Lamarck, and some associated organic-walled microfossils recovered from deposits of the Upper Palaeocene and Palaeocene/Eocene transition in the southern part of the Netherlands and neighbouring Belgium are redescribed on the basis of an examination of specimens under scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Originally studied about 40 years ago by S.J. Dijkstra, the re-examination has enabled emended diagnoses to be produced for six taxa: Minerisporites glossoferus (Dijkstra) Tschudy, M. mirabilis (Miner) Potonié, M. mirabilissimus (Dijkstra) Potonié, Azolla schopfii Dijkstra, A. teschiana Florschütz, and A. velus (Dijkstra) Jain and Hall. In addition, a revised description is provided for massulae of Salvinia Séguier that were originally thought to be megaspores and, hence, named by Dijkstra as Triletes? exiguus. The gross morphology and construction of the exospore of the species of Minerisporites are similar, but nevertheless sufficiently distinct for them to be maintained as separate taxa. Monolete microspores are preserved in hollows in the reticulate surface of some of the specimens of M. mirabilissimus. This is consistent with the presumed isoetalean affinity of Minerisporites. An apparent stratigraphic morphocline from M. glossoferus to M. mirabilis, suggested previously, is confirmed following our reassessment of their characteristics. The species of Azolla are all multi-floated, but they differ from each other in several ways, in particular with respect to the ultrastructure of the megaspore wall. They are also distinct from all other species that have been considered in sufficient detail for satisfactory comparisons to be made. The massulae of A. teschiana are described for the first time. The floats in A. velus are attached to the proximal part of the megaspore only by suprafilosal hairs. There are no maniculae. It is argued that

  2. A detection of the evolutionary time scale of the DA white dwarf G117 - B15A with the Whole Earth Telescope (United States)

    Kepler, S. O.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Bradley, P. A.; Claver, C. F.; Grauer, A. D.; Vauclair, G.; Marar, T. M. K.


    The time rate of change for the main pulsation period of the 13,000 K DA white dwarf G117 - B15A has been detected using the Whole Earth Telescope (WET). The observed rate of period change, P(dot) = (12.0 + or - 3.5) x 10 to the -15th s/s, is somewhat larger than the published theoretical calculations of the rate of period change due to cooling, based on carbon core white dwarf models. Other effects that could contribute to the observed rate of period change are discussed.

  3. Implementation of methane cycling for deep-time global warming simulations with the DCESS Earth system model (version 1.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shaffer


    Full Text Available Geological records reveal a number of ancient, large and rapid negative excursions of the carbon-13 isotope. Such excursions can only be explained by massive injections of depleted carbon to the Earth system over a short duration. These injections may have forced strong global warming events, sometimes accompanied by mass extinctions such as the Triassic-Jurassic and end-Permian extinctions 201 and 252 million years ago, respectively. In many cases, evidence points to methane as the dominant form of injected carbon, whether as thermogenic methane formed by magma intrusions through overlying carbon-rich sediment or from warming-induced dissociation of methane hydrate, a solid compound of methane and water found in ocean sediments. As a consequence of the ubiquity and importance of methane in major Earth events, Earth system models for addressing such events should include a comprehensive treatment of methane cycling but such a treatment has often been lacking. Here we implement methane cycling in the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS model, a simplified but well-tested Earth system model of intermediate complexity. We use a generic methane input function that allows variation in input type, size, timescale and ocean–atmosphere partition. To be able to treat such massive inputs more correctly, we extend the model to deal with ocean suboxic/anoxic conditions and with radiative forcing and methane lifetimes appropriate for high atmospheric methane concentrations. With this new model version, we carried out an extensive set of simulations for methane inputs of various sizes, timescales and ocean–atmosphere partitions to probe model behavior. We find that larger methane inputs over shorter timescales with more methane dissolving in the ocean lead to ever-increasing ocean anoxia with consequences for ocean life and global carbon cycling. Greater methane input directly to the atmosphere leads to more warming and, for example

  4. Implementation of methane cycling for deep-time global warming simulations with the DCESS Earth system model (version 1.2) (United States)

    Shaffer, Gary; Fernández Villanueva, Esteban; Rondanelli, Roberto; Olaf Pepke Pedersen, Jens; Malskær Olsen, Steffen; Huber, Matthew


    Geological records reveal a number of ancient, large and rapid negative excursions of the carbon-13 isotope. Such excursions can only be explained by massive injections of depleted carbon to the Earth system over a short duration. These injections may have forced strong global warming events, sometimes accompanied by mass extinctions such as the Triassic-Jurassic and end-Permian extinctions 201 and 252 million years ago, respectively. In many cases, evidence points to methane as the dominant form of injected carbon, whether as thermogenic methane formed by magma intrusions through overlying carbon-rich sediment or from warming-induced dissociation of methane hydrate, a solid compound of methane and water found in ocean sediments. As a consequence of the ubiquity and importance of methane in major Earth events, Earth system models for addressing such events should include a comprehensive treatment of methane cycling but such a treatment has often been lacking. Here we implement methane cycling in the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS) model, a simplified but well-tested Earth system model of intermediate complexity. We use a generic methane input function that allows variation in input type, size, timescale and ocean-atmosphere partition. To be able to treat such massive inputs more correctly, we extend the model to deal with ocean suboxic/anoxic conditions and with radiative forcing and methane lifetimes appropriate for high atmospheric methane concentrations. With this new model version, we carried out an extensive set of simulations for methane inputs of various sizes, timescales and ocean-atmosphere partitions to probe model behavior. We find that larger methane inputs over shorter timescales with more methane dissolving in the ocean lead to ever-increasing ocean anoxia with consequences for ocean life and global carbon cycling. Greater methane input directly to the atmosphere leads to more warming and, for example, greater carbon dioxide release

  5. Hands On Earth Science. (United States)

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  6. Influence of process time on microstructure and properties of 17-4PH steel plasma nitrocarburized with rare earths addition at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, M.F.; Liu, R.L.


    17-4PH stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at 430 deg. C for different time with rare earths (RE) addition. Plasma RE nitrocarburized layers were studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, X-ray diffraction, microhardness tests, pin-on-disc tribometer and anodic polarization tests. The results show that rare earths atoms can diffuse into the surface of 17-4PH steel. The modified layer depths increase with increasing process time and the layer growth conforms approximately to the parabolic law. The phases in the modified layer are mainly of γ'-Fe 4 N, nitrogen and carbon expanded martensite (α' N ) as well as some incipient CrN at short time (2 h). With increasing of process time, the phases of CrN and γ'-Fe 4 N increase but α' N decomposes gradually. Interestingly, the peaks of γ'-Fe 4 N display a high (2 0 0) plane preferred orientation. The hardness of the modified specimen is more than 1340 HV, which is about 3.7 times higher than that of untreated one. The friction coefficients and wear rates of specimens can be dramatically decreased by plasma RE nitrocarburizing. The surface hardness and the friction coefficients decrease gradually with increasing process time. The corrosion test shows that the 8 h treated specimen has the best corrosion resistance with the characterization of lower corrosion current density, a higher corrosion potential and a large passive region as compared with those of untreated one.

  7. The Sun-Earth connect 2: Modelling patterns of a fractal Sun in time and space using the fine structure constant (United States)

    Baker, Robert G. V.


    Self-similar matrices of the fine structure constant of solar electromagnetic force and its inverse, multiplied by the Carrington synodic rotation, have been previously shown to account for at least 98% of the top one hundred significant frequencies and periodicities observed in the ACRIM composite irradiance satellite measurement and the terrestrial 10.7cm Penticton Adjusted Daily Flux data sets. This self-similarity allows for the development of a time-space differential equation (DE) where the solutions define a solar model for transmissions through the core, radiative, tachocline, convective and coronal zones with some encouraging empirical and theoretical results. The DE assumes a fundamental complex oscillation in the solar core and that time at the tachocline is smeared with real and imaginary constructs. The resulting solutions simulate for tachocline transmission, the solar cycle where time-line trajectories either 'loop' as Hermite polynomials for an active Sun or 'tail' as complementary error functions for a passive Sun. Further, a mechanism that allows for the stable energy transmission through the tachocline is explored and the model predicts the initial exponential coronal heating from nanoflare supercharging. The twisting of the field at the tachocline is then described as a quaternion within which neutrinos can oscillate. The resulting fractal bubbles are simulated as a Julia Set which can then aggregate from nanoflares into solar flares and prominences. Empirical examples demonstrate that time and space fractals are important constructs in understanding the behaviour of the Sun, from the impact on climate and biological histories on Earth, to the fractal influence on the spatial distributions of the solar system. The research suggests that there is a fractal clock underpinning solar frequencies in packages defined by the fine structure constant, where magnetic flipping and irradiance fluctuations at phase changes, have periodically impacted on the

  8. Search for supernova-produced {sup 60}Fe in the microfossil record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Peter; Bishop, Shawn; Chernenko, Valentyna; Faestermann, Thomas; Famulok, Nicolai; Fimiani, Leticia; Gomez, Jose; Hain, Karin; Korschinek, Gunther [TU Muenchen, Physik Department (Germany); Egli, Ramon [ZAMG, Wien (Austria); Frederichs, Thomas [Universitaet Bremen, Geowissenschaften (Germany); Hanzlik, Marianne [TU Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Chemie (Germany); Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg [HZDR, Dresden (Germany)


    Material distributed into the interstellar medium by supernova explosions can be incorporated into terrestrial archives. After the discovery of live {sup 60}Fe atoms in 2-3 Myr old layers of a Pacific Ocean ferromanganese crust, a confirmation of this signal, as well as a mapping of the signal with high time-resolution is desirable. Another reservoir in which the {sup 60}Fe signature should have been incorporated are the fossils of magnetotactic bacteria in ocean sediment. To this end, two sediment cores from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific were obtained, iron was chemically extracted with high selectivity towards biogenic magnetite, and the extraction procedure was characterized using novel magnetic measurements. The {sup 60}Fe/Fe concentration in the samples was then measured with accelerator mass spectrometry at the GAMS setup in Garching. Preliminary results for both sediment cores are reported.

  9. Arrival times of Flare/Halo CME associated shocks at the Earth: comparison of the predictions of three numerical models with these observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

    Full Text Available The arrival times at L1 of eleven travelling shocks associated both with X-ray flaring and with halo CMEs recorded aboard SOHO/LASCO have been considered. Close to the Sun the velocities of these events were estimated using either Type II radio records or CME speeds. Close to the Earth the shocks were detected in the data of various solar wind plasma, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and energetic particle experiments aboard SOHO, ACE, WIND, INTERBALL-1 and IMP-8. The real-time shock arrival predictions of three numerical models, namely the Shock Time of Arrival Model (STOA, the Interplanetary Shock Propagation Model (ISPM and the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry Solar Wind Model (HAFv.2 were tested against these observations. This is the first time that energetic protons (tens of keV to a few MeV have been used to complement plasma and IMF data in validating shock propagation models. The models were all generally successful in predicting shock arrivals. STOA provided the smallest values of the "predicted minus measured" arrival times and displayed a typical predictive precision better than about 8 h. The ratio of the calculated standard deviation of the transit times to Earth to the standard deviation of the measurements was estimated for each model (treating interacting events as composite shocks and these ratios turned out to be 0.60, 1.15 and 1.02 for STOA, ISPM and HAFv.2, respectively. If an event in the sample for which the shock velocity was not well known is omitted from consideration, these ratios become 0.36, 0.76 and 0.81, respectively. Larger statistical samples should now be tested. The ratio of the in situ shock velocity and the "Sun to L1" transit velocity (Vsh /Vtr was in the range of 0.7–0.9 for individual, non-interacting, shock events. HAFv.2 uniquely provided information on those changes in the COBpoint (the moving Connection point on the shock along the IMF to the OBserver which directly influenced energetic

  10. Down to earth relativity (United States)

    Shapiro, I. I.


    The basic concepts of the special and general theories of relativity are described. Simple examples are given to illustrate the effect of relativity on measurements of time and frequency in the near-earth environment.

  11. Feature Geo Analytics and Big Data Processing: Hybrid Approaches for Earth Science and Real-Time Decision Support (United States)

    Wright, D. J.; Raad, M.; Hoel, E.; Park, M.; Mollenkopf, A.; Trujillo, R.


    Introduced is a new approach for processing spatiotemporal big data by leveraging distributed analytics and storage. A suite of temporally-aware analysis tools summarizes data nearby or within variable windows, aggregates points (e.g., for various sensor observations or vessel positions), reconstructs time-enabled points into tracks (e.g., for mapping and visualizing storm tracks), joins features (e.g., to find associations between features based on attributes, spatial relationships, temporal relationships or all three simultaneously), calculates point densities, finds hot spots (e.g., in species distributions), and creates space-time slices and cubes (e.g., in microweather applications with temperature, humidity, and pressure, or within human mobility studies). These "feature geo analytics" tools run in both batch and streaming spatial analysis mode as distributed computations across a cluster of servers on typical "big" data sets, where static data exist in traditional geospatial formats (e.g., shapefile) locally on a disk or file share, attached as static spatiotemporal big data stores, or streamed in near-real-time. In other words, the approach registers large datasets or data stores with ArcGIS Server, then distributes analysis across a cluster of machines for parallel processing. Several brief use cases will be highlighted based on a 16-node server cluster at 14 Gb RAM per node, allowing, for example, the buffering of over 8 million points or thousands of polygons in 1 minute. The approach is "hybrid" in that ArcGIS Server integrates open-source big data frameworks such as Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark on the cluster in order to run the analytics. In addition, the user may devise and connect custom open-source interfaces and tools developed in Python or Python Notebooks; the common denominator being the familiar REST API.

  12. Let Us Look After the Veins of the Earth: The Sonification of Time-series Field Data by Analog Methods (United States)

    Rivera, V. A.; Amaya, L. F.


    In 2016, graduate students from Northwestern University's Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) initiated the Science Sonification and Composition Project, which pairs scientists with student composers to create original music inspired by and utilizing the products of scientific research. In 2017, these pieces were performed at Northwestern for a mixed audience of scientists, musicians, and community members. Sonification of data, or the representation of data as sound, is an increasingly popular method of examining data in the geosciences, especially in astrophysics, where sonification of gravitational waves has recently made major news. Numerical time-series data are often excellent candidates for sonification, as the data can be modified by simple algorithmic means to convert numerical values which represent physical measurements to numerical values representing musical "variables" like volume, pitch, or timbre. Our collaboration, a result of the CIERA initiative, explores methods of sonification that do not involve a simple conversion of data to sound, instead attempting to create sound from data by analog methods. The piece uses both time-series groundwater elevation data and physical soil samples from the locations where the water table measurements were collected. The field site from which both data and samples were collected is Gensburg Markham Prairie, an urban nature preserve on Chicago's south side which hosts a long-term study on the collateral benefits of urban greenspace for stormwater management and storage. Our aim was to combine physical, living elements with technology to mirror the research, where we examine flows and cycles in nature by "taking the pulse" of the landscape using sensing networks. Soil samples were placed in metal vessels outfitted with contact microphones and manipulated by hand and with water, using time-series data as a guide, much like sheet music. This was repeated for samples and

  13. Introductory Earth science education by near real time animated visualization of seismic wave propagation across Transportable Array of USArray (United States)

    Attanayake, J.; Ghosh, A.; Amosu, A.


    Students of this generation are markedly different from their predecessors because they grow up and learn in a world of visual technology populated by touch screens and smart boards. Recent studies have found that the attention span of university students whose medium of instruction is traditional teaching methods is roughly fifteen minutes and that there is a significant drop in the number of students paying attention over time in a lecture. On the other hand, when carefully segmented and learner-paced, animated visualizations can enhance the learning experience. Therefore, the instructors are faced with the difficult task of designing more complex teaching environments to improve learner productivity. We have developed an animated visualization of earthquake wave propagation across a generic transect of the Transportable Array of the USArray from a magnitude 6.9 event that occurred in the Gulf of California on August 3rd 2009. Despite the fact that the proto-type tool is built in MATLAB - one of the most popular programming environments among the seismology community, the movies can be run as a standalone stream with any built-in media player that supports .avi file format. We infer continuous ground motion along the transect through a projection and interpolation mechanism based on data from stations within 100 km of the transect. In the movies we identify the arrival of surface waves that have high amplitudes. However, over time, although typical Rayleigh type ground motion can be observed, the motion at any given point becomes complex owing to interference of different wave types and different seismic properties of the subsurface. This clearly is different from simple representations of seismic wave propagation in most introductory textbooks. Further, we find a noisy station that shows unusually high amplitude. We refrain from deleting this station in order to demonstrate that in a real world experiment, generally, there will be complexities arising from

  14. Earth before life. (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi


    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  15. Mars, earth, and ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordell, B.M.


    Possible mechanisms to explain the global ice covering of Mars, and previous ice ages on the earth, are considered. Evidence for the Milankovitch effect is found in the close correspondence of earth's past climate with its orbital variations, as recorded principally in ocean sediments, and the role of CO 2 is discussed. Mars' range of obliquity, 10 times that of the earth, and orbital eccentricity, fluctuating over a range 2 1/2 times that of the earth, could produce an important climate-driving cycle. Mathematical models of the Martian surface and atmosphere based on Viking data suggest that escaped CO 2 could create a surface pressure of 1-3 bars. Other factors such as the effect of continental drift, the increased brightness of the sun, and planetary reversals of magnetic field polarity are discussed, and the questions of where Martian water and CO 2 have gone are considered

  16. It's time for a crisper image of the Face of the Earth: Landsat and climate time series for massive land cover & climate change mapping at detailed resolution. (United States)

    Pons, Xavier; Miquel, Ninyerola; Oscar, González-Guerrero; Cristina, Cea; Pere, Serra; Alaitz, Zabala; Lluís, Pesquer; Ivette, Serral; Joan, Masó; Cristina, Domingo; Maria, Serra Josep; Jordi, Cristóbal; Chris, Hain; Martha, Anderson; Juanjo, Vidal


    Combining climate dynamics and land cover at a relative coarse resolution allows a very interesting approach to global studies, because in many cases these studies are based on a quite high temporal resolution, but they may be limited in large areas like the Mediterranean. However, the current availability of long time series of Landsat imagery and spatially detailed surface climate models allow thinking on global databases improving the results of mapping in areas with a complex history of landscape dynamics, characterized by fragmentation, or areas where relief creates intricate climate patterns that can be hardly monitored or modeled at coarse spatial resolutions. DinaCliVe (supported by the Spanish Government and ERDF, and by the Catalan Government, under grants CGL2012-33927 and SGR2009-1511) is the name of the project that aims analyzing land cover and land use dynamics as well as vegetation stress, with a particular emphasis on droughts, and the role that climate variation may have had in such phenomena. To meet this objective is proposed to design a massive database from long time series of Landsat land cover products (grouped in quinquennia) and monthly climate records (in situ climate data) for the Iberian Peninsula (582,000 km2). The whole area encompasses 47 Landsat WRS2 scenes (Landsat 4 to 8 missions, from path 197 to 202 and from rows 30 to 34), and 52 Landsat WRS1 scenes (for the previous Landsat missions, 212 to 221 and 30 to 34). Therefore, a mean of 49.5 Landsat scenes, 8 quinquennia per scene and a about 6 dates per quinquennium , from 1975 to present, produces around 2376 sets resulting in 30 m x 30 m spatial resolution maps. Each set is composed by highly coherent geometric and radiometric multispectral and multitemporal (to account for phenology) imagery as well as vegetation and wetness indexes, and several derived topographic information (about 10 Tbyte of data). Furthermore, on the basis on a previous work: the Digital Climatic Atlas of

  17. Rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranstone, D.A.


    There has been no Canadian production of the rare earth oxides since 1977. World production in 1978, the last year for which figures are available, is estimated to have been about 41000 tonnes, mostly from Australia and the United States. The United States Bureau of Mines estimates that world reserves contain about 7 million tonnes of rare earth oxides and 35 million tonnes of yttrium. The largest yttrium reserves are in India, while China is believed to have the world's largest reserves of rare earth oxides. World consumption of rare aarths increased slightly in 1980, but is still only a small fraction of known reserves. Rare earths are used mainly in high-strength magnets, automobile exhaust systems, fluorescent tube and television screen phosphors, metallurgical applications, petroleum cracking catalysts, and glass polishing

  18. Earth Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The following papers were presented at the earth science session: earth science developments in support of water isolation; development of models and parameters for ground-water flow in fractured rock masses; isotope geochemistry as a tool for determining regional ground-water flow; natural analogs of radionuclide migration; nuclide retardation data: its use in the NWTS program; and ground-water geochemistry and interaction with basalt at Hanford

  19. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others


    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  20. `Teaching What I Learned': Exploring students' Earth and Space Science learning experiences in secondary school with a particular focus on their comprehension of the concept of `geologic time' (United States)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Peate, David W.


    According to the national survey of science education, science educators in the USA currently face many challenges such as lack of qualified secondary Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers. Less qualified teachers may have difficulty teaching ESS because of a lack of conceptual understanding, which leads to diminished confidence in content knowledge. More importantly, teachers' limited conceptual understanding of the core ideas automatically leads to a lack of pedagogical content knowledge. This mixed methods study aims to explore the ways in which current secondary schooling, especially the small numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in the USA, might influence students' learning of the discipline. To gain a better understanding of the current conditions of ESS education in secondary schools, in the first phase, we qualitatively examined a sample middle and high school ESS textbook to explore how the big ideas of ESS, particularly geological time, are represented. In the second phase, we quantitatively analyzed the participating college students' conceptual understanding of geological time by comparing those who had said they had had secondary school ESS learning experience with those who did not. Additionally, college students' perceptions on learning and teaching ESS are discussed. Findings from both the qualitative and quantitative phases indicate participating students' ESS learning experience in their secondary schools seemed to have limited or little influence on their conceptual understandings of the discipline. We believe that these results reflect the current ESS education status, connected with the declining numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in secondary schools.

  1. Earth's variable rotation (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.


    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  2. The Kepler-19 System: A Thick-envelope Super-Earth with Two Neptune-mass Companions Characterized Using Radial Velocities and Transit Timing Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malavolta, Luca; Borsato, Luca; Granata, Valentina; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Universita’di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Lopez, Eric [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH93HJ (United Kingdom); Vanderburg, Andrew; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Figueira, Pedro [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, PT4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Mortier, Annelies; Cameron, Andrew Collier [Centre for Exoplanet Science, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Affer, Laura [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90124 Palermo (Italy); Bonomo, Aldo S. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Bouchy, Francois [Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Buchhave, Lars A. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Cosentino, Rosario, E-mail: [INAF—Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez 7, E-38712 Breña Baja (Spain); and others


    We report a detailed characterization of the Kepler-19 system. This star was previously known to host a transiting planet with a period of 9.29 days, a radius of 2.2 R {sub ⊕}, and an upper limit on the mass of 20 M {sub ⊕}. The presence of a second, non-transiting planet was inferred from the transit time variations (TTVs) of Kepler-19b over eight quarters of Kepler photometry, although neither the mass nor period could be determined. By combining new TTVs measurements from all the Kepler quarters and 91 high-precision radial velocities obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph, using dynamical simulations we obtained a mass of 8.4 ± 1.6 M {sub ⊕} for Kepler-19b. From the same data, assuming system coplanarity, we determined an orbital period of 28.7 days and a mass of 13.1 ± 2.7 M {sub ⊕} for Kepler-19c and discovered a Neptune-like planet with a mass of 20.3 ± 3.4 M {sub ⊕} on a 63-day orbit. By comparing dynamical simulations with non-interacting Keplerian orbits, we concluded that neglecting interactions between planets may lead to systematic errors that can hamper the precision in the orbital parameters when the data set spans several years. With a density of 4.32 ± 0.87 g cm{sup −3} (0.78 ± 0.16 ρ {sub ⊕}) Kepler-19b belongs to the group of planets with a rocky core and a significant fraction of volatiles, in opposition to low-density planets characterized only by transit time variations and an increasing number of rocky planets with Earth-like density. Kepler-19 joins the small number of systems that reconcile transit timing variation and radial velocity measurements.

  3. The Kepler-19 System: A Thick-envelope Super-Earth with Two Neptune-mass Companions Characterized Using Radial Velocities and Transit Timing Variations (United States)

    Malavolta, Luca; Borsato, Luca; Granata, Valentina; Piotto, Giampaolo; Lopez, Eric; Vanderburg, Andrew; Figueira, Pedro; Mortier, Annelies; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Affer, Laura; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Bouchy, Francois; Buchhave, Lars A.; Charbonneau, David; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cosentino, Rosario; Dressing, Courtney D.; Dumusque, Xavier; Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M.; Harutyunyan, Avet; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Johnson, John Asher; Latham, David W.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Molinari, Emilio; Motalebi, Fatemeh; Pepe, Francesco; Phillips, David F.; Pollacco, Don; Queloz, Didier; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Chris


    We report a detailed characterization of the Kepler-19 system. This star was previously known to host a transiting planet with a period of 9.29 days, a radius of 2.2 R ⊕, and an upper limit on the mass of 20 M ⊕. The presence of a second, non-transiting planet was inferred from the transit time variations (TTVs) of Kepler-19b over eight quarters of Kepler photometry, although neither the mass nor period could be determined. By combining new TTVs measurements from all the Kepler quarters and 91 high-precision radial velocities obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph, using dynamical simulations we obtained a mass of 8.4 ± 1.6 M ⊕ for Kepler-19b. From the same data, assuming system coplanarity, we determined an orbital period of 28.7 days and a mass of 13.1 ± 2.7 M ⊕ for Kepler-19c and discovered a Neptune-like planet with a mass of 20.3 ± 3.4 M ⊕ on a 63-day orbit. By comparing dynamical simulations with non-interacting Keplerian orbits, we concluded that neglecting interactions between planets may lead to systematic errors that can hamper the precision in the orbital parameters when the data set spans several years. With a density of 4.32 ± 0.87 g cm-3 (0.78 ± 0.16 ρ ⊕) Kepler-19b belongs to the group of planets with a rocky core and a significant fraction of volatiles, in opposition to low-density planets characterized only by transit time variations and an increasing number of rocky planets with Earth-like density. Kepler-19 joins the small number of systems that reconcile transit timing variation and radial velocity measurements.

  4. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.


    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  5. Nine time steps: ultra-fast statistical consistency testing of the Community Earth System Model (pyCECT v3.0) (United States)

    Milroy, Daniel J.; Baker, Allison H.; Hammerling, Dorit M.; Jessup, Elizabeth R.


    The Community Earth System Model Ensemble Consistency Test (CESM-ECT) suite was developed as an alternative to requiring bitwise identical output for quality assurance. This objective test provides a statistical measurement of consistency between an accepted ensemble created by small initial temperature perturbations and a test set of CESM simulations. In this work, we extend the CESM-ECT suite with an inexpensive and robust test for ensemble consistency that is applied to Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) output after only nine model time steps. We demonstrate that adequate ensemble variability is achieved with instantaneous variable values at the ninth step, despite rapid perturbation growth and heterogeneous variable spread. We refer to this new test as the Ultra-Fast CAM Ensemble Consistency Test (UF-CAM-ECT) and demonstrate its effectiveness in practice, including its ability to detect small-scale events and its applicability to the Community Land Model (CLM). The new ultra-fast test facilitates CESM development, porting, and optimization efforts, particularly when used to complement information from the original CESM-ECT suite of tools.

  6. The Effects of Acceleration Noise Performance on the Determination of the Earth's Time-varying Gravity Field for Low-low satellite-to-satellite Tracking missions. (United States)

    Hong, S. H.; Conklin, J. W.


    GRACE provides monthly average gravity field solutions in spherical harmonic coefficients, which gives us information about land and ocean mass variations with a spatial resolution of 1 degree and with an accuracy within 2 cm throughout the entire Earth. GRACE-FO is expected to be launched in 2017 to continue the work of GRACE and to test a new laser ranging interferometer (LRI) which measures the range between the two satellites with higher precision than the K-Band ranging system used in GRACE. Moreover, there have been simulation studies that show that an additional pair of satellites in an inclined orbit increases the sampling frequency and reduces temporal aliasing errors. On the other hand, GOCE used an electrostatic gravity gradiometer and a drag-free control system to compensate for the non-gravitational forces which had better performance than the electrostatic accelerometers of GRACE. Given the fact that future missions will likely continue to use the low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking formation with LRI onboard, it is expected that acceleration noise caused by non-gravitational forces will become a limiting factor for the time-varying gravity field solution. This research evaluates the effects of acceleration noise on the estimation of the time-varying gravity field for a single pair and the optimal double pairs of satellites, assuming that the satellites fly in collinear pairs with LRI. Spherical harmonic coefficients are used to represent the solution and a batch computation Kalman filter is used to estimate the solutions. Various levels of residual noise for existing drag-free systems are applied as acceleration noise to find suitable drag-free performance requirements for upcoming geodesy missions.

  7. A mangrove forest map of China in 2015: Analysis of time series Landsat 7/8 and Sentinel-1A imagery in Google Earth Engine cloud computing platform (United States)

    Chen, Bangqian; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Xiangping; Pan, Lianghao; Doughty, Russell; Ma, Jun; Dong, Jinwei; Qin, Yuanwei; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Zhixiang; Sun, Rui; Lan, Guoyu; Xie, Guishui; Clinton, Nicholas; Giri, Chandra


    Due to rapid losses of mangrove forests caused by anthropogenic disturbances and climate change, accurate and contemporary maps of mangrove forests are needed to understand how mangrove ecosystems are changing and establish plans for sustainable management. In this study, a new classification algorithm was developed using the biophysical characteristics of mangrove forests in China. More specifically, these forests were mapped by identifying: (1) greenness, canopy coverage, and tidal inundation from time series Landsat data, and (2) elevation, slope, and intersection-with-sea criterion. The annual mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was found to be a key variable in determining the classification thresholds of greenness, canopy coverage, and tidal inundation of mangrove forests, which are greatly affected by tide dynamics. In addition, the integration of Sentinel-1A VH band and modified Normalized Difference Water Index (mNDWI) shows great potential in identifying yearlong tidal and fresh water bodies, which is related to mangrove forests. This algorithm was developed using 6 typical Regions of Interest (ROIs) as algorithm training and was run on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud computing platform to process 1941 Landsat images (25 Path/Row) and 586 Sentinel-1A images circa 2015. The resultant mangrove forest map of China at 30 m spatial resolution has an overall/users/producer's accuracy greater than 95% when validated with ground reference data. In 2015, China's mangrove forests had a total area of 20,303 ha, about 92% of which was in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangdong, and Hainan Provinces. This study has demonstrated the potential of using the GEE platform, time series Landsat and Sentine-1A SAR images to identify and map mangrove forests along the coastal zones. The resultant mangrove forest maps are likely to be useful for the sustainable management and ecological assessments of mangrove forests in China.

  8. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth (United States)



    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  9. Landsat Time-series for the Masses: Predicting Wood Biomass Growth from Tree-rings Using Departures from Mean Phenology in Google Earth Engine (United States)

    Foster, J. R.; D'Amato, A. W.; Itter, M.; Reinikainen, M.; Curzon, M.


    The terrestrial carbon cycle is perturbed when disturbances remove leaf biomass from the forest canopy during the growing season. Changes in foliar biomass arise from defoliation caused by insects, disease, drought, frost or human management. As ephemeral disturbances, these often go undetected and their significance to models that predict forest growth from climatic drivers remains unknown. Here, we seek to distinguish the roles of weather vs. canopy disturbance on forest growth by using dense Landsat time-series to quantify departures in mean phenology that in turn predict changes in leaf biomass. We estimated a foliar biomass index (FBMI) from 1984-2016, and predict plot-level wood growth over 28 years on 156 tree-ring monitoring plots in Minnesota, USA. We accessed the entire Landsat archive (sensors 4, 5 & 7) to compute FBMI using Google Earth Engine's cloud computing platform (GEE). GEE allows this pixel-level approach to be applied at any location; a feature we demonstrate with published wood-growth data from flux tower sites. Our Bayesian models predicted biomass changes from tree-ring plots as a function of Landsat FBMI and annual climate data. We expected model parameters to vary by tree functional groups defined by differences in xylem anatomy and leaf longevity, two traits with linkages to phenology, as reported in a recent review. We found that Landsat FBMI was a surprisingly strong predictor of aggregate wood-growth, explaining up to 80% of annual growth variation for some deciduous plots. Growth responses to canopy disturbance varied among tree functional groups, and the importance of some seasonal climate metrics diminished or changed sign when FBMI was included (e.g. fall and spring climatic water deficit), while others remained unchanged (current and lagged summer deficit). Insights emerging from these models can clear up sources of persistent uncertainty and open a new frontier for models of forest productivity.

  10. Timing Diatomaceous Earth-Filled Dustbox Use for Management of Northern Fowl Mites (Acari: Macronyssidae) in Cage-Free Poultry Systems. (United States)

    Murillo, Amy C; Mullens, Bradley A


    Northern fowl mite management on conventionally caged birds relies on synthetic pesticide sprays to wet the vent. Cage-free chickens cannot be effectively treated this way, and pesticide use is restricted in organic production. Dustbathing behavior is encouraged in newer production systems for increased hen welfare. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is an approved organic insecticide that can be mixed with sand in dustboxes, suppressing mites but not excluding them, and potentially allowing development of mite immunity. We tested two hypotheses: 1) that DE-filled dustboxes placed before northern fowl mite introduction (prophylactic use) prevents mite populations from reaching economically damaging thresholds, and 2) that bird exposure to low mite numbers allows for protective hen immunity to develop and suppress mites after dustboxes are removed. We also tested if different beak trimming techniques (a commercial practice) affect mite growth. Mites were introduced to birds after dustboxes were made available. Average mite densities in flocks remained below damaging levels while dustboxes were available. Average mite populations rebounded after dustbox removal (even though DE persisted in the environment) regardless of the timing of removal. Mite densities on birds where a traditional hot-blade beak trimming technique was used (trial 1) were high. Mite densities in trial 2, where a newer precision infra-red trimming was used, were lower. The newer infra-red trimming method resulted in nearly intact beaks, which were better for mite control by bird grooming behaviors. The combination of early dustbox use and infra-red beak trimming should allow producers to avoid most mite damage in cage-free flocks. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.


    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  12. AirNow Information Management System - Global Earth Observation System of Systems Data Processor for Real-Time Air Quality Data Products (United States)

    Haderman, M.; Dye, T. S.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; Pasch, A. N.; Miller, D. S.; Chan, A. C.


    Built upon the success of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program (, the AirNow-International (AirNow-I) system contains an enhanced suite of software programs that process and quality control real-time air quality and environmental data and distribute customized maps, files, and data feeds. The goals of the AirNow-I program are similar to those of the successful U.S. program and include fostering the exchange of environmental data; making advances in air quality knowledge and applications; and building a community of people, organizations, and decision makers in environmental management. In 2010, Shanghai became the first city in China to run this state-of-the-art air quality data management and notification system. AirNow-I consists of a suite of modules (software programs and schedulers) centered on a database. One such module is the Information Management System (IMS), which can automatically produce maps and other data products through the use of GIS software to provide the most current air quality information to the public. Developed with Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) interoperability in mind, IMS is based on non-proprietary standards, with preference to formal international standards. The system depends on data and information providers accepting and implementing a set of interoperability arrangements, including technical specifications for collecting, processing, storing, and disseminating shared data, metadata, and products. In particular, the specifications include standards for service-oriented architecture and web-based interfaces, such as a web mapping service (WMS), web coverage service (WCS), web feature service (WFS), sensor web services, and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds. IMS is flexible, open, redundant, and modular. It also allows the merging of data grids to create complex grids that show comprehensive air quality conditions. For example, the AirNow Satellite Data Processor

  13. The Sun and Earth (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk


    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  14. Crescent Earth and Moon (United States)


    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon -- the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The Moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Voyager 1 was directly above Mt. Everest (on the night side of the planet at 25 degrees north latitude) when the picture was taken. The photo was made from three images taken through color filters, then processed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab. Because the Earth is many times brighter than the Moon, the Moon was artificially brightened by a factor of three relative to the Earth by computer enhancement so that both bodies would show clearly in the print. Voyager 2 was launched Aug. 20, 1977, followed by Voyager 1 on Sept. 5, 1977, en route to encounters at Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980 and 1981. JPL manages the Voyager mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  15. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M


    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  16. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo


    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  17. How Inge Lehmann Discovered the Inner Core of the Earth (United States)

    Rousseau, Christiane


    The mathematics behind Inge Lehmann's discovery that the inner core of the Earth is solid is explained using data collected around the Earth on seismic waves and their travel time through the Earth.

  18. Sulfur Earth (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.


    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  19. Muon Excess at Sea Level during the Progress of a Geomagnetic Storm and High-Speed Stream Impact Near the Time of Earth's Heliospheric Sheet Crossing (United States)

    Augusto, C. R. A.; Navia, C. E.; de Oliveira, M. N.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Kopenkin, V.; Sinzi, T.


    In this article we present results of studying the association between the muon flux variation at ground level, registered by the New-Tupi muon telescopes (22° 53'00'' S, 43° 06'13' W; 3 m above sea level), and the geomagnetic storm on 25 - 29 August 2015 that has raged for several days as a result of a coronal mass ejection (CME) impact on Earth's magnetosphere. A sequence of events started with an M3.5 X-ray class flare on 22 August 2015 at 21:19 UTC. The New-Tupi muon telescopes observed a Forbush decrease (FD) triggered by this geomagnetic storm, which began on 26 August 2015. After Earth crossed the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), an increase in particle flux was observed on 28 August 2015 by spacecraft and ground-level detectors. The observed peak was in temporal coincidence with the impact of a high-speed stream (HSS). We study this increase, which has been observed with a significance above 1.5% by ground-level detectors in different rigidity regimes. We also estimate the lower limit of the energy fluence injected on Earth. In addition, we consider the origin of this increase, such as acceleration of particles by shock waves at the front of the HSS and the focusing effect of the HCS crossing. Our results show possible evidence of a prolonged energetic (up to GeV energies) particle injection within the Earth atmosphere system, driven by the HSS. In most cases, these injected particles are directed to the polar regions. However, the particles from the high-energy tail of the spectrum can reach mid-latitudes, and this could have consequences for the atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the creation of NOx species may be enhanced, and this can lead to increased ozone depletion. This topic requires further study.

  20. The Earth's Plasmasphere (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.


    go away. Instead the ions react to the electric field and are attracted to it. They begin to move upward out of the ionosphere too. Since all this happens on a small scale, it simply looks like the electrons and ions move out of the ionosphere together. Ultimately the effect is that the lighter ions of hydrogen, helium and oxygen are able to escape from the ionosphere. For a planet like Earth with a strong planetary magnetic field, these outward moving particles remain trapped near the planet unless other processes further draw them away and into interplanetary space. As is always the case with nature, there is much more story to tell about this "upwardly mobile" plasma and these other processes. Over only a short time period of hours and days this escaping plasma can, in some places, build up in concentration until an equilibrium is reached where as much plasma flows inward into the ionosphere as flows outward. This "donut shaped" region of cold (about 1 electron volt in energy) plasma encircling the planet is called the plasmasphere. Because of space weather storms (kind of a generic phrase for those other processes) this cold and dense plasmaspheric plasma can actually end up all over the place. Generally, that region of space where plasma from the ionosphere has the time to build up to become identified as the plasmasphere rotates or nearly rotates with the Earth. That region shrinks in size with increased space weather activity and expands or refills during times of inactivity. As it shrinks with increasing activity, some of the plasmasphere is drawn away from its main body (plasmaspheric erosion) in the sunward direction toward the boundary in space between that region dominated by Earth's magnetic field and the much larger region dominated by the Sun's magnetic field. The region dominated by Earth's magnetic field is called the magnetosphere. The larger Sun dominated region is called the heliosphere.

  1. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT). VI. A Three-planet System in the Hyades Cluster Including an Earth-sized Planet (United States)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Kraus, Adam L.; Berlind, Perry; Bieryla, Allyson; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Latham, David W.; Mace, Gregory N.; Morris, Nathan R.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stefanik, Robert P.


    Planets in young clusters are powerful probes of the evolution of planetary systems. Here we report the discovery of three planets transiting EPIC 247589423, a late-K dwarf in the Hyades (≃800 Myr) cluster, and robust detection limits for additional planets in the system. The planets were identified from their K2 light curves as part of our survey of young clusters and star-forming regions. The smallest planet has a radius comparable to Earth ({0.99}-0.04+0.06{R}\\oplus ), making it one of the few Earth-sized planets with a known, young age. The two larger planets are likely a mini-Neptune and a super-Earth, with radii of {2.91}-0.10+0.11{R}\\oplus and {1.45}-0.08+0.11{R}\\oplus , respectively. The predicted radial velocity signals from these planets are between 0.4 and 2 m s-1, achievable with modern precision RV spectrographs. Because the target star is bright (V = 11.2) and has relatively low-amplitude stellar variability for a young star (2-6 mmag), EPIC 247589423 hosts the best known planets in a young open cluster for precise radial velocity follow-up, enabling a robust test of earlier claims that young planets are less dense than their older counterparts.

  2. EarthScope Content Module for IRIS Active Earth Monitor (United States)

    McQuillan, P. J.; Welti, R.; Johnson, J. A.; Shiffman, C. R.; Olds, S. E.


    The Active Earth Monitor (AEM) is an interactive computer-based display for university lobbies, museums, visitor centers, schools and libraries. AEM runs in a standard Internet web browser in full screen mode. The display consists of a customizable set of content pages about plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis. Low-cost and simple-to-implement, the Active Earth Monitor provides a way to engage audiences with earth science information without spending resources on a large exhibit. The EarthScope Active Earth Monitor content set highlights the connections between the landscape and the research and monitoring being conducted by EarthScope in partnership with regional monitoring networks. Modules consist of chapters that focus on What is EarthScope?, EarthScope Observatories, and EarthScope Research Results. Content topics are easily explored using a web page button type navigation interface via a touch screen or mouse. A formative evaluation of general public users informed the interface design. Chapters in the modules start with a general overview and proceed to detailed specifics. Each chapter utilizes at least one set of live or near real-time research data (often more than one). This exposes the general public to active ongoing research that is engaging, relevant to the individual user, and explained in easy to understand terms. All live content is updated each time a user accesses the individual page displaying the live data. Leading questions are presented allowing the user to examine the content before accessing the answer via pop-up box. Diagrams and charts of research data have explanatory keys that allow users to self explore all content. Content pages can be created and inserted in the Active Earth Monitor by utilizing the simple HTML/CSS coding.;

  3. The Earth's Biosphere (United States)


    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  4. Carbonaceous matter and putative microfossils of the mid-Archean Kromberg type-section re-visited, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa (United States)

    McLoughlin, Nicola; Grosch, Eugene


    Silicified seafloor sediments of the Kromberg Formation from the Onverwacht Group of the Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa, have been argued to contain some of the world's oldest preserved carbonaceous microfossils. Previous studies of these cherts have reported filamentous, spheroidal and ellipsoidal microfossils in thin-section (Walsh 1992); and bacteriomorph like structures in HF-etched samples (Westall et al. 2001). These microtextural studies however, lack supporting in-situ geochemical data, and are hampered to some degree by re-mobilisation of the carbonaceous matter (Van Zuilen et al. 2007). In light of these concerns, and ongoing debates surrounding carbonaceous remains in other Archean cherts (e.g., W Australia), further in-situ data from the Kromberg is required to positively identify carbonaceous matter of biogenic origin. New data will also help to address outstanding questions regarding the relative contribution of benthic versus planktonic microorganisms, and the putative microbial metabolisms involved. This study focuses on surface samples and drill core from the Barberton Scientific Drilling Programme, (BSDP, Grosch et al. 2009) from the southeastern limb of the Onverwacht anticline of the BGB. We sampled the Footbridge chert and a second chert horizon in drill core KD1 of the BSDP in the upper Kromberg Fm; and surface outcrops of two black cherts from the lower Kromberg Fm. Sedimentological logging reveals horizons rich in volcaniclastics with interbedded finely laminated grey-black chert, also intrusive black cherts, and sulphide rich horizons. The TOC of the sampled cherts is 1.24 to 5.40 wt%. Preliminary bulk carbon isotope values range from δ13C -21.1 to -35.3o values that are consistent with organic matter produced by anoxygenic photosynthesis. Microfabrics preserved in the Kromberg cherts include, primary wispy-laminated carbonaceous films suggesting compaction of early carbonaceous laminae. Also large composite carbonaceous


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Lower Permian Hueco Group of the Doña Ana Mountains (south-central New Mexico, USA is studied in three sections (A, B, C located east of Leasburg, Doña Ana County. Regionally, the Hueco Group has been subdivided into four formations termed Shalem Colony, Community Pit, Robledo Mountains and Apache Dam formations; the lower three are exposed in the Doña Ana Mountains. The succession shows a shallowing upward trend from dominantly shallow, open marine conditions (Shalem Colony Fm to increasingly restricted marine environments (Community Pit Fm and siliciclastic influx (Robledo Mountains Formation. Sedimentation, particularly siliciclastic influx, was mainly controlled by reactivation of basement uplifts during the last pulses of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains deformation. The microfossils and microfacies of the two first formations are studied in detail here. The Shalem Colony Formation can be divided into a lower biozone with Triticites pinguis, which is Newwellian (latest Pennsylvanian, early Wolfcampian in age, and an upper division characterized by the first occurrence of Geinitzina, and lower-middle Asselian (late early Wolfcampian in age. By comparison with the subdivisions of the Carnic Alps (Austria, the Community Pit Formation is characterized as Sakmarian (middle Wolfcampian in age due to the first occurrence of the genus Pseudovermiporella, and its probable complete phylogeny from Hedraites. The late Asselian is restricted to the uppermost part of the Shalem Colony and lowermost part of the Community Pit Formation. Due to the occurrence of Pseudoreichelina the Robledo Mountains Formation is dated as Artinskian (late Wolfcampian. Some bioconstructions of Archaeolithophyllum are emphasized, as well as some species of foraminifers-globivalvulinids, Miliolata and Nodosariata. 

  6. The Far Infrared Earth (United States)

    Harries, John; Carli, Bruno; Rizzi, Rolando; Serio, Carmine; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Palchetti, Luca; Maestri, T.; Brindley, H.; Masiello, Guido


    The paper presents a review of the far infrared (FIR) properties of the Earth's atmosphere, and the role of these properties in climate. These properties have been relatively poorly understood, and it is one of the purposes of this review to demonstrate that, in recent years, we have made great strides in improving this understanding. Seen from space, the Earth is a cool object, with an effective emitting temperature of about 255 K. This contrasts with a global mean surface temperature of 288 K, and is due primarily to strong absorption of outgoing longwave energy by water vapour, carbon dioxide and clouds (especially ice). A large fraction of this absorption occurs in the FIR, and so the Earth is effectively a FIR planet. The FIR is important in a number of key climate processes, for example the water vapour and cloud feedbacks (especially ice clouds). The FIR is also a spectral region which can be used to remotely sense and retrieve atmospheric composition in the presence of ice clouds. Recent developments in instrumentation have allowed progress in each of these areas, which are described, and proposals for a spaceborne FIR instrument are being formulated. It is timely to review the FIR properties of the clear and cloudy atmosphere, the role of FIR processes in climate, and its use in observing our planet from space.

  7. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    small and large-sized sphaeromorphs;complex acanthomorphs,cyanobacterial community;especially a very small-sized but exceptionally well preserved Obruchevella ,a form resembling Volvox colonies; cf.vase-shaped microfossils and ...

  8. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes


    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  9. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan


    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...

  10. Low-energy near Earth asteroid capture using Earth flybys and aerobraking (United States)

    Tan, Minghu; McInnes, Colin; Ceriotti, Matteo


    Since the Sun-Earth libration points L1 and L2 are regarded as ideal locations for space science missions and candidate gateways for future crewed interplanetary missions, capturing near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) around the Sun-Earth L1/L2 points has generated significant interest. Therefore, this paper proposes the concept of coupling together a flyby of the Earth and then capturing small NEAs onto Sun-Earth L1/L2 periodic orbits. In this capture strategy, the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is used to calculate target Lypaunov orbits and their invariant manifolds. A periapsis map is then employed to determine the required perigee of the Earth flyby. Moreover, depending on the perigee distance of the flyby, Earth flybys with and without aerobraking are investigated to design a transfer trajectory capturing a small NEA from its initial orbit to the stable manifolds associated with Sun-Earth L1/L2 periodic orbits. Finally, a global optimization is carried out, based on a detailed design procedure for NEA capture using an Earth flyby. Results show that the NEA capture strategies using an Earth flyby with and without aerobraking both have the potential to be of lower cost in terms of energy requirements than a direct NEA capture strategy without the Earth flyby. Moreover, NEA capture with an Earth flyby also has the potential for a shorter flight time compared to the NEA capture strategy without the Earth flyby.

  11. Decadal GPS Time Series and Velocity Fields Spanning the North American Continent and Beyond: New Data Products, Cyberinfrastructure and Case Studies from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Other Regional Networks (United States)

    Phillips, D. A.; Herring, T.; Melbourne, T. I.; Murray, M. H.; Szeliga, W. M.; Floyd, M.; Puskas, C. M.; King, R. W.; Boler, F. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.


    The Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) Facility, operated by UNAVCO, provides a diverse suite of geodetic data, derived products and cyberinfrastructure services to support community Earth science research and education. GPS data and products including decadal station position time series and velocities are provided for 2000+ continuous GPS stations from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and other networks distributed throughout the high Arctic, North America, and Caribbean regions. The position time series contain a multitude of signals in addition to the secular motions, including coseismic and postseismic displacements, interseismic strain accumulation, and transient signals associated with hydrologic and other processes. We present our latest velocity field solutions, new time series offset estimate products, and new time series examples associated with various phenomena. Position time series, and the signals they contain, are inherently dependent upon analysis parameters such as network scaling and reference frame realization. The estimation of scale changes for example, a common practice, has large impacts on vertical motion estimates. GAGE/PBO velocities and time series are currently provided in IGS (IGb08) and North America (NAM08, IGb08 rotated to a fixed North America Plate) reference frames. We are reprocessing all data (1996 to present) as part of the transition from IGb08 to IGS14 that began in 2017. New NAM14 and IGS14 data products are discussed. GAGE/PBO GPS data products are currently generated using onsite computing clusters. As part of an NSF funded EarthCube Building Blocks project called "Deploying MultiFacility Cyberinfrastructure in Commercial and Private Cloud-based Systems (GeoSciCloud)", we are investigating performance, cost, and efficiency differences between local computing resources and cloud based resources. Test environments include a commercial cloud provider (Amazon/AWS), NSF cloud-like infrastructures within

  12. Magnetic field of the Earth (United States)

    Popov, Aleksey


    of electromagnetism. According to a rule of the left hand: if the magnetic field in a kernel is directed to drawing, electric current are directed to an axis of rotation of the Earth, - a action of force clockwise (to West). Definition of the force causing drift a kernel according to the law of Ampere F = IBlsin. Powerful force 3,5 × 1012 Nyton, what makes drift of the central part of a kernel of the Earth on 0,2 the longitude in year to West, and also it is engine of the mechanism of movement of slabs together with continents. Movement of a core of the Earth carry out around of a terrestrial axis one circulation in the western direction in 2000 of years. Linear speed of rotation of a kernel concerning a mantle on border the mantle a kernel: V = × 3,471 × 10 = 3,818 × 10 m/s = 33 m/day = 12 km/years. Considering greater viscosity of a mantle, the powerful energy at rotation of a kernel seize a mantle and lithospheric slabs and makes their collisions as a result of which there are earthquakes and volcano. Continents Northern and Southern America every year separate from the Europe and Africa on several centimeters. Atlantic ocean as a result of movement of these slabs with such speed was formed for 200 million years, that in comparison with the age of the Earth - several billions years, not so long time. Drift of a kernel in the western direction is a principal cause of delay of speed of rotation of the Earth. Flow of radial electric currents allot according to the law of Joule - Lenz, the quantity of warmth : Q = I2Rt = IUt, of thermal energy 6,92 × 1017 calories/year. This defines heating of a kernel and the Earth as a whole. In the valley of the median-Atlantic ridge having numerous volcanos, the lava flow constantly thus warm up waters of Atlantic ocean. It is a fact the warm current Gulf Stream. Thawing of a permafrost and ices of Arctic ocean, of glaciers of Greenland and Antarctica is acknowledgement: the warmth of earth defines character of thawing of

  13. Creating high-resolution time series land-cover classifications in rapidly changing forested areas with BULC-U in Google Earth Engine (United States)

    Cardille, J. A.; Lee, J.


    With the opening of the Landsat archive, there is a dramatically increased potential for creating high-quality time series of land use/land-cover (LULC) classifications derived from remote sensing. Although LULC time series are appealing, their creation is typically challenging in two fundamental ways. First, there is a need to create maximally correct LULC maps for consideration at each time step; and second, there is a need to have the elements of the time series be consistent with each other, without pixels that flip improbably between covers due only to unavoidable, stray classification errors. We have developed the Bayesian Updating of Land Cover - Unsupervised (BULC-U) algorithm to address these challenges simultaneously, and introduce and apply it here for two related but distinct purposes. First, with minimal human intervention, we produced an internally consistent, high-accuracy LULC time series in rapidly changing Mato Grosso, Brazil for a time interval (1986-2000) in which cropland area more than doubled. The spatial and temporal resolution of the 59 LULC snapshots allows users to witness the establishment of towns and farms at the expense of forest. The new time series could be used by policy-makers and analysts to unravel important considerations for conservation and management, including the timing and location of past development, the rate and nature of changes in forest connectivity, the connection with road infrastructure, and more. The second application of BULC-U is to sharpen the well-known GlobCover 2009 classification from 300m to 30m, while improving accuracy measures for every class. The greatly improved resolution and accuracy permits a better representation of the true LULC proportions, the use of this map in models, and quantification of the potential impacts of changes. Given that there may easily be thousands and potentially millions of images available to harvest for an LULC time series, it is imperative to build useful algorithms

  14. Digital Earth Portals to DLESE (United States)

    Raskin, R.


    Digital Earth offers the promise to push the envelope of accessibility and usability of georeferenced digital data and reach out to non-traditional users. To realize this promise within the context of an educational digital library, the library can take advantage of existing Digital Earth components: viewers, catalogs, and data products - all of which conform to emerging open standards. Viewers vary in level of sophistication from standard web browsers to immersive or 3-D visualization tools. Datasets are currently the limiting ingredient in the mix, as providers must make data available using the open standards. However, the Earth Science Information Partnership (ESIP) Federation has developed a Digital Earth Cluster to insure that its members provide a source of compliant data products within a short time frame. A Digital Earth portal integrates all of the above components and provides the look and feel appropriate to the target educational level and classroom interests. DLESE is currently developing such an early prototype using existing components that can be used as a model for future development. A live demonstration will show the use of a Digital Earth viewer adapted for use with DLESE.

  15. Destiny's Earth Observation Window (United States)


    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  16. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle


    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  17. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.


    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  18. Earth as an Extrasolar Planet: Earth Model Validation Using EPOXI Earth Observations (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A.; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard; Hearty, Thomas; hide


    forward model can be used to simulate Earth s time dependent brightness and spectral properties for wavelengths from the far ultraviolet to the far infrared.brightness

  19. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie (United States)

    Robin, C. M.


    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  20. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  1. EarthKAM (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sponsored by NASA, EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students) is an educational outreach program allowing middle school students to take pictures...

  2. Did opening of the South China Sea impact development of the Asian Monsoon? Results from Oligocene microfossils, IODP Site U1435, northern South China Sea (United States)

    Kulhanek, Denise K.; Su, Xin; Li, Qianyu; Gregory, Mitch; Warny, Sophie; Clift, Peter D.


    Development of the Asian Monsoon is linked to uplift of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau in the Cenozoic, with good evidence for a strong monsoon system by the late Oligocene to early Miocene (e.g., Guo et al., 2002; Clift et al., 2008). However, Licht et al. (2014) suggested the presence of an Asian Monsoon in the late Eocene. Recent scientific ocean drilling in the Indian Ocean and surrounding marginal seas gives us the opportunity to test this hypothesis with newly recovered Paleogene sediment cores. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 to the South China Sea recovered a 30 m section of primarily lower Oligocene nannofossil-rich claystone at Site U1435, located near the northern continent/ocean boundary. A thick sandstone unit devoid of typical marine microfossils underlies the marine claystone. The sandstone is interpreted as a deltaic or restricted marine deposit and is dated to the Eocene based on the presence of organic-walled palynomorphs, suggesting that a hiatus of several million years likely separates the sandstone below from the Oligocene marine claystone. This hiatus is interpreted as the breakup unconformity, with paleodepths in the South China Sea increasing during the Oligocene. Thus, this claystone should record if opening of the South China Sea during the early Oligocene influenced development of the Asian Monsoon. Combined calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy indicates that the 30 m section is primarily early Oligocene in age (~33.5-30 Ma) and was deposited on the middle slope, with paleodepths >500 m. Stable oxygen isotopes from planktonic foraminifers become heavier up-hole, suggestive of cooling/deepening in the region, whereas carbon isotopes record variable conditions with no distinct maxima or minima. Calcareous nannoplankton primarily live in the upper 50 m of the ocean and are sensitive to sea-surface temperature and nutrient conditions, thus making them useful recorders of paleoceanographic

  3. School, Earth and Imagination (United States)

    Merlini, Anna; Grieco, Giovanni; Oneta, Cristina


    Geology needs to be explained and narrated to the people, focusing on the goal of making that big change of mindset that will allow individuals and the entire community to tune into the timing and the ways in which the Earth evolves. In order to achieve these important goals it is necessary to educate children from an early age so that they learn to live an environmentally friendly life. With the project "School, Earth and imagination" we introduce, with a fun and new way, notions and topics in geological and environmental sciences in schools at all levels with the final goal of improving both knowledge and sensibility for these topics into the community. Through this project we start from the children (kindergarten and primary school, ages between 3 and 8 years) because they are the foundation of our society, and without foundations nothing can be built. The "School, Earth and imagination" project wants to give the children a real opportunity to approach reality and in general the surrounding environment, for the first time even before the traditional scholastic experience, with a scientific point of view, experimenting some basic physical concepts like temperature, weight, hardness and so on directly through their body. The project is structured and developed in modules that provide a high flexibility in order to meet needs and requirements of different schools in different situations. Each module is part of the journey of Mariolino, a character that represents a very curious child who introduces basic concepts associating them to geological processes. The Journey of Mariolino, as each module, follows an insistent scheme that starts from the presentation of the problem, follows with its discussion through direct questions and ends with experimentation of the hypotheses that children have proposed to validate the solution of the problem. Each module is independent and never ends without giving children a solution and is always structured with a practical activity

  4. Magnetic Storms at Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    In analogy with magnetic storms at the Earth, periods of significantly enhanced global magnetic activity also exist at Mars. The extensive database of magnetic measurements from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), covering almost an entire solar cycle, is used in combination with geomagnetic activity...... indices at Earth to compare the occurrence of magnetic storms at Mars and Earth. Based on superposed epochs analysis the time-development of typical magnetic storms at Mars and Earth is described. In contradiction to storms at Earth, most magnetic storms at Mars are found to be associated...... with heliospheric current sheet crossings, where the IMF changes polarity. While most storms at the Earth occur due to significant southward excursions of the IMF associated with CMEs, at Mars most storms seem to be associated with the density enhancement of the heliospheric current sheet. Density enhancements...

  5. Mission to Planet Earth (United States)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.


    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  6. Mission to Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.


    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs

  7. Smarter Earth Science Data System (United States)

    Huang, Thomas


    The explosive growth in Earth observational data in the recent decade demands a better method of interoperability across heterogeneous systems. The Earth science data system community has mastered the art in storing large volume of observational data, but it is still unclear how this traditional method scale over time as we are entering the age of Big Data. Indexed search solutions such as Apache Solr (Smiley and Pugh, 2011) provides fast, scalable search via keyword or phases without any reasoning or inference. The modern search solutions such as Googles Knowledge Graph (Singhal, 2012) and Microsoft Bing, all utilize semantic reasoning to improve its accuracy in searches. The Earth science user community is demanding for an intelligent solution to help them finding the right data for their researches. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) (Huang et al., 2012), was created in response to the DARPA Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) programs need for an intelligent context models management system to empower its terrain simulation subsystem. The core component of OSCAR is the Environmental Context Ontology (ECO) is built using the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) (Raskin and Pan, 2005). This paper presents the current data archival methodology within a NASA Earth science data centers and discuss using semantic web to improve the way we capture and serve data to our users.

  8. The Earth We are Creating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty


    Full Text Available Over the past decade, a number of Earth System scientists have advocated that we need a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, to describe the changes to Earth that have occurred since the 1800s. The preceding epoch, the Holocene (the period from the end of Earth's last glaciation about 12 millennia ago, has offered an unusually stable physical environment for human civilisations. In the new Anthropocene epoch, however, we can no longer count on this climate stability which we have long taken for granted. Paradoxically, it is our own actions that are undermining this stability—for the first time in history, human civilisation is now capable of decisively influencing the energy and material flows of our planet. Particularly since the 1950s, under the twin drivers of growth in population and per capita income, we have seen unprecedented growth in oil use and energy use overall, vehicle numbers, air travel and so on. This unprecedented growth has resulted in us heading toward physical thresholds or tipping points in a number of areas, points that once crossed could irreversibly lead to structural change in vital Earth systems such as climate or ecosystems. We may have already passed three limits: climate change; rate of biodiversity loss; and alterations to the global nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. The solutions usually proposed for our predicament are yet more technical fixes, often relying on greater use of the Earth's ecosystems, biomass for bioenergy being one example of this, and one we explore in this paper. We argue that these are unlikely to work, and will merely replace one set of problems by another. We conclude that an important approach for achieving a more sustainable and equitable world is to reorient our future toward satisfying the basic human needs of all humanity, and at the same time minimising both our use of non-renewable resources and pollution of the Earth's soil, air and water.

  9. A Deviation-Time-Space-Thermal (DTS-T Method for Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS-Based Earthquake Anomaly Recognition: Criterions and Quantify Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanjun Liu


    Full Text Available The particular process of LCA (Lithosphere-Coversphere-Atmosphere coupling referring to local tectonic structures and coversphere conditions is very important for understanding seismic anomaly from GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems. The LCA coupling based multiple-parameters analysis should be the foundation for earthquake prewarning. Three improved criterions: deviation notable enough, time quasi-synchronism, and space geo-adjacency, plus their quantify indices are defined for earthquake anomaly recognition, and applied to thermal parameters as a DTS-T (Deviation-Time-Space-Thermal method. A normalized reliability index is preliminarily defined considering three quantify indices for deviation-time-space criterions. As an example, the DTS-T method is applied to the Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake of 14 April 2010 in China. Furthermore, combining with the previous analysis of six recent significant earthquakes in the world, the statistical results regarding effective parameters, the occurrence of anomaly before the main shocks and a reliability index for each earthquake are introduced. It shows that the DTS-T method is reasonable and can be applied for routine monitoring and prewarning in the tectonic seismicity region.

  10. Earth's Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    research with the aim to better characterise the state and dynamics of Earth’s magnetic field. Advances in the exploitation of geomagnetic observations hold a huge potential not only for an improved quantitative description of the field source but also for a better understanding of the underlying processes...... and physics. Key is the separation of the field sources in the observations, especially, but not solely, during times of quiet geomagnetic conditions, when the most subtle geomagnetic effects can be identified and become significant. The collected articles are based on the current constellation of ground......This volume provides a comprehensive view on the different sources of the geomagnetic field both in the Earth’s interior and from the field’s interaction with the terrestrial atmosphere and the solar wind. It combines expertise from various relevant areas of geomagnetic and near Earth space...

  11. Towards Big Earth Data Analytics: The EarthServer Approach (United States)

    Baumann, Peter


    Big Data in the Earth sciences, the Tera- to Exabyte archives, mostly are made up from coverage data whereby the term "coverage", according to ISO and OGC, is defined as the digital representation of some space-time varying phenomenon. Common examples include 1-D sensor timeseries, 2-D remote sensing imagery, 3D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geology data, and 4-D x/y/z/t atmosphere and ocean data. Analytics on such data requires on-demand processing of sometimes significant complexity, such as getting the Fourier transform of satellite images. As network bandwidth limits prohibit transfer of such Big Data it is indispensable to devise protocols allowing clients to task flexible and fast processing on the server. The EarthServer initiative, funded by EU FP7 eInfrastructures, unites 11 partners from computer and earth sciences to establish Big Earth Data Analytics. One key ingredient is flexibility for users to ask what they want, not impeded and complicated by system internals. The EarthServer answer to this is to use high-level query languages; these have proven tremendously successful on tabular and XML data, and we extend them with a central geo data structure, multi-dimensional arrays. A second key ingredient is scalability. Without any doubt, scalability ultimately can only be achieved through parallelization. In the past, parallelizing code has been done at compile time and usually with manual intervention. The EarthServer approach is to perform a samentic-based dynamic distribution of queries fragments based on networks optimization and further criteria. The EarthServer platform is comprised by rasdaman, an Array DBMS enabling efficient storage and retrieval of any-size, any-type multi-dimensional raster data. In the project, rasdaman is being extended with several functionality and scalability features, including: support for irregular grids and general meshes; in-situ retrieval (evaluation of database queries on existing archive structures, avoiding data

  12. Earth's early fossil record: Why not look for similar fossils on Mars? (United States)

    Awramik, Stanley M.


    The oldest evidence of life on Earth is discussed with attention being given to the structure and formation of stromatolites and microfossils. Fossilization of microbes in calcium carbonate or chert media is discussed. In searching for fossil remains on Mars, some lessons learned from the study of Earth's earliest fossil record can be applied. Certain sedimentary rock types and sedimentary rock configurations should be targeted for investigation and returned by the Martian rover and ultimately by human explorers. Domical, columnar to wavy laminated stratiform sedimentary rocks that resemble stromatolites should be actively sought. Limestone, other carbonates, and chert are the favored lithology. Being macroscopic, stromatolites might be recognized by an intelligent unmanned rover. In addition, black, waxy chert with conchoidal fracture should be sought. Chert is by far the preferred lithology for the preservation of microbes and chemical fossils. Even under optimal geological conditions (little or no metamorphism or tectonic alteration, excellent outcrops, and good black chert) and using experienced field biogeologists, the chances of finding well preserved microbial remains in chert are very low.

  13. Cosmic Rays at Earth (United States)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    and medical aspects of the cosmic radiation because of it ionizing character and the inevitable irradiation to which we are exposed. This book is a reference manual for researchers and students of cosmic ray physics and associated fields and phenomena. It is not intended to be a tutorial. However, the book contains an adequate amount of background materials that its content should be useful to a broad community of scientists and professionals. The present book contains chiefly a data collection in compact form that covers the cosmic radiation in the vicinity of the Earth, in the Earth's atmosphere, at sea level and underground. Included are predominantly experimental but also theoretical data. In addition the book contains related data, definitions and important relations. The aim of this book is to offer the reader in a single volume a readily available comprehensive set of data that will save him the need of frequent time consuming literature searches.

  14. 75 FR 81315 - Earth Sciences Proposal Review Panel; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Earth Sciences Proposal Review Panel; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting. Name: Proposal Review Panel in Earth Sciences (1569). Date and Time... Kelz, Program Director, Instrumentation & Facilities Program, Division of Earth Sciences, Room 785...

  15. Digital Earth – A sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth

  16. Was the early Earth completely molten? (United States)

    Turcotte, D. L.; Pflugrath, J. C.


    The nature of the interior of the primitive Earth was examined. The question is posted: was the Earth a cold solid or was it a hot liquid, much like a lava lakes seen in today's volcanic cauldrons. The various energy sources available to heat the primitive Earth to see if they are sufficient to cause melting were analyzed. The two largest contributors to the Earth's early heat appear to be the heat due to accretion and the heat of core formation. The Earth formed by the accretion of particles ranging in size from millimeters to hundreds of kilometers and each impact into the protoearth provided more energy to heat the body. It is found that early in the Earth's history, the sinking of iron to the center of the Earth to form the core released a substantial amount of energy; enough to heat the entire Earth an average 2000 deg C. Mechanisms for the removal of such a large amount of heat appear inadequate to prevent substantial melting, and it is assumed that the Earth was completely molten, i.e., a magma ocean at one time early in its history.

  17. Geologic Time. (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  18. Radiation chemistry and origins of life on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z. P.


    The role of radiation chemical processes in prebiotic time of earth history and their influence on arise of organic life on Earth has been discussed. The formation of chiral compounds in prebiotic s oup' and its further evolution for creation of bioorganic molecules was also presented and discussed as an alternative of existing hypothesis of cosmic origin of biologic life in the Earth


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. EARTH FROM SPACE · Slide 2 · Earth System · Slide 4 · Global water cycle · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Direct Observations of Recent Climate Change · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Snow cover and Arctic sea ice are decreasing · Polar Melting & Global Heat Transport · Antarctica: Melting and Thickening · Slide 14 · Slide 15.

  20. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin


    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  1. Earth Flyby Anomalies


    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D.


    In a reference frame fixed to the solar system's center of mass, a satellite's energy will change as it is deflected by a planet. But a number of satellites flying by Earth have also experienced energy changes in the Earth-centered frame -- and that's a mystery.

  2. Earth as an extrasolar planet: Earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations. (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Wellnitz, Dennis D


    used to simulate Earth's time-dependent brightness and spectral properties for wavelengths from the far ultraviolet to the far infrared. Key Words: Astrobiology-Extrasolar terrestrial planets-Habitability-Planetary science-Radiative transfer. Astrobiology 11, 393-408.

  3. Rigidly framed earth retaining structures thermal soil structure interaction of buildings supporting unbalanced lateral earth pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Aboumoussa, Walid


    Structures placed on hillsides often present a number of challenges and a limited number of economical choices for site design. An option sometimes employed is to use the building frame as a retaining element, comprising a Rigidly Framed Earth Retaining Structure (RFERS). The relationship between temperature and earth pressure acting on RFERS, is explored in this monograph through a 4.5 year monitoring program of a heavily instrumented in service structure. The data indicated that the coefficient of earth pressure behind the monitored RFERS had a strong linear correlation with temperature. The study also revealed that thermal cycles, rather than lateral earth pressure, were the cause of failure in many structural elements. The book demonstrates that depending on the relative stiffness of the retained soil mass and that of the structural frame, the developed lateral earth pressure, during thermal expansion, can reach magnitudes several times larger than those determined using classical earth pressure theories....

  4. Building houses with earth blocks: A guide for upgrading traditional building methods using handmade earth blocks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolton, M


    Full Text Available This report is a guide to building strong earth houses that will last a long time but without having to spend a lot of extra money or hire outside experts to do the building. It supports the process of improving the quality of earth housing...

  5. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model (United States)

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather


    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  6. Chemical analysis of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Ryoichi; Sakoh, Takefumi; Nagai, Iwao


    Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova


    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  8. Earth's inner core nucleation paradox (United States)

    Huguet, Ludovic; Van Orman, James A.; Hauck, Steven A.; Willard, Matthew A.


    The conventional view of Earth's inner core is that it began to crystallize at Earth's center when the temperature dropped below the melting point of the iron alloy and has grown steadily since that time as the core continued to cool. However, this model neglects the energy barrier to the formation of the first stable crystal nucleus, which is commonly represented in terms of the critical supercooling required to overcome the barrier. Using constraints from experiments, simulations, and theory, we show that spontaneous crystallization in a homogeneous liquid iron alloy at Earth's core pressures requires a critical supercooling of order 1000 K, which is too large to be a plausible mechanism for the origin of Earth's inner core. We consider mechanisms that can lower the nucleation barrier substantially. Each has caveats, yet the inner core exists: this is the nucleation paradox. Heterogeneous nucleation on a solid metallic substrate tends to have a low energy barrier and offers the most straightforward solution to the paradox, but solid metal would probably have to be delivered from the mantle and such events are unlikely to have been common. A delay in nucleation, whether due to a substantial nucleation energy barrier, or late introduction of a low energy substrate, would lead to an initial phase of rapid inner core growth from a supercooled state. Such rapid growth may lead to distinctive crystallization texturing that might be observable seismically. It would also generate a spike in chemical and thermal buoyancy that could affect the geomagnetic field significantly. Solid metal introduced to Earth's center before it reached saturation could also provide a nucleation substrate, if large enough to escape complete dissolution. Inner core growth, in this case, could begin earlier and start more slowly than standard thermal models predict.

  9. Earth as art three (United States)



    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  10. Sun-Earth Days (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.


    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  11. Earth Science Informatics - Overview (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.


    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  12. When the earth shudders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltese, G.

    The enormous damage that can be caused by earthquakes (500,000 deaths in Tangshan, China, 1976) makes the art and science of earthquake predicting one of the principal objectives of modern geophysics. In this review of the state-of-the-art in earthquake predicting, brief notes are given on several topics: plate tectonics theory, geographic distribution of earthquakes, elastic potential energy storage of rocks, seismic wave typology, comparison of Mercalli and Richter scales, pre-warning signs in nature (strange behaviour of animals, preliminary reduction of seismic wave velocity, variations in local micro-seismicity and physical properties of rocks, etc.), comparison of earthquake energy release models, historical origin of the science of earthquake predicting, implication of fault slip rates and earthquake recurrence models to probabilistic seismic hazard estimates, the time element in prediction making, analysis of examples of correct predictions, pattern recognition instrumentation, earthquake intensity control through fluid injection, correlations between water reservoir level and seismicity, the creation of government programs for the monitoring of the earth's crust and seismic data acquisition, comparison of earthquake prediction and preparedness approaches in Japan and the USA.

  13. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.


    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  14. Rare earth oxychalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, A.A.; Grizik, A.A.


    Considered are oxychalcogenides of rare earth elements: their nomenclature, general physico-chemical characteristics, methods of preparation. Considered in detail are chemistry and crystal chemistry of oxychalcogenides of Ln 2 O 2 S, Ln 2 O 2 Se, Ln 4 O 4 Se 3 , Ln 2 O 2 Te types, where Ln=La-Lu. Given are parameters of crystal lattices, elementary cells, interatomic distances and dependences of lattice periods on ion radii of rare earth elements. Described are the prospects of the practical application of rare-earth element oxychalcogenides as various luminophores

  15. Earth from Above (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    Earth from Above provides an easy introduction to understanding and interpreting satellite images, using illustrative examples to instruct on the fantastically informative new global data sets. Beginning with two short chapters on visible satellite images and radiation, the book then covers six key Earth-atmosphere variables on such environmentally important topics as the Antarctic ozone hole, El Nino, deforestation, the missing carbon dilemma, and the effects of sea ice, snow cover, and volcanoes on atmospheric temperatures. A final chapter broadens the discussion to consider satellite Earth observations in general.

  16. A new method for quantifying and modeling large scale surface water inundation dynamics and key drivers using multiple time series of Earth observation and river flow data. A case study for Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (United States)

    Heimhuber, Valentin; Tulbure, Mirela G.; Broich, Mark


    -floodplain areas (r-squared > 0.24), which were primarily driven by local rainfall. Our results indicate that local climate conditions (i.e. P, ET, SM) had more influence on SW dynamics in the northern compared to the southern MDB and were the most influential in the least regulated and most extended floodplains in the north-west. We also applied the statistical models of two floodplain areas with contrasting flooding regimes to predict SW extents of cloud-affected time steps in the Landsat time series during the large 2010 floods with high validated accuracy (r-squared > 0.97). Our findings illustrate that integrating multi-decadal time series of Earth observation data and in situ measurements with statistical modeling techniques can provide cost-effective tools for improving the management of limited SW resources and floods. The data-driven method is applicable to other large river basins and provides statistical models that can predict SW extent for cloud-affected Landsat observations or during the peak of floods and hence, allows a more detailed quantification of the dynamics of large floods compared to existing approaches. Future research will investigate the potential of image fusion techniques (i.e. ESTARFM) for improving the quantification of rapid changes in SW distribution by combining MODIS and Landsat imagery.

  17. Preparation of rare earth fluorides from apatite concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyarchuk, I.F.; Voloshchenko, M.V.; Zen'kovich, E.G.; Sumenkova, V.V.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Lit'ya)


    The processes of preparation of the rare earths element sum from apatite concentrate of the Khibins, connected with preliminary extraction of rare earth phosphates from nitric acid extract using solvent extraction or direct precipitation from the extract by solution of potassium and ammonium fluorides. The sequence of the processes of the first variant is the following: solvent extraction of rare earths by tributylphosphate from clarified nitric acid extract of apatite with subsequent reextraction of rare earths with water and precipitation of rare earth phosphates from aqueous solution during neutralization by ammonia. In case of fluoride preparation from rare earth phosphate the main attention is paid to precipitation and filtration of fluorides. Technological scheme and cost price of industry for the production of 1800 t of rare earth trifluorides a year are calculated. When taking account of TBP losses according to its solubility the industry cost price is 1O times lower the modern cost of rare earth fluorides

  18. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics


    Herndon, J. Marvin


    The principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics are disclosed leading to a new way to interpret whole-Earth dynamics. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics incorporates elements of and unifies the two seemingly divergent dominant theories of continential displacement, plate tectonics theory and Earth expansion theory. Whole-Earth decompression is the consequence of Earth formation from within a Jupiter-like protoplanet with subsequent loss of gases and ices and concomitant rebounding. The i...

  19. A statistical study of the performance of the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 numerical model in predicting solar shock arrival times at Earth during different phases of solar cycle 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor


    Full Text Available The performance of the Hakamada Akasofu-Fry, version 2 (HAFv.2 numerical model, which provides predictions of solar shock arrival times at Earth, was subjected to a statistical study to investigate those solar/interplanetary circumstances under which the model performed well/poorly during key phases (rise/maximum/decay of solar cycle 23. In addition to analyzing elements of the overall data set (584 selected events associated with particular cycle phases, subsets were formed such that those events making up a particular sub-set showed common characteristics. The statistical significance of the results obtained using the various sets/subsets was generally very low and these results were not significant as compared with the hit by chance rate (50%. This implies a low level of confidence in the predictions of the model with no compelling result encouraging its use. However, the data suggested that the success rates of HAFv.2 were higher when the background solar wind speed at the time of shock initiation was relatively fast. Thus, in scenarios where the background solar wind speed is elevated and the calculated success rate significantly exceeds the rate by chance, the forecasts could provide potential value to the customer. With the composite statistics available for solar cycle 23, the calculated success rate at high solar wind speed, although clearly above 50%, was indicative rather than conclusive. The RMS error estimated for shock arrival times for every cycle phase and for the composite sample was in each case significantly better than would be expected for a random data set. Also, the parameter "Probability of Detection, yes" (PODy which presents the Proportion of Yes observations that were correctly forecast (i.e. the ratio between the shocks correctly predicted and all the shocks observed, yielded values for the rise/maximum/decay phases of the cycle and using the composite sample of 0.85, 0.64, 0.79 and 0.77, respectively. The statistical

  20. Near Earth Asteroid Scout (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, or NEA Scout, is a 6U CubeSat developed jointly between NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA...

  1. Earliest life on earth

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Suzanne D


    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  2. Gambling with the earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Muir, H


    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  3. Earth's electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.


    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  4. Earth retaining structures manual (United States)


    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  5. Building a Dashboard of the Planet with Google Earth and Earth Engine (United States)

    Moore, R. T.; Hancher, M.


    In 2005 Google Earth, a popular 3-D virtual globe, was first released. Scientists immediately recognized how it could be used to tell stories about the Earth. From 2006 to 2009, the "Virtual Globes" sessions of AGU included innovative examples of scientists and educators using Google Earth, and since that time it has become a commonplace tool for communicating scientific results. In 2009 Google Earth Engine, a cloud-based platform for planetary-scale geospatial analysis, was first announced. Earth Engine was initially used to extract information about the world's forests from raw Landsat data. Since then, the platform has proven highly effective for general analysis of georeferenced data, and users have expanded the list of use cases to include high-impact societal issues such as conservation, drought, disease, food security, water management, climate change and environmental monitoring. To support these use cases, the platform has continuously evolved with new datasets, analysis functions, and user interface tools. This talk will give an overview of the latest Google Earth and Earth Engine functionality that allow partners to understand, monitor and tell stories about of our living, breathing Earth.

  6. Rare earths crystal chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.F.


    From the viewpoint of general crystal chemistry principles and on the basis of modern data the structural chemistry of rare earth compounds in different oxidation degrees (2,3,4) is briefly presented. The change of the structure type of oxides, halides and some other compounds of rare earths, as well as the coordination number of the central atom from lanthanide ionic radius is considered

  7. Physical conditions on the early Earth (United States)

    Lunine, Jonathan I


    The formation of the Earth as a planet was a large stochastic process in which the rapid assembly of asteroidal-to-Mars-sized bodies was followed by a more extended period of growth through collisions of these objects, facilitated by the gravitational perturbations associated with Jupiter. The Earth's inventory of water and organic molecules may have come from diverse sources, not more than 10% roughly from comets, the rest from asteroidal precursors to chondritic bodies and possibly objects near Earth's orbit for which no representative class of meteorites exists today in laboratory collections. The final assembly of the Earth included a catastrophic impact with a Mars-sized body, ejecting mantle and crustal material to form the Moon, and also devolatilizing part of the Earth. A magma ocean and steam atmosphere (possibly with silica vapour) existed briefly in this period, but terrestrial surface waters were below the critical point within 100 million years after Earth's formation, and liquid water existed continuously on the surface within a few hundred million years. Organic material delivered by comets and asteroids would have survived, in part, this violent early period, but frequent impacts of remaining debris probably prevented the continuous habitability of the Earth for one to several hundred million years. Planetary analogues to or records of this early time when life began include Io (heat flow), Titan (organic chemistry) and Venus (remnant early granites). PMID:17008213

  8. NASA'S Earth Science Data Stewardship Activities (United States)

    Lowe, Dawn R.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram


    NASA has been collecting Earth observation data for over 50 years using instruments on board satellites, aircraft and ground-based systems. With the inception of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program in 1990, NASA established the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and initiated development of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). A set of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) was established at locations based on science discipline expertise. Today, EOSDIS consists of 12 DAACs and 12 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS), processing data from the EOS missions, as well as the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership mission, and other satellite and airborne missions. The DAACs archive and distribute the vast majority of data from NASA’s Earth science missions, with data holdings exceeding 12 petabytes The data held by EOSDIS are available to all users consistent with NASA’s free and open data policy, which has been in effect since 1990. The EOSDIS archives consist of raw instrument data counts (level 0 data), as well as higher level standard products (e.g., geophysical parameters, products mapped to standard spatio-temporal grids, results of Earth system models using multi-instrument observations, and long time series of Earth System Data Records resulting from multiple satellite observations of a given type of phenomenon). EOSDIS data stewardship responsibilities include ensuring that the data and information content are reliable, of high quality, easily accessible, and usable for as long as they are considered to be of value.

  9. Optimal Safety EarthingEarth Electrode Sizing Using A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a deterministic approach in the sizing of earth electrode using the permissible touch voltage criteria is presented. The deterministic approach is effectively applied in the sizing of the length of earth rod required for the safe earthing of residential and facility buildings. This approach ensures that the earthing ...

  10. Hydrogen in the Deep Earth (United States)

    Mookherjee, M.; Hermann, A.; Bajgain, S.; Shukla, G.


    Water is crucial for the sustenance of planetary activities. For instance, water reduces melting temperatures and affects the density and elasticity of minerals and melts. It also influences the transport properties of minerals and melts, including their diffusion, electrical conductivity, and rheology. The solid-state mantle convection for the water-free, dry silicate mantle is likely to be extremely sluggish and may not be sustainable over geological timescales. Therefore, it is important to identify the potential hosts for water and estimate the size of the hidden reservoir of water in the deep Earth. Also, it is important to correlate how the deep Earth water reservoir, i.e., the degree of mantle hydration, influences the global sea level over geological time scales. Constraining the degree of mantle hydration is not straightforward. It requires understanding and linking atomistic scale behavior of minerals and melts to large-scale geophysical and geochemical observations. High-pressure experiments and first-principles simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been crucial in enhancing our understanding of hydrogen bearing mineral phases that are likely to be present in the Earth's mantle and subduction zone settings. In this study we present DFT results on hydrous phases and provide constraints on the crystal structure, thermodynamic stability, elasticity, and transport properties of proton bearing mineral phases. Acknowledgements: MM acknowledges US NSF awards EAR-1639552 and EAR-1634422.

  11. Mapping Near-Earth Hazards (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    How can we hunt down all the near-Earth asteroids that are capable of posing a threat to us? A new study looks at whether the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is up to the job.Charting Nearby ThreatsLSST is an 8.4-m wide-survey telescope currently being built in Chile. When it goes online in 2022, it will spend the next ten years surveying our sky, mapping tens of billions of stars and galaxies, searching for signatures of dark energy and dark matter, and hunting for transient optical events like novae and supernovae. But in its scanning, LSST will also be looking for asteroids that approach near Earth.Cumulative number of near-Earth asteroids discovered over time, as of June 16, 2016. [NASA/JPL/Chamberlin]Near-Earth objects (NEOs) have the potential to be hazardous if they cross Earths path and are large enough to do significant damage when they impact Earth. Earths history is riddled with dangerous asteroid encounters, including the recent Chelyabinsk airburst in 2013, the encounter that caused the kilometer-sized Meteor Crater in Arizona, and the impact thought to contribute to the extinction of the dinosaurs.Recognizing the potential danger that NEOs can pose to Earth, Congress has tasked NASA with tracking down 90% of NEOs larger than 140 meters in diameter. With our current survey capabilities, we believe weve discovered roughly 25% of these NEOs thus far. Now a new study led by Tommy Grav (Planetary Science Institute) examines whether LSST will be able to complete this task.Absolute magnitude, H, of asynthetic NEO population. Though these NEOs are all larger than 140 m, they have a large spread in albedos. [Grav et al. 2016]Can LSST Help?Based on previous observations of NEOs and resulting predictions for NEO properties and orbits, Grav and collaborators simulate a synthetic population of NEOs all above 140 m in size. With these improved population models, they demonstrate that the common tactic of using an asteroids absolute magnitude as a

  12. Earth's Paleomagnetosphere and Planetary Habitability (United States)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Blackman, E. G.; Oda, H.; Bono, R. K.; Carroll-Nellenback, J.; Cottrell, R. D.; Nimmo, F.


    The geodynamo is thought to play an important role in protecting Earth's hydrosphere, vital for life as we know it, from loss due to the erosive potential of the solar wind. Here we consider the mechanisms and history of this shielding. A larger core dynamo magnetic field strength provides more pressure to abate the solar wind dynamic pressure, increasing the magnetopause radius. However, the larger magnetopause also implies a larger collecting area for solar wind flux during phases of magnetic reconnection. The important variable is not mass capture but energy transfer, which does not scale linearly with magnetosphere size. Moreover, the ordered field provides the magnetic topology for recapturing atmospheric components in the opposite hemisphere such that the net global loss might not be greatly affected. While a net protection role for magnetospheres is suggested, forcing by the solar wind will change with stellar age. Paleomagnetism utilizing the single silicate crystal approach, defines a relatively strong field some 3.45 billion years ago (the Paleoarchean), but with a reduced magnetopause of 5 Earth radii, implying the potential for some atmospheric loss. Terrestrial zircons from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) and other localities host magnetic inclusions, whose magnetization has now been recorded by a new generation of ultra-sensitive 3-component SQUID magnetometer (U. Rochester) and SQUID microscope (GSJ/AIST). Paleointensity data suggest the presence of a terrestrial dynamo and magnetic shielding for Eoarchean to Hadean times, at ages as old as 4.2 billion years ago. However, the magnetic data suggest that for intervals >100,000 years long, magnetopause standoff distances may have reached 3 to 4 Earth radii or less. The early inception of the geodynamo, which probably occurred shortly after the lunar-forming impact, its continuity, and an early robust hydrosphere, appear to be key ingredients for Earth's long-term habitability.

  13. Impact on the earth, ocean and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, T.J.; O'Keefe, J.D.


    Several hundred impact craters produced historically and at times as early as 1.9 x 10/sup 9/ years ago with diameters in the range 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup 2/ km are observed on the surface of the earth. Earth-based and spacecraft observations of the surfaces of all the terrestrial planets and their satellites, as well as many of the icy satellites of the outer planets, indicated that impact cratering was a dominant process on planetary surfaces during the early history of the solar system. Moreover, the recent observation of a circumstellar disk around the nearby star, β-Pictoris, appears to be similar to the authors' own hypothesized protosolar disk. A disk of material around our sun has been hypothesized to have been the source of the solid planetesimals from which the earth and the other planets accreted by infall and capture. Thus it appears that the earth and the other terrestrial planets formed as a result of infall and impact of planetesimals. Although the present planets grew rapidly via accretion to their present size (in --10/sup 7/ years), meteorite impacts continue to occur on the earth and other planets. Until recently meteorite impact has been considered to be a process that was important on the earth and the other planets only early in the history of the solar system. This is no longer true. The Alvarez hypothesis suggests that the extinction of some 90% of all species, including 17 classes of dinosaurs, is associated with the 1 to 150 cm thick layer of noble-element rich dust which is found all over the earth exactly at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The enrichment of noble elements in this dust is in meteorite-like proportions. This dust is thought to represent the fine impact ejecta from a --10 km diameter asteroid interacting with the solid earth. The Alvarez hypothesis associates the extinction with the physics of a giant impact on the earth

  14. Diatomaceous earth lowers blood cholesterol concentrations. (United States)

    Wachter, H; Lechleitner, M; Artner-Dworzak, E; Hausen, A; Jarosch, E; Widner, B; Patsch, J; Pfeiffer, K; Fuchs, D


    In this study a potential influence of diatomaceus earth to lower blood cholesterol was investigated. During 12 weeks we monitored serum lipid concentrations in 19 healthy individuals with a history of moderate hypercholesterinemia (9 females, 10 males, aged 35 - 67 years). Individuals administered orally 250 mg diatomaceous earth three-times daily during an 8 weeks observation period. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were measured before study entry, every second week during the period of diatomaceous earth intake and 4 weeks after stop of intake. Compared to baseline (285.8 +/- 37.5 mg/dl = 7.40 +/- 0.97 mM) diatomaceous earth intake was associated with a significant reduction of serum cholesterol at any time point, reaching a minimum on week 6 (248.1 mg/dl = 6.43 mM, -13.2% from baseline; pdiatomaceous earth was stopped, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides still remained low and also the increase of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol became significant (pDiatomaceous earth, a bioproduct, is capable of reducing blood cholesterol and positively influencing lipid metabolism in humans. Placebo-controlled studies will be necessary to confirm our findings.

  15. Earth Rotation Dynamics: Review and Prospects (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.


    Modem space geodetic measurement of Earth rotation variations, particularly by means of the VLBI technique, has over the years allowed studies of Earth rotation dynamics to advance in ever-increasing precision, accuracy, and temporal resolution. A review will be presented on our understanding of the geophysical and climatic causes, or "excitations", for length-of-day change, polar motion, and nutations. These excitations sources come from mass transports that constantly take place in the Earth system comprised of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, mantle, and the cores. In this sense, together with other space geodetic measurements of time-variable gravity and geocenter motion, Earth rotation variations become a remote-sensing tool for the integral of all mass transports, providing valuable information about the latter on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Future prospects with respect to geophysical studies with even higher accuracy and resolution will be discussed.

  16. Monitoring the Earth (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio


    Monitoring the Earth is the first book to review the recent advances in satellite technology, computing and mass spectrometry that are opening up completely new avenues of enquiry to Earth scientists. Among the geological changes that were previously considered too slow or too extensive for direct measurements and that can now be monitored directly are continental displacements, mountain uplift, the growth and decay of icesheets and glaciers, the faulting and folding of rocks, the progress of weathering and sedimentation, and the growth of coral reefs. In addition to these developments, the book assesses progress in fields not normally considered part of physical geology, such as the shape and orbit of the gravity and the terrestrial magnetic field. The results from the new findings are already helping Earth scientists analyze and explain the underlying mechanisms, notably with regard to the storage and release of strain during earthquakes and the interaction of glacial history with the Earth's rate of rotation. The outcoe is a foretaste of the physical geology of the space age.^Fully illustrated with line drawings and photographs, and with a bibliography that encompasses the scattered and disparate litarature, Monitoring the Earth is intended for undergraduates in geology, geomorphology, geomatic engineering and planetary science, but it should also be of interest to astronomers and historians of science.

  17. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.


    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  18. Rare-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, A.; Maestro, P.


    Production process of rare earths come from hydro-metallurgy treatments including following successive steps from enrichment ores: ore etching by humid way, from obtained solutions separations and purifications using selective precipitation engineering (rare earths case with an oxidation degree different from III), sometimes exchange techniques of ion on resin but principally extraction techniques by solvent; obtaining final products (oxides, salts) or metals elaboration by electrolytic melt salts process at high temperature. About applications, specificity of rare earths is in their particular electronic structure which induces chemical, structural, and physical properties seen as unrivalled ones. These properties are used in industrial applications which are diversified and sophisticated as metallurgy, catalysis, glass, optics, ceramics, luminescence, magnetism, electronics... 44 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  19. How Big is Earth? (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.


    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory,, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is

  20. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  1. Experimental silicification of the extremophilic Archaea Pyrococcus abyssi and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii: applications in the search for evidence of life in early Earth and extraterrestrial rocks. (United States)

    Orange, F; Westall, F; Disnar, J-R; Prieur, D; Bienvenu, N; Le Romancer, M; Défarge, Ch


    Hydrothermal activity was common on the early Earth and associated micro-organisms would most likely have included thermophilic to hyperthermophilic species. 3.5-3.3 billion-year-old, hydrothermally influenced rocks contain silicified microbial mats and colonies that must have been bathed in warm to hot hydrothermal emanations. Could they represent thermophilic or hyperthermophilic micro-organisms and if so, how were they preserved? We present the results of an experiment to silicify anaerobic, hyperthermophilic micro-organisms from the Archaea Domain Pyrococcus abyssi and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, that could have lived on the early Earth. The micro-organisms were placed in a silica-saturated medium for periods up to 1 year. Pyrococcus abyssi cells were fossilized but the M. jannaschii cells lysed naturally after the exponential growth phase, apart from a few cells and cell remains, and were not silicified although their extracellular polymeric substances were. In this first simulated fossilization of archaeal strains, our results suggest that differences between species have a strong influence on the potential for different micro-organisms to be preserved by fossilization and that those found in the fossil record represent probably only a part of the original diversity. Our results have important consequences for biosignatures in hydrothermal or hydrothermally influenced deposits on Earth, as well as on early Mars, as environmental conditions were similar on the young terrestrial planets and traces of early Martian life may have been similarly preserved as silicified microfossils.

  2. Teaching Earth Signals Analysis Using the Java-DSP Earth Systems Edition: Modern and Past Climate Change (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Karthikeyan Natesan; Hinnov, Linda A.; Spanias, Andreas S.


    Modern data collection in the Earth Sciences has propelled the need for understanding signal processing and time-series analysis techniques. However, there is an educational disconnect in the lack of instruction of time-series analysis techniques in many Earth Science academic departments. Furthermore, there are no platform-independent freeware…

  3. Earth's City Lights (United States)


    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  4. Earth as art 4 (United States)



    Landsat 8 is the latest addition to the long-running series of Earth-observing satellites in the Landsat program that began in 1972. The images featured in this fourth installment of the Earth As Art collection were all acquired by Landsat 8. They show our planet’s diverse landscapes with remarkable clarity.Landsat satellites see the Earth as no human can. Not only do they acquire images from the vantage point of space, but their sensors record infrared as well as visible wavelengths of light. The resulting images often reveal “hidden” details of the Earth’s land surface, making them invaluable for scientific research.As with previous Earth As Art exhibits, these Landsat images were selected solely for their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation—only for your viewing pleasure. What do you see in these unique glimpses of the Earth’s continents, islands, and coastlines?

  5. The Earth's Changing Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. The Earth's Changing Climate. Man-Made Changes and Their Consequences. PKDas is a former Director. General of the Meteoro- logical Department of. India. After retiring in. 1983, he taught Meteorolo- gy at the University of. Nairobi in Kenya (1983·85) and later at the Indian. Institute of Technology.

  6. The Earth's Changing Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wavelength range between 0.2 and 4.0 microns (p,m). ... from the earth is in the long wavelength range from 4.0 to 80/-Lm. .... turing industry. But, it is removed from the atmosphere by the photosynthesis of plants. The largest reservoirs of carbon are in the deep oceans. Some of this reaches the atmosphere when waters.

  7. Bones of the Earth (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel


    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  8. Google Earth Science (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.


    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  9. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect (United States)

    Fidler, Chuck


    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  10. How life shaped Earth. (United States)

    Gross, Michael


    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  11. The Earth: A Changing Planet (United States)

    Ribas, Núria; Màrquez, Conxita


    text: We describe a didactic unit that rises from our own living impression about our experience on the planet. Most of us feel the Earth to be a very static place. Rocks don't easily move and most landscapes always look the same over time. Anyone would say (the same way most scientists believed until the beginning of the last century) that our planet has always remained unchanged, never transformed. But then, all of a sudden, as a misfortune for so many humans, natural hazards appear on the scene: an earthquake causing so many disasters, a tsunami carrying away everything in its path, an eruption that can destroy huge surrounding areas but also bring new geographical relief. Science cannot remain oblivious to these events, we must wonder beyond. What does an earthquake mean? Why does it happen? What about an eruption? If it comes from the inside, what can we guess from it? Researching about all of these events, scientists have been able to arrive to some important knowledge of the planet itself: It has been possible to theorize about Earth's interior. It has also been confirmed that the planet has not always been the quiet and stable place we once thought. Continents, as Wegener supposed, do move about and the Tectonic Plates Theory, thanks to the information obtained through earthquakes and eruption, can provide some interesting explanations. But how do we know about our planet's past? How can we prove that the Earth has always been moving and that its surface changes? The Earth's rocks yield the answer. Rocks have been the only witnesses throughout millions of years, since the planet first came to existence. Let's learn how to read them… Shouldn't we realize that rocks are to Geology what books are to History? This discursive process has been distributed in four learning sequences: 1. Land is not as solid nor firm as it would seem, 2. The Earth planet: a puzzle, 3. The rocks also recycle , 4. Field trip to "Sant Miquel del Fai". The subjects take about 30

  12. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.


    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  13. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some controversial evidence for the theory that the first life on Earth itself may have been transported here on meteorites from Mars. The possibility of a major meteorite impact on Earth in the near future emphasizes the dramatic nature of these recent discoveries, which are having deep impacts in the Earth sciences ...

  14. Mission to Planet Earth's Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's) (United States)

    Keller, V.; Beranek, R.; Herrmann, M.; Koczor, R.


    The Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's) are the space-based element of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program which provide the excellent temporal resolution data required for a thorough understanding of earth processes and their role in global climate change. This paper discusses the scientific rationale, required instrumentation, observatory configuration, and data system of the GEO program.

  15. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.


    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  16. On Markov Earth Mover's Distance. (United States)

    Wei, Jie


    In statistics, pattern recognition and signal processing, it is of utmost importance to have an effective and efficient distance to measure the similarity between two distributions and sequences. In statistics this is referred to as goodness-of-fit problem . Two leading goodness of fit methods are chi-square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov distances. The strictly localized nature of these two measures hinders their practical utilities in patterns and signals where the sample size is usually small. In view of this problem Rubner and colleagues developed the earth mover's distance (EMD) to allow for cross-bin moves in evaluating the distance between two patterns, which find a broad spectrum of applications. EMD-L1 was later proposed to reduce the time complexity of EMD from super-cubic by one order of magnitude by exploiting the special L1 metric. EMD-hat was developed to turn the global EMD to a localized one by discarding long-distance earth movements. In this work, we introduce a Markov EMD (MEMD) by treating the source and destination nodes absolutely symmetrically. In MEMD, like hat-EMD, the earth is only moved locally as dictated by the degree d of neighborhood system. Nodes that cannot be matched locally is handled by dummy source and destination nodes. By use of this localized network structure, a greedy algorithm that is linear to the degree d and number of nodes is then developed to evaluate the MEMD. Empirical studies on the use of MEMD on deterministic and statistical synthetic sequences and SIFT-based image retrieval suggested encouraging performances.

  17. Marketing Earth science education (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Spiers, Chris

    In the 1990s, the Department of Earth Sciences at Utrecht University in the Netherlands was struggling with a declining influx of students. For years, the department had been active in promoting its program, but this was insufficient to stem the decline in interest. To remedy the problem, the school's Earth science faculty carried out, with the help of consultants, a qualitative evaluation of its promotional activities. The faculty feared that their own image of the department might be in conflict with the image held by others; prospective students, in particular. The consultants interviewed secondary school students, parents, teachers, and study advisors in secondary schools. This article is a report on the results of this evaluation.

  18. Rare earth base superconducting composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveau, B.J.; Bourgault, D.M.; Hervieu, M.; Martin, C.Y.; Michel, C.M.A.E.; Provost, J.R.J.


    A superconductin mixed valence copper oxide with a perowskite structure is claimed. It comprises a valence 4 rare earth (Ce or Pr), an alkaline earth metal (Sr or Ba) and thallium. Chemical composition is given and synthesis is described [fr

  19. Mirador - Earth Surface and Interior (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. The goal of the Earth Surface and Interior focus area is to assess, mitigate and forecast the natural hazards that affect...

  20. Measuring our changing Earth


    Jones, Lee


    We live on an ever-changing planet. Volcanoes emerge from the oceans; land is torn apart by earthquakes; tsunamis and floods destroy vast areas of land; landslides transport millions of tonnes of material down hills and mountains causing billions of pounds of damage; coastlines and glaciers retreat at almost visible rates. But can we do anything to measure the changes these geological hazards are making to the earth? Lee Jones says we can.

  1. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations


    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.


    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology ...

  2. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN


    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  3. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R


    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  4. Afganistan and rare earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. Dobrescu


    Full Text Available On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted for in the twentieth century and coal in the nineteenth century: the engine of a new industrial revolution. Future energy will be produced increasingly by more sophisticated technological equipment based not just on steel and concrete, but incorporating significant quantities of metals and rare earths. Widespread application of these technologies will result in an exponential increase in demand for such minerals, and what is worrying is that minerals of this type are almost nowhere to be found in Europe and in other industrialized countries in the world, such as U.S. and Japan, but only in some Asian countries, like China and Afghanistan.

  5. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.


    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  6. Ocean heat content and Earth's radiation imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, David H.; Knox, Robert S.


    Earth's radiation imbalance is determined from ocean heat content data and compared with results of direct measurements. Distinct time intervals of alternating positive and negative values are found: 1960-mid-1970s (-0.15), mid-1970s-2000 (+0.15), 2001-present (-0.2 W/m 2 ), and are consistent with prior reports. These climate shifts limit climate predictability.

  7. The young centre of the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev; Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Faye, Jan


    We treat, as an illustrative example of gravitational time dilation in relativity, the observation that the centre of the Earth is younger than the surface by an appreciable amount. Richard Feynman first made this insightful point and presented an estimate of the size of the effect in a talk...

  8. The Magnetic Field of Planet Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, G.; Finlay, Chris; Constable, C. G.


    The magnetic field of the Earth is by far the best documented magnetic field of all known planets. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of its characteristics and properties, thanks to the convergence of many different approaches and to the remarkable fact that surface rocks...... yr) to the longest (virtually the age of the Earth) time scales are finally reviewed, underlining the respective roles of the magnetohydodynamics at work in the core, and of the slow dynamic evolution of the planet as a whole....

  9. Cosmic radiation and the Earth rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pil'nik, G.P.


    On the basis of classical astronomical observations of time, waves of nonuniformity in the Earth rotation were found. The wave with the period of 159sup(m).566 is very close to the period of global oscillations of the Sun surface 160sup(m).r-1 and to the period of the Germinga gamma-ray radiatnon 159sup(m).96. The necessity is pointed out of a detailed study of the Earth rotation in the days of great developments of astrophysical and geophysical research

  10. Dynamics of a Snowball Earth ocean. (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Gildor, Hezi; Losch, Martin; Macdonald, Francis A; Schrag, Daniel P; Tziperman, Eli


    Geological evidence suggests that marine ice extended to the Equator at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (about 750 to 635 million years ago), inspiring the Snowball Earth hypothesis that the Earth was globally ice-covered. In a possible Snowball Earth climate, ocean circulation and mixing processes would have set the melting and freezing rates that determine ice thickness, would have influenced the survival of photosynthetic life, and may provide important constraints for the interpretation of geochemical and sedimentological observations. Here we show that in a Snowball Earth, the ocean would have been well mixed and characterized by a dynamic circulation, with vigorous equatorial meridional overturning circulation, zonal equatorial jets, a well developed eddy field, strong coastal upwelling and convective mixing. This is in contrast to the sluggish ocean often expected in a Snowball Earth scenario owing to the insulation of the ocean from atmospheric forcing by the thick ice cover. As a result of vigorous convective mixing, the ocean temperature, salinity and density were either uniform in the vertical direction or weakly stratified in a few locations. Our results are based on a model that couples ice flow and ocean circulation, and is driven by a weak geothermal heat flux under a global ice cover about a kilometre thick. Compared with the modern ocean, the Snowball Earth ocean had far larger vertical mixing rates, and comparable horizontal mixing by ocean eddies. The strong circulation and coastal upwelling resulted in melting rates near continents as much as ten times larger than previously estimated. Although we cannot resolve the debate over the existence of global ice cover, we discuss the implications for the nutrient supply of photosynthetic activity and for banded iron formations. Our insights and constraints on ocean dynamics may help resolve the Snowball Earth controversy when combined with future geochemical and geological observations.

  11. Earth science big data at users' fingertips: the EarthServer Science Gateway Mobile (United States)

    Barbera, Roberto; Bruno, Riccardo; Calanducci, Antonio; Fargetta, Marco; Pappalardo, Marco; Rundo, Francesco


    The EarthServer project (, funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program, aims at establishing open access and ad-hoc analytics on extreme-size Earth Science data, based on and extending leading-edge Array Database technology. The core idea is to use database query languages as client/server interface to achieve barrier-free "mix & match" access to multi-source, any-size, multi-dimensional space-time data -- in short: "Big Earth Data Analytics" - based on the open standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Coverage Processing Service (OGC WCPS) and the W3C XQuery. EarthServer combines both, thereby achieving a tight data/metadata integration. Further, the rasdaman Array Database System ( is extended with further space-time coverage data types. On server side, highly effective optimizations - such as parallel and distributed query processing - ensure scalability to Exabyte volumes. In this contribution we will report on the EarthServer Science Gateway Mobile, an app for both iOS and Android-based devices that allows users to seamlessly access some of the EarthServer applications using SAML-based federated authentication and fine-grained authorisation mechanisms.

  12. Finding the Age of the Earth by Physics or by Faith? (United States)

    Brush, Stephen G.


    Refutes scientific creationists' arguments that the earth is less than 10,000 years old by presenting information related to the time scales for creation and evolution models, times from stellar distances, Kelvin's estimate of the earth's age, radioactive decay, radiometric dating, and the decay of the earth's magnetic field. (DC)

  13. The geological record of life 3500 Ma ago: Coping with the rigors of a young earth during late accretion (United States)

    Lowe, Donald R.


    Thin cherty sedimentary layers within the volcanic portions of the 3,500 to 3,300 Ma-old Onverwacht and Fig Tree Groups, Barberton Greenstone belt, South Africa, and Warrawoona Group, eastern Pilbara Block, Western Australia, contain an abundant record of early Archean life. Five principal types of organic and probably biogenic remains and or structures can be identifed: stromatolites, stromatolite detritus, carbonaceous laminite or flat stromalite, carbonaceous detrital particles, and microfossils. Early Archean stromatolites were reported from both the Barberton and eastern Pilbara greenstone belts. Systematic studies are lacking, but two main morphological types of stromatolites appear to be represented by these occurrences. Morphology of the stromalites is described. Preserved early Archean stromatolites and carbonaceous matter appear to reflect communities of photosynthetic cyanobacteria inhabiting shallow, probably marine environments developed over the surfaces of low-relief, rapidly subsiding, simatic volcanic platforms. The overall environmental and tectonic conditions were those that probably prevailed at Earth's surface since the simatic crust and oceans formed sometime before 3,800 Ma. Recent studies also suggest that these early Archean sequences contain layers of debris formed by large-body impacts on early Earth. If so, then these early bacterial communities had developed strategies for coping with the disruptive effects of possibly globe-encircling high-temperature impact vapor clouds, dust blankets, and impact-generated tsunamis. It is probable that these early Archean biogenic materials represent organic communities that evolved long before the beginning of the preserved geological record and were well adapted to the rigors of life on a young, volcanically active Earth during late bombardment. These conditions may have had parallels on Mars during its early evolution.

  14. Enhanced pinning in mixed rare earth-123 films (United States)

    Driscoll, Judith L [Los Alamos, NM; Foltyn, Stephen R [Los Alamos, NM


    An superconductive article and method of forming such an article is disclosed, the article including a substrate and a layer of a rare earth barium cuprate film upon the substrate, the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals capable of yielding a superconductive composition where ion size variance between the two or more rare earth metals is characterized as greater than zero and less than about 10.times.10.sup.-4, and the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals is further characterized as having an enhanced critical current density in comparison to a standard YBa.sub.2Cu.sub.3O.sub.y composition under identical testing conditions.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of a Horizontal Earth Electrode under Impulse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the sensitivity analysis of an earthing conductor under the influence of impulse current arising from a lightning stroke. The approach is based on the 2nd order finite difference time domain (FDTD). The earthing conductor is regarded as a lossy transmission line where it is divided into series connected ...

  16. The Early Years: The Earth-Sun System (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy


    We all experience firsthand many of the phenomena caused by Earth's Place in the Universe (Next Generation Science Standard 5-ESS1; NGSS Lead States 2013) and the relative motion of the Earth, Sun, and Moon. Young children can investigate phenomena such as changes in times of sunrise and sunset (number of daylight hours), Moon phases, seasonal…

  17. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. B P Parida. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 2 March 2018 pp 25. Analysis of rainfall and temperature time series to detect long-term climatic trends and variability over semi-arid Botswana · Jimmy Byakatonda B P Parida Piet K ...

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. D B Moalafhi. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 2 March 2018 pp 25. Analysis of rainfall and temperature time series to detect long-term climatic trends and variability over semi-arid Botswana · Jimmy Byakatonda B P Parida Piet K ...

  19. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Suresh Chandra Kandpal. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 5 October 2011 pp 873-883. Subsurface signatures and timing of extreme wave events along the southeast Indian coast · Rajesh R Nair Madhav K Murari C S Vijaya Lakshmi ...

  20. How did Earth not End up like Venus? (United States)

    Jellinek, M.; Lenardic, A.; Weller, M. B.


    Recent geodynamic calculations show that terrestrial planets forming with a chondritic initial bulk composition at order 1 AU can evolve to be either "Earth-like" or "Venus-like": Both mobile- and stagnant-lid tectonic regimes are permitted, neither solution is an explicitly stronger attractor and effects related to differences in Sun-Earth distance are irrelevant. What factors might then cause the thermal evolutionary paths of Earth and Venus to diverge dynamically at early times? At what point in Earth's evolution did plate tectonics emerge and when and how did this tectonic mode gain sufficient resilience to persist over much of Earth's evolution? What is the role of volatile cycling and climate: To what extent have the stable climate of Earth and the greenhouse runaway climate of Venus enforced their distinct tectonic regimes over time? In this talk I will explore some of the mechanisms potentially governing the evolutionary divergence of Earth and Venus. I will first review observational constraints that suggest that Earth's entry into the current stable plate tectonic mode was far from assured by 2 Ga. Next I will discuss how models have been used to build understanding of some key dynamical controls. In particular, the probability of "Earth-like" solutions is affected by: 1) small differences in the initial concentrations of heat producing elements (i.e., planetary initial conditions); 2) long-term climate change; and 3) the character of a planet's early evolutionary path (i.e., tectonic hysteresis).

  1. Eyes on the Earth 3D (United States)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.


    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser ( Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  2. Conditions during formation of the Earth (United States)

    Cameron, A. G. W.


    The formation of the Earth starts with gravitational instabilities in the gas of primitive solar nebula, which form giant gaseous protoplanets. The envelopes of these are thermally evaporated, but solids can gravitationally settle to the center of the protoplanets, and most of the core and mantle of the Earth were formed at that time (age about 10,000 years). The protoearth then survived a period of high temperatures in the surrounding gas (age about 10 to the 5th years). While and after the gas was thermally stabilized and removed from the solar system, the Earth grew by bombardment of planetesimals and its early atmosphere was established. A late major collision led to formation of the Moon and loss of the primordial atmosphere (age about 10 to the 8th years). The present atmosphere resulted from still later accretion. The presence of this atmosphere spreads out the mantle cooling and solidification over hundreds of millions of years.

  3. Crescent-shaped Earth and Moon (United States)


    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon -- the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The Moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Voyager 1 was directly above Mt. Everest (on the night side of the planet at 25 degrees north latitude) when the picture was taken. The photo was made from three images taken through color filters, then processed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab. Because the Earth is many times brighter than the Moon, the Moon was artificially brightened by a factor of three relative to the Earth by computer enhancement so that both bodies would show clearly in the print. Voyager 2 was launched Aug. 20, 1977, followed by Voyager 1 on Sept. 5, 1977, en route to encounters at Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980 and 1981. JPL manages the Voyager mission for NASA.

  4. Comparison of Freshmen's Cognitive Frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon Taking the Earth Science 1 in High School (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Park, Seon Ok


    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1I in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science 1 fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth Science 1, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  5. Global Change and the Earth System (United States)

    Pollack, Henry N.


    The Earth system in recent years has come to mean the complex interactions of the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere, through an intricate network of feedback loops. This system has operated over geologic time, driven principally by processes with long time scales. Over the lifetime of the solar system, the Sun has slowly become more radiant, and the geography of continents and oceans basins has evolved via plate tectonics. This geography has placed a first-order constraint on the circulation of ocean waters, and thus has strongly influenced regional and global climate. At shorter time scales, the Earth system has been influenced by Milankovitch orbital factors and occasional exogenous events such as bolide impacts. Under these influences the system chugged along for eons, until some few hundred thousand years ago, when one remarkable species evolved: Homo sapiens. As individuals, humans are of course insignificant in shaping the Earth system, but collectively the six billion human occupants of the planet now rival ``natural'' processes in modifying the Earth system. This profound human influence underlies the dubbing of the present epoch of geologic history as the ``Anthropocene.''

  6. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.


    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  7. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley


    politics and offers an account of how this builds on older ways in which the natural world has made up part of the stuff of international politics. Second, it surveys the main traditions and approaches to studying International Relations of the environment, painting a picture of diversification in two......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  8. Climate in Earth history (United States)

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.


    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  9. Predicting earth's dynamic changes (United States)

    Rasool, S. I.


    Given a suitable strategy for conducting measurements, satellite-based remote sensing of the earth can furnish valuable information on the dynamic changes of such planetary characteristics as ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric CO2. Observations must be global and synoptic, quantitatively validated, and consistent over the long term. A program spanning 20 years will study such critical variables as solar flux, stratospheric temperature, aerosols and ozone, cloud cover, tropospheric gases and aerosols, radiation balance, surface temperature, albedo, precipitation, vegetation cover, moisture, snow and ice, as well as oceanic color, topography, and wind stress.

  10. Magnetars Storm the Earth (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria


    Magnetars are a class of young neutron stars that appear to be powered by their ultrahigh magnetic fields, on the order of 10^14-10^15 G on their surfaces, the highest magnetic fields yet known in the Universe. These amazing sources produce erratic X-ray and gamma-ray bursts, the brightest of which have actually observably impacted the Earth's atmosphere from clear across the Galaxy. In this talk I will review what we know about magnetars, including their observational properties and the current thinking about the physical origins of their dramatic behavior.

  11. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa


    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  12. Changing the picture of Earth's earliest fossils (3.5-1.9 Ga) with new approaches and new discoveries. (United States)

    Brasier, Martin D; Antcliffe, Jonathan; Saunders, Martin; Wacey, David


    New analytical approaches and discoveries are demanding fresh thinking about the early fossil record. The 1.88-Ga Gunflint chert provides an important benchmark for the analysis of early fossil preservation. High-resolution analysis of Gunflintia shows that microtaphonomy can help to resolve long-standing paleobiological questions. Novel 3D nanoscale reconstructions of the most ancient complex fossil Eosphaera reveal features hitherto unmatched in any crown-group microbe. While Eosphaera may preserve a symbiotic consortium, a stronger conclusion is that multicellular morphospace was differently occupied in the Paleoproterozoic. The 3.46-Ga Apex chert provides a test bed for claims of biogenicity of cell-like structures. Mapping plus focused ion beam milling combined with transmission electron microscopy data demonstrate that microfossil-like taxa, including species of Archaeoscillatoriopsis and Primaevifilum, are pseudofossils formed from vermiform phyllosilicate grains during hydrothermal alteration events. The 3.43-Ga Strelley Pool Formation shows that plausible early fossil candidates are turning up in unexpected environmental settings. Our data reveal how cellular clusters of unexpectedly large coccoids and tubular sheath-like envelopes were trapped between sand grains and entombed within coatings of dripstone beach-rock silica cement. These fossils come from Earth's earliest known intertidal to supratidal shoreline deposit, accumulated under aerated but oxygen poor conditions.

  13. Changing the picture of Earth's earliest fossils (3.5-1.9 Ga) with new approaches and new discoveries (United States)

    Brasier, Martin D.; Antcliffe, Jonathan; Saunders, Martin; Wacey, David


    New analytical approaches and discoveries are demanding fresh thinking about the early fossil record. The 1.88-Ga Gunflint chert provides an important benchmark for the analysis of early fossil preservation. High-resolution analysis of Gunflintia shows that microtaphonomy can help to resolve long-standing paleobiological questions. Novel 3D nanoscale reconstructions of the most ancient complex fossil Eosphaera reveal features hitherto unmatched in any crown-group microbe. While Eosphaera may preserve a symbiotic consortium, a stronger conclusion is that multicellular morphospace was differently occupied in the Paleoproterozoic. The 3.46-Ga Apex chert provides a test bed for claims of biogenicity of cell-like structures. Mapping plus focused ion beam milling combined with transmission electron microscopy data demonstrate that microfossil-like taxa, including species of Archaeoscillatoriopsis and Primaevifilum, are pseudofossils formed from vermiform phyllosilicate grains during hydrothermal alteration events. The 3.43-Ga Strelley Pool Formation shows that plausible early fossil candidates are turning up in unexpected environmental settings. Our data reveal how cellular clusters of unexpectedly large coccoids and tubular sheath-like envelopes were trapped between sand grains and entombed within coatings of dripstone beach-rock silica cement. These fossils come from Earth's earliest known intertidal to supratidal shoreline deposit, accumulated under aerated but oxygen poor conditions.

  14. Grid for Earth Science Applications (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst


    decrease uncertainties by increasing the probability of occurrence and to create large database devoted for future satellite instrument. Some limitations are related to the combination of databases-outside the grid infrastructure like ESGF (Earth System Grid Federation) and grid compute resources; and to real-time applications that need resource reservation in order to insure results at given time. However some solutions have been developed. The major lesson we learnt with Grid is the impact of e-collaboration among various scientific technical domains on the development of ES research in Europe.

  15. "Thinking about a Sustainable Earth" (United States)

    Ikeshita, Makoto


    1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the

  16. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.


    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  17. Community Capacity Building as a vital mechanism for enhancing the growth and efficacy of a sustainable scientific software ecosystem: experiences running a real-time bi-coastal "Open Science for Synthesis" Training Institute for young Earth and Environmental scientists (United States)

    Schildhauer, M.; Jones, M. B.; Bolker, B.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Hampton, S. E.; Idaszak, R.; Rebich Hespanha, S.; Ahalt, S.; Christopherson, L.


    Continuing advances in computational capabilities, access to Big Data, and virtual collaboration technologies are creating exciting new opportunities for accomplishing Earth science research at finer resolutions, with much broader scope, using powerful modeling and analytical approaches that were unachievable just a few years ago. Yet, there is a perceptible lag in the abilities of the research community to capitalize on these new possibilities, due to lacking the relevant skill-sets, especially with regards to multi-disciplinary and integrative investigations that involve active collaboration. UC Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), and the University of North Carolina's Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI), were recipients of NSF OCI S2I2 "Conceptualization awards", charged with helping define the needs of the research community relative to enabling science and education through "sustained software infrastructure". Over the course of our activities, a consistent request from Earth scientists was for "better training in software that enables more effective, reproducible research." This community-based feedback led to creation of an "Open Science for Synthesis" Institute— a innovative, three-week, bi-coastal training program for early career researchers. We provided a mix of lectures, hands-on exercises, and working group experience on topics including: data discovery and preservation; code creation, management, sharing, and versioning; scientific workflow documentation and reproducibility; statistical and machine modeling techniques; virtual collaboration mechanisms; and methods for communicating scientific results. All technologies and quantitative tools presented were suitable for advancing open, collaborative, and reproducible synthesis research. In this talk, we will report on the lessons learned from running this ambitious training program, that involved coordinating classrooms among two remote sites, and

  18. Modeling Earth Albedo for Satellites in Earth Orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan; Bak, Thomas


    Many satellite are influences by the Earthøs albedo, though very few model schemes order to predict this phenomenon. Earth albedo is often treated as noise, or ignored completely. When applying solar cells in the attitude hardware, Earth albedo can cause the attitude estimate to deviate...... with as much as 20 deg. Digital Sun sensors with Earth albedo correction in hardware exist, but are expensive. In addition, albedo estimates are necessary in thermal calculations and power budgets. We present a modeling scheme base4d on Eartht reflectance, measured by NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer......, in which the Earth Probe Satellite has recorded reflectivity data daily since mid 1996. The mean of these data can be used to calculate the Earth albedo given the positions of the satellite and the Sun. Our results show that the albedo varies highly with the solar angle to the satellite's field of view...

  19. Mapping Earth's electromagnetic dimensionality (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.


    The form of a magnetotelluric impedance tensor, obtained for a given geographic site through simultaneous measurement of geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation, is affected by electrical conductivity structure beneath the measurement site. Building on existing methods for characterizing the symmetry of magnetotelluric impedance tensors, a simple scalar measure is developed for measuring the (frequency dependent) proportion of the impedance tensor that is not just a one-dimensional (1D) function of depth ("non-1D-ness"). These measures are applied to nearly 1000 impedance tensors obtained during magnetotelluric surveys, those for the continental United States and obtained principally through the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project. Across geomagnetic/geoelectric variational periods ranging from 30 s to 3,000 s, corresponding to crustal and upper mantle depths, it is shown that local Earth structure is very often not simply 1D-depth-dependent - often less than 50% of magnetotelluric impedance is 1D. For selected variational frequencies, non-1D-ness is mapped and the relationship between electromagnetic dimensionality and known geological and tectonic structures is discussed. The importance of using realistic surface impedances to accurately evaluate magnetic-storm geoelectric hazards is emphasized.

  20. Copernicus Earth observation programme (United States)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  1. Diatomaceous Earths - Natural Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Korunić


    Full Text Available The regulatory issues for diatomaceous earth (DE cover three fields: consumer safety,worker safety, and proof of efficacy against pests. For consumer safety, regulatory issuesare similar to those for other additives, and a principal benefit of DEs is their removal bynormal processing methods. For worker safety, regulatory issues are similar to those forother dusts, such as lime. The proof of potential insecticide values of DE may be assessedby using the analysis of physical and chemical properties of DE and its effect on grainproperties and the proof of efficacy may be regulated by bioassay of standard design.Integrated pest management (IPM, a knowledge-based system, is rapidly providing aframework to reduce dependence on synthetic chemical pesticides. The main principleof post-harvest IPM is to prevent problems rather than to react to them. The specificcurative measures using synthetic pesticides should be applied only when infestationoccurs. DE and enhanced diatomaceous earth (EDE formulations hold significant promiseto increase the effectiveness and broaden the adoption of IPM strategies, thereby reducingthe need for synthetic pesticides. By incorporating DE in an effective IPM program,grain is protected against infestation, loss caused by insects is prevented and grain qualityis maintained until the grain is processed. Cases study data on the use of DE for commodityand structural treatment show that DE is already a practical alternative to syntheticpesticides in some applications.

  2. Is dying the earth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Garzon, Gustavo


    December 21 of 1968, on board the capsule Apollo 8, three astronauts, James A. Lovell, Frank Borman and William Anders, went toward what would be the first orbital flight around the moon. That experience like Lovell said, it makes us realize the insignificant that we are in comparison with the vastness of the universe. With the revolution lovelockiane, the life doesn't already consist on a group of organisms only adapted to its atmosphere by a certain action for external laws. The terrestrial environment, instead of being a physical world regulated by own autonomous laws, is part of an evolutionary system that contains the life and that it should to the phenomena vital part of its rules, its mechanisms and components. The alive beings connected to each other and to the atmosphere they manufacture and they maintain of continuous their atmosphere forming an everything at planetary level, according to Ricard Guerrero (1988). The theory of the earth then, he says, it has found their owner Darwin in James lovelock. The document treats topics like the science concept that it is the life, the earth and the contemporary environment

  3. Intelligent Design and Earth History (United States)

    Elders, W. A.


    Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The

  4. The hazard of near-Earth asteroid impacts on earth (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.


    Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have struck the Earth throughout its existence. During epochs when life was gaining a foothold ˜4 Ga, the impact rate was thousands of times what it is today. Even during the Phanerozoic, the numbers of NEAs guarantee that there were other impacts, possibly larger than the Chicxulub event, which was responsible for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions. Astronomers have found over 2500 NEAs of all sizes, including well over half of the estimated 1100 NEAs >1 km diameter. NEAs are mostly collisional fragments from the inner half of the asteroid belt and range in composition from porous, carbonaceous-chondrite-like to metallic. Nearly one-fifth of them have satellites or are double bodies. When the international telescopic Spaceguard Survey, which has a goal of discovering 90% of NEAs >1 km diameter, is completed, perhaps as early as 2008, nearly half of the remaining impact hazard will be from land or ocean impacts by bodies 70-600 m diameter. (Comets are expected to contribute only about 1% of the total risk.) The consequences of impacts for civilization are potentially enormous, but impacts are so rare that worldwide mortality from impacts will have dropped to only about 150 per year (averaged over very long durations) after the Spaceguard goal has, presumably, ruled out near-term impacts by 90% of the most dangerous ones; that is, in the mid-range between very serious causes of death (disease, auto accidents) and minor but frightening ones (like shark attacks). Differences in perception concerning this rather newly recognized hazard dominate evaluation of its significance. The most likely type of impact events we face are hyped or misinterpreted predicted impacts or near-misses involving small NEAs.

  5. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems (United States)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.


    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  6. Jupyter meets Earth: Creating Comprehensible and Reproducible Scientific Workflows with Jupyter Notebooks and Google Earth Engine (United States)

    Erickson, T.


    Deriving actionable information from Earth observation data obtained from sensors or models can be quite complicated, and sharing those insights with others in a form that they can understand, reproduce, and improve upon is equally difficult. Journal articles, even if digital, commonly present just a summary of an analysis that cannot be understood in depth or reproduced without major effort on the part of the reader. Here we show a method of improving scientific literacy by pairing a recently developed scientific presentation technology (Jupyter Notebooks) with a petabyte-scale platform for accessing and analyzing Earth observation and model data (Google Earth Engine). Jupyter Notebooks are interactive web documents that mix live code with annotations such as rich-text markup, equations, images, videos, hyperlinks and dynamic output. Notebooks were first introduced as part of the IPython project in 2011, and have since gained wide acceptance in the scientific programming community, initially among Python programmers but later by a wide range of scientific programming languages. While Jupyter Notebooks have been widely adopted for general data analysis, data visualization, and machine learning, to date there have been relatively few examples of using Jupyter Notebooks to analyze geospatial datasets. Google Earth Engine is cloud-based platform for analyzing geospatial data, such as satellite remote sensing imagery and/or Earth system model output. Through its Python API, Earth Engine makes petabytes of Earth observation data accessible, and provides hundreds of algorithmic building blocks that can be chained together to produce high-level algorithms and outputs in real-time. We anticipate that this technology pairing will facilitate a better way of creating, documenting, and sharing complex analyses that derive information on our Earth that can be used to promote broader understanding of the complex issues that it faces. http://jupyter.org

  7. Chemical composition of Earth's core (United States)

    Saxena, S.


    Many planetary scientists accept that the condensed planetesimals in the solar nebula eventually led to accretion of the earth. The details of the process have not been worked out. From the metallurgical experience, it is assumed that Earth's core may have formed by density differentiation with iron sinking to the core and the slag forming the mantle. This would be a post-accretionary process with temperature developing with self-compression. The problem with this hypothesis was recognized some time ago in that the seismic density profile of the core does not match the density of iron and requires the addition of a light element. Many elements such as Si, O, C and s have been proposed as diluents to decrease the density of a purely iron core. How and when this will be accomplished is still under discussion. Since the planetesimals (or condensates) formed in a well stirred nebula, it may be argued that a variety of condensed solids and fluids may have accreted and compressed without differentiation and the core does not necessarily contain mainly the differentiated iron. It is a matter of accumulating the condensate composition that would result in a density of 12 to 13 g/cm3 in the inner core. Therefore, we need a thermodynamic database that extends to 6000 K over the pressure range of ambient to 360 GPa. The development of such a database is currently in progress. It is a database with multicomponent solutions (C-Fe-Ni-S-Si) and all the major elements in the solar gas. Thermodynamic calculations using a preliminary dataset reveal that the solid species condensed at a temperature of 650 K and a pressure of 0.001 bar pressure, when self-compressed to various pressures and temperatures, yield densities that are appropriate for the mantle and core. Depending on H2/O of the escaping fluid, the formation of hydrous minerals, carbides, carbonates and iron melts with significant other elements have been found. Earth's core may have formed from solar condensate materials

  8. Bringing Earth Magnetism Research into the High School Physics Classroom (United States)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Bluth, G.; Engel, E.; Kurpier, K.; Foucher, M. S.; Anderson, K. L.


    We present our work in progress from an NSF CAREER project that aims to integrate paleomagnetic research and secondary school physics education. The research project is aimed at quantifying the strength and geometry of the Precambrian geomagnetic field. Investigation of the geomagnetic field behavior is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of field generation, and the development of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere, and can serve as a focus for connecting high-level Earth science research with a standard physics curriculum. High school science teachers have participated in each summer field and research component of the project, gaining field and laboratory research experience, sets of rock and mineral samples, and classroom-tested laboratory magnetism activities for secondary school physics and earth science courses. We report on three field seasons of teacher field experiences and two years of classroom testing of paleomagnetic research materials merged into physics instruction on magnetism. Students were surveyed before and after dedicated instruction for both perceptions and attitude towards earth science in general, then more specifically on earth history and earth magnetism. Students were also surveyed before and after instruction on major earth system and magnetic concepts and processes, particularly as they relate to paleomagnetic research. Most students surveyed had a strongly positive viewpoint towards the study of Earth history and the importance of studying Earth Sciences in general, but were significantly less drawn towards more specific topics such as mineralogy and magnetism. Students demonstrated understanding of Earth model and the basics of magnetism, as well as the general timing of life, atmospheric development, and magnetic field development. However, detailed knowledge such as the magnetic dynamo, how the magnetic field has changed over time, and connections between earth magnetism and the development of an atmosphere remained largely

  9. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik


    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  10. Rare earth ferrosilicon alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caiquan, L.; Zeguang, T.; Zaizhang, L.


    In order to obtain RE ferrosilicon alloy with good quality and competitive price, it is essential that proper choice of raw materials, processing technology and equipments should be made based on the characteristics of Bai-Yun-Ebo mineral deposits. Experimental work and actual production practice indicate that pyrometallurgical method is suitable for the extraction and isolation of the rare earths and comprehensive utilization of the metal values contained in the feed material is capable of reducing cost of production of RE ferrosilicon alloy. In the Bai-Yun-Ebo deposit, the fluorite type medium lean ore (with respect to iron content) makes a reserve of considerable size. The average content of the chief constituents are given

  11. Rare earths and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towner, R.R.


    In Australia, which is by far the Western world's largest producer of monazite, production is a by-product of the mineral-sands industry, mainly in the Midlands (Eneabba) and Southwest mineral-sands mining areas of Western Australia, and to a lesser extent on the east coast. Relatively small amounts of xenotime concentrate are a by-product of ilmenite mining in the Capel area of Western Australia. In 1987 a total of 12 813 t commercial-grade monazite was produced. At present monazite is not processed in Australia and all production is exported. In 1987 the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources reassessed Australia's demonstrated resources of monazite upwards to 1.02 Mt, of which 237 800 t is regarded as economic at current prices for monazite, rutile, ilmenite and zircon. Production of rare-earth minerals in other countries is briefly reviewed. 4 tabs

  12. Earth's early biosphere (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.


    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  13. One Day on Earth

    CERN Multimedia


    In collaboration with the CineGlobe Film Festival, the One Day on Earth global film project invites you to share your story of scientific inspiration, scientific endeavors and technological advancement on 11 November 2011 (11.11.11).   Technology in the 21st century continuously inspires us to re-imagine the world. From outer-space to cyberspace, new ideas that we hope will improve the lives of future generations keep us in a state of change. However, these new technologies may alter the nature of our shared existence in ways not yet known. On 11.11.11, we invite you to record the exciting ways that science is a part of your life, together with people around the world who will be documenting their lives on this day of global creation. See for details on how to participate.

  14. Telephony Earth Station (United States)

    Morris, Adrian J.; Kay, Stan

    The Telephony Earth Station (TES), a digital full-mesh SCPC (single channel per carrier) system designed for satellite voice and data transmission is described. As compared to companded FM, the advanced speech compression and forward error correction techniques used by TES better achieve the quality, power, and bandwidth ideal for each application. In addition, the TES offers a fully demand-assigned voice call setup, handles point-to-point data channels, supports a variety of signaling schemes, and does not require any separate pilot receivers at the station, while keeping costs low through innovative technology and packaging. The TES can be used for both C-band and Ku-band (domestic or international) applications, and is configurable either as an VSAT (very small aperture terminal) using an SSPA, or as a larger station depending on the capacity requirements. A centralized DAMA processor and network manager is implemented using a workstation.

  15. Earth System Environmental Literacy (United States)

    Lowman, Margaret

    If every citizen could read the above quote and understand its underlying ecological concepts, economic challenges, social services, and spiritual heritage, then it is likely that sustainability education would be achieved. The notion of a tree and its ecosystem services illustrate sustainability in the simplest yet most robust sense. To plant and grow a tree, economists struggle with volatile currencies; ecologists juggle development and conservation; religious leaders advocate stewardship; and social scientists examine equity in a world of declining resources. Sustainability education requires an integrated approach between ecology, risk analyses, economics, social sciences, biological sciences, political sciences, languages, biotechnology, physical sciences, health sciences, and religion. All these practitioners (and many others) contribute to sustainability education, an emerging discipline that requires an interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge, translated into practice, to insure the future of life on Earth.

  16. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.


    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  17. An analytical treatment for three neutrino oscillations in the Earth (United States)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Supanitsky, A. D.


    A simple, and at the same time accurate, description of the Earth matter effects on the oscillations between three neutrino flavors is given in terms of the Magnus expansion for the evolution operator.

  18. Optimal Impulse conditions for Deflecting Earth Crossing Asteroids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elder, Jeffrey


    .... The solution is based on two dimensional, two body, Earth intersecting elliptical orbits. Given the asteroid eccentricity, time prior to impact and impulse magnitude and direction, an analysis of impulse to minimum separation distance is generated...

  19. Theory of Earth (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.


    Earth is an isolated, cooling planet that obeys the 2nd law. Interior dynamics is driven from the top, by cold sinking slabs. High-resolution broad-band seismology and geodesy has confirmed that mantle flow is characterized by narrow downwellings and ~20 broad slowly rising updrafts. The low-velocity zone (LVZ) consists of a hot melange of sheared peridotite intruded with aligned melt-rich lamellae that are tapped by intraplate volcanoes. The high temperature is a simple consequence of the thermal overshoot common in large bodies of convecting fluids. The transition zone consists of ancient eclogite layers that are displaced upwards by slabs to become broad passive, and cool, ridge feeding updrafts of ambient mantle. The physics that is overlooked in canonical models of mantle dynamics and geochemistry includes; the 2nd law, convective overshoots, subadiabaticity, wave-melt interactions, Archimedes' principle, and kinetics (rapid transitions allow stress-waves to interact with melting and phase changes, creating LVZs; sluggish transitions in cold slabs keep eclogite in the TZ where it warms up by extracting heat from mantle below 650 km, creating the appearance of slab penetration). Canonical chemical geodynamic models are the exact opposite of physics and thermodynamic based models and of the real Earth. A model that results from inverting the assumptions regarding initial and boundary conditions (hot origin, secular cooling, no external power sources, cooling internal boundaries, broad passive upwellings, adiabaticity and whole-mantle convection not imposed, layering and self-organization allowed) results in a thick refractory-yet-fertile surface layer, with ancient xenoliths and cratons at the top and a hot overshoot at the base, and a thin mobile D" layer that is an unlikely plume generation zone. Accounting for the physics that is overlooked, or violated (2nd law), in canonical models, plus modern seismology, undermines the assumptions and conclusions of these

  20. The Past Earth Network (United States)

    Haywood, A.; Voss, J.; Dolan, A. M.; Yorke, E.


    Forecasts of climate rely on model projections, but derivation of sophisticated climate models from first principles is not currently feasible. Therefore, evaluating climate models with observations is essential. The development and improvement of global climate models is currently only based on comparison with and tuning to historical observations of climate (the instrumental record). Models show a range of sensitivities when predicting the future climate response to the emission of greenhouse gases. This indicates that the evaluation of models using observations of historical climate is insufficient. A wide variety of different climate states are recorded in the geological record (spanning greenhouse to icehouse scenarios). The modelling of past climates, in combination with data from the geological record, provides a unique laboratory to evaluate the ability of models to forecast global change. The Past Earth Network is developing a shared, multi-disciplinary vision for addressing the challenges encompassed by the following four network themes: (1) Quantification of error and uncertainty of data: The uncertainties inherent in different forms of climate data must be well-understood. (2) Quantification of uncertainty in complex models: The uncertainties in the output of the (complex and high-dimensional) models in use must be well-understood. (3) Methodologies which enable robust model-data comparison: Appropriate methods for model-data comparison must be used. (4) Forecasting and future climate projections: This theme synthesizes the results from the first three themes in order to assess and ultimately improve the ability of climate models to forecast climate change. By addressing these four challenges, results produced by the Past Earth Network will help to better understand and reduce the uncertainties in climate forecasts and ultimately will contribute to the development of better climate forecasts.

  1. Earth Gravitational Model 2020 (United States)

    Barnes, Daniel; Holmes, Simon; Factor, John; Ingalls, Sarah; Presicci, Manny; Beale, James


    The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency [NGA], in conjunction with its U.S. and international partners, has begun preliminary work on its next Earth Gravitational Model, to replace EGM2008. The new 'Earth Gravitational Model 2020' [EGM2020] has an expected public release date of 2020, and will likely retain the same harmonic basis and resolution as EGM2008. As such, EGM2020 will be essentially an ellipsoidal harmonic model up to degree (n) and order (m) 2159, but will be released as a spherical harmonic model to degree 2190 and order 2159. EGM2020 will benefit from new data sources and procedures. Updated satellite gravity information from the GOCE and GRACE mission, will better support the lower harmonics, globally. Multiple new acquisitions (terrestrial, airborne and ship borne) of gravimetric data over specific geographical areas, will provide improved global coverage and resolution over the land, as well as for coastal and some ocean areas. Ongoing accumulation of satellite altimetry data as well as improvements in the treatment of this data, will better define the marine gravity field, most notably in polar and near-coastal regions. NGA and partners are evaluating different approaches for optimally combining the new GOCE/GRACE satellite gravity models with the terrestrial data. These include the latest methods employing a full covariance adjustment. NGA is also working to assess systematically the quality of its entire gravimetry database, towards correcting biases and other egregious errors where possible, and generating improved error models that will inform the final combination with the latest satellite gravity models. Outdated data gridding procedures have been replaced with improved approaches. For EGM2020, NGA intends to extract maximum value from the proprietary data that overlaps geographically with unrestricted data, whilst also making sure to respect and honor its proprietary agreements with its data-sharing partners. Approved for Public Release

  2. The earth and the moon

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T


    The moon is the only body in the solar system outside of the Earth that has been visited by humans. More than 440 pounds of lunar material are brought by NASA and Soviet space missions to Earth for study. The information gleaned about the moon from this relatively small pile of rocks is mind-boggling and stands as the greatest proof that Martian planetary science would be greatly enhanced by returning samples to Earth. Compositional studies of lunar rocks show that the moon and the Earth are made of similar material, and because lunar material has not been reworked through erosion and plate te


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huigen; Zhang Hui; Zhou Jilin


    Six P-type planets have been found thus far around five binary systems, i.e., Kepler-16b, 34b, 35b, 38b, and 47b and c, which are all Neptune- or Jupiter-like planets. The stability of planets and the habitable zones are influenced by the gravitational and radiative perturbations of binary companions. In this Letter, we check the stability of an additional habitable Earth-mass planet in each system. Based on our simulations in 10 Myr, a habitable ''Earth'' is hardly stable in Kepler-16, while a stable ''Earth'' in Kepler-47 close to the boundaries of the habitable zone is possible. In contrast, Kepler-34, 35, and 38 seem to have high probabilities of being able to tolerante a stable ''Earth'' in their habitable zones. The affects of transit time variations are quite small due to the small mass of an undetected ''Earth,'' except that of Kepler-16b. With a time precision of 10 –3 day (∼88 s), an ''Earth'' in the corotational resonance with Kepler-16b can be detected in three years, while habitable ''Earths'' in the Kepler-34 and 38 systems can be detected in 10 yr. Habitable ''Earths'' in Kepler-35 and 47 are not likely to be detected in 10 yr under this precision.

  4. Pull vs. Push: How OmniEarth Delivers Better Earth Observation Information to Subscribers (United States)

    Fish, C.; Slagowski, S.; Dyrud, L.; Fentzke, J.; Hargis, B.; Steerman, M.


    Until very recently, the commercialization of Earth observation systems has largely occurred in two ways: either through the detuning of government satellites or the repurposing of NASA (or other science) data for commercial use. However, the convergence of cloud computing and low-cost satellites is enabling Earth observation companies to tailor observation data to specific markets. Now, underserved constituencies, such as agriculture and energy, can tap into Earth observation data that is provided at a cadence, resolution and cost that can have a real impact to their bottom line. To connect with these markets, OmniEarth fuses data from a variety of sources, synthesizes it into useful and valuable business information, and delivers it to customers via web or mobile interfaces. The "secret sauce" is no longer about having the highest resolution imagery, but rather it is about using that imagery - in conjunction with a number of other sources - to solve complex problems that require timely and contextual information about our dynamic and changing planet. OmniEarth improves subscribers' ability to visualize the world around them by enhancing their ability to see, analyze, and react to change in real time through a solutions-as-a-service platform.

  5. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model. (United States)

    Nielsen, J Eric; Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M; Douglass, Anne R; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E; Wargan, Krzysztof


    NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided.

  6. The Earth's Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity and Thermal Inertia


    Royce, B. S. H.; Lam, S. H.


    The Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity has received much attention because of its relevance and importance for global warming policymaking. This paper focuses on the Earth's \\emph{thermal inertia time scale} which has received relatively little attention. The difference between the observed transient climate sensitivity and the equilibrium climate sensitivity is shown to be proportional to the thermal inertia time scale, and the numerical value of the proportionality factor is determined...

  7. Verifying the gravitational shift due to the earth's rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briatore, L.; Leschiutta, S.


    Data on various independent time scales kept in different laboratories are elaborated in order to verify the gravitational shift due to the earth's rotation. It is shown that the state of the art in the measurement of time is just now resulting in the possibility to make measurement of Δ t/t approximately 10 -13 . Moreover it is shown an experimental evidence of the earth's rotation relativistic effects

  8. China's rare-earth industry (United States)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan


    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  9. Rare earths 1998 market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourre, J.M.


    The rare earth industry has always been a world of rapid change with the emergence of new markets, new ores and new players, as well as the disappearance of old applications. Rare earth based products are used in a great diversity of applications such as hard disk drives, CD drives, batteries, capacitors, pigments, ceramics, polishing powders, fuel cells, flints, catalyst converter, fluid cracking catalysts, etc. South East Asia holds the largest share of the known reserve of rare earth ores and is one of the major markets for rare earth compounds; in the last ten years, China has become the largest producer of rare earth intermediates as well as an important exporter of separated rare earth elements. Today, China has approximately 150 factories producing rare earth compounds, most of which are experiencing financial difficulties due to the lack of knowledge of true market needs, lack of control of their distribution channels and production over-capacity. Recently the Chinese rare earth producers have recognized the situation and efforts are underway to rationalize rare earth production. Japan has dominated many of the major application markets, and is by far the largest market for metal and alloy products. This will remain the case for the next five years; however, new countries are emerging as significant users of rare earth products such as Korea, Taiwan and Malaysia. During the last ten years rare earth producers adjusted to several radical changes that affected the raw materials, the application mix and the price structure. New producers have emerged, especially from China; some have subsequently stopped their activities while others have focused their efforts in a specific market segment

  10. Anisotropy in the deep Earth (United States)

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf


    and its relation to global mantle circulation, is to link macroscopic information from seismology and microscopic information mineral physics through geodynamics modeling. Anisotropy in the inner core was proposed 30 years ago to explain faster P wave propagation along the direction of the Earth's axis of rotation as well as anomalous splitting of core sensitive free oscillations. There is still uncertainty about the origin of this anisotropy. In particular, it is difficult to explain its strength, based on known elastic properties of iron, as it would require almost perfect alignment of iron crystals. Indeed, the strongly anomalous P travel times observed on paths from the South Sandwich Islands to Alaska may or may not be due to inner core anisotropy, and will need to be explained before consensus can be reached on the strength of anisotropy in the inner core and its origin.

  11. Monitoring of Earth Rotation by VLBI (United States)

    Ma., Chopo; Macmillan, D. S.


    Monitoring Earth rotation with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) has unique potential because of direct access to the Celestial Reference System (CRF and Terrestrial Reference System (TRF) and the feasibility of re-analyzing the entire data set. While formal precision of better than 0.045 mas for pole and 0.002 ms for UT 1 has been seen in the best 24-hr data, the accuracy of the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) time series as a whole is subject to logistical, operational, analytical and conceptual constraints. The current issues related to the VLBI data set and the CORE program for greater time resolution such as analysis consistency, network jitter and reference frame stability will be discussed.

  12. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P


    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  13. Cement stabilized red earth as building block and structural pavement layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Red Earth is most commonly used as material in the building and road construction. Many a times, the red earth found in various quarries is found not suitable for construction. Cement of 4 and 8% of dry mass of red earth was added to improve its suitability as building block and structural pavement material. To know the influence of waste plastic fiber on cement stabilized red earth, 1% fiber was also added to the mixture. It is shown that the compressive strength of cement stabilized red earth blocks was improved with seven days of curing. The addition of cement to red earth enhanced soaked CBR value. The soaked CBR value of fiber reinforced cement stabilized red earth was about 1.3 to 1.5 times that of unreinforced cement stabilized red earth.

  14. JPL Earth Science Center Visualization Multitouch Table (United States)

    Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.; Chang, G.


    JPL Earth Science Center Visualization table is a specialized software and hardware to allow multitouch, multiuser, and remote display control to create seamlessly integrated experiences to visualize JPL missions and their remote sensing data. The software is fully GIS capable through time aware OGC WMTS using Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal as the GIS backend to continuously ingest and retrieve realtime remote sending data and satellite location data. 55 inch and 82 inch unlimited finger count multitouch displays allows multiple users to explore JPL Earth missions and visualize remote sensing data through very intuitive and interactive touch graphical user interface. To improve the integrated experience, Earth Science Center Visualization Table team developed network streaming which allows table software to stream data visualization to near by remote display though computer network. The purpose of this visualization/presentation tool is not only to support earth science operation, but specifically designed for education and public outreach and will significantly contribute to STEM. Our presentation will include overview of our software, hardware, and showcase of our system.

  15. The Earth Clouds and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) Mission and DSCOVR (United States)

    Donovan, D. P.; EarthCARE joint mission advisory Group


    The Earth Clouds and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission is a combined ESA, JAXA mission to be flown in late 2015. It will be a polar sun-synchronous orbiting satellite with an orbit altitude of about 400 km and an equator crossing time of 13:45. EarthCARE's main focus is on providing data for better understanding the Earth's radiative balance. In order to do this, EarthCARE will carry four instruments: -A High Spectral resolution 355nm cloud/aerosol lidar(ATLID) -A 35 GHz cloud radar (CPR) -A multi-spectral imager (MSI) [0.67, 0.86, 1.65, 2.21, 8.8, 10.8, 12.0 um] -A long- and short-wave 3 view Broad-Band Radiometer (BBR) EarthCARE has been designed from the ground-up with the ideas of sensor-synergy playing a major role. For example, variational based retrievals are being developed which combine ATLID, CPR and MSI measurements in order to obtain `best-estimates' of 3-D cloud and aerosol properties on the 1-km scale. These fields will then be used as input to radiative transfer codes in order to predict TOA radiances and fluxes on the 10km scale. The predicted radiances will the then be compared against the actual BBR measurements. So far, the development of synergetic algorithms and data products has been limited to the EarthCARE instruments themselves. However, during the period of mission overlap between DISCOVR and EarthCARE, several useful opportunities for inter-platform synergy exist. The unique viewing geometry of DISCOVR means that data from any daytime EarthCARE orbit can be matched to DISCOVR observations. This opens up, for example, the possibility of both platforms benefiting from sharing of different broad-band radiance views. The lidar and radar measurements of cloud and aerosol vertical structure will also be a valuable source of data which can be used to evaluate the passive measurements of cloud height and optical thickness made by DSCOVR. In this presentation an overview of EarthCARE will be given. As well some preliminary ideas regarding how

  16. Heterogeneity of an earth (United States)

    Litvinova, T.; Petrova, A.


    The study of magnetic anomaly field structure of the Barents Sea water area along seismic and extended profiles intersecting known fields is carried out. Geomagnetic and density sections down to 40 km depth are constructed. This allowed the estimation of heterogeneities of the Barents Sea water area deep structure. The analysis of geomagnetic and density sections along extended profiles showed the confinedness of oil-and-gas bearing provinces to deep permeable zones characterized by reduced magnetic and density features. Based on the analysis of permeable zones, regional diagnostic features similar to those obtained earlier in oil-and-gas bearing provinces in other regions, for example, in Timan-Pechora, Volga-Urals and Siberian, as well as in the Northern and Norwegian seas water areas, are revealed. The analysis of magnetic and gravity fields over the region area allowed the delineation of weakened zones as intersection areas of weakly magnetic areals with reduced density. Within the Barents Sea water area, permeable areas with lenticular-laminated structure of the upper and lower Earth's crust containing weakly magnetic areals with reduced rock density within the depth range of 8-12 and 15-20 km are revealed. Such ratio of magnetic and density heterogeneities in the Earth's crust is characteristic for zones with proved oil-and-gas content in the European part of the Atlantic Ocean water area. North Kildin field on 1 AR profile is confined to a trough with thick weakly magnetic stratum discontinuously traced to a depth of 6-10 km. At a depth of approximately 15 km, a lens of weakly magnetic and porous formations is observed. Ludlov field in the North Barents trough is confined to a zone of weakly magnetic rocks with reduced density traced to a depth of 8-9 km. Deeper, at Н=15 km, a lenticular areal of weakly magnetic formations with reduced density is observed. The profile transecting the Stockman field shows that it is located in the central part of a permeable

  17. DISCUS Ninth Grade, Earth Science. (United States)

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL. Project DISCUS.

    Included are instructional materials designed for use with disadvantaged students who have a limited reading ability and poor command of English. The guide is the first volume of a two volume, one year program in earth science, and contains these four units and activities: Earth Materials, 8 activities; Weather, 10 activities; Water, 4 activities;…

  18. Teaching Waves with Google Earth (United States)

    Logiurato, Fabrizio


    Google Earth is a huge source of interesting illustrations of various natural phenomena. It can represent a valuable tool for science education, not only for teaching geography and geology, but also physics. Here we suggest that Google Earth can be used for introducing in an attractive way the physics of waves. (Contains 9 figures.)

  19. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd


    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  20. Annual review of earth and planetary sciences. Volume 16 (United States)

    Wetherill, George W.; Albee, Arden L.; Stehli, Francis G.

    Various papers on earth and planetary science topics are presented. The subjects addressed include: role and status of earth science field work; phase relations of prealuminous granitic rocks and their petrogenetic implications; chondritic meteorites and the solar nebula; volcanic winters; mass wasting on continental margins; earthquake ground motions; ore deposits as guides to geologic history of the earth; geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal; and tectonic evolution of the Caribbean. Also discussed are: the earth's rotation; the geophysics of a restless caldera (Long Valley, California); observations of cometary nuclei; geology of Venus; seismic stratigraphy; in situ-produced cosmogenic isotopes in terrestrial rocks; time variations of the earth's magnetic field; deep slabs, geochemical heterogeneity, and the large-scale structure of mantle convection; early proterozoic assembly and growth of Laurentia; concepts and methods of high-resolution event stratigraphy.

  1. Integrated Earth System Model (iESM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The iESM is a simulation code that represents the physical and biological aspects of Earth's climate system, and also includes the macro-economic and demographic properties of human societies. The human aspect of the simulation code is focused in particular on the effects of human activities on land use and land cover change, but also includes aspects such as energy economies. The time frame for predictions with iESM is approximately 1970 through 2100.

  2. Rotation of a Moonless Earth (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Barnes, Jason W.; Chambers, John E.


    We numerically explore the obliquity (axial tilt) variations of a hypothetical moonless Earth. Previous work has shown that the Earth's Moon stabilizes Earth's obliquity such that it remains within a narrow range, between 22.1 deg and 24.5 deg. Without lunar influence, a frequency-map analysis by Laskar et al. showed that the obliquity could vary between 0 deg. and 85 deg. This has left an impression in the astrobiology community that a large moon is necessary to maintain a habitable climate on an Earth-like planet. Using a modified version of the orbital integrator mercury, we calculate the obliquity evolution for moonless Earths with various initial conditions for up to 4 Gyr. We find that while obliquity varies significantly more than that of the actual Earth over 100,000 year timescales, the obliquity remains within a constrained range, typically 20-25 deg. in extent, for timescales of hundreds of millions of years. None of our Solar System integrations in which planetary orbits behave in a typical manner show obliquity accessing more than 65% of the full range allowed by frequency-map analysis. The obliquities of moonless Earths that rotate in the retrograde direction are more stable than those of pro-grade rotators. The total obliquity range explored for moonless Earths with rotation periods shorter than 12 h is much less than that for slower-rotating moonless Earths. A large moon thus does not seem to be needed to stabilize the obliquity of an Earth-like planet on timescales relevant to the development of advanced life.

  3. Energy Budget: Earth's Most Important and Least Appreciated Planetary Attribute (United States)

    Chambers, Lin; Bethea, Katie


    The energy budget involves more than one kind of energy. People can sense this energy in different ways, depending on what type of energy it is. We see visible light using our eyes. We feel infrared energy using our skin (such as around a campfire). We know some species of animals can see ultraviolet light and portions of the infrared spectrum. NASA satellites use instruments that can "see" different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum to observe various processes in the Earth system, including the energy budget. The Sun is a very hot ball of plasma emitting large amounts of energy. By the time it reaches Earth, this energy amounts to about 340 Watts for every square meter of Earth on average. That's almost 6 60-Watt light bulbs for every square meter of Earth! With all of that energy shining down on the Earth, how does our planet maintain a comfortable balance that allows a complex ecosystem, including humans, to thrive? The key thing to remember is the Sun - hot though it is - is a tiny part of Earth's environment. Earth's energy budget is a critical but little understood aspect of our planetary home. NASA is actively studying this important Earth system feature, and sharing data and knowledge about it with the education community.

  4. Recent Advances in Geospatial Visualization with the New Google Earth (United States)

    Anderson, J. C.; Poyart, E.; Yan, S.; Sargent, R.


    Google Earth's detailed, world-wide imagery and terrain data provide a rich backdrop for geospatial visualization at multiple scales, from global to local. The Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an open standard that has been the primary way for users to author and share data visualizations in Google Earth. Despite its ease of use and flexibility for relatively small amounts of data, users can quickly run into difficulties and limitations working with large-scale or time-varying datasets using KML in Google Earth. Recognizing these challenges, we present our recent work toward extending Google Earth to be a more powerful data visualization platform. We describe a new KML extension to simplify the display of multi-resolution map tile pyramids - which can be created by analysis platforms like Google Earth Engine, or by a variety of other map tile production pipelines. We also describe how this implementation can pave the way to creating novel data visualizations by leveraging custom graphics shaders. Finally, we present our investigations into native support in Google Earth for data storage and transport formats that are well-suited for big raster and vector data visualization. Taken together, these capabilities make it easier to create and share new scientific data visualization experiences using Google Earth, and simplify the integration of Google Earth with existing map data products, services, and analysis pipelines.

  5. Earth Radiation Array (ERA). [for climate research and earth radiation budget monitoring (United States)

    Hoffman, James W.; Grush, Ronald C.; Arking, Albert


    The NASA's Earth Radiation Array (ERA), which is currently being developed to provide calibrated radiation measurements from various areas of the earth for at least 11 years, i.e., one solar cycle, contains a mosaic array of detectors which measures the outgoing radiation of the earth in all directions without the need for mechanical scanning. The angular measurements obtained by the ERA over set intervals of time will be integrated to produce total reflected and emitted flux values from each of the target areas. The ERA is designed as a relatively small instrument (less than 1-cu-m volume and 100-kg mass), which can be included in the payload complement of many different satellites. The key requirement of the ERA is the ability to operate for up to 11 years continuously and without failure.

  6. In search of future earths: assessing the possibility of finding Earth analogues in the later stages of their habitable lifetimes. (United States)

    O'Malley-James, Jack T; Greaves, Jane S; Raven, John A; Cockell, Charles S


    Earth will become uninhabitable within 2-3 Gyr as a result of the increasing luminosity of the Sun changing the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ). Predictions about the future of habitable conditions on Earth include declining species diversity and habitat extent, ocean loss, and changes to geochemical cycles. Testing these predictions is difficult, but the discovery of a planet that is an analogue to future Earth could provide the means to test them. This planet would need to have an Earth-like biosphere history and to be approaching the inner edge of the HZ at present. Here, we assess the possibility of finding such a planet and discuss the benefits of analyzing older Earths. Finding an old-Earth analogue in nearby star systems would be ideal, because this would allow for atmospheric characterization. Hence, as an illustrative example, G stars within 10 pc of the Sun are assessed as potential old-Earth-analog hosts. Six of these represent good potential hosts. For each system, a hypothetical Earth analogue is placed at locations within the continuously habitable zone (CHZ) that would allow enough time for Earth-like biosphere development. Surface temperature evolution over the host star's main sequence lifetime (assessed by using a simple climate model) is used to determine whether the planet would be in the right stage of its late-habitable lifetime to exhibit detectable biosignatures. The best candidate, in terms of the chances of planet formation in the CHZ and of biosignature detection, is 61 Virginis. However, planet formation studies suggest that only a small fraction (0.36%) of G stars in the solar neighborhood could host an old-Earth analogue. If the development of Earth-like biospheres is rare, requiring a sequence of low-probability events to occur, biosphere evolution models suggest they are rarer still, with only thousands being present in the Galaxy as a whole.

  7. Modeling the Earth system in the Mission to Planet Earth era (United States)

    Unninayar, Sushel; Bergman, Kenneth H.


    A broad overview is made of global earth system modeling in the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) era for the multidisciplinary audience encompassed by the Global Change Research Program (GCRP). Time scales of global system fluctuation and change are described in Section 2. Section 3 provides a rubric for modeling the global earth system, as presently understood. The ability of models to predict the future state of the global earth system and the extent to which their predictions are reliable are covered in Sections 4 and 5. The 'engineering' use of global system models (and predictions) is covered in Section 6. Section 7 covers aspects of an increasing need for improved transform algorithms and better methods to assimilate this information into global models. Future monitoring and data requirements are detailed in Section 8. Section 9 covers the NASA-initiated concept 'Mission to Planet Earth,' which employs space and ground based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. Section 10 concludes this review with general remarks concerning the state of global system modeling and observing technology and the need for future research.

  8. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes. (United States)

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D


    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500 Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments.

  9. Sun-Earth Day: Exposing the Public to Sun-Earth Connection Science (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.


    's lives will be shown. Next year, 2002, Sun-Earth Day is planned for March 20, the solar equinox. Many arrangements have already been made and a variety of new approaches will be used to make the events of the day even more widespread and visible. The number of packets of materials will be increased. There will be TV programs and webcasts created specifically for Sun-Earth Day. Native American relationships and interactions with the Sun will be an underlying theme. As always, the involvement of AGU scientists is the highlight of many of the planned programs. Come listen to the variety of ways that you can get involved, many requiring very little in time commitment or preparation, yet providing a major boost to keeping the value of science in the minds of the general public.

  10. Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues (United States)

    Habib, Shahid


    Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the

  11. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, Patrik L; Stocker, Thomas F


    As long as global CO 2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max ) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3–7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7–25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%–80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%–18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015–2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes. (letter)

  12. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation (United States)

    Pfister, Patrik L.; Stocker, Thomas F.


    As long as global CO2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3-7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7-25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%-80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%-18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015-2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes.

  13. Our Sustainable Earth (United States)

    Orbach, Raymond L.


    Recent evidence demonstrates that the Earth has been warming monotonically since 1980. Transient to equilibrium temperature changes take centuries to develop, as the upper levels of the ocean are slow to respond to atmospheric temperature changes. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations, from ice core and observatory measurements, display consistent increases from historical averages, beginning in about 1880. They can be associated with the use of coal ecause of the spread of the industrial revolution from Great Britain to the European continent and beyond. The climactic consequence of this human-dominated increase in atmospheric CO2 has been suggested to define a geologic epoch, termed the ``Anthropocene.'' This could be a short term, relatively minor change in global climate, or an extreme deviation that lasts for thousands of years. In order to stabilize global temperatures, sharp reductions in CO2 emissions are required: an 80% reduction beginning in 2050. U.S. emissions have declined sharply recently because of market conditions leading to the substitution of natural gas for coal for electricity generation. Whether this is the best use for this resource may be questioned, but it nevertheless reduces CO2 production by 67% from a coal-fired power plant, well on the way to the 80% reduction required for global temperature stabilization. Current methods for CO2 capture and storage are not cost effective, and have been slow (if not absent) to introduce at scale. This paper describes research into some potentially economically feasible approaches: cost-effective capture and storage of CO2 from injection of flue gas into subterranean methane-saturated aquifers at the surface; fuels from sunlight without CO2 production; and large-scale electrical energy storage for intermittent (and even constant) electricity generating sources.

  14. Experiencing Earth's inaudible symphony (United States)

    Marlton, Graeme; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Harrison, Giles; Robson, Juliet


    Everyday the human body is exposed to thousands of different sounds; smartphones, music, cars and overhead aircraft to name a few. There are some sounds however which we cannot hear as they are below our range of hearing, sound at this level is known as infrasound and is of very low frequency. Such examples of infrasound are the sounds made by glaciers and volcanos, distant mining activities and the sound of the ocean. These sounds are emitted by these sources constantly all over the world and are recorded at infrasound stations, thus providing a recording of Earth's inaudible symphony. The aim of this collaboration between artists and scientists is to create a proof of concept immersive experience in which members of the public are invited to experience and understand infrasound. Participants will sit in an installation and be shown images of natural infrasound sources whilst their seat is vibrated at with an amplitude modulated version of the original infrasound wave. To further enhance the experience, subwoofers will play the same amplitude modulated soundwave to place the feeling of the infrasound wave passing through the installation. Amplitude modulation is performed so that a vibration is played at a frequency that can be felt by the human body but its amplitude varies at the frequency of the infrasound wave. The aim of the project is to see how humans perceive sounds that can't be heard and many did not know were there. The second part of the project is educational in which that this installation can be used to educate the general public about infrasound and its scientific uses. A simple demonstration for this session could be the playing of amplitude modulated infrasound wave that can be heard as opposed to felt as the transport of an installation at this is not possible and the associated imagery.

  15. The earth's shape and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T


    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  16. Recent Observations and Simulations of the Sun-Earth System (United States)

    Jordanova, Vania; Roussev, Ilia


    Grand Hotel Varna, Bulgaria, 17-22 September 2006; ISROSES: International Symposium on Recent Observations and Simulations of the Sun-Earth System; Important challenges for solar-terrestrial physics research are to advance our understanding of the Sun-Earth system (SES) and to develop models to the level where timely and accurate predictions of space weather can be made that result in benefits to society. As more advanced technologies are placed into the space environment, our need to forecast space weather becomes more urgent. To achieve such a goal, an integrated understanding of the physical processes of the coupled Sun-Earth system must be developed.

  17. Cosmic Influence on the Sun-Earth Environment


    Mukherjee, Saumitra


    SOHO satellite data reveals geophysical changes before sudden changes in the Earth's Sun-Earth environment. The influence of extragalactic changes on the Sun as well as the Sun-Earth environment seems to be both periodic and episodic. The periodic changes in terms of solar maxima and minima occur every 11 years, whereas the episodic changes can happen at any time. Episodic changes can be monitored by cosmic ray detectors as a sudden increase or decrease of activity. During these solar and cos...

  18. Passive margins through earth history (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.


    Passive margins have existed somewhere on Earth almost continually since 2740 Ma. They were abundant at 1900-1890, 610-520, and 150-0 Ma, scarce at ca. 2445-2300, 1600-1000, and 300-275 Ma, and absent before ca. 3000 Ma and at 1740-1600. The fluctuations in abundance of passive margins track the first-order fluctuations of the independently derived seawater 87Sr/ 86Sr secular curve, and the compilation thus appears to be robust. The 76 ancient passive margins for which lifespans could be measured have a mean lifespan of 181 m.y. The world-record holder, with a lifespan of 590 m.y., is the Mesoproterozoic eastern margin of the Siberian craton. Subdivided into natural age groups, mean lifespans are 186 m.y. for the Archean to Paleoproterozoic, 394 m.y. for the Mesoproterozoic, 180 m.y. for the Neoproterozoic, 137 m.y. for the Cambrian to Carboniferous, and 130 m.y. for the Permian to Neogene. The present-day passive margins, which are not yet finished with their lifespans, have a mean age of 104 m.y. and a maximum age of 180 m.y. On average, Precambrian margins thus had longer, not shorter, lifespans than Phanerozoic ones—and this remains the case even discounting all post-300 Ma margins, most of which have time left. Longer lifespans deeper in the past is at odds with the widely held notion that the tempo of plate tectonics was faster in the Precambrian than at present. It is entirely consistent, however, with recent modeling by Korenaga [Korenaga, J., 2004. Archean geodynamics and thermal evolution of Earth. Archean Geodynamics and Environments, AGU Geophysical Monograph Series 164, 7-32], which showed that plate tectonics was more sluggish in the Precambrian. The abundance of passive margins clearly tracks the assembly, tenure, and breakup of Pangea. Earlier parts of the hypothesized supercontinent cycle, however, are only partly consistent with the documented abundance of passive margins. The passive-margin record is not obviously consistent with the proposed

  19. Earth Observations: Experiences from Various Communication Strategies (United States)

    Lilja Bye, Bente


    With Earth observations and the Group of Earth Observations as the common thread, a variety of communication strategies have been applied showcasing the use of Earth observations in geosciences such as climate change, natural hazards, hydrology and more. Based on the experiences from these communication strategies, using communication channels ranging from popular articles in established media, video production, event-based material and social media, lessons have been learned both with respect to the need of capacity, skills, networks, and resources. In general it is not difficult to mobilize geoscientists willing to spend some time on outreach activities. Time for preparing and training is however scarce among scientists. In addition, resources to cover the various aspects of professional science outreach is far from abundant. Among the challenges is the connection between the scientific networks and media channels. Social media competence and capacity are also issues that needs to be addressed more explicitly and efficiently. An overview of the experiences from several types of outreach activities will be given along with some input on possible steps towards improved communication strategies. Steady development of science communication strategies continuously integrating trainging of scientists in use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community.

  20. Earth's energy imbalance and implications (United States)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; von Schuckmann, K.


    wavelengths. This added opacity causes the planet's heat radiation to space to arise from higher, colder levels in the atmosphere, thus reducing emission of heat energy to space. The temporary imbalance between the energy absorbed from the sun and heat emission to space, causes the planet to warm until planetary energy balance is restored. The planetary energy imbalance caused by a change of atmospheric composition defines a climate forcing. Climate sensitivity, the eventual global temperature change per unit forcing, is known with good accuracy from Earth's paleoclimate history. However, two fundamental uncertainties limit our ability to predict global temperature change on decadal time scales. First, although climate forcing by human-made greenhouse gases (GHGs) is known accurately, climate forcing caused by changing human-made aerosols is practically unmeasured. Aerosols are fine particles suspended in the air, such as dust, sulfates, and black soot (Ramanathan et al., 2001). Aerosol climate forcing is complex, because aerosols both reflect solar radiation to space (a cooling effect) and absorb solar radiation (a warming effect). In addition, atmospheric aerosols can alter cloud cover and cloud properties. Therefore, precise composition-specific measurements of aerosols and their effects on clouds are needed to assess the aerosol role in climate change. Second, the rate at which Earth's surface temperature approaches a new equilibrium in response to a climate forcing depends on how efficiently heat perturbations are mixed into the deeper ocean. Ocean mixing is complex and not necessarily simulated well by climate models. Empirical data on ocean heat uptake are improving rapidly, but still suffer limitations. We summarize current understanding of this basic physics of global warming and note observations needed to narrow uncertainties. Appropriate measurements can quantify the major factors driving climate change, reveal how much additional global warming is already in the

  1. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock (United States)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; hide


    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  2. Superhydrophobic surfaces engineered using diatomaceous earth. (United States)

    Oliveira, Nuno M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F


    We present a simple method to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces using siliceous exoskeleton of diatoms, a widespread group of algae. This makes diatomaceous earth an accessible and cheap natural material. A micro/nanoscale hierarchical topography was achieved by coating a glass surface with diatomaceous earth, giving rise to a superhydrophilic surface. Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained by a further surface chemical modification through fluorosilanization. The wettability of the superhydrophobic surface can be modified by Argon plasma treatment in a controlled way by exposure time variation. The chemical surface modification by fluorosilanization and posterior fluorinated SH surface modification by plasma treatment was analyzed by XPS. Using appropriated hollowed masks only specific areas on the surface were exposed to plasma permitting to pattern hydrophilic features with different geometries on the superhydrophobic surface. We showed that the present strategy can be also applied in other substrates, including thermoplastics, enlarging the potential applicability of the resulting surfaces.

  3. A seasonal climate model for earth (United States)

    North, G. R.; Coakley, J. A.


    A simple seasonal climate model for earth is developed on the basis of a few terms extracted from monthly and zonally averaged climatic data fields represented in latitude by Legendre polynomials and in time by Fourier series. This simple, physically motivated model accounts for the gross features of the present zonally averaged seasonal climate (root mean square error of two deg C). The sensitivities of the seasonal model and a corresponding mean annual model are approximately equal if ice and snow lines (for albedo purposes) are attached to certain mean-annual and instantaneous isotherms. More dynamics (in particular, cryospheric) are needed in the seasonal model to explain the relationship between glacial rhythms and changes in the earth's orbital elements.

  4. Rapidly changing flows in the Earth's core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, M.


    field occurring over only a few months, indicative of fluid flow at the top of the core, can in fact be resolved. Using nine years of magnetic field data obtained by satellites as well as Earth-based observatories, we determine the temporal changes in the core magnetic field and flow in the core. We......A large part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by fluid motion in the molten outer core(1). As a result of continuous satellite measurements since 1999, the core magnetic field and its recent variations can now be described with a high resolution in space and time(2). These data have...... recently been used to investigate small-scale core flow(3,4), but no advantage has yet been taken of the improved temporal resolution, partly because the filtering effect of the electrically conducting mantle was assumed to mask short-period magnetic variations(5). Here we show that changes in the magnetic...

  5. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID


    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  6. Rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasgnier, M.


    The review deals with pure rare earth materials such as rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films. Several preparation techniques, control methods, and nature of possible contaminations of thin films are described. These films can now be produced in an extremely well-known state concerning chemical composition, structure and texture. Structural, electric, magnetic, and optical properties of thin films are studied and discussed in comparison with the bulk state. The greatest contamination of metallic rare earth thin films is caused by reaction with hydrogen or with water vapour. The compound with an f.c.c. structure is the dihydride LnH 2 (Ln = lanthanides). The oxygen contamination takes place after annealing at higher temperatures. Then there appears a compound with a b.c.c. structure which is the C-type sesquioxide C-Ln 2 O 3 . At room atmosphere dihydride light rare earth thin films are converted to hydroxide Ln(OH) 3 . For heavy rare earth thin films the oxinitride LnNsub(x)Osub(y) is observed. The LnO-type compound was never seen. The present review tries to set the stage anew for the investigations to be undertaken in the future especially through the new generations of electron microscopes

  7. Safety aspects in rare earths recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.


    Recovery of rare earths involves mining of beach sands, mineral separation to obtain monazite and its chemical processing to obtain rare earth composites. The composites are then subjected to further chemical treatment to obtain individual rare earths. Although the separated out rare earths are not radioactive, the process for recovery of rare earths involve both radiological as well as conventional hazards. This paper highlights the safety aspects in the mining, mineral separation and chemical processing of monazite to obtain rare earths

  8. Earth Charter and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippi, Sidney


    The chapter presents Earth Charter, where are listed the principles in 4 sections: 1) respect and take care of the life community; 2) environmental integrity; social and economic welfare; 4) democracy, no-violence and peace

  9. Encyclopedia of earth system science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nierenberg, William Aaron


    .... The very diversity of the articles attests to the complexity of earth system science as a unique interdisciplinary venture to place humanity in a position to move wisely to protect the global habitat...

  10. Earth Day Illustrated Haiku Contest (United States)


    As part of their 2007 Chemists Celebrate Earth Day Celebration, the American Chemical Society is sponsoring an illustrated haiku contest for students in grades K 12 around the theme, Recycling—Chemistry Can!

  11. Earth Science Education in Morocco (United States)

    Bouabdelli, Mohamed


    The earth sciences are taught in twelve universities in Morocco and in three other institutions. In addition there are three more earth science research institutions. Earth science teaching has been taking place since 1957. The degree system is a four-year degree, split into two two-year blocks and geology is taught within the geology-biology programme for the first part of the degree. 'Classical' geology is taught in most universities, although applied geology degrees are also on offer in some universities. Recently-formed technical universities offer a more innovative approach to Earth Science Education. Teaching is in French, although school education is in Arabic. There is a need for a reform of the curriculum, although a lead is being taken by the technical universities. A new geological mapping programme promises new geological and mining discoveries in the country and prospects of employment for geology graduates.

  12. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.


    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  13. Process for rare earth separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, A.; Le Loarer, J.L.


    Separation process of neodymium and eventually praseodymium from rare earths contained in fluocarbonated ores and especially bastnaesite by calcination, leaching with nitric acid and liquid-liquid extraction [fr

  14. Children's knowledge of the Earth (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia


    Children everywhere are fascinated by the sky, stars and Sun. Emerging evidence from cultures throughout the world suggests that even young children can acquire knowledge of the Earth and its place in the Universe.

  15. The Earth Data Analytic Services (EDAS) Framework (United States)

    Maxwell, T. P.; Duffy, D.


    Faced with unprecedented growth in earth data volume and demand, NASA has developed the Earth Data Analytic Services (EDAS) framework, a high performance big data analytics framework built on Apache Spark. This framework enables scientists to execute data processing workflows combining common analysis operations close to the massive data stores at NASA. The data is accessed in standard (NetCDF, HDF, etc.) formats in a POSIX file system and processed using vetted earth data analysis tools (ESMF, CDAT, NCO, etc.). EDAS utilizes a dynamic caching architecture, a custom distributed array framework, and a streaming parallel in-memory workflow for efficiently processing huge datasets within limited memory spaces with interactive response times. EDAS services are accessed via a WPS API being developed in collaboration with the ESGF Compute Working Team to support server-side analytics for ESGF. The API can be accessed using direct web service calls, a Python script, a Unix-like shell client, or a JavaScript-based web application. New analytic operations can be developed in Python, Java, or Scala (with support for other languages planned). Client packages in Python, Java/Scala, or JavaScript contain everything needed to build and submit EDAS requests. The EDAS architecture brings together the tools, data storage, and high-performance computing required for timely analysis of large-scale data sets, where the data resides, to ultimately produce societal benefits. It is is currently deployed at NASA in support of the Collaborative REAnalysis Technical Environment (CREATE) project, which centralizes numerous global reanalysis datasets onto a single advanced data analytics platform. This service enables decision makers to compare multiple reanalysis datasets and investigate trends, variability, and anomalies in earth system dynamics around the globe.

  16. How to Cloud for Earth Scientists: An Introduction (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris


    This presentation is a tutorial on getting started with cloud computing for the purposes of Earth Observation datasets. We first discuss some of the main advantages that cloud computing can provide for the Earth scientist: copious processing power, immense and affordable data storage, and rapid startup time. We also talk about some of the challenges of getting the most out of cloud computing: re-organizing the way data are analyzed, handling node failures and attending.

  17. Rare-earth elements (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.


    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  18. Solar influence on Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik


    An increasing number of studies indicate that variations in solar activity have had a significant influence on Earth's climate. However, the mechanisms responsible for a solar influence are still not known. One possibility is that atmospheric transparency is influenced by changing cloud properties...... and thereby influence the radiative properties of clouds. If the GCR-Cloud link is confirmed variations in galactic cosmic ray flux, caused by changes in solar activity and the space environment, could influence Earth's radiation budget....

  19. Rare earth industries: Downstream business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The value chain of the rare earths business involves mining, extraction, processing, refining and the manufacture of an extensive range of downstream products which find wide applications in such industries including aerospace, consumer electronics, medical, military, automotive, renewable wind and solar energy and telecommunications. In fact the entire gamut of the high-tech industries depends on a sustainable supply of rare earths elements. The explosive demand in mobile phones is an excellent illustration of the massive potential that the rare earths business offers. In a matter of less than 20 years, the number of cell phones worldwide has reached a staggering 5 billion. Soon, going by the report of their growth in sales, the world demand for cell phones may even exceed the global population. Admittedly, the rare earths business does pose certain risks. Top among the risks are the health and safety risks. The mining, extraction and refining of rare earths produce residues and wastes which carry health and safety risks. The residues from the extraction and refining are radioactive, while their effluent waste streams do pose pollution risks to the receiving rivers and waterways. But, as clearly elaborated in a recent report by IAEA experts, there are technologies and systems available to efficiently mitigate such risks. The risks are Rare Earth manageable. However, it is crucial that the risk and waste management procedures are strictly followed and adhered to. This is where effective monitoring and surveillance throughout the life of all such rare earths facilities is crucial. Fortunately, Malaysia's regulatory standards on rare earths follow international standards. In some areas, Malaysia's regulatory regime is even more stringent than the international guidelines. (author)

  20. The carbon budget and its delivery way to the Earth (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Yang, Y.


    The carbon budget in the Earth interior is currently not well constrained. The estimates of bulk silicate Earth (BSE) carbon inventory vary more than one order of magnitude, e.g. 20-765 ppm. Besides, based on various indirect methods, the carbon inventory in the Earth's core has been estimated from 0.1 to 9.16 wt.% of the mass of core. Furthermore, how and when carbon was delivered to the Earth is still an open question. The timing of carbon delivery to the Earth has different consequences. If the agents of carbon delivery arrived before the cease of Earth's core formation, most of carbon would have the opportunity to pass through the magma ocean and enter the Earth's core, according to the results of equilibrium carbon partitioning experiments. Otherwise, the delivery is just a part of late veneer contributions and the carbon can hardly go into the Earth's core. Another possible scenario is that carbon could directly be delivered into the core by incoming embryos during fierce impact events. Recently, using isotope signals to solve budget problems of the Earth's interior reservoirs becomes an alternative way. Here, equilibrium carbon isotope fractionation factors of almost all kinds of carbon-bearing species in the deep Earth are provided by first-principles MD methods. Silicate melts and iron melts are directly studied for the first time, and they are tremendously different from carbon-bearing crystalline analogues, which were previously used to represent melts. Interestingly, the new carbon isotope fractionation results cannot compromise the equilibrium or Rayleigh distillation isotope fractionation way of mantle-core differentiation process during magma ocean period. Unless the major part of carbon was delivered by one or more giant impacts, and the incoming planetary embryos have similar chemistry with Mars and about 1 - 2 times of its mass. Such information is urgently needed for the study of Moon-forming giant impact. If using additional constraints from S

  1. Atmospheric Expression of Seasonality on the Early Earth and Earth-like Exoplanets (United States)

    Olson, S. L.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Reinhard, C. T.; Ridgwell, A.; Lyons, T. W.


    Biologically modulated seasonality impacts nearly every chemical constituent of Earth's atmosphere. For example, seasonal shifts in the balance of photosynthesis and respiration manifest as striking oscillation in the atmospheric abundance of CO2 and O2. Similar temporal variability is likely on other inhabited worlds, and seasonality is often regarded as a potential exoplanetary biosignature. Seasonality is a particularly intriguing biosignature because it may allow us to identify life through the abundance of spectrally active gases that are not uniquely biological in origin (e.g., CO2 or CH4). To date, however, the discussion of seasonality as a biosignature has been exclusively qualitative. We lack both quantitative constraints on the likelihood of spectrally detectable seasonality elsewhere and a framework for evaluating potential false positive scenarios (e.g., seasonal CO2 ice sublimation). That is, we do not yet know for which gases, and under which conditions, we could expect to detect seasonality and reliably infer the presence of an active biosphere. The composition of Earth's atmosphere has changed dramatically through time, and consequently, the atmospheric expression of seasonality has necessarily changed throughout Earth history as well. Thus, Earth offers several case studies for examining the potential for observable seasonality on chemically and tectonically diverse exoplanets. We outline an approach for exploring the history of seasonality on Earth via coupled biogeochemical and photochemical models, with particular emphasis on the seasonal cycles of CO2, CH4, and O2/O3. We also discuss the remote detectability of these seasonal signals on directly imaged exoplanets via reflectance and emission spectra. We suggest that seasonality in O2 on the early Earth was biogeochemically significant—and that seasonal cycles in O3, an indirect biological product coupled to biogenic O2, may be a readily detectable fingerprint of life in the absence of

  2. Silicon in the Earth's core. (United States)

    Georg, R Bastian; Halliday, Alex N; Schauble, Edwin A; Reynolds, Ben C


    Small isotopic differences between the silicate minerals in planets may have developed as a result of processes associated with core formation, or from evaporative losses during accretion as the planets were built up. Basalts from the Earth and the Moon do indeed appear to have iron isotopic compositions that are slightly heavy relative to those from Mars, Vesta and primitive undifferentiated meteorites (chondrites). Explanations for these differences have included evaporation during the 'giant impact' that created the Moon (when a Mars-sized body collided with the young Earth). However, lithium and magnesium, lighter elements with comparable volatility, reveal no such differences, rendering evaporation unlikely as an explanation. Here we show that the silicon isotopic compositions of basaltic rocks from the Earth and the Moon are also distinctly heavy. A likely cause is that silicon is one of the light elements in the Earth's core. We show that both the direction and magnitude of the silicon isotopic effect are in accord with current theory based on the stiffness of bonding in metal and silicate. The similar isotopic composition of the bulk silicate Earth and the Moon is consistent with the recent proposal that there was large-scale isotopic equilibration during the giant impact. We conclude that Si was already incorporated as a light element in the Earth's core before the Moon formed.

  3. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.


    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  4. Next-generation Digital Earth. (United States)

    Goodchild, Michael F; Guo, Huadong; Annoni, Alessandro; Bian, Ling; de Bie, Kees; Campbell, Frederick; Craglia, Max; Ehlers, Manfred; van Genderen, John; Jackson, Davina; Lewis, Anthony J; Pesaresi, Martino; Remetey-Fülöpp, Gábor; Simpson, Richard; Skidmore, Andrew; Wang, Changlin; Woodgate, Peter


    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google Earth, and the functionality of this first generation of virtual globes, are reviewed against the Gore vision. Meanwhile, developments in technology continue, the era of "big data" has arrived, the general public is more and more engaged with technology through citizen science and crowd-sourcing, and advances have been made in our scientific understanding of the Earth system. However, although Google Earth stimulated progress in communicating the results of science, there continue to be substantial barriers in the public's access to science. All these factors prompt a reexamination of the initial vision of Digital Earth, and a discussion of the major elements that should be part of a next generation.

  5. The impact of transport processes on rare earth element patterns in marine authigenic and biogenic phosphates (United States)

    Auer, Gerald; Reuter, Markus; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Piller, Werner E.


    Rare earth elements (REEs) are commonly used proxies to reconstruct water chemistry and oxygen saturation during the formation of authigenic and biogenic phosphates in marine environments. In the modern ocean REEs exhibit a distinct pattern with enrichment of heavy REEs and strong depletion in cerium (Ce). The wide range of REE enrichment patterns found in ancient marine phosphates lead to the proposition that water chemistry has been very different in the Earth's past. However, both early and late diagenesis are known to affect REE signatures in phosphates altering primary marine signals. Herein we present a dataset of REE signatures in 38 grain specific LA-ICP-MS measurements of isolated phosphate and carbonate grains in three discrete rock samples. The phosphates mainly consist of authigenic phosphates and phosphatized microfossils that formed in a microbially mediated micro-milieu. In addition, isolated biogenic and reworked phosphatic grains are also present. The phosphates are emplaced in bioclastic grain- to packstones deposited on a carbonate ramp setting in the central Mediterranean Sea during the middle Miocene Monterey event. The results reveal markedly different REE patterns (normalized to the Post Archean Australian Shale standard) in terms of total enrichment and pattern shape. Analyses of REE diagenesis proxies show that diagenetic alteration affected the samples only to a minor degree. Grain shape and REE patterns together indicate that authigenic, biogenic and reworked phosphates have distinct REE patterns irrespective of the sample. Our study shows that while REE patterns in phosphates do reflect water chemistry during authigenesis, they are often already heavily altered during reworking, a process, which can occur in geologically negligible timespans. REE patterns are therefore more likely to reflect complex enrichment processes after their formation. Similarities in the REE patterns of reworked and biogenic phosphate further suggest that the

  6. Layer-Cake Earth (United States)

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie


    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  7. Rare earths as a future resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.


    The fourteen rare earth or lanthanide elements have recently emerged as an important natural resource because of the rapidly growing demand in the electronic, chemical and metallurgical industries. The Symposium on rare earth elements as a future resource presented a multidisciplinary review of rare earth chemistry, geology, beneficiation, industrial applications and marketing. Papers by experts in many fields were presented on the following topics: chemical properties of the rare earth elements; the analysis of rare earth elements and minerals; beneficiation and extraction of rare earth elements; economic geochemistry and mineralogy of rare earths; present industrial uses of rare earth elements; the role of rare earth elements in high-temperature superconductors; the technical application of high-temperature superconductors; supply and demand for rare earth products - now and in the future, and the geology of rare earth deposits

  8. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus


    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  9. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand. (United States)

    Brisson, Vanessa L; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa


    Three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. These organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, as well as two newly isolated fungi: an Aspergillus terreus strain ML3-1 and a Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F. Although monazite also contains the radioactive element Thorium, bioleaching by these fungi preferentially solubilized rare earth elements over Thorium, leaving the Thorium in the solid residual. Adjustments in growth media composition improved bioleaching performance measured as rare earth release. Cell-free spent medium generated during growth of A. terreus strain ML3-1 and Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F in the presence of monazite leached rare earths to concentrations 1.7-3.8 times those of HCl solutions of comparable pH, indicating that compounds exogenously released by these organisms contribute substantially to leaching. Organic acids released by the organisms included acetic, citric, gluconic, itaconic, oxalic, and succinic acids. Abiotic leaching with laboratory prepared solutions of these acids was not as effective as bioleaching or leaching with cell-free spent medium at releasing rare earths from monazite, indicating that compounds other than the identified organic acids contribute to leaching performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Water inventories on Earth and Mars: Clues to atmosphere formation (United States)

    Carr, M. H.


    Water is distributed differently on Earth and on Mars and the differences may have implications for the accretion of the two planets and the formation of their atmospheres. The Earth's mantle appears to contain at least several times the water content of the Martian mantle even accounting for differences in plate tectonics. One explanation is that the Earth's surface melted during accretion, as a result of development of a steam atmosphere, thereby allowing impact-devolitalized water at the surface to dissolve into the Earth's interior. In contrast, because of Mars' smaller size and greater distance from the Sun, the Martian surface may not have melted, so that the devolatilized water could not dissolve into the surface. A second possibility is suggested by the siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle, which indicates the Earth acquired a volatile-rich veneer after the core formed. Mars may have acquired a late volatile-rich veneer, but it did not get folded into the interior as with the Earth, but instead remained as a water rich veneer. This perception of Mars with a wet surface but dry interior is consistent with our knowledge of Mars' geologic history.

  11. A Dynamic Earth: 50 Years of Observations from Space (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.


    Observations of the surface of the Earth began more than a half century ago with the earliest space missions. The global geopolitical environment at the beginning of the space age fueled advances in rocketry and human exploration, but also advances in remote sensing. At the same time that space-based Earth Observations were developing, global investments in infrastructure that were initiated after World War II accelerated large projects such as the construction of highways, the expansion of cities and suburbs, the damming of rivers, and the growth of big agriculture. These developments have transformed the Earth s surface at unprecedented rates. Today, we have a remarkable library of 50 years of observations of the Earth taken by satellite-based sensors and astronauts, and these images and observations provide insight into the workings of the Earth as a system. In addition, these observations record the footprints of human activities around the world, and illustrate how our activities contribute to the changing face of the Earth. Starting with the iconic "Blue Marble" image of the whole Earth taken by Apollo astronauts, we will review a timeline of observations of our planet as viewed from space.

  12. Energy conservation in the earth's crust and climate change. (United States)

    Mu, Yao; Mu, Xinzhi


    Among various matters which make up the earth's crust, the thermal conductivity of coal, oil, and oil-gas, which are formed over a long period of geological time, is extremely low. This is significant to prevent transferring the internal heat of the earth to the thermal insulation of the surface, cooling the surface of the earth, stimulating biological evolution, and maintaining natural ecological balance as well. Fossil energy is thermal insulating layer in the earth's crust. Just like the function of the thermal isolation of subcutaneous fatty tissue under the dermis of human skin, it keeps the internal heat within the organism so it won't be transferred to the skin's surface and be lost maintaining body temperature at low temperatures. Coal, oil, oil-gas, and fat belong to the same hydrocarbons, and the functions of their thermal insulation are exactly the same. That is to say, coal, oil, and oil-gas are just like the earth's "subcutaneous fatty tissue" and objectively formed the insulation protection on earth's surface. This paper argues that the human large-scale extraction of fossil energy leads to damage of the earth's crust heat-resistant sealing, increasing terrestrial heat flow, or the heat flow as it is called, transferring the internal heat of the earth to Earth's surface excessively, and causing geotemperature and sea temperature to rise, thus giving rise to global warming. The reason for climate warming is not due to the expansion of greenhouse gases but to the wide exploitation of fossil energy, which destroyed the heat insulation of the earth's crust, making more heat from the interior of the earth be released to the atmosphere. Based on the energy conservation principle, the measurement of the increase of the average global temperature that was caused by the increase of terrestrial heat flow since the Industrial Revolution is consistent with practical data. This paper illustrates "pathogenesis" of climate change using medical knowledge. The

  13. EarthServer: Cross-Disciplinary Earth Science Through Data Cube Analytics (United States)

    Baumann, P.; Rossi, A. P.


    The unprecedented increase of imagery, in-situ measurements, and simulation data produced by Earth (and Planetary) Science observations missions bears a rich, yet not leveraged potential for getting insights from integrating such diverse datasets and transform scientific questions into actual queries to data, formulated in a standardized way.The intercontinental EarthServer [1] initiative is demonstrating new directions for flexible, scalable Earth Science services based on innovative NoSQL technology. Researchers from Europe, the US and Australia have teamed up to rigorously implement the concept of the datacube. Such a datacube may have spatial and temporal dimensions (such as a satellite image time series) and may unite an unlimited number of scenes. Independently from whatever efficient data structuring a server network may perform internally, users (scientist, planners, decision makers) will always see just a few datacubes they can slice and dice.EarthServer has established client [2] and server technology for such spatio-temporal datacubes. The underlying scalable array engine, rasdaman [3,4], enables direct interaction, including 3-D visualization, common EO data processing, and general analytics. Services exclusively rely on the open OGC "Big Geo Data" standards suite, the Web Coverage Service (WCS). Conversely, EarthServer has shaped and advanced WCS based on the experience gained. The first phase of EarthServer has advanced scalable array database technology into 150+ TB services. Currently, Petabyte datacubes are being built for ad-hoc and cross-disciplinary querying, e.g. using climate, Earth observation and ocean data.We will present the EarthServer approach, its impact on OGC / ISO / INSPIRE standardization, and its platform technology, rasdaman.References: [1] Baumann, et al. (2015) DOI: 10.1080/17538947.2014.1003106 [2] Hogan, P., (2011) NASA World Wind, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computing for Geospatial Research

  14. Online Student Learning and Earth System Processes (United States)

    Mackay, R. M.


    Many students have difficulty understanding dynamical processes related to Earth's climate system. This is particularly true in Earth System Science courses designed for non-majors. It is often tempting to gloss over these conceptually difficult topics and have students spend more study time learning factual information or ideas that require rather simple linear thought processes. Even when the professor is ambitious and tackles the more difficult ideas of system dynamics in such courses, they are typically greeted with frustration and limited success. However, an understanding of generic system concepts and processes is quite arguably an essential component of any quality liberal arts education. We present online student-centered learning modules that are designed to help students explore different aspects of Earth's climate system (see for a sample activity). The JAVA based learning activities are designed to: be assessable to anyone with Web access; be self-paced, engaging, and hands-on; and make use of past results from science education research. Professors can use module activities to supplement lecture, as controlled-learning-lab activities, or as stand-alone homework assignments. Acknowledgement This work was supported by NASA Office of Space Science contract NASW-98037, Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. of Lexington, MA., and Clark College.

  15. Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education (United States)

    Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George


    The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.

  16. What if mankind warms the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, W.W.


    There are a variety of human activities that are being pursued on such a large scale that they may influence regional and global climate. Virtually all of these activities, including the addition of carbon dioxide and particles to the atmosphere, are expected on theoretical grounds to cause an increase in mean surface temperature in the decades ahead, and by 2000 AD the total warming effect will probably be larger than any of the natural climate fluctuations during the past 1,000 years or more. It is therefore pertinent ot inquire what a warmer earth might be like; and to obtain a first rough answer we turn to our mathematical models of the atmosphere, and also to the conditions that have been deduced for the period about 4,000 to 8,000 years ago when the earth was apparently several degress warmer the now. Atan now. At that time some areas that are now subtropical deserts received more rainfall, and there were other areas in the middle latitudes that were drier. There are several important implications for society if mankind does succeed in warming the earth - and a number of still unanswered questions as well. (orig.) [de

  17. Earth Science Mining Web Services (United States)

    Pham, Long; Lynnes, Christopher; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Keiser, Ken


    To allow scientists further capabilities in the area of data mining and web services, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) have developed a system to mine data at the source without the need of network transfers. The system has been constructed by linking together several pre-existing technologies: the Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM), a processing engine at he GES DISC; the Algorithm Development and Mining (ADaM) system, a data mining toolkit from UAH that can be configured in a variety of ways to create customized mining processes; ActiveBPEL, a workflow execution engine based on BPEL (Business Process Execution Language); XBaya, a graphical workflow composer; and the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). XBaya is used to construct an analysis workflow at UAH using ADam components, which are also installed remotely at the GES DISC, wrapped as Web Services. The S4PM processing engine searches ECHO for data using space-time criteria, staging them to cache, allowing the ActiveBPEL engine to remotely orchestras the processing workflow within S4PM. As mining is completed, the output is placed in an FTP holding area for the end user. The goals are to give users control over the data they want to process, while mining data at the data source using the server's resources rather than transferring the full volume over the internet. These diverse technologies have been infused into a functioning, distributed system with only minor changes to the underlying technologies. The key to the infusion is the loosely coupled, Web-Services based architecture: All of the participating components are accessible (one way or another) through (Simple Object Access Protocol) SOAP-based Web Services.

  18. Lunar Science from and for Planet Earth (United States)

    Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III


    Our Moon Every person on Earth is familiar with the Moon. Every resident with nominal eyesight on each continent has seen this near-by planetary body with their own eyes countless times. Those fortunate enough to have binoculars or access to a telescope have explored the craters, valleys, domes, and plains across the lunar surface as changing lighting conditions highlight the mysteries of this marvellously foreign landscape. Schoolchildren learn that the daily rhythm and flow of tides along the coastlines of our oceans are due to the interaction of the Earth and the Moon. This continuous direct and personal link is but one of the many reasons lunar science is fundamental to humanity. The Earth-Moon System In the context of space exploration, our understanding of the Earth-Moon system has grown enormously. The Moon has become the cornerstone for most aspects of planetary science that relate to the terrestrial (rocky) planets. The scientific context for exploration of the Moon is presented in a recent report by a subcommittee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council [free from the website:]. Figure 1 captures the interwoven themes surrounding lunar science recognized and discussed in that report. In particular, it is now recognized that the Earth and the Moon have been intimately linked in their early history. Although they subsequently took very different evolutionary paths, the Moon provides a unique and valuable window both into processes that occurred during the first 600 Million years of solar system evolution (planetary differentiation and the heavy bombardment record) as well as the (ultimately dangerous) impact record of more recent times. This additional role of the Moon as keystone is because the Earth and the Moon share the same environment at 1 AU, but only the Moon retains a continuous record of cosmic events. An Initial Bloom of Exploration and Drought The space age celebrated its 50th

  19. EarthCubed: Community Convergence and Communication (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Black, R.; Davis, R.; Dick, C.; Lee, T.; Allison, M. L.


    What drives engagement across a diverse community with the common goal of creating a robust cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences? Which applications, social media venues and outreach mechanisms solicit the most valuable feedback? Of the dizzying toolkit available for community-building, which tools should receive time, attention and dedication? Finally, how does it all relate to better geoscience research? Research projects in the geosciences are rapidly becoming more interdisciplinary, requiring use of broader data-sets and a multitude of data-types in an effort to explain questions important to both the scientific community and the general public. Effective use of the data and tools available requires excellent community communication and engagement across disciplines, as well as a manner to easily obtain and access those data and tools. For over two years, the EarthCube project has sought to create the most active and engaged community possible, bringing together experts from all across the NSF GEO directorate and its many-faceted disciplines. Initial efforts focused on collecting insight and opinions at in-person "end-user workshops," and informal organization of interest groups and teams. Today, efforts feature an organizational structure with dedicated internal communication and outreach groups. The EarthCube Office has been largely responsible for coordination of these groups and the social media and Internet presence of the project to date, through the creation and curation of the website, social media channels, live-streaming of meetings, and newsletters. Measures of the effectiveness of these efforts will be presented, to serve as potential reference and guidance for other projects seeking to grow their own communities. In addition, we will discuss how the Office's role in outreach and engagement has changed over the past year with the creation of the Engagement and Liaison Teams, and what it signifies for the Office's role in Earth

  20. Imaging earth`s interior: Tomographic inversions for mantle P-wave velocity structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulliam, Robert Jay [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    A formalism is developed for the tomographic inversion of seismic travel time residuals. The travel time equations are solved both simultaneously, for velocity model terms and corrections to the source locations, and progressively, for each set of terms in succession. The methods differ primarily in their treatment of source mislocation terms. Additionally, the system of equations is solved directly, neglecting source terms. The efficacy of the algorithms is explored with synthetic data as we perform simulations of the general procedure used to produce tomographic images of Earth`s mantle from global earthquake data. The patterns of seismic heterogeneity in the mantle that would be returned reliably by a tomographic inversion are investigated. We construct synthetic data sets based on real ray sampling of the mantle by introducing spherical harmonic patterns of velocity heterogeneity and perform inversions of the synthetic data.

  1. ESA Earth Observation missions at the service of geoscience (United States)

    Aschbacher, Josef


    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and boundary conditions. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific endeavours. Meteorological satellites help to predict the weather and feature the most mature application of Earth observation. Over the last four decades satellites have been radically improving the accuracy of weather forecasts by providing unique and indispensable input data to numerical computation models. In addition, Essential Climate Variables (ECV) are constantly monitored within ESA's Climate Change Initiative in order to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters. All of these activities can only be carried out in international cooperation. Accordingly, ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and relevant institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges as well as to requirements resulting from political priorities, such as the United Nations' Sustainable Development

  2. Development of the AuScope Australian Earth Observing System (United States)

    Rawling, T.


    Advances in monitoring technology and significant investment in new national research initiatives, will provide significant new opportunities for delivery of novel geoscience data streams from across the Australian continent over the next decade. The AuScope Australian Earth Observing System (AEOS) is linking field and laboratory infrastructure across Australia to form a national sensor array focusing on the Solid Earth. As such AuScope is working with these programs to deploy observational infrastructure, including MT, passive seismic, and GNSS networks across the entire Australian Continent. Where possible the observational grid will be co-located with strategic basement drilling in areas of shallow cover and tied with national reflection seismic and sampling transects. This integrated suite of distributed earth observation and imaging sensors will provide unprecedented imaging fidelity of our crust, across all length and time scales, to fundamental and applied researchers in the earth, environmental and geospatial sciences. The AEOS will the Earth Science community's Square Kilometer Array (SKA) - a distributed telescope that looks INTO the earth rather than away from it - a 10 million SKA. The AEOS is strongly aligned with other community strategic initiatives including the UNCOVER research program as well as other National Collaborative Research Infrastructure programs such as the Terrestrial Environmental Research Network (TERN) and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) providing an interdisciplinary collaboration platform across the earth and environmental sciences. There is also very close alignment between AuScope and similar international programs such as EPOS, the USArray and EarthCube - potential collaborative linkages we are currently in the process of pursuing more fomally. The AuScope AEOS Infrastructure System is ultimately designed to enable the progressive construction, refinement and ongoing enrichment of a live, "FAIR" four

  3. Regional positioning using a low Earth orbit satellite constellation (United States)

    Shtark, Tomer; Gurfil, Pini


    Global and regional satellite navigation systems are constellations orbiting the Earth and transmitting radio signals for determining position and velocity of users around the globe. The state-of-the-art navigation satellite systems are located in medium Earth orbits and geosynchronous Earth orbits and are characterized by high launching, building and maintenance costs. For applications that require only regional coverage, the continuous and global coverage that existing systems provide may be unnecessary. Thus, a nano-satellites-based regional navigation satellite system in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), with significantly reduced launching, building and maintenance costs, can be considered. Thus, this paper is aimed at developing a LEO constellation optimization and design method, using genetic algorithms and gradient-based optimization. The preliminary results of this study include 268 LEO constellations, aimed at regional navigation in an approximately 1000 km × 1000 km area centered at the geographic coordinates [30, 30] degrees. The constellations performance is examined using simulations, and the figures of merit include total coverage time, revisit time, and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) percentiles. The GDOP is a quantity that determines the positioning solution accuracy and solely depends on the spatial geometry of the satellites. Whereas the optimization method takes into account only the Earth's second zonal harmonic coefficient, the simulations include the Earth's gravitational field with zonal and tesseral harmonics up to degree 10 and order 10, Solar radiation pressure, drag, and the lunisolar gravitational perturbation.

  4. Squeezing clathrate cages to host trivalent rare-earth guests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Department of Chemistry; Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); He, Yuping [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Mordvinova, Natalia E. [Laboratoire CRISMAT, ENSICAEN, CNRS UMR (France); Lebedev, Oleg [Laboratoire CRISMAT, ENSICAEN, CNRS UMR (France); Kovnir, Kirill [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Department of Chemistry; Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)


    Strike difference of the trivalent rare-earth cations from their alkali and alkaline-earth peers is in the presence of localized 4f-electrons and strong spin-orbit coupling. Placing trivalent rare-earth cations inside the fullerene molecules or in between the blocks of itinerant magnetic intermetallics gave rise to plethora of fascinating properties and materials. A long-time missing but hardly desired piece is the semiconducting or metallic compound where rare-earth cations are situated inside the oversized polyhedral cages of three-dimensional framework. In this work we present a synthesis of such compounds, rare-earth containing clathrates Ba8-xRxCu16P30. The unambiguous proofs of their composition and crystal structure were achieved by a combination of synchrotron powder diffraction, time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction, scanning-transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Our quantum-mechanical calculations and experimental characterizations show that the incorporation of the rare-earth cations significantly enhances the hole mobility and concentration which results in the drastic increase in the thermoelectric performance.

  5. Multi-source Geospatial Data Analysis with Google Earth Engine (United States)

    Erickson, T.


    The Google Earth Engine platform is a cloud computing environment for data analysis that combines a public data catalog with a large-scale computational facility optimized for parallel processing of geospatial data. The data catalog is a multi-petabyte archive of georeferenced datasets that include images from Earth observing satellite and airborne sensors (examples: USGS Landsat, NASA MODIS, USDA NAIP), weather and climate datasets, and digital elevation models. Earth Engine supports both a just-in-time computation model that enables real-time preview and debugging during algorithm development for open-ended data exploration, and a batch computation mode for applying algorithms over large spatial and temporal extents. The platform automatically handles many traditionally-onerous data management tasks, such as data format conversion, reprojection, and resampling, which facilitates writing algorithms that combine data from multiple sensors and/or models. Although the primary use of Earth Engine, to date, has been the analysis of large Earth observing satellite datasets, the computational platform is generally applicable to a wide variety of use cases that require large-scale geospatial data analyses. This presentation will focus on how Earth Engine facilitates the analysis of geospatial data streams that originate from multiple separate sources (and often communities) and how it enables collaboration during algorithm development and data exploration. The talk will highlight current projects/analyses that are enabled by this functionality.

  6. Crossing the Boundaries in Planetary Atmospheres - From Earth to Exoplanets (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Genio, Anthony Del


    The past decade has been an especially exciting time to study atmospheres, with a renaissance in fundamental studies of Earths general circulation and hydrological cycle, stimulated by questions about past climates and the urgency of projecting the future impacts of humankinds activities. Long-term spacecraft and Earth-based observation of solar system planets have now reinvigorated the study of comparative planetary climatology. The explosion in discoveries of planets outside our solar system has made atmospheric science integral to understanding the diversity of our solar system and the potential habitability of planets outside it. Thus, the AGU Chapman Conference Crossing the Boundaries in Planetary Atmospheres From Earth to Exoplanets, held in Annapolis, MD from June 24-27, 2013 gathered Earth, solar system, and exoplanet scientists to share experiences, insights, and challenges from their individual disciplines, and discuss areas in which thinking broadly might enhance our fundamental understanding of how atmospheres work.

  7. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Space geodesy era provides velocity information which results in the positioning of geodetic points by considering the time evolution. The geodetic point positions on the Earth's surface change over time due to plate tectonics, and these changes have to be accounted for geodetic purposes. The velocity field of geodetic ...

  8. Earth Observation Missions at OHB System (United States)

    Tobehn, C.; Penné, B.; Kassebom, M.; Ziegler, B.; Mahal, S.; Greinacher, R.; Holsten, S.; Borowy, C.


    This paper covers the current OHB-System AG activities in the field of Earth Observation with small satellites ranging from science and research towards commercial and security missions. Very highresolution, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, as well as very high resolution SAR mission concepts are presented including the following projects: The SAR-Lupe constellation generates very high resolution SAR images for military reconnaissance purposes. It is developed by OHB-System and reaches full in-orbit deployment in 2008. EnMAP - featuring an innovative hyperspectral sensor systems for the detailed and global analysis of eco-system parameters. Very high resolution SAR and Optical Constellations of 1m resolution are currently investigated for emergency response and disaster management, which require a fast system response-time. Data Relay from GEO relaxes the typical EO bottle-neck in downloading data. Therefore it enables an increase of LEO observation time and reduces image ageing as well as system response time by direct EO satellite tasking. Ocean-Colour from GEO shall be a sustainable source for intra-daily observations of coastal zones for environment monitoring, fishery management and coastal water pollution. Next Generation very high resolution missions below 1m resolution are proposed for reconnaissance and dual-use applications for commercial customers. New services and products are under development for a range of applications, including hyperspectral data exploitation, data fusion with in-situ systems for maritime environment, security as well as for air quality services. The realisation of an end-user oriented infrastructure - including space and ground segment - for commercial Earth observation is a key element of OHB-System's Earth observation activities.

  9. Impact of Earth radiation pressure on GPS position estimates (United States)

    Rodriguez-Solano, C. J.; Hugentobler, U.; Steigenberger, P.; Lutz, S.


    GPS satellite orbits available from the International GNSS Service (IGS) show a consistent radial bias of up to several cm and a particular pattern in the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) residuals, which are suggested to be related to radiation pressure mismodeling. In addition, orbit-related frequencies were identified in geodetic time series such as apparent geocenter motion and station displacements derived from GPS tracking data. A potential solution to these discrepancies is the inclusion of Earth radiation pressure (visible and infrared) modeling in the orbit determination process. This is currently not yet considered by all analysis centers contributing to the IGS final orbits. The acceleration, accounting for Earth radiation and satellite models, is introduced in this paper in the computation of a global GPS network (around 200 IGS sites) adopting the analysis strategies from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). Two solutions covering 9 years (2000-2008) with and without Earth radiation pressure were computed and form the basis for this study. In previous studies, it has been shown that Earth radiation pressure has a non-negligible effect on the GPS orbits, mainly in the radial component. In this paper, the effect on the along-track and cross-track components is studied in more detail. Also in this paper, it is shown that Earth radiation pressure leads to a change in the estimates of GPS ground station positions, which is systematic over large regions of the Earth. This observed "deformation" of the Earth is towards North-South and with large scale patterns that repeat six times per GPS draconitic year (350 days), reaching a magnitude of up to 1 mm. The impact of Earth radiation pressure on the geocenter and length of day estimates was also investigated, but the effect is found to be less significant as compared to the orbits and position estimates.

  10. Revolutions that made the earth

    CERN Document Server

    Lenton, Tim


    The Earth that sustains us today was born out of a few remarkable, near-catastrophic revolutions, started by biological innovations and marked by global environmental consequences. The revolutions have certain features in common, such as an increase in the complexity, energy utilization, and information processing capabilities of life. This book describes these revolutions, showing the fundamental interdependence of the evolution of life and its non-living environment. We would not exist unless these upheavals had led eventually to 'successful' outcomes - meaning that after each one, at length, a new stable world emerged. The current planet-reshaping activities of our species may be the start of another great Earth system revolution, but there is no guarantee that this one will be successful. This book explains what a successful transition through it might look like, if we are wise enough to steer such a course. This book places humanity in context as part of the Earth system, using a new scientific synthe...

  11. Titan the earth-like moon

    CERN Document Server

    Coustenis, Athena


    This is the first book to deal with Titan, one of the most mysterious bodies in the solar system. The largest satellite of the giant planet Saturn, Titan is itself larger than the planet Mercury, and is unique in being the only known moon with a thick atmosphere. In addition, its atmosphere bears a startling resemblance to the Earth's, but is much colder.The American and European space agencies, NASA and ESA, have recently combined efforts to send a huge robot spacecraft to orbit Saturn and land on Titan. This book provides the background to this, the greatest deep space venture of our time, a

  12. Sharing Earth Observation Data When Health Management (United States)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.


    While the global community is struck by pandemics and epidemics from time to time the ability to fully utilize earth observations and integrate environmental information has been limited - until recently. Mature science understanding is allowing new levels of situational awareness be possible when and if the relevant data is available and shared in a timely and useable manner. Satellite and other remote sensing tools have been used to observe, monitor, assess and predict weather and water impacts for decades. In the last few years much of this has included a focus on the ability to monitor changes on climate scales that suggest changes in quantity and quality of ecosystem resources or the "one-health" approach where trans-disciplinary links between environment, animal and vegetative health may provide indications of best ways to manage susceptibility to infectious disease or outbreaks. But the scale of impacts and availability of information from earth observing satellites, airborne platforms, health tracking systems and surveillance networks offer new integrated tools. This presentation will describe several recent events, such as Superstorm Sandy in the United States and the Ebola outbreak in Africa, where public health and health infrastructure have been exposed to environmental hazards and lessons learned from disaster response in the ability to share data have been effective in risk reduction.

  13. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These discoveries indicate that large meteorite impacts have had enormous effects on the Earth, perhaps most dramatically illustrated 65 million years ago, when an impact at Chicxulub in the Caribbean may have been responsible for mass extinctions (including the dinosaurs) on a global scale. The evidence for these ...

  14. the unsung earth: man's regeneration and rediscovery of the earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A person looks at the world in a specific way, he smiles with specific eyes, he walks with a specific step, because he is the son of what happened to him and of the .... machine age, leading away from what is vital and organic and turning .... There is nothing to eat, the earth has hardened, it cannot immediately bear fruits.

  15. Setting to earth for computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego V, Luis Eduardo; Montana Ch, Johny Hernan; Tovar P, Andres Fernando; Amortegui, Francisco


    The program GMT allows the analysis of setting to earth for tensions DC and AC (of low frequency) of diverse configurations composed by cylindrical electrodes interconnected, in a homogeneous land or stratified (two layers). This analysis understands among other aspects: calculation of the setting resistance to earth, elevation of potential of the system (GPR), calculation of current densities in the conductors, potentials calculation in which point on the land surface (profile and surfaces), tensions calculation in passing and of contact, also, it carries out the interpretation of resistivity measures for Wenner and Schlumberger methods, finding a model of two layers

  16. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate (United States)

    Genio, Anthony Del


    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  17. Rare earths and rare earth alloys electrolytic preparation process and device for this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seon, F.; Barthole, G.


    Electrolysis of a molten salt of rare earth or rare earth alloy for preparation of the metal or alloy is described. The molten salt bath comprises at least a rare earth chloride, at least an alkaline or alkaline earth chloride and at least an alkaline or alkaline earth fluoride [fr

  18. Life, hierarchy, and the thermodynamic machinery of planet Earth. (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel


    Throughout Earth's history, life has increased greatly in abundance, complexity, and diversity. At the same time, it has substantially altered the Earth's environment, evolving some of its variables to states further and further away from thermodynamic equilibrium. For instance, concentrations in atmospheric oxygen have increased throughout Earth's history, resulting in an increased chemical disequilibrium in the atmosphere as well as an increased redox gradient between the atmosphere and the Earth's reducing crust. These trends seem to contradict the second law of thermodynamics, which states for isolated systems that gradients and free energy are dissipated over time, resulting in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. This seeming contradiction is resolved by considering planet Earth as a coupled, hierarchical and evolving non-equilibrium thermodynamic system that has been substantially altered by the input of free energy generated by photosynthetic life. Here, I present this hierarchical thermodynamic theory of the Earth system. I first present simple considerations to show that thermodynamic variables are driven away from a state of thermodynamic equilibrium by the transfer of power from some other process and that the resulting state of disequilibrium reflects the past net work done on the variable. This is applied to the processes of planet Earth to characterize the generation and transfer of free energy and its dissipation, from radiative gradients to temperature and chemical potential gradients that result in chemical, kinetic, and potential free energy and associated dynamics of the climate system and geochemical cycles. The maximization of power transfer among the processes within this hierarchy yields thermodynamic efficiencies much lower than the Carnot efficiency of equilibrium thermodynamics and is closely related to the proposed principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP). The role of life is then discussed as a photochemical process that generates

  19. Earth From Space: "Beautiful Earth's" Integration of Media Arts, Earth Science, and Native Wisdom in Informal Learning Environments (United States)

    Casasanto, V.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Rock, J.; Markus, T.


    "Beautiful Earth: Experiencing and Learning Science in an Engaging Way" was a 3-year project funded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science. An outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA performance, Beautiful Earth fostered a new approach to teaching by combining live music, data visualizations and Earth science with indigenous perspectives, and hands-on workshops for K-12 students at 5 science centers. Inspired by the "Overview Effect," described by many astronauts who were awestruck by seeing the Earth from space and their realization of the profound interconnectedness of Earth's life systems, Beautiful Earth leveraged the power of multimedia performance to serve as a springboard to engage K-12 students in hands-on Earth science and Native wisdom workshops. Results will be presented regarding student perceptions of Earth science, environmental issues, and indigenous ways of knowing from 3 years of evaluation data.

  20. When the Earth's Inner Core Shuffles (United States)

    Tkalcic, H.; Young, M. K.; Bodin, T.; Ngo, S.; Sambridge, M.


    Shuffling is a tribal dance recently adapted by teenagers as a street dance. In one of the most popular moves, the so-called "Running Man", a stomp forward on one foot, shifted without being lifted from the ground, is followed by a change of position backwards on the same foot. Here, we present strong observational evidence from a newly observed collection of earthquake doublets that the Earth's inner core "shuffles" exhibiting both prograde and retrograde rotation in the reference frame of the mantle. This discovery is significant on several levels. First, the observed pattern consists of intermittent intervals of quasi-locked and differentially rotating inner core with respect to the Earth's mantle. This means that the angular alignment of the inner core and mantle oscillates in time over the past five decades. Jolting temporal changes are revealed, indicating that during the excursions from the quasi-locked state, the Earth's inner core can rotate both faster and slower than the rest of the planet, thus exhibiting both eastward and westward rotation. According to our results, a short time interval (on the order of one to two years) is needed for the inner core to accelerate to a differential rotation rate of several degrees per year, and typically a slightly longer time is needed to decelerate down to a negligibly small differential rotation rate. These time scales are in agreement with experimental spin-up times obtained when the magnetic torque alone is used to accelerate the inner core. Second, when we integrate the rotation rate over different time intervals, it is possible to explain discrepancies between the body wave and normal modes results for the rate of the inner core differential rotation found by previous authors. We show that the integrated shift in angular alignment and average rotation rates (previously determined to be constant) in normal mode studies are much smaller that those for the body waves. The repeating earthquakes from the South

  1. Software Reuse Within the Earth Science Community (United States)

    Marshall, James J.; Olding, Steve; Wolfe, Robert E.; Delnore, Victor E.


    Scientific missions in the Earth sciences frequently require cost-effective, highly reliable, and easy-to-use software, which can be a challenge for software developers to provide. The NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) spends a significant amount of resources developing software components and other software development artifacts that may also be of value if reused in other projects requiring similar functionality. In general, software reuse is often defined as utilizing existing software artifacts. Software reuse can improve productivity and quality while decreasing the cost of software development, as documented by case studies in the literature. Since large software systems are often the results of the integration of many smaller and sometimes reusable components, ensuring reusability of such software components becomes a necessity. Indeed, designing software components with reusability as a requirement can increase the software reuse potential within a community such as the NASA ESE community. The NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group is chartered to oversee the development of a process that will maximize the reuse potential of existing software components while recommending strategies for maximizing the reusability potential of yet-to-be-designed components. As part of this work, two surveys of the Earth science community were conducted. The first was performed in 2004 and distributed among government employees and contractors. A follow-up survey was performed in 2005 and distributed among a wider community, to include members of industry and academia. The surveys were designed to collect information on subjects such as the current software reuse practices of Earth science software developers, why they choose to reuse software, and what perceived barriers prevent them from reusing software. In this paper, we compare the results of these surveys, summarize the observed trends, and discuss the findings. The results are very

  2. Smouldering Fires in the Earth System (United States)

    Rein, G.


    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless burning, represent the most persistent type of combustion phenomena and the longest continuously fires on Earth system. Indeed, smouldering mega-fires of peatlands occur with some frequency during the dry session in, for example, Indonesia, Canada, Russia, UK and USA. Smouldering fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the ground and can reach depth >5 m if large cracks, natural piping or channel systems exist. It threatens to release sequestered carbon deep into the soil. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains, weather changes or fire-fighting attempts, and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading deep and over extensive areas. Recent figures at the global scale estimate that average annual greenhouse gas emissions from smouldering fires are equivalent to 15% of man-made emissions. These fires are difficult or impossible to detect with current remote sensing methods because the chemistry is significantly different, their thermal radiation signature is much smaller, and the plume is much less buoyant. These wildfires burn fossil fuels and thus are a carbon-positive fire phenomena. This creates feedbacks in the climate system because soil moisture deficit and self-heating are enchanted under warmer climate scenarios and lead to more frequent fires. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in more frequent Artic fires. Unprecedented permafrost thaw is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to smouldering fires for the fist time since millennia. Although interactions between flaming fires and the Earth system have been a central focus, smouldering fires are as important but have received very little attention. DBut differences with flaming fires are important. This paper reviews the current knowledge on smouldering fires in the Earth system regarding combustion dynamics, damage to the soil, emissions, remote sensing and

  3. Fukushima. From the earth quake to the nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulmas, Florian; Stalpers, Judith


    The authors of the booklet who lived in Japan at the time of the earth quake and the following catastrophic nuclear accidents in Fukushima describe their experiences during the earth quake and the following days. Although Japan is used to natural disasters the tsunami and the consequences for the NPP Fukushima Daiichi surmounted any imagination. The challenges for the local authorities as a consequence of the catastrophic progress of the disaster, the suffering of the citizens and at the same time the discipline and serenity to the affected persons are reported.

  4. Understanding the shape of the Earth and measuring its size (United States)

    Baltatzis, Evangelos; Galanaki, Angeliki


    between two cities in the same meridian arc., namely Alexandria and Syene. In Syene the sun is directly overhead, at noon, during the summer solstice. On solstice, in Alexandria, he measured the angle of elevation of the sun using the shadow of a vertical long stick. This angle is 7°12' and it is the central angle of the arc Alexandria-Syene, approximately 1/50 of 360°. Then with a multiplication (the distance of Alexandria-Syene times 50) he calculated the circumference of the Earth. Inspired by Eratosthenes' method, students can use a similar experiment to measure the size of the planet, using (at the same time) two different sticks in two different cities in the same meridian. This entails that two different schools or groups need to cooperate, in order to measure and compare the angle between the sun and the stick and hence, calculate the circumference of the Earth.

  5. The EarthServer project: Exploiting Identity Federations, Science Gateways and Social and Mobile Clients for Big Earth Data Analysis (United States)

    Barbera, Roberto; Bruno, Riccardo; Calanducci, Antonio; Messina, Antonio; Pappalardo, Marco; Passaro, Gianluca


    The EarthServer project (, funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program, aims at establishing open access and ad-hoc analytics on extreme-size Earth Science data, based on and extending leading-edge Array Database technology. The core idea is to use database query languages as client/server interface to achieve barrier-free "mix & match" access to multi-source, any-size, multi-dimensional space-time data -- in short: "Big Earth Data Analytics" - based on the open standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Coverage Processing Service (OGC WCPS) and the W3C XQuery. EarthServer combines both, thereby achieving a tight data/metadata integration. Further, the rasdaman Array Database System ( is extended with further space-time coverage data types. On server side, highly effective optimizations - such as parallel and distributed query processing - ensure scalability to Exabyte volumes. Six Lighthouse Applications are being established in EarthServer, each of which poses distinct challenges on Earth Data Analytics: Cryospheric Science, Airborne Science, Atmospheric Science, Geology, Oceanography, and Planetary Science. Altogether, they cover all Earth Science domains; the Planetary Science use case has been added to challenge concepts and standards in non-standard environments. In addition, EarthLook (maintained by Jacobs University) showcases use of OGC standards in 1D through 5D use cases. In this contribution we will report on the first applications integrated in the EarthServer Science Gateway and on the clients for mobile appliances developed to access them. We will also show how federated and social identity services can allow Big Earth Data Providers to expose their data in a distributed environment keeping a strict and fine-grained control on user authentication and authorisation. The degree of fulfilment of the EarthServer implementation with the recommendations made in the recent TERENA Study on

  6. Earth Day 2012: Greening Government

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast describes sustainability efforts at CDC in relation to Earth Day celebrations and details agency greenhouse gas reduction strategies and successes.  Created: 4/19/2012 by Office of the Chief Operating Officer (OCOO)/ Chief Sustainability Office (CSO).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  7. NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (United States)

    Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.


    The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.

  8. A Spector over the Earth. (United States)

    Murphy, Michael E.


    Discusses the disciplinary make up of the study of the greenhouse effect, suggesting that physics, chemistry, earth science, social studies, and religion classes are all appropriate arenas for discussions of the topic. Highlights resources available to teach this complex multidisciplinary topic. (DMM)

  9. A journey through Earth climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramstein, Gilles; Brunet, Michel


    The author proposes a history of climates all along Earth's history, describes how cold and warm periods have been alternating during these billions of years. He also tries to highlight lessons learned from this long evolution of climate in order to better understand the current global warming. He discusses whether this disruption is unique in Earth's history, and how it threatens our environment and therefore our survival. The chapters describe how Earth could escape a global glaciation, the thermal regulation by greenhouse effect gases in a world without oxygen, the empowerment of oxygen and the first thermal accident, a new oxygenated and warm world, the second accident or how Earth entered and escaped from periods of total glaciation, the possible stabilisation, the succession of deregulations, crisis and extinctions, the slow way down to the cold, the various paleo-indicators during the Quaternary, the high frequency oscillations of climate during the last million of years, and the uncertain projections

  10. Scarcity of rare earth elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M.A.; Lammertsma, K.


    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other

  11. Variability of the earth's climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplessy, J.C.


    In this paper, the global evolution of the Earth's climate since the Precambrian is described and the reconstruction of the last major oscillations generally referred to as the last climatic cycles which occurred during the Quarternary is presented: isotope geochemistry, micropaleontological transfer functions; ice volume and sea level, temperatures, deep water circulation of the last climatic cycle

  12. The origin of the Earth. (United States)

    Taylor, S R


    It is not possible to consider the formation of the Earth in isolation without reference to the formation of the rest of the solar system. A brief account is given of the current scientific consensus on that topic, explaining the origin of an inner solar system rocky planet depleted in most of the gaseous and icy components of the original solar nebula. Volatile element depletion occurred at a very early stage in the nebula, and was probably responsible for the formation of Jupiter before that of the inner planets. The Earth formed subsequently from accumulation of a hierarchy of planetesimals. Evidence of these remains in the ancient cratered surfaces and the obliquities (tilts) of most planets. Earth melting occurred during this process, as well as from the giant Moon-forming impact. The strange density and chemistry of the Moon are consistent with an origin from the mantle of the impactor. Core-mantle separation on the Earth was coeval with accretion. Some speculations are given on the origin of the hydrosphere.

  13. Availability of Earth resources data (United States)



    The purpose of this booklet is to help the reader to become aware of the volume of Earth resources data that have been collected by agencies of the United States Government and to find out where and how these data may be obtained. Earth resources data as discussed here are those obtained by remote-sensing instruments, including aerial cameras, multispectral cameras, multispectral scanners, and radar. They are obtained by spacecraft and high-altitude aircraft. Also, various agencies have been acquiring vast quantities of conventional aerial mapping photography from low and medium altitudes for more than 50 years. There is also brief information to assist the reader in locating published references and identifying research projects relating to application of Earth resources data to a variety of purposes. In all cases, it is not the intent to say what data are needed or how the data are to be used, but to describe where an interested person can begin to locate Earth resources data.

  14. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally! (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda


    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  15. Earth observation for rangeland monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel


    Full Text Available of rangeland quality, showed together with the study area map (top). Nutrient maps extracted from a published paper: Ramoelo et al. 2012, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 19, pp. 151-162 Photo courtesy of Mr Mafuza Maya... Photo courtesy of Mr Mafuza Maya ...

  16. Earth Pressure on Tunnel Crown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    Two different analyses have been carried out in order to find the vertical earth pressure, or overburden pressure, at the crown of a tunnel going through a dike. Firstly, a hand calculation is performed using a simple dispersion of the stresses over depth. Secondly, the finite‐element program...

  17. Paleoseismology: evidence of earth activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie


    Roč. 105, č. 5 (2016), 1467-1469 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Paleoseismology * Colluvial wedge * White Creek Fault _ * Greendale Fault * San Andreas Fault * Paganica Fault Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  18. Communicating Earth Science Applications through Virtual Poster Sessions (United States)

    Favors, J. E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Ruiz, M. L.; Rogers, L.


    The DEVELOP National Program addresses environmental and public policy issues through interdisciplinary research projects that apply the lens of NASA Earth observations to community concerns around the globe. Part of NASA's Applied Sciences' Capacity Building Program, DEVELOP bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society, building capacity in both participants and partner organizations to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Teams of DEVELOP participants partner with decision makers to conduct rapid feasibility projects that highlight fresh applications of NASA's suite of Earth observing sensors, cultivate advanced skills, and increase understanding of NASA Earth Science data and technology. Part of this process involves the creation of short introductory videos that demonstrate the environmental concerns, project methodologies and results, and an overview of how this work will impact decision makers. These videos are presented to the public three times a year in 'virtual poster sessions' (VPS) that provide an interactive way for individuals from around the globe to access the research, understand the capabilities and applications of NASA's Earth science datasets, and interact with the participants through blogging and dialogue sessions. Virtual poster sessions have allowed DEVELOP to introduce NASA's Earth science assets to thousands of viewers around the world. For instance, one fall VPS had over 5,000 visitors from 89 different countries during the two week session. This presentation will discuss lessons learned and statistics related to the series of nine virtual poster sessions that DEVELOP has conducted 2011-2013.

  19. Electromagnetic Analysis of Ring Earth Electrode for Wind Turbine (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiaki; Yasuda, Yoh; Ueda, Toshiaki

    Lightning protection of wind power generation is becoming an important public issue. Japan in particular suffers from frequent and heavy lightning strikes, such as the notorious “winter lightning” found in coastal areas of the Sea of Japan. Also, it is important to understand the “impedance characteristics” of wind turbine earthing systems from the viewpoint of lightning protection. A report from IEC, TR61400-24, recommends a “ring earth electrode” however, this concept has not been fully clarified, especially its transient behavior during a lightning strike remains unresolved. To confirm the effect of a ring earth electrode, this report presents an electromagnetic transient analysis on a foundation and ring earth electrode of a wind power generator using a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The results show that the ring earth electrode provides a low steady resistance with little inductive potential rise. Thus, it is confirmed that the ring earth electrode provides effective lightning protection of wind turbines.

  20. The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurrell, Jim; Holland, Marika M.; Gent, Peter R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Kay, Jennifer; Kushner, P.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Large, William G.; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Lipscomb, William; Long , Matthew; Mahowald, N.; Marsh, D.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vavrus, Steven J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Bader, David C.; Collins, William D.; Hack, James; Kiehl, J. T.; Marshall, Shawn


    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a flexible and extensible community tool used to investigate a diverse set of earth system interactions across multiple time and space scales. This global coupled model is a natural evolution from its predecessor, the Community Climate System Model, following the incorporation of new earth system capabilities. These include the ability to simulate biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, ice sheets, and a high-top atmosphere. These and other new model capabilities are enabling investigations into a wide range of pressing scientific questions, providing new predictive capabilities and increasing our collective knowledge about the behavior and interactions of the earth system. Simulations with numerous configurations of the CESM have been provided to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and are being analyzed by the broader community of scientists. Additionally, the model source code and associated documentation are freely available to the scientific community to use for earth system studies, making it a true community tool. Here we describe this earth modeling system, its various possible configurations, and illustrate its capabilities with a few science highlights.

  1. Hot super-Earths stripped by their host stars. (United States)

    Lundkvist, M S; Kjeldsen, H; Albrecht, S; Davies, G R; Basu, S; Huber, D; Justesen, A B; Karoff, C; Silva Aguirre, V; Van Eylen, V; Vang, C; Arentoft, T; Barclay, T; Bedding, T R; Campante, T L; Chaplin, W J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Elsworth, Y P; Gilliland, R L; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Kawaler, S D; Lund, M N; Metcalfe, T S; Miglio, A; Rowe, J F; Stello, D; Tingley, B; White, T R


    Simulations predict that hot super-Earth sized exoplanets can have their envelopes stripped by photoevaporation, which would present itself as a lack of these exoplanets. However, this absence in the exoplanet population has escaped a firm detection. Here we demonstrate, using asteroseismology on a sample of exoplanets and exoplanet candidates observed during the Kepler mission that, while there is an abundance of super-Earth sized exoplanets with low incident fluxes, none are found with high incident fluxes. We do not find any exoplanets with radii between 2.2 and 3.8 Earth radii with incident flux above 650 times the incident flux on Earth. This gap in the population of exoplanets is explained by evaporation of volatile elements and thus supports the predictions. The confirmation of a hot-super-Earth desert caused by evaporation will add an important constraint on simulations of planetary systems, since they must be able to reproduce the dearth of close-in super-Earths.

  2. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Eyring, L.


    This handbook is a six-volume work which covers the entire rare earth field in an integrated manner. Each chapter is a comprehensive, up-to-date, critical review of a particular segment of the field. The first volume is devoted to the rare earth metals, the second to rare earth alloys and intermetallics, and the third and fourth volumes to the non-metallic rare earth materials, including solutions, complexes and bioinorganic substances, in addition to solid inorganic compounds. The electronic structure of these unique elements is the primary basis of understanding their physical, metallurgical and chemical natures. The interrelationship of the 4f and valence electrons and the observed optical, electrical, magnetic, crystallographic, elastic, thermal, mechanical, chemical, geochemical and biological behaviors is brought forth time and again throughout the chapters. Also discussed are the preparative, separation and solution chemistry of the elements and their compounds and the various chemical and physical analytical methods for determining the rare earths in various materials and impurities in a rare earth matrix. Vol. 5 is a update complement of the previous volumes. Volume 6 is concerned with ternary and higher order materials. (Auth.)

  3. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center (United States)

    Kafatos, Menas


    The report spans the three year period beginning in June of 2001 and ending June of 2004. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center's (JIESIC) primary purpose has been to carry out research in support of the Global Change Data Center and other Earth science laboratories at Goddard involved in Earth science, remote sensing and applications data and information services. The purpose is to extend the usage of NASA Earth Observing System data, microwave data and other Earth observing data. JIESIC projects fall within the following categories: research and development; STW and WW prototyping; science data, information products and services; and science algorithm support. JIESIC facilitates extending the utility of NASA's Earth System Enterprise (ESE) data, information products and services to better meet the science data and information needs of a number of science and applications user communities, including domain users such as discipline Earth scientists, interdisciplinary Earth scientists, Earth science applications users and educators.

  4. Rare earths: occurrence, production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.K.S.; Mukherjee, T.K.


    The mining and processing of rare earth minerals, particularly of monazite, began in a modest way in 1880s for commercialized production of mantle for gas lighting. For all major applications up to mid-twentieth century- production of lighter flints, misch metal as a metallurgical alloying agent, colouring, decolourizing and polishing agents for glass, petroleum cracking catalysts and arc-carbons, unseparated or partially separated rare earths were adequate. These applications continue till today. With the development and industrial application of powerful techniques like ion exchange and solvent extraction for the separation of rare earths, the decades after 1960 saw increasing utilization of the specific properties of the individual rare earths. Some of these advanced technological applications include: special glass for optical systems including camera lenses, phosphors for colour television, cathode ray tubes and fluorescent lighting, X-ray intensification screens, high intensity permanent magnets, electro optical devices, lasers, hydrogen storage materials, hydride rechargeable batteries, photomagnetic data storage systems, autoexhaust catalysts, special ceramics of unusual toughness, artificial diamonds and nonpoisonous plastic colorants. The topics covered in the book include rare earths: their story identity, rare earth resources, processing of ores and recovery of mixed rare earths products, separation and purification of rare earths, nonmetallic applications of rare earths, rare earth metals: production and applications, rare earth alloys and their applications, analysis of rare earth, processing of rare earth resources in India by Indian Rare Earth Ltd. and availability and market conditions

  5. Flexible Description and Adaptive Processing of Earth Observation Data through the BigEarth Platform (United States)

    Gorgan, Dorian; Bacu, Victor; Stefanut, Teodor; Nandra, Cosmin; Mihon, Danut


    The Earth Observation data repositories extending periodically by several terabytes become a critical issue for organizations. The management of the storage capacity of such big datasets, accessing policy, data protection, searching, and complex processing require high costs that impose efficient solutions to balance the cost and value of data. Data can create value only when it is used, and the data protection has to be oriented toward allowing innovation that sometimes depends on creative people, which achieve unexpected valuable results through a flexible and adaptive manner. The users need to describe and experiment themselves different complex algorithms through analytics in order to valorize data. The analytics uses descriptive and predictive models to gain valuable knowledge and information from data analysis. Possible solutions for advanced processing of big Earth Observation data are given by the HPC platforms such as cloud. With platforms becoming more complex and heterogeneous, the developing of applications is even harder and the efficient mapping of these applications to a suitable and optimum platform, working on huge distributed data repositories, is challenging and complex as well, even by using specialized software services. From the user point of view, an optimum environment gives acceptable execution times, offers a high level of usability by hiding the complexity of computing infrastructure, and supports an open accessibility and control to application entities and functionality. The BigEarth platform [1] supports the entire flow of flexible description of processing by basic operators and adaptive execution over cloud infrastructure [2]. The basic modules of the pipeline such as the KEOPS [3] set of basic operators, the WorDeL language [4], the Planner for sequential and parallel processing, and the Executor through virtual machines, are detailed as the main components of the BigEarth platform [5]. The presentation exemplifies the development

  6. Accretion of Moon and Earth and the emergence of life (United States)

    Arrhenius, G.; Lepland, A.


    The discrepancy between the impact records on the Earth and Moon in the time period, 4.0-3.5 Ga calls for a re-evaluation of the cause and localization of the late lunar bombardment. As one possible explanation, we propose that the time coverage in the ancient rock record is sufficiently fragmentary, so that the effects of giant, sterilizing impacts throughout the inner solar system, caused by marauding asteroids, could have escaped detection in terrestrial and Martian records. Alternatively, the lunar impact record may reflect collisions of the receding Moon with a series of small, original satellites of the Earth and their debris in the time period about 4.0-3.5 Ga. The effects on Earth of such encounters could have been comparatively small. The location of these tellurian moonlets has been estimated to have been in the region around 40 Earth radii. Calculations presented here, indicate that this is the region that the Moon would traverse at 4.0-3.5 Ga, when the heavy and declining lunar bombardment took place. The ultimate time limit for the emergence of life on Earth is determined by the effects of planetary accretion--existing models offer a variety of scenarios, ranging from low average surface temperature at slow accretion of the mantle, to complete melting of the planet followed by protracted cooling. The choice of accretion model affects the habitability of the planet by dictating the early evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Further exploration of the sedimentary record on Earth and Mars, and of the chemical composition of impact-generated ejecta on the Moon, may determine the choice between the different interpretations of the late lunar bombardment and cast additional light on the time and conditions for the emergence of life.

  7. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.


    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  8. Incorporating Geoethics in Introductory Earth System Science Courses (United States)

    Schmitt, J.


    The integrative nature of Earth System Science courses provides extensive opportunities to introduce students to geoethical inquiry focused on globally significant societal issues. Geoscience education has traditionally lagged in its efforts to increase student awareness of the significance of geologic knowledge to understanding and responsibly confronting causes and possible solutions for emergent, newly emerging, and future problems of anthropogenic cause and consequence. Developing an understanding of the human impact on the earth system requires early (lower division) and for geoscience majors, repeated (upper division) curricular emphasis on the interactions of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere across space and through time. Capturing the interest of university students in globally relevant earth system issues and their ethical dimensions while first learning about the earth system is an important initial step in bringing geoethical deliberation and awareness to the next generation of geoscientists. Development of a new introductory Earth System Science course replacing a traditional introductory Physical Geology course at Montana State University has involved abandonment of concept-based content organization in favor of a place-based approach incorporating examination of the complex interactions of earth system components and emergent issues and dilemmas deriving from the unique component interactions that characterize each locale. Thirteen different place-based week-long modules (using web- and classroom-based instruction) were developed to ensure cumulative broad coverage across the earth geographically and earth system components conceptually. Each place-based instructional module contains content of societal relevance requiring synthesis, critical evaluation, and reflection by students. Examples include making linkages between deforestation driven by economics and increased seismicity in Haiti, agriculture and development

  9. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene (United States)

    Liebig, Volker


    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  10. Development of an earth pressure model for design of earth retaining structures in piedmont soil. (United States)


    Anecdotal evidence suggests that earth pressure in Piedmont residual soils is typically over estimated. Such estimates of earth pressure impact the design of earth retaining structures used on highway projects. Thus, the development of an appropriate...

  11. China’s Rare Earths Production Forecasting and Sustainable Development Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibo Wang


    Full Text Available Because of their unique physical and chemical properties, Rare earth elements (REEs perform important functions in our everyday lives, with use in a range of products. Recently, the study of China’s rare earth elements production has become a hot topic of worldwide interest, because of its dominant position in global rare earth elements supply, and an increasing demand for rare earth elements due to the constant use of rare earth elements in high-tech manufacturing industries. At the same time, as an exhaustible resource, the sustainable development of rare earth elements has received extensive attention. However, most of the study results are based on a qualitative analysis of rare earth elements distribution and production capacity, with few studies using quantitative modeling. To achieve reliable results with more factors being taken into consideration, this paper applies the generic multivariant system dynamics model to forecast China’s rare earth elements production trend and Hubbert peak, using Vensim software based on the Hubbert model. The results show that the peak of China’s rare earth elements production will appear by 2040, and that production will slowly decline afterwards. Based on the results, the paper proposes some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of China’s—and the world’s—rare earth elements market and rare earth-related industries.

  12. Mass driver retrievals of earth-approaching asteroids. [earth orbit capture for mining purposes (United States)

    Oleary, B.


    Mass driver tugs can be designed to move Apollo and Amor asteroids at opportunities of low velocity increment to the vicinity of the earth. The cost of transferring asteroids through a velocity interval of 3 km/sec by mass driver is about 16 cents per kilogram amortized over 10 years, about ten times less than that required to retrieve lunar resources during the early phases of a program of space manufacturing. About 22 per cent of a 200-meter diameter asteroid could be transferred to high earth orbit by an automated 100 megawatt solar-powered mass driver in a period of five years for a cost of approximately $1 billion. Estimates of the total investment of a space manufacturing program could be reduced twofold by using asteroidal instead of lunar resources; such a program could begin several years sooner with minimal concurrent development if asteroidal search programs and mass driver development are immediately accelerated.

  13. Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Rare Earth Atoms (United States)

    Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Palm, Christopher; Joshi, Trinity; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Jackson Kimball, Derek


    We discuss progress in our experimental program to employ optical-frequency-comb-based spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms. We plan to carry out systematic measurements of atomic transitions in rare-earth atoms to elucidate the energy level structure and term assignment and determine presently unknown atomic state parameters. This spectroscopic information is important in view of the increasing interest in rare-earth atoms for atomic frequency standards, in astrophysical investigations of chemically peculiar stars, and in tests of fundamental physics (tests of parity and time-reversal invariance, searches for time variation of fundamental constants, etc.). We are presently studying the use of hollow cathode lamps as atomic sources for two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0958749.

  14. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter (United States)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.


    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  15. Earth materials and health: research priorities for earth science and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Research Priorities for Earth Science and Public Health; National Research Council; Board on Health Sciences Policy; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences


    .... Improved understanding of the pervasive and complex interactions between earth materials and human health will require creative collaborations between earth scientists and public health professionals...

  16. Sensing Planet Earth - Chalmers' MOOCs on Earth observation (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Stöhr, Christian; Murtagh, Donal; Forkman, Peter; Galle, Bo; Mellquist, Johan; Soja, Maciej; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif; Haas, Rüdiger


    An increasing number of universities around the globe produce and conduct Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In the beginning of 2016, Chalmers University of Technology ran two MOOCs on the topic of Earth observations on the edX platform. Both four week long courses were at introductory level and covered topics related to solid Earth, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere. It was discussed how one can measure and trace global change and use remote sensing tools for disaster monitoring. Research has attempted to assess the learners' motivations to participate in MOOCs, but there is a need for further case studies about motivations, opportunities and challenges for teachers engaging in MOOC development. In our presentation, we are going to report about the experiences gained from both the MOOC production and the actual course run from the instructors' perspective. After brief introduction to MOOCs in general and at Chalmers in particular, we share experiences and challenges of developing lecture and assessment material, the video production and coordination efforts between and within different actors involved in the production process. Further, we reflect upon the actual run of the course including course statistics and feedback from the learners. We discuss issues such as learner activation and engagement with the material, teacher-learner and student-student interaction as well as the scalability of different learning activities. Finally