WorldWideScience

Sample records for earth chelate species

  1. Mixed ligand chelates of rare earths in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhani, S.U.; Thakur, G.S.; Sangal, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Mixed ligand chelates of the 1:1 trivalent lanthanoids-EDTA, HEDTA and NTA chelates-1, 2-Dihydroxybenzene (Pyrocatechol) have been investigated at 35degC and 0.2 M ionic strength maintained by NaC10 4 . The formation of mixed ligand chelates has been found in all cases. The formation of mixed ligand chelates with EDTA shows the coordination number of lanthanoids to be eight, while the mixed ligand chelates with HEDTA and NTA shows the coordination number to be seven and six respectively. The stability constants of mixed ligand chelates are smaller than the binary complexes. The order of stability constants with respect to primary ligands follows the order NTA>HEDTA>EDTA. With respect to metal ions the stability constants increases with the decrease in ionic radii such as Gd< Er< Yb. (author)

  2. Photostability of solutions of rare earth chelates in organic solvents and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasev, V.E.; Mirochnik, A.G.; Lysun, T.V.; Vovna, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of comparative study of photochemical properties of rare erath chelate complexes (adducts of rare earth β-diketonates with triphenylphosphine oxide, hexamethylphosphotriamide, phenanthroline) in organic solvents and polymers. Effect of excitation conditions, composition, solvent, nature of ligand and rare earth ion on photolysis rate was investigated. 9 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  3. Hydrolysis of Some C,N-Chelated Organotin(IV) Species Used in Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Švec, P.

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the reactivity of the selected C, N-chelated organotin (IV) species towards cyclohexene oxide, ethylene carbonate, and CO2. Structure of organotin(IV) hydrolytic products isolated from respective reaction mixtures was described.

  4. Use of non-hyperaccumulator plant species for the phytoextraction of heavy metals using chelating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Anjos Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination by heavy metals is a challenge faced by many countries, and engineering technologies to solve this problem are expensive and can cause negative impacts on the environment. One way to minimise the levels of heavy metals in the soil is to use plants that can absorb and accumulate heavy metals into harvestable parts, a process called phytoextraction. Typical plant species used in research involving phytoextraction are heavy metal hyperaccumulators, but plants from this group are not good biomass producers and grow more slowly than most species; thus, they have an important role in helping scientists understand the mechanisms involved in accumulating high amounts of heavy metals without developing symptoms or dying. However, because of their slow growth, it is not practical to use these species for phytoextraction. An alternative approach is to use non-hyperaccumulator plants assisted by chelating agents, which may improve the ability of plants to accumulate more heavy metals than they would naturally. Chelating agents can be synthetic or organic acids, and the advantages and disadvantages of their use in improving the phytoextraction potential of non-hyperaccumulator plants are discussed in this article. We hope to draw attention to ways to improve the phytoextraction potential of non-hyperaccumulator plants that produce a large amount of biomass and to stimulate more research on phytoextraction-inducing substances.

  5. Effect of ammonium and nitrate on ferric chelate reductase and nitrate reductase in Vaccinium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnachit, U; Darnell, R

    2004-04-01

    Most Vaccinium species have strict soil requirements for optimal growth, requiring low pH, high iron availability and nitrogen primarily in the ammonium form. These soils are limited and are often located near wetlands. Vaccinium arboreum is a wild species adapted to a wide range of soils, including high pH, low iron, and nitrate-containing soils. This broader soil adaptation in V. arboreum may be related to increased efficiency of iron or nitrate uptake compared with the cultivated Vaccinium species. Nitrate, ammonium and iron uptake, and nitrate reductase (NR) and ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activities were compared in two Vaccinium species grown hydroponically in either nitrate or ammonia, with or without iron. The species studied were the wild V. arboreum and the cultivated V. corymbosum interspecific hybrid, which exhibits the strict soil requirements of most Vaccinium species. Ammonium uptake was significantly greater than nitrate uptake in both species, while nitrate uptake was greater in the wild species, V. arboreum, compared with the cultivated species, V. corymbosum. The increased nitrate uptake in V. arboreum was correlated with increased root NR activity compared with V. corymbosum. The lower nitrate uptake in V. corymbosum was reflected in decreased plant dry weight in this species compared with V. arboreum. Root FCR activity increased significantly in V. corymbosum grown under iron-deficient conditions, compared with the same species grown under iron-sufficient conditions or with V. arboreum grown under either iron condition. V. arboreum appears to be more efficient in acquiring nitrate compared with V. corymbosum, possibly due to increased NR activity and this may partially explain the wider soil adaptation of V. arboreum.

  6. Species-Dependent Chelation of 241Am by DTPA Di-ethyl Ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg−1 dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 hours in beagles. PMID:25706138

  7. Species-dependent chelation of (241)Am by DTPA Di-ethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, James E; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA-approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore, a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established, and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles, and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 h in beagles.

  8. STUDIES REGARDING THE CHELATE-INDUCED HYPERACCUMULATION OF CU AND FE USING LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES IN MINING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-DIANA PRICOP

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The plant capacity to absorb high amounts of metal for a short period of time is the major factor that influences the efficiency of phytoextraction. The hyperaccumulating plants uptake high amounts in their tissues correlated to the metal concentrations in soil. Chelating agents have the capacity to induce the metal accumulation in biomass. They increase metal bioavailability for plants by releasing the metal in accessible forms. The present study emphasizes that in the case of EDTA use, the obtained biomass is smaller compared to the other variants, showing a lower tolerance to this chelating agent of Lolium perenne species. Cu and Fe phytoextraction by Lolium perenne species is higher in the case of EDTA use. Cu bioaccumulation has higher values in variants with compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:4 in comparison with Fe. In the case of the best compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:3 the highest biomass is obtained in all the variants, biosolids’ effect being stronger compared to the chelating agent.

  9. Determination of rare earth elements in seawater by ICP-MS after preconcentration with a chelating resin-packed minicolumn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yanbei; Itoh, Akihide; Fujimori, Eiji; Umemura, Tomonari; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) in seawater were preconcentrated 20-fold (from 50 to 2.5 ml) by a chelating resin-packed minicolumn device and determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The recoveries for REEs were in the range from 90% for Eu and Dy to 98% for Yb, and their standard deviations were less than 4%. The lower detection limits for REEs ranged from 0.06 ng l -1 for Lu to 0.5 ng l -1 for Sm. The analytical results for REEs in seawater reference materials (NASS-5, CASS-3, and CASS-4), the Take Island coastal seawater, and the Ise Bay coastal seawater were evaluated as the REE distribution patterns with shale-normalization and deep seawater-normalization. Slight relative enrichments of heavy REEs were observed in the Take Island coastal seawater and the Ise Bay coastal seawater, which might be attributed to the input from the river flows containing more dissolved heavy REEs. In addition, positive anomalies of Sm were found in the normalized REE distribution patterns for NASS-5, CASS-3, and CASS-4, which would be attributed to the contamination in the preparation process of reference materials by NRC

  10. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Neil G.; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Kwang, Yak Hwa

    1998-01-01

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO.sub.2, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO.sub.2 and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process.

  11. Phytoextraction of 55-year-old wastewater-irrigated soil in a Zn-Pb mine district: effect of plant species and chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, YiPing; Yang, YuFen; Li, ZhiAn; Yang, Yang; Wang, JiaXi; Zhuang, Ping; Zou, Bi

    2017-07-16

    Untreated water from mining sites spreads heavy metal contamination. The present study assessed the phytoextraction performance of heavy metal-accumulating plants and the effects of chemical chelators on cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) removal from paddy fields that have been continuously irrigated with mining wastewater from mines for 55 years. Outdoor pot experiments showed that the total Pb, Zn, and Cd content was lower in the rhizosphere soil of Amaranthus hypochondriacus than in that of Sedum alfredii, Solanum nigrum, and Sorghum bicolor. The aboveground biomass (dry weight) and relative growth rate of A. hypochondriacus were significantly higher than that of the other three species (P phytoextraction effect.

  12. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  13. Copper chelators: chemical properties and bio-medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegoni, M; Valensin, D; Toso, L; Remelli, M

    2014-01-01

    Copper is present in different concentrations and chemical forms throughout the earth crust, surface and deep water and even, in trace amounts, in the atmosphere itself. Copper is one of the first metals used by humans, the first artifacts dating back 10,000 years ago. Currently, the world production of refined copper exceeds 16,000 tons/year. Copper is a micro-element essential to life, principally for its red-ox properties that make it a necessary cofactor for many enzymes, like cytochrome-c oxidase and superoxide dismutase. In some animal species (e.g. octopus, snails, spiders, oysters) copper-hemocyanins also act as carriers of oxygen instead of hemoglobin. However, these red-ox properties also make the pair Cu(+)/Cu(2+) a formidable catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species, when copper is present in excess in the body or in tissues. The treatment of choice in cases of copper overloading or intoxication is the chelation therapy. Different molecules are already in clinical use as chelators or under study or clinical trial. It is worth noting that chelation therapy has also been suggested to treat some neurodegenerative diseases or cardiovascular disorders. In this review, after a brief description of the homeostasis and some cases of dyshomeostasis of copper, the main (used or potential) chelators are described; their properties in solution, even in relation to the presence of metal or ligand competitors, under physiological conditions, are discussed. The legislation of the most important Western countries, regarding both the use of chelating agents and the limits of copper in foods, drugs and cosmetics, is also outlined.

  14. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements in various plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu have been determined in 6 different plant species by neutron activation analysis. When the concentrations of each species were normalized to Norway spruce, smooth curves were obtained which revealed systematic inter-species differences. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  15. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements in various plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V.

    1997-01-01

    The elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu have been determined in 6 different plant species by neutron activation analysis. When the concentrations of each species were normalized to Norway spruce, smooth curves were obtained which revealed systematic inter-species differences. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs

  16. Using Google Earth Surface Metrics to Predict Plant Species Richness in a Complex Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Block

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Google Earth provides a freely available, global mosaic of high-resolution imagery from different sensors that has become popular in environmental and ecological studies. However, such imagery lacks the near-infrared band often used in studying vegetation, thus its potential for estimating vegetation properties remains unclear. In this study, we assess the potential of Google Earth imagery to describe and predict vegetation attributes. Further, we compare it to the potential of SPOT imagery, which has additional spectral information. We measured basal area, vegetation height, crown cover, density of individuals, and species richness in 60 plots in the oak forests of a complex volcanic landscape in central Mexico. We modelled each vegetation attribute as a function of surface metrics derived from Google Earth and SPOT images, and selected the best-supported linear models from each source. Total species richness was the best-described and predicted variable: the best Google Earth-based model explained nearly as much variation in species richness as its SPOT counterpart (R2 = 0.44 and 0.51, respectively. However, Google Earth metrics emerged as poor predictors of all remaining vegetation attributes, whilst SPOT metrics showed potential for predicting vegetation height. We conclude that Google Earth imagery can be used to estimate species richness in complex landscapes. As it is freely available, Google Earth can broaden the use of remote sensing by researchers and managers in low-income tropical countries where most biodiversity hotspots are found.

  17. [Susceptibility of enterococci to natural and synthetic iron chelators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecki, Paweł; Mikucki, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    A total of 79 strains of enterococci belonging to 10 species were tested for susceptibility to natural and synthetic iron chelators. All strains produced siderophores. These enterococci were susceptible to three synthetic iron chelators only: 8-hydroxyquinoline, disodium versenate (EDTA) and o-phenanthroline. They were resistant to all other synthetic chelators: ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA), nitrilotriacetate, 2,2'-bipiridyl, salicylic acid, 8-hydroxy-5-sulphonic acid and to all natural chelators: ovotransferrine, human apotransferrine, horse apoferritine, desferrioxamine B, ferrichrome and rhodotorulic acid. The relations between susceptibility/resistance, iron assimilation and structure and stability constants of iron chelators were discussed.

  18. Chelation in Metal Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J.S. Flora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.

  19. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  20. Chelation in metal intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, yang

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due to the incon......The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due...... to the inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment...... of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the new...

  1. Uptake of rare earth elements by dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of uptake of rare earth elements (REEs) were investigated, particularly those by REE accumulator species (autumn fern). Rare earth elements are practically insoluble under natural conditions, suggesting some unknown mechanisms in REE accumulator species. In the present investigation, two notable phenomena were observed. (1) Concerning the ionic-radius dependence of REE uptake by leaves, nonaccumulator species showed an extremely high uptake for Y compared with the adjacent-ionic-radius REEs in the multitracer, while accumulator species showed no anomaly. (2) REE uptake by autumn fern was influenced by the addition of chelating chemical reagents in the uptake solution, while no effect was observed for nonaccumulator species. (author)

  2. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  3. Comments on chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of actinide chelation is to decrease the risk from radiation-induced cancer. While occupational exposures in the past have mainly involved low specific activity 239 Pu, future exposures will increasingly involve high specific activity plutonium, americium, and curium - all of which clear more rapidly from the lung. This will tend to shift the cancer risk from lung to bone and liver. Although therapy with Ca- or Zn-DTPA rapidly removes 241 Am from the canine, the sub-human primate, and the human liver, improved methods for removal from bone and lung are needed. DTPA can remove 241 Am more easily from the growing skeleton of a child than from the mature skeleton of an adult. Investigators at Karlsruhe are developing chelation agents for oral administration and are investigating the reduction in local dose to bone resulting from chelation therapy

  4. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  5. The hydroxypyridinone iron chelator CP94 increases methyl-aminolevulinate-based photodynamic cell killing by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuktee Dogra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Methyl-aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT is utilised clinically for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers and pre-cancers and the hydroxypyridinone iron chelator, CP94, has successfully been demonstrated to increase MAL-PDT efficacy in an initial clinical pilot study. However, the biochemical and photochemical processes leading to CP94-enhanced photodynamic cell death, beyond the well-documented increases in accumulation of the photosensitiser protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, have not yet been fully elucidated. This investigation demonstrated that MAL-based photodynamic cell killing of cultured human squamous carcinoma cells (A431 occurred in a predominantly necrotic manner following the generation of singlet oxygen and ROS. Augmenting MAL-based photodynamic cell killing with CP94 co-treatment resulted in increased PpIX accumulation, MitoSOX-detectable ROS generation (probably of mitochondrial origin and necrotic cell death, but did not affect singlet oxygen generation. We also report (to our knowledge, for the first time the detection of intracellular PpIX-generated singlet oxygen in whole cells via electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in conjunction with a spin trap.

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species on the Early Earth and Survival of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Melikea; Mason, Paul; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Smidt, Hauke; Freund, Friedemann; Rothschild, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    An oxygen-rich atmosphere appears to have been a prerequisite for complex, multicellular life to evolve on Earth and possibly elsewhere in the Universe. However it remains unclear how free oxygen first became available on the early Earth. A potentially important, and as yet poorly constrained pathway, is the production of oxygen through the weathering of rocks and release into the near-surface environment. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), as precursors to molecular oxygen, are a key step in this process, and may have had a decisive impact on the evolution of life, present and past. ROS are generated from minerals in igneous rocks during hydrolysis of peroxy defects, which consist of pairs of oxygen anions oxidized to the valence state -1 and during (bio) transformations of iron sulphide minerals. ROS are produced and consumed by intracellular and extracellular reactions of Fe, Mn, C, N, and S species. We propose that, despite an overall reducing or neutral oxidation state of the macroenvironment and the absence of free O2 in the atmosphere, organisms on the early Earth had to cope with ROS in their microenvironments. They were thus under evolutionary pressure to develop enzymatic and other defences against the potentially dangerous, even lethal effects of oxygen and its derived ROS. Conversely it appears that microorganisms learned to take advantage of the enormous reactive potential and energy gain provided by nascent oxygen. We investigate how oxygen might be released through weathering. We test microorganisms in contact with rock surfaces and iron sulphides. We model bacteria such as Deionococcus radiodurans and Desulfotomaculum, Moorella and Bacillus species for their ability to grow or survive in the presence of ROS. We examine how early Life might have adapted to oxygen.

  7. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  8. Steam Gasification of Sawdust Biochar Influenced by Chemical Speciation of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metallic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical speciation (H2O/NH4Ac/HCl-soluble and insoluble of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on the steam gasification of sawdust biochar was investigated in a lab-scale, fixed-bed reactor, with the method of chemical fractionation analysis. The changes in biochar structures and the evolution of biochar reactivity are discussed, with a focus on the contributions of the chemical speciation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs on the steam gasification of biochar. The results indicate that H2O/NH4Ac/HCl-soluble AAEMs have a significant effect on biochar gasification rates. The release of K occurs mainly in the form of inorganic salts and hydrated ions, while that of Ca occurs mainly as organic ones. The sp3-rich or sp2-sp3 structures and different chemical-speciation AAEMs function together as the preferred active sites during steam gasification. H2O/HCl-soluble AAEMs could promote the transformation of biochar surface functional groups, from ether/alkene C-O-C to carboxylate COO− in biochar, while they may both be improved by NH4Ac-soluble AAEMs. H2O-soluble AAEMs play a crucial catalytic role in biochar reactivity. The effect of NH4Ac-soluble AAEMs is mainly concentrated in the high-conversion stage (biochar conversion >30%, while that of HCl-soluble AAEMs is reflected in the whole activity-testing stage.

  9. Selectivity in extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants (LIX84 and D2E11PA) was described. Stechiometry of metal-organic complexes examined using the method of equimolar ratios resulted in CuR 2 and InR 3 forms of hydrophobic extracting species. A linear correlation was obtained between logarithm of distribution coefficients and chelate agents and pH, respectively. Selectivity is generally higher with higher concentrations of chelate agents in the organic phase, and is decreased with increase of concentration of hydrogen ions in feeding phase. (Original)

  10. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytoextraction of rare earth elements in herbaceous plant species growing close to roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P. rhoeas were able to effectively transport REEs in their leaves, independently of area collection. The highest content of REEs was observed in P. rhoeas leaves and T. inodorum roots. Generally, HREEs were accumulated in P. rhoeas roots and leaves and also in the stems of T. inodorum and T. officinale, whereas LREEs were accumulated in T. inodorum roots and T. officinale stems. It is worth underlining that there was a clear relationship between road traffic intensity and REE, HREE and LREE concentration in soil. No positive correlation was found between the concentration of these elements in soil and their content in plants, with the exception of T. officinale. An effective transport of REEs from the root system to leaves was observed, what points to the possible ability of some of the tested plant species to remove REEs from soils near roads.

  12. The adsorption of chelating reagents on oxide minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, M.A.W.

    1984-06-01

    This work constitutes a fundamental study of the interaction between chelating reagents and oxide minerals. The adsorption mechanisms have been elucidated for most of the systems generated by the oxides of copper(II) or iron(III) and chelating reagents octyl hydroxamate, N-phenylbenzohydroxamate, salicylaldoxime, 5-nitro-salicylaldoxime or 8-hydroxyquinoline. In order to better understand the adsorption process associated with copper(II) oxide, the oxide was recrystallized to produce a coarser material with a more uniform surface. This allowed the oxide surface to be viewed under the scanning electron microscope. A detailed investigation of the effect of the system variables; pH, conditioning period, concentration, temperature, surface area and dispersing reagent on the rate of precipitation of the copper chelate species of general form, Cu(chel) 2 , was made. In addition the chemical nature of the adsorbed species and the structural form of the precipitates were determined with the aid of infra-red spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscope. On the basis of these results a model has been formulated for the adsorption processes. The precipitation process was examined in more detail by the study of the adsorption of chelate on copper metal. Contact angle measurements of air bubbles on copper metal conditioned with chelate were related to the adsorption results in an attempt to isolate the optimum conditions for flotation of oxide minerals

  13. Invasive species: Ocean ecosystem case studies for earth systems and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pam; Brown, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine species are increasingly transferred from areas where they are native to areas where they are not. Some nonnative species become invasive, causing undesirable impacts to environment, economy and/or human health. Nonnative marine species can be introduced through a variety of vectors, including shipping, trade, inland corridors (such as canals), and others. Effects of invasive marine species can be dramatic and irreversible. Case studies of four nonnative marine species are given (green crab, comb jelly, lionfish and Caulerpa algae).

  14. Iron chelating activity, phenol and flavonoid content of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... require regular blood transfusions in order to improve both quality of ... fused red blood cells and the excess iron is deposited as ... potentiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and .... The percentage inhibition of ferrozine–Fe2+ complex formation was ... estimation of the chelating activity of the coexisting.

  15. Article Commentary: Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  16. Treating Lead Toxicity: Possibilities beyond Synthetic Chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhavi Tannir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead, a ubiquitous metal, is one of the most abundant elements present on earth. Its easy availability and cost effectiveness made it an extremely popular component in the industrial revolution. However, its hazardous health effects were not considered at the time. Over the last few decades, with the adverse effects of lead coming to the forefront, nations across the world have started to recognize and treat lead toxicity. The most reliable and used method until now has been chelation therapy. Recent research has suggested the use of natural products and sources to treat lead poisoning with minimal or no side effects. This review has tried to summarize a few of the natural products/sources being investigated by various groups.

  17. Overview of current chelation practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aydinok

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Deferoxamine (DFO is reference standard therapy for transfusional iron overload since the 1980s. Although it is a highly effective iron chelator, the compliance problem to subcutaneous administration of DFO remains as the major problem. The oral chelator Deferiprone (DFP has no marketing licence in North America, however, it has been licensed in India since 1994 and the European Union (EU granted marketing approval for DFP in 1999, specifically for patients with thalassemia major when DFO is inadequate, intolerable or unacceptable. There are still limited data available on the use of DFP in children between 6 and 10 years of age, and no data on DFP use in children under 6 years of age. Subsequently the oral chelator Deferasirox (DFX was approved by FDA and EMA for the treatment of patients with transfusional iron overload -older than 2 years of age- as first line therapy, in 2005 and 2006 respectively. The primary objective of iron chelation is to maintain body iron at safe levels at all times but once iron is accumulated, the objective of iron chelation is to reduce tissue iron to safe levels which is a slow process. The chelation regimen, dose and frequency of administration, of the chelator(s are mainly determined based on body iron burden, presence of myocardial iron and the transfusional iron loading rate. A proper monitoring of chelation is of importance for measuring the response rate to a particular regimen and providing dose adjustments to enhance chelation efficacy and to avoid toxicity. Efficacy of a chelation regimen may exhibit individual variability resulting from factors such as absorbtion and metabolism of the chelator. Tolerability and compliance are also individual variables effecting the response to chelation. Understanding of advantages and limitations of chelators, accurately determining chelation needs of patients with iron overload and designing individualized chelation regimens with less toxicity but optimum efficacy

  18. Trace determination of yttrium and some heavy rare-earths by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Zadeii, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The interfacial and redox behaviour of rare-earth chelates the Solochrome Violet RS are exploited for developing a sensitive adsorptive stripping procedure. Yttrium and heavy rare earths such as dysprosium, holmium and ytterbium can thus be measured at ng/ml levels and below, by controlled adsorptive accumulation of the metal chelate at the hanging mercury drop electrode, followed by voltammetric measurement of the surface species. With a 3-min preconcentration time, the detection limit ranges from 5 x 10 -10 to 1.4 x 10 -9 M. The relative standard deviation at the 7 ng/ml level ranges from 4 to 7%. A separation method is required to differentiate between the individual rare-earth metals. (author)

  19. Manganese(II) chelate contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocklage, S.M.; Quay, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    New chelate forming compounds for use as contrast media in NMR imaging are described. Especially mentioned are manganese(II) ion chelates of N,N' dipyridoxaldiamine, N,N' diacetic acid, and salts and esters thereof. 1 fig

  20. Evaluation of Mercury Contamination in Fungi Boletus Species from Latosols, Lateritic Red Earths, and Red and Yellow Earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Falandysz

    Full Text Available For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter, and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter. Soil samples of the 0-10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from

  1. Evaluation of Mercury Contamination in Fungi Boletus Species from Latosols, Lateritic Red Earths, and Red and Yellow Earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Saba, Martyna; Krasińska, Grażyna; Wiejak, Anna; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg) have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter). Soil samples of the 0-10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from Yunnan can

  2. Acidizing reservoirs while chelating iron with sulfosalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, W A; Berkshire, D C

    1980-09-30

    A well treating process is described in which an aqueous solution of a strong acid capable of dissolving solids in a manner increasing the permeability of a subterranean earth formation is injected into a subterranean reservoir that contains an asphaltenic oil. At least the first injected portion of the aqueous acid and a solution or homogeneous dispersion of at least enough 5-sulfosalicylic acid to chelate with and prevent the formation of iron-asphaltene solids are included with substantially all of the ferric ions that become dissolved within the strong acid solution that enters the earth formation. 10 claims.

  3. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carpenter

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L. DC., Panicum virgatum L. and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L. in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50 causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18 fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12 falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that

  4. Environmental genomics reveals a single species ecosystem deep within the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivian, Dylan; Brodie, Eoin L.; Alm, Eric J.; Culley, David E.; Dehal, Paramvir S.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gihring, Thomas M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lin, Li-Hung; Lowry, Stephen R.; Moser, Duane P.; Richardson, Paul; Southam, Gordon; Wanger, Greg; Pratt, Lisa M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Brockman, Fred J.; Arkin, Adam P.; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2008-09-17

    DNA from low biodiversity fracture water collected at 2.8 km depth in a South African gold mine was sequenced and assembled into a single, complete genome. This bacterium, Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, comprises>99.9percent of the microorganisms inhabiting the fluid phase of this particular fracture. Its genome indicates a motile, sporulating, sulfate reducing, chemoautotrophic thermophile that can fix its own nitrogen and carbon using machinery shared with archaea. Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator is capable of an independent lifestyle well suited to long-term isolation from the photosphere deep within Earth?s crust, and offers the first example of a natural ecosystem that appears to have its biological component entirely encoded within a single genome.

  5. Combinational chelation therapy abrogates lead-induced neurodegeneration in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Saxena, Geetu; Mehta, Ashish; Mishra, Deepshikha; Flora, Swaran J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous and potent neurotoxicant causes oxidative stress which leads to numerous neurobehavioral and physiological alterations. The ability of lead to bind sulfhydryl groups or compete with calcium could be one of the reasons for its debilitating effects. In the present study, we addressed: i) if chelation therapy could circumvent the altered oxidative stress and prevent neuronal apoptosis in chronic lead-intoxicated rats, ii) whether chelation therapy could reverse biochemical and behavioral changes, and iii) if mono or combinational therapy with captopril (an antioxidant) and thiol chelating agents (DMSA/MiADMSA) is more effective than individual thiol chelator in lead-exposed rats. Results indicated that lead caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and intracellular free calcium levels along with altered behavioral abnormalities in locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, learning, and memory that were supported by changes in neurotransmitter levels. A fall in membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and DNA damage indicated mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Most of these alterations showed significant recovery following combined therapy with captopril with MiADMSA and to a smaller extend with captopril + DMSA over monotherapy with these chelators. It could be concluded from our present results that co-administration of a potent antioxidant (like captopril) might be a better treatment protocol than monotherapy to counter lead-induced oxidative stress. The major highlight of the work is an interesting experimental evidence of the efficacy of combinational therapy using an antioxidant with a thiol chelator in reversing neurological dystrophy caused due to chronic lead exposure in rats.

  6. Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, Robert John; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals o...

  7. High precision isotopic ratio analysis of volatile metal chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachey, D.L.; Blais, J.C.; Klein, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    High precision isotope ratio measurements have been made for a series of volatile alkaline earth and transition metal chelates using conventional GC/MS instrumentation. Electron ionization was used for alkaline earth chelates, whereas isobutane chemical ionization was used for transition metal studies. Natural isotopic abundances were determined for a series of Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn chelates. Absolute accuracy ranged between 0.01 and 1.19 at. %. Absolute precision ranged between +-0.01-0.27 at. % (RSD +- 0.07-10.26%) for elements that contained as many as eight natural isotopes. Calibration curves were prepared using natural abundance metals and their enriched 50 Cr, 60 Ni, and 65 Cu isotopes covering the range 0.1-1010.7 at. % excess. A separate multiple isotope calibration curve was similarly prepared using enriched 60 Ni (0.02-2.15 at. % excess) and 62 Ni (0.23-18.5 at. % excess). The samples were analyzed by GC/CI/MS. Human plasma, containing enriched 26 Mg and 44 Ca, was analyzed by EI/MS. 1 figure, 5 tables

  8. Different photoluminescent properties of binary and ternary europium chelates doped in PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongguo; Park, Seongtae; Jang, Kiwan; Zhang Wansong; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2003-01-01

    Two kinds of europium-β-diketone chelates, binary Eu(DBM) 3 and ternary Eu(DBM) 3 phen were doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). These chelates show very different photoluminescent (PL) behaviors: the hypersensitive 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 emission bands of Eu(DBM) 3 phen change slightly with the molar ratios, while those of Eu(DBM) 3 change obviously and regularly with the molar ratios. The results of the luminescent lifetimes of 5 D 0 levels show that the binary chelate exists as two kinds of species in the doped systems, and the lifetimes and contents of each species change with the molar ratios, while the ternary chelate exists as one kind of species in the doped systems. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the binary chelate doped systems give some diffraction peaks that are different from those of pure chelate and change with the molar ratios, indicating new kinds of crystal structures formed, and consequently, the first coordination sphere of Eu 3+ ion changes; while those of the ternary chelate doped systems just show amorphous diffraction halos of the host, indicating that the ternary chelate exist in an amorphous state and disperse well in the host. The FTIR spectra of PMMA also change gradually with increasing the molar ratios of the doped two kinds of chelates, and the XRD patterns show that the amorphous halos of PMMA in the doped systems are different from those of pure PMMA and change with the molar ratios, too, suggesting the interaction between the guest and the host

  9. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelators for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be

  10. Some inconvenient truths about biosignatures involving two chemical species on Earth-like exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Hanno; Fujii, Yuka; Spiegel, David S

    2014-05-13

    The detection of strong thermochemical disequilibrium in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet is thought to be a potential biosignature. In this article we present a previously unidentified kind of false positive that can mimic a disequilibrium or any other biosignature that involves two chemical species. We consider a scenario where the exoplanet hosts a moon that has its own atmosphere and neither of the atmospheres is in chemical disequilibrium. Our results show that the integrated spectrum of the planet and the moon closely resembles that of a single object in strong chemical disequilibrium. We derive a firm limit on the maximum spectral resolution that can be obtained for both directly imaged and transiting planets. The spectral resolution of even idealized space-based spectrographs that might be achievable in the next several decades is in general insufficient to break the degeneracy. Both chemical species can only be definitively confirmed in the same object if absorption features of both chemicals can be unambiguously identified and their combined depth exceeds 100%.

  11. Fates and roles of alkali and alkaline earth metal species during the pyrolysis and gasification of a Victorian lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mody, D.; Wu, H.; Li, C. [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The transformation of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) species in a Victorian lignite during the pyrolysis and subsequent gasification in CO{sub 2} was studied in a novel quartz fluidised-bed reactor. Lignite samples prepared by physically adding NaCl and ion-exchanging Na{sup +} and Ca{sup ++} into the lignite were used to investigate the effects of chemical forms and valency of the AAEM species in the substrate lignite on their transformation during pyrolysis and gasification. Carboxyl-bound Na was found to be less volatile than Na present as NaCl, but more volatile than carboxyl-bound Ca during pyrolysis at temperatures between 400 and 900{sup o}C. However, the carboxyl-bound Na was volatilised to a much greater extent than the carboxyl-bound Ca in the same lignite during pyrolysis. It was seen that the loading of NaCl into the lignite did not significantly affect the char reactivity in the fluidised-bed reactor at 900{sup o}C.

  12. Radiation sensitivity and gene expression in Enchytraeus japonensis, a species of earth worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    The importance of radiological protection of the environment based on scientific principles is gaining international recognition as environment issues garner more attention. Earthworm (annelids) is a ubiquitous soil invertebrate known to play an important role in the maintenance of the soil ecosystem and thus selected as one of 12 kinds of reference animals and plants by the ICRP. In the present study, radiation sensitivity and gene expression in a recently described terrestrial oligochaete, Enchytraeus japonensis (E. japonensis) were studied. E. japonensis worms were acutely irradiated at increasing doses of gamma radiation, and the number of worms after 30 days of radiation was examined. The dose effectively inhibiting 50% of proliferation was approximately 22 Gy, which was comparable to the dose required to elicit growth inhibition in other earthworm species. In order to seek other biological endpoints for more sensitive and/or quicker assessment of radiation effects, gene expression profiling in E. japonensis was also performed, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase I (PARP I) was identified as a radiation-responsive gene. PARP I transcript level increased dose-dependently. (author)

  13. New method for studying the efficiency of chelating agents of the polyamine acid series for internal decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.; Nenot, J.C.; Morin, M.

    1968-01-01

    We followed the biological fate of a complex formed on one side with either a rare earth (cerium-144) or a transuranium element (plutonium-239), and on the other side with a chelating agent of the polyamino acid series (EDTA, BAETA, DTPA, TTHA). This method allowed to study: 1 - the in vivo stability of the various complexes and to compare them; 2 - the stability of the complexes as a function of the isotope - chelating agent weight relationships; 3 - the metabolism of the chelating agents resulting in stable complexes, i. e. DTPA and TTHA mainly. This simple method brought out the higher efficiency, of DTPA in chelating rare earths and plutonium and for therapeutic purposes. (authors) [fr

  14. Characterization of antibody-chelator conjugates: Determination of chelator content by terbium fluorescence titration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, K.D.; Schnobrich, K.E.; Johnson, D.K. (Abbott Laboratories, Department 90M, Abbott Park, IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Fluorescence titrations were performed by adding varying mole ratios of terbium(III) to antibody conjugates formed by benzyl isothiocyanate derivatives of three different polyaminopolycarboxylate chelators (NTA, EDTA, and DTPA) and the results compared to values for average chelator content obtained by cobalt-57 binding assays. For two different murine monoclonal antibodies, the average chelator content obtained by terbium fluorescence titration correlated closely with that measured by the cobalt-57 binding assay. It is concluded that lanthanide fluorescence titrations provide a useful alternative to radiometal binding assays for the determination of chelator content in protein-chelator conjugates.

  15. Characterization of antibody-chelator conjugates: Determination of chelator content by terbium fluorescence titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, K.D.; Schnobrich, K.E.; Johnson, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Fluorescence titrations were performed by adding varying mole ratios of terbium(III) to antibody conjugates formed by benzyl isothiocyanate derivatives of three different polyaminopolycarboxylate chelators (NTA, EDTA, and DTPA) and the results compared to values for average chelator content obtained by cobalt-57 binding assays. For two different murine monoclonal antibodies, the average chelator content obtained by terbium fluorescence titration correlated closely with that measured by the cobalt-57 binding assay. It is concluded that lanthanide fluorescence titrations provide a useful alternative to radiometal binding assays for the determination of chelator content in protein-chelator conjugates

  16. Beliefs about chelation among thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trachtenberg Felicia L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding patients’ views about medication is crucial to maximize adherence. Thalassemia is a congenital blood disorder requiring chronic blood transfusions and daily iron chelation therapy. Methods The Beliefs in Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ was used to assess beliefs in chelation in thalassemia patients from North America and London in the Thalassemia Longitudinal Cohort (TLC of the Thalassemia Clinical Research Network (TCRN. Chelation adherence was based on patient report of doses administered out of those prescribed in the last four weeks. Results Of 371 patients (ages 5-58y, mean 24y, 93% were transfused and 92% receiving chelation (26% deferoxamine (DFO; a slow subcutaneous infusion via portable pump, 63% oral, 11% combination. Patients expressed high “necessity” for transfusion (96%, DFO chelation (92% and oral chelation (89%, with lower “concern” about treatment (48%, 39%, 19% respectively. Concern about oral chelation was significantly lower than that of DFO (p Conclusions Despite their requirement for multimodal therapy, thalassemia patients have positive views about medicine, more so than in other disease populations. Patients may benefit from education about the tolerability of chelation and strategies to effectively cope with side effects, both of which might be beneficial in lowering body iron burden. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00661804

  17. Levels of platinum group elements and rare-earth elements in wild mushroom species growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Gąsecka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to limited data-describing abilities of mushrooms to accumulate platinum group elements (PGEs) and rare-earth elements (REEs), the aim of this study was to determine, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry followed by microwave-assisted sample digestion by nitric acid, the content of these elements in 20 mushroom species (10 above ground and 10 growing on wood), mostly edible, collected near a busy trunk road. The highest content of PGEs in above-ground mushroom species was observed in Lepista gilva and Suillus bovinus fruit bodies (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while in mushrooms growing on wood, the highest content was observed in Pleurotus ostreatus (0.35 ± 0.04 mg kg(-1) DW). The mean content of PGEs for both these groups was 0.23 ± 0.08 and 0.26 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. The highest content of REEs in Suillus luteus and Tricholoma equestra was 5.03 ± 0.50 and 2.18 ± 0.56 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, but within mushrooms growing on wood in Ganoderma applanatum fruiting bodies it was 4.19 ± 0.78 mg kg(-1) DW. Mean contents of REEs were 1.39 ± 1.21 and 1.61 ± 0.97 mg kg(-1) DW in above-ground species and species growing on wood, respectively. Generally, the group of mushroom species growing on wood was capable of slightly higher accumulation of both REEs and PGEs. No limits have been established for both the groups until now.

  18. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) generated in the DOE complex is stored in tanks at several sites, but predominantly it is found at the Hanford reservation. Much of the material has been exposed to high pHs, consequently the waste exists in a complex, poorly understood mixture of solids, gels and solutions. The final waste remediation plan may involve chemical separation of fractions and a suitable, well developed molecular chemistry basis for performing these separations is not available. Indeed, the fundamental chemical behavior of most radioactive nuclides in basic media is not known. The goal of this project is to undertake fundamental studies of the coordination chemistry of f-element species in basic aqueous solutions containing common waste treatment ions (e.g., NO3 -, CO3 2-, organic carboxylates, and EDTA), as well as new waste scrubbing chelators produced in this study. The experimental agenda includes: 1. Studies of the speciation of Sr and Ln ions in basic solutions wit h and without common counterions; 2. Preparations of new multifunctional ligands that may act as strong, ion-specific chelators for Sr and/or Ln ions in basic media; and 3. Studies of the coordination and dissolution behavior of oxide-hydroxide species, as well as in insoluble sols, gels, and precipitates in combination with new chelating ligands. It is anticipated that this coordination chemistry will facilitate the design of advanced separation schemes required for handling the complex waste matrices found at the Hanford HLW facility

  19. Chelating agents in pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain 71 abstracts of papers. Fourteen abstracts were inputted in INIS. The topics covered include: the effects of chelating agents on the retention of 63 Ni, 109 Cd, 203 Hg, 144 Ce, 95 Nb and the excretion of 210 Po, 63 Ni, 48 V, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 54 Mn; the applications of tracer techniques for studies of the efficacy of chelation therapy in patients with heart and brain disorders; and the treatment of metal poisoning with chelating agents. (J.P.)

  20. Chelation in root canal therapy reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Schmidlin, Patrick; Sener, Beatrice; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess interactions of EDTA and citric acid (CA) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), the indispensable endodontic irrigant. Other chelators were simultaneously evaluated as possible alternatives: sodium triphosphate (STP), amino tris methylenephosphonic acid (ATMA), and 1- hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP). Available chlorine was titrated in chelator-NaOCl solutions. All chelators other than HEBP and STP caused an almost complete, immediate loss of available chlorine in solution. Atomic absorbtion spectrometry and SEM evaluation of root canal walls of instrumented teeth indicated that NaOCl had no negative effect on calcium-complexing ability of chelators. STP was too weak a complexing agent to warrant further studies. Finally, CA-, EDTA-, and HEBP-NaOCl mixtures were evaluated for their antimicrobial capacity. Again, EDTA and CA negatively interfered with NaOCl, while HEBP did not.

  1. Chelates for Micronutrient Nutrition among Crops

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    years, it has been recognised that compounds containing che- lated metals could .... when using small amounts and no build up of harmful levels. ... degradation of iron chelates. .... down by soil microorganisms into much smaller units for ab-.

  2. Mathematical modeling of the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaszak, J.E.; VanBriesen, J.; Rittmann, B.E.; Reed, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    Biodegradation of natural and anthropogenic chelating agents directly and indirectly affects the speciation, and, hence, the mobility of actinides in subsurface environments. We combined mathematical modeling with laboratory experimentation to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide [Np(IV/V), Pu(IV)] speciation. Under aerobic conditions, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) biodegradation rates were strongly influenced by the actinide concentration. Actinide-chelate complexation reduced the relative abundance of available growth substrate in solution and actinide species present or released during chelate degradation were toxic to the organisms. Aerobic bio-utilization of the chelates as electron-donor substrates directly affected actinide speciation by releasing the radionuclides from complexed form into solution, where their fate was controlled by inorganic ligands in the system. Actinide speciation was also indirectly affected by pH changes caused by organic biodegradation. The two concurrent processes of organic biodegradation and actinide aqueous chemistry were accurately linked and described using CCBATCH, a computer model developed at Northwestern University to investigate the dynamics of coupled biological and chemical reactions in mixed waste subsurface environments. CCBATCH was then used to simulate the fate of Np during anaerobic citrate biodegradation. The modeling studies suggested that, under some conditions, chelate degradation can increase Np(IV) solubility due to carbonate complexation in closed aqueous systems

  3. Mathematical modelling of the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaszak, J.E.; VanBriesen, J.M.; Rittmann, B.E.; Reed, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    Biodegradation of natural and anthropogenic chelating agents directly and indirectly affects the speciation, and hence, the mobility of actinides in subsurface environments. We combined mathematical modelling with laboratory experimentation to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide [Np(IV/V), Pu(IV)] speciation. Under aerobic conditions, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) biodegradation rates were strongly influenced by the actinide concentration. Actinide-chelate complexation reduced the relative abundance of available growth substrate in solution and actinide species present or released during chelate degradation were toxic to the organisms. Aerobic bioutilization of the chelates as electron-donor substrates directly affected actinide speciation by releasing the radionuclides from complexed form into solution, where their fate was controlled by inorganic ligands in the system. Actinide speciation was also indirectly affected by pH changes caused by organic biodegradation. The two concurrent processes of organic biodegradation and actinide aqueous chemistry were accurately linked and described using CCBATCH, a computer model developed at Northwestern University to investigate the dynamics of coupled biological and chemical reactions in mixed waste subsurface environments. CCBATCH was then used to simulate the fate of Np during anaerobic citrate biodegradation. The modelling studies suggested that, under some conditions, chelate degradation can increase Np(IV) solubility due to carbonate complexation in closed aqueous systems. (orig.)

  4. Radiopharmaceutical chelates and method of external imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The preparation of the following chemicals is described: chelates of technetium-99m, cobalt-57, gallium-67, gallium-68, indium-111 or indium-113m and a substituted iminodiacetic acid or an 8-hydroxyquinoline useful as a radiopharmaceutical external imaging agent. The compounds described are suitable for intravenous injection, have an excellent in vivo stability and are good organ seekers. Tin(II) choride or other tin(II) compounds are used as chelating agents

  5. Characterization and thermogravimetric analysis of lanthanide hexafluoroacetylacetone chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Shayan; Stratz, S Adam; Auxier, John D; Hanson, Daniel E; Marsh, Matthew L; Hall, Howard L

    2017-01-01

    This work reports the thermodynamic characterizations of organometallic species as a vehicle for the rapid separation of volatile nuclear fission products via gas chromatography due to differences in adsorption enthalpy. Because adsorption and sublimation thermodynamics are linearly correlated, there is considerable motivation to determine sublimation enthalpies. A method of isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, TGA-MS and melting point analysis are employed on thirteen lanthanide 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetone complexes to determine sublimation enthalpies. An empirical correlation is used to estimate adsorption enthalpies of lanthanide complexes on a quartz column from the sublimation data. Additionally, four chelates are characterized by SC-XRD, elemental analysis, FTIR and NMR.

  6. Biological behaviour of some 67Ga and 64Cu chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonovicova, T.; Angelis, B.; Cifka, J.; Cifkova, I.

    1984-01-01

    Chelates of 67 Ga and 64 Cu with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and its two phenyl derivatives as well as with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and benzylnitrilotriacetic acid (BNTA) were prepared. All the chelates were found to be negatively charged. A study of the biological distribution of these chelates in rats during time intervals of 3 to 180 min showed that the chelate of 67 Ga with IDA substituted at a phenyl by a hydrophobic substituent is excreted by the kidneys into the urine at a much higher rate than the IDA chelate of 67 Ga. The excretion of NTA and BNTA chelates of 67 Ga is the opposite. Blood clearance of 64 Cu chelates is more rapid than that of 67 Ga chelates. Chelates of 64 Cu accumulate in the liver and with the bile are slowly excreted into the intestines, urinary excretion is negligible. (author)

  7. Decomposition rates of radiopharmaceutical indium chelates in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.M.; Meares, C.F.; Goodwin, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rates at which six small aminopolycarboxylate chelates of trivalent 111 In and three protein-bound chelates of 111 In deliver indium to the serum protein transferrin have been studied in sterile human serum at pH 7.3, 37 deg C. Sterically hindered chelates containing a substituent on an ethylene carbon of EDTA decompose with rates in the range 0.03 to 0.11% per day - one to two orders of magnitude slower than other chelates. Only small differences are observed between rates of decomposition for low-molecular-weight chelates and for protein-bound chelates having analogous structures. (author)

  8. Review of actinide decorporation with chelating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoborlo, E. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/CETAMA), 30 - Marcoule (France); Amekraz, B.; Moulin, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DPC/SECR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Moulin, V. [CEA Saclay, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares (DEN/DDIN/MR), 91 - Gif Sur Yvette (France); Taran, F. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DBJC/SMMCB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bailly, Th.; Burgada, R. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS/LCSB/UMR 7033), 93 - Bobigny (France); Henge-Napoli, M.H. [CEA Valrho, Site de Marcoule (INSTN), 30 (France); Jeanson, A.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Bonin, L.; Moisy, Ph. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/SCPS), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2007-10-15

    In case of accidental release of radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination (inhalation, ingestion or wound) with actinides represents a severe health risk to human beings. It is therefore important to provide effective chelation therapy or decorporation to reduce acute radiation damage, chemical toxicity, and late radiation effects. Speciation governs bioavailability and toxicity of elements and it is a prerequisite tool for the design and success of new ligands or chelating agents. The purpose of this review is to present the state-of-the-art of actinide decorporation within biological media, to recall briefly actinide metabolism, to list the basic constraints of actinide-ligand for development, to describe main tools developed and used for decorporation studies, to review mainly the chelating agents tested for actinides, and finally to conclude on the future trends in this field. (authors)

  9. Olivine-type cathode for rechargeable batteries: Role of chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhasamy, Sathiyaraj; Singh, Pritam; Thurgate, Stephen; Ionescu, Mihail; Appadoo, Dominique; Minakshi, Manickam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Olivine powder was synthesized by sol–gel method using a range of chelating agents. ► Role of chelating agents in olivine cathode was investigated for battery application. ► Battery was fabricated with olivine cathode, Zn anode and aqueous electrolyte. ► Synergetic effect of additives (CA + TEA + PVP) led to improved storage capacity. - Abstract: Olivine (LiCo 1/3 Mn 1/3 Ni 1/3 PO 4 ) powders were synthesized at 550–600 °C for 6 h in air by a sol–gel method using multiple chelating agents and used as a cathode material for rechargeable batteries. Range of chelating agents like a weak organic acid (citric acid – CA), emulsifier (triethanolamine – TEA) and non-ionic surfactant (polyvinylpyrrolidone – PVP) in sol–gel wet chemical synthesis were used. The dependence of the physicochemical properties of the olivine powders such as particle size, morphology, structural bonding and crystallinity on the chelating agent was extensively investigated. Among the chelating agents used, unique cycling behavior (75 mAh/g after 25 cycles) is observed for the PVP assisted olivine. This is due to volumetric change in trapped organic layer for first few cycles. The trapped organic species in the electrode–electrolyte interface enhances the rate of lithium ion diffusion with better capacity retention. In contrast, CA and TEA showed a gradual capacity fade of 30 and 38 mAh/g respectively after multiple cycles. The combination of all the three mixed chelating agents showed an excellent electrochemical behavior of 100 mAh/g after multiple cycles and the synergistic effect of these agents are discussed.

  10. Labelling of bacteria with indium chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, P.; Pfister, W.; Endert, G.; Sproessig, M.

    1985-01-01

    The indium chelates were prepared by reaction of radioactive indiumchloride with 10 μg oxine, 15 μg tropolone and 3 mg acetylacetone, resp. The formed chelates have been incubated with 10 9 germs/ml for 5 minutes, with labelling outputs from 90 to 95%. Both gram-positive (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) can be labelled. The reproductive capacity of the bacteria was not impaired. The application of indium labelled bacteria allows to show the distribution of microorganisms within the living organism and to investigate problems of bacterial adherence. (author)

  11. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper Nanoparticles and Amino Acid Chelated Copper Nanoparticles Produced by Using a Soya Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAlba-Montero, I.; Morales-Sánchez, Elpidio; Araujo-Martínez, Rene

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of the antibacterial properties of copper-amino acids chelates and copper nanoparticles against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. These copper-amino acids chelates were synthesized by using a soybean aqueous extract and copper nanoparticles were produced using as a starting material the copper-amino acids chelates species. The antibacterial activity of the samples was evaluated by using the standard microdilution method (CLSI M100-S25 January 2015). In the antibacterial activity assays copper ions and copper-EDTA chelates were included as references, so that copper-amino acids chelates can be particularly suitable for acting as an antibacterial agent, so they are excellent candidates for specific applications. Additionally, to confirm the antimicrobial mechanism on bacterial cells, MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was carried out. A significant enhanced antimicrobial activity and a specific strain were found for copper chelates over E. faecalis. Its results would eventually lead to better utilization of copper-amino acids chelate for specific application where copper nanoparticles can be not used. PMID:28286459

  12. Rates of cuticular penetration of chelated Fe(III): role of humidity, concentration, adjuvants, temperature, and type of chelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönherr, Jörg; Fernández, Victoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2005-06-01

    hydroxide precipitates on CMs. These results explain why in the past foliar application of Fe compounds had limited success. Inorganic Fe salts are instable and phytotoxic because of low pH, while Fe chelates penetrate slowly and 100% humidity is required for significant penetration rates. Concentrations as low as reasonably possible should be used. These physical facts are expected to apply to stomatous leaf surfaces as well, but absolute rates probably depend on leaf age and plant species. High humidity in stagnant air layers may favor penetration rates across stomatous leaf surfaces when humidity in bulk air is below 100%.

  13. Mechanism and efficiency of cell death of type II photosensitizers: effect of zinc chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Christiane; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Baptista, Maurício S

    2012-01-01

    A series of meso-substituted tetra-cationic porphyrins, which have methyl and octyl substituents, was studied in order to understand the effect of zinc chelation and photosensitizer subcellular localization in the mechanism of cell death. Zinc chelation does not change the photophysical properties of the photosensitizers (all molecules studied are type II photosensitizers) but affects considerably the interaction of the porphyrins with membranes, reducing mitochondrial accumulation. The total amount of intracellular reactive species induced by treating cells with photosensitizer and light is similar for zinc-chelated and free-base porphyrins that have the same alkyl substituent. Zinc-chelated porphyrins, which are poorly accumulated in mitochondria, show higher efficiency of cell death with features of apoptosis (higher MTT response compared with trypan blue staining, specific acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, stronger cytochrome c release and larger sub-G1 cell population), whereas nonchelated porphyrins, which are considerably more concentrated in mitochondria, triggered mainly necrotic cell death. We hypothesized that zinc-chelation protects the photoinduced properties of the porphyrins in the mitochondrial environment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. Bone marrow and chelatable iron in patients with protein energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chelatable iron is present and is excreted in the urine of children with kwashiorkor ... venous blood sample was drawn for routine biochemical and haematological .... storage.l.1:m In response to chelation, the kwashiorkor children excrete large ...

  15. Radiopharmaceutical chelates and method of external imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loberg, M.D.; Callery, P.S.; Cooper, M.

    1977-01-01

    A chelate of technetium-99m, cobalt-57, gallium-67, gallium-68, indium-111 or indium-113m and a substituted iminodiacetic acid or an 8-hydroxyquinoline useful as a radiopharmaceutical external imaging agent. The invention also includes preparative methods therefor

  16. Use of chelating agents as immovable phase in extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.

    1978-01-01

    Extraction chromatography using chelating agents is reviewed. The theory of element extraction by chelating agents and factors influencing this process (pH, extracting agent concentration in organic phase, masking agent concentration in aqueous phase) are briefly considered. The effect of kinetic factors on the extraction chromatography process is discussed. Ways of preparing columns are emphasized. Examples of using chelating reagents in various extraction chromatography systems are given. β-Diketones, oximes, hydroxamic acids, dithizon, diethyl dithiocarbamic acid are chosen as chelating agents

  17. Chelating agents as stationary phase in extraction chromatography, ch. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.

    1975-01-01

    Chelating agents have been used largely in extraction chromatography for separations related to activation analysis, for concentration of metals from dilute solutions, and for preparation of radiochemically pure or carrier-free radionuclides. This review deals with the theory of extraction by chelating agents, the experimental technique, and the chelating agents and systems used (β-diketones, oximes, hydroxamic acid, dithizone and diethyldithiocarbamic acid)

  18. Features of rare earth element (3) complexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, L.I.

    1991-01-01

    Reasons for nonobeyance to the regularity of tetrad ''W'' effect of rare earth chelate complex compounds are discussed in the review. The concept of metal-ligand ionic bond in rare earth complexes is put in the basis of the consideration. From this viewpoint mutual influence of ligands in lower, higher, polynuclear and different-ligand complexes, formed by the ligands of low, medium and high denticity, is discussed. Problems of intermolecular interaction of complexes with different structure are considered in relation to problems of variation of chelate volatility and selectivity in the processes of sublimation and precipitation

  19. 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO2 selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arévalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2012-01-01

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of 1 H and 23 Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO 2 adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO 2 adsorption performance. Highlights: ► Location of extraframework Sr 2+ or Ba 2+ cations was estimated by means of 1 H and 23 Na MAS NMR. ► Level of Sr 2+ or Ba 2+ ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. ► Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. ► Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO 2 adsorbents.

  20. Chelation therapy after the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy: results of a unique trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Maria D.; Escolar, Esteban; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review EDTA chelation therapy has been in off-label use for the treatment of atherosclerosis. We review the results of the first large-scale randomized trial of this treatment. Recent findings The trial to assess chelation therapy was a $30 million National Institutes of Health-funded study of the safety and efficacy of EDTA-based chelation infusions in 1708 post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. The trial to assess chelation therapy demonstrated a significant (P = 0.035) 18% reduction in a combined primary endpoint of death, MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. In diabetic patients the benefit was more extreme, with a 41% relative reduction in risk (P = 0.0002) and a 43% reduction in total mortality (P = 0.011). Safety data were favorable. A reduction of oxidative stress by chelation of toxic metals has been proposed as a possible mechanism of action. Summary Recent research suggests that EDTA chelation may be a well-tolerated and effective treatment for post-MI patients. Future replication and mechanistic studies are important prior to implementation in all post-MI patients. PMID:25023079

  1. Earth Observation Data for Mapping and Evaluation of Ecosystem Services to Improve Human Livelihoods and Conserve Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie C.; Bhagabati, Nirmal

    2010-12-01

    Mapping and evaluating ecosystem services is of increasing concern and urgency for conservation organizations such as WWF. Coupling biodiversity assessments with ecosystem services e.g., carbon sequestration, water regulation, sediment reduction, is an effective way to visualize additional financial and human benefits of conservation for decision makers. WWF is eager to apply various Earth Observation data to conservation applications for consistent mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems and the potential impacts of their loss on humans and wildlife alike. Such examples include forest carbon mapping, integrated evaluation of ecosystem services (via the InVEST tool) and bundling endangered Tiger habitat with various ecosystem services for bundled benefits.

  2. Obligatory reduction of ferric chelates in iron uptake by soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, R L; Brown, J C; Tiffin, L O

    1972-08-01

    The contrasting Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) chelating properties of the synthetic chelators ethylenediaminedi (o-hydroxyphenylacetate) (EDDHA) and 4,7-di(4-phenylsulfonate)-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate) (BPDS) were used to determine the valence form of Fe absorbed by soybean roots supplied with Fe(3+)-chelates. EDDHA binds Fe(3+) strongly, but Fe(2+) weakly; BPDS binds Fe(2+) strongly but Fe(3+) weakly. Addition of an excess of BPDS to nutrient solutions containing Fe(3+)-chelates inhibited soybean Fe uptake-translocation by 99+%; [Fe(II) (BPDS)(3)](4-) accumulated in the nutrient solution. The addition of EDDHA caused little or no inhibition. These results were observed with topped and intact soybeans. Thus, separation and absorption of Fe from Fe(3+)-chelates appear to require reduction of Fe(3+)-chelate to Fe(2+)-chelate at the root, with Fe(2+) being the principal form of Fe absorbed by soybean.

  3. Chelation and stabilization of berkelium in oxidation state +IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblonde, Gauthier J.-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Rupert, Peter B.; An, Dahlia D.; Illy, Marie-Claire; Ralston, Corie Y.; Brabec, Jiri; de Jong, Wibe A.; Strong, Roland K.; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2017-09-01

    Berkelium (Bk) has been predicted to be the only transplutonium element able to exhibit both +III and +IV oxidation states in solution, but evidence of a stable oxidized Bk chelate has so far remained elusive. Here we describe the stabilization of the heaviest 4+ ion of the periodic table, under mild aqueous conditions, using a siderophore derivative. The resulting Bk(IV) complex exhibits luminescence via sensitization through an intramolecular antenna effect. This neutral Bk(IV) coordination compound is not sequestered by the protein siderocalin—a mammalian metal transporter—in contrast to the negatively charged species obtained with neighbouring trivalent actinides americium, curium and californium (Cf). The corresponding Cf(III)-ligand-protein ternary adduct was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Combined with theoretical predictions, these data add significant insight to the field of transplutonium chemistry, and may lead to innovative Bk separation and purification processes.

  4. Decorporation of metal ions by chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, T.

    1978-01-01

    Simple model designs to simulate the effect of therapeutical chelating agents on the behaviour of metals in mammal organisms with and without excretion have been derived and analytical solutions given for the corresponding differential equations. The possibilities of these models in the short-term description of plasma kinetics of various metals, the competition of the therapeutical ligands with proteins for the metal and of the metabolism of chelating agents were tested and the properties applying extreme conceivable parameters were analyzed. The simple models were successsively expanded in logical sequence, so that it was possible to qualitatively well describe over a long period of time, the metallic kinetics in plasma, organs and urine, the retention of the ligands and their effect on the metal excretion. Two suggestions were given to describe the so-called after-effect, an increased excretion of the metal at times when the ligand is almost completely excreted and their different behaviour after injecting the metal chelate is given. Calculations on the therapy with several ligand data as well as on dose fractionation are described resting on the ratios in the plutonium-239 chosen model parameters and the determining mechanisms analyzed. (orig./MG) [de

  5. IRON CHELATION THERAPY IN THALASSEMIA SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cianciulli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusional hemosiderosis is a frequent complication in patients with transfusion dependent chronic diseases such as  thalassemias and severe type of sickle cell diseases. As there are no physiological mechanisms to excrete the iron contained in transfused red cells (1 unit of blood contains approximately 200 mg of iron the excess of iron is stored in various organs. Cardiomyopathy is the most severe complication covering more than 70% of the causes of death of thalassemic patients. Although the current reference standard iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO has been used clinically for over four decades, its effectiveness is limited by a demanding therapeutic regimen that leads to poor compliance. Despite poor compliance, because of the inconvenience of subcutaneous infusion, DFO improved considerably the survival and quality of life of patients with thalassemia. Deferiprone since 1998 and Deferasirox since 2005 were licensed for clinical use. The oral chelators have a better compliance because of oral use, a comparable efficacy to DFO in iron excretion and probably a better penetration to myocardial cells. Considerable increase in iron excretion was documented with combination therapy of DFO and Deferiprone. The proper use of the three chelators will improve the prevention and treatment of iron overload, it will reduce  complications, and improve survival and quality of life of transfused patients

  6. Iminodiacetic acid functionalised organopolymer monoliths: application to the separation of metal cations by capillary high-performance chelation ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyna, Áine; Connolly, Damian; Nesterenko, Ekaterina; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2013-03-01

    Lauryl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate monoliths were polymerised within fused silica capillaries and subsequently photo-grafted with varying amounts of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The grafted monoliths were then further modified with iminodiacetic acid (IDA), resulting in a range of chelating ion-exchange monoliths of increasing capacity. The IDA functional groups were attached via ring opening of the epoxy group on the poly(GMA) structure. Increasing the amount of attached poly(GMA), via photo-grafting with increasing concentrations of GMA, from 15 to 35%, resulted in a proportional and controlled increase in the complexation capacity of the chelating monoliths. Scanning capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (sC(4)D) was used to characterise and verify homogenous distribution of the chelating ligand along the length of the capillaries non-invasively. Chelation ion chromatographic separations of selected transition and heavy metals were carried out, with retention factor data proportional to the concentration of grafted poly(GMA). Average peak efficiencies of close to 5,000 N/m were achieved, with the isocratic separation of Na, Mg(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) possible on a 250-mm-long monolith. Multiple monolithic columns produced to the same recipes gave RSD data for retention factors of ions). The monolithic chelating ion-exchanger was applied to the separation of alkaline earth and transition metal ions spiked in natural and potable waters.

  7. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelator s for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be

  8. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the gasification of a Victorian brown coal in CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quyn, Dimple Mody; Li, Chun-Zhu [CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering, PO Box 36, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Hayashi, Jun-ichiro [Centre for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2005-08-25

    A Victorian brown coal was gasified in a bench-scale quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor in order to study the volatilisation of Na, Ca, and Mg during devolatilisation and gasification and their roles in the reactivity of chars. It was found that the majority of Na was volatilised at 900 {sup o}C under all conditions and that a Na retention limit was achieved in the char with the progress of CO{sub 2} gasification. In some cases, the presence of CO{sub 2} during devolatilisation enhanced the Na retention in the char. In contrast, the retention of Ca (and Mg) was unaffected by CO{sub 2} during devolatilisation at 900C but decreased drastically upon nascent char gasification. The fundamental differences in volatilisation between the alkali and alkaline earth metallic species are discussed in this paper.

  9. Fluoride ion recognition by chelating and cationic boranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnall, Todd W; Chiu, Ching-Wen; Gabbaï, François P

    2009-02-17

    Because of the ubiquity of fluoride ions and their potential toxicity at high doses, researchers would like to design receptors that selectively detect this anion. Fluoride is found in drinking water, toothpaste, and osteoporosis drugs. In addition, fluoride ions also can be detected as an indicator of uranium enrichment (via hydrolysis of UF(6)) or of the chemical warfare agent sarin, which releases the ion upon hydrolysis. However, because of its high hydration enthalpy, the fluoride anion is one of the most challenging targets for anion recognition. Among the various recognition strategies that are available, researchers have focused a great deal of attention on Lewis acidic boron compounds. These molecules typically interact with fluoride anions to form the corresponding fluoroborate species. In the case of simple triarylboranes, the fluoroborates are formed in organic solvents but not in water. To overcome this limitation, this Account examines various methods we have pursued to increase the fluoride-binding properties of boron-based receptors. We first considered the use of bifunctional boranes, which chelate the fluoride anion, such as 1,8-diborylnaphthalenes or heteronuclear 1-boryl-8-mercurio-naphthalenes. In these molecules, the neighboring Lewis acidic atoms can cooperatively interact with the anionic guest. Although the fluoride binding constants of the bifunctional compounds exceed those of neutral monofunctional boranes by several orders of magnitude, the incompatibility of these systems with aqueous media limits their utility. More recently, we have examined simple triarylboranes whose ligands are decorated by cationic ammonium or phosphonium groups. These cationic groups increase the electrophilic character of these boranes, and unlike their neutral analogs, they are able to complex fluoride in aqueous media. We have also considered cationic boranes, which form chelate complexes with fluoride anions. Our work demonstrates that Coulombic and chelate

  10. A modelling exercise on the importance of ternary alkaline earth carbonate species of uranium(VI) in the inorganic speciation of natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercouter, Thomas; Reiller, Pascal E.; Ansoborlo, Eric; Février, Laureline; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Lomenech, Claire; Philippini, Violaine

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The U(VI) speciation in natural waters has been modelled through a modelling exercise. • The results evidence the importance of alkaline earth U(VI) carbonate complexes. • Possible solubility-controlling phases were reported and discussed. • The differences were related to the choice and reliability of thermodynamic data. • Databases need to be improved for reliable U(VI) speciation calculations. - Abstract: Predictive modelling of uranium speciation in natural waters can be achieved using equilibrium thermodynamic data and adequate speciation software. The reliability of such calculations is highly dependent on the equilibrium reactions that are considered as entry data, and the values chosen for the equilibrium constants. The working group “Speciation” of the CETAMA (Analytical methods establishment committee of the French Atomic Energy commission, CEA) has organized a modelling exercise, including four participants, in order to compare modellers’ selections of data and test thermodynamic data bases regarding the calculation of U(VI) inorganic speciation. Six different compositions of model waters were chosen so that to check the importance of ternary alkaline earth carbonate species of U(VI) on the aqueous speciation, and the possible uranium solid phases as solubility-limiting phases. The comparison of the results from the participants suggests (i) that it would be highly valuable for end-users to review thermodynamic constants of ternary carbonate species of U(VI) in a consistent way and implement them in available speciation data bases, and (ii) stresses the necessary care when using data bases to avoid biases and possible erroneous calculations

  11. Role of chelates in magnetic resonance imaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Laxmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging studies are tests performed with a variety of techniques that produce pictures of the inside of a patient′s body. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is an imaging technique based on the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone, and virtually all other internal body structures. Chelates have a wide application in such imaging techniques. Chelates in imaging studies are used alone as radioactive agents or conjugated to monoclonal antibodies or to DNA as radioactive agents. Technetium chelates and gadolinium chelates are being widely used as magnetic resonance contrast media.

  12. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  13. Relationship among chelator adherence, change in chelators, and quality of life in thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Gerstenberger, Eric; Xu, Yan; Mednick, Lauren; Sobota, Amy; Ware, Hannah; Thompson, Alexis A; Neufeld, Ellis J; Yamashita, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Thalassemia, a chronic blood disease, necessitates life-long adherence to blood transfusions and chelation therapy to reduce iron overload. We examine stability of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in thalassemia and adherence to chelation therapy over time, especially after changes in chelator choice. Thalassemia Longitudinal Cohort participants in the USA, UK, and Canada completed the SF-36v2 (ages 14+) and the PF-28 CHQ (parents of children health status) at baseline who made a single change in chelator, but declined among participants with multiple changes and/or high iron burden (worse health status). Mental health improved among participants with lower iron burden, but iron overload was negatively associated with social functioning. Adherence did not significantly change over follow-up except for an increase after a change from deferoxamine (DFO) infusion to oral deferasirox (p = 0.03). Predictors of lower adherence for adults/adolescents at follow-up included side effects, smoking, younger age, problems preparing DFO, increased number of days per week DFO prescribed, and lower physical quality of life . Strategies to balance medical needs with family, work, and personal life may assist in adherence.

  14. Ruthenium(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) chelate as a chemiluminophore in extrinsic lyoluminescences of aluminium and magnesium in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qinghong; Kotiranta, Miia; Langel, Kaarina; Suomi, Johanna; Hakansson, Markus; Spehar, Anna-Maria; Ala-Kleme, Timo; Eskola, Jarkko; Kulmala, Sakari

    2005-01-01

    Ruthenium(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) chelate shows chemiluminescence (CL) both during dissolution of metallic aluminium in alkaline conditions, and during dissolution of magnesium metal in acidic conditions. The presence of peroxodisulfate ions strongly enhances the CL. Magnesium system provides considerably better detectability of the present chelate giving linear calibration plot spanning over many orders of magnitude of concentration down to subnanomolar concentration levels. The possible primary species generated and luminescence mechanisms are shortly discussed

  15. Technical note: Implementation of prescribed (OFFLEM, calculated (ONLEM, and pseudo-emissions (TNUDGE of chemical species in the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kerkweg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the submodels OFFLEM, ONLEM, and TNUDGE for the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy. Prescribed emissions from input files are handled by OFFLEM. ONLEM deals with online-calculated emissions, i.e., emissions that are calculated during the simulation. The submodel TNUDGE uses the "tracer nudging" technique for pseudo-sources and -sinks. For species with highly uncertain emission fluxes and/or with sufficiently long lifetimes, e.g., CH4, it is common to create such pseudo-fluxes by prescribing the observed mixing ratio of the species at a given boundary (e.g., the mixing ratio of methane at the surface, or the ozone mixing ratio at the tropopause. All three submodels substantially simplify the inclusion of emissions into a model. Specific emissions can easily be switched on or off. New prescribed emissions can be included without rewriting any code. New online emissions only require one additional subroutine containing the new parameterization. A major advantage is that input fields at arbitrary resolution can be used. The problem of incompatible grids between emission data and model is overcome by utilizing the MESSy data import interface. To further simplify the creation of new offline emission data, the preprocessing program EDGAR2NC is provided. EDGAR2NC transforms files from the EDGAR format into the netCDF format which is required by OFFLEM. The presented routines are a part of the community modeling project MESSy and can be made available for use to the atmospheric modeling community.

  16. Lead toxicosis of captive vultures: case description and responses to chelation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead, a serious threat for raptors, can hamper the success of their conservation. This study reports on experience with accidental lead intoxication and responses to chelation therapy in captive Cinereous (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian (Neophron percnopterus) Vultures. Results Soil contamination by lead-based paint sanded off the steel aviary resulted in poisoning of eight Cinereous and two Egyptian Vultures. A male Egyptian Vulture developed signs of apathy, polydipsia, polyuria, regurgitation, and stupor, and died on the next day. Liver, kidney and blood lead concentrations were 12.2, 8.16 and 2.66 μg/g, respectively. Laboratory analyses confirmed severe liver and kidney damage and anaemia. Blood Pb levels of Pb-exposed Cinereous Vultures were 1.571 ± 0.510 μg/g shortly after intoxication, decreased to 0.530 ± 0.165 μg/g without any therapy in a month and to 0.254 ± 0.097 μg/g one month after CaNa2EDTA administration. Eight months later, blood lead levels decreased to close to the background of the control group. Blood parameters of healthy Pb-non-exposed Cinereous Vultures were compared with those of the exposed group prior to and after chelation therapy. Iron levels in the lead-exposed pre-treatment birds significantly decreased after chelation. Haematocrit levels in Pb-exposed birds were significantly lower than those of the controls and improved one month after chelation. Creatine kinase was higher in pre-treatment birds than in the controls but normalised after therapy. Alkaline phosphatase increased after chelation. A marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive species was demonstrated in birds both prior to and after chelation. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was significantly lower in pre-treatment vultures and returned to normal following chelation therapy. Blood metallothionein levels in lead-exposed birds were higher than in controls. Reduced glutathione dropped after

  17. Lead toxicosis of captive vultures: case description and responses to chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikula, Jiri; Hajkova, Pavlina; Bandouchova, Hana; Bednarova, Ivana; Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Kral, Jiri; Ondracek, Karel; Osickova, Jitka; Pohanka, Miroslav; Sedlackova, Jana; Skochova, Hana; Sobotka, Jakub; Treml, Frantisek; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-16

    Lead, a serious threat for raptors, can hamper the success of their conservation. This study reports on experience with accidental lead intoxication and responses to chelation therapy in captive Cinereous (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian (Neophron percnopterus) Vultures. Soil contamination by lead-based paint sanded off the steel aviary resulted in poisoning of eight Cinereous and two Egyptian Vultures. A male Egyptian Vulture developed signs of apathy, polydipsia, polyuria, regurgitation, and stupor, and died on the next day. Liver, kidney and blood lead concentrations were 12.2, 8.16 and 2.66 μg/g, respectively. Laboratory analyses confirmed severe liver and kidney damage and anaemia. Blood Pb levels of Pb-exposed Cinereous Vultures were 1.571 ± 0.510 μg/g shortly after intoxication, decreased to 0.530 ± 0.165 μg/g without any therapy in a month and to 0.254 ± 0.097 μg/g one month after CaNa(2)EDTA administration. Eight months later, blood lead levels decreased to close to the background of the control group. Blood parameters of healthy Pb-non-exposed Cinereous Vultures were compared with those of the exposed group prior to and after chelation therapy. Iron levels in the lead-exposed pre-treatment birds significantly decreased after chelation. Haematocrit levels in Pb-exposed birds were significantly lower than those of the controls and improved one month after chelation. Creatine kinase was higher in pre-treatment birds than in the controls but normalised after therapy. Alkaline phosphatase increased after chelation. A marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive species was demonstrated in birds both prior to and after chelation. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was significantly lower in pre-treatment vultures and returned to normal following chelation therapy. Blood metallothionein levels in lead-exposed birds were higher than in controls. Reduced glutathione dropped after CaNa(2)EDTA therapy, while

  18. Study on rare earths complexes separation by means of different type of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubicka, H.

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of different types of ion exchangers for purification and separation of rare earths complexes has been examined. The experimental work has been carried out on 14 chelating ion exchangers. The investigation results proved the great usefulness chelating ion exchangers especially of amino acid and phosphorus-type. Application of that type ion exchangers in column chromatographic process gave the excellent rare earths separation as well as enabled to obtain their preparates of high purity. 218 refs, 21 figs, 27 tabs

  19. Assessment of toxicity on chelating agent DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Satoshi

    1989-01-01

    DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) is a very important chelating agent to decorporate the radionuclides such as plutonium and americium from human body. However, before DTPA will be administered to humans, the toxicity should be clarified. This report described the summary on data of DTPA toxicities obtained from animal experiments and assessment on the safety for humans, based on the results that compared their data among animal species. In short, Ca-DTPA is less toxic than Zn-DTPA when it is injected intravenously, while Zn-DTPA is less toxic than Ca-DTPA when it is administered orally. Both DTPAs acted on the serum calcium metabolism and induced the functional damages of cardiovascular system. Particularly, it is stressed that Zn-DTPA by intravenous injection occurred the heart failure, increases of blood pressure and pulse with hypocalcemia in even normal rats and beagle dogs. Other side effects by both DTPAs were also observed in the intestine, liver, kidney and bone. It is estimated that there are almost no species differences on DTPA toxicity between animals and humans. As a result, it is concluded that DTPA should be used very carefully for humans, with reference to the results obtained from animal experiments. (author) 61 refs

  20. Assessment of toxicity on chelating agent DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Satoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1989-09-01

    DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) is a very important chelating agent to decorporate the radionuclides such as plutonium and americium from human body. However, before DTPA will be administered to humans, the toxicity should be clarified. This report described the summary on data of DTPA toxicities obtained from animal experiments and assessment on the safety for humans, based on the results that compared their data among animal species. In short, Ca-DTPA is less toxic than Zn-DTPA when it is injected intravenously, while Zn-DTPA is less toxic than Ca-DTPA when it is administered orally. Both DTPAs acted on the serum calcium metabolism and induced the functional damages of cardiovascular system. Particularly, it is stressed that Zn-DTPA by intravenous injection occurred the heart failure, increases of blood pressure and pulse with hypocalcemia in even normal rats and beagle dogs. Other side effects by both DTPAs were also observed in the intestine, liver, kidney and bone. It is estimated that there are almost no species differences on DTPA toxicity between animals and humans. As a result, it is concluded that DTPA should be used very carefully for humans, with reference to the results obtained from animal experiments. (author) 61 refs.

  1. Chelate-assisted phytoextraction of lead from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.M.; Sims, J.T.; Cunningham, S.D.; Huang, J.W.; Berti, W.R.

    1999-12-01

    Phytoextraction, a remediation strategy for lead (Pb)-contaminated soils that removes soil Pb through plant uptake and harvest, may be enhanced by use of synthetic chelates. The authors evaluated Pb desorption from four contaminated soils by seven chelates (CDTA, DTPA, EDDHA, EFTA, HEDTA, HEIDA, and NTA) at three rates. The three most effective chelates (CDTA, DTPA, and HEDTA) were used in greenhouse studies with an uncontaminated soil and a Pb-contaminated soil to determine the effect of chelate type and rate on growth, Pb uptake, and plant elemental composition. Lead desorption varied with chelate and soil and increased with chelate rate, averaging 948 mg Pb kg{sup {minus}1} at the 20 mmol kg{sup {minus}1} rate vs. 28 mg Pb kg{sup {minus}1} by the control. The general ranking of chelate effectiveness, based on total Pb desorbed, was HEDTA > CDTA > DTPA > EGTA > HEIDA > EDDHA {approximately} NTA. Plant uptake of Pb from the contaminated soil was enhanced by CDTA, DTPA, and HEDTA, but with even the most effective treatment (corn, high CDTA rate), the amount of Pb extracted by plants was rather low. Lead extractable by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was increased from 9 mg L{sup {minus}1} in the control to from 47 to 174 mg L{sup {minus}1} in soils treated with 20 mmol kg{sup {minus}1} CDTA or DTPA and chelates generally caused a shift in Pb from resistant to more soluble chemical fractions.

  2. Potentials and drawbacks of chelate-enhanced phytoremediation of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Bouwman, L.A.; Japenga, J.; Draaisma, C.

    2002-01-01

    Chelate-enhanced phytoremediation has been proposed as an effective tool for the extraction of heavy metals from soils by plants. However, side-effects related to the addition of chelates, e.g. metal leaching and effects on soil micro-organisms, were usually neglected. Therefore, greenhouse and

  3. Chelation Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; O'Reilly, Mark; Kang, Soyeon; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Copeland, Daelynn; Attai, Shanna; Mulloy, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Chelation treatment is used to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury. It has been hypothesized that mercury poisoning may be a factor in autism and data suggest that perhaps 7% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received chelation treatment. It would therefore seem timely to review studies investigating the…

  4. Combined chelation based on glycosyl-mono- and bis-hydroxypyridinones for aluminium mobilization: solution and biodistribution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Sílvia; Dron, Paul I; Danalache, Florina A; Sacoto, Diana; Gano, Lurdes; Santos, M Amélia

    2009-11-01

    Taking into account the recognized interest of a poly-pharmacological strategy in chelation therapy, a study of aluminium combined chelation based on 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone (3,4-HP) compounds with complementary properties, associated to different denticity, size and extrafunctionality, is presented herein. In particular, Al-chelation has been explored, using a tetradentate IDA bis-(3,4-HP) ligand, L, and two N-glycosyl mono-(3,4-HP) derivatives (A or B). Combined complexation studies with the tetradentate and the most promising bidentate ligand (A) evidenced the formation of ternary complexes with high thermodynamic stability (Al-L-A) being the predominant species at physiological pH. In vivo studies on the ability for radiotracer ((67)Ga) removal from loaded mice, as a model of aluminium accumulation in body, have shown that the simultaneous administration to (67)Ga-loaded mice of a mono- and a bis-(3,4-HP) chelator (e.g. A and L) leads to a rapid metal elimination from main organs and whole animal model. This may be rationalized by coadjuvation and eventual synergistic effects, due to complementary accessibility of the chelators to different cellular compartments.

  5. Development of iron chelators for Cooley's anemia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, W.H.; Green, R.

    1982-01-01

    Iron chelators were screened in an iron-loaded rat model using selective radioiron probes. In all experiments, chelators D and F, in that order, induced significant loss of radioiron compared with controls. However, use of chelator D was associated with side effects, and resulted in the death of some animals. There was some evidence that chelator A also caused iron loss significantly greater than controls. Chelators B, C and E were without apparent enhancing effect on radioiron excretion. This was a blind study and the compounds used were A - 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid; B - N,N1-Dimethyladipohydroxamic acid; C - DL-Phenylalanine hydroxamic acid; D - Ethylenediamine-N,N1-bis(2-hydroxphenylacetic acid); E - Propionohydroxamic acid; and F - Deferrioxamine B

  6. Influence of direct and alternating current electric fields on efficiency promotion and leaching risk alleviation of chelator assisted phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Cai, Limei; Qi, Shihua; Wu, Jian; Sophie Gu, Xiaowen

    2018-03-01

    Direct and alternating current electric fields with various voltages were used to improve the decontamination efficiency of chelator assisted phytoremediation for multi-metal polluted soil. The alleviation effect of electric field on leaching risk caused by chelator application during phytoremediation process was also evaluated. Biomass yield, pollutant uptake and metal leaching retardation under alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) electric fields were compared. The biomass yield of Eucalyptus globulus under AC fields with various voltages (2, 4 and 10 V) were 3.91, 4.16 and 3.67kg, respectively, significantly higher than the chelator treatment without electric field (2.71kg). Besides growth stimulation, AC fields increased the metal concentrations of plant tissues especially in aerial parts manifested by the raised translocation factor of different metals. Direct current electric fields with low and moderate voltages increased the biomass production of the species to 3.45 and 3.12kg, respectively, while high voltage on the contrary suppressed the growth of the plants (2.66kg). Under DC fields, metal concentrations elevated obviously with increasing voltages and the metal translocation factors were similar under all voltages. Metal extraction per plant achieved the maximum value under moderate voltage due to the greatest biomass production. DC field with high voltage (10V) decreased the volume of leachate from the chelator treatment without electric field from 1224 to 56mL, while the leachate gathered from AC field treatments raised from 512 to 670mL. DC field can retard the downward movement of metals caused by chelator application more effectively relative to AC field due to the constant water flow and electroosmosis direction. Alternating current field had more promotive effect on chelator assisted phytoremediation efficiency than DC field illustrated by more metal accumulation in the species. However, with the consideration of leaching risk, DC

  7. Chelating impact assessment of biological ad chemical chelates on metal extraction from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manwar, S.; Iram, S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil contamination is the result of uncontrolled waste dumping and poor practices by humans. Of all the pollutants heavy metals are of particular concern due to their atmospheric deposition, leaching capacity and non-biodegradability. Heavy metal containing effluent is discharged into the agricultural fields and water bodies. This results in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and the crops grown on that soil. Studies have revealed detrimental impacts on soil fertility and the poor health of animals and humans. Phytoextraction is widely researched for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of phytoextraction heavy metals have to be available to the plants in soluble form. In this study the potential of different chelating agents was assessed in solubilizing the heavy metals making easy for plants to uptake them. For this purpose efficient chemical and biological chelating agent had to be identified. Along with that an optimum dose and application time for chemical chelating agent was determined. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), Nitriloacetic acid (NTA) were applied to the soil, containing Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd, at different concentrations and application time. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were incubated in soil for different time periods. In correspondence with findings of the study, Pb and Cr were best solubilized by 5mM EDTA. For Cd and Cu 5mM DTPA carried out efficient chelation. NTA showed relatively inadequate solubilisation, although for Cr it performed equal to EDTA. A. niger and A. flavus instead of solubilizing adsorbed the metals in their biomass. Adsorption was mainly carried out by A. niger. (author)

  8. Glyphosate, a chelating agent-relevant for ecological risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Martha; Höss, Sebastian; Neumann, Günter; Afzal, Joshua; Reichenbecher, Wolfram

    2018-02-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs), consisting of glyphosate and formulants, are the most frequently applied herbicides worldwide. The declared active ingredient glyphosate does not only inhibit the EPSPS but is also a chelating agent that binds macro- and micronutrients, essential for many plant processes and pathogen resistance. GBH treatment may thus impede uptake and availability of macro- and micronutrients in plants. The present study investigated whether this characteristic of glyphosate could contribute to adverse effects of GBH application in the environment and to human health. According to the results, it has not been fully elucidated whether the chelating activity of glyphosate contributes to the toxic effects on plants and potentially on plant-microorganism interactions, e.g., nitrogen fixation of leguminous plants. It is also still open whether the chelating property of glyphosate is involved in the toxic effects on organisms other than plants, described in many papers. By changing the availability of essential as well as toxic metals that are bound to soil particles, the herbicide might also impact soil life, although the occurrence of natural chelators with considerably higher chelating potentials makes an additional impact of glyphosate for most metals less likely. Further research should elucidate the role of glyphosate (and GBH) as a chelator, in particular, as this is a non-specific property potentially affecting many organisms and processes. In the process of reevaluation of glyphosate its chelating activity has hardly been discussed.

  9. Chelation: Harnessing and Enhancing Heavy Metal Detoxification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are ubiquitous, have no beneficial role in human homeostasis, and contribute to noncommunicable chronic diseases. While novel drug targets for chronic disease are eagerly sought, potentially helpful agents that aid in detoxification of toxic elements, chelators, have largely been restricted to overt acute poisoning. Chelation, that is multiple coordination bonds between organic molecules and metals, is very common in the body and at the heart of enzymes with a metal cofactor such as copper or zinc. Peptides glutathione and metallothionein chelate both essential and toxic elements as they are sequestered, transported, and excreted. Enhancing natural chelation detoxification pathways, as well as use of pharmaceutical chelators against heavy metals are reviewed. Historical adverse outcomes with chelators, lessons learned in the art of using them, and successes using chelation to ameliorate renal, cardiovascular, and neurological conditions highlight the need for renewed attention to simple, safe, inexpensive interventions that offer potential to stem the tide of debilitating, expensive chronic disease.

  10. Assessment of the Efficacy of Chelate-Assisted Phytoextraction of Lead by Coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Miller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, depending upon the reactant surface, pH, redox potential and other factors can bind tightly to the soil with a retention time of many centuries. Soil-metal interactions by sorption, precipitation and complexation processes, and differences between plant species in metal uptake efficiency, transport, and susceptibility make a general prediction of soil metal bioavailability and risks of plant metal toxicity difficult. Moreover, the tight binding characteristic of Pb to soils and plant materials make a significant portion of Pb unavailable for uptake by plants. This experiment was conducted to determine whether the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, or acetic acid (HAc can enhance the phytoextraction of Pb by making the Pb soluble and more bioavailable for uptake by coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.. Also we wanted to assess the efficacy of chelates in facilitating translocation of the metal into the above-ground biomass of this plant. To test the effect of chelates on Pb solubility, 2 g of Pb-spiked soil (1000 mg Pb/kg dry soil were added to each 15 mL centrifuge tube. Chelates (EDTA, EGTA, HAc in a 1:1 ratio with the metal, or distilled deionized water were then added. Samples were shaken on a platform shaker then centrifuged at the end of several time periods. Supernatants were filtered with a 0.45 μm filter and quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES to determine soluble Pb concentrations. Results revealed that EDTA was the most effective in bringing Pb into solution, and that maximum solubility was reached 6 days after chelate amendment. Additionally, a greenhouse experiment was conducted by planting Sesbania seeds in plastic tubes containing top soil and peat (2:1, v:v spiked with various levels (0, 1000, 2000 mg Pb/kg dry soil of lead nitrate. At six weeks after emergence, aqueous solutions of EDTA and/or HAc (in a 1:1 ratio

  11. Mixed and chelated waste test programs with bitumen solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, S.I.; Morris, M.; Vidal, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of bitumen solidification tests on mixed wastes and chelated wastes. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) performed demonstration tests on radioactive wastes contaminated with chelating agents for Associated Technologies, Inc. (ATI). The chelated wastes were produced and concentrated by Commonwealth Edison Co. as a result of reactor decontamination at Dresden Nuclear Station, Unit 1. Law Engineering in Charlotte, N. C. produced samples and performed tests on simulated heavy metal laden radioactive waste (mixed) to demonstrate the quality of the bituminous product. The simulation is intended to represent waste produced at Oak Ridge National Labs operated by Martin-Marietta

  12. Extraction spectrophotometric determination of rare earth with trioctylethylammonium bromide and Xylenol Orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shijo, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method of determination of the rare earth was studied by the solvent extraction of rare earth-Xylenol Orange chelate into xylene solution of trioctylethylammonium bromide(TOEA). The rare earth-XO-TOEA complexes are extracted into aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, but not into polar solvents such as n-butanol ethylacetate, methylisobutylketone, and nitrobenzene. The optimum pH range for the extraction were 6.3 -- 6.7, 6.3 -- 6.5, 5.8 -- 6.9, 5.7 -- 6.9, and 5.5 -- 6.8 for lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, gadolinium, and dysprosium, respectively. The absorption maximum of the complexes extracted into xylene were found at 605 nm for lanthanum, praseodymium, and cerium, 596 nm for gadolinium, and 590 nm for dysprosium. Beer's law held for about 0 -- 4.5 μg of rare earth per 5 ml of xylene. The molar absorptivity of the extracted species were 1.53x10 5 , 1.42x10 5 , 1.35x10 5 , 8.5x10 4 , 8.2x10 4 cm -1 mol -1 l for lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, gadolinium, and dysprosium, respectively. The composition of the ternary complexes were estimated to be M:XO:TOEA=1:1:2 for gadolinium and dysprosium, whereas 1:2:n for lanthanum, praseodymium and cerium. Combination ratio n of TOEA to metal-XO chelates in the latters could not be estimated by the commonly available methods. Thorium, vanadium, uranium, bismuth, aluminum, zirconium, chromium, nitrate, perchlorate and iodide interfered when triethylenetetramine and 1,10-phenanthroline were added as masking agent. (auth.)

  13. Binding of rare earths to serum proteins and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosoff, B.; Spencer, H.

    1979-01-01

    In order to investigate further the physiological behavior of rare earths and rare earth chelates, studies of the binding of 46 Sc, 91 Y, and 140 La to serum proteins and to nucleic acids were performed using the methods of equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. The binding of lanthanum and yttrium as the chlorides to α-globulin increased as the free rare earth concentration increased. When scandium and lanthanum were chelated in nitrilotriacetate (NTA) the binding to α-globulin was considerably less and there was no binding to albumin. The binding of 46 Sc chelated to ethylenediamine di(O-hydroxyphenylacetate) (EDDHA) was five times greater than of 46 Sc chloride. When the free scandium concentration was increased, the moles bound per mole of protein increased proportionally and the binding was reversible. Scandium was 100% filterable from a mixture of human serum and from the scandium chelates with high stability constants scandium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (ScDTPA), scandium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (ScEDTA) and scandium cyclohexane trans-1,2-diaminetetraacetate (ScCDTA) respectively. In contrast, only 2% of the scandium was filterable when scandium nitrilotriacetate, a scandium chelate of low stability constant, was used. (Auth.)

  14. Micronutrient metal speciation is controlled by competitive organic chelation in grassland soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiteau, Rene M.; Shaw, Jared B.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Koppenaal, David W.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2018-05-01

    Many elements are scarcely soluble in aqueous conditions found in high pH environments, such as calcareous grassland soils, unless complexed to strong binding organic ligands. To overcome this limitation, some plants and microbes produce chelators that solubilize micronutrient metals such as Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn from mineral phases. These complexes are taken up by organisms via specific membrane receptors, thereby differentially impacting the bioavailability of these metals to the plant and microbial community. Although the importance of these chelation strategies for individual organisms has been well established, little is known about which pathways coexist within rhizosphere microbiomes or how they interact and compete for metal binding. Identifying these metallo-organic species within natural ecosystems has remained a formidable analytical challenge due to the vast diversity of compounds and poorly defined metabolic processes in complex soil matrix. Herein, we employed recently developed liquid chromatography (LC) mass spectrometry (MS) methods to characterize the speciation of water-soluble dissolved trace elements (Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn) from Kansas Prairie soil. Both plant and fungal chelators were identified, revealing compound-specific patterns of chelation to biologically essential metals. Numerous metabolites typically implicated in plant iron acquisition and homeostasis, including mugineic acids, deoxymugineic acid, nicotianamine, and hydroxynicotianamine, dominated the speciation of divalent metals such as Ni, Cu, and Zn (2-57 pmol / g soil). In contrast, the fungal siderophore ferricrocine bound comparatively more trivalent Fe (9pmol / g soil). These results define biochemical pathways that underpin the regulation of metals in the grassland rhizosphere. They also raise new questions about the competition of these compounds for metal binding and their bioavailability to different members of the rhizosphere population. Even small structural differences

  15. Protection against SR 4233 (tirapazamine) aerobic cytotoxicity by the metal chelators desferrioxamine and tiron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herscher, L.L.; Krishna, M.C.; Cook, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal chelating agents and antioxidants were evaluated as potential protectors against aerobic SR 4233 cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster V79 cells. The differential protection of aerobic and hypoxic cells by two metal chelators, desferrrioxamine and Tiron, is discussed in the context of their potential use in the on-going clinical trials with SR 4233. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using clonogenic assay. SR 4233 exposure was done in glass flasks as a function of time either alone or in the presence of the following agents: superoxide dismutase, catalase, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline, Trolox, ICRF-187, desferrioxamine, Tiron (1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonate), and ascorbic acid. Experiments done under hypoxic conditions were carried out in specially designed glass flasks that were gassed with humidified nitrogen/carbon dioxide mixture and with a side-arm reservoir from which SR 4233 was added to cell media after hypoxia was obtained. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies were also performed. Electron paramagnetic resonance and spectrophotometry experiments suggest that under aerobic conditions SR 4233 undergoes futile redox cycling to produce superoxide. Treatment of cells during aerobic exposure to SR 4233 with the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, the spin trapping agent DMPO, the water-soluble vitamin E analog Trolox, and the metal chelator ICRF-187 provided little or no protection against aerobic SR 4233 cytotoxicity. However, two other metal chelators, desferrioxamine and Tiron afforded significant protection against minimal protection to hypoxic cells treated with SR 4233. One potential mechanism of aerobic cytotoxicity is redox cycling of SR 4233 with molecular oxygen resulting in several potentially toxic oxidative species that overburden the intrinsic intracellular detoxification systems such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Micronutrient metal speciation is driven by competitive organic chelation in grassland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, R.; Shaw, J. B.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Koppenaal, D.; Jansson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Many elements are scarcely soluble in aqueous conditions found in high pH environments, such as calcareous grassland soils, unless complexed to strong binding organic ligands. To overcome this limitation, some plants and microbes produce chelators that solubilize micronutrient metals such as Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn from mineral phases. These complexes are taken up by organisms via specific membrane receptors, thereby differentially impacting the bioavailability of these metals to the plant and microbial community. Although the importance of these chelation strategies for individual organisms has been well established, little is known about which pathways coexist within rhizosphere microbiomes or how they interact and compete for metal binding. Identifying these metallo-organic species within natural ecosystems has remained a formidable analytical challenge due to the vast diversity of compounds and poorly defined metabolic processes in complex soil matrix. Herein, we employed recently developed liquid chromatography (LC) mass spectrometry (MS) methods to characterize the speciation of water-soluble dissolved trace elements (Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn) from Kansas Prairie soil. Both plant and fungal chelators were identified, revealing compound-specific patterns of chelation to biologically essential metals. Numerous metabolites typically implicated in plant iron acquisition and homeostasis, including mugineic acids, deoxymugineic acid, nicotianamine, and hydroxynicotianamine, dominated the speciation of divalent metals such as Ni, Cu, and Zn (2-57 pmol / g soil). In contrast, the fungal siderophore ferricrocine bound comparatively more trivalent Fe (9pmol / g soil). These results define biochemical pathways that underpin the regulation of metals in the grassland rhizosphere. They also raise new questions about the competition of these compounds for metal binding and their bioavailability to different members of the rhizosphere population.

  17. 3-hydroxy-2(1H)-pyridinone chelating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, K.; Xu, J.

    1999-04-06

    Disclosed is a series of improved chelating agents and the chelates formed from these agents, which are highly effective upon both injection and oral administration. Several of the most effective are of low toxicity. These chelating agents incorporate within their structure 3-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (3,2-HOPO) moieties with a substituted carbamoyl group ortho to the hydroxy group of the hydroxypyridinone ring. The electron-withdrawing carbamoyl group increases the acidity, as well as the chemical stability towards oxidation and reduction, of the hydroxypyridinones. In the metal complexes of the chelating agents, the amide protons form very strong hydrogen bonds with the adjacent HOPO oxygen donor, making these complexes very stable at physiological conditions. The terminal N-substituents provide a certain degree of lipophilicity to the 3,2-HOPO, increasing oral activity. 2 figs.

  18. Chelation of di- and trivalent iron with some polyaminopolycarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.B.; Sharabi, Nahid; Patti, Francois.

    1979-02-01

    The chelation of di- and trivalent iron with some polyaminopolycarboxylic acids was studied. The influence of pH on the formation of the complex was investigated, the molecular ratio and the stability constants were determined [fr

  19. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.T.

    1994-12-06

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO[sub x] and optionally SO[sub 2] from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe[sup 2+]) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution. 26 figures.

  20. Iron chelators ICL670 and 311 inhibit HIV-1 transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debebe, Zufan; Ammosova, Tatyana; Jerebtsova, Marina; Kurantsin-Mills, Joseph; Niu, Xiaomei; Charles, Sharroya; Richardson, Des R.; Ray, Patricio E.; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Nekhai, Sergei

    2007-01-01

    HIV-1 replication is induced by an excess of iron and iron chelation by desferrioxamine (DFO) inhibits viral replication by reducing proliferation of infected cells. Treatment of cells with DFO and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311) inhibit expression of proteins that regulate cell-cycle progression, including cycle-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Our recent studies showed that CDK2 participates in HIV-1 transcription and viral replication suggesting that inhibition of CDK2 by iron chelators might also affect HIV-1 transcription. Here we evaluated the effect of a clinically approved orally effective iron chelator, 4-[3,5-bis-(hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-benzoic acid (ICL670) and 311 on HIV-1 transcription. Both ICL670 and 311 inhibited Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription in CEM-T cells, 293T and HeLa cells. Neither ICL670 nor 311 induced cytotoxicity at concentrations that inhibited HIV-1 transcription. The chelators decreased cellular activity of CDK2 and reduced HIV-1 Tat phosphorylation by CDK2. Neither ICL670A or 311 decreased CDK9 protein level but significantly reduced association of CDK9 with cyclin T1 and reduced phosphorylation of Ser-2 residues of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. In conclusion, our findings add to the evidence that iron chelators can inhibit HIV-1 transcription by deregulating CDK2 and CDK9. Further consideration should be given to the development of iron chelators for future anti-retroviral therapeutics

  1. The magnesium chelation step in chlorophyll biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.

    1990-11-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the biogenesis of energy transducing membranes requires the coordinate synthesis of prosthetic groups, proteins, and various lipids. Two of the major prosthetic groups, chlorophyll and heme, share a common biosynthetic pathway that diverges at the point of metal insertion into protoporphyrin IX (Proto). Insertion of iron leads to the formation of hemes, while insertion of magnesium is the first step unique to chlorophyll formation. This project is directed toward identifying the enzyme(s) responsible for magnesium chelation and elucidating the mechanism which regulates the flux of precursors through the branch point enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Using intact chloroplasts from greening cucumber cotyledons, we have confirmed the ATP requirement for Mg-Proto formation. Use of non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs, uncouplers and ionophores has led to the conclusions that ATP hydrolysis is necessary, but that this hydrolysis is not linked to the requirement for membrane intactness by transmembrane ion gradients or electrical potentials. The enzyme(s) are flexible with respect to the porphyrin substrate specificity, accepting porphyrins with -vinyl, -ethyl, or -H substituents at the 2 and 4 positions. The activity increases approximately four-fold during greening. Possible physiological feedback inhibitors such as heme, protochlorophyllide, and chlorophyllide had no specific effect on the activity. The activity has now been assayed in barely, corn and peas, with the system from peas almost ten-fold more active than the cucumber system. Work is continuing in pea chloroplasts with the development of a continuous assay and investigation of the feasibility of characterizing an active, organelle-free preparation. 6 figs.

  2. Chelated Nitrogen-Sulphur-Codoped TiO2: Synthesis, Characterization, Mechanistic, and UV/Visible Photocatalytic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents in detail the physicochemical, photoluminescent, and photocatalytic properties of carboxylic acid chelated nitrogen-sulphur-codoped TiO2. From the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study, it was revealed that the formate group formed bidentate bridging linkage while the acetate group coordinated in a bidentate chelating mode with a titanium precursor. In compliance with X-ray diffraction data, the anatase to rutile transformation temperature was extended due to carboxylic acid chelation and NS codoping. Raman analysis indicated four Raman peaks at 146, 392, 512, and 632 cm−1 for the precalcined chelated TiO2; on incorporation with NS dopants, an increase in Raman intensity for these peaks was recorded, indicating the structure stability of the anatase phase. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study revealed the presence of anionic doping of nitrogen and cationic doping of sulphur in the lattice of TiO2. When evaluating the UV-visible photodegradation rate of 4-chlorophenol, the modified TiO2 (NS0.06-TFA showed the highest photocatalytic activity. In connection with the activity tests, several scavenger agents were employed to elucidate the significance of the different reactive oxidizing species during the photocatalytic process. Moreover, the transfer pathways of photogenerated carriers and the photocatalytic reaction mechanism of modified TiO2 were also explained in detail.

  3. F-Element ion chelation in highly basic media. Annual progress report, October 1, 1996 - July 1, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    'The specific fundamental chemical objectives of this project are to: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and Ln ions in basic media formed in aqueous solutions with and without classical chelation agents (e.g., EDTA, polyphosphates, and organic carboxylates); (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonate and phosphonoacetate chelators of the types 1--3 and characterize their ionization properties by titrimetric techniques; (3) study the interactions of 5--7 with soluble oxide-hydroxide metallate species and higher molecular weight sols, gels and precipitates containing Sr and Ln ions, as time permits, interactions with oxide-hydroxide metallates of U, Th, Ba, Al and Fe will also be studied; (4) study the interactions of newly designed phosphonate ligands with oxide-hydroxide metallate species; (5) transfer the fundamental coordination chemistry revealed here to research groups at LANL and PNNL that will utilize the results to improve tank waste treatment protocols.'

  4. Studies on the antifungal activities of the novel synthesized chelating co-polymer emulsion lattices and their silver complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-El-Ghaffar M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel binary chelating co-polymers of butyl acrylate with itaconic and maleic acids were prepared by emulsion polymerization process. The chelating co-polymers of butyl acrylate-co-itaconic acid (BuA/IA and butyl acrylate-co-maleic acid (BuA/MA and their silver complexes were characterized and identified using IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements. The biological activities of these compounds were studied against various types of fungal species. The dose and the rate of leached silver ions were controlled by the type of the co-polymers used and the solubility in the medium. The results provided laboratory support for the concept that the polymers containing chemically bound biocide are useful for controlling microbial growth. The silver uptake by strains of different fungal species was studied to determine their difference in behavior to the antifungal activities of these compounds. The uptake strategy was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM.

  5. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment. Current approaches to the decontamination of metals most often involve one of four basic process types: (1) chemical, (2) manual and mechanical, (3) electrochemical, and (4) ultrasonic. open-quotes Hardclose quotes chemical decontamination solutions, capable of achieving decontamination factors (Df's) of 50 to 100, generally involve reagent concentrations in excess of 5%, tend to physically degrade the surface treated, and generate relatively large volumes of secondary waste. open-quotes Softclose quotes chemical decontamination solutions, capable of achieving Df's of 5 to 10, normally consist of reagents at concentrations of 0.1 to 1%, generally leave treated surfaces in a usable condition, and generate relatively low secondary waste volumes. Under contract to the Department of Energy, the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Company is developing a chemical decontamination process using chelating agents to remove uranium compounds and other actinide species from process equipment

  6. To chelate or not to chelate in MDS: That is the question!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Amer M; Griffiths, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-08

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hemopathies that exhibit physical manifestations with clinical consequences of bone marrow failure and inherent risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload (IO) is common in MDS due to chronic transfusion support and disease-related alterations in iron metabolism. IO has been conclusively associated with inferior outcomes among MDS patients. Despite lack of randomized trials showing a survival impact of iron chelation therapy (ICT), ICT is recommended by experts and guidelines for select MDS patients with IO and is often used. The availability of effective oral ICT agents has reignited the controversy regarding ICT use in patients with MDS and IO. Here we summarize the studies evaluating the value of ICT in MDS and suggest a practical approach for use of these therapies. We also highlight controversies regarding use of ICT in MDS and discuss some ongoing efforts to answer these questions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of potential aluminum chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, L; Muller, G; Burnel, D

    1995-10-01

    The potential for aluminium (Al) chelation by different compounds was determined using 2 in vitro techniques. The formation of stable complexes with Al in an aqueous solution was evaluated using pulse polarography. This technique allowed the influence of temperature and calcium (Ca) to be studied for each compound. Certain compounds (EDDHA, HAES, citric acid and HBED) showed great chelation in the absence of Ca2+ at a temperature of 37 +/- 1 C. An ultrafiltration technique combined with Al determination by atomic emission spectroscopy allowed the efficiency of different substances to complex Al that were previously bound to serum proteins to be estimated. The kinetics of chelation and minimum efficient concentration have been determined for all products studied. EDDHA had chelation potential similar to DFO. The real efficacies of the compounds were studied in vivo to compare the effectiveness of repeated administrations of the best chelating agents (EDDHA, DFO, HAES and tartaric acid) on the distribution and excretion of Al after repeated i.p. administrations to rats. Intraperitoneal EDDHA significantly increased urinary metal (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn) excretion. These excretions may be correlated to a renal toxic potential property.

  8. Chelation therapy to prevent diabetes-associated cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Denisse; Fonseca, Vivian; Aude, Yamil W; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2018-05-24

    For over 60 years, chelation therapy with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, edetate) had been used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite lack of scientific evidence for efficacy and safety. The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) was developed and received funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to ascertain the safety and efficacy of chelation therapy in patients with CVD. This pivotal trial demonstrated an improvement in outcomes in postmyocardial infarction (MI) patients. Interestingly, it also showed a particularly large reduction in CVD events and all-cause mortality in the prespecified subgroup of patients with diabetes. The TACT results may support the concept of metal chelation to reduce metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions that promote the formation of advanced glycation end products, a precursor of diabetic atherosclerosis. In this review, we summarize the epidemiological and basic evidence linking toxic metal accumulation and diabetes-related CVD, supported by the salutary effects of chelation in TACT. If the ongoing NIH-funded TACT2, in diabetic post-MI patients, proves positive, this unique therapy will enter the armamentarium of endocrinologists and cardiologists seeking to reduce the atherosclerotic risk of their diabetic patients.

  9. Novel synergism by complex ligands in solvent extraction of rare earth metals(III) with β-diketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, H.; Ebisawa, M.; Kato, M.; Ohashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    The extraction of rare earth metals(III) (RE) with hexafluoroacetylacetone (Hhfa) and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied in the presence of some cobalt(III) chelates such as tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt(III), tris(4-isopropyltropolonato)cobalt(III), tris(8-quinolinolato)cobalt(III), tris(8-quinolinethiolato)cobalt(III), and tris(diethyldithiocarbamato)cobalt(III) in benzene or toluene. The synergistic enhancement of the extraction of RE, especially of lanthanum(III) was found in all the systems. Therefore, those cobalt(III) chelates act as synergists or complex ligands. The equilibrium analysis and IR spectroscopic study were performed to evaluate the present synergistic mechanism. It was found that the RE-β-diketone chelates form 1:1 adducts, i.e., binuclear complexes, with the cobalt(III) chelates in the organic phase. The formation constants (β s,1 ) were determined and compared with those reported previously. The spectroscopic studies demonstrated that adducts have two different structures with inner- and outer-sphere coordination. In the former the cobalt(III) chelate directly coordinated to the RE ion and displaced the coordinated water molecules. In the latter the hydrogen-bonding was formed between the coordinating oxygen or sulfur atoms of cobalt(III) chelate and hydrogen atoms of the coordinated water molecules in the RE-β-diketone chelate. The types of the adducts are mainly due to the steric factors of the RE-β-diketone chelates and the cobalt(III) chelates

  10. Bowl adamanzanes-bicyclic tetraamines: syntheses and crystal structures of complexes with cobalt(III) and chelating coordinated oxo-anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broge, Louise; Søtofte, Inger; Jensen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    complex is provided. Four of the seven complexes contain a chelate coordinating oxo-anion ( sulfate, formiate, nitrate, carbonate). Equilibration of these species with the corresponding diaqua complex is generally slow. The rates of equilibration in 5 mol dm(-3) perchloric acid at 25 degrees C have been...

  11. Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105 and Au-199 as potential radiotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troutner, D.E.; Schlemper, E.O.

    1990-01-01

    Since last year we have: continued the synthesis of pentadentate bifunctional chelating agents based on diethylene triamine; studied the chelation Rh-105, Au-198 (as model for Au-199) and Tc-99m with these agents as well as chelation of Pd-109, Cu-67, In-111, and Co-57 with some of them; synthesized a new class of potential bifunctional chelating agents based on phenylene diamine; investigated the behavior of Au-198 as a model for Au-199; begun synthesis of bifunctional chelating agents based on terpyridly and similar ligands; and continued attempts to produce tetradentate bifunctional chelates based on diaminopropane. Each of these will be addressed in this report

  12. Albumin microspheres labeled with Ga-67 by chelation: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Schlegel, P.

    1981-01-01

    Albumin microspheres have been synthesized with EDTA and DTPA chelating groups covalently bound to their surface. The microspheres may be labeled with Ga-67 at high yield (97 +- 2%) by transcomplexation from a 0.1 M Ga-67 acetate solution. With EDTA microspheres the resulting label dissociates only slightly after 24 hr in 50% plasma at 37 0 C, whereas with DTPA microspheres the label shows no detectable dissociation over this period. By contrast, microspheres without chelating groups lose their label virtually completely under these conditions. Following intravenous administration of sized Ga-67 DTPA microspheres in mice, about (84 +- 16)% of the activity localizes in the lungs at 5 min, with (60 +- 7)% remaining after 2 h. Since labeling is by chelation, the microspheres may also be tagged with other metallic radionuclides

  13. Evaluation of macrocyclic hydroxyisophthalamide ligands as chelators for zirconium-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikunj B; Pandya, Darpan N; Xu, Jide; Tatum, David; Magda, Darren; Wadas, Thaddeus J

    2017-01-01

    The development of bifunctional chelators (BFCs) for zirconium-89 immuno-PET applications is an area of active research. Herein we report the synthesis and evaluation of octadentate hydroxyisophthalamide ligands (1 and 2) as zirconium-89 chelators. While both radiometal complexes could be prepared quantitatively and with excellent specific activity, preparation of 89Zr-1 required elevated temperature and an increased reaction time. 89Zr-1 was more stable than 89Zr-2 when challenged in vitro by excess DTPA or serum proteins and in vivo during acute biodistribution studies. Differences in radiometal complex stability arise from structural changes between the two ligand systems, and suggest further ligand optimization is necessary to enhance 89Zr chelation.

  14. Evaluation of macrocyclic hydroxyisophthalamide ligands as chelators for zirconium-89.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj B Bhatt

    Full Text Available The development of bifunctional chelators (BFCs for zirconium-89 immuno-PET applications is an area of active research. Herein we report the synthesis and evaluation of octadentate hydroxyisophthalamide ligands (1 and 2 as zirconium-89 chelators. While both radiometal complexes could be prepared quantitatively and with excellent specific activity, preparation of 89Zr-1 required elevated temperature and an increased reaction time. 89Zr-1 was more stable than 89Zr-2 when challenged in vitro by excess DTPA or serum proteins and in vivo during acute biodistribution studies. Differences in radiometal complex stability arise from structural changes between the two ligand systems, and suggest further ligand optimization is necessary to enhance 89Zr chelation.

  15. Inositol hexa-phosphate: a potential chelating agent for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebrian, D.; Tapia, A.; Real, A.; Morcillo, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Chelation therapy is an optimal method to reduce the radionuclide-related risks. In the case of uranium incorporation, the treatment of choice is so far i.v infusion of a 1.4% sodium bicarbonate solution, but the efficacy has been proved to be not very high. In this study, we examine the efficacy of some substances: bicarbonate, citrate, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethidronate (EHBP) and inositol hexa-phosphate (phytic acid) to chelate uranium using a test developed by Braun et al. Different concentrations of phytic acid, an abundant component of plant seeds that is widely distributed in animal cells and tissues in substantial levels, were tested and compared to the same concentrations of sodium citrate, bicarbonate, EHBP and DTPA. The results showed a strong affinity of inositol hexa-phosphate for uranium, suggesting that it could be an effective chelating agent for uranium in vivo. (authors)

  16. Protracted chelate therapy after incorporation of plutonium 239 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemenetzis, E.

    1976-01-01

    The author has tested in how far 239 Pu can be mobilized by Ca and Zn, Desfenioxamin B(DFDA) and by combined doses of Ca-DTPA and DFDA. The pre-experiment covered the 239 Pu-metabolism in untreated male and female rats and the distribution in dependence of the way of application. If treatment is started immediately by multiple chelate doses, the first two injections play the main part in the decorporation of 239 Pu. The combination Ca-DTPA30 + DFDA30 μMol x kg -1 is proved to be the best means of decorporation for the whole body. The efficiency of another therapy depends essentially on the treatment used, a daily treatment showing the best effects. If treatment is started later with multiple chelate doses, the total decorporation efficiency is of less value, especially in the skeleton. Aequimolar doses of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA have the same degree of efficiency. This indicates that during protracted chelate treatment starting later, Ca-DTPA could be substituted by the less toxic Zn-DTPA after incorporation of 239 Pu. These results show that intermittant administration of the week's dose is more efficient than a single chelate administration of the whole week's dose at once. Permanent chelate infusion does not seem necessary in any case since it has the same effect as 3 to 5 injections per week and is difficult to carry out in medical practice. Thus, it seems advisable to divide up the weekly dose into 3-5 injections. In case of a wound contamination, the efficiency of immediate intensive treatment depends on the 239 Pu compound used, on the chelate used, and on its dosage. (orig.) [de

  17. EDTA chelation therapy for cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ping

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous practitioners of both conventional and complementary and alternative medicine throughout North America and Europe claim that chelation therapy with EDTA is an effective means to both control and treat cardiovascular disease. These claims are controversial, and several randomized controlled trials have been completed dealing with this topic. To address this issue we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the best available evidence for the use of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 7 databases from inception to May 2005. Hand searches were conducted in review articles and in any of the trials found. Experts in the field were contacted and registries of clinical trials were searched for unpublished data. To be included in the final systematic review, the studies had to be randomized controlled clinical trials. Results A total of seven articles were found assessing EDTA chelation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Two of these articles were subgroup analyses of one RCT that looked at different clinical outcomes. Of the remaining five studies, two smaller studies found a beneficial effect whereas the other three exhibited no benefit for cardiovascular disease from the use of EDTA chelation therapy. Adverse effects were rare but those of note included a few cases of hypocalcemia and a single case of increased creatinine in a patient on the EDTA intervention. Conclusion The best available evidence does not support the therapeutic use of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Although not considered to be a highly invasive or harmful therapy, it is possible that the use of EDTA chelation therapy in lieu of proven therapy may result in causing indirect harm to the patient.

  18. Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

  19. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eybl, V.; Sykora, J.; Koutensky, J.; Caisova, D.; Schwartz, A.; Mertl, F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl 2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of /sup 115mCdCl 2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatement of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl 2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of /sup 115m/Cd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes

  20. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eybl, V; Sýkora, J; Koutenský, J; Caisová, D; Schwartz, A; Mertl, F

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of 115mCdCl2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatment of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination of the retention and distribution of Cd in mice, it was demonstrated that the combined application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of 115mCd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes. PMID:6734561

  1. Effect of some colloid surfactants on spectrophotometric characteristics of metal chelates with chromophore organic reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernova, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical regularities and prospects of using surface active substances (SAS) in spectrophotometric determination of metal ions (including ions of rare-earth elements, transition metals, Be(3)) with chromophore chelating reagents were investigated. The chromophore reagents investigated were pyrocatechol violet, phenolcarboxylic acids of the triarylmethane series, fluorones, phthalexones and azo-compounds. As SAS certain long-chain quaternary ammonium and pyridinium salts (LQAS) were employed. From the results reported it follows that the introduction of LQAS in the system of Mesup(n+)-chromophore reagent is a rather effective method of enhancing the contrast rendition and, in some cases, the sensitivity and selectivity of the reagents. Explanations are suggested as to the factors which cause the changes observed in the contrast of the reactions in the presence of SAS; the underlying phenomena are the ligand-ligand interactions between the organic reagents and SAS and solubilization processes of the reaction products by the micelles of SAS

  2. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid...

  3. Potentiometric study of Nd3+ chelates of substituted salicylhydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, R.G.; Jahagirdar, D.V.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of Nd 3+ ion with salicylhydroxamic acid and 5-methyl, 5-chloro, 5-bromo, 5-nitro, 4-chloro, 4-bromo and 3-chloro salicylhydroxamic acids is investigated potentiometrically by Calvin-Bjerrum titration technique at 30 0 +- 0.1 0 and ionic strength μ=0.1 M(NaClO 4 ) in 50% v/v dioxane-water mixtures. Nd 3+ forms only 1:1 chelates with these ligands. The validity of the log K= apk + b relationship is examined for these chelates. (author)

  4. Extraordinary photoluminescence behavior of an efficient electrochemiluminophore: Tb(III) chelated by 2,6-bis[N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)aminomethyl]-4-benzoylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuosmanen, Päivi; Pusa, Matti; Salminen, Kalle; Kulmala, Sakari

    2016-01-01

    The reactivities of lanthanide ions in their excited states are first considered in water and the energy diagrams of most important of them are sketched to illustrate the highly oxidizing and reducing species involved reacting with one-electron steps. Anomalous photoluminescence behavior of Tb(III) chelated by 2,6-bis[N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)aminomethyl]-4-benzoylphenol is studied. The present chelate is known to show relative strong chemiluminescence in the presence of hydrated electron and oxidizing radicals but it shows an extraordinarily short luminescence lifetime of radiative relaxation of its 5 D 4 state under photoexcitation.

  5. Extraordinary photoluminescence behavior of an efficient electrochemiluminophore: Tb(III) chelated by 2,6-bis[N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)aminomethyl]-4-benzoylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuosmanen, Päivi, E-mail: paivi.kuosmanen@aalto.fi; Pusa, Matti; Salminen, Kalle; Kulmala, Sakari

    2016-05-15

    The reactivities of lanthanide ions in their excited states are first considered in water and the energy diagrams of most important of them are sketched to illustrate the highly oxidizing and reducing species involved reacting with one-electron steps. Anomalous photoluminescence behavior of Tb(III) chelated by 2,6-bis[N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)aminomethyl]-4-benzoylphenol is studied. The present chelate is known to show relative strong chemiluminescence in the presence of hydrated electron and oxidizing radicals but it shows an extraordinarily short luminescence lifetime of radiative relaxation of its {sup 5}D{sub 4} state under photoexcitation.

  6. Determination of trace elements in seawater by air-flow injection/ICP-MS with chelating resin preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyue-Hyung; Ohshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    Multielement determination of major to trace metals in a deep seawater malt was accomplished by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) together with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Major elements, such as Na, K, Mg, and Ca, were measured by ICP-AES and normal continuos nebulization ICP-MS after sample dilution by 10 3 -10 6 fold. Fifteen trace elements in the concentrated metal solutions pretreated with cation-exchange resin or chelating resin could be simultaneously determined by air-flow injection/ICP-mass spectrometry (AFI/ICP-MS). Since the injection volume for AFI/ICP-MS was 25 μl, final samples volumes less than 500 μl were enough for several replicate measurements. Three different preconcentration methods assisted with AFI/ICP-MS were examined and could be successfully applied to a deep seawater malt. The analytical results of rate earth elements (REEs) and Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb obtained by AFI/ICP-MS coupled with disk filtration method using iminodiacetate (IDA)-type chelating resin were favorably agreed with the data obtained by AFI/ICP-MS coupled with column preconcentration method using chitosan-based chelating resin. (author)

  7. A Field-Based Biomimicry Exercise Helps Students Discover Connections among Biodiversity, Form and Function, and Species Conservation during Earth's Sixth Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Constance M.

    2014-01-01

    In a first-year seminar on mass extinctions, a field-based, paleontology-focused exercise promotes active learning about Earth's biodiversity, form and function, and the biomimicry potential of ancient and modern life. Students study Devonian fossils at a local quarry and gain foundational experience in describing anatomy and relating form to…

  8. Uranium (VI) complexing by macrocyclic or chelating ligands in aqueous solutions stability, formation kinetics, polarographic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brighli, M.

    1984-07-01

    Stability of chelates (with EDTA,N,N ethylenediamine diacetic acid EDDA nitrilotriacetic acid NTA and iminodiacetic acid) of UO 2 2+ and UO 4 species of uranium VI is studied in aqueous solution (NaClO 4 3M at 25 deg celcius). Structure in solution are proposed and discussed for mononuclear species. Only complexing kinetics (formation and acid hydrolysis) of UO 4 with EDDA and NTA are studied by spectrophotometry (other reactions are too fast). Besides UO 2 2+ complexes are formed with crown ethers I5C5 and I8C6 in aqueous solution (TEA ClO 4 M/10 at 25 deg celcius. Complexes are probably stabilized by solvation. Results are confirmed by voltametry and reduction mechanisms of UO 2 2+ and its complexes on mercury drop are proposed. 143 refs [fr

  9. Metal chelate conjugated monoclonal antibodies, wherein the metal is an α emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gansow, O.A.; Strand, M.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of manufacturing and purifying metal chelate conjugated monoclonal antibodies are described, wherein the chelated metal emits alpha radiation. The conjugates are suited for therapeutic uses being substantially free of nonchelated radiometal. (author)

  10. {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO{sub 2} selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo-Hidalgo, Ana G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico); Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J., E-mail: arturoj.hernandez@upr.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico)

    2012-07-15

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO{sub 2} adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO{sub 2} adsorption performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Location of extraframework Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} cations was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO{sub 2} adsorbents.

  11. Chelating ligands: enhancers of quality and purity of biogas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of biogas depends largely on the percentage of methane and hydrogen sulphide gas present. High concentration of hydrogen sulphide results in low quality biogas. This work employed the use of chelating ligands in scrubbing hydrogen sulphide gas while improving the yield of methane gas. Experimental ...

  12. Studies on effect of Microbial Iron Chelators on Candida Albican

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmani, Fouzia S.; Milicent, S.; Zaheer-Uddin

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential for the life of all microbe cells. It generally exists in the oxidized form Fe(III). Even under anaerobic reducing condition the metal appear to be taken up as Fe(III). Thus free-living microorganisms require specific and effective ferric ion transport system to cope with low availability of the metal. In iron deficient environment they produce a low molecular weight specific chelators called siderphores or microbial iron chelators. Siderphores compete for limited supplied of iron. These compounds came out of the cell but can not re-enter without iron due to high affinity of these siderphores often have more than one catechol/hydroxamate functions and are multidentate (usually hexadentate ligands). The aim of the present research is to check the effect of iron chelators, namely gallic acid and salisyl hydroxamate on the growth of Candida albican in vitro. C. albican is the opportunistic paltogen present as the normal flora inside human body. In vivo the growth of C. albican is distributed by the use of antibiotics and immuno suppressers. In cases of iron over-dosage in human being, the patients are treated with certain a-iron chelators. Hence an attempt is made to notice the effect that might be inhibition or enhancement of the organism in vitro. (author)

  13. Laccase Immobilization by Chelated Metal Ion Coordination Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, amidoxime polyacrylonitrile (AOPAN nanofibrous membrane was prepared by a reaction between PAN nanofibers and hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The AOPAN nanofibrous membranes were used for four metal ions (Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+ chelation under different conditions. Further, the competition of different metal ions coordinating with AOPAN nanofibrous membrane was also studied. The AOPAN chelated with individual metal ion (Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+ and also the four mixed metal ions were further used for laccase (Lac immobilization. Compared with free laccase, the immobilized laccase showed better resistance to pH and temperature changes as well as improved storage stability. Among the four individual metal ion chelated membranes, the stability of the immobilized enzymes generally followed the order as Fe–AOPAN–Lac > Cu–AOPAN–Lac > Ni–AOPAN–Lac > Cd–AOPAN–Lac. In addition, the immobilized enzyme on the carrier of AOPAN chelated with four mixed metal ions showed the best properties.

  14. Chelation of thallium by combining deferasirox and desferrioxamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljooghi, Amir Shokooh; Babaie, Maryam; Mendi, Fatemeh Delavar; Zahmati, Maliheh; Saljooghi, Zoheir Shokouh

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that two known chelators deferasirox (4-[3,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-benzoic acid) and desferrioxamine (DFO) might be more efficient as combined treatment than as monotherapies in removing thallium from the body was tested in a new acute rat model. 7-week-old male Wistar rats received chelators: deferasirox (orally), DFO (intraperitoneal; i.p.), or deferasirox + DFO as 75 or 150 mg/kg dose half an hour after a single i.p. administration of 8 mg thallium/kg body weight in the form of chloride. Serum thallium concentration, urinary thallium, and iron excretions were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Both chelators were effective only at the higher dose level, while DFO was more effective than deferasirox in enhancing urinary thallium excretion, deferasirox was more effective than DFO in enhancing urinary iron excretion. In the combined treatment group, deferasirox did not increase the DFO effect on thallium and DFO did not increase the effect of deferasirox on iron elimination. Our results support the usefulness of this animal model for preliminary in vivo testing of thallium chelators. Urinary values were more useful because of the high variability of serum results. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Mixed ligand chelate therapy for plutonium and cadmium poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J; Derr, S K [Hope Coll., Holland, MI (USA)

    1978-09-28

    Some experiments with mice are described in which complete removal of tissue deposits of /sup 239/Pu and prevention of mortality in animals given lethal doses of Cd were achieved using a mixed ligand chelate treatment (MLC). The mixed ligand consisted of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and salicylic acid.

  16. Bone marrow and chelatable iron in patients with protein energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To examine the iron status of malnourished children by comparing bone marrow iron deposits in children with protein energy malnutrition with those in well-nourished controls, and measuring chelatable urinary iron excretion in children with kwashiorkor. Design: Bone marrow iron was assessed histologicaHy in ...

  17. New method for studying the efficiency of chelating agents of the polyamine acid series for internal decontamination; Methode nouvelle d'etude de l'efficacite des chelateurs de la serie des acides polyamines pour la decontamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuma, J; Nenot, J C; Morin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    We followed the biological fate of a complex formed on one side with either a rare earth (cerium-144) or a transuranium element (plutonium-239), and on the other side with a chelating agent of the polyamino acid series (EDTA, BAETA, DTPA, TTHA). This method allowed to study: 1 - the in vivo stability of the various complexes and to compare them; 2 - the stability of the complexes as a function of the isotope - chelating agent weight relationships; 3 - the metabolism of the chelating agents resulting in stable complexes, i. e. DTPA and TTHA mainly. This simple method brought out the higher efficiency, of DTPA in chelating rare earths and plutonium and for therapeutic purposes. (authors) [French] La methode consiste a suivre le devenir biologique d'un complexe forme d'une part avec une terre rare (cerium 144) ou un transuranien (plutonium 239) et d'autre part avec un chelateur de la serie des acides polyamines (EDTA, BAETA, DTPA, TTHA). Elle permet d'etudier: 1 - la stabilite in vivo des differents complexes, de les comparer; 2 - la stabilite des complexes en fonction des rapports ponderaux isotope - chelateurs; 3 - le metabolisme des chelateurs formant des complexes stables, essentiellement DTPA et TTHA. Cette methode simple degage la suprematie du DTPA en ce qui concerne la chelation des terres rares et du plutonium, et son utilisation a des fins therapeutiques. (auteurs)

  18. New method for studying the efficiency of chelating agents of the polyamine acid series for internal decontamination; Methode nouvelle d'etude de l'efficacite des chelateurs de la serie des acides polyamines pour la decontamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuma, J.; Nenot, J.C.; Morin, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    We followed the biological fate of a complex formed on one side with either a rare earth (cerium-144) or a transuranium element (plutonium-239), and on the other side with a chelating agent of the polyamino acid series (EDTA, BAETA, DTPA, TTHA). This method allowed to study: 1 - the in vivo stability of the various complexes and to compare them; 2 - the stability of the complexes as a function of the isotope - chelating agent weight relationships; 3 - the metabolism of the chelating agents resulting in stable complexes, i. e. DTPA and TTHA mainly. This simple method brought out the higher efficiency, of DTPA in chelating rare earths and plutonium and for therapeutic purposes. (authors) [French] La methode consiste a suivre le devenir biologique d'un complexe forme d'une part avec une terre rare (cerium 144) ou un transuranien (plutonium 239) et d'autre part avec un chelateur de la serie des acides polyamines (EDTA, BAETA, DTPA, TTHA). Elle permet d'etudier: 1 - la stabilite in vivo des differents complexes, de les comparer; 2 - la stabilite des complexes en fonction des rapports ponderaux isotope - chelateurs; 3 - le metabolisme des chelateurs formant des complexes stables, essentiellement DTPA et TTHA. Cette methode simple degage la suprematie du DTPA en ce qui concerne la chelation des terres rares et du plutonium, et son utilisation a des fins therapeutiques. (auteurs)

  19. Background levels of some major, trace, and rare earth elements in indigenous plant species growing in Norway and the influence of soil acidification, soil parent material, and seasonal variation on these levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjengedal, Elin; Martinsen, Thomas; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2015-06-01

    Baseline levels of 43 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) in several native plant species growing in boreal and alpine areas, are presented. Focus is placed on species metal levels at different soil conditions, temporal variations in plant tissue metal concentrations, and interspecies variation in metal concentrations. Vegetation samples were collected at Sogndal, a pristine site in western Norway, and at Risdalsheia, an acidified site in southernmost Norway. Metal concentrations in the different species sampled in western Norway are compared with relevant literature data from Norway, Finland, and northwest Russia, assumed to represent natural conditions. Except for aluminium (Al) and macronutrients, the levels of metals were generally lower in western Norway than in southern Norway and may be considered close to natural background levels. In southern Norway, the levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in particular appear to be affected by air pollution, either by direct atmospheric supply or through soil acidification. Levels of some elements show considerable variability between as well as within plant species. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are higher in most species at Sogndal compared to Risdalsheia, despite increased extractable concentrations in surface soil in the south, probably attributed to different buffer mechanisms in surface soil. Antagonism on plant uptake is suggested between Ca, Mg, and K on one hand and Al on the other. Tolerance among calcifuges to acid conditions and a particular ability to detoxify or avoid uptake of Al ions are noticeable for Vaccinium vitis-idaea.

  20. Phenolic aminocarboxylic acids - new chelating agents for modifying gallium-67 biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, F.C.; Maddalena, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The chelating agents EDDHA and HBED were synthesised with carboxyl or sulphonyl groups in the phenolic ring to favour urinary excretion on complexing with gallium. Carboxyl EDDMA was administered to tumor-bearing rats, and its concentration in the tumours and other tissues determined by scintigraphic imaging. The chelating agents increase tumour to blood ratios by chelating gallium in vivo. (U.K.)

  1. Phenolic aminocarboxylic acids - new chelating agents for modifying gallium-67 biodistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, F.C.; Maddalena, D.J. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights)

    The chelating agents EDDHA and HBED were synthesised with carboxyl or sulphonyl groups in the phenolic ring to favour urinary excretion on complexing with gallium. Carboxyl EDDMA was administered to tumor-bearing rats, and its concentration in the tumours and other tissues determined by scintigraphic imaging. The chelating agents increase tumour to blood ratios by chelating gallium in vivo.

  2. Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen

    2004-01-01

    In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg -1 soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg -1 Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8±1.3 mg kg -1 Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg -1 exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53±0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates

  3. Spectral, biological screening of metal chelates of chalcone based Schiff bases of N-(3-aminopropyl) imidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanithi, M; Rajarajan, M; Tharmaraj, P; Sheela, C D

    2012-02-15

    Tridentate chelate complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been synthesized from the chalcone based ligands 2-[1-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propylimino)-3-(phenylallyl)]phenol(HL(1)), 2-[1-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propylimino)-3-p-tolylallyl]phenol(HL(2)), 2-[1-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propylimino)-3-4-nitrophenylallyl]phenol(HL(3)). Microanalytical data, UV-vis spectrophotometric method, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, 1H NMR, Mass, and EPR techniques were used to characterize the structure of chelates. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest a distorted square planar geometry for the copper(II) ion. The other metal complexes show distorted tetrahedral geometry. The coordination of the ligands with metal(II) ions was further confirmed by solution fluorescence spectrum. The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and metal(II) complexes against the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albigans and Aspergillus niger has been carried out and compared. The electrochemical behavior of copper(II) complex is studied by cyclic voltammetry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Zinc chelates as new activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to apply several zinc chelates as activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrilebutadiene elastomer (NBR, in order to find alternatives for the conventionally used zinc oxide. In this article, we discuss the effects of different zinc complexes on the cure characteristics, crosslinks distribution in the elastomer network and mechanical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. Zinc chelates seem to be good substitutes for zinc oxide as activators for sulphur vulcanization of NBR rubber, without detrimental effects on the crosslinking process and physical properties of the obtained vulcanizates. Moreover, application of zinc complexes allows to reduce the amount of zinc ions in rubber compounds by 40% compared to conventionally crosslinked vulcanizates with zinc oxide. It is a very important ecological goal since zinc oxide is classified as toxic to aquatic species and its amount in rubber products must be reduced below 2.5% at least. From a technological point of view it is a very important challenge.

  5. Neuroprotection of brain-permeable iron chelator VK-28 against intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wan, Jieru; Lan, Xi; Han, Xiaoning; Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Iron overload plays a key role in the secondary brain damage that develops after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The significant increase in iron deposition is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to oxidative brain damage. In this study, we examined the protective effects of VK-28, a brain-permeable iron chelator, against hemoglobin toxicity in an ex vivo organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC) model and in middle-aged mice subjected to an in vivo, collagenase-induced ICH model. We found that the effects of VK-28 were similar to those of deferoxamine (DFX), a well-studied iron chelator. Both decreased cell death and ROS production in OHSCs and in vivo, decreased iron-deposition and microglial activation around hematoma in vivo, and improved neurologic function. Moreover, compared with DFX, VK-28 polarized microglia to an M2-like phenotype, reduced brain water content, deceased white matter injury, improved neurobehavioral performance, and reduced overall death rate after ICH. The protection of VK-28 was confirmed in a blood-injection ICH model and in aged-male and young female mice. Our findings indicate that VK-28 is protective against iron toxicity after ICH and that, at the dosage tested, it has better efficacy and less toxicity than DFX does.

  6. Direct current-induced electrogenerated chemiluminescence of hydrated and chelated Tb(III) at aluminum cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakansson, M.; Jiang, Q.; Spehar, A.-M.; Suomi, J.; Kotiranta, M.; Kulmala, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cathodic DC polarization of oxide-covered aluminum produces electrogenerated chemiluminescence from hydrated and chelated Tb(III) ions in aqueous electrolyte solutions. At the moment of cathodic voltage onset, a strong cathodic flash is observed, which is attributed to a tunnel emission of hot electrons into the aqueous electrolyte solution and the successive chemical reactions with the luminophores. However, within a few milliseconds the insulating oxide film is damaged and finally dissolved due to (i) indiffusion of protons or alkali metal ions into the thin oxide film, (ii) subsequent hydrogen evolution at the aluminum/oxide interface and (iii) alkalization of the electrode surface induced by hydrogen evolution reaction. When the alkalization of the electrode surface has proceeded sufficiently, chemiluminescence is generated with increasing intensity. Aluminum metal, short-lived Al(II), Al(I) or atomic hydrogen and its conjugated base form, hydrated electron, can act as highly reducing species in addition to the less energetic heterogeneously transferred electrons from the aluminum electrode. Tb(III) added as a hydrated ion in the solution probably luminesces in the form of Tb(OH) 3 or Tb(OH) 4 - by direct redox reactions of the central ion whereas multidentate aromatic ligand chelated Tb(III) probably luminesces by ligand sensitized chemiluminescence mechanism in which ligand is first excited by one-electron redox reactions, which is followed by intramolecular energy transfer to the central ion which finally emits light

  7. How life shaped Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  8. Rare earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranstone, D A

    1979-01-01

    Rare earth elements are commonly extracted from the minerals monazite, bastnaesite, and xenotine. New uses for these elements are constantly developing; they have found applications in glass polishing, television tube phosphors, high-strength low-alloy steels, magnets, catalysts, refractory ceramics, and hydrogen sponge alloys. In Canada, rare earths have been produced as byproducts of the uranium mining industry, but there was no production of rare earths in 1978 or 1979. The world sources of and markets for the rare earth elements are discussed.

  9. Peculiarities of structure of rare earth β-diketonates and carboxylates with mostly ionic type of bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1996-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data on β-diketonates and carboxylates of rare earths (3) have been analyzed. Essential features of the compounds structure have been formulated. It is shown that in the compounds mentioned irregular distortions of chelate cycles over the length and angles of bonds are observed, there is no regularity in the ratios of metal-ligand bridge and chelate bond lengths both in the series of compounds of different composition and inside one compound. 2 refs

  10. Removal of cadmium from fish sauce using chelate resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Araki, Ryohei; Michihata, Toshihide; Kozawa, Miyuki; Tokuda, Koji; Koyanagi, Takashi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2015-04-15

    Fish sauce that is prepared from squid organs contains cadmium (Cd), which may be present at hazardous concentrations. Cd molecules are predominantly protein bound in freshly manufactured fish sauce, but are present in a liberated form in air-exposed fish sauce. In the present study, we developed a new method for removing both Cd forms from fish sauce using chelate resin and a previously reported tannin treatment. Sixteen-fold decreases in Cd concentrations were observed (0.78-0.05 mg/100 mL) following the removal of liberated Cd using chelate resin treatment, and the removal of protein-bound Cd using tannin treatment. Major nutritional components of fish sauce were maintained, including free amino acids and peptides, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved paramagnetic chelate for molecular imaging with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Patrick; Athey, Phillip; Kiefer, Garry; Gulyas, Gyongyi; Frank, Keith; Fuhrhop, Ralph; Robertson, David; Wickline, Samuel; Lanza, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The relaxivity and transmetallation of two lipophilic paramagnetic chelates incorporated onto perfluorocarbon nanoparticles, i.e., gadolinium-methoxy-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid phosphatidylethanolamine (Gd-MeO-DOTA-PE) and gadolinium-methoxy-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid triglycine phosphatidylethanolamine (Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE (Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE)), were compared to a prototypic gadolinium-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid bis-oleate (Gd-DTPA-BOA) paramagnetic formulation. Nanoparticles with MeO-DOTA-based chelates demonstrated higher relaxivity (40% higher for Gd-MeO-DOTA-PE and 55% higher for Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE) and less transmetallation than the original Gd-DTPA-BOA-based agent

  12. MULTIDENTATE TEREPHTHALAMIDATE AND HYDROXYPYRIDONATE LIGANDS: TOWARDS NEW ORALLY ACTIVE CHELATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abergel, Rebecca J.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2011-07-13

    The limitations of current therapies for the treatment of iron overload or radioisotope contamination have stimulated efforts to develop new orally bioavailable iron and actinide chelators. Siderophore-inspired tetradentate, hexadentate and octadentate terephthalamidate and hydroxypyridonate ligands were evaluated in vivo as selective and efficacious iron or actinide chelating agents, with several metal loading and ligand assessment procedures, using {sup 59}Fe, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 241}Am as radioactive tracers. The compounds presented in this study were compared to commercially available therapeutic sequestering agents [deferoxamine (DFO) for iron and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DPTA) for actinides] and are unrivaled in terms of affinity, selectivity and decorporation efficacy, which attests to the fact that high metal affinity may overcome the low bioavailability properties commonly associated to multidenticity.

  13. Treatment of some radioactive wastes by using new chelating membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, S.A.; El-Adham, K.; Abdel Geleel, M.; Soliman, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of chelating membranes containing nitrile and carboxylic acid as functional groups was investigated. The modification of such membranes by chemical treatments to produce significant changes in their properties was studied. This modification results in a higher rate of exchange and higher capacity. The applicability of such modified membranes in the removal of Co-60 and Cs-137 from their wastes were tested. The dependence of these radioactive nuclides uptake on the time and degree of grafting for H CI-, NH 2 OH-and KOH-treated membranes was investigated. It was found that the adsorption rate and capacity were higher for KOH-treated membrane than those for the NH 2 OH and H CI treated ones. The prepared grafted membranes have a good affinity towards the adsorption or chelation with Co-60 and Cs-137. This result may make such prepared materials acceptable for practicable use in some radioactive waste treatments and recovery

  14. Chelation studies involving decontamination of light lanthanides by polyaminopolycarboxylic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.E.H.

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis constitutes chelation studies involving decontamination of light lanthanides, cobalt , and uranium with 2,2-bis-acryloyliminomethylene- acid (BAETA) using the spectrophotometric method. the work carried out aimed to clear up the effectiveness of BAETA as a decontaminating agent for radioactive nuclides from human body . the thesis includes a general introduction , outlines the aim of work and contains three main chapters . the results of the work are discussed at the end of the thesis. the first chapter deals with a comprehensive survey of the relevant literature. this includes the metabolism and toxicity of cerium, uranium, cobalt and Ln +3 elements, general methodologies of internal decontamination, choice and effectiveness of chelating agents

  15. Iron overload and chelation therapy in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Sally; Santini, Valeria; Musallam, Khaled; Taher, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Iron overload remains a concern in MDS patients especially those requiring recurrent blood transfusions. The consequence of iron overload may be more relevant in patients with low and intermediate-1 risk MDS who may survive long enough to experience such manifestations. It is a matter of debate whether this overload has time to yield organ damage, but it is quite evident that cellular damage and DNA genotoxic effect are induced. Iron overload may play a critical role in exacerbating pre-existing morbidity or even unmask silent ones. Under these circumstances, iron chelation therapy could play an integral role in the management of these patients. This review entails an in depth analysis of iron overload in MDS patients; its pathophysiology, effect on survival, associated risks and diagnostic options. It also discusses management options in relation to chelation therapy used in MDS patients and the impact it has on survival, hematologic response and organ function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Encapsulation and retention of chelated-copper inside hydrophobic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervella, Pablo; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Needham, David

    2016-01-01

    ) Chelate copper into the octaethyl porphyrin; (3) Encapsulate OEP-Cu in nanoparticles: the encapsulation efficiency of copper into liquid nanoparticles (LNP), solid nanoparticles (SNP) and phospholipid liposomes (PL) was evaluated by UV-Vis and atomic absorption spectroscopy; (4) Retain the encapsulated...... OEP-Cu in the liquid or solid cores of the nanoparticles in the presence of a lipid sink. RESULTS: (1) The size of the nanoparticles was found to be strongly dependent on the Reynolds number and the initial concentration of components for the fast injection technique. At high Reynolds number (2181......), a minimum value for the particle diameter of ∼30nm was measured. (2) Copper was chelated by OEP in a 1:1mol ratio with an association constant of 2.57×10(5)M(-1). (3) The diameter of the nanoparticles was not significantly affected by the presence of OEP or OEP-Cu. The percentage of encapsulation of copper...

  17. Iron chelates: a challenge to chemists and Moessbauer spectroscopists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homonnay, Z., E-mail: homonnay@chem.elte.hu; Szilagyi, P. A.; Vertes, A. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Kuzmann, E. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Chemical Research Center (Hungary); Sharma, V. K. [Florida Institute of Technology (United States); Molnar, G.; Bousseksou, A. [CNRS UPR-8241, Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination (France); Greneche, J.-M. [Universite du Maine, Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, CNRS UMR 6087 (France); Brausam, A.; Meier, R.; Eldik, R. van [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute for Inorganic Chemistry (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    The speciation of iron in aqueous solutions containing Fe{sup 3+} and selected chelates such as EDTA, EDDA, CDTA and HEDTA has been studied using transmission {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectrometry in frozen solutions. The protonation of various complexes as well as binuclear complex formation could be detected as a function of pH. Autoreduction of Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 2+} was observed in several cases. Reaction with hydrogen peroxide proved to be rather different for the four ligands, while the dihapto complex [XFe({eta}{sup 2}-O{sub 2})]{sup 3-} had surprisingly identical Moessbauer parameters for X = EDTA, CDTA or HEDTA. Paramagnetic spin relaxation observed in the Moessbauer spectra was found to be strongly influenced by the identity of the chelating ligand, despite the basically spin-spin origin of the phenomenon.

  18. Improved paramagnetic chelate for molecular imaging with MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Patrick; Athey, Phillip; Kiefer, Garry; Gulyas, Gyongyi; Frank, Keith; Fuhrhop, Ralph; Robertson, David; Wickline, Samuel; Lanza, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    The relaxivity and transmetallation of two lipophilic paramagnetic chelates incorporated onto perfluorocarbon nanoparticles, i.e., gadolinium-methoxy-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid phosphatidylethanolamine (Gd-MeO-DOTA-PE) and gadolinium-methoxy-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid triglycine phosphatidylethanolamine (Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE (Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE)), were compared to a prototypic gadolinium-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid bis-oleate (Gd-DTPA-BOA) paramagnetic formulation. Nanoparticles with MeO-DOTA-based chelates demonstrated higher relaxivity (40% higher for Gd-MeO-DOTA-PE and 55% higher for Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE) and less transmetallation than the original Gd-DTPA-BOA-based agent.

  19. Self-assembled polymeric chelate nanoparticles as potential theranostic agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škodová, Michaela; Černoch, Peter; Štěpánek, Petr; Chánová, Eliška; Kučka, Jan; Kálalová, Zuzana; Kaňková, Dana; Hrubý, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 18 (2012), s. 4244-4250 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/10/P054; GA ČR GA202/09/2078; GA ČR GAP304/12/0950 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chelate s * nanoparticles * polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.349, year: 2012

  20. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S. [Babcock & Wilcox, Co., R& DD, Alliance, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. This report describes the results of the performance testing of chelates and solvents for the dissolution of uranium.

  1. Polymeric metal chelates with piperazine(bis)dithiocarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larionov, S.V.; Kosareva, L.A.; Ikorskij, V.N.; Uskov, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    Roentgenoamorphous polymer chelates of Fe 3 , Co 2 , Ni 2 , Cu 2 , Zn 2 , Cd 2 , Pb 2 with tetradentate bridge ligand piperazine-(bis) dithiocarbamate have been synthesized. IR spectra in the region 200-400 cm - 1 point to coordination of sulphur atoms of groups CS 2- with metals. It is found that among the polymers synthesized CuLxH 2 O possesses the lowest electric resistance

  2. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  3. Reaction of gadolinium chelates with ozone and hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyris, Maike; Knolle, Wolfgang; Richard, Jessica; Dopp, Elke; von Sonntag, Clemens; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2013-09-03

    Gadolinium chelates are used in increasing amounts as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, and their fate in wastewater treatment has recently become the focus of research. Oxidative processes, in particular the application of ozone, are currently discussed or even implemented for advanced wastewater treatment. However, reactions of the gadolinium chelates with ozone are not yet characterized. In this study, therefore, rate constants with ozone were determined for the three commonly used chelates Gd-DTPA, Gd-DTPA-BMA, and Gd-BT-DO3A, which were found to be 4.8 ± 0.88, 46 ± 2.5, and 24 ± 1.5 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. These low rate constants indicate that a direct reaction with ozone in wastewater is negligible. However, application of ozone in wastewater leads to substantial yields of (•)OH. Different methods have been applied and compared for determination of k((•)OH+Gd chelate). From rate constants determined by pulse radiolysis experiments (k((•)OH+Gd-DTPA) = 2.6 ± 0.2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), k((•)OH+Gd-DTPA-BMA) = 1.9 ± 0.7 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), k((•)OH+Gd-BT-DO3A) = 4.3 ± 0.2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)), it is concluded that a reaction in wastewater via (•)OH radicals is feasible. Toxicity has been tested for educt and product mixtures of both reactions. Cytotoxicity (MTT test) and genotoxicity (micronuclei assay) were not detectable.

  4. Antiparkinson drug--Mucuna pruriens shows antioxidant and metal chelating activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Tharakan, Binu; Manyam, Bala V

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder for which no neurorestorative therapeutic treatment is currently available. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally uses Mucuna pruriens to treat Parkinson's disease. In our earlier studies, Mucuna pruriens has been shown to possess antiparkinson and neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease. The antioxidant activity of Mucuna pruriens was demonstrated by its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, ABTS radicals and reactive oxygen species. Mucuna pruriens significantly inhibited the oxidation of lipids and deoxyribose sugar. Mucuna pruriens exhibited divalent iron chelating activity and did not show any genotoxic/mutagenic effect on the plasmid DNA. These results suggest that the neuroprotective and neurorestorative effect of Mucuna pruriens may be related to its antioxidant activity independent of the symptomatic effect. In addition, the drug appears to be therapeutically safe in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. F-Element ion chelation in highly basic media. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    'A large percentage of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) produced in the DOE complex over the last thirty years temporarily resides in storage tanks maintained at highly basic pH. The final permanent waste remediation plan will probably require that liquid and solid fractions be chemically treated in order to partition and concentrate the dominate hazardous emitters from the bulk of the waste. This is no small task. Indeed, there does not exist a well developed molecular chemistry knowledge base to guide the development of suitable separations for actinide and fission products present in the strongly basic media. The goal of this project is to undertake fundamental studies of the coordination chemistry of f-element ions and their species formed in basic aqueous solutions containing common waste treatment ions (e.g., NO 3 - , CO 3 2- , organic carboxylates, and EDTA), as well as new waste scrubbing chelators produced in this study.'

  6. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  7. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Corbella, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy

  8. Hydroxyurea could be a good clinically relevant iron chelator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italia, Khushnooma; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study showed a reduction in serum ferritin of β-thalassemia patients on hydroxyurea therapy. Here we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyurea alone and in combination with most widely used iron chelators like deferiprone and deferasirox for reducing iron from experimentally iron overloaded mice. 70 BALB/c mice received intraperitonial injections of iron-sucrose. The mice were then divided into 8 groups and were orally given hydroxyurea, deferiprone or deferasirox alone and their combinations for 4 months. CBC, serum-ferritin, TBARS, sTfr and hepcidin were evaluated before and after iron overload and subsequently after 4 months of drug therapy. All animals were then killed. Iron staining of the heart and liver tissue was done using Perl's Prussian Blue stain. Dry weight of iron in the heart and liver was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Increased serum-ferritin, TBARS, hepcidin and dry weight of iron in the liver and heart showed a significant reduction in groups treated with iron chelators with maximum reduction in the group treated with a combination of deferiprone, deferasirox and hydroxyurea. Thus hydroxyurea proves its role in reducing iron from iron overloaded mice. The iron chelating effect of these drugs can also be increased if given in combination.

  9. Chelate forms of biometalls. Theoretical aspects of obtaining and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kapustyan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of microelements bioavailability is highlighted and the correct ways of its solution are substantiated as a result of generalization of theoretical aspects of obtaining of the biometals chelate forms. The characteristics of the main biogenic elements, their physiological significance, electrochemical properties are presented. The main examples of the participation of biometals in various biological processes are given. The properties and the structure peculiarities of biometals coordination complexes are considered in detail. It is shown that in obtaining of biometals chelate forms, there is the mutual selectivity and the affinity of biometals and ligands. The main factors of obtaining a hard metal complex are given. Potential bioligands for obtaining bioavailable forms of microelements are detailed. Among them there are amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates. The possible character of complexation depending on the nature of the bioligand is indicated. Practical examples of preparation of biometals mixed ligand complexes are given. The expediency of using metabolic products and processing of lactic acid bacteria as promising components of mixed ligand chelate complexes is substantiated. These substances contain in their composition a mass of potential donor atoms that are capable to form covalent and coordination bonds with biomethalles, and also possess high biological and immunotropic activities. The use of this system in the biocoordination compounds of the "metals of life" can provide a synergistic effect of the components, significantly to expand the range of their physiological activity and to increase the degree of assimilation by the body.

  10. Hydroxyurea could be a good clinically relevant iron chelator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushnooma Italia

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed a reduction in serum ferritin of β-thalassemia patients on hydroxyurea therapy. Here we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyurea alone and in combination with most widely used iron chelators like deferiprone and deferasirox for reducing iron from experimentally iron overloaded mice. 70 BALB/c mice received intraperitonial injections of iron-sucrose. The mice were then divided into 8 groups and were orally given hydroxyurea, deferiprone or deferasirox alone and their combinations for 4 months. CBC, serum-ferritin, TBARS, sTfr and hepcidin were evaluated before and after iron overload and subsequently after 4 months of drug therapy. All animals were then killed. Iron staining of the heart and liver tissue was done using Perl's Prussian Blue stain. Dry weight of iron in the heart and liver was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Increased serum-ferritin, TBARS, hepcidin and dry weight of iron in the liver and heart showed a significant reduction in groups treated with iron chelators with maximum reduction in the group treated with a combination of deferiprone, deferasirox and hydroxyurea. Thus hydroxyurea proves its role in reducing iron from iron overloaded mice. The iron chelating effect of these drugs can also be increased if given in combination.

  11. Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of iron chelators against Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Kim, Cheul; Lee, Hee-Su; Kim, Sung-Woon; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-09-01

    Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontopathogen, has been shown to be resistant to many antibiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of the FDA-approved iron chelators deferoxamine (DFO) and deferasirox (DFRA) against planktonic and biofilm cells of P. intermedia in order to evaluate the possibility of using these iron chelators as alternative control agents against P. intermedia. DFRA showed strong antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC values of 0.16 mg ml(-1)) against planktonic P. intermedia. At subMICs, DFRA partially inhibited the bacterial growth and considerably prolonged the bacterial doubling time. DFO was unable to completely inhibit the bacterial growth in the concentration range tested and was not bactericidal. Crystal violet binding assay for the assessment of biofilm formation by P. intermedia showed that DFRA significantly decreased the biofilm-forming activity as well as the biofilm formation, while DFO was less effective. DFRA was chosen for further study. In the ATP-bioluminescent assay, which reflects viable cell counts, subMICs of DFRA significantly decreased the bioactivity of biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner. Under the scanning electron microscope, P. intermedia cells in DFRA-treated biofilm were significantly elongated compared to those in untreated biofilm. Further experiments are necessary to show that iron chelators may be used as a therapeutic agent for periodontal disease.

  12. Copper and Zinc Chelation as a Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people in the U.S. The cause of the disease remains unknown, but amyloid- β (A β), a short peptide, is considered causal its pathogenesis. At cellular level, AD is characterized by deposits mainly composed of A β that also contain elevated levels of transition metals ions. Targeting metals is a promising new strategy for AD treatment, which uses moderately strong metal chelators to sequester them from A β or the environment. PBT2 is a chelating compound that has been the most promising in clinical trials. In our work, we use computer simulations to investigate complexes of a close analog of PBT2 with Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions. The calculations employ KS/FD DFT method, which combines Kohn-Sham DFT with the frozen-density DFT to achieve efficient description of explicit solvent beyond the first solvation shell. Our work is based on recent experiments and examines both 1:1 and 2:1 chelator-metal stochiometries detected experimentally. The results show that copper attaches more strongly than zinc, find that 1:1 complexes involve water in the first coordination shell and determine which one of several possible 2:1 geometries is the most preferable.

  13. Methods for Generating Highly Magnetically Responsive Lanthanide-Chelating Phospholipid Polymolecular Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Baumgartner, Mirjam E; Reckey, Pernille Q; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Fischer, Peter; Windhab, Erich J; Kuster, Simon

    2017-06-27

    Mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and its lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ ) chelating phospholipid conjugate, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA), assemble into highly magnetically responsive polymolecular assemblies such as DMPC/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 4:1:1) bicelles. Their geometry and magnetic alignability is enhanced by introducing cholesterol into the bilayer in DMPC/Cholesterol/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 16:4:5:5). However, the reported fabrication procedures remain tedious and limit the generation of highly magnetically alignable species. Herein, a simplified procedure where freeze thawing cycles and extrusion are replaced by gentle heating and cooling cycles for the hydration of the dry lipid film was developed. Heating above the phase transition temperature T m of the lipids composing the bilayer before cooling back below the T m was essential to guarantee successful formation of the polymolecular assemblies composed of DMPC/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 4:1:1). Planar polymolecular assemblies in the size range of hundreds of nanometers are achieved and deliver unprecedented gains in magnetic response. The proposed heating and cooling procedure further allowed to regenerate the highly magnetically alignable DMPC/Cholesterol/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 16:4:5:5) species after storage for one month frozen at -18 °C. The simplicity and viability of the proposed fabrication procedure offers a new set of highly magnetically responsive lanthanide ion chelating phospholipid polymolecular assemblies as building blocks for the smart soft materials of tomorrow.

  14. Rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The conference was held from September 12 to 13, 1984 in Jetrichovice, Czechoslovakia. The participants heard 16 papers of which 4 were inputted in INIS. These papers dealt with industrial separation processes of rare earths, the use of chemical methods of separation from the concentrate of apatite and bastnesite, the effect of the relative permittivity of solvents in the elution of rare earth elements from a cation exchanger, and the determination of the content of different rare earth elements using X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. (E.S.)

  15. Chelated mineral supplements for Nelore: quality and early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Pasa C., Hatamoto-Zervoudakis L.K., Zervoudakis J.T. & Soares L. [Chelated mineral supplements for Nelore: quality and early embryonic development.] Suplementos minerais quelatados para vacas Nelore: qualidade e desenvolvimento embrionário inicial. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:29-34, 2014. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Corrêa da Costa, 2367, Bairro Boa Esperança, Cuiabá, MT 78060-900, Brasil. E-mail: pasa_camila@hotmail.com The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality and early development of embryos produced with oocytes of cows supplemented with copper, zinc and selenium in a non-chelated and chelated. The experiment was conducted in Cuiabá-MT during the months April to July 2009. We used 24 adult Nellore multiparous, aged, average weights of the initial 36 months, 395 kg and mean body condition score 4.8, respectively randomly divided into 2 groups: control group (CG, supplemented with conventional mineral and Supplemented Group (GS, animals supplemented with zinc, copper and selenium chelated. Each group was kept in a paddock of Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu received 1 kg of animal per day. chelated mineral supplementation (GS and conventional mineral (GC delivered via the protein supplement was given during a period of 99 days with daily average 1kg/cabeça. During the experimental period were two follicular aspirations, one to 59 days and another at 99 days of supplementation. Every two weeks the animals were weighed and ECC evaluated. oocytes viable (grades I, II and III were used for in vitro production of embryos. The experiment was completely randomized and data were analyzed by ANOVA and a significance level of 10%. There was no effect (p> 0.10 of supplementation with chelated minerals on the percentage of cleaved oocytes, total embryos produced, percentage of produced

  16. Assessment of species-specific and temporal variations of major, trace and rare earth elements in vineyard ambient using moss bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Tijana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Vuković, Gordana; Škrivanj, Sandra; Relić, Dubravka; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-10-01

    Since the methodological parameters of moss bag biomonitoring have rarely been investigated for the application in agricultural areas, two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (commonly available), were verified in a vineyard ambient. The moss bags were exposed along transects in six vineyard parcels during the grapevine season (March‒September 2015). To select an appropriate period for the reliable 'signal' of the element enrichment in the mosses, the bags were simultaneously exposed during five periods (3 × 2 months, 1 × 4 months, and 1 × 6 months). Assuming that vineyard is susceptible to contamination originated from different agricultural treatments, a wide range of elements (41) were determined in the moss and topsoil samples. The mosses were significantly enriched by the elements during the 2-month bag exposure which gradually increasing up to 6 months, but Cu and Ni exhibited the noticeable fluctuations during the grapevine season. However, the 6-month exposure of moss bags could be recommended for comparative studies among different vineyards because it reflects the ambient pollution comprising unpredictable treatments of grapevine applied during the whole season. Although higher element concentrations were determined in S. girgensohnii than H. cupressiforme, both species reflected the spatio-temporal changes in the ambient element content. Moreover, the significant correlation of the element (Cr, Cu, Sb, and Ti) concentrations between the mosses, and the same pairs of the elements correlated within the species, imply the comparable use of S. girgensohnii and H. cupressiforme in the vineyard (agricultural) ambient. Finally, both the moss bags and the soil analyses suggest that vineyard represents a dominant diffuse pollution source of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, and V. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  18. Study of cyclization of chelating compounds using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Ying; Campbell, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used for the study of cyclization of organic chelating compounds (chelators). Four chelating compounds were studied: Symmetrical ethylenediaminediacetic acid (s-EDDA), Unsymmetrical ethylenediaminediacetic acid (u-EDDA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (HEIDA). The chelators were cyclized with treatments of acids and heating. The open and cyclized form of the chelators were semi-quantified by both positive and negative ion modes ESI-MS. The kinetics of chelator cyclization was studied as a function of reaction temperature and the pH of the matrix. The cyclization of s-EDDA was found to be a pseudo-first order reaction in s-EDDA and overall second order. The cyclizations of HEIDA and HEDTA are reversible reactions. Higher temperature and lower pH favors cyclization. (author)

  19. Utilizing NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data to Determine Ideal Planting Locations for Wetland Tree Species in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, Ross; Arguelles, Maria; Strong, Emma; Ewing, Michael; Kelly, Chelsey

    2012-01-01

    St. Bernard Parish, in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a combination of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have worked not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for coastal forests. Using NASA EOS, NRCS soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of wetland trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using LIDAR data and classifying existing land cover in the study area from ASTER multispectral satellite data. Low altitude AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the intersection of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou la Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was mapped using aerial photos from USGS collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated the utility of combining NASA EOS with other geospatial data in assessing, monitoring, and restoring of coastal ecosystems in Louisiana. This methodology also provides a useful template for other ecological forecasting and coastal restoration applications.

  20. Effect of other metals on iron bioavailability in presence of a selective chelator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, F.S.

    1995-01-01

    Iron (III) is generally very easily chelated by a number of chelators in the biological environment, either supplied by food or already present there. One of the these chelator is gallic acid. The stability constants of the complexes formed between gallic acid and other trace metals have been determined by a potentiometric method. The data obtained was computed with the help of computer program B est . The resulted Beta values were compared with already known values of iron gallic acid complexes. (author)

  1. Photocatalyzed removal of lead ion from lead-chelator solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Hyun; Na, Jung Won; Sung, Ki Woung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the influence of such chelating agents on the ease and speed of photocatalyzed metal removal and deposition. With excess EDTA, the free EDTA competes with Pb for oxidation, and at a ten fold excess, no lead oxidation (hence removal) occurs. With insufficient EDTA, the corresponding initial concentration of Pb-EDTA is decreased; after its destruction, the remaining Pb{sup 2+} is removed more slowly, at rates found with lead nitrate solution. The net result is that the maximum rate of lead deposition occurs at the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 EDTA : Pb{sup 2+}.

  2. Optimized conditions for chelation of yttrium-90-DOTA immunoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukis, D L; DeNardo, S J; DeNardo, G L; O'Donnell, R T; Meares, C F

    1998-12-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 90Y-labeled immunoconjugates has shown promise in clinical trials. The macrocyclic chelating agent 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N"'-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) binds 90Y with extraordinary stability, minimizing the toxicity of 90Y-DOTA immunoconjugates arising from loss of 90Y to bone. However, reported 90Y-DOTA immunoconjugate product yields have been typically only BAD) was conjugated to the monoclonal antibody Lym-1 via 2-iminothiolane (2IT). The immunoconjugate product, 2IT-BAD-Lym-1, was labeled in excess yttrium in various buffers over a range of concentrations and pH. Kinetic studies were performed in selected buffers to estimate radiolabeling reaction times under prospective radiopharmacy labeling conditions. The effect of temperature on reaction kinetics was examined. Optimal radiolabeling conditions were identified and used in eight radiolabeling experiments with 2IT-BAD-Lym-1 and a second immunoconjugate, DOTA-peptide-chimeric L6, with 248-492 MBq (6.7-13.3 mCi) of 90Y. Ammonium acetate buffer (0.5 M) was associated with the highest uptake of yttrium. On the basis of kinetic data, the time required to chelate 94% of 90Y (four half-times) under prospective radiopharmacy labeling conditions in 0.5 M ammonium acetate was 17-148 min at pH 6.5, but it was only 1-10 min at pH 7.5. Raising the reaction temperature from 25 degrees C to 37 degrees C markedly increased the chelation rate. Optimal radiolabeling conditions were identified as: 30-min reaction time, 0.5 M ammonium acetate buffer, pH 7-7.5 and 37 degrees C. In eight labeling experiments under optimal conditions, a mean product yield (+/- s.d.) of 91%+/-8% was achieved, comparable to iodination yields. The specific activity of final products was 74-130 MBq (2.0-3.5 mCi) of 90Y per mg of monoclonal antibody. The immunoreactivity of 90Y-labeled immunoconjugates was 100%+/-11%. The optimization of 90Y-DOTA chelation conditions represents an important advance in 90Y RIT

  3. Uranium and neodymium biosorption using novel chelating polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsalamouny, Ahmed R; Desouky, Osman A; Mohamed, Saad A; Galhoum, Ahmed A; Guibal, Eric

    2017-11-01

    A direct reaction is described to prepare hydrophobic α-aminomethylphosphonic acid as a novel chitosan-based material. It exhibits chelating properties for polyvalent metal ions such as U(VI) and Nd(III) ions. The new sorbent was fully characterized using Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and FTIR spectra. Different parameters were examined in order to evaluate the optimum conditions for U(VI) and Nd(III) ions biosorption. Sorption mechanisms of metal ions were investigated using kinetic and isotherm models. In addition, the sorbent selectivity was tested for both metal ions together in a binary solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of functional groups on the permeation and distribution of antimycobacterial rhodamine chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniz, T; Leite, A; Silva, T; Gameiro, P; Gomes, M S; de Castro, B; Rangel, M

    2017-10-01

    We formerly hypothesized a mechanism whereby the antimycobacterial efficiency of a set of rhodamine labelled iron chelators is improved via the rhodamine fluorophore which enhances the chelators' permeation properties through membranes. To validate our hypothesis in a cellular context and to understand the influence of the structure of the fluorophore on the chelator's uptake and distribution within macrophages we now report comparative confocal microscopy studies performed with a set of rhodamine labelled chelators. We identify the functional groups of the chelator's framework that favor uptake by macrophages and conclude that the antimycobacterial effect is strongly related with the capacity of the chelator to distribute within the host cell and its compartments, a property that is closely related with the chelators' ability to interact with membranes. The quantification of the chelators' interaction with membranes was assessed through measurement of the corresponding partition constants in liposomes. The overall results support that the compounds which are preferentially taken up are the most efficient antimycobacterial chelators and for that reason we infer that the biological activity is modulated by the structural features of the fluorophore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chelating capture and magnetic removal of non-magnetic heavy metal substances from soil

    OpenAIRE

    Liren Fan; Jiqing Song; Wenbo Bai; Shengping Wang; Ming Zeng; Xiaoming Li; Yang Zhou; Haifeng Li; Haiwei Lu

    2016-01-01

    A soil remediation method based on magnetic beneficiation is reported. A new magnetic solid chelator powder, FS@IDA (core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles coated with iminodiacetic acid chelators), was used as a reactive magnetic carrier to selectively capture non-magnetic heavy metals in soil by chelation and removal by magnetic separation. FS@IDA was prepared via inorganic-organic and organic synthesis reactions that generated chelating groups on the surface of magnetic, multi-core, core-shel...

  6. Spectroscopy, modeling and computation of metal chelate solubility in supercritical CO2. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, J.F.; Chateauneuf, J.E.; Stadtherr, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    'This report summarizes work after 1 year and 8 months (9/15/96-5/14/98) of a 3 year project. Thus far, progress has been made in: (1) the measurement of the solubility of metal chelates in SC CO 2 with and without added cosolvents, (2) the spectroscopic determination of preferential solvation of metal chelates by cosolvents in SC CO 2 solutions, and (3) the development of a totally reliable computational technique for phase equilibrium computations. An important factor in the removal of metals from solid matrices with CO 2 /chelate mixtures is the equilibrium solubility of the metal chelate complex in the CO 2 .'

  7. Femtomolar Ln(III) affinity in peptide-based ligands containing unnatural chelating amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecka, Agnieszka; Cisnetti, Federico; Lebrun, Colette; Delangle, Pascale

    2012-05-07

    The incorporation of unnatural chelating amino acids in short peptide sequences leads to lanthanide-binding peptides with a higher stability than sequences built exclusively from natural residues. In particular, the hexadentate peptide P(22), which incorporates two unnatural amino acids Ada(2) with aminodiacetate chelating arms, showed picomolar affinity for Tb(3+). To design peptides with higher denticity, expected to show higher affinity for Ln(3+), we synthesized the novel unnatural amino acid Ed3a(2) which carries an ethylenediamine triacetate side-chain and affords a pentadentate coordination site. The synthesis of the derivative Fmoc-Ed3a(2)(tBu)(3)-OH, with appropriate protecting groups for direct use in the solid phase peptide synthesis (Fmoc strategy), is described. The two high denticity peptides P(HD2) (Ac-Trp-Ed3a(2)-Pro-Gly-Ada(2)-Gly-NH(2)) and P(HD5) (Ac-Trp-Ada(2)-Pro-Gly-Ed3a(2)-Gly-NH(2)) led to octadentate Tb(3+) complexes with femtomolar stability in water. The position of the high denticity amino acid Ed3a(2) in the hexapeptide sequence appears to be critical for the control of the metal complex speciation. Whereas P(HD5) promotes the formation of polymetallic species in excess of Ln(3+), P(HD2) forms exclusively the mononuclear complex. The octadentate coordination of Tb(3+) by both P(HD) leads to total dehydration of the metal ion in the mononuclear complexes with long luminescence lifetimes (>2 ms). Hence, we demonstrated that unnatural amino acids carrying polyaminocarboxylate side-chains are interesting building blocks to design high affinity Ln-binding peptides. In particular the novel peptide P(HD2) forms a unique octadentate Tb(3+) complex with femtomolar stability in water and an improvement of the luminescence properties with respect to the trisaquo TbP(22) complex by a factor of 4.

  8. Magnetic Partitioning Nanofluid for Rare Earth Extraction from Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, Bernard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nune, Satish K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-21

    Rare earth metals are critical materials in a wide variety of applications in generating and storing renewable energy and in designing more energy efficient devices. Extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines is a very challenging problem due to the low concentrations of these elements and engineering challenges with traditional chemical separations methods involving packed sorbent beds or membranes that would impede large volumetric flow rates of geothermal fluids transitioning through the plant. We are demonstrating a simple and highly cost-effective nanofluid-based method for extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines. Core-shell composite nanoparticles are produced that contain a magnetic iron oxide core surrounded by a shell made of silica or metal-organic framework (MOF) sorbent functionalized with chelating ligands selective for the rare earth elements. By introducing the nanoparticles at low concentration (≈0.05 wt%) into the geothermal brine after it passes through the plant heat exchanger, the brine is exposed to a very high concentration of chelating sites on the nanoparticles without need to pass through a large and costly traditional packed bed or membrane system where pressure drop and parasitic pumping power losses are significant issues. Instead, after a short residence time flowing with the brine, the particles are effectively separated out with an electromagnet and standard extraction methods are then applied to strip the rare earth metals from the nanoparticles, which are then recycled back to the geothermal plant. Recovery efficiency for the rare earths at ppm level has now been measured for both silica and MOF sorbents functionalized with a variety of chelating ligands. A detailed preliminary techno-economic performance analysis of extraction systems using both sorbents showed potential to generate a promising internal rate of return (IRR) up to 20%.

  9. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  10. Synthesis of LaNiO3 perovskite type by chelating precursor method using EDTA: optimization of chelating content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose Carlos dos; Pedrosa, Anne Michelle Garrido; Mesquita, Maria Eliane; Souza, Marcelo Jose Barros de

    2011-01-01

    The perovskites are strategic materials due their catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties. These properties are influenced by the calcination and synthesis conditions. In this work was carried out the synthesis of LaNiO 3 perovskite type by chelating precursor method using EDTA and also was studied the optimization of the EDTA content in the synthesis. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In the optimization of the EDTA content the lowest ratio of metal / EDTA used was 1.0 / 0.1, where it was possible to obtain monophasic perovskite. (author)

  11. Detoxication and removal of uranium by phenolic chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Meichu; Chen Guibao; Li Landi

    1992-01-01

    The use of phenolic chelating agents for detoxication and removal of uranyl nitrate in mice and rats is reported. Antidotal test: 8102, 7601 and 811 were given 2 mM/kg subcutaneously to mice and 1 mM/kg intramuscularly to rats when the animals were injected i.p. with different doses (100-500 mg/kg) of uranyl nitrate. The results showed that the antidotal effects of 8102 and 7601 were better than 811 in augmenting survival, survival time (day) and renal factor (kidney weight/body weight x100). 8102 was superior to 7601 against higher dose of uranyl nitrate intoxication. Removal test: five phenolic chelating agents (8102, 7601, 811, 7603 and 8307) were studied in rats. The results obtained demonstrated that 8102 and 7601 were better than 811, 7603 and 8307 in increasing U excretion in the urine after acute uranyl nitrate intoxication. The effects of different doses (300-1000 μM/kg) of 8102 was superior to 7601 in increasing U excretion in the urine and decreasing U deposition in the tissues. The toxicity and dose of 8102 in treating uranium intoxication are discussed

  12. Selective separation of indium by iminodiacetic acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, M.C.B.; Benedetto, J.S.; Martins, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    - Indium can be recovered by treating residues, flue dusts, slags, and metallic intermediates in zinc smelting. This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of indium and iron on an iminodiacetic acid chelating resin, Amberlite R IRC748 (Rohm and Haas Co.-USA). High concentrations of iron are always present in the aqueous feed solution of indium recovery. In addition, the chemical behaviour of iron in adsorptive systems is similar to that of indium. The metal concentrations in the aqueous solution were based on typical indium sulfate leach liquor obtained from zinc hydrometallurgical processing in a Brazilian plant. The ionic adsorption experiments were carried out by the continuous column method. Amberlite R IRC748 resin had a high affinity for indium under acidic conditions. Indium ions adsorbed onto the polymeric resin were eluted with a 0.5 mol/dm 3 sulphuric acid solution passed through the resin bed in the column. 99.5% pure indium sulfate aqueous solution was obtained using the iminodiacetic acid chelating resin Amberlite R IRC748. (author)

  13. KINETICS OF THE OXIDATION OF FERROUS CHELATES OF EDTA AND HEDTA IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WUBS, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of oxygen with ferrous chelates of EDTA and HEDTA was studied in a stirred cell reactor under industrial conditions. The temperature was varied from 20 to 60-degrees-C and the concentration of the ferrous chelate ranged from 0 to 100 mol/m3. The initial pH was 7.5. Under

  14. Antioxidant, Iron-chelating and Anti-glucosidase Activities of Typha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron chelating activity was assessed using a ferrozine-based assay. Anti- glucosidase activity was determined using 4-nitrophenyl ... flavonoid (TF) content was determined based an aluminum chloride colorimetric assay [6]. TF content was ..... Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation protects from diabetes and loss of β-cell.

  15. Earth thermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, M

    1960-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the Earth are described, including terrestrial heat flow, internal temperatures and thermal history. The value of the geothermal gradient has been considered to be 3/sup 0/C/100 m but measured values are slightly different. The values of terrestrial heat flow are relatively constant and are calculated be about 2.3 x 10 to the minus 6 cal/cm/sup 2/ sec (2.3 HFU). The Earth's internal temperature can be calculated from the adiabatic temperature gradient of adiabatic expansion. Using Simon's equation No. 9, a value of 2100-2500/sup 0/C is obtained, this is much lower than it was previously thought to be. The value of 2.3 HFU can easily be obtained from this internal temperature figure.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of dihexyldithiocarbamate as a chelating agent in extraction of gold(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatimah, Soja Siti, E-mail: soja-sf@upi.edu [Departemen Pendidikan Kimia, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 229, Bandung 40154 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang, Km. 21, Jatinangor (Indonesia); Bahti, Husein H.; Hastiawan, Iwan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang, Km. 21, Jatinangor (Indonesia); Permanasari, Anna [Departemen Pendidikan Kimia, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 229, Bandung 40154 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The use of dialkyldithiocarbamates as chelating agents of transition metals have been developing for decades. Many chelating agents have been synthesized and used in the extraction of the metals. Studies on particular aspects of extraction of the metals, such as the effect of increasing hydrophobicity of chelating agents on the effectiveness of the extraction, have been done. However, despite the many studies on the synthesis and applications of this type of chelating agents, interests in the aspect of molecular structure of the synthesized ligands and of their complexes, have been limited. This study aimed at synthesizing and characterizing dihexylthiocarbamate, and using the ligand for the extraction of gold III). Characterization of the ligand and of its metal complex were done by using elemental analysis, DTG, and spectroscopic methods to include NMR, ({sup 1}H, and {sup 13}C), FTIR, and MS-ESI. Data on the synthesis, characterization, and the application of the ligand as a chelating agent are presented.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of dihexyldithiocarbamate as a chelating agent in extraction of gold(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Soja Siti; Bahti, Husein H.; Hastiawan, Iwan; Permanasari, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The use of dialkyldithiocarbamates as chelating agents of transition metals have been developing for decades. Many chelating agents have been synthesized and used in the extraction of the metals. Studies on particular aspects of extraction of the metals, such as the effect of increasing hydrophobicity of chelating agents on the effectiveness of the extraction, have been done. However, despite the many studies on the synthesis and applications of this type of chelating agents, interests in the aspect of molecular structure of the synthesized ligands and of their complexes, have been limited. This study aimed at synthesizing and characterizing dihexylthiocarbamate, and using the ligand for the extraction of gold III). Characterization of the ligand and of its metal complex were done by using elemental analysis, DTG, and spectroscopic methods to include NMR, (1H, and 13C), FTIR, and MS-ESI. Data on the synthesis, characterization, and the application of the ligand as a chelating agent are presented.

  18. Preparation, characterization, magnetic and thermal studies of some chelate polymers of first series transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukey, Vaishali V.; Juneja, H.D.; Borkar, S.D.; Ghubde, R.S.; Naz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Azelaoyl-bis-hydroxamic acid used as bis ligand for the preparation of chelate polymers of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). These chelate polymers have been synthesized by refluxing the metal acetate and bis ligand as 1:1 stoichiometry. In the present work, structural determination of these newly synthesized chelate polymers has been studied on the basis of elemental analyses, infrared and reflectance spectral, magnetic and thermal studies. The decomposition temperature and the order of reaction have been determined by TGA analysis. On the basis of these studies, the Zn(II) chelate polymer has tetrahedral geometry, whereas Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) chelate polymers have octahedral geometry and have the thermal stability in the order Ni(II) > Mn(II) > Zn(II) > Co(II)

  19. Studies of the competition for thorium ion between chelating agents and bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Meichu; Zhang Meizhen; Sun Meizhen; Chen Shijie

    1995-01-01

    Fourteen chelation agents (polyaminopolcarboxylate type--TTHA, DTPA, EDTA; phenolicpolycarboxylate type--811, 8102, 7601, 7602, 7603, 7616, 7711, 7724, 7803, 7804, 8307) were studied their competitive ability to mobilize the thorium with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The experimental results showed that the competitive ability of TTHA, 8102, 811 to chelate Thorium with BSA were the strongest, and EDTA was the worst in all chelating agents. The measured order of the competitive ability of chelators is basically consistent with animal experimental results in vivo. The parameter F is defined as the competitive ability of chelators. F is taken as a screening criterion for de-corporate thorium which is simple, quick and effective method in vitro

  20. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Independence Following the Initiation of Iron Chelation Therapy in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha A. Badawi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron chelation therapy is often used to treat iron overload in patients requiring transfusion of red blood cells (RBC. A 76-year-old man with MDS type refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, intermediate-1 IPSS risk, was referred when he became transfusion dependent. He declined infusional chelation but subsequently accepted oral therapy. Following the initiation of chelation, RBC transfusion requirement ceased and he remained transfusion independent over 40 months later. Over the same time course, ferritin levels decreased but did not normalize. There have been eighteen other MDS patients reported showing improvement in hemoglobin level with iron chelation; nine became transfusion independent, nine had decreased transfusion requirements, and some showed improved trilineage myelopoiesis. The clinical features of these patients are summarized and possible mechanisms for such an effect of iron chelation on cytopenias are discussed.

  1. Preparation, Spectroscopic Investigation and Biological Activity of New Mixed Ligand Chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alassbaly, F.S.; Ajaily, M.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Preparation and investigation of new Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cr(III) chelates with mixed ligands including Schiff base (L1) formed from the condensation of 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde with 2-aminophenol and anthranilic acid (L2) were studied. The obtained Schiff base and mixed ligand chelates were subjected to several physiochemical techniques, in terms of CHN elemental analyses, molar conductivity, magnetic moment measurements, infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, electronic and mass spectra. The analytical data showed the formation of the Schiff base compound and the ratio of metal to ligands of the chelates are 1:1:1(M:L1:L2). The infrared spectral data exhibited that the used ligands behaving as bidentate ligands towards the metal ions. The proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data showed the signals of the active groups in the ligands which entered in chelation with Zn(II) metal ion. The electronic spectral results showed the existence of pie (phenyl ring) and n = pie (C=N) of the ligands and suggested the geometrical structures of the chelates. Meanwhile, the mass spectral data revealed the fragmentations of the Schiff base, anthranilic acid and their Ni(II) mixed ligand chelate has been preformed the only chelate conducted for justification. All the prepared mixed chelates were non-electrolyte in nature. The antibacterial activity of the Schiff base, anthranilic acid, metal salts and mixed ligand chelates were studied and found to be that mixed ligand chelates have the most biological activity in comparison to the free ligands and salts. (author)

  2. Prospects for trivalent rare earth molecular vapor lasers for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    The dynamical properties of three types of RE 3+ molecular vapors were considered: (1) rare earth trihalogens, (2) rare earth trihalogens complexed with transition metal trihalogens, and (3) rare earth chelates. Radiative and nonradiative (unimolecular and bimolecular) transition probabilities have been calculated using phenomenological models predicted on the unique electronic structure of the triply ionized RE ion (well shielded ground electronic configuration of equivalent of electrons). Although all the lanthanide ions have been treated in some detail, specific results are presented for the Nd 3+ and Tb 3+ ions to illustrate the systematics of these vapors as a class of new laser media. Once verified, these phenomenological models will provide a powerful tool for the directed experimental exploration of these systems. Because of the structural similarity to the triply ionized actinides, comments offered here for the lanthanide rare earth series generally apply to gaseous actinide lasers which are also under consideration

  3. Modeling systemic and renal gadolinium chelate transport with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votaw, John R.; Martin, Diego [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The advent of modern MRI scanners and computer equipment permits the rapid sequential collection of images of gadolinium chelate (Gd) transit through the kidney. The excellent spatial and temporal (0.9 s) resolution permits analyzing the shape of the recovered curves with a sophisticated model that includes both space and time. The purpose of this manuscript is to present such a mathematical model. By building into the model significant physical processes that contribute to the shape of the measured curve, quantitative values can be assigned to important parameters. In this work, quantitative values are determined for blood dispersion through the cardio-pulmonary system, systemic clearance rate of Gd, blood flow into each kidney, blood transit time in each kidney, the extraction rate of Gd across the capillary membrane, interstitial distribution volume, and the GFR for each kidney. (orig.)

  4. Kinetic study of ion exchange in phosphoric acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    Uranium may be recovered as a by product of wet phosphoric acid using a method based on specific ion exchange resins. These resins called chelates contain amino-phosphonic functional groups. The resin studied in this work is a purolite S-940; uranium may be loaded on this resin from 30% P2O5 phosphoric acid in its reduced state. The influence of different parameters on the successive steps of the process have been studied in batch experiments: uranium reduction, loading and oxydation. Uranium may be eluted with ammonium carbonate and the resin regeneration may be done with hydrochloric acid.Ferric ions reduce the effective resin capacity considerably and inert fixation conditions are proposed to enhance uranium loading

  5. 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid as chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, M.D.; Bhandari, C.S.; Dixit, M.K.; Sogani, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    Stability constants of praseodymium chelates of 3,4,5-trihydroxy sodium benzoate are determined by using Bjerrum-Calvin pH titration techniques at constant ionic strength 0.1M-sodium perchlorate and at 28+-0.1 0 C. Values calculated by different methods are in good agreement. The study reveals that during complexation only one proton of the ligand molecule is replaced by the metal and oxygen of adjacent phenolic group acts as a coordinating atom. IR and NMR spectral studies of the ligand reveal that one of the OH groups (in meta position to carboxylic group) remains free while two other phenolic groups are involved in intramolecular hydrogen bonding. One water molecule is found attached in crystalline gallic acid. (author)

  6. Mesoporous organosilica nanotubes containing a chelating ligand in their walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiao; Goto, Yasutomo; Maegawa, Yoshifumi; Inagaki, Shinji, E-mail: inagaki@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)/ACT-C, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192 (Japan); Ohsuna, Tetsu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    We report the synthesis of organosilica nanotubes containing 2,2′-bipyridine chelating ligands within their walls, employing a single-micelle-templating method. These nanotubes have an average pore diameter of 7.8 nm and lengths of several hundred nanometers. UV-vis absorption spectra and scanning transmission electron microscopy observations of immobilized nanotubes with an iridium complex on the bipyridine ligands showed that the 2,2′-bipyridine groups were homogeneously distributed in the benzene-silica walls. The iridium complex, thus, immobilized on the nanotubes exhibited efficient catalytic activity for water oxidation using Ce{sup 4+}, due to the ready access of reactants to the active sites in the nanotubes.

  7. Thermometric studies on the Fe(III)-EDTA chelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dot, K

    1978-02-01

    A DeltaH of -11.5 +/- 0.5 kJ/mole has been determined for the formation of the Fe(III)-EDTA chelate at 25.0 degrees and mu = 0.1(= [HClO(4)] + [NaClO(4)]) by a direct thermometric titration procedure. The entropy change, DeltaS, has been calculated to be 440 J.mole(-1) .deg(-1) by combining the result of the heat measurements with the free energy change obtained from the stability constant previously determined. A relationship between the DeltaS values and the standard partial molal entropies of the tervalent metal ions is discussed. In addition, conditions for the thermometric titration of Fe(III) with NA(4)EDTA at room temperature have been investigated. Iron(III) can be determined in the presence of fairly large amounts of phosphate, Cr(III), Mn(II) and Al(III).

  8. Mesoporous organosilica nanotubes containing a chelating ligand in their walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of organosilica nanotubes containing 2,2′-bipyridine chelating ligands within their walls, employing a single-micelle-templating method. These nanotubes have an average pore diameter of 7.8 nm and lengths of several hundred nanometers. UV-vis absorption spectra and scanning transmission electron microscopy observations of immobilized nanotubes with an iridium complex on the bipyridine ligands showed that the 2,2′-bipyridine groups were homogeneously distributed in the benzene-silica walls. The iridium complex, thus, immobilized on the nanotubes exhibited efficient catalytic activity for water oxidation using Ce4+, due to the ready access of reactants to the active sites in the nanotubes.

  9. Alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The beryllium ion has a relatively small ionic radius. As a consequence of this small size, its hydrolysis reactions begin to occur at a relatively low pH. To determine the stability and solubility constants, however, the Gibbs energy of the beryllium ion is required. In aqueous solution calcium, like the other alkaline earth metals, only exists as a divalent cation. The size of the alkaline earth cations increases with increasing atomic number, and the calcium ion is bigger than the magnesium ion. The hydrolysis of barium(II) is weaker than that of strontium(II) and also occurs in quite alkaline pH solutions, and similarly, only the species barium hydroxide has been detected. There is only a single experimental study on the hydrolysis of radium. As with the stability constant trend, it would be expected that the enthalpy of radium would be lower than that of barium due to the larger ionic radius.

  10. Labelling of TTHA coupled IgG and MCAb with rare earth radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Younghui; Zhang Yulei; Wu Chuanchu; Wang Xiangyun; Liu Yuanfang

    1988-07-01

    This article expands a process of labelling G-immunoglobulin (IgG) and monoclonal antibody (MCAb) with rare earth radionuclides. In this labelling process, cycloanhydride (CTTHAA) of Tri-ethyl Tetra-amine Hexa-acetic Acid (TTHA) is employed as a bifunctional chelating conjugate, the metal chelation takes place after CTTHAA has first been linked to IgG, followed by chemical reaction with rare earth radionuclides. Detailed investigations have been carried out to examine the influencing parameters of labelling globulins with rare earth, such as metal to CTTHAA mole-ratio, pH value and labelling time. The immunoreactivity of the labelled compound (RE-TTHA-IgG) has been retained throughout the whole labelling process

  11. Identification of efficient chelating acids responsible for Cesium, Strontium and Barium complexes solubilization in mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borai, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper is focused to characterize the available multi dentate ligand species and their metal ion complexes of cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) formed with the parent chelators, complexing agents and its fragment products in mixed waste filtrate. The developed separation programs of different ligands by different mobile phases were based on the decrease of the effective charge of the anionic species in a differentiated way hence, the retention times on the stationary phases (AS-4A and AS-12A) are changed. Ion chromatographic (IC) analysis of the metal complexes showed that the carboxylic acids that are responsible for solubilizing Cs, Sr and Ba in the waste filtrate are NTA, Citrate and PDCA, respectively. Therefore, the predominant metal complexes in the filtrate at high ph are Cs (I)-NTA, Sr (IT)-Citrate and Ba (IT)-PDCA. Identification of the metal ion complexes responsible for solubilizing Cs, Sr and Ba was applied on the fresh and aged waste filtrates, to monitor their chemical behavior, which leads to increased control of the waste treatment process. Although, concentration measurements of both fresh and aged filtrates confirmed that the degradation process has occurred mainly due to a harsh chemical environment, the concentration of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Ba(II) increased slightly in the aged filterate compared with the fresh filtrate. This is due to the decomposition and/or degradation of their metal complexes and hence leads to free metal ion species in the filtrate. These observations indicate that the organic content of mixed waste filtrate is dynamic and need continuous analytical monitoring

  12. Characterization of commercial iron chelates and their behavior in an alkaline and calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantera, Rodrigo G; Zamarreño, Angel M; García-Mina, José M

    2002-12-18

    Iron deficiency is a common problem for many plants grown in alkaline and calcareous soils. To correct this problem, iron is supplied to plants as chelates. Several iron chelates are sold under diverse trademarks with different characteristics. This work evaluated 18 commercial products containing the most representative chelated iron sources used in agricultural practice in Spain when the study was done, namely the ferric chelates of EDDHA, EDDHMA, EDDCHA, EDDHSA, EDTA, and DTPA. The chelates were comprehensively characterized and quantitated by several techniques, including several chromatographic methods. Iron and chelate dynamics in soil were also studied in a model alkaline and calcareous soil. Results indicate that, in this model soil, among the different iron compounds studied only FeEDDHA and analogues have the capacity to maintain soluble iron in soil solution over time. These results are in agreement with general experience under field conditions. Furthermore, among the different ortho-ortho isomers of FeEDDHA's, FeEDDHSA and FeEDDCHA showed greater capacity than FeEDDHA and FeEDDHMA to maintain the chelated iron in soil solution over time.

  13. MRI marrow observations in thalassemia: the effects of the primary disease, transfusional therapy, and chelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, T.L.; Sheth, S.S.; Ruzal-Shapiro, C.; Abramson, S.; Piomelli, S.; Berdon, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic resonance bone marrow patterns in thalassemia were evaluated to determine changes produced by transfusion and chelation therapy. Thirteen patients had T1- and T2-weighted images of the spine, pelvis and femurs. Three received no therapy (age range 2.5-3 years). Three were ''hypertransfused'' (transfused to maintain a hemoglobin greater than 10 g/dl) and not chelated because of age (age range 6 months-8 years). Seven were ''hypertransfused'' and chelated (age range 12-35 years). Signal characteristics of marrow were compared with those of surrounding muscle and fat. Fatty marrow (isointense with subcutaneous fat) was compared with red marrow (hypointense to fat and slightly hyperintense to muscle). Marrow hypointense to muscle was identified as iron deposition within red marrow. The untreated group demonstrated signal consistent with red marrow throughout the central and peripheral skeleton. Hypertransfused but not chelated patients demonstrated marked iron deposition in the central and peripheral skeleton. Hypertransfused and chelated patients demonstrated iron deposition in the central skeleton and a mixed appearance of marrow in the peripheral skeleton. The MR appearance of marrow in thalassemia is a reflection of the patient's transfusion and chelation therapy. Iron deposition occurs despite chelation therapy in sites of active red marrow. As red marrow retreats centrally with age, so does the pattern of iron deposition. The long-term biological effects of this iron deposition are unknown. (orig.). With 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. Synthesis of novel bifunctional chelators and their use in preparing monoclonal antibody conjugates for tumor targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerberg, D.A.; Carney, P.L.; Rogers, P.E.; Kline, S.J.; Johnson, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Bifunctional derivatives of the chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, in which a p-isothiocyanatobenzyl moiety is attached at the methylene carbon atom of one carboxymethyl arm, was synthesized by reductive alkylation of the relevant polyamine with (p-nitrophenyl)pyruvic acid followed by carboxymethylation, reduction of the nitro group, and reaction with thiophosgene. The resulting isothiocyanate derivatives reacted with monoclonal antibody B72.3 to give antibody-chelator conjugates containing 3 mol of chelator per mole of immunoglobulin, without significant loss of immunological activity. Such conjugates, labeled with the radioisotopic metal indium-111, selectively bound a human colorectal carcinoma implanted in nude mice when given intravenously. Uptake into normal tissues was comparable to or lower than that reported for analogous conjugates with known bifunctional chelators. It is concluded that substitution with a protein reactive group at this position in polyaminopolycarboxylate chelators does not alter the chelating properties of these molecules to a sufficient extent to adversely affect biodistribution and thus provides a general method for the synthesis of such chelators

  15. Chelating capture and magnetic removal of non-magnetic heavy metal substances from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liren; Song, Jiqing; Bai, Wenbo; Wang, Shengping; Zeng, Ming; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yang; Li, Haifeng; Lu, Haiwei

    2016-02-01

    A soil remediation method based on magnetic beneficiation is reported. A new magnetic solid chelator powder, FS@IDA (core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles coated with iminodiacetic acid chelators), was used as a reactive magnetic carrier to selectively capture non-magnetic heavy metals in soil by chelation and removal by magnetic separation. FS@IDA was prepared via inorganic-organic and organic synthesis reactions that generated chelating groups on the surface of magnetic, multi-core, core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 (FS) nanoparticles. These reactions used a silane coupling agent and sodium chloroacetate. The results show that FS@IDA could chelate the heavy metal component of Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni carbonates, lead sulfate and lead chloride in water-insoluble salt systems. The resulting FS@IDA-Cd and FS@IDA-Pb chelates could be magnetically separated, resulting in removal rates of approximately 84.9% and 72.2% for Cd and Pb, respectively. FS@IDA could not remove the residual heavy metals and those bound to organic matter in the soil. FS@IDA did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the soil, and it allowed for fast chelating capture, simple magnetic separation and facilitated heavy metal elution. FS@IDA could also be easily prepared and reprocessed.

  16. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibo Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE, longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.

  17. Chelating extractants of improved selectivity. Progress report, September 1, 1976--October 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiser, H.

    1977-07-01

    New means of characterizing metal chelating reagent selectivity have been developed and incorporated into a theoretical factor analysis of the chelate stability constants of 24 metal ions with 14 ligands of the EDTA family. The factor analysis will be extended to extracting ligand families. A computer-controlled automated metal chelate stability constant apparatus has been assembled and successfully tested. A high performance liquid chromatograph has been set up and preliminary examination of comparison of reversed phase chromatographic separation of metal ions with their solvent extraction behavior begun

  18. [Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105, Au-199, and other metallic radionuclides as potential radiotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Progress during this period is reported under the following headings: Diethylenetriamine based and related bifunctional chelating agents and their complexation with Rh-105, Au-198, Pd-109, cu-67, In-111, and Co-57; studies of Pd-109, Rh-105 and Tc-99m with bifunctional chelates based on phenylenediamine; establishment of an appropriate protein assay method for conjugated proteins; studies of new bifunctional Bi, Tri and tetradentate amine oxime ligands with Rh-105; IgG and antibody B72.3 conjugation studies by HPLC Techniques with bifunctional metal chelates; and progress on ligand systems for Au(III)

  19. [Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105, Au-199, and other metallic radionuclides as potential radiotherapeutic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Progress during this period is reported under the following headings: Diethylenetriamine based and related bifunctional chelating agents and their complexation with Rh-105, Au-198, Pd-109, cu-67, In-111, and Co-57; studies of Pd-109, Rh-105 and Tc-99m with bifunctional chelates based on phenylenediamine; establishment of an appropriate protein assay method for conjugated proteins; studies of new bifunctional Bi, Tri and tetradentate amine oxime ligands with Rh-105; IgG and antibody B72.3 conjugation studies by HPLC Techniques with bifunctional metal chelates; and progress on ligand systems for Au(III).

  20. (Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105, Au-199, and other metallic radionuclides as potential radiotherapeutic agents)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Progress during this period is reported under the following headings: Diethylenetriamine based and related bifunctional chelating agents and their complexation with Rh-105, Au-198, Pd-109, cu-67, In-111, and Co-57; studies of Pd-109, Rh-105 and Tc-99m with bifunctional chelates based on phenylenediamine; establishment of an appropriate protein assay method for conjugated proteins; studies of new bifunctional Bi, Tri and tetradentate amine oxime ligands with Rh-105; IgG and antibody B72.3 conjugation studies by HPLC Techniques with bifunctional metal chelates; and progress on ligand systems for Au(III).

  1. AAZTA: an ideal chelating agent for the development of {sup 44}Sc PET imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Gabor; Szikra, Dezso; Trencsenyi, Gyoergy [Scanomed Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); University of Debrecen, Medical Imaging Clinic (Hungary); Fekete, Aniko [University of Debrecen, Medical Imaging Clinic (Hungary); Garai, Ildiko [Scanomed Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Giani, Arianna M.; Negri, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); Masciocchi, Norberto [Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia e To.Sca.Lab, Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Maiocchi, Alessandro; Uggeri, Fulvio [Bracco Imaging spa, Bracco Research Centre, Colleretto Giacosa (Italy); Toth, Imre [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Aime, Silvio [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Molecolari e Scienze della Salute, Centro di Imaging Molecolare e Preclinico, Universita degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Giovenzana, Giovanni B. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); CAGE Chemicals srl, Novara (Italy); Baranyai, Zsolt [Bracco Imaging spa, Bracco Research Centre, Colleretto Giacosa (Italy); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-02-13

    Unprecedented fast and efficient complexation of Sc{sup III} was demonstrated with the chelating agent AAZTA (AAZTA=1,4-bis(carboxymethyl)-6-[bis(carboxymethyl)] amino-6-methylperhydro-1,4-d iazepine) under mild experimental conditions. The robustness of the {sup 44}Sc(AAZTA){sup -} chelate and conjugated biomolecules thereof is further shown by in vivo PET imaging in healthy and tumor mice models. The new results pave the way towards development of efficient Sc-based radiopharmaceuticals using the AAZTA chelator. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of polyhydroxamate chelators for selective complexation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, A.; Jacobs, H.; Koshti, N.; Stark, P.; Huber, V.; Dasaradhi, L.; Caswell, W.; Smith, P.; Jarvinen, G.

    1995-01-01

    Specific chelating polymers targeted for actinides have much relevance to problems involving remediation of nuclear waste. Goal is to develop polymer supported, ion specific extraction systems for removing actinides and other hazardous metal ions from wastewaters. This is part of an effort to develop chelators for removing actinide ions such as Pu from soils and waste streams. Selected ligands are being attached to polymeric backbones to create novel chelating polymers. These polymers and other water soluble and insoluble polymers have been synthesized and are being evaluated for ability to selectively remove target metal ions from process waste streams

  3. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S.; Ushio, K.

    1982-05-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate. It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilized into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol and 107 mumol CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol to 120 mumol in lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 0.3-2.9 mumol/kg. There were linear relationships between blood lead concentrations and body burden of chelatable lead on a log scale.

  4. Fructose and tagatose protect against oxidative cell injury by iron chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, F; Boess, F; Wolf, A; Göldlin, C; Boelsterli, U A

    1997-01-01

    To further investigate the mechanism by which fructose affords protection against oxidative cell injury, cultured rat hepatocytes were exposed to cocaine (300 microM) or nitrofurantoin (400 microM). Both drugs elicited massively increased lactate dehydrogenase release. The addition of the ketohexoses D-fructose (metabolized via glycolysis) or D-tagatose (poor glycolytic substrate) significantly attenuated cocaine- and nitrofurantoin-induced cell injury, although both fructose and tagatose caused a rapid depletion of ATP and compromised the cellular energy charge. Furthermore, fructose, tagatose, and sorbose all inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner (0-16 mM) luminolenhanced chemiluminescence (CL) in cell homogenates, indicating that these compounds inhibit the iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated peroxidation of luminol. Indeed, both Fe2+ and Fe3+ further increased cocaine-stimulated CL, which was markedly quenched following addition of the ketohexoses. The iron-independent formation of superoxide anion radicals (acetylated cytochrome c reduction) induced by the prooxidant drugs remained unaffected by fructose or tagatose. The iron-chelator deferoxamine similarly protected against prooxidant-induced cell injury. In contrast, the nonchelating aldohexoses D-glucose and D-galactose did not inhibit luminol CL nor did they protect against oxidative cell injury. These data indicate that ketohexoses can effectively protect against prooxidant-induced cell injury, independent of their glycolytic metabolism, by suppressing the iron-catalyzed formation of ROS.

  5. Cytotoxicity of superoxide dismutase 1 in cultured cells is linked to Zn2+ chelation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofi Johansson

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration in protein-misfolding disease is generally assigned to toxic function of small, soluble protein aggregates. Largely, these assignments are based on observations of cultured neural cells where the suspect protein material is titrated directly into the growth medium. In the present study, we use this approach to shed light on the cytotoxic action of the metalloenzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1, associated with misfolding and aggregation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The results show, somewhat unexpectedly, that the toxic species of SOD1 in this type of experimental setting is not an aggregate, as typically observed for proteins implicated in other neuro-degenerative diseases, but the folded and fully soluble apo protein. Moreover, we demonstrate that the toxic action of apoSOD1 relies on the protein's ability to chelate Zn(2+ ions from the growth medium. The decreased cell viability that accompanies this extraction is presumably based on disturbed Zn(2+ homeostasis. Consistently, mutations that cause global unfolding of the apoSOD1 molecule or otherwise reduce its Zn(2+ affinity abolish completely the cytotoxic response. So does the addition of surplus Zn(2+. Taken together, these observations point at a case where the toxic response of cultured cells might not be related to human pathology but stems from the intrinsic limitations of a simplified cell model. There are several ways proteins can kill cultured neural cells but all of these need not to be relevant for neurodegenerative disease.

  6. Highly stable acyclic bifunctional chelator for {sup 64}Cu PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, S.; Lecointre, A.; Christine, C.; Charbonniere, L. [CNRS/UDS, EPCM, Strasbourg (France). Lab. d' Ingenierie Appliquee a l' Analyse; Dechamps-Olivier, I. [Univ. de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Reims (France). Group Chimie de Coordination; Platas-Iglesias, C. [Univ. da Coruna (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Elhabiri, M. [CNRS/UDS, EPCM, Strasbourg (France). Lab. de Physico-Chimie Bioinorganique

    2011-07-01

    Ligand L{sup 1}, based on a pyridine scaffold, functionalized by two bis(methane phosphonate)aminomethyl groups, was shown to display a very high affinity towards Cu(II) (log K{sub CuL}=22.7) and selectivity over Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Ga(III) ({delta} log K{sub ML}>4) as shown by the values of the stability constants obtained from potentiometric measurements. Insights into the coordination mode of the ligand around Cu(II) cation were obtained by UV-Vis absorption and EPR spectroscopies as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP model) performed in aqueous solution. The results point to a pentacoordination pattern of the metal ion in the fully deprotonated [CuL{sup 1}]{sup 6-} species. Considering the beneficial thermodynamic parameters of this ligand, kinetic experiments were run to follow the formation of the copper(II) complexes, indicating a very rapid formation of the complex, appropriate for {sup 64}Cu complexation. As L{sup 1} represents a particularly interesting target within the frame of {sup 64}Cu PET imaging, a synthetic protocol was developed to introduce a labeling function on the pyridyl moiety of L{sup 1}, thereby affording L{sup 2}, a potential bifunctional chelator (BFC) for PET imaging.

  7. Sulfur Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  8. Separation of rare earth mixtures by gas chromatography using dipivaloylmethane as complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubtsova, V.Yu.; Luchinkin, V.V.; Martynenko, L.I.; Murav'eva, I.A.; Sokolov, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Possibility of using dipivaloylmethave for quantitative separation of rare earth element mixtures under the regime of chromatography for preparative and analytical purposes, is studied. Introduction of β-diketone surplus into the chromatographic solution is shown to remove the necessity of column conditioning. It is stated that chelate solution should have concentration above the threshold one. The developed method is applicable for quantitative separation of some rare earth mixtures for preparative purposes, as well as for the analysis of rare earth mixtures, containing components in equivalent quantities [ru

  9. Chelating ion exchange with macroreticular hydroxamic acid resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis, reactions, and analytical applications of hydroxamic acids, including chelating resins with this functional group, are reviewed. A procedure for attaching N-phenyl hydroxamic acid groups to Amberlite XAD-4 is described. The extraction of 20 metal ions from 2 M hydrochloric acid by this resin is discussed. Conditions for the quantitative extraction and back-extraction of 9 ions are reported. Results are compared with work on solvent extraction with N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid. Procedures for attaching N-methyl and N-unsubstituted hydroxamic acid groups to Amberlite XAD-4 are described. The N-phenyl, N-methyl, and N-unsubstituted hydroxamic acid resins are compared with respect to metal-ion complexation. The scope of applications for hydroxamic acid resins is investigated by studying the extraction of 19 metal ions as a function of pH. The resins are especially suitable for the extraction of zirconium(IV), titanium(IV), and uranium(IV) from strongly acidic solution. Aluminum(III) is separated from calcium and phosphate by extraction at pH 4. The use of the resins for the purification of reagents, concentration of trace constituents, and chromatographic separation is demonstrated

  10. Synthesis of a novel bicyclic bifunctional chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Joshi, V.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-rigid ligands such as cyclohexyl EDTA (CDTA) and 4-isothiocyanato-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (4-ICE) form chelates that are more stable in vivo compared to those of EDTA or DTPA. The authors have synthesized a new class of ligands in which the metal-binding polyaminocarboxylate groups are incorporated onto the rigid bicyclo[2.2.2]octane ring system. These ligands are expected to contribute to even higher in vivo stability of radiometal complexes. The synthesis of the first in this series of ligands (2.3-diaminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, BODTA) began with a Diels-Alder reaction of 1,3-diacetylimidazolin-2-one and 1,3-cyclohexadiene. Base hydrolysis afforded the diamine. Following alkylation of the diamine with ethyl iodoacetate and hydrogenation of the double bond, hydrolysis of the esters gave BODTA. For initial conjugation with proteins, an average of one carboxylic acid of BODTA was converted into an NHS ester. In vivo testing of radioimmunoconjugates, prepared using this method, is in progress

  11. Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M.; Meck, A.; Robinson, P.; Robison, T.

    1996-01-01

    Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R ampersand D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex

  12. Mechanisms of oxide dissolution by acid chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blesa, M.A.; Maroto, A.J.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, the different possible rate controlling processes in the dissolution of metallic oxides are examined. In particular, the following situations are assessed: mass-transfer control; coupling of mass-transfer and reactions at the interface; interface equilibration with the solution; various interface disruption and reconstruction phenomena. For each of the above mentioned cases, the influence of variables such as reagent concentration, temperature, pH, fluid hydrodynamics and general and specific catalysts is discussed. Depending upon the particular situation it is found that a more rational basis for the development of reagent is given by these considerations. The influence of chelating agents on both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the process is discussed, and the results of experimental studies in batch on magnetite and various ferrites are presented and discussed. For this purpose, several reagents were studied, including some very effective ones like thioglycolic acid, and others commonly used in actual decontamination, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and oxalic acid. The relation to other (reductive) chemical decontamination procedures is discussed. The relevance of these studies to decontamination of metallic surfaces is discussed

  13. Chelatable trace zinc causes low, irreproducible KDAC8 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Tasha B; Edenfield, Samantha A; Hylton, Brandon J; Watt, Terry J

    2018-01-01

    Acetylation is an important regulatory mechanism in cells, and emphasis is being placed on identifying substrates and small molecule modulators of this post-translational modification. However, the reported in vitro activity of the lysine deacetylase KDAC8 is inconsistent across experimental setups, even with the same substrate, complicating progress in the field. We detected trace levels of zinc, a known inhibitor of KDAC8 when present in excess, even in high-quality buffer reagents, at concentrations that are sufficient to significantly inhibit the enzyme under common reaction conditions. We hypothesized that trace zinc in solution could account for the observed variability in KDAC8 activity. We demonstrate that addition of chelators, including BSA, EDTA, and citrate, and/or the use of a phosphate-based buffer instead of the more common tris-based buffer, eliminates the inhibition from low levels of zinc as well as the dependence of specific activity on enzyme concentration. This results in high KDAC8 activity that is consistent across buffer systems, even using low concentrations of enzyme. We report conditions that are suitable for several assays to increase both enzyme activity and reproducibility. Our results have significant implications for approaches used to identify substrates and small molecule modulators of KDAC8 and interpretation of existing data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles: chelator-controlled nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Lauren F.; Rentz, Nikki S.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we characterize iron nanoparticles synthesized in water in the presence of a phosphonate chelator, amino tris(methylene phosphonic acid) (ATMP) for a range of molar ratios of ATMP to iron. An increase in the molar ratio from 0.05 to 0.8 decreases nanoparticle size from approximately 150 nm to less than 10 nm. Zeta potential measurements were used to evaluate colloidal stability. Zeta potential values varied as a function of pH, and zeta potential values decreased with increasing pH. At lower molar ratios of ATMP to iron, the zeta potential varied between 15 and -40 mV, passing through an isoelectric point at pH 7.5. At higher ratios, the zeta potential was negative across the measured pH range of 2-12 and varied from -2 to -55 mV. Diffraction analysis indicates that ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles may have a nano-crystalline structure, potentially with regions of amorphous iron. Characterization results of ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles are compared to results obtained for carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized iron nanoparticles. CMC stabilization caused similar peak broadening in diffraction spectra as for ATMP, suggesting similar nano-crystalline/amorphous structure; however, an increase in the molar ratio of CMC to iron did not cause the same reduction in nanoparticle size as was observed for ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles.

  15. Metal chelators and neurotoxicity: lead, mercury, and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Geir; Mutter, Joachim; Aaseth, Jan

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the clinical use of the metal chelators sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS), meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and calcium disodium edetate (CaEDTA, calcium EDTA) in overexposure and poisonings with salts of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As). DMSA has considerably lower toxicity than the classic heavy metal antagonist BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) and is also less toxic than DMPS. Because of its adverse effects, CaEDTA should be replaced by DMSA as the antidote of choice in treating moderate Pb poisoning. Combination therapy with BAL and CaEDTA was previously recommended in cases of severe acute Pb poisoning with encephalopathy. We suggest that BAL in such cases acted as a shuttling Pb transporter from the intra- to the extracellular space. The present paper discusses if a combination of the extracellularly distributed DMSA with the ionophore, Monensin may provide a less toxic combination for Pb mobilization by increasing both the efflux of intracellularly deposited Pb and the urinary Pb excretion. Anyhow, oral therapy with DMSA should be continued with several intermittent courses. DMPS and DMSA are also promising antidotes in Hg poisoning, whereas DMPS seems to be a more efficient agent against As poisoning. However, new insight indicates that a combination of low-dosed BAL plus DMPS could be a preferred antidotal therapy to obtain mobilization of the intracerebral deposits into the circulation for subsequent rapid urinary excretion.

  16. The performance of 2-nitroso-1-naphthol chelating pigment in paint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 2-nitroso-1-naphthol chelating pigment in paint formulation with gum Arabic and polyvinyl acetate as binders, Paper I: UV- visible spectroscopy, viscosity and breaking stress of the paints.

  17. Study of chelating agent as a surface modifier for retarding corrosion attack on ferrous metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin; Zaifol Samsu; Azali Muhamad; Rusni Rejab; Mohd Saari Ripin; Mohd Shariff Sattar

    2010-01-01

    A different concentration of chelating agents in electrolyte of 3.5 % NaCl was applied to bare ferrous metal and tested for their effectiveness as a corrosion retardant. The performance of the samples was measured using corrosion measurement system. The results indicated that the contribution of chelating agent was expediting the reduction of the passive film. The anodic behavior was clearly found to be influenced by the concentration of the chelating agent. It was also found that some of the corrosion was apparently converted to protective layer over a period of time. Excessive moisture caused breakdown of film by removing the unreacted chelating agent and causing regrowth of the existing rust. (author)

  18. Bifunctional chelating agent for the design and development of site specific radiopharmaceuticals and biomolecule conjugation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Prabhu, Kandikere R.; Gali, Hariprasad; Pillarsetty, Nagavara Kishore; Volkert, Wynn A.

    2003-10-21

    There is provided a method of labeling a biomolecule with a transition metal or radiometal in a site specific manner to produce a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical compound by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radio metal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. Also provided is a method of synthesizing the --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecules by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radiometal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting radio metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. There is provided a therapeutic or diagnostic agent comprising a --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecule.

  19. Effect of calcium chelators on physical changes in casein micelles in concentrated micellar casein solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de E.J.P.; Minor, M.; Snoeren, T.H.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Linden, van der E.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of calcium chelators on physical changes of casein micelles in concentrated micellar casein solutions was investigated by measuring calcium-ion activity, viscosity and turbidity, and performing ultracentrifugation. The highest viscosities were measured on addition of sodium

  20. Click-to-Chelate: Development of Technetium and Rhenium-Tricarbonyl Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Mindt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Click-to-Chelate approach is a highly efficient strategy for the radiolabeling of molecules of medicinal interest with technetium and rhenium-tricarbonyl cores. Reaction of azide-functionalized molecules with alkyne prochelators by the Cu(I-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC; click reaction enables the simultaneous synthesis and conjugation of tridentate chelating systems for the stable complexation of the radiometals. In many cases, the functionalization of (biomolecules with the ligand system and radiolabeling can be achieved by convenient one-pot procedures. Since its first report in 2006, Click-to-Chelate has been applied to the development of numerous novel radiotracers with promising potential for translation into the clinic. This review summarizes the use of the Click-to-Chelate approach in radiopharmaceutical sciences and provides a perspective for future applications.

  1. A Zinc Chelator TPEN Attenuates Airway Hyperresponsiveness Airway Inflammation in Mice In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukuyama

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: In pulmonary allergic inflammation induced in mice immunized with antigen without alum, zinc chelator inhibits airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. These findings suggest that zinc may be a therapeutic target of allergic asthma.

  2. Diagnostic compositions containing a chelate of radioactive indium and 8-hydroxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedemans, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    There are disclosed aqueous, radioassaying solutions of a chelate of radioactive indium and an 8-hydroxyquinoline, having an essential absence of an organic solvent, e.g., alcohol or chloroform. The solutions are useful in radioassaying warmblooded animals. (author)

  3. Solid phase extraction for analysis of biogenic carbonates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS): an investigation of rare earth element signatures in otolith microchemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Zikri; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Uptake of trace elements into fish otoliths is governed by several factors such as life histories and environment in addition to stock and species differences. In an attempt to elucidate the elemental signatures of rare earth elements (REEs) in otoliths, a solid phase extraction (SPE) protocol was used in combination with electrothermal vaporization (ETV) as a sample introduction procedure for the determinations by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of various parameters, such as carrier gas flow rate, atomization temperature and chemical modification, were examined for optimization of the conditions by ETV-ICP-MS. Atomization was achieved at 2800 deg. C. Lower temperatures (i.e. 2600 deg. C) resulted in severe memory problems due to incomplete atomization. Palladium was used as a chemical modifier. It was found that an increase in Pd concentration up to 0.5 μg in the injection volume (70 μl) led up to four-fold enhancement in the integrated signals. This phenomenon is attributed to the carrier effect of Pd rather than the stabilization since no significant losses were observed for high temperature drying around 700 deg. C even in the absence of Pd. Preconcentration was performed on-line at pH 5 by using a mini-column of Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650M chelating resin, which also eliminated the calcium matrix of otolith solutions. After preconcentration of 6.4 ml of solution, the concentrate was collected in 0.65 ml of 0.5% (v/v) HNO 3 in autosampler cups, and then analyzed by ETV-ICP-MS. The method was validated with the analysis of a fish otolith certified reference material (CRM) of emperor snapper, and then applied to samples. Results obtained from otoliths of fish captured in the same habitat indicated that otolith rare earth element concentrations are more dependent on environmental conditions of the habitat than on species differences

  4. Theoretical analysis of the influence of chelate-ring size and vicinal effects on electronic circular dichroism spectra of cobalt(III) EDDA-type complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai; Wang, Yuekui; Jia, Jie; Feng, Lixia; Zhang, Chunxia; Liu, Linlin

    2013-06-20

    To assess the contributions of configurational and vicinal effects as well as chelate-ring size to rotational strengths, the geometries of a series of cobalt(III) complexes [Co(EDDA-type)(L)](±) with the tetradentate EDDA-type ligands, EDDA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate), DMEDDA (N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate), DEEDDA (N,N'-diethylethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate), and a bidentate ancillary ligand L (L = ethylenediamine, oxalate, carbonate, (S)-alanine, and malonate) in aqueous solution have been optimized at the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory. Based on the optimized geometries, the excitation energies and oscillator and rotational strengths have been calculated using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method with the same functional and basis set. The calculated circular dichroism (CD) curves are in excellent agreement with the observed ones except for some small red or blue shifts in peak wavelengths. For the influence of chelate-ring size of the bidentate ligands on the CD intensities, a qualitative analysis together with the quantitative TDDFT calculation reveal that it depends on the symmetry of the cobalt-EDDA backbone. For the s-cis-isomers, the influence is negligible due to the perturbation is symmetric. For the uns-cis-isomers, the perturbation is unsymmetric. Since a small ring size means a large perturbation, this leads to the integral CD intensities decreasing with increasing the chelate ring size. The vicinal effects of asymmetric nitrogens incorporate both the substitutent effects and conformational relaxation effects, with the former being dominant. By analyzing the contributions of chiral arrays to rotational strengths, we found that the part of contributions dominated by the S-type chiral nitrogens could be considered as a good measure for the vicinal effects of chiral nitrogens. In addition, we found that the twist form (δ/λ) of the backbone ethylenediamine ring (E-ring) of the coordinated EDDA

  5. Iron overload of organism and current options of chelation treatment in onco haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guman, T.; Rothova, E.; Kafkova, A.; Fricova, M.; Dulova, I.; Stecova, N.; Hlebaskova, M.; Surova, M.; Takac, V.

    2011-01-01

    The article summarizes the biological importance of iron in the organism, primary and secondary causes of iron overload, complications in function of liver, heart and endocrine organs due to overload of iron, the pathophysiology of iron overload, transfusion risks associated with the iron overload, assessment of risk groups of patients suitable for chelation treatment fulfilling the indication criteria, treatment modalities of chelation therapy and its significance regarding the prevention and treatment effectiveness. (author)

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Chelating Properties of 4-Butyrylsemicarbazone-1-phenyl-3-methyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-Butyrylsemicarbazone-1-phenyl-3-methyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (BUMP-SC was prepared and its metal chelates of Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Cr3+, UO2 and OV were prepared. The ligands and its chelates were characterized by elemental analysis, metal:ligand (M:L stoichiometry, IR-electronic spectral studies and magnetic properties. The compounds also were screened for their antimicrobial activity.

  7. Chelation therapy and cardiovascular disease: connecting scientific silos to benefit cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Julio G; Arenas, Ivan; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2014-08-01

    Medical practitioners have treated atherosclerotic disease with chelation therapy for over 50 years. Lack of strong of evidence led conventional practitioners to abandon its use in the 1960s and 1970s. This relegated chelation therapy to complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, who reported good anecdotal results. Concurrently, the epidemiologic evidence linking xenobiotic metals with cardiovascular disease and mortality gradually accumulated, suggesting a plausible role for chelation therapy. On the basis of the continued use of chelation therapy without an evidence base, the National Institutes of Health released a Request for Applications for a definitive trial of chelation therapy. The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) was formulated as a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial of intravenous EDTA-based chelation vs. placebo and high-dose oral multivitamins and multiminerals vs. oral placebo. The composite primary endpoint was death, reinfarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. A total of 1708 post-MI patients who were 50 years or older with a creatinine of 2.0 or less were enrolled and received 55,222 infusions of disodium EDTA or placebo with a median follow-up of 55 months. Patients were on evidence-based post-MI medications including statins. EDTA proved to be safe. EDTA chelation therapy reduced cardiovascular events by 18%, with a 5-year number needed to treat (NNT) of 18. Prespecified subgroup analysis revealed a robust benefit in patients with diabetes mellitus with a 41% reduction in the primary endpoint (5-year NNT = 6.5), and a 43% 5-year relative risk reduction in all-cause mortality (5-year NNT = 12). The magnitude of benefit is such that it suggests urgency in replication and implementation, which could, due to the excellent safety record, occur simultaneously. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of pitfalls and progress in chelation treatment of metal poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ole; Aaseth, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Most acute and chronic human metal poisonings are due to oral or inhalation exposure. Almost 80% of published animal experiments on chelation in metal poisoning used single or repeated intraperitoneal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of metal and chelator, impeding extrapolation to clinical settings. Intramuscular administration of dimercaptopropanol (BAL) has until now been used in acute arsenic, lead, and mercury poisonings, but repeated BAL administration increased the brain uptake of As, Pb and Hg in experimental animals. Also, diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC) has been used as antidote in acute experimental animal parenteral Cd poisoning, and both DDC and tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TTD, disulfiram, Antabuse) have been used in nickel allergic patients. However, even one dose of DDC given immediately after oral Cd or Ni increased their brain uptake considerably. The calcium salt of ethylenediamminetetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) but not dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) increased the brain uptake of Pb. In oral Cd or Hg poisoning, early oral administration of DMSA or dimercaptopropane sulfonate (DMPS) increased survival and reduced intestinal metal uptake. Oral administration of Prussian Blue or resins with fixed chelating groups that are not absorbed offer chelation approaches for decorporation after oral exposure to various metals. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) nebulizers for pulmonary chelation after inhalation exposure need further development. Also, combined chelation with more than one compound may offer extensive advances. Solid knowledge on the chemistry of metal chelates together with relevant animal experiments should guide development of chelation procedures to alleviate and not aggravate the clinical status of poisoned patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Chelate chase of radiopharmaceuticals reversibly bound to monoclonal antibodies improves dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, D.A.; Smith, S.I.; Meares, C.F.; David, G.S.; McTigue, M.; Finston, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    One hundred micrograms of monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CHA 255 with a binding constant Kb of 4 x 10 9 was complexed with indium-111 labeled BLEDTA II, GLEDTA IV, benzyl EDTA, and an EDTA conjugate of Fab. The 24-hour tumor and organ distribution in BALB/c mice bearing KHJJ tumors was studied for each compound alone, the antibody complex, and 3 hours following a chelate chase of the antibody complex. Whole-body biological half-life was measured for 7 days with and without a chelate chase for each antibody complex. The 24-hour whole-body counts dropped 20-60% within 3 hours of administering the chelate chase. Blood concentration fell over 89% within 3 hours of administering the chase and there was a decrease in concentration in all organs, except the kidneys, of 10 to 85%. Theoretical equivalent human doses were calculated from the 24-hour organ concentrations, effective half-life, and MIRD 11 S values (absorbed dose per cumulated activity). Liver and spleen were the target organs, with the dose ranging from 0.50 to 3.91 rads per millicurie. The reduction in organ radiation dose varied up to 95% following the chelate chase. Rapid selective renal clearance of chelate labeled radiopharmaceuticals by competitive inhibition (chelate chase) of their reversible binding to monoclonal antibodies, greatly improves the radiation dosimetry of tumor imaging agents. 28 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  10. Chelating effect of silver nitrate by chitosan on its toxicity and growth performance in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemdjie Mane Divine Doriane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the chelating effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3 by chitosan on growth performances, hematological and biochemical parameters, and the histopathological structure of the liver and the kidney in broiler chicken. Materials and methods: A total of 192 day-old Cobb 500 strain chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 64 chicks each. Control group was fed on basal diet without supplement (R0 and the two others groups were fed on rations supplemented with 10 mg of unchelated (RAg or chelated (RCs-Ag AgNO3 per Kg of feed, respectively. Parameters that have been studied consisted of feed intake, weight gain, blood and serum biochemical, and histopathological analyses of liver and kidney. Results: Results revealed that chelation of AgNO3 by chitosan did not have any effect on growth performances and hematological parameters in chicken. However, chelated and unchelated AgNO3 increased the serum content in triglyceride, and cholesterol and decreased the serum content in creatinin, albumin and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT. Chelating AgNO3 with chitosan prevented and corrected the toxicity induced on the histological structure of liver and kidney. Conclusion: Chitosan can be used as a chelating agent to alleviate the harmful effects of AgNO3 as silver ion for poultry. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 187-193

  11. ELECTED PROBLEMS RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL HEAVY METALS EXPOSURE AND CHELATION THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoczyńska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to heavy metals leads to functional and metabolic disturbances and many of them are included in pathogenesis of common diseases (arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative processes. In this context new therapeutic and prophylactic strategies are necessary. Patients diagnosed with chronic heavy metals intoxication usually require chelation to increase mobilisation of metals from tissues and elimination of them via urine. Acute poisoning with toxic metal may be difficult to diagnosis, especially in case of accidental intoxication or suicidal intention. Patients also require chelation after causative factor is identified. Objectives: To describe some problems connected with toxicity of metals poisoning and to review pharmacologic therapies that could have a role in poisoning with metals. Methods: A review of the literature was carried out and expert opinion expressed. Results/conclusion: Chelation is a common therapy in case of poisoning with toxic metals but it is satisfied only partially. A combined therapy with structurally different chelators or long-term acting chelators could become viable alternatives in the future. A combined therapy with an antioxidant plus chelator may be a good choice in patients chronically poisoned with metals. Exposure to lead should be taken into account during estimation of global cardiovascular risk.

  12. Chelation therapy to treat atherosclerosis, particularly in diabetes: is it time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Gervasio A; Ergui, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Case reports and case series have suggested a possible beneficial effect of chelation therapy in patients with atherosclerotic disease. Small randomized trials conducted in patients with angina or peripheral artery disease, however, were not sufficiently powered to provide conclusive evidence on clinical outcomes. The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) was the first randomized trial adequately powered to detect the effects of chelation therapy on clinical endpoints. We discuss results and future research. Expert commentary: Chelation reduced adverse cardiovascular events in a post myocardial infarction (MI) population. Patients with diabetes demonstrated even greater benefit, with a number needed to treat of 6.5 patients to prevent a cardiac event over 5 years, with a 41% relative reduction in risk of a cardiac event (p = 0.0002). These results led to the revision of the ACC/AHA guideline recommendations for chelation therapy, changing its classification from class III to class IIb. TACT2, a replicative trial, will assess the effects of chelation therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in diabetic patients with a prior myocardial infarction. We are seeking participating sites for TACT2.

  13. Deaths associated with hypocalcemia from chelation therapy--Texas, Pennsylvania, and Oregon, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-03

    Chelating agents bind lead in soft tissues and are used in the treatment of lead poisoning to enhance urinary and biliary excretion of lead, thus decreasing total lead levels in the body. During the past 30 years, environmental and dietary exposures to lead have decreased substantially, resulting in a considerable decrease in population blood lead levels (BLLs) and a corresponding decrease in the number of patients requiring chelation therapy. Chelating agents also increase excretion of other heavy metals and minerals, such as zinc and, in certain cases, calcium. This report describes three deaths associated with chelation-therapy--related hypocalcemia that resulted in cardiac arrest. Several drugs are used in the treatment of lead poisoning, including edetate disodium calcium (CaEDTA), dimercaperol (British anti-Lewisite), D-penicillamine, and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (succimer). Health-care providers who are unfamiliar with chelating agents and are considering this treatment for lead poisoning should consult an expert in the chemotherapy of lead poisoning. Hospital pharmacies should evaluate whether continued stocking of Na2EDTA is necessary, given the established risk for hypocalcemia, the availability of less toxic alternatives, and an ongoing safety review by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Health-care providers and pharmacists should ensure that Na2EDTA is not administered to children during chelation therapy.

  14. DOTA-Functionalized Polylysine: A High Number of DOTA Chelates Positively Influences the Biodistribution of Enzymatic Conjugated Anti-Tumor Antibody chCE7agl.

    OpenAIRE

    Grünberg Jürgen; Jeger Simone; Sarko Dikran; Dennler Patrick; Zimmermann Kurt; Mier Walter; Schibli Roger

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific enzymatic reactions with microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) lead to a homogenous species of immunoconjugates with a defined ligand/antibody ratio. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of different numbers of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N-N'-N''-N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelats coupled to a decalysine backbone on the in vivo behavior of the chimeric monoclonal anti-L1CAM antibody chCE7agl. The enzymatic conjugation of (DOTA)1-decalysine, (DOTA)3-decaly...

  15. Development of chelate tagging method of protein at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oida, Shigeru; Sekiya, Keizo

    1999-01-01

    This study aimed at development of a protein labelling method at a low temperature, available for functional proteins, such as antibodies and enzymes mostly unstable at high temperatures. A solution of anti-mouse IgG antibody added with EDTA was incubated with 51 CrCl 3 at 4degC for 24 hours. After stopping the reaction with 100-fold amount of EDTA-2Na, the solution was fractionated into antibody fraction and metal fraction by HPLC. After incubation, non-specific Cr adsorption on the antibody in no relation to the chelate reagent was chased with 10-fold amount of CrCl 3 . To remove free Cr, the sample solution was incubated with 10 to 50-fold ICB-EDTA solution containing N,N-dimethyl-formamide. Then, the amount of Cr-labelling on the antibody was determined. In Western-blotting, chick actin was applied onto SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. One part of the lane was stained with brilliant-blue and the other was transferred on nitrocellulose membrane by semi-dry method and stained with panceau-S. Anti-actin monoclonal antibody and anti-mouse IgG antibody were used as the first antibody and the second one, respectively. When incubated with ICB-EDTA for 3 days, labelling reached the maximum level. Although labelling of the second antibody was performed with maleimido-C 3 -benzyl EDTA and 45 Ca as a substitute for 51 Cr, the rate of labelling was lower than the rate for a combination of ICB-EDTA and 51 Cr. Autoradiography of the anti-mouse IgG preparation after SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that radioactivity was detected on the site of H-chain but not L-chain. This indicates that 51 Cr labelling of protein is stable even under the conditions of SDS denaturation. (M.N.)

  16. Resinas quelantes amidoxímicas Amidoxime chelating resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. B. Coutinho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Resinas quelantes com grupos amidoxima foram sintetizadas por copolimerização em suspensão de acrilonitrila (AN e divinilbenzeno (DVB e subsequente modificação química dos grupos ciano por reação com hidroxilamina. Na copolimerização, a proporção de divinilbenzeno e o grau de diluição foram variados. Gelatina e carbonato de cálcio foram usados como estabilizadores de suspensão e sulfato de sódio foi adicionado para reduzir a solubilidade da acrilonitrila em água, por meio do efeito salting out. Os copolímeros de AN/DVB e as resinas amidoxímicas obtidos foram caracterizados por meio de densidade aparente, área específica, volume de poros e teor de nitrogênio. As resinas amidoxímicas foram também avaliadas em relação a capacidade de complexação de íons cobre.Chelating resins with amidoxime groups were synthesized by suspension copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN and divinylbenzene (DVB and subsequent chemical modification of cyano groups by reaction with hydroxylamine. In the copolymerization, the proportion of divinylbenzene and the dilution degree were varied. Gelatin and calcium carbonate were used as suspension stabilizers and sodium sulphate was added in order to reduce acrylonitrile solubility in water, by salting out effect. The AN/DVB copolymers and amidoxime resins obtained were characterized by apparent density, surface area, pore volume and by the content of nitrogen. The amidoxime resins were also evaluated in relation to the complexation capacity of copper ion.

  17. Chelation of intracellular calcium blocks insulin action in the adipocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershadsingh, H.A.; Shade, D.L.; Delfert, D.M.; McDonald, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that intracellular Ca 2+ is an essential component of the intracellular mechanism of insulin action in the adipocyte was evaluated. Cells were loaded with the Ca 2+ chelator quin-2, by preincubating them with quin-2 AM, the tetrakis(acetoxymethyl) ester of quin-2. Quin-2 loading inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport without affecting basal activity. The ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake in quin-2-loaded cells could be partially restored by preincubating cells with buffer supplemented with 1.2 mM CaCl 2 and the Ca 2+ ionophore A23187. These conditions had no effect on basal activity and omission of CaCl 2 from the buffer prevented the restoration of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by A23187. Quin-2 loading also inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and the ability of insulin to inhibit cAMP-stimulated lipolysis without affecting their basal activities. Incubation of cells with 100 μM quin-2 or quin-2 AM had no effect on intracellular ATP concentration or the specific binding of 125 I=labeled insulin to adipocytes. These findings suggest that intracellular Ca 2+ is an essential component in the coupling of the insulin-activated receptor complex to cellular physiological/metabolic machinery. Furthermore, differing quin-2 AM dose-response profiles suggest the presence of dual Ca 2+ -dependent pathways in the adipocyte. One involves insulin stimulation of glucose transport and oxidation, whereas the other involves the antilipolytic action of insulin

  18. Iron Requirement and Iron Uptake from Various Iron Compounds by Different Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Rudolf A.

    1974-01-01

    The Fe requirements of four monocotyledonous plant species (Avena sativa L., Triticum aestivum L., Oryza sativa L., Zea mays L.) and of three dicotyledonous species (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Cucumis sativus L., Glycine maxima (L.) Merr.) in hydroponic cultures were ascertained. Fe was given as NaFe-EDDHA chelate (Fe ethylenediamine di (O-hydroxyphenylacetate). I found that the monocotyledonous species required a substantially higher Fe concentration in the nutrient solution in order to attain optimum growth than did the dicotyledonous species. Analyses showed that the process of iron uptake was less efficient with the monocotyledonous species. When the results obtained by using chelated Fe were compared with those using ionic Fe, it was shown that the inefficient species were equally inefficient in utilizing Fe3+ ions. However, the differences between the efficient and the inefficient species disappeared when Fe2+ was used. This confirms the work of others who postulated that Fe3+ is reduced before uptake of chelated iron by the root. In addition, it was shown that reduction also takes place when Fe is used in ionic form. The efficiency of Fe uptake seems to depend on the efficiency of the root system of the particular plant species in reducing Fe3+. The removal of Fe from the chelate complex after reduction to Fe2+ seems to present no difficulties to the various plant species. PMID:16658933

  19. CARDIAC FUNCTION AND IRON CHELATION IN THALASSEMIA MAJOR AND INTERMEDIA: A REVIEW OF THE UNDERLYING PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND APPROACH TO CHELATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Aessopos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and one of the main causes of morbidity in beta-thalassemia. Patients with homozygous thalassemia may have either a severe phenotype which is usually transfusion dependent or a milder form that is thalassemia intermedia.  The two main factors that determine cardiac disease in homozygous β thalassemia are the high output state that results from chronic tissue hypoxia, hypoxia-induced compensatory reactions and iron overload.  The high output state playing a major role in thalassaemia intermedia and the iron load being more significant in the major form. Arrhythmias, vascular involvement that leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance and an increased systemic vascular stiffness and valvular abnormalities also contribute to the cardiac dysfunction in varying degrees according to the severity of the phenotype.  Endocrine abnormalities, infections, renal function and medications can also play a role in the overall cardiac function.  For thalassaemia major, regular and adequate blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy are the mainstays of management. The approach to thalassaemia intermedia, today, is aimed at monitoring for complications and initiating, timely, regular transfusions and/or iron chelation therapy.  Once the patients are on transfusions, then they should be managed in the same way as the thalassaemia major patients.  If cardiac manifestations of dysfunction are present in either form of thalassaemia, high pre transfusion Hb levels need to be maintained in order to reduce cardiac output and appropriate intensive chelation therapy needs to be instituted.  In general recommendations on chelation, today, are usually made according to the Cardiac Magnetic Resonance findings, if available.  With the advances in the latter technology and the ability to tailor chelation therapy according to the MRI findings as well as the availability of three iron chelators, together with

  20. Metal-chelating active packaging film enhances lysozyme inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-07-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that metal chelators enhance the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme. This study examined the effect of metal-chelating active packaging film on the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme against Listeria monocytogenes. Polypropylene films were surface modified by photoinitiated graft polymerization of acrylic acid (PP-g-PAA) from the food contact surface of the films to impart chelating activity based on electrostatic interactions. PP-g-PAA exhibited a carboxylic acid density of 113 ± 5.4 nmol cm(-2) and an iron chelating activity of 53.7 ± 9.8 nmol cm(-2). The antimicrobial interaction of lysozyme and PP-g-PAA depended on growth media composition. PP-g-PAA hindered lysozyme activity at low ionic strength (2.48-log increase at 64.4 mM total ionic strength) and enhanced lysozyme activity at moderate ionic strength (5.22-log reduction at 120 mM total ionic strength). These data support the hypothesis that at neutral pH, synergy between carboxylate metal-chelating films (pKa(bulk) 6.45) and lysozyme (pI 11.35) is optimal in solutions of moderate to high ionic strength to minimize undesirable charge interactions, such as lysozyme absorption onto film. These findings suggest that active packaging, which chelates metal ions based on ligand-specific interactions, in contrast to electrostatic interactions, may improve antimicrobial synergy. This work demonstrates the potential application of metal-chelating active packaging films to enhance the antimicrobial activity of membrane-disrupting antimicrobials, such as lysozyme.

  1. Synergy and antagonism between iron chelators and antifungal drugs in Cryptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Wen; Campbell, Leona T; Wilkins, Marc R; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Chen, Sharon; Carter, Dee A

    2016-10-01

    Fungal infections remain very difficult to treat, and developing new antifungal drugs is difficult and expensive. Recent approaches therefore seek to augment existing antifungals with synergistic agents that can lower the therapeutic dose, increase efficacy and prevent resistance from developing. Iron limitation can inhibit microbial growth, and iron chelators have been employed to treat fungal infections. In this study, chequerboard testing was used to explore combinations of iron chelators with antifungal agents against pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. with the aim of determining how disruption to iron homeostasis affects antifungal susceptibility. The iron chelators ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP), deferasirox (DSX), ciclopirox olamine and lactoferrin (LF) were paired with the antifungal agents amphotericin B (AmB), fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. All chelators except for DFO increased the efficacy of AmB, and significant synergy was seen between AmB and LF for all Cryptococcus strains. Addition of exogenous iron rescued cells from the antifungal effect of LF alone but could not prevent inhibition by AmB + LF, indicating that synergy was not due primarily to iron chelation but to other properties of LF that were potentiated in the presence of AmB. Significant synergy was not seen consistently for other antifungal-chelator combinations, and EDTA, DSX and DFP antagonised the activity of azole drugs in strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. This study highlights the range of interactions that can be induced by chelators and indicates that most antifungal drugs are not enhanced by iron limitation in Cryptococcus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced in vitro activity of tigecycline in the presence of chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Amelia N; Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad; Rand, Kenneth H; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2018-05-01

    The lack of availability of novel antibiotic agents and the rise of resistance to existing therapies has led clinicians to utilise combination therapy to adequately treat bacterial infections. Here we examined how chelators may impact the in vitro activity of tigecycline (TIG) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth dilution with and without various combinations of chelators (EDTA and other tetracyclines) and metal ions (i.e. calcium, magnesium). Trimethoprim (TMP) was used as a non-chelating control. Addition of metal ions led to increases in MICs, whilst addition of EDTA led to decreases in MICs. The chelating effects of EDTA were reversed by addition of magnesium and most profoundly calcium. Similar effects of EDTA and calcium were observed for tetracycline (TET) and TMP. When other tetracyclines (TET, oxytetracycline (OXY) and chlortetracycline (CHL)) were used as chelators at concentrations below their MICs, TIG MICs decreased for P. aeruginosa but not for E. coli. Some decreases in TIG MICs were observed for K. pneumoniae when TET and CHL were added. A dose-dependent decrease in TIG MIC was observed for TET and was reversed by the addition of calcium. The presence of effects of EDTA and calcium on TMP MICs indicates that mechanisms outside of TIG chelation likely play a role in enhanced activity. Full characterisation of an unexpected interaction such as TIG-TET with different microorganisms could provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms and design of physiologically viable chelators as candidates for future combinations regimens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Organically complexed copper, zinc, and chelating agents in the rivers of Western Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.R.; Echevarria, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The method for determining soluble chelators gives their concentration in copper-equivalent chelating capacity units in fresh or slightly brackish (less than 3 percent salinity) water. The mean concentration of chelators in the Rio Guanajibo for December 1973 and January 1974 was 0.4 mg of copper per liter of water (N = 21, SD = 0.2) and for February 1974, 0.9 mg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.4). The combined mean for the Rio Anasco and Culebrinas was 0.5 mg/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.4) in January and February 1974. The mean concentration of ionic copper was 0.5 μg/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.6) and of ionic zinc, 0.2 μg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.1) in the Rio Guanajibo from November 1972 to February 1973. The concentration of organically bound copper was 0.3 μ/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.2) and that of organically bound zinc was 0.6 μg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.6); this indicates that there was more than a sufficient quantity of chelator available in the river to complex all the soluble copper. The presence of a high ratio of Ca 2+ to Cu 2+ probably prevents the formation of larger concentrations of organically complexed copper. The mean concentration of chelating agents in the Guanajibo River seems to be directly related to the increased organic input from municipalities and a sugar mill. The concentration of chelators in tropical rivers appears to be higher than that found in Canadian lakes. The mean concentration for particulate organic carbon (POC) was 3653 μg atoms/liter (SD = 3653, N = 29). The dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) ranged from a mean of 1.1 μg atom/liter. No significant correlation could be found between POC, DRP, and the concentration of chelators

  4. Revolutions that made the earth

    CERN Document Server

    Lenton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth that sustains us today was born out of a few remarkable, near-catastrophic revolutions, started by biological innovations and marked by global environmental consequences. The revolutions have certain features in common, such as an increase in the complexity, energy utilization, and information processing capabilities of life. This book describes these revolutions, showing the fundamental interdependence of the evolution of life and its non-living environment. We would not exist unless these upheavals had led eventually to 'successful' outcomes - meaning that after each one, at length, a new stable world emerged. The current planet-reshaping activities of our species may be the start of another great Earth system revolution, but there is no guarantee that this one will be successful. This book explains what a successful transition through it might look like, if we are wise enough to steer such a course. This book places humanity in context as part of the Earth system, using a new scientific synthe...

  5. A study on the adsorption and subsurface transport of radioactive solutes in the presence of chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon

    1994-02-01

    In this study, adsorption and transport models were developed to analyze the effect of chelating agents on the adsorption and subsurface transport of radioactive solutes. The effect of chelating agents on the adsorption of radioactive solutes was analyzed by developing an adsorption model based upon the extended concept of distribution coefficient reflecting the presence of chelating agents. Also, a batch adsorption experiment was conducted in order to validate the developed adsorption model and to investigate the effect of chelating agent on the adsorption of radioactive metal solutes. In this experiment, a Cobalt(II)/EDTA/Bentonite system was considered as a representative chelation/adsorption system. It was found from the results that the presence of chelating agents significantly reduced the adsorbing capacity of geologic media such as clay minerals and soils. Thus it was concluded that the presence of chelating agents even in a small amount could contribute to the mobilization of radioactive solutes from radioactive waste burial sites by reducing the adsorbing capacity of geologic media. The effect of chelating agents on the transport of radioactive solutes in subsurface porous media was analyzed by formulating an advective-dispersive transport model which incorporated chelate formation, adsorption, decay, and degradations and by introducing the concept of a tenad. Particularly the governing equation for the tenad of radioactive solutes, M, was presented as a linear partial differential form by introducing the extended distribution coefficient, K D . The calculated results from the model showed that the transport rate of the chelated radionuclides was much greater than that of the free ionic radionuclides. This much faster transport of the chelated radionuclides was found to be due to the lower retardation factor of the chelated radionuclides than the free ionic radionuclides. The effect of parameters on the transport of radioactive solutes was also analyzed

  6. Study on remediation for uranium contaminated soils enhanced by chelator using brassica mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Qinfang; Pan Ning; Jin Yongdong; Xia Chuanqin

    2012-01-01

    Screening of perfect hyperaccumulators is the key to the application of this technology. Through the previous stage study, mustard was found to be good at absorption and accumulation of uranium among 51 species, the plant grows fast with wide adaptability and large biomass. Researches will focus on the following two aspects: 1. Simulating U- contaminated soils was prepared by two different ways to add uranium. (1). UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 . 6H 2 O solution was sprayed into soil when the plant was grown in the soil; (2). Above U-contaminated soils after planting and placed for a year. Study on whether the way of adding uranium can effect mustard accumulate uranium. Results found: in the first Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reaches 1103.42 mg/kg, roots reach 1909.49 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 7.81%; in the second Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reach 295.83 mg/kg, roots reach 268.42 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 2.52%. Led to the difference between the twice remediation is the speciation of uranium m soils has changed, respectively, Tessier-five step continuous extraction method for determination of uranium speciation in soils and found available uranium (exchangeable uranium, uranium carbonate) in the soil of the first phytoremediation was 52% higher than the second phytoremediation. 2. Study on chelators (Citric acids, Malic acids) and soil amendments (Organic fertilizer, microbe fertilizer. Humic acid organic fertilizer, Urea) whether effect mustard accumulate uranium, found organic fertilizer can reduce shoots accumulate uranium, Citric acid and microbe fertilizer increase shoots enrichment of uranium. (authors)

  7. Streptomyces sp. MUM212 as a Source of Antioxidants with Radical Scavenging and Metal Chelating Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh Teng-Hern Tan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species and other radicals potentially cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA which may ultimately lead to various complications including mutations, carcinogenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, aging, and inflammatory disease. Recent reports demonstrate that Streptomyces bacteria produce metabolites with potent antioxidant activity that may be developed into therapeutic drugs to combat oxidative stress. This study shows that Streptomyces sp. MUM212 which was isolated from mangrove soil in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia, could be a potential source of antioxidants. Strain MUM212 was characterized and determined as belonging to the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The MUM212 extract demonstrated significant antioxidant activity through DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging assays and also metal-chelating activity of 22.03 ± 3.01%, 61.52 ± 3.13%, 37.47 ± 1.79%, and 41.98 ± 0.73% at 4 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, MUM212 extract was demonstrated to inhibit lipid peroxidation up to 16.72 ± 2.64% at 4 mg/mL and restore survival of Vero cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damages. The antioxidant activities from the MUM212 extract correlated well with its total phenolic contents; and this in turn was in keeping with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis which revealed the presence of phenolic compounds that could be responsible for the antioxidant properties of the extract. Other chemical constituents detected included hydrocarbons, alcohols and cyclic dipeptides which may have contributed to the overall antioxidant capacity of MUM212 extract. As a whole, strain MUM212 seems to have potential as a promising source of novel molecules for future development of antioxidative therapeutic agents against oxidative stress-related diseases.

  8. Comparison of bifunctional chelates for {sup 64}Cu antibody imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cara L.; Crisp, Sarah; Bensimon, Corinne [MDS Nordion, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Yapp, Donald T.T.; Ng, Sylvia S.W. [British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columba, The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sutherland, Brent W. [British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Gleave, Martin [Prostate Centre at Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E. [Macrocyclics Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Improved bifunctional chelates (BFCs) are needed to facilitate efficient {sup 64}Cu radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) under mild conditions and to yield stable, target-specific agents. The utility of two novel BFCs, 1-Oxa-4,7,10-triazacyclododecane-5-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-4,7,10-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-Oxo-DO3A) and 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-4-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-3,6,9-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-PCTA), for mAb imaging with {sup 64}Cu were compared to the commonly used S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA). The BFCs were conjugated to trastuzumab, which targets the HER2/neu receptor. {sup 64}Cu radiolabeling of the conjugates was optimized. Receptor binding was analyzed using flow cytometry and radioassays. Finally, PET imaging and biodistribution studies were done in mice bearing either HER2/neu-positive or HER2/neu-negative tumors. {sup 64}Cu-Oxo-DO3A- and PCTA-trastuzumab were prepared at room temperature in >95% radiochemical yield (RCY) in <30 min, compared to only 88% RCY after 2 h for the preparation of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab under the same conditions. Cell studies confirmed that the immunoreactivity of the mAb was retained for each of the bioconjugates. In vivo studies showed that {sup 64}Cu-Oxo-DO3A- and PCTA-trastuzumab had higher uptake than the {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab at 24 h in HER2/neu-positive tumors, resulting in higher tumor to background ratios and better tumor images. By 40 h all three of the {sup 64}Cu-BFC-trastuzumab conjugates allowed for clear visualization of the HER2/neu-positive tumors but not the negative control tumor. The antibody conjugates of PCTA and Oxo-DO3A were shown to have superior {sup 64}Cu radiolabeling efficiency and stability compared to the analogous DOTA conjugate. In addition, {sup 64}Cu-PCTA and Oxo-DO3A antibody conjugates may facilitate earlier imaging with greater target to background ratios than

  9. N-acetylcysteine protects rats with chronic renal failure from gadolinium-chelate nephrotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Victor Barbosa Pereira

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Gd-chelate on renal function, iron parameters and oxidative stress in rats with CRF and a possible protective effect of the antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine (NAC. Male Wistar rats were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx to induced CRF. An ionic-cyclic Gd (Gadoterate Meglumine was administrated (1.5 mM/KgBW, intravenously 21 days after Nx. Clearance studies were performed in 4 groups of anesthetized animals 48 hours following Gd- chelate administration: 1--Nx (n = 7; 2--Nx+NAC (n = 6; 3--Nx+Gd (n = 7; 4--Nx+NAC+Gd (4.8 g/L in drinking water, initiated 2 days before Gd-chelate administration and maintained during 4 days (n = 6. This group was compared with a control. We measured glomerular filtration rate, GFR (inulin clearance, ml/min/kg BW, proteinuria (mg/24 hs, serum iron (µg/dL; serum ferritin (ng/mL; transferrin saturation (%, TIBC (µg/dL and TBARS (nmles/ml. Normal rats treated with the same dose of Gd-chelate presented similar GFR and proteinuria when compared with normal controls, indicating that at this dose Gd-chelate is not nephrotoxic to normal rats. Gd-chelate administration to Nx-rats results in a decrease of GFR and increased proteinuria associated with a decrease in TIBC, elevation of ferritin serum levels, transferrin oversaturation and plasmatic TBARS compared with Nx-rats. The prophylactic treatment with NAC reversed the decrease in GFR and the increase in proteinuria and all alterations in iron parameters and TBARS induced by Gd-chelate. NAC administration to Nx rat did not modify the inulin clearance and iron kinetics, indicating that the ameliorating effect of NAC was specific to Gd-chelate. These results suggest that NAC can prevent Gd-chelate nephrotoxicity in patients with chronic renal failure.

  10. Targeted Catalytic Inactivation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme by Lisinopril-Coupled Transition Metal Chelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Jeff C.; Hocharoen, Lalintip; Cowan, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    A series of compounds that target reactive transition metal chelates to somatic Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (sACE-1) have been synthesized. Half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) and rate constants for both inactivation and cleavage of full length sACE-1 have been determined and evaluated in terms of metal-chelate size, charge, reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and coreactant selectivity. Ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), and tripeptide GGH were linked to the lysine sidechain of lisinopril by EDC/NHS coupling. The resulting amide-linked chelate-lisinopril (EDTA-lisinopril, NTA-lisinopril, DOTA-lisinopril, and GGH-lisinopril) conjugates were used to form coordination complexes with iron, cobalt, nickel and copper, such that lisinopril could mediate localization of the reactive metal chelates to sACE-1. ACE activity was assayed by monitoring cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate Mca-RPPGFSAFK(Dnp)-OH, a derivative of bradykinin, following pre-incubation with metal-chelate-lisinopril compounds. Concentration-dependent inhibition of sACE-1 by metal-chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed IC50 values ranging from 44 nM to 4,500 nM for Ni-NTA-lisinopril and Ni-DOTA-lisinopril, respectively, versus 1.9 nM for lisinopril. Stronger inhibition was correlated with smaller size and lower negative charge of the attached metal chelates. Time-dependent inactivation of sACE-1 by metal-chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed a remarkable range of catalytic activities, with second order rate constants as high as 150,000 M−1min−1 (Cu-GGH-lisinopril), while catalyst-mediated cleavage of sACE-1 typically occurred at much lower rates, indicating that inactivation arose primary from sidechain modification. Optimal inactivation of sACE-1 was observed when the reduction potential for the metal center was poised near 1000 mV, reflecting the difficulty of protein

  11. Targeted catalytic inactivation of angiotensin converting enzyme by lisinopril-coupled transition-metal chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Jeff C; Hocharoen, Lalintip; Cowan, J A

    2012-02-22

    A series of compounds that target reactive transition-metal chelates to somatic angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE-1) have been synthesized. Half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) and rate constants for both inactivation and cleavage of full-length sACE-1 have been determined and evaluated in terms of metal chelate size, charge, reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and coreactant selectivity. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), and tripeptide GGH were linked to the lysine side chain of lisinopril by 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling. The resulting amide-linked chelate-lisinopril (EDTA-lisinopril, NTA-lisinopril, DOTA-lisinopril, and GGH-lisinopril) conjugates were used to form coordination complexes with iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper, such that lisinopril could mediate localization of the reactive metal chelates to sACE-1. ACE activity was assayed by monitoring cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate Mca-RPPGFSAFK(Dnp)-OH, a derivative of bradykinin, following preincubation with metal chelate-lisinopril compounds. Concentration-dependent inhibition of sACE-1 by metal chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed IC(50) values ranging from 44 to 4500 nM for Ni-NTA-lisinopril and Ni-DOTA-lisinopril, respectively, versus 1.9 nM for lisinopril. Stronger inhibition was correlated with smaller size and lower negative charge of the attached metal chelates. Time-dependent inactivation of sACE-1 by metal chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed a remarkable range of catalytic activities, with second-order rate constants as high as 150,000 M(-1) min(-1) (Cu-GGH-lisinopril), while catalyst-mediated cleavage of sACE-1 typically occurred at much lower rates, indicating that inactivation arose primarily from side chain modification. Optimal inactivation of sACE-1 was observed when the reduction potential for the

  12. The iron-chelate transporter OsYSL9 plays a role in iron distribution in developing rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoura, Takeshi; Sakashita, Emi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Michiko; Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2017-11-01

    Rice OsYSL9 is a novel transporter for Fe(II)-nicotianamine and Fe(III)-deoxymugineic acid that is responsible for internal iron transport, especially from endosperm to embryo in developing seeds. Metal chelators are essential for safe and efficient metal translocation in plants. Graminaceous plants utilize specific ferric iron chelators, mugineic acid family phytosiderophores, to take up sparingly soluble iron from the soil. Yellow Stripe 1-Like (YSL) family transporters are responsible for transport of metal-phytosiderophores and structurally similar metal-nicotianamine complexes. Among the rice YSL family members (OsYSL) whose functions have not yet been clarified, OsYSL9 belongs to an uncharacterized subgroup containing highly conserved homologs in graminaceous species. In the present report, we showed that OsYSL9 localizes mainly to the plasma membrane and transports both iron(II)-nicotianamine and iron(III)-deoxymugineic acid into the cell. Expression of OsYSL9 was induced in the roots but repressed in the nonjuvenile leaves in response to iron deficiency. In iron-deficient roots, OsYSL9 was induced in the vascular cylinder but not in epidermal cells. Although OsYSL9-knockdown plants did not show a growth defect under iron-sufficient conditions, these plants were more sensitive to iron deficiency in the nonjuvenile stage compared with non-transgenic plants. At the grain-filling stage, OsYSL9 expression was strongly and transiently induced in the scutellum of the embryo and in endosperm cells surrounding the embryo. The iron concentration was decreased in embryos of OsYSL9-knockdown plants but was increased in residual parts of brown seeds. These results suggested that OsYSL9 is involved in iron translocation within plant parts and particularly iron translocation from endosperm to embryo in developing seeds.

  13. Pulse-dose application of chelated copper to a river for Didymosphenia geminata control: effects on macroinvertebrates and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Susan J; Jellyman, Phillip G; Biggs, Barry J F; Hickey, Christopher W; Blair, Neil; Clayton, John S

    2011-01-01

    A 1-h pulse-dose of a chelated Cu formulation (Gemex™; New Zealand) was applied to a river to test efficacy against the invasive mat-forming diatom Didymosphenia geminata (didymo) and to provide information on nontarget species effects that could not be adequately predicted from laboratory and experimental mesocosm studies. Intensive sampling allowed characterization of doses achieved at multiple downstream locations, and concurrent application of rhodamine dye allowed quantification of dispersion, adsorption, and dilution processes. The target dose of 10 to 20 mg Cu/L for 60 min was achieved at least 0.9 km downstream at sites with contrasting levels of didymo mat development. Adsorptive losses of Gemex were 12%/km where didymo was mostly nonvisible and approximately 36%/km where substantial didymo mats were present. At 0.9 km downstream, Cu concentrations peaked at 12 mg/L, and didymo was <5% viable (down from 65-72%) for ≥21 d posttreatment. Viability data indicate that elimination of nonvisible infestations is possible and that suppression of early-stage infestations (≤40% cover, ≤4.5 mm thick) could be achieved after repeated applications. After a single Gemex application, no significant accumulation of Cu was noted in the sediments six weeks posttreatment, but Cu concentrations remained high in algal mats (109-367 mg/kg dry wt). Long-term effects on the nontarget algal, invertebrate, or fish communities were minimal, although significant localized trout mortalities, not predicted by prior laboratory exposures, occurred on the treatment day. Extended Gemex exposure in low-hardness waters might have caused the mortalities, although changes in chelated Cu speciation also possibly contributed. The present study integrates effects on resident biota with dosage data, including changes in pH, in a natural waterway. © 2010 SETAC.

  14. Self-diffusion coefficient of iron as affected by chelating agents using tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoud, M.A.; Abd-El-Sabour, M.F. (Agriculture Dept. for Soil and Water Research, Nuclear Research Centre, A.E.A., Cairo (Egypt)); Omar, M.A. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1983-01-01

    The effect of Fe/sub 2/(So/sub 4/)/sub 3/, Fe-DTPA, and Fe-EDDHA on the self-diffusion coefficient of Fe in some soils of Egypt was studied. The effect of chelating compounds on the ratio between solid phase fraction of the labile Fe and its concentration in the soil solution (capacity factor) was also studied. The data reveals the following items of more interesting: 1) The use of chelating agents, i.e., DTPA and EDDHA increased the amount of Fe in soil solution, hence the capacity factor was decreased using these compounds. It seems that as the addition of Fe was in the chelated form in soil solution, the slight loss of 59Fe from solution when 59Fe - chelate was used could be attributed to the isotopic exchange with soil Fe. 2) It was found that the addition of either Fe-DTPA or Fe-EDDHA significantly increased the self-diffusion of Fe in soil as compared with Fe/sub 2/(So/sub 4/)/sub 3/. It was also noticed that the self-diffusion for Fe in the alluvial soil was greater than in the calcareous one due to the instance competition between Ca and Fe for the chelating ligands in the calcareous soil. It was also seen that soil texture affects Fe self-diffusion.

  15. Immobilization of Fe chelators on sepharose gel and its effect on their chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Zehava; Hadar, Yitzhak; Chen, Yona

    2003-09-24

    Iron chelates are usually costly and easily leached beyond the root zone. This creates a need to frequently replenish the rhizosphere with chelated Fe and might contaminate groundwater with organic compounds and metals. The development of a slow-release Fe fertilizer that will efficiently supply Fe to plants while exhibiting high resistance toward leaching and/or degradation in the rhizosphere has been the focus of this study. Desferrioxamine B (DFOB) and ethylenediaminebis(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA) were immobilized on Sepharose. (13)C NMR and FTIR measurements confirmed that coupling of DFOB to the gel did not appear to influence its ability to chelate Fe(3+) or its binding nature. Isotherms for the immobilized ligands were determined in the presence of 1 mM HEDTA, at 25 degrees C and at an ionic strength of 0.1 M. The isotherms showed a high affinity of Fe(3+) to the ligands and binding up to saturation level throughout the pH range examined (4.0-9.0). The K(app) values for the immobilized Fe chelates were determined using a modified Scatchard model and found to be lower than the soluble ones. This decrease in K(app) might facilitate Fe uptake from these chelates by plants.

  16. Metal-chelating compounds produced by ectomycorrhizal fungi collected from pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, A; Pereira, G; Aguiar, A; Milagres, A M F

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro production of metal-chelating compounds by ectomycorrhizal fungi collected from pine plantations in southern Chile. Scleroderma verrucosum, Suillus luteus and two isolates of Rhizopogon luteolus were grown in solid and liquid modified Melin-Norkans (MMN) media with and without iron addition and the production of iron-chelating compounds was determined by Chrome Azurol S (CAS) assay. The presence of hydroxamate and catecholate-type compounds and organic acids was also investigated in liquid medium. All isolates produced iron-chelating compounds as detected by CAS assay, and catecholates, hydroxamates as well as oxalic, citric and succinic acids were also detected in all fungal cultures. Scleroderma verrucosum produced the greatest amounts of catecholates and hydroxamates whereas the highest amounts of organic acids were detected in S. luteus. Nevertheless, the highest catecholate, hydroxamate and organic acid concentrations did not correlate with the highest CAS reaction which was observed in R. luteolus (Yum isolate). Ectomycorrhizal fungi produced a variety of metal-chelating compounds when grown in liquid MMN medium. However, the addition of iron to all fungi cultures reduced the CAS reaction, hydroxamate and organic acid concentrations. Catecholate production was affected differently by iron, depending on the fungal isolate. The ectomycorrhizal fungi described in this study have never been reported to produce metal-chelating compound production. Moreover, apart from some wood-rotting fungi, this is the first evidence of the presence of catecholates in R. luteolus, S. luteus and S. verrucosum cultures.

  17. Which psychosocial factors are related to chelation adherence in thalassemia? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael; Mughal, Kulsoom; Porter, John B

    2010-06-01

    Good adherence to iron chelation therapy in thalassemia is crucial. Although there is evidence that adherence is related to regimen factors, there has been less emphasis on the relationship between psychosocial (psychological, demographic and social) factors and adherence. We present a systematic review of psychosocial correlates of chelation adherence in thalassemia. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Information was extracted regarding the study characteristics and the relationship between psychosocial factors and chelation adherence. Methodological quality was rated. The studies took place in a range of countries, were mostly cross sectional in design, and examined adherence to deferoxamine (DFO) only. Sample sizes ranged from 15 to 1573. A variety of psychosocial variables were examined. Definitions of adherence varied between studies and non adherence rates were also variable (9 to 66%). Older age was consistently associated with lower levels of chelation adherence. There were few other consistent findings. The methodological quality of studies was variable. There is a need for more methodologically sophisticated and theoretically informed studies on psychosocial correlates of chelation adherence. We offer specific suggestions.

  18. Effect of different chelated zinc sources on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tahir

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during spring, 2007 to evaluate the effect of different chelated zinc sources on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.. Crop was sown on well prepared soil in 1st week of March, 2007. The experiment was laid out according to randomized complete block design. The treatments comprised of different chelated zinc sources: ZnSO4-DTPA, ZnSO4-Fulvate, ZnSO4-Lignosulphonate, ZnSO4-EDTA and ZnSO4-H2O along with control (no zinc, repeated three times. Results showed that number of cobs plant-1, grain rows cob-1 and oil contents did not differ significantly. However, differences among treatments for plant height at harvest (cm, leaf area plant-1 (cm2, stem diameter (cm, cob length (cm, cob diameter (cm, 100-grains weight (g, number of grains cob-1, grains weight cob-1(g, biological yield (tons ha-1, grain yield (tons ha-1 and protein contents (% were significantly higher. Moreover, results also revealed that ZnSO4-DPTA was found the most effective Zn chelated source among all the treatments. Rest of the chelating agents were not too impressive as they showed varied response for different variables. The result of this experiment suggest further experimentation to explore behaviour of Zn-DTPA with other macro and micro nutrients and to calculate cost benefit ratio for use ofZn chelated compounds.

  19. Increased Uptake of Chelated Copper Ions by Lolium perenne Attributed to Amplified Membrane and Endodermal Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of mechanisms by which chelators influence metal translocation to plant shoot tissues are analyzed using a combination of numerical modelling and physical experiments. The model distinguishes between apoplastic and symplastic pathways of water and solute movement. It also includes the barrier effects of the endodermis and plasma membrane. Simulations are used to assess transport pathways for free and chelated metals, identifying mechanisms involved in chelate-enhanced phytoextraction. Hypothesized transport mechanisms and parameters specific to amendment treatments are estimated, with simulated results compared to experimental data. Parameter values for each amendment treatment are estimated based on literature and experimental values, and used for model calibration and simulation of amendment influences on solute transport pathways and mechanisms. Modeling indicates that chelation alters the pathways for Cu transport. For free ions, Cu transport to leaf tissue can be described using purely apoplastic or transcellular pathways. For strong chelators (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, transport by the purely apoplastic pathway is insufficient to represent measured Cu transport to leaf tissue. Consistent with experimental observations, increased membrane permeability is required for simulating translocation in EDTA and DTPA treatments. Increasing the membrane permeability is key to enhancing phytoextraction efficiency.

  20. Self-diffusion coefficient of iron as affected by chelating agents using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, M.A.; Abd-El-Sabour, M.F.; Omar, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of Fe 2 (So 4 ) 3 , Fe-DTPA, and Fe-EDDHA on the self-diffusion coefficient of Fe in some soils of Egypt was studied. The effect of chelating compounds on the ratio between solid phase fraction of the labile Fe and its concentration in the soil solution (capacity factor) was also studied. The data reveals the following items of more interesting: 1) The use of chelating agents, i.e., DTPA and EDDHA increased the amount of Fe in soil solution, hence the capacity factor was decreased using these compounds. It seems that as the addition of Fe was in the chelated form in soil solution, the slight loss of 59Fe from solution when 59Fe - chelate was used could be attributed to the isotopic exchange with soil Fe. 2) It was found that the addition of either Fe-DTPA or Fe-EDDHA significantly increased the self-diffusion of Fe in soil as compared with Fe 2 (So 4 ) 3 . It was also noticed that the self-diffusion for Fe in the alluvial soil was greater than in the calcareous one due to the instance competition between Ca and Fe for the chelating ligands in the calcareous soil. It was also seen that soil texture affects Fe self-diffusion

  1. Reversible adsorption of catalase onto Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş Uygun, Deniz; Uygun, Murat; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2015-05-01

    In this presented study, poly(acrylamide-glycidyl methacrylate) [poly(AAm-GMA)] cryogels were synthesized by cryopolymerization technique at sub-zero temperature. Prepared cryogels were then functionalized with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and chelated with Fe(3+) ions in order produce the metal chelate affinity matrix. Synthesized cryogels were characterized with FTIR, ESEM and EDX analysis, and it was found that the cryogel had sponge like structure with interconnected pores and their pore diameter was about 200 μm. Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogels were used for the adsorption of catalase and optimum adsorption conditions were determined by varying the medium pH, initial catalase concentration, temperature and ionic strength. Maximum catalase adsorption onto Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogel was found to be 12.99 mg/g cryogel at 25 °C, by using pH 5.0 acetate buffer. Adsorbed catalase was removed from the cryogel by using 1.0M of NaCl solution and desorption yield was found to be 96%. Additionally, reusability profile of the Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogel was also investigated and it was found that, adsorption capacity of the cryogels didn't decrease significantly at the end of the 40 reuses. Catalase activity studies were also tested and it was demonstrated that desorbed catalase retained 70% of its initial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of novel polyamine-type chelating resin with hyperbranched structures and its adsorption performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Huan; Li, Yuhong; Li, Chenxi

    2018-01-01

    This paper explored the method of combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technology and hyperbranched polymer principle to prepare the high capacity chelating resin. First, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on chloromethylated cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene resin, and then the novel polyamine chelating resin with a kind of hyperbranched structure was prepared through the amination reaction between amino group of (2-aminoethyl) triamine and epoxy group in GMA. This resin had a selective effect on As(V) and Cr(VI) at a relatively low pH and can be used for the disposal of waste water containing As(V) and Cr(VI). It had a relatively strong adsorption effect on Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) and can be used for the disposal of heavy metal ion waste water. The finding was that, the adsorption capacity of resin on the studied heavy metal ions was higher than that of the chelating resin synthesized by traditional technology and also higher than that of the resin modified by ATRP technology and bifunctional chelator, indicating that the combination of ATRP and hyperbranched polymer concept is an effective method to prepare chelating resin with high capacity. PMID:29515875

  3. Preparation of novel polyamine-type chelating resin with hyperbranched structures and its adsorption performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youning; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Huan; Li, Yuhong; Li, Chenxi

    2018-02-01

    This paper explored the method of combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technology and hyperbranched polymer principle to prepare the high capacity chelating resin. First, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on chloromethylated cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene resin, and then the novel polyamine chelating resin with a kind of hyperbranched structure was prepared through the amination reaction between amino group of (2-aminoethyl) triamine and epoxy group in GMA. This resin had a selective effect on As(V) and Cr(VI) at a relatively low pH and can be used for the disposal of waste water containing As(V) and Cr(VI). It had a relatively strong adsorption effect on Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) and can be used for the disposal of heavy metal ion waste water. The finding was that, the adsorption capacity of resin on the studied heavy metal ions was higher than that of the chelating resin synthesized by traditional technology and also higher than that of the resin modified by ATRP technology and bifunctional chelator, indicating that the combination of ATRP and hyperbranched polymer concept is an effective method to prepare chelating resin with high capacity.

  4. Effect of the chelation of metal cation on the antioxidant activity of chondroitin sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajisaka, Katsumi; Oyanagi, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-01

    The antioxidant potencies of chondroitin sulfates (CSs) from shark cartilage, salmon cartilage, bovine trachea, and porcine intestinal mucosa were compared by three representative methods for the measurement of the antioxidant activity; DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. CSs from salmon cartilage and bovine trachea showed higher potency in comparison with CSs from shark cartilage and porcine intestinal mucosa. Next, CS from salmon cartilage chelating with Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), or Zn(2+) were prepared, and their antioxidant potencies were compared. CS chelating with Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) ions showed rather decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity in comparison with CS of H(+) form. In contrast, CS chelating with Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) ion showed remarkably enhanced superoxide radical scavenging activity than CS of H(+) or Na(+) form. Moreover, CS chelating with divalent metal ions, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), or Zn(2+), showed noticeably higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than CS of H(+) or Na(+) form. The present results revealed that the scavenging activities of, at least, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical were enhanced by the chelation with divalent metal ions.

  5. Chelation of heavy group 2 (radio)metals by p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,3-crown-6 and logK determination via NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, David; Gott, Matthew; Steinbach, Jörg; Mamat, Constantin

    2018-06-01

    A crown-bridged calix[4]arene scaffold was investigated as lead compound for the ligation of heavy alkaline earth metals such as strontium and barium, which appear to be useful for radiopharmaceutical applications in diagnosis as well as in radiotherapy. In particular barium, due to its chemical similarities, could serve as a surrogate for radium, a metal of high radiopharmaceutical interest. The ability of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,3-crown-6 (1) in particular to chelate cations, such as group 1 and 2 metal ions or ammonium ions is well known. Also, the manifold possibilities of structural modification on the upper- and lower-rim as well as on the crown itself produce properties that may lead to a highly selective and effective chelating agent. In this work, titration experiments of the perchlorate salts of Ba2+, Sr2+ and Pb2+ with ligand 1 were performed to determine their stability constants (logK = 4.7, 4.3, and 3.3, respectively) by 1H NMR measurements in acetonitrile-d3.

  6. Understanding rhizosphere processes to enhance phytoextraction of germanium and rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) and rare earth elements (REEs) are economically valuable raw materials that are not actually rare in terms of concentrations in soils but they are hardly available for plant uptake due to interactions with organic matter (SOM), secondary soil constituents such as Fe/Mn oxides and P bearing soil fractions. Processes in the rhizosphere might influence availability of Ge and REEs in the soil-plant system, since lowering of the pH and presence of carboxylates and siderophores (small molecules that strongly chelate Fe and other elements) strongly influences the chemical speciation of Ge and REEs in soil and consequently this comprehensive knowledge helps us to improve phytomining. In a series of field and greenhouse experiments 16 plant species from the functional groups of grasses, herbs and legumes were tested with regard to their accumulation efficiency of Ge and REEs in shoots. Subsequently, we conducted mixed culture experiments in which inefficient species (e.g. cereals like Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum miliaceum) were cultivated in mixed cultures with efficient species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius). Based on the plant concentrations a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify significant factors that explain the accumulation behavior of different plant species with regard to Ge, REEs, Si, Fe and Mn. In this analysis Mn was used to identify plant species with efficient mechanisms to access sparingly available P-resources in soils. Particularly in nonmycorrhizal species concentrations of Mn in leaves often indicate a carboxylate based P-mobilising strategy. Herbaceous plant species accumulated significantly higher amounts of REEs while grasses accumulated significantly higher amounts of Ge. Concentrations of Ge in shoots of grasses correlated significantly positive with Si, but negatively with concentrations of Mn. Indeed, the results of the PCA clearly show that plants with high Mn concentrations tend to have

  7. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  8. Why Earth Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  9. Facile deferration of commercial fertilizers containing iron chelates for their NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Luca; Alcañiz, Sara; Cerdán, Mar; Gomez-Gallego, Mar; Sierra, Miguel Angel; Placucci, Giuseppe; Cremonini, Mauro Andrea

    2009-06-24

    Ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (o,o-EDDHA) is widely used in commercial formulations as a Fe(3+) chelating agent to remedy iron shortage in calcareous and alkaline soils. Commercially available o,o-EDDHA-Fe(3+) formulations contain a mixture of EDDHA regioisomers (o,p-EDDHA and p,p-EDDHA), together with other, still uncharacterized, products. NMR spectroscopy can be applied to their study as long as iron is accurately removed prior to the observation. This paper shows that it is possible to obtain a deferrated solution of the organic ligands present in commercial fertilizers containing the EDDHA-Fe(3+) chelate by treating the chelate with ferrocyanide, thus forming Prussian Blue that can be easily removed by centrifugation. This iron removal process does not cause significant losses of the o,o-EDDHA ligand or its minor structural isomers.

  10. Antioxidant and mercury chelating activity of Psidium guajava var. pomifera L. leaves hydroalcoholic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Antonio Ivanildo; Oliveira, Cláudia Sirlene; Lovato, Fabricio Luís; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Piccoli, Bruna Candia; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Leite, Nadghia Figueredo; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Posser, Thais; Da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is widely distributed in the environment and is known to produce several adverse effects in organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine the in vitro antioxidant activity and Hg chelating ability of the hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guajava leaves (HEPG). In addition, the potential protective effects of HEPG against Hg(II) were evaluated using a yeast model (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). HEPG was found to exert significant antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenger and inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(II) assays in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract also exhibited significant Hg(II) chelating activity. In yeast, Hg(II) induced a significant decrease in cell viability. In contrast, HEPG partially prevented the fall in cell viability induced by Hg(II). In conclusion, HEPG exhibited protective effects against Hg(II)-mediated toxicity, which may be related to both antioxidant and Hg(II)-chelating activities.

  11. REVIEW ARTICLE:Future of Lead Chelation – Distribution and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Thuppil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is the major environmental toxin resulting in the ill health and deleterious effect on almost all organs in the human body in a slow and effective manner. The best treatment for lead poisoning is chelation therapy which is next only to prevention. The authors describe the disruption of homeostasis of the human body by lead in various tissues like blood, bones, liver, kidneys and brain; and the ability of lead to enter the cell using calcium channels and calcium receptors like Ca++ dependant K+ ion channels, transient receptor potential channels, T-tubules, calmodulin receptors, inositol trisphosphate receptors and ryanodine receptors. We report a few novel chelating agents like ionophores, decadentate ligands, picolinate ligands, octadentate ligand, allicin, thiamine, that show good potential for being used in chelation therapy. Future of leadpoisoning is a challenge to all and it needs to be meticulously studies to have an economic and health approach.

  12. Removal of heavy elements from Contaminated Matrices using amidoxime chelating starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shama, S.A.; Wally, S.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of a amidoxime chelating starch was carried out by grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch using the mutual irradiation techniques at dose rate 2.5 kGy. Conversion of nitrile groups of the grafted copolymer into the amidoxime was carried out by treatment with hydroxylamine under alkaline solution. The amidoxime chelating starch was characterized by FT-IR spectra, TG, Particle size, Surface area, SEM, and Elemental analyses. The chelating behavior of the prepared resin was carried out by using uranium. The binding capacity of uranium ion by the amidoxime resin was carried out by the batch technique. The sorption capacity was high for uranium, 86.9 mg/g at ph 6.5. The kinetic exchange rate was fast. It was observed that the uranium uptake ratio reaches 50% at 10 min (t 1/2 ). The treatment process using amidoxime sorbent is efficient to remove uranium from the waste solution of the FMPP plant.

  13. Isotopic measurement of uranium using NP-type chelate resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lanbi; Chen Wenpo; Wang Shijun

    1994-08-01

    NP-type chelate resin beads is used as a carrier of samples in the isotopic measurements of uranium by mass spectrometry. The results show that its absorption efficiency for uranium can be greater than 50%. It is one order magnitude higher than that strong basic anion resin, however, the ionization efficiencies of both are almost the same. Therefore, the amount of uranium required for isotopic analysis can be reduced one order of magnitude. This method has been used for isotopic analysis of uranium in NP-type chelate resin beads contained 10 -9 ∼ 10 -7 g uranium. For standard sample UTB-500, the external precision of measurements are within +-0.2%, for natural uranium samples are within +- 0.5%. The application of NP-type chelate resin beads in the isotopic measurement of uranium is a new creative achievement. It has been used in the depletion test of uranium-atomic vapor laser isotope separation

  14. Preparation and Properties of the Chitosan/PVA Blend for Heavy Metals Chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Jabbar Abdul Ameer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current research based on the use of extracted chitosan mixed with Polyvinyl alcohol to manufacture blend that can been used in water purification from heavy metals such as copper, this due to chitosan properties and its ability to chelation these metals because of the presence of the functional groups in their structure. The blend has been treated with borax to increase the viscosity, and then high density polyethylene granulated coated with polymer solution to increase the surface area for chelation. The ultraviolet test showed the efficiency of blend to chelation of copper ions through lower the copper ions absorbance peak after each stage where the solution of copper ions pass on the polymer blend containing chitosan.

  15. Microbial screening of thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) chelates with oxine and phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapadia, M.A.; Patel, M.M.; Patel, G.P.; Joshi, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    In the present investigation synthesis, characterization of mixed ligand chelates of the type MA 2 L 2 , where, M = Th 4+ and UO 2 2+ , A 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) and L = phenols, H2L I = catechol, H 2 L 2 pyrogallol, H 2 L 3 = 2,3-dihydroxy naphthalene, H 2 L 4 = 1,5-dihydroxy naphthalene and H 2 L 5 = 1,7-dihydroxy naphthalene have been reported. Their geometry have been elucidated on the basis of elemental analyses, thermogravimetric, magnetic moments, NMR, IR and electronic spectra. A study of thermal properties has also been carried out. The antimicrobial activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline and MA 2 L 2 chelates have been determined and described. All the chelates showed an effective antimicrobial activity than the free ligand. (author)

  16. Chronic Toxic Metal Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanisms of Risk and Emerging Role of Chelation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneni, Ehimen C; Escolar, Esteban; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2016-12-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been a growing body of epidemiologic evidence linking chronic toxic metal exposure to cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. The recent and unexpectedly positive findings from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial of metal chelation for the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT)) have focused the discussion on the role of chronic exposure to toxic metals in the development and propagation of cardiovascular disease and the role of toxic metal chelation therapy in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the most recent evidence linking chronic toxic metal exposure to cardiovascular disease and examines the findings of TACT.

  17. Modeling for Colloid and Chelator Facilitated Nuclide Transport in Radioactive Waste Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-08-01

    A modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program template, by which assessment of safety and performance for a radioactive waste repository with normal and/or abnormal nuclide release cases can be made has been developed. Colloid and chelator facilitated transport that is believed to result for faster nuclide transport in various mediabothinthegeosphereandbiospherehas been evaluated deterministically and probabilistically to demonstrate the capability of the template developed through this study. To this end colloid and chelator facilitated nuclide transport has been modeled rather strainghtforwardly with assumed data through this study by utilizing some powerful function offered by GoldSim. An evaluation in view of apparent influence of colloid and chelator on the nuclide transport in the various media in and around a repository system with data assumed are illustrated

  18. Chiral DOTA chelators as an improved platform for biomedical imaging and therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lixiong; Jones, Chloe M; Chan, Wesley Ting Kwok; Pham, Tiffany A; Ling, Xiaoxi; Gale, Eric M; Rotile, Nicholas J; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Anderson, Carolyn J; Caravan, Peter; Law, Ga-Lai

    2018-02-27

    Despite established clinical utilisation, there is an increasing need for safer, more inert gadolinium-based contrast agents, and for chelators that react rapidly with radiometals. Here we report the syntheses of a series of chiral DOTA chelators and their corresponding metal complexes and reveal properties that transcend the parent DOTA compound. We incorporated symmetrical chiral substituents around the tetraaza ring, imparting enhanced rigidity to the DOTA cavity, enabling control over the range of stereoisomers of the lanthanide complexes. The Gd chiral DOTA complexes are shown to be orders of magnitude more inert to Gd release than [GdDOTA] - . These compounds also exhibit very-fast water exchange rates in an optimal range for high field imaging. Radiolabeling studies with (Cu-64/Lu-177) also demonstrate faster labelling properties. These chiral DOTA chelators are alternative general platforms for the development of stable, high relaxivity contrast agents, and for radiometal complexes used for imaging and/or therapy.

  19. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Ushio, K

    1982-01-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA). It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilised into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol (20 mg) and 107 mumol (40 mg) CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol (0.8 mg) to 120 mumol (24.9 mg) (mean 37 mumol (7.7 mg) in lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 0.3-2.9 mumol/kg (6-60 microgram/100 g) (mean 1.4 mumol/kg (29 microgram/100 g)). There were linear relationships between blood lead concentrations and body burden of chelatable lead on a log scale. PMID:6802167

  20. Enhancement of 67Ga tumor-to-blood ratios by chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Hideo; Yokoyama, Akira; Hata, Naotaka; Misaki, Atsushi; Tanaka, Hisashi.

    1980-01-01

    Chelating agent, such as, CaEDTA, CaDTPA, D-penicillamine, DMSA, desferoxamine, NTA, cysteine ethyl ester, BAL, α-MPG, phthalein complexone, were tested as a possible contrast enhancing agent for tumor imaging with 67 Ga-citrate. The intravenous administration of a chelating agent to Ehrlich's tumor bearing mice, one hour after the injection of 67 Ga-citrate, accelerated the blood clearance with only a very slight change of activity in the target, increasing the tumor-to-blood ratio, and consequently achieving a better visualization. Among the tested chelating agents, D-penicillamine showed the highest target-to-nontarget ratio at a shorter time: a good tumor-to-blood ratio, performed after 24 hr with non-treated animals, was achieved in only 1-3 hr with post-treated animals. Thus, D-penicillamine hold a considerable promise as a contrast enhancing agent for future clinical use. (author)

  1. Molecular engineering of lanthanide ion chelating phospholipids generating assemblies with a switched magnetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Massabni, Sarah; Hodzic, Arnel; Durovic, Dzana; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Fischer, Peter; Windhab, Erich J; Walde, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2017-08-09

    Lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ ) chelating amphiphiles are powerful molecules for tailoring the magnetic response of polymolecular assemblies. Mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA) complexed to Ln 3+ deliver highly magnetically responsive bicelles. Their magnetic properties are readily tuned by changing the bicellar size or the magnetic susceptibility Δχ of the bilayer lipids. The former technique is intrinsically bound to the region of the phase diagram guarantying the formation of bicelles. Methods aiming towards manipulating the Δχ of the bilayer are comparatively more robust, flexible and lacking. Herein, we synthesized a new Ln 3+ chelating phospholipid using glutamic acid as a backbone: DMPE-Glu-DTPA. The chelate polyhedron was specifically engineered to alter the Δχ, whilst remaining geometrically similar to DMPE-DTPA. Planar asymmetric assemblies hundreds of nanometers in size were achieved presenting unprecedented magnetic alignments. The DMPE-Glu-DTPA/Ln 3+ complex switched the Δχ, achieving perpendicular alignment of assemblies containing Dy 3+ and parallel alignment of those containing Tm 3+ . Moreover, samples with chelated Yb 3+ were more alignable than the Tm 3+ chelating counterparts. Such a possibility has never been demonstrated for planar Ln 3+ chelating polymolecular assemblies. The physico-chemical properties of these novel assemblies were further studied by monitoring the alignment behavior at different temperatures and by including 16 mol% of cholesterol (Chol-OH) in the phospholipid bilayer. The DMPE-Glu-DTPA/Ln 3+ complex and the resulting assemblies are promising candidates for applications in numerous fields including pharmaceutical technologies, structural characterization of membrane biomolecules by NMR spectroscopy, as contrasting agents for magnetic resonance imaging, and for the development of smart optical gels.

  2. On-load chelating agent treatments for conventional and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the application of on-load chelating agent treatments to those types of water circuit for which they are not currently available: high pressure drum boilers, sub-critical once-through boilers and water reactors. An attempt was made to see whether the most thermally stable types of chelating agent are likely to be sufficiently strong chelating agents either to dissolve established Fe 3 O 4 deposits or to prevent their precipitation from solution. It seems likely that they are strong enough to prevent Fe 3 O 4 depositing in a once-through boiler, through some may require that mildly reducing conditions are maintained. They would not be effective in a high pressure drum boiler (at 350 0 C) unless much more strongly reducing conditions could be maintained. For such boilers it would probably be better to seek multidentate ligands of less than maximum thermal stability. There are some indications that chelating agents based on carbon chains are more stable than NTA or EDTA so that citric acid or some of the unidentified chelating agents recently found to be produced radiolytically may have potential in the treatment of high pressure drum boilers. The prospects for periodic full-load cleaning seem less good for both types of boiler. There may also be a role for radiolytically produced chelating agents in alleviating some of the problems caused by the deposition of radioactive corrosion products in water reactor circuits. The chances for successful development fall from quite good to very low down the series SGHWR moderator circuit, PWR primary circuit, ammonia dosed BWR, neutral chemistry BWR (including SGHWR). (author)

  3. The preparation and characterization of novel human-like collagen metal chelates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Sun, Yan [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, School of Chemical Engineering Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi R and D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, Xi' an 710069 (China); Wang, Yaoyu [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an 710069 (China); Luo, Yane, E-mail: luoyane@nwu.edu.cn [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, School of Chemical Engineering Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi R and D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, Xi' an 710069 (China); Fan, Daidi, E-mail: fandaidi@nwu.edu.cn [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, School of Chemical Engineering Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi R and D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2013-07-01

    In order to develop the nutritional trace elements which could be absorbed and utilized effectively, protein chelates were adopted. Calcium, copper and manganese were considered based on their physiological functions, and the new chelates of HLC-Ca, HLC-Cu and HLC-Mn were formed in MOPS or MES buffer and purified by gel chromatography, and then freeze-dried. And they were detected and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, ultraviolet–visible absorption (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, fluorescence quenching method, circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that some chemical reactions happened between HLC and the three metal ions to form new chemical compounds. The thermodynamic parameters, ∆H, ∆G and ∆S, showed that the chelation process between HLC and metal ions was performed spontaneously. Fluorescence quenching spectra of HLC indicated that the quenching mechanism was static in nature. According to the data of DSC, the new chelates were more stable than the free HLC. And HLC-metal complex was non-toxic to the BHK21 cell through MTT assay. - Highlights: ► HLC-Ca, HLC-Cu and HLC-Mn were new chemical compounds and different to free HLC. ► Possible sites for Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} to bind with HLC were presented. ► The chelation process between HLC and metal ions was performed spontaneously. ► The thermodynamic stability of the new chelates was higher than that of free HLC.

  4. Controlling lipid oxidation via a biomimetic iron chelating active packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2013-12-18

    Previously, a siderophore-mimetic metal chelating active packaging film was developed by grafting poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) from the surface of polypropylene (PP) films. The objective of the current work was to demonstrate the potential applicability of this PP-g-PHA film to control iron-promoted lipid oxidation in food emulsions. The iron chelating activity of this film was investigated, and the surface chemistry and color intensity of films were also analyzed after iron chelation. In comparison to the iron chelating activity in the free Fe(3+) solution, the PP-g-PHA film retained approximately 50 and 30% of its activity in nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)/Fe(3+) and citric acid/Fe(3+) solutions, respectively (pH 5.0), indicating a strong chelating strength for iron. The ability of PP-g-PHA films to control lipid oxidation was demonstrated in a model emulsion system (pH 3.0). PP-g-PHA films performed even better than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in preventing the formation of volatile oxidation products. The particle size and ζ potential results of emulsions indicated that PP-g-PHA films had no adverse effects on the stability of the emulsion system. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis suggested a non-migratory nature of the PP-g-PHA film surface. These results suggest that such biomimetic, non-migratory metal chelating active packaging films have commercial potential in protecting foods against iron-promoted lipid oxidation.

  5. Selective chelation-supercritical fluid extraction of metal ions from waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C.N.; Laintz, K.E.; Yonker, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The removal of toxic organics, metals, and radioisotopes from solids or liquids is a major concern in the treatment of industrial and nuclear wastes. For this reason, developing methods for selective separation of toxic metals and radioactive materials from solutions of complex matrix is an important problem in environmental research. Recent developments indicate supercritical fluids are good solvents for organic compounds. Many gases become supercritical fluids under moderate temperatures and pressures. For example, the critical temperature and pressure of carbon dioxide are 31 degrees C and 73 atm, respectively. The high diffusivity, low viscosity, and T-P dependence of solvent strength are some attractive properties of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Since CO 2 offers the additional benefits of stability and non-toxicity, the SFE technique avoids generation of organic liquid waste and exposure of personnel to toxic solvents. While direct extraction of metal ions by supercritical fluids is highly inefficient, these ions when complexed with organic ligands become quite soluble in supercritical fluids. Specific ligands can be used to achieve selective extraction of metal ions in this process. After SFE, the fluid phase can be depressurized for precipitation of the metal chelates and recycled. The ligand can also be regenerated for repeated use. The success of this selective chelation-supercritical fluid extraction (SC-SFE) process depends on a number of factors including the efficiencies of the selective chelating agents, solubilities of metal chelates in supercritical fluids, rate of extraction, ease of regeneration of the ligands, etc. In this report, the authors present recent results on the studies of the solubilities of metal chelates in supercritical CO 2 , experimental ions from aqueous solution, and the development of selective chelating agents (ionizable crown ethers) for the extraction of lanthanides and actinides

  6. Benzimidazolyl methyliminodiacetic acids: new bifunctional chelators of technetium for hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, F.C.; Wilson, J.G.; Maddalena, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Dimethyl- and chloro- substituted benzimidazolyl methyliminodiacetic acids have been synthesized and evaluated as new bifunctional chelators of /sup 99m/Tc. Stannous chelates of these compounds were prepared as freeze-dried kits and labeled with /sup 99m/Tc. The radiopharmaceuticals thus prepared were rapidly excreted by the hepatobiliary system of rats and rabbits with little urinary excretion. The chloro- compound had a higher biliary and lesser urinary excretion than the dimethyl- however both technetium complexes provided good scintigraphic images of the hepatobiliary system in animals. The compounds behaved similarly to the /sup 99m/Tc-lidocaine iminodiacetic acid [HIDA] complexes with respect to their biliary elimination

  7. Synthesis and physicochemical analysis of Sm (II, III) acetylacetone chelate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, N.N.; Dik, T.A.; Trebnikov, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Sm (II, III) acetylacetone chelate complexes were synthesized by electrochemical method. It was shown that anode dissolution of the metal samarium over acetylacetone leads to formation of the Sm (II, III) chelate complexes: xSm(acac)2 · ySm(acac)3 · zH(acac). Factors x, y and z depend on quantity of the electricity, which flew through the electrolysis cell. The compositions of the obtained substances were confirmed by the physicochemical analysis (ultimate analysis, IR-, mass spectroscopy and thermal analysis (thermogravimetric, isothermal warming-up and differential scanning colorimetry). (Authors)

  8. STUDY ON THE KINETICS OF POLYMERIZATION OF MMA BY COPPER(Ⅱ) CHELATING RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHongzuo; JiangYuanzhang; 等

    1993-01-01

    The polymerization of MMA initiated by copper(Ⅱ) chelating resins/CCl4 system was studied.From the kinetic data,the kinetic equation of polymerization can be expressed as Rp=Ke-56400/RT[MMA]1.57[CCl4]m[RESIN-Cu]0.18 where m:3-4.5,when[CCl4] 0.1-6.93M.The free radical polymerization mechanism is proposed.The primary radicals are formed by the process of complexation-chlorine transformation among the copper(Ⅱ) chelating resin,CCl4 and methacrylate.

  9. An optimized antibody-chelator conjugate for imaging of carcinoembryonic antigen with indium-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerdon, G.A.; Rogers, P.E.; Lombardo, C.M.; Schnobrich, K.E.; Melvin, S.L.; Tribby, I.I.E.; Stroupe, S.D.; Johnson, D.K.; Hobart, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen showing minimal cross-reactivity with blood cells and normal tissues was derivatized with benzylisothiocyanate derivatives of EDTA and DTPA. Seven chelators per immunoglobulin could be incorporated without loss of immunoreactivity. The resulting conjugates, labeled with indium-111, showed low liver uptake in animals. A cold kit, comprising the DTPA conjugate at a molarity of antibody bound chelator exceeding 1 x 10 -4 M, gave radiochemical yields of indium labeled antibody of ≥ 95% and was stable for 1 yr. (author)

  10. Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to lead workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, S; Ushio, K

    1982-01-01

    A hypothetical model was introduced to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of lead by calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA). It was estimated that, on average, 14 and 19% of the body burden was mobilised into the urine during the 24 hours after an injection of 53.4 mumol (20 mg) and 107 mumol (40 mg) CaEDTA per kg bodyweight, respectively. The body burden of chelatable lead ranged from 4 mumol (0.8 mg) to 120 mumol (24.9 mg) (mean 37 mumol...

  11. Hepatobiliary delivery of polyaminopolycarboxylate chelates: Synthesis and characterization of a cholic acid conjugate of EDTA and biodistribution and imaging studies with its indium-111 chelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betebenner, D.A.; Carney, P.L.; Zimmer, A.M.; Kazikiewicz, J.M.; Bruecher, E.S.; Sherry, A.D.; Johnson, D.K. (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A conjugate in which the steroid nucleus of cholic acid was linked to EDTA via an 11-atom spacer was obtained by reacting the succinimidyl ester of cholic acid with the amine formed by reaction of a benzyl isothiocyanate derivative of EDTA with N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)ethylenediamine and subsequent deprotection. Potentiometric titration studies with model complexes showed that the EDTA moiety retained the ability to form 1:1 chelates of high thermodynamic stability, although formation constants were some 3-4 log K units lower for complexes of the conjugate than for the analogous chelates with underivatized EDTA. A complex formed between the cholic acid-EDTA conjugate and 111InIII was clearly rapidly into the liver when injected iv into mice, with subsequent excretion from the liver into the gastrointestinal tract being complete within 1 h of injection. Radioscintigraphic imaging studies conducted in a rabbit given the 111In-labeled conjugate also showed early liver uptake followed by rapid clearance from the liver into the intestine, with good visualization of the gallbladder in images obtained at 20-25 min postinjection. It is concluded that conjugation to cholic acid provides a useful means for the hepatobiliary delivery of EDTA chelates that otherwise exhibit predominantly extracellular distribution and renal clearance.

  12. Hepatobiliary delivery of polyaminopolycarboxylate chelates: Synthesis and characterization of a cholic acid conjugate of EDTA and biodistribution and imaging studies with its indium-111 chelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betebenner, D.A.; Carney, P.L.; Zimmer, A.M.; Kazikiewicz, J.M.; Bruecher, E.S.; Sherry, A.D.; Johnson, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    A conjugate in which the steroid nucleus of cholic acid was linked to EDTA via an 11-atom spacer was obtained by reacting the succinimidyl ester of cholic acid with the amine formed by reaction of a benzyl isothiocyanate derivative of EDTA with N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)ethylenediamine and subsequent deprotection. Potentiometric titration studies with model complexes showed that the EDTA moiety retained the ability to form 1:1 chelates of high thermodynamic stability, although formation constants were some 3-4 log K units lower for complexes of the conjugate than for the analogous chelates with underivatized EDTA. A complex formed between the cholic acid-EDTA conjugate and 111InIII was clearly rapidly into the liver when injected iv into mice, with subsequent excretion from the liver into the gastrointestinal tract being complete within 1 h of injection. Radioscintigraphic imaging studies conducted in a rabbit given the 111In-labeled conjugate also showed early liver uptake followed by rapid clearance from the liver into the intestine, with good visualization of the gallbladder in images obtained at 20-25 min postinjection. It is concluded that conjugation to cholic acid provides a useful means for the hepatobiliary delivery of EDTA chelates that otherwise exhibit predominantly extracellular distribution and renal clearance

  13. Reactivity of uranyl ion with quinquedentate chelating hydrazine derivatives. Pt. 2. 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(4-methoxybenzoylhydrazone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paolucci, G; Marangoni, G; Bandoli, G; Clemente, D A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi

    1980-01-01

    The new quinquedentate chelating ligand 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(4-methoxybenzoylhydrazone) (H/sub 2/dapmb) reacts with uranyl nitrate and perchlorate to give complexes which are described. All the complexes have been fully deprotonated to neutral species (UO/sub 2/(dapmb)), under a range of experimental conditions. This complex can be isolated in two different crystalline forms, ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.., depending on the experimental conditions. All the species have been characterized by a number of analytical and physico-chemical measurements, including the determination of the crystal structure of the two isomers of (UO/sub 2/(dapmb)). An accurate structure determination was carried out for the monoclinic modification, while the investigation of the orthorhombic form was undertaken merely to ascertain whether or not its configuration was the same as that of the monoclinic form. The geometry of (UO/sub 2/(dapmb)) in the two forms is very similar, the only significant difference being the conformation of a carbon atom in a methoxy-group. Seven-fold coordination of U/sup VI/ was found, with the five donor atoms in the equatorial plane and the linear UO/sub 2/ group normal to the plane. Interconversion reactions on the various compounds have been studied.

  14. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates

  15. Effects of nutrient trace metal speciation on algal growth in the presence of the chelator [S,S]-EDDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schowanek, D.; McAvoy, D.; Versteeg, D.; Hanstveit, A.

    1996-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the apparent toxicity of strong chelators in standard algal growth inhibition tests (e.g. method OECD 201, EC C.3., ISO 8692) is related to essential trace metal bioavailability. This hypothesis was investigated for the chelator [S,S]-ethylene diamine disuccinate

  16. Oxidative degradation stability and hydrogen sulfide removal performance of dual-ligand iron chelate of Fe-EDTA/CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xinmei; Ma, Yiwen; Chen, Zezhi; Gong, Huijuan

    2017-09-05

    Catalytic oxidation desulfurization using chelated iron catalyst is an effective method to remove H 2 S from various gas streams including biogas. However, the ligand of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), which is usually adopted to prepare chelated iron catalyst, is liable to be oxidative degraded, and leads to the loss of desulfurization performance. In order to improve the degradation stability of the iron chelate, a series of iron chelates composed of two ligands including citric acid (CA) and EDTA were prepared and the oxidative degradation stability as well as desulfurization performance of these chelated iron catalysts were studied. Results show that the iron chelate of Fe-CA is more stable than Fe-EDTA, while for the desulfurization performance, the situation is converse. For the dual-ligand iron chelates of Fe-EDTA/CA, with the increase of mol ratio of CA to EDTA in the iron chelate solution, the oxidative degradation stability increased while the desulfurization performance decreased. The results of this work showed that Fe-EDTA/CA with a mol ratio of CA:EDTA = 1:1 presents a relative high oxidative degradation stability and an acceptable desulfurization performance with over 90% of H 2 S removal efficiency.

  17. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  18. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  19. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  20. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  1. Coupling fast water exchange to slow molecular tumbling in Gd3+ chelates: why faster is not always better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avedano, Stefano; Botta, Mauro; Haigh, Julian S; Longo, Dario L; Woods, Mark

    2013-08-05

    The influence of dynamics on solution state structure is a widely overlooked consideration in chemistry. Variations in Gd(3+) chelate hydration with changing coordination geometry and dissociative water exchange kinetics substantially impact the effectiveness (or relaxivity) of monohydrated Gd(3+) chelates as T1-shortening contrast agents for MRI. Theory shows that relaxivity is highly dependent upon the Gd(3+)-water proton distance (rGdH), and yet this distance is almost never considered as a variable in assessing the relaxivity of a Gd(3+) chelate as a potential contrast agent. The consequence of this omission can be seen when considering the relaxivity of isomeric Gd(3+) chelates that exhibit different dissociative water exchange kinetics. The results described herein show that the relaxivity of a chelate with "optimal" dissociative water exchange kinetics is actually lower than that of an isomeric chelate with "suboptimal" dissociative water exchange. When the rate of molecular tumbling of these chelates is slowed, an approach that has long been understood to increase relaxivity, the observed difference in relaxivity is increased with the more rapidly exchanging ("optimal") chelate exhibiting lower relaxivity than the "suboptimally" exchanging isomer. The difference between the chelates arises from a non-field-dependent parameter: either the hydration number (q) or rGdH. For solution state Gd(3+) chelates, changes in the values of q and rGdH are indistinguishable. These parametric expressions simply describe the hydration state of the chelate--i.e., the number and position of closely associating water molecules. The hydration state (q/rGdH(6)) of a chelate is intrinsically linked to its dissociative water exchange rate kex, and the interrelation of these parameters must be considered when examining the relaxivity of Gd(3+) chelates. The data presented herein indicate that the changes in the hydration parameter (q/rGdH(6)) associated with changing dissociative

  2. Incorporation of rare-earth ions in Mg-Al layered double hydroxides: intercalation with an [Eu(EDTA)] - chelate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cang; Wang, Ge; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-12-01

    Reaction of an aqueous slurry of an Mg 2Al-NO 3 layered double hydroxide with a four-fold excess of Na[Eu(EDTA)] gives a material which analyses for Mg 0.68Al 0.32(OH) 2[Eu(EDTA)] 0.10(CO 3) 0.11·0.66H 2O. The interlayer spacing of the material is 13.8 Å, corresponding to a gallery height of 9.0 Å, which accords with the maximal dimensions (9-10 Å) of the anion in metal-EDTA complex salts as determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Geometrical considerations show that the charge density on the layered double hydroxide layers is too high to be balanced by intercalation of [Eu(EDTA)] - alone, necessitating the co-intercalation of carbonate ions which have a much higher charge density.

  3. Modelling chelate-Induced phytoextraction: functional models predicting bioavailability of metals in soil, metal uptake and shoot biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualina Sacco

    Full Text Available Chelate-induced phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils requires special care to determine, a priori, the best method of chelate application, in terms of both dose and timing. In fact, the chelate dose must assure the bioavailability of the metal to the plant without increasing leaching risk and giving toxic effects. Three mathematical models are here proposed for usefully interpreting the processes taking place: a increased soil bioavailability of metals by chelants; b metal uptake by plants; c variation in plant biomass. The models are implemented and validated using data from pot and lysimeter trials. Both the chelate dose and the time elapsed since its application affected metal bioavailability and plant response. Contrariwise, the distribution strategy (single vs. split application seems to produce significant differences both in plant growth and metal uptake, but not in soil metal bioavailability. The proposed models may help to understand and predict the chelate dose – effect relationship with less experimental work.

  4. Modelling chelate-Induced phytoextraction: functional models predicting bioavailability of metals in soil, metal uptake and shoot biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualina Sacco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chelate-induced phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils requires special care to determine, a priori, the best method of chelate application, in terms of both dose and timing. In fact, the chelate dose must assure the bioavailability of the metal to the plant without increasing leaching risk and giving toxic effects. Three mathematical models are here proposed for usefully interpreting the processes taking place: a increased soil bioavailability of metals by chelants; b metal uptake by plants; c variation in plant biomass. The models are implemented and validated using data from pot and lysimeter trials. Both the chelate dose and the time elapsed since its application affected metal bioavailability and plant response. Contrariwise, the distribution strategy (single vs. split application seems to produce significant differences both in plant growth and metal uptake, but not in soil metal bioavailability. The proposed models may help to understand and predict the chelate dose – effect relationship with less experimental work.

  5. Thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of a zirconium chelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, H.O.; Ekman, M.F.; Souza, R.F.; Costa, V.H.; Dick, Y.P.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical preparation, composition and characteristics of a zirconium complex with hemateine was studied. Hematein is the common name of an organic compound containing hydroxy-aromatic and hydroxyquinonic groups. The stability constant of this complex was determined spectrophotometrically. Other thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation were also determined; the effect of temperature on these parameters was examined. Reaction kinetics was investigated, as well as the charge of reacting species for the formation of the activated complex. (C.L.B.) [pt

  6. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  7. Isolation and Utilization of Corn Cobs Hemisellulose as Chelating Agent for Lead Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchlisyam; Harahap, U; Silalahi, J.; Zul Alfian

    2013-01-01

    Corn cobs is an agricultural byproduct containing polysaccharide composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Hemicelluloses has a hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups which can be used as chelating agent for metal ions. The purpose of this study was to isolate and evaluate corncobs hemicelluloses as a chelating agent toward lead ion. Graphite furnace spectrophotometry at 283.3 nm was used to determine the residual lead ion in solution. The research's result showed that the highest yield of hemicelluloses (12.04 %) was obtained from delignication with 0,03 M NaOH in 60 % ethanol and 3 % H 2 O 2 , hemicelluloses isolation with 500 ml of 0.2 M NaOH, and precipitation with 1:4 ratio of 10 % acetic acid in 95 % ethanol. The 300 mg corn cobs hemicelluloses has chelating effect for 40 mg lead solution at (39.52±0.1350) mg or 98.80 %, that the corn cobs hemicelluloses can be used as a chelating agent for lead. (author)

  8. Isolation and characterization of iron chelators from turmeric (Curcuma longa): selective metal binding by curcuminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Donald J; Surrago, Christine; Fiordalisi, Celia; Chung, Wing Yin; Kowdley, Kris V

    2017-10-01

    Iron overload disorders may be treated by chelation therapy. This study describes a novel method for isolating iron chelators from complex mixtures including plant extracts. We demonstrate the one-step isolation of curcuminoids from turmeric, the medicinal food spice derived from Curcuma longa. The method uses iron-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-agarose, to which curcumin binds rapidly, specifically, and reversibly. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin each bound iron-NTA-agarose with comparable affinities and a stoichiometry near 1. Analyses of binding efficiencies and purity demonstrated that curcuminoids comprise the primary iron binding compounds recovered from a crude turmeric extract. Competition of curcuminoid binding to the iron resin was used to characterize the metal binding site on curcumin and to detect iron binding by added chelators. Curcumin-Iron-NTA-agarose binding was inhibited by other metals with relative potency: (>90% inhibition) Cu 2+  ~ Al 3+  > Zn 2+  ≥ Ca 2+  ~ Mg 2+  ~ Mn 2+ (80% by addition of iron to the media; uptake was completely restored by desferoxamine. Ranking of metals by relative potencies for blocking curcumin uptake agreed with their relative potencies in blocking curcumin binding to iron-NTA-agarose. We conclude that curcumin can selectively bind toxic metals including iron in a physiological setting, and propose inhibition of curcumin binding to iron-NTA-agarose for iron chelator screening.

  9. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added to feed mixture ... The interaction effects of RRO and ZnO did not result to a significant change in ... Therefore, the effects of RRO deteriorated the quality of meat by raising the ...

  10. The effects of Fe-chelate type and PH on substrate grown roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Sonneveld, C.

    2009-01-01

    Substrate grown roses appear to be susceptible to chlorosis, which indicates problems with Fe or Mn uptake and hence yield reduction. In common practice this problem is often treated by the addition of extra Fe-chelate, or the use of Fe-EDDHA instead of Fe-DTPA. In previous tests, it was shown that

  11. Effectiveness of DTPA Chelate on Cd Availability in Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Houshyar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on farmlands is a common practice in most countries. Although the practice may play a positive role in plant performance, the organic amendments introduced may increase the soil heavy metals content. This study was conducted in Arak, Iran, to investigate the effectiveness of DTPA chelate on corn Cd availability in a sewage sludge treated soil. The treatments consisted of sewage sludge (0, 15, and 30 t ha-1 polluted with cadmium applied at 0, 5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1 as well as DTPA applied at 0 and 1.5 mmol kg-1 soil. Corn plants were then grown in the soil in each treatmnent and, on day 60, the physic-chemical characteristics and Cd quantities were measured ion both the corn plants and soil samples. Application of 1.5 m mol of DTPA chelate in soil contaminated with 5 mg Cd led to a significant increase in the soil available Cd content. It was also observed that application of DTPA chelate to soils containing 30 t ha-1 of sewage sludge polluted with 10 mg Cd increased root and shoot Cd concentrations by 17 and 25%, respectively. Results indicated the effectiveness of DTPA chelate in reducing Cd phytoremediation with increasing sewage sludge loading rate. This was evidenced by the lowest phytoremediation effectiveness observed for the treatment with the greatest sewage sludge loading (30 t ha-1 and the lowest cadmium pollution (5 mg Cd.

  12. Production of chelating agents by Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in the presence of thorium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.; Francis, A.J.; Schubert, J.

    1986-01-01

    Chelating agents produced by microorganisms enhance the dissolution of iron increasing the mobility and bioavailability of the metal. Since some similarities exist in the biological behavior of ferric, thorium and uranyl ions, microorganisms resistant to these metals and which grow in their presence may produce sequestering agents of Th and U, and other metals in a manner similar to the complexation of iron by siderophores. The ability of P. aeruginosa to elaborate sequestering agents in medium containing thorium or uranium salts was tested. Uranium has a stronger inhibitory effect on growth of the organism than thorium at similar concentrations. Analyses of the culture media have shown, that relative to the control, and under the experimental conditions used, the microorganisms have produced several new chelating agents for thorium and uranium. Extracts containing these chelating agents have been tested for their decorporation potential. In vitro mouse liver bioassay and in vivo mouse toxicity tests indicate that their efficiency is comparable to DTPA and DFOA and that they are virtually non-toxic to mice. The bacterially produced compounds resemble, but are not identical to the known iron chelating siderophores isolated from microorganisms. Some of their chemical properties are also discussed. (author)

  13. [Enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soil by chelating agents and auxin indole-3-acetic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-min; Dang, Zhi; Chen, Neng-chang; Xu, Sheng-guang; Xie, Zhi-yi

    2007-09-01

    The environmental risk of chelating agents such as EDTA application to the heavy metals polluted soils and the stress on plant roots due to the abrupt increase metals concentration limit the wide commercial use of chelate-induced phytoextraction. Chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were used for enhancing heavy metals uptake from soils by Zea mays L. (corn) in pot experiments. The metals content in plant tissues was quantified using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results showed that the combination of IAA and EDTA increased the biomass by about 40.0% and the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in corn shoots by 27.0%, 26.8%, 27.5% and 32.8% respectively, as compared to those in EDTA treatment. While NTA&IAA treatment increased the biomass by about 29.9% and the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in corn shoots by 31.8%, 27.6%, 17.0% and 26.9% respectively, as compared to those in NTA treatment. These results indicated that corn growth was promoted, and the biomass and the accumulation of heavy metals in plant shoots were increased significantly with the addition of IAA, which probably helps to change the cell membrane properties and the biomass distribution, resulting in the alleviation of the phytotoxicity of metals and the chelating agents.

  14. Spectroscopy, modeling and computation of metal chelate solubility in supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, J.F.; Stadtherr, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project were to gain a fundamental understanding of the solubility and phase behavior of metal chelates in supercritical CO 2 . Extraction with CO 2 is an excellent way to remove organic compounds from soils, sludges and aqueous solutions, and recent research has demonstrated that, together with chelating agents, it is a viable way to remove metals, as well. In this project the authors sought to gain fundamental knowledge that is vital to computing phase behavior, and modeling and designing processes using CO 2 to separate organics and metal compounds from DOE mixed wastes. The overall program was a comprehensive one to measure, model and compute the solubility of metal chelate complexes in supercritical CO 2 and CO 2 /cosolvent mixtures. Through a combination of phase behavior measurements, spectroscopy and the development of a new computational technique, the authors have achieved a completely reliable way to model metal chelate solubility in supercritical CO 2 and CO 2 /co-contaminant mixtures. Thus, they can now design and optimize processes to extract metals from solid matrices using supercritical CO 2 , as an alternative to hazardous organic solvents that create their own environmental problems, even while helping in metals decontamination

  15. Molecular characterization of whey protein hydrolysate fractions with ferrous chelating and enhanced iron solubility capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Ian B; Kelly, Phil M; Murray, Brian A; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brodkorb, Andre

    2015-03-18

    The ferrous (Fe2+) chelating capabilities of WPI hydrolysate fractions produced via cascade membrane filtration were investigated, specifically 1 kDa permeate (P) and 30 kDa retentate (R) fractions. The 1 kDa-P possessed a Fe2+ chelating capability at 1 g L(-1) equivalent to 84.4 μM EDTA (for 30 kDa-R the value was 8.7 μM EDTA). Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the structural characteristics of hydrolysates and molecular interactions with Fe2+. Solid-phase extraction was employed to enrich for chelating activity; the most potent chelating fraction was enriched in histidine and lysine. The solubility of ferrous sulfate solutions (10 mM) over a range of pH values was significantly (Piron solubility was improved by 72% in the presence of the 1 kDa-P fraction following simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) compared to control FeSO4·7H2O solutions.

  16. Modeling the effect of succimer (DMSA; dimercaptosuccinic acid) chelation therapy in patients poisoned by lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Olie, J Daniël N; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister; de Vries, Irma; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    2017-02-01

    Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA) chelation therapy on blood lead concentrations. We integrated a two-compartment kinetic succimer model into an existing PBPK lead model and produced a Chelation Lead Therapy (CLT) model. The accuracy of the model's predictions was assessed by simulating clinical observations in patients poisoned by lead and treated with succimer. The CLT model calculates blood lead concentrations as the sum of the background exposure and the acute or chronic lead poisoning. The latter was due either to ingestion of traditional remedies or occupational exposure to lead-polluted ambient air. The exposure duration was known. The blood lead concentrations predicted by the CLT model were compared to the measured blood lead concentrations. Pre-chelation blood lead concentrations ranged between 99 and 150 μg/dL. The model was able to simulate accurately the blood lead concentrations during and after succimer treatment. The pattern of urine lead excretion was successfully predicted in some patients, while poorly predicted in others. Our model is able to predict blood lead concentrations after succimer therapy, at least, in situations where the duration of lead exposure is known.

  17. Toxicity of copper chelates of azomethines and amino acids for Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barashkov, G.K.; Rukhadze, E.G.; Talyzenkova, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    The authors have attempted to assess the toxicity of copper-containing compounds from the point of view of their interrelationship with the structural characteristics of the chelate compound and the structure of the ligand. The copper chelates of the azomethines tested may be provisionally divided into three types: A - complexes with N-alkly-azomethines; B - complexes with N-aryl-azomethines; C - binuclear complexes. Consideration was also given to chelates with aromatic and heterocyclic amino acids and to heteroligand chelates in which the copper atom coordinates azomethine and an amino acid simultaneously. Toxicity was determined by the method previously described and expressed as a critical concentration (C/sub cr/, mg Cu/liter) and in relative toxicity units (T/sub c/). The compounds investigated were obtained from the interaction between a bidentant ligand of an azomethine or anamino acid and copper acetate in a water-alcohol medium at pH 6-8. Since they are not very soluble in water, true solutions were obtained by using dimethyl sulfoxide.

  18. Subcritical wet air oxidation of organic solvents and chelating agents of the nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachir, Souley

    1999-01-01

    This document deals with the environment control, more specially organic solvents and chelating agents destruction, employed in the nuclear industry. This work details the subcritical wet air oxidation process. Another part of the document deals with the possible coupling between this process and the biodegradation technic in the framework of the sewage sludges treatment. (A.L.B.)

  19. Fluorescence detection of flavonols in HPLC by postcolumn chelation with aluminum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, Peter C H; Van Trijp, J. M P; Buysman, Michel N C P

    1996-01-01

    Flavonols are dietary antioxidants which may prevent coronary heart disease. To be able to study absorption of flavonols in humans, we developed a postcolumn derivatization with aluminum for HPLC with fluorescence detection. Variables governing postcolumn chelation, such as water content, buffer,

  20. Searching for new aluminium chelating agents: a family of hydroxypyrone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Leonardo; Crisponi, Guido; Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Mansoori, Delara; Arca, Massimiliano; Santos, M Amélia; Marques, Sérgio M; Gano, Lurdes; Niclós-Gutíerrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa M; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Attention is devoted to the role of chelating agents in the treatment of aluminium related diseases. In fact, in spite of the efforts that have drastically reduced the occurrence of aluminium dialysis diseases, they so far constitute a cause of great medical concern. The use of chelating agents for iron and aluminium in different clinical applications has found increasing attention in the last thirty years. With the aim of designing new chelators, we synthesized a series of kojic acid derivatives containing two kojic units joined by different linkers. A huge advantage of these molecules is that they are cheap and easy to produce. Previous works on complex formation equilibria of a first group of these ligands with iron and aluminium highlighted extremely good pMe values and gave evidence of the ability to scavenge iron from inside cells. On these bases a second set of bis-kojic ligands, whose linkers between the kojic chelating moieties are differentiated both in terms of type and size, has been designed, synthesized and characterized. The aluminium(III) complex formation equilibria studied by potentiometry, electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), quantum-mechanical calculations and (1)H NMR spectroscopy are here described and discussed, and the structural characterization of one of these new ligands is presented. The in vivo studies show that these new bis-kojic derivatives induce faster clearance from main organs as compared with the monomeric analog. © 2013.

  1. Modeling the effect of succimer (DMSA; dimercaptosuccinic acid) chelation therapy in patients poisoned by lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Olie, J. Daniël N; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister; de Vries, Irma; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    CONTEXT: Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer

  2. Chelating extractants of improved selectivity. Progress report for period November 1, 1977--July 31 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiser, H.

    1978-08-01

    During the current contract period, the high susceptibility of lanthanide chelate stability to steric hindrance was confirmed. The increase in coordination number of lanthanides from lanthanum to ytterbium as evidenced from extraction equilibria serves to increase their separability. 8-Quinolinol immobilized on silica can separate lanthanide ions

  3. Functionalized dithiocarbamate chelating resin for the removal of Co2+ from simulated wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuewei; Fu, Linwei; Wu, Yanyang; Zhao, Huiling; Zhao, Shuangliang; Xu, Shouhong

    2017-12-01

    Industrial wastewater that contains trace amounts of heavy metal ions is often seen in petrochemical industry. While this wastewater can not be directly discharged, it is difficult to treat due to the low concentration of metal ions. Introducing chelating reagents into this wastewater for selective ion adsorption, followed by a mechanical separation process, provides an appealing solution. Toward the success of this technology, the development of effective chelating resins is of key importance. In the present work, a chelating resin containing amino and dithiocarbamate groups was reported for the removal of Co(II) metal ions in trace concentrations from simulated wastewater. By investigating the adsorption performance of the chelating resin at different solution pH values, adsorbent dosages, contact time, initial ion concentrations, and adsorption temperatures, the maximum adsorption capacity of the resin for Co(II) was identified to be 24.89 mg g-1 for a 2 g L-1 adsorbent dosage and a pH value of 5. After four adsorption-desorption cycles, 97% of the adsorption capacity of the resin was maintained. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics were analyzed and discussed as well.

  4. Various types of metal complexes based on chelating {beta}-diketones and their structural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skopenko, Viktor V; Amirkhanov, Vladimir M; Sliva, T Yu [Department of Chemistry, Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University (Ukraine); Vasilchenko, Igor S; Anpilova, E L; Garnovskii, Alexander D [Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Rostov State University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation)

    2004-08-31

    Data on the synthesis and structures of {beta}-diketonates and their N,P-containing structural analogues are generalised and described systematically. The possibility of creating diverse metal complexes with various modes of coordination of typical chelating ligands is discussed.

  5. Various types of metal complexes based on chelating β-diketones and their structural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopenko, Viktor V; Amirkhanov, Vladimir M; Sliva, T Yu; Vasilchenko, Igor S; Anpilova, E L; Garnovskii, Alexander D

    2004-01-01

    Data on the synthesis and structures of β-diketonates and their N,P-containing structural analogues are generalised and described systematically. The possibility of creating diverse metal complexes with various modes of coordination of typical chelating ligands is discussed.

  6. Value of 1.0-M gadolinium chelates: review of preclinical and clinical data on gadobutrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombach, Bernd; Heindel, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Several preclinical and clinical studies with the first commercially available highly concentrated Gd-chelate gadobutrol (1 mol/l) are reviewed. Physicochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacokinetic properties, safety analysis, as well as experimental and clinical efficacy studies are highlighted in comparison with 0.5-M Gd-chelates. The 1-mol gadobutrol has been proven to be safe in an examined dose range from 0.04 up to 0.5 mmol/kg body weight (b.w.). Even in patients with chronic renal impairment, including hemodialysis, gadobutrol can safely be applied at doses up to 0.3 mmol/kg b.w. For contrast-enhanced MRI in the equilibrium phase, efficacy data analysis shows comparable results to other commercially available extracellular Gd-chelates with lower Gd-concentrations (0.5 M). Studies focused on the potential benefit of a tighter bolus, such as brain perfusion imaging using T2*-effects, document the superiority of a highly concentrated Gd contrast agent. For contrast-enhanced MRA, clinical studies are still ongoing; therefore, the ultimate potential of a more compact bolus, using 1-M Gd-chelates, for contrast-enhanced MRI, has still to be analyzed, especially for time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography. (orig.)

  7. Bis-ligated Ti and Zr complexes of chelating N-heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    El-Batta, Amer; Waltman, Andrew W.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we report the synthesis of novel titanium and zirconium complexes ligated by bidentate "salicylaldimine-like" N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). Double addition of the NHC chelate to either TiCl4(thf)2 or ZrCl4 forms bis

  8. C,N-Chelated Organotin(IV) Azides: Synthesis, Structure and Use within the Click Chemistry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švec, P.; Bartoš, K.; Růžičková, Z.; Cuřínová, Petra; Dušek, L.; Turek, J.; de Proft, F.; Růžička, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 7 (2016), s. 5808-5817 ISSN 1144-0546 Grant - others:FWO(BE) 12T6615N Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organotin(IV)azides * click chemistry * chelation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.269, year: 2016

  9. Iron-chelating agents never suppress Fenton reaction but participate in quenching spin-trapped radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linxiang; Abe, Yoshihiro; Kanagawa, Kiyotada; Shoji, Tomoko; Mashino, Tadahiko; Mochizuki, Masataka; Tanaka, Miho; Miyata, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical formation by Fenton reaction in the presence of an iron-chelating agent such as EDTA was traced by two different assay methods; an electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping method with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), and high Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence detection with terephthalic acid (TPA), a fluorescent probe for hydroxyl radicals. From the ESR spin-trapping measurement, it was observed that EDTA seemed to suppress hydroxyl radical formation with the increase of its concentration. On the other hand, hydroxyl radical formation by Fenton reaction was not affected by EDTA monitored by HPLC assay. Similar inconsistent effects of other iron-chelating agents such as nitrylotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid (DTPA), oxalate and citrate were also observed. On the addition of EDTA solution to the reaction mixture 10 min after the Fenton reaction started, when hydroxyl radical formation should have almost ceased but the ESR signal of DMPO-OH radicals could be detected, it was observed that the DMPO-OH· signal disappeared rapidly. With the simultaneous addition of Fe(II) solution and EDTA after the Fenton reaction ceased, the DMPO-OH· signal disappeared more rapidly. The results indicated that these chelating agents should enhance the quenching of [DMPO-OH]· radicals by Fe(II), but they did not suppress Fenton reaction by forming chelates with iron ions

  10. Effects of Fe-chelate and iron oxide nanoparticles on some of the physiological characteristics of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Askary

    2018-06-01

    , reactive oxygen species (ROS content increases more than the normal condition. ROS are highly reactive and toxic and damages cell membranes. Therefore, the concentration of ROS in cell must be controlled. In such conditions, plants develop a high efficient antioxidant defense system to increase tolerance to different stress factors. Overexpression of ROS scavenging enzymes like SOD, CAT, and GPOX resulted in abiotic stress tolerance in various crop plants due to efficient ROS scavenging capacity. It has been reported that proline act as an osmolyte, a metal chelator, ROS scavenger/an antioxidative, membrane stabilizer, and a signaling molecule Thus, the proline content is a good marker for screening tolerant varieties under stress condition  In this study , There was no statistical difference between different levels of Fe2O3 nanoparticles and Fe-EDTA based on values of proline and antioxidants activity, because stress conditions are not created in levels of Fe2O3 nanoparticles and Fe-EDTA. Conclusions Therefore, the suitable type of iron-fertilizer for alfalfa is iron nano-fertilizer and the concentration of 25μM Fe2O3 nanoparticles is the optimum value.

  11. Chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated polyethyleneimine for selective solid-phase extraction of trace elements: Effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine and its carboxymethylation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Kajiwara, Takehiro; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Kamichatani, Waka; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2016-01-15

    The effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine (PEI), defined as a compound having two or more ethyleneamine units, and of its carboxymethylation rate (CM/N), represented by the ratio of ion-exchange capacity to the amount of N on the resin, on the selective solid-phase extraction ability of the chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated (CM) PEI was investigated. The chelating resins (24 types) were prepared by immobilization of diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine, pentaethylenehexamine, PEI300 (MW=ca. 300), and PEI600 (MW=ca. 600) on methacrylate resins, followed by carboxymethylation with various amounts of sodium monochloroacetate. When resins with approximately the same CM/N ratio (0.242-0.271) were used, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn, and alkaline earth elements increased with increasing the molecular weight of PEIs under acidic and weakly acidic conditions; however, the extraction behavior of Mo and V was only slightly affected. This was probably due to the increase in N content of the resin, resulting in an increase in carboxylic acid groups; the difference in the molecular weight of PEIs immobilized on the resin exerts an insignificant influence on the selective extraction ability. The CM/N ratio considerably affected the extraction behavior for various elements. Under acidic and neutral conditions, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn increased with increasing CM/N values. However, under these conditions, the recovery of alkaline earth elements was considerably low when a resin with low CM/N ratio was used. This is presumably attributed to the different stability constants of the complexes of these elements with aminocarboxylic acids and amines, and to the electrostatic repulsion between the elements and the protonated amino groups in the CM-PEI. The recovery of Mo and V decreased or varied with increasing CM/N values, suggesting that the extraction of these elements occurred mainly

  12. Zn availability in nutrient solutions for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) in hydroponics as affected by Fe-chelates and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Sonneveld, C.

    2017-01-01

    In soil-less culture systems Fe is usually supplied as chelate to ensure an adequate availability of this element. As chelates have affinity for many metal ions these chelates will interact with other cation nutrients in nutrient solutions. This affects the availability of Fe and other nutrients.

  13. Chelation technology: a promising green approach for resource management and waste minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

    2015-01-01

    Green chemical engineering recognises the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals, new greener approaches need to be adopted for the extraction of heavy metals from industrial waste. In this review, a range of conventional processes and new green approaches employed for metal extraction are discussed in brief. Chelation technology, a modern research trend, has shown its potential to develop sustainable technology for metal extraction from various metal-contaminated sites. However, the interaction mechanism of ligands with metals and the ecotoxicological risk associated with the increased bioavailability of heavy metals due to the formation of metal-chelant complexes is still not sufficiently explicated in the literature. Therefore, a need was felt to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of all aspects associated with chelation technology to promote this process as a green chemical engineering approach. This article elucidates the mechanism and thermodynamics associated with metal-ligand complexation in order to have a better understanding of the metal extraction process. The effects of various process parameters on the formation and stability of complexes have been elaborately discussed with respect to optimizing the chelation efficiency. The non-biodegradable attribute of ligands is another important aspect which is currently of concern. Therefore, biotechnological approaches and computational tools have been assessed in this review to illustrate the possibility of ligand degradation, which will help the readers to look for new environmentally safe mobilizing agents. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of chelation technology have been summarized and the diverse applicability of chelation technology in metal extraction from

  14. Zn2+ chelation by serum albumin improves hexameric Zn2+-insulin dissociation into monomers after exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A G Pertusa

    Full Text Available β-cells release hexameric Zn2+-insulin into the extracellular space, but monomeric Zn2+-free insulin appears to be the only biologically active form. The mechanisms implicated in dissociation of the hexamer remain unclear, but they seem to be Zn2+ concentration-dependent. In this study, we investigate the influence of albumin binding to Zn2+ on Zn2+-insulin dissociation into Zn2+-free insulin and its physiological, methodological and therapeutic relevance. Glucose and K+-induced insulin release were analyzed in isolated mouse islets by static incubation and perifusion experiments in the presence and absence of albumin and Zn2+ chelators. Insulin tolerance tests were performed in rats using different insulin solutions with and without Zn2+ and/or albumin. Albumin-free buffer does not alter quantification by RIA of Zn2+-free insulin but strongly affects RIA measurements of Zn2+-insulin. In contrast, accurate determination of Zn2+-insulin was obtained only when bovine serum albumin or Zn2+ chelators were present in the assay buffer solution. Albumin and Zn2+ chelators do not modify insulin release but do affect insulin determination. Preincubation with albumin or Zn2+ chelators promotes the conversion of "slow" Zn2+-insulin into "fast" insulin. Consequently, insulin diffusion from large islets is ameliorated in the presence of Zn2+ chelators. These observations support the notion that the Zn2+-binding properties of albumin improve the dissociation of Zn2+-insulin into subunits after exocytosis, which may be useful in insulin determination, insulin pharmacokinetic assays and islet transplantation.

  15. Photophysical investigation of energy transfer luminescence of lanthanide chelates with aromatic polyaminocarboxylate ligands in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Takashi; Yotsuyanagi, Takao

    1995-01-01

    Some photophysical data including emission lifetimes (τ), total emission quantum yields (Φ), and ligand phosphorescence data are reported for the energy-transfer luminescence of the Eu(III) chelate of Quin 2 and the Tb(III) chelate of BAPTA: Quin 2 means 2-[(2-amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-aminoquinoline-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid; BAPTA means 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. The energy diagrams for the ligand T 1 and the metal-center f-f levels are proposed. The τ values of Tb(III)-BAPTA chelates are 1.73 ms in H 2 O and 3.44 ms in D 2 O. The Eu(III)-Quin 2 chelate system shows a bi-exponential decay of emission; τ=0.048 and 0.20 ms in H 2 O and 0.066 and 1.44 ms in D 2 O. The Quin 2 chelate is kinetically inert, so that the interchange of these two conformer structures are very slow at room temperature. The number of water molecules in the primary coordination sphere is calculated from the lifetime data to be 1.9-2.4 for Eu-Quin 2 and 0.5 for Tb-BAPTA. The Φ values in aqueous solutions are rather small in these systems; 0.009 for Tb-BAPTA and 0.0023 for Eu-Quin 2, but these are enough counterbalanced by the large molar absorptivities giving the great sensitization factors for the ions; the sensitization factors against each aqua ion are 1380 for Eu-Quin 2 and 1600 for Tb-BAPTA. (author)

  16. Thermodynamic stability and relaxation studies of small, triaza-macrocyclic Mn(II) chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Arsénio; Bonnet, Célia S; Geraldes, Carlos F G C; Tóth, Éva; Ferreira, Paula M T; André, João P

    2013-04-07

    Due to its favorable relaxometric properties, Mn(2+) is an appealing metal ion for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of three new triazadicarboxylate-type ligands and their Mn(2+) chelates (NODAHep, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetate-7-heptanil; NODABA, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetate-7-benzoic acid; and NODAHA, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetate-7-hexanoic acid). The protonation constants of the ligands and the stability constants of the chelates formed with Mn(2+) and the endogenous Zn(2+) ion have been determined by potentiometry. In overall, the thermodynamic stability of the chelates is lower than that of the corresponding NOTA analogues (NOTA = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetate), consistent with the decreased number of coordinating carboxylate groups. Variable temperature (1)H NMRD and (17)O NMR measurements have been performed on the paramagnetic chelates to provide information on the water exchange rates and the rotational dynamics. The values of the (17)O chemical shifts are consistent with the presence of one water molecule in the first coordination sphere of Mn(2+). The three complexes are in the slow to intermediate regime for the water exchange rate, and they all display relatively high rotational correlation times, which explain the relaxivity values between 4.7 and 5.8 mM(-1) s(-1) (20 MHz and 298 K). These relaxivities are higher than expected for Mn(2+) chelates of such size and comparable to those of small monohydrated Gd(3+) complexes. The amphiphilic [Mn(NODAHep)] forms micelles above 22 mM (its critical micellar concentration was determined by relaxometry and fluorescence), and interacts with HSA via its alkylic carbon chain providing a 60% relaxivity increase at 20 MHz due to a longer tumbling time.

  17. Characterization of amorphous yttria layers deposited by aqueous solutions of Y-chelate alkoxides complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Soon; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kim, Byeong-Joo; Lee, Jae-Hun; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Hunju

    2015-01-01

    Crack-free amorphous yttria layers were deposited by dip coating in solutions of different Y-chelate alkoxides complex. Three Y-chelate solutions of different concentrations were prepared using yttrium acetate tetrahydrate, yttrium stearic acid as Y source materials. PEG, diethanolamine were used as chelating agents, while ethanol, methanol and tetradecane were used as solvent. Three different combinations of chelating and solvents were used to prepare solutions for Y2O3 dip coating on SUS, electropolished and non-electropolished Hastelloy C-276 substrates. The thickness of the films was varied by changing the number of dipping cycles. At an optimized condition, the substrate surface roughness (rms) value was reduced from ∼50 nm to ∼1 nm over a 10 × 10 μm2 area. After Y2O3 deposition, MgO was deposited using ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD), then LaMnO3 (LMO) was deposited using sputtering and GdBCO was deposited using reactive co-evaporation by deposition and reaction (RCE-DR). Detailed X-ray study indicates that LMO/MgO/Y2O3 and GdBCO/LMO/MgO/Y2O3 stack films have good out-of-plane and in-plane textures with strong c-axis alignment. The critical current (Ic) of GdBCO/LMO/MgO/Y2O3 multilayer structure varied from 190 to 420 A/cm with different solutions, when measured at 77 K. These results demonstrated that amorphous yttria can be easily deposited by dip coating using Y-chelates complex as a diffusion barrier and nucleation layer.

  18. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  19. Efficacy of a novel chelator BPCBG for removing uranium and protecting against uranium-induced renal cell damage in rats and HK-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Yizhong; Wang, Dan [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Zhiming [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Hu, Yuxing; Xu, Aihong [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Quanrui [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shao, Chunlin [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Honghong, E-mail: hhchen@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Chelation therapy is a known effective method to increase the excretion of U(VI) from the body. Until now, no any uranium chelator has been approved for emergency medical use worldwide. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of new ligand BPCBG containing two catechol groups and two aminocarboxylic acid groups in decorporation of U(VI) and protection against acute U(VI) nephrotoxicity in rats, and further explored the detoxification mechanism of BPCBG for U(VI)-induced nephrotoxicity in HK-2 cells with comparison to DTPA-CaNa{sub 3}. Chelating agents were administered at various times before or after injections of U(VI) in rats. The U(VI) levels in urine, kidneys and femurs were measured 24 h after U(VI) injections. Histopathological changes in the kidney and serum urea and creatinine and urine protein were examined. After treatment of U(VI)-exposed HK-2 cells with chelating agent, the intracellular U(VI) contents, formation of micronuclei, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed. It was found that prompt, advanced or delayed injections of BPCBG effectively increased 24 h-urinary U(VI) excretion and decreased the levels of U(VI) in kidney and bone. Meanwhile, BPCBG injection obviously reduced the severity of the U(VI)-induced histological alterations in the kidney, which was in parallel with the amelioration noted in serum indicators, urea and creatinine, and urine protein of U(VI) nephrotoxicity. In U(VI)-exposed HK-2 cells, immediate and delayed treatment with BPCBG significantly decreased the formation of micronuclei and LDH release by inhibiting the cellular U(VI) intake, promoting the intracellular U(VI) release and inhibiting the production of intracellular ROS. Our data suggest that BPCBG is a novel bi-functional U(VI) decorporation agent with a better efficacy than DTPA-CaNa{sub 3}. - Highlights: ► BPCBG accelerated the urine U(VI) excretion and reduced the tissues U(VI) in rats.

  20. Mission to Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  1. Mission to Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of hydroxamamide-based tetradentate ligands as a new class of thiol-free chelating molecules for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L C; Nakayama, M; Harada, K; Nakayama, H; Tomiguchi, S; Kojima, A; Takahashi, M; Arano, Y

    1998-04-01

    Both N,N'-ethylene bis(benzohydroxamamide) [(C2(BHam)2)] and N,N'-propylene bis(benzohydroxamamide) [(C3(BHam)2)] were designed as new thiol-free chelating molecules for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals. Synthetic procedures using oxadiazoline intermediates were developed for C2(BHam)2 and C3(BHam)2. Both C2(BHam)2 and C3(BHam)2 formed 99mTc complexes with high yields over a wide pH range (pH 3-12) at room temperature. Complexation yields of over 95% were achieved at ligand concentrations as low as 2.5 x 10(-6) M. Reversed-phase HPLC analyses indicated that both C2(BHam)2 and C3(BHam)2 formed 99mTc complexes as single species with stabilities much higher than those of 99mTc-BHam. Selective complex formation of 99mTc with the two ligands was observed in the presence of human IgG. No decomposition with low protein binding were demonstrated when the two 99mTc complexes were incubated in murine plasma. Although further structural studies are required, these findings implied that the Ham-based tetradentate ligands would serve as new chelating molecules for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of hydroxamamide-based tetradentate ligands as a new class of thiol-free chelating molecules for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lecun; Nakayama, Morio; Harada, Kumiko; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Kojima, Akihiro; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Arano, Yasushi

    1998-01-01

    Both N,N'-ethylene bis(benzohydroxamamide) [(C 2 (BHam) 2 )] and N,N'-propylene bis(benzohydroxamamide) [(C 3 (BHam) 2 )] were designed as new thiol-free chelating molecules for 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals. Synthetic procedures using oxadiazoline intermediates were developed for C 2 (BHam) 2 and C 3 (BHam) 2 . Both C 2 (BHam) 2 and C 3 (BHam) 2 formed 99m Tc complexes with high yields over a wide pH range (pH 3-12) at room temperature. Complexation yields of over 95% were achieved at ligand concentrations as low as 2.5 x 10 -6 M. Reversed-phase HPLC analyses indicated that both C 2 (BHam) 2 and C 3 (BHam) 2 formed 99m Tc complexes as single species with stabilities much higher than those of 99m Tc-BHam. Selective complex formation of 99m Tc with the two ligands was observed in the presence of human IgG. No decomposition with low protein binding were demonstrated when the two 99m Tc complexes were incubated in murine plasma. Although further structural studies are required, these findings implied that the Ham-based tetradentate ligands would serve as new chelating molecules for 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals

  4. Effects of lead and chelators on growth, photosynthetic activity and Pb uptake in Sesbania drummondii grown in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruley, Adam T.; Sharma, Nilesh C.; Sahi, Shivendra V.; Singh, Shree R.; Sajwan, Kenneth S.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of lead (Pb) and chelators, such as EDTA, HEDTA, DTPA, NTA and citric acid, were studied to evaluate the growth potential of Sesbania drummondii in soils contaminated with high concentrations of Pb. S. drummondii seedlings were grown in soil containing 7.5 g Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and 0-10 mmol chelators/kg soil for a period of 2 and 4 weeks and assessed for growth profile (length of root and shoot), chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics (F v /F m and F v /F o ) and Pb accumulations in root and shoot. Growth of plants in the presence of Pb + chelators was significantly higher (P v /F m and F v /F o values of treated seedlings remained unaffected, indicating normal photosynthetic efficiency and strength of plants in the presence of chelators. On application of chelators, while root uptake of Pb increased four-five folds, shoot accumulations increased up to 40-folds as compared to controls (Pb only) depending on the type of chelator used. Shoot accumulations of Pb varied from 0.1 to 0.42% (dry weight) depending on the concentration of chelators used. - Sesbania drummondii tolerates and accumulates high concentrations of Pb

  5. Iron Chelators and Antioxidants Regenerate Neuritic Tree and Nigrostriatal Fibers of MPP+/MPTP-Lesioned Dopaminergic Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabla Aguirre

    Full Text Available Neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD is often preceded by axodendritic tree retraction and loss of neuronal functionality. The presence of non-functional but live neurons opens therapeutic possibilities to recover functionality before clinical symptoms develop. Considering that iron accumulation and oxidative damage are conditions commonly found in PD, we tested the possible neuritogenic effects of iron chelators and antioxidant agents. We used three commercial chelators: DFO, deferiprone and 2.2'-dypyridyl, and three 8-hydroxyquinoline-based iron chelators: M30, 7MH and 7DH, and we evaluated their effects in vitro using a mesencephalic cell culture treated with the Parkinsonian toxin MPP+ and in vivo using the MPTP mouse model. All chelators tested promoted the emergence of new tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive processes, increased axodendritic tree length and protected cells against lipoperoxidation. Chelator treatment resulted in the generation of processes containing the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. The antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dymetylthiourea also enhanced axodendritic tree recovery in vitro, an indication that reducing oxidative tone fosters neuritogenesis in MPP+-damaged neurons. Oral administration to mice of the M30 chelator for 14 days after MPTP treatment resulted in increased TH- and GIRK2-positive nigra cells and nigrostriatal fibers. Our results support a role for oral iron chelators as good candidates for the early treatment of PD, at stages of the disease where there is axodendritic tree retraction without neuronal death.

  6. Using lanthanide chelates and uranyl compounds for diagnostic by fluoroimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Elen G.; Tomiyama, Claudia S.; Kodaira, Claudia A.; Felinto, Maria C.F.C.; Lourenco, Ana V. S.; Brito, Hermi F.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the luminescence of lanthanide ions and UO 2 2+ is related to its peculiar characteristics, e.g. long lifetime and line-like emission bands in the visible, which make these ions unique among the species that are known to luminescence. Recent developments in the field of supramolecular chemistry have allowed the design of ligands capable of encapsulating lanthanide ions, thus forming kinetically inert complexes. By introduction of chromophoric groups in these ligands, an intense luminescence of the ion can be obtained via the 'antenna effect', defined as a light conversion process involving distinct absorbing (ligand) and emitting (metal ion) components. In such a process, the quantities that contribute to the luminescence intensity are the efficiency of the absorption, the efficiency of the ligand-metal energy transfer, and the efficiency of the metal luminescence. Encapsulation of lanthanide ions with suitable ligands may therefore give rise to 'molecular devices' capable to emit strong, long-lived luminescence. Besides the intrinsic interest in their excited state properties, compounds of lanthanide ions, in particular of the Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions, and now UO 2 2+ are important for their potential use as luminescent labels for biological species in fluoroimmunoassays (FIAs). This is most interesting because fluorimetric labeling represents an alternative method to the use of radioactive labels, which has long been the most common way of quantifying immunoreactions. In this article we report information about luminescent materials, which gave a good signal to quantify biological molecules by TR-FIA, DELFIA , DSLFIA, RIA and FRET. (author)

  7. CaNa2EDTA chelation attenuates cell damage in workers exposed to lead--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čabarkapa, A; Borozan, S; Živković, L; Stojanović, S; Milanović-Čabarkapa, M; Bajić, V; Spremo-Potparević, B

    2015-12-05

    Lead induced oxidative cellular damage and long-term persistence of associated adverse effects increases risk of late-onset diseases. CaNa2EDTA chelation is known to remove contaminating metals and to reduce free radical production. The objective was to investigate the impact of chelation therapy on modulation of lead induced cellular damage, restoration of altered enzyme activities and lipid homeostasis in peripheral blood of workers exposed to lead, by comparing the selected biomarkers obtained prior and after five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation intervention. The group of smelting factory workers diagnosed with lead intoxication and current lead exposure 5.8 ± 1.2 years were administered five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation. Elevated baseline activity of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-SOD and CAT as well as depleted thiols and increased protein degradation products-carbonyl groups and nitrites, pointing to Pb induced oxidative damage, were restored toward normal values following the treatment. Lead showed inhibitor potency on both RBC AChE and BChE in exposed workers, and chelation re-established the activity of BChE, while RBC AChE remained unaffected. Also, genotoxic effect of lead detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly decreased after therapy, exhibiting 18.9% DNA damage reduction. Administration of chelation reversed the depressed activity of serum PON 1 and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation detected by the post-chelation reduction of MDA levels. Lactate dehydrogenase LDH1-5 isoenzymes levels showed evident but no significant trend of restoring toward normal control values following chelation. CaNa2EDTA chelation ameliorates the alterations linked with Pb mediated oxidative stress, indicating possible benefits in reducing health risks associated with increased oxidative damage in lead exposed populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Renewable Modified Cellulose Bearing Chelating Schiff Base for Adsorptive Removal of Heavy Metal Ions and Antibacterial Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, R; Ravikumar, L

    2017-07-01

      A novel approach toward chemically modified cellulose bearing active chelating Schiff base with hydroxyl group (Cell-Hy) was synthesized. The modified cellulose was examined for its heavy metal ion uptake potential from aqueous solution. The chemical and structural features of the adsorbent were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), solid state 13C-NMR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) observations. The experimental conditions and adsorption parameters, including pH, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage, temperature, and contact time were optimized for the removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions. Kinetic parameters, equilibrium adsorption capacities, and correlation coefficients for pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were carried out. The data obtained from the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) onto Cell-Hy were subjected to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters have also been evaluated. The antibacterial activity of modified cellulose was tested toward specific bacterial species.

  9. Digital Earth – A sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahavir

    2014-01-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth

  10. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  11. Phytoremediation of metals contaminated dredged sediments: Use of synthetic chelates in metals phytoextraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahut, C.; Geniaut, G.; Lillo, M. P.

    2003-05-01

    (in Times 10 points) The waterways maintenance leads to a large volume of dredged polluted sediments, to be disposed of, every year. As the economic disposal of dredged sediment is a single line along the stream they can behave as a sink of pollutant and a migration in the environment is observed. Chelate-enhanced phytoremediation has been proposed as an effective tool for the extraction of heavy metals from dredged sediment by plants. Lysimeters studies were conducted to study the phytoremediation of sediments with EDTA and lactic acid used as synthetic chelators. EDTA appeared to enhance metal solubility by plant uptake did not increase accordingly. Futhermore EDTA enhance metal leaching which could lead 10 groungwater pollution. To prevent these unwanted side-effects, careful management of phytoremediation and of the use of EDTA seems necessary.

  12. Determination of cadmium in seawater by chelate vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Ma, Guopeng; Duan, Xuchuan; Sun, Jinsheng

    2018-03-01

    A method for the determination of cadmium in seawater by chelate vapor generation (Che-VG) atomic fluorescence spectrometry is described. Several commercially available chelating agents, including ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate (DMDTC), ammonium dibutyl dithiophosphate (DBDTP) and sodium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP), are compared with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) for the Che-VG of cadmium, and results showed that DDTC and DEDTP had very good cadmium signal intensity. The effect of the conditions of Che-VG with DDTC on the intensity of cadmium signal was investigated. Under the optimal conditions, 85 ± 3% Che-VG efficiency is obtained for cadmium. The detection limit (3σ) obtained in the optimal conditions was 0.19 ng ml- 1. The relative standard deviation (RSD, %) for ten replicate determinations at 2 ng ml- 1 Cd was 3.42%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the ultratrace determination of cadmium in seawater samples by the standard addition method.

  13. Fusaric acid induces a notochord malformation in zebrafish via copper chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Emily S; Rakhmankulova, Malika; Kucera, Kaury; de Sena Filho, Jose Guedes; Portero, Carolina E; Narváez-Trujillo, Alexandra; Holley, Scott A; Strobel, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Over a thousand extracts were tested for phenotypic effects in developing zebrafish embryos to identify bioactive molecules produced by endophytic fungi. One extract isolated from Fusarium sp., a widely distributed fungal genus found in soil and often associated with plants, induced an undulated notochord in developing zebrafish embryos. The active compound was isolated and identified as fusaric acid. Previous literature has shown this phenotype to be associated with copper chelation from the active site of lysyl oxidase, but the ability of fusaric acid to bind copper ions has not been well described. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that fusaric acid is a modest copper chelator with a binding constant of 4.4 × 10(5) M(-1). These results shed light on the toxicity of fusaric acid and the potential teratogenic effects of consuming plants infected with Fusarium sp.

  14. The use of dihexyldithiocarbamate in reverse-phase HPLC of metal chelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, S. S.; Bahti, H. H.; Hastiawan, I.; Permanasari, A.

    2018-05-01

    Dialkyldithiocarbamates have long been used as chelating agents in reverse-phase HPLC of transition metals. In the previous study, an alkyl homolog of this type of ligand, namely dihexyldithiocarbamate (DHDTC), was synthesized and characterized. The use of this particular ligand in the revese-phase HPLC of some selected transition metal ions is now reported for the first time. The mobile phase comprising of the flow rate and of the detection, in the separation of the metal chelates of Cd (II), Fe (III), Cu (II), and Co (III), were investigated on a C-18 column. The results showed that dihexylditiocarbamate could be used for separating Cd (II), Fe(III), Cu(II), and Co(III). Therefore, it could be used in simultaneous analysis.

  15. Design and Methodology of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Gervasio A.; Goertz, Christine; Boineau, Robin; Mark, Daniel B.; Rozema, Theodore; Nahin, Richard L.; Drisko, Jeanne A.; Lee, Kerry L.

    2011-01-01

    The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) is an NIH-sponsored, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial clinical trial testing the benefits and risks of 40 infusions of a multi-component Na2EDTA-chelation solution compared with placebo, and of an oral, high-dose multivitamin and mineral supplement. TACT has randomized and will follow 1708 patients for an average of approximately 4 years. The primary endpoint is a composite of all cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, and hospitalization for angina. A 900 patient substudy will examine quality of life outcomes. The trial is designed to have >85% power to detect a 25% relative reduction in the primary endpoint for each treatment factor. Enrollment began in September 2003 and completed in October 2010. PMID:22172430

  16. Heavy Metals, Cardiovascular Disease, and the Unexpected Benefits of Edetate Disodium Chelation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Gervasio A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Mark, Daniel B.; Lee, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence from 2 lines of research previously thought unrelated: the unexpectedly positive results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT), and a body of epidemiological data showing that accumulation of biologically active metals, such as lead and cadmium, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Considering these 2 areas of work together may lead to the identification of new, modifiable risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We examine the history of chelation up through the report of TACT. We then describe work connecting higher metal levels in the body with the future risk of cardiovascular disease. We conclude by presenting a brief overview of a newly planned National Institutes of Health trial, TACT2, in which we will attempt to replicate the findings of TACT and to establish that removal of toxic metal stores from the body is a plausible mechanistic explanation for the benefits of edetate disodium treatment. PMID:27199065

  17. Lanthanide-binding peptides with two pendant aminodiacetate arms: impact of the sequence on chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecka, Agnieszka; Cisnetti, Federico; Lebrun, Colette; Gateau, Christelle; Delangle, Pascale

    2012-03-21

    Lanthanide complexes with a series of hexapeptides-incorporating two unnatural chelating amino acids with aminodiacetate groups, Ada(1) and Ada(2)-have been examined in terms of their speciation, structure, stability and luminescence properties. Whereas Ada(2) acts as a tridentate donor in all cases, Ada(1) may act as a tetradentate donor thanks to the coordination of the amide carbonyl function assisted by the formation of a six-membered chelate ring. The position of the Ada(1) residue in the sequence is demonstrated to be critical for the lanthanide complex speciation and structure. Ada(1) promotes the coordination of the backbone amide function to afford a highly dehydrated Ln complex and an S-shape structure of the peptide backbone, only when found in position 2.

  18. Mineral evolution and Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2015-01-01

    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  19. The earth's gravitational field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    . But to say that gravity acts downwards is not correct. Gravity acts down, no matter where you stand on the Earth. It is better to say that on Earth gravity pulls objects towards the centre of the Earth. So no matter where you are on Earth all objects fall... pull than objects at the poles. In combination, the equatorial bulge and the effects of centrifugal force mean that sea-level gravitational acceleration increases from about 9.780 m/s² at the equator to about 9.832 m/s² at the poles, so an object...

  20. Geomagnetic field of earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Delipetrev, Blagoj; Panovska, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    In this paper is introduced the theory of geomagnetic field of the Earth. A homogenous and isotropic sphere is taken for a model of Earth with a bar magnet at its center as a magnetic potential. The understanding of the real origin of geomagnetic field produced from differential rotation of inner core with respect to the outer core of Earth is here presented. Special attention is given to the latest observed data of the established net of geomagnetic repeat stations in the Republic of Macedonia. Finally, the maps of elements of geomagnetic field and the equation for calculation of normal magnetic field of Earth are provided. (Author)

  1. Rare earth octacyanomolybdates(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubritskaya, D.I.; Sergeeva, A.N.; Pisak, Yu.V.

    1980-01-01

    Optimal conditions for synthesis of rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) of the Ln 4 [Mo(CN) 8 ] 3 xnH 2 O composition (where Ln is a rare-earth element, other than Pr, Pm, Lu, Tb) have been worked out. The synthesis has been accomplished by neutralization with octacianomolybdic acid with rare-earth carbonates. The composition and structure of the compounds synthesized have been studied by infrared-spectroscopy. It has been established that rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) form three isostructural groups

  2. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Rajdeep Roy. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 6 December 2011 pp 1145-1154. Identification of non-indigenous phytoplankton species dominated bloom off Goa using inverted microscopy and pigment (HPLC) analysis · P V Bhaskar ...

  3. Molecular Docking Assessment of Efficacy of Different Clinically Used Arsenic Chelator Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Durjoy Majumder; Sayan Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of ground water has become a global problem affecting specially, south-east Asian countries like Bangladesh and eastern parts of India. It also affects South America and some parts of the US. Different organs of the physiological system are affected due to contamination of inorganic arsenic in water. Animal studies with different chelators are not very conclusive as far as the multi/differential organ effect(s) of arsenic is concerned. Our docking study establishes the m...

  4. Chelation in metal intoxication. VIII. Removal of chromium from organs of potassium chromate administered rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behari, J R; Tandon, S K

    1980-03-01

    Some polyaminocarboxylic acids were examined for their ability to mobilize chromium from certain vital organs, their subcellular fractions, and blood cells of potassium chromate administered rats. Hexamethylene 1,6-diamino tetraacetic acid (TDTA), triethylene tetramine hexaacetic acid (TTHA), and ethylene diamine di (O-hydroxylphenyl acetic acid) (EDDHA) may be useful in preventing or reducing chromate toxicity. No definite relationship could be observed between the structure of the chelating agents and their chromium-removing capacity.

  5. Curcumin Inhibits Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through Iron Chelation ▿ ††

    OpenAIRE

    Minear, Steven; O'Donnell, Allyson F.; Ballew, Anna; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S.

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from turmeric, is an ancient therapeutic used in India for centuries to treat a wide array of ailments. Interest in curcumin has increased recently, with ongoing clinical trials exploring curcumin as an anticancer therapy and as a protectant against neurodegenerative diseases. In vitro, curcumin chelates metal ions. However, although diverse physiological effects have been documented for this compound, curcumin's mechanism of action on mammalian cells remains un...

  6. Lutetium-177 and iodine-131 loaded chelating polymer microparticles intended for radioembolization of liver malignancies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Martin; Škodová, Michaela; Macková, Hana; Skopal, Jan; Tomeš, Marek; Kropáček, Martin; Zimová, Jana; Kučka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 12 (2011), s. 1155-1159 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/10/P054; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : macroporous chelating beads * radioembolization * quinoline-8-ol Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.479, year: 2011

  7. Salivary proline-rich protein may reduce tannin-iron chelation: a systematic narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Delimont, Nicole M.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Haub, Mark D.; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tannins are often cited for antinutritional effects, including chelation of non-heme iron. Despite this, studies exploring non-heme iron bioavailability inhibition with long-term consumption have reported mixed results. Salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) may mediate tannin-antinutritional effects on non-heme iron bioavailability. Aim To review evidence regarding biochemical binding mechanisms and affinity states between PRPs and tannins, as well as effects of PRPs on non-heme ir...

  8. Chelating polymeric beads as potential therapeutics for Wilson’s disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mattová, J.; Poučková, P.; Kučka, Jan; Škodová, Michaela; Vetrík, Miroslav; Štěpánek, Petr; Urbánek, P.; Petřík, M.; Nový, Z.; Hrubý, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1 October (2014), s. 1-7 ISSN 0928-0987 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/12/0950; GA ČR GA13-08336S; GA MPO FR-TI4/625 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Wilson’s disease * polymer beads * chelators Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.350, year: 2014

  9. Switch from antagonist to agonist after addition of a DOTA chelator to a somatostatin analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Cescato, Renzo; Waser, Beatrice; Erchegyi, Judit; Rivier, Jean E.

    2010-01-01

    Peptide receptor targeting has become an increasingly attractive method to target tumors diagnostically and radiotherapeutically. Peptides linked to a variety of chelators have been developed for this purpose. They have, however, rarely been tested for their agonistic or antagonistic properties. We report here on a somatostatin antagonist that switched to an agonist upon coupling to a DOTA chelator. Two novel somatostatin analogs, 406-040-15 and its DOTA-coupled counterpart 406-051-20, with and without cold Indium labeling, were tested for their somatostatin receptor subtypes 1-5 (sst 1 -sst 5 ) binding affinity using receptor autoradiography. Moreover, they were tested functionally for their ability to affect sst 2 and sst 3 internalization in vitro in HEK293 cells stably expressing the human sst 2 or sst 3 receptor, using an immunofluorescence microscopy-based internalization assay. All three compounds were characterized as pan-somatostatin analogs having a high affinity for all five sst. In the sst 2 internalization assay, all three compounds showed an identical behavior, namely, a weak agonistic effect complemented by a weak antagonistic effect, compatible with the behavior of a partial agonist. Conversely, in the sst 3 internalization assay, 406-040-15 was a full antagonist whereas its DOTA-coupled counterpart, 406-051-20, with and without Indium labeling, switched to a full agonist. Adding the DOTA chelator to the somatostatin analog 406-040-15 triggers a switch at sst 3 receptor from an antagonist to an agonist. This indicates that potential radioligands for tumor targeting should always be tested functionally before further development, in particular if a chelator is added. (orig.)

  10. Screening of chelating ligands to enhance mercury accumulation from historically mercury-contaminated soils for phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxu; Xia, Jicheng; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-01-15

    Screening of optimal chelating ligands which not only have high capacities to enhance plant uptake of mercury (Hg) from soil but also can decrease bioavailable Hg concentration in soil is necessary to establish a viable chemically-assisted phytoextraction. Therefore, Brassica juncea was exposed to historically Hg-contaminated soil (total Hg, 90 mg kg -1 ) to investigate the efficiency of seven chelating agents [ammonium thiosulphate, sodium thiosulphate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite] at enhancing Hg phytoextraction; the leaching of bioavailable Hg caused by these chelating agents was also investigated. The Hg concentration in control (treated with double-distilled water) plant tissues was below 1 mg kg -1 . The remarkably higher Hg concentration was found in plants receiving ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite treatments. The bioaccumulation factors and translocation factors of ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite treatments were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. The more efficient uptake of Hg by plants upon treatment with ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite compared to the other treatments might be explained by the formation of special Hg-thiosulphate complexes that could be preferentially taken up by the roots and transported in plant tissues. The application of sulfite significantly increased bioavailable Hg concentration in soil compared with that in initial soil and control soil, whereas ammonium thiosulphate significantly decreased bioavailable Hg concentration. The apparent decrease of bioavailable Hg in ammonium thiosulphate-treated soil compared with that in sodium sulfite-treated soil might be attributable to the unstable Hg-thiosulphate complexes formed between thiosulphate and Hg; they could react to produce less bioavailable Hg in the soil. The results of this study indicate that ammonium thiosulphate may be an optimal chelating

  11. Metal-Chelate Immobilization of Lipase onto Polyethylenimine Coated MCM-41 for Apple Flavor Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighi, Armin; Motevalizadeh, Seyed Farshad; Hosseini, Morteza; Ramazani, Ali; Gorgannezhad, Lena; Nadri, Hamid; Deiham, Behnaz; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Shafiee, Abbas; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Khoobi, Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    An enzyme immobilized on a mesoporous silica nanoparticle can serve as a multiple catalyst for the synthesis of industrially useful chemicals. In this work, MCM-41 nanoparticles were coated with polyethylenimine (MCM-41@PEI) and further modified by chelation of divalent metal ions (M = Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , or Pd 2+ ) to produce metal-chelated silica nanoparticles (MCM-41@PEI-M). Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase (TLL) was immobilized onto MCM-41, MCM-41@PEI, and MCM-41@PEI-M by physical adsorption. Maximum immobilization yield and efficiency of 75 ± 3.5 and 65 ± 2.7% were obtained for MCM@PEI-Co, respectively. The highest biocatalytic activity at extremely acidic and basic pH (pH = 3 and 10) values were achieved for MCM-PEI-Co and MCM-PEI-Cu, respectively. Optimum enzymatic activity was observed for MCM-41@PEI-Co at 75 °C, while immobilized lipase on the Co-chelated support retained 70% of its initial activity after 14 days of storage at room temperature. Due to its efficient catalytic performance, MCM-41@PEI-Co was selected for the synthesis of ethyl valerate in the presence of valeric acid and ethanol. The enzymatic esterification yield for immobilized lipase onto MCM-41@PEI-Co was 60 and 53%, respectively, after 24 h of incubation in n-hexane and dimethyl sulfoxide media. Graphical Abstract Divalent metal chelated polyethylenimine coated MCM-41 (MCM-41@PEI-M) was used for immobilization of Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase catalyzing green apple flavor preparation.

  12. Bioinspired Interfacial Chelating-like Reinforcement Strategy toward Mechanically Enhanced Lamellar Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Zhang, Shuhao; Li, Anran; Tang, Xuke; Li, Lidong; Guo, Lin

    2018-05-22

    Many biological organisms usually derived from the ordered assembly of heterogeneous, hierarchical inorganic/organic constituents exhibit outstanding mechanical integration, but have proven to be difficult to produce the combination of excellent mechanical properties, such as strength, toughness, and light weight, by merely mimicking their component and structural characteristics. Herein, inspired by biologically strong chelating interactions of phytic acid (PA) or IP6 in many biomaterials, we present a biologically interfacial chelating-like reinforcement (BICR) strategy for fabrication of a highly dense ordered "brick-and-mortar" microstructure by incorporating tiny amounts of a natural chelating agent ( e. g., PA) into the interface or the interlamination of a material ( e. g., graphene oxide (GO)), which shows joint improvement in hardness (∼41.0%), strength (∼124.1%), maximum Young's modulus (∼134.7%), and toughness (∼118.5%) in the natural environment. Besides, for different composite matrix systems and artificial chelating agents, the BICR strategy has been proven successful for greatly enhancing their mechanical properties, which is superior to many previous reinforcing approaches. This point can be mainly attributed to the stronger noncovalent cross-linking interactions such as dense hydrogen bonds between the richer phosphate (hydroxyl) groups on its cyclohexanehexol ring and active sites of GO, giving rise to the larger energy dissipation at its hybrid interfaces. It is also simple and environmentally friendly for further scale-up fabrication and can be readily extended to other material systems, which opens an advanced reinforcement route to construct structural materials with high mechanical performance in an efficient way for practical applications.

  13. Phosphinic acid functionalized polyazacycloalkane chelators for radiodiagnostics and radiotherapeutics: unique characteristics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notni, Johannes; Šimeček, Jakub; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Given the wide application of positron emission tomography (PET), positron-emitting metal radionuclides have received much attention recently. Of these, gallium-68 has become particularly popular, as it is the only PET nuclide commercially available from radionuclide generators, therefore allowing local production of PET radiotracers independent of an on-site cyclotron. Hence, interest in optimized bifunctional chelators for the elaboration of (68) Ga-labeled bioconjugates has been rekindled as well, resulting in the development of improved triazacyclononane-triphosphinate (TRAP) ligand structures. The most remarkable features of these ligands are unparalleled selectivity for Ga(III) , rapid Ga(III) complexation kinetics, extraordinarily high thermodynamic stability, and kinetic inertness of the respective Ga(III) chelates. As a result, TRAP chelators exhibit very favorable (68) Ga-labeling properties. Based on the scaffolds NOPO (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-bis[methylene(hydroxymethyl)phosphinic acid]-7-[methylene(2-carboxyethyl)phosphinic acid]) and TRAP-Pr, tailored for convenient preparation of (68) Ga-labeled monomeric and multimeric bioconjugates, a variety of novel (68) Ga radiopharmaceuticals have been synthesized. These include bisphosphonates, somatostatin receptor ligands, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting peptides, and cyclic RGD pentapeptides, for in vivo PET imaging of bone, neuroendocrine tumors, prostate cancer, and integrin expression, respectively. Furthermore, TRAP-based (68) Ga-labeled gadolinium(III) complexes have been proposed as bimodal probes for PET/MRI, and a cyclen-based analogue of TRAP-Pr has been suggested for the elaboration of targeted radiotherapeutics comprising radiolanthanide ions. Thus, polyazacycloalkane-based polyphosphinic acid chelators are a powerful toolbox for pharmaceutical research, particularly for the development of (68) Ga radiopharmaceuticals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  15. DFT study of the interaction between DOTA chelator and competitive alkali metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, E; Skelton, A A; Honarparvar, B

    2017-09-01

    1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetracetic acid (DOTA) is an important chelator for radiolabeling of pharmaceuticals. The ability of alkali metals found in the body to complex with DOTA and compete with radio metal ions can alter the radiolabeling process. Non-covalent interactions between DOTA complexed with alkali metals Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + , are investigated with density functional theory using B3LYP and ωB97XD functionals. Conformational possibilities of DOTA were explored with a varying number of carboxylic pendant arms of DOTA in close proximity to the ions. It is found that the case in which four arms of DOTA are interacting with ions is more stable than other conformations. The objective of this study is to explore the electronic structure properties upon complexation of alkali metals Li + Na + , K + and Rb + with a DOTA chelator. Interaction energies, relaxation energies, entropies, Gibbs free energies and enthalpies show that the stability of DOTA, complexed with alkali metals decreases down the group of the periodic table. Implicit water solvation affects the complexation of DOTA-ions leading to decreases in the stability of the complexes. NBO analysis through the natural population charges and the second order perturbation theory, revealed a charge transfer between DOTA and alkali metals. Conceptual DFT-based properties such as HOMO/LUMO energies, ΔE HOMO-LUMO and chemical hardness and softness indicated a decrease in the chemical stability of DOTA-alkali metal complexes down the alkali metal series. This study serves as a guide to researchers in the field of organometallic chelators, particularly, radiopharmaceuticals in finding the efficient optimal match between chelators and various metal ions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preclinical evaluation of somatostatin analogs bearing two macrocyclic chelators for high specific activity labeling with radiometals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, D.; Schmitt, J.S.; Waldherr, C.; Maecke, H.R.; Waser, B.; Reubi, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Radiometallated analogues of the regulatory peptide somatostatin are of interest in the in vivo localization and targeted radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor-overexpressing tumors. An important aspect of their use in vivo is a fast and efficient labeling (complexation) protocol for radiometals along with a high specific activity. We describe in this manuscript synthetic methods for the coupling of two chelators (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid = DOTA) to the bioactive peptide [Tyr 3 ,Thr 8 ]-octreotide (TATE) in order to increase the specific activity (radioactivity in Bq per mole peptide). The full chelator-linker-peptide conjugate was assembled on solid support using standard Fmoc chemistry. Two DOTA-chelators were linked to the peptide using lysine or N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)-glycine (Apg); in addition, pentasarcosine (Sar 5 ) was used as a spacer between the chelators and the peptide to probe its influence on biology and pharmacology. Complexation rates with In 3+ and Y 3+ salts and the corresponding radiometals were high, the bis-DOTA-derivatives showed higher complexation rates and gave higher specific activity than DOTA-TATE. Pharmacological and biological data of the complexed molecules did not show significant differences if compared to the parent peptide [ 111/nat In-DOTA]-TATE except for [( 111/nat In-DOTA) 2 -Apg]-TATE which showed a lower binding affinity and rate of internalization into tumor cells. The biodistribution of [( 111/nat In-DOTA)-Lys( 111/nat In-DOTA)]-TATE in the rat tumor model (AR4-2J) showed a high and specific (as shown by a blocking experiment) tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor-positive tissue but a lower tumor uptake compared to [ 111/nat In-DOTA]-TATE. (orig.)

  17. Exploiting the Metal-Chelating Properties of the Drug Cargo for In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Liposomal Nanomedicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmonds, Scott; Volpe, Alessia; Shmeeda, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    of a radiolabeled stealth liposomal nanomedicine containing alendronate that shows high uptake in primary tumors and metastatic organs. The versatility, efficiency, simplicity, and GMP compatibility of this method may enable submicrodosing imaging studies of liposomal nanomedicines containing chelating drugs...

  18. Advantages of gadolinium based ultrasmall nanoparticles vs molecular gadolinium chelates for radiotherapy guided by MRI for glioma treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Le Duc, G.; Roux, S.; Paruta-Tuarez, A.; Dufort, S.; Bräuer, E.; Marais, A.; Truillet, C.; Sancey, L.; Perriat, P.; Lux, F.; Tillement, O.

    2014-01-01

    AGuIX nanoparticles are formed of a polysiloxane network surrounded by gadolinium chelates. They present several characteristics. They are easy to produce, they present very small hydrodynamic diameters (

  19. Comparison of natural organic acids and synthetic chelates at enhancing phytoextraction of metals from a multi-metal contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clistenes do Nascimento, Williams A.; Amarasiriwardena, Dula; Xing, Baoshan

    2006-01-01

    Chemically assisted phytoremediation has been developing to induce accumulation of metals by high biomass plants. Synthetic chelates have shown high effectiveness to reach such a goal, but they pose serious drawbacks in field application due to the excessive amount of metals solubilized. We compared the performance of synthetic chelates with naturally occurring low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) in enhancing phytoextraction of metals by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) from multi-metal contaminated soils. Gallic and citric acids were able to induce removal of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Ni from soil without increasing the leaching risk. Net removal of these metals caused by LMWOA can be as much as synthetic chelates. A major reason for this is the lower phytotoxicity of LMWOA. Furthermore, supplying appropriate mineral nutrients increased biomass and metal removal. - Organic acids can be as efficient as synthetic chelates for use in phytoextraction of multi-metal contaminated soils

  20. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  1. Photo-Curable Metal-Chelating Coatings Offer a Scalable Approach to Production of Antioxidant Active Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuangsheng; Goddard, Julie

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic metal chelators (for example, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) are widely used as additives to control trace transition metal induced oxidation in consumer products. To enable removal of synthetic chelators in response to increasing consumer demand for clean label products, metal-chelating active food packaging technologies have been developed with demonstrated antioxidant efficacy in simulated food systems. However, prior work in fabrication of metal-chelating materials leveraged batch chemical reactions to tether metal-chelating ligands, a process with limited industrial translatability for large-scale fabrication. To improve the industrial translatability, we have designed a 2-step laminated photo-grafting process to introduce metal chelating functionality onto common polymeric packaging materials. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functionalized materials were fabricated by photo-grafting poly(acrylic acid) onto polypropylene (PP) films, followed by a second photo-grafting process to graft-polymerize an IDA functionalized vinyl monomer (GMA-IDA). The photo-grafting was conducted under atmospheric conditions and was completed in 2 min. The resulting IDA functionalized metal-chelating material was able to chelate iron and copper, and showed antioxidant efficacy against ascorbic acid degradation, supporting its potential to be used synergistically with natural antioxidants for preservation of food and beverage products. The 2-step photo-grafting process improves the throughput of active packaging coatings, enabling potential roll-to-roll fabrication of metal-chelating active packaging materials for antioxidant food packaging applications. To address consumer and retail demands for "clean label" foods and beverages without a corresponding loss in product quality and shelf life, producers are seeking next generation technologies such as active packaging. In this work, we will report the synthesis of metal-chelating active packaging films, which enable removal

  2. In Vivo Integrity and Biological Fate of Chelator-Free Zirconium-89-Labeled Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Goel, Shreya; Valdovinos, Hector F; Luo, Haiming; Hernandez, Reinier; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

    2015-08-25

    Traditional chelator-based radio-labeled nanoparticles and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are playing vital roles in the field of nano-oncology. However, their long-term in vivo integrity and potential mismatch of the biodistribution patterns between nanoparticles and radio-isotopes are two major concerns for this approach. Here, we present a chelator-free zirconium-89 ((89)Zr, t1/2 = 78.4 h) labeling of mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) with significantly enhanced in vivo long-term (>20 days) stability. Successful radio-labeling and in vivo stability are demonstrated to be highly dependent on both the concentration and location of deprotonated silanol groups (-Si-O(-)) from two types of silica nanoparticles investigated. This work reports (89)Zr-labeled MSN with a detailed labeling mechanism investigation and long-term stability study. With its attractive radio-stability and the simplicity of chelator-free radio-labeling, (89)Zr-MSN offers a novel, simple, and accurate way for studying the in vivo long-term fate and PET image-guided drug delivery of MSN in the near future.

  3. Combined Therapy of Iron Chelator and Antioxidant Completely Restores Brain Dysfunction Induced by Iron Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Pipatpiboon, Noppamas; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive iron accumulation leads to iron toxicity in the brain; however the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated the effects of iron overload induced by high iron-diet consumption on brain mitochondrial function, brain synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Iron chelator (deferiprone) and antioxidant (n-acetyl cysteine) effects on iron-overload brains were also studied. Methodology Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or high iron-diet consumption for 12 weeks, after which rats in each diet group were treated with vehicle or deferiprone (50 mg/kg) or n-acetyl cysteine (100 mg/kg) or both for another 4 weeks. High iron-diet consumption caused brain iron accumulation, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired brain synaptic plasticity and cognition, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, and brain apoptosis. Although both iron chelator and antioxidant attenuated these deleterious effects, combined therapy provided more robust results. Conclusion In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that combined iron chelator and anti-oxidant therapy completely restored brain function impaired by iron overload. PMID:24400127

  4. Cathodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence of aromatic Tb(III) chelates at polystyrene-graphite composite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Kalle; Grönroos, Päivi; Tuomi, Sami; Kulmala, Sakari

    2017-01-01

    Tb(III) chelates exhibit intense hot electron-induced electrogenerated chemiluminescence during cathodic polarization of metal/polystyrene-graphite (M/PG) electrodes in fully aqueous solutions. The M/PG working electrode provides a sensitive means for the determination of aromatic Tb(III) chelates at nanomolar concentration levels with a linear log-log calibration curve spanning more than five orders of magnitude. The charge transport and other properties of these novel electrodes were studied by electrochemiluminescence measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The present composite electrodes can by utilized both under pulse polarization and DC polarization unlike oxide-coated metal electrodes which do not tolerate cathodic DC polarization. The present cost-effective electrodes could be utilized e.g. in immunoassays where polystyrene is extensively used as a solid phase for various bioaffinity assays by using electrochemiluminescent Tb(III) chelates or e.g. Ru(bpy) 3 2+ as labels. - Highlights: • Generation of hydrated electrons at Polystyrene-graphite electrodes. • The insulating polystyrene layer on the outer electrode surface seems necessary. • Hydrated electrons are able to produce chemiluminescence. • Strongest signal and lowest std. dev. achieved at same graphite weight fraction.

  5. Effects of iron(III)chelates on the solubility of heavy metals in calcareous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylivainio, Kari, E-mail: kari.ylivainio@mtt.f [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-10-15

    In this study I evaluated the effects of complexing agents on the solubility of heavy metals in an incubation experiment up to 56 days when complexing agents were applied as Fe-chelates (Fe-EDDS(S,S), Fe-EDDS(mix), Fe-EDTA and Fe-EDDHA) on calcareous soils at a level sufficient to correct Fe chlorosis (0.1 mmol kg{sup -1}). Of these ligands, EDDHA was the most efficient in keeping Fe in water-soluble form, and EDDS increased the solubility of Cu and Zn most, and only EDTA increased the solubility of Cd and Pb. EDTA increased the solubility of Ni steadily during the incubation period, equalling about 5-8% of the added EDTA concentration. [S,S]-EDDS was biodegraded within 56 days, whereas EDDS(mix) was less biodegradable. Ni-chelates were the most recalcitrant against biodegradation. The study shows that even a moderate input of chelates to soil increases the solubility of toxic heavy metals and their risk of leaching. - When correcting Fe chlorosis Fe-EDDS causes lower environmental concern than Fe-EDTA.

  6. Labeling of antibodies with a 67Ga-phenolic aminocarboxylic acid chelate. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhmacher, J.; Matys, R.; Hauser, H.; Maier-Borst, W.; Matzku, S.

    1986-01-01

    As a chelating agent for labeling antibodies (Abs) with metallic radionuclides, a propionic acid substituted ethylenediamine N, N'-di-[(o-hydroxyphenyl) acetic acid] (P-EDDHA), which tighly complexes 67 Ga, was synthetized. The 67 Ga-P-EDDHA chelate was coupled in aqueous solution to IgG at a molar ratio of 1:1 via carbodiimide. The average coupling yield was 15%. A specific activity of 4 mCi/mg IgG could be obtained with commercially supplied 67 Ga. In vitro stability was evaluated in human serum at 37 0 C and showed a half-life of about 120 h for the release of 67 Ga from the labeled Ab during the initial phase of incubation. This in vitro halflife is similar to that measured for 111 In-DTPA labeled Abs. Because of the high stability of the 67 Ga-P-EDDHA chelate, the in vivo formation of radioactive lebeled transferrin by transchelation, as described for 111 In-DTPA labeled Abs, should, however, be reduced by this labeling technique. (orig.)

  7. Effects of iron(III)chelates on the solubility of heavy metals in calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylivainio, Kari

    2010-01-01

    In this study I evaluated the effects of complexing agents on the solubility of heavy metals in an incubation experiment up to 56 days when complexing agents were applied as Fe-chelates (Fe-EDDS(S,S), Fe-EDDS(mix), Fe-EDTA and Fe-EDDHA) on calcareous soils at a level sufficient to correct Fe chlorosis (0.1 mmol kg -1 ). Of these ligands, EDDHA was the most efficient in keeping Fe in water-soluble form, and EDDS increased the solubility of Cu and Zn most, and only EDTA increased the solubility of Cd and Pb. EDTA increased the solubility of Ni steadily during the incubation period, equalling about 5-8% of the added EDTA concentration. [S,S]-EDDS was biodegraded within 56 days, whereas EDDS(mix) was less biodegradable. Ni-chelates were the most recalcitrant against biodegradation. The study shows that even a moderate input of chelates to soil increases the solubility of toxic heavy metals and their risk of leaching. - When correcting Fe chlorosis Fe-EDDS causes lower environmental concern than Fe-EDTA.

  8. Effects of iron(III)chelates on the solubility of heavy metals in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylivainio, Kari

    2010-10-01

    In this study I evaluated the effects of complexing agents on the solubility of heavy metals in an incubation experiment up to 56 days when complexing agents were applied as Fe-chelates (Fe-EDDS(S,S), Fe-EDDS(mix), Fe-EDTA and Fe-EDDHA) on calcareous soils at a level sufficient to correct Fe chlorosis (0.1 mmol kg(-1)). Of these ligands, EDDHA was the most efficient in keeping Fe in water-soluble form, and EDDS increased the solubility of Cu and Zn most, and only EDTA increased the solubility of Cd and Pb. EDTA increased the solubility of Ni steadily during the incubation period, equalling about 5-8% of the added EDTA concentration. [S,S]-EDDS was biodegraded within 56 days, whereas EDDS(mix) was less biodegradable. Ni-chelates were the most recalcitrant against biodegradation. The study shows that even a moderate input of chelates to soil increases the solubility of toxic heavy metals and their risk of leaching. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potassium fulvate-modified graft copolymer of acrylic acid onto cellulose as efficient chelating polymeric sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Magdy F; Essawy, Hisham A; Ammar, Nabila S; Ibrahim, Hanan S

    2017-01-01

    Acrylic acid (AA) was graft copolymerized from cellulose (Cell) in presence of potassium fulvate (KF) in order to enhance the chemical activity of the resulting chelating polymer and the handling as well. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) proved that KF was efficiently inserted and became a permanent part of the network structure of the sorbent in parallel during the grafting copolymerization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed intact homogeneous structure with uniform surface. This indicates improvement of the handling, however, it was not the case for the graft copolymer of acrylic acid onto cellulose in absence of KF, which is known to be brittle and lacks mechanical integrity. Effective insertion of this co-interpenetrating agent provided more functional groups, such as OH and COOH, which improved the chelating power of the produced sorbent as found for the removal of Cu 2+ ions from its aqueous solutions (the removal efficiency reached ∼98.9%). Different models were used to express the experimental data. The results corroborated conformity of the pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model to the sorption process, which translates into dominance of the chemisorption. Regeneration of the chelating polymers under harsh conditions did not affect the efficiency of copper ions uptake up to three successive cycles. A thermodynamic investigation ensured exothermic nature of the adsorption process that became less favourable at higher temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gd (III) chelates adsorbed on TiO2 nanoparticles - promising MRI contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehor, Ivan; Lukes, Ivan; Peters, Joop A.; Jirak, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The project deals with a new contrast agent (CA) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The CA consists of two main parts - diamagnetic core (TiO 2 nanoparticle) and Gd (III) chelates grafted on its surface. The presence of the nanoparticle core is responsible for significant increase of r1 millimolar relaxivity (which corresponds to the efficiency of the CA) due to the slowing down the rotation of the complex in solution. It also affects the biodistribution characteristics of the CA - the ability to penetrate through cell membranes is well known for nanoparticles, making them useful for cell labeling. The structure of the chelate is derived from DOTA ligand, whose Gd (III) complexes are commercially used as MRI CA in human medicine. The connection of the complex to the surface is realized via penylphosphonate, which is attached to the pendant arm of the ligand. Strong interaction of the phosphonate with the TiO 2 surface results in the full surface coverage. The complexation and MRI properties of Gd chelate were studied and exhibit analogy to the complexes of DOTA, The millimolar relaxivity (r1) of the Gd (III) complex significantly increases upon adsorption on the TiO 2 nanoparticles. PVA was added to the colloidal solutions of CA to stabilize them under biological conditions and such stabilized CA was utilized for MRI visualization of rat pancreatic islets (P1). The labeled islets were detected on MR images as hyperintense area and therefore our CA seems to be promising material for cellular MRI

  11. Direct nanoimprint lithography of Al2O3 using a chelated monomer-based precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Ramakrishnan; Dinachali, Saman Safari; Lim, Su Hui; Saifullah, M S M; He, Chaobin; Low, Hong Yee; Chong, Wee Tit; Lim, Andrew H H; Yong, Jin Jie; Thian, Eng San

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructuring of Al 2 O 3 is predominantly achieved by the anodization of aluminum film and is limited to obtaining porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO). One of the main restrictions in developing approaches for direct fabrication of various types of Al 2 O 3 patterns, such as lines, pillars, holes, etc, is the lack of a processable aluminum-containing resist. In this paper, we demonstrate a stable precursor prepared by reacting aluminum tri-sec-butoxide with 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl acetoacetate, a chelating monomer, which can be used for large area direct nanoimprint lithography of Al 2 O 3 . Chelation in the precursor makes it stable against hydrolysis whilst the presence of a reactive methacrylate group renders it polymerizable. The precursor was mixed with a cross-linker and their in situ thermal free-radical co-polymerization during nanoimprinting rigidly shaped the patterns, trapped the metal atoms, reduced the surface energy and strengthened the structures, thereby giving a ∼100% yield after demolding. The imprinted structures were heat-treated, leading to the loss of organics and their subsequent shrinkage. Amorphous Al 2 O 3 patterns with line-widths as small as 17 nm were obtained. Our process utilizes the advantages of sol–gel and methacrylate routes for imprinting and at the same time alleviates the disadvantages associated with both these methods. With these benefits, the chelating monomer route may be the harbinger of the universal scheme for direct nanoimprinting of metal oxides. (paper)

  12. A Powerful Mitochondria-Targeted Iron Chelator Affords High Photoprotection against Solar Ultraviolet A Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reelfs, Olivier; Abbate, Vincenzo; Hider, Robert C; Pourzand, Charareh

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are the principal destination for labile iron, making these organelles particularly susceptible to oxidative damage on exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA, 320-400 nm), the oxidizing component of sunlight. The labile iron-mediated oxidative damage caused by UVA to mitochondria leads to necrotic cell death via adenosine triphosphate depletion. Therefore, targeted removal of mitochondrial labile iron via highly specific tools from these organelles may be an effective approach to protect the skin cells against the harmful effects of UVA. In this work, we designed a mitochondria-targeted hexadentate (tricatechol-based) iron chelator linked to mitochondria-homing SS-like peptides. The photoprotective potential of this compound against UVA-induced oxidative damage and cell death was evaluated in cultured primary skin fibroblasts. Our results show that this compound provides unprecedented protection against UVA-induced mitochondrial damage, adenosine triphosphate depletion, and the ensuing necrotic cell death in skin fibroblasts, and this effect is fully related to its potent iron-chelating property in the organelle. This mitochondria-targeted iron chelator has therefore promising potential for skin photoprotection against the deleterious effects of the UVA component of sunlight. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and spectroscopic investigations of hydroxyapatite using a green chelating agent as template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Bhuvaneshwari, N.; Indira, J.; Kavitha, L.

    2013-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAP] particles have been successfully synthesized by a cost-effective, eco-friendly green template method using natural and commercially available sucrose as a chelating agent. The sucrose used in this method has been extracted from various sources, three from natural and one from commercially available sources are exploited in our study to achieve a controlled crystallinity, particle size as well as uniform morphology. Spectral characterizations involving Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the functional group analysis of sucrose and HAP; carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) for the identification of the carbon atoms in sucrose and in HAP; liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the determination of the hydrolyzed products of sucrose; and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques for the phase identification of the HAP particles were performed. The morphology of the HAP particles were assessed thoroughly using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The experimental results indicate that the obtained HAP using the natural sucrose as a chelating agent is of phase pure, with a well defined morphology having discrete particles without any agglomeration than the HAP from commercially available sucrose. Further, the reduced particle size can be achieved from the stem sugarcane extract as the source of the chelating agent.

  14. Synthesis and spectroscopic investigations of hydroxyapatite using a green chelating agent as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Bhuvaneshwari, N; Indira, J; Kavitha, L

    2013-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2), HAP] particles have been successfully synthesized by a cost-effective, eco-friendly green template method using natural and commercially available sucrose as a chelating agent. The sucrose used in this method has been extracted from various sources, three from natural and one from commercially available sources are exploited in our study to achieve a controlled crystallinity, particle size as well as uniform morphology. Spectral characterizations involving Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the functional group analysis of sucrose and HAP; carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C NMR) for the identification of the carbon atoms in sucrose and in HAP; liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the determination of the hydrolyzed products of sucrose; and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques for the phase identification of the HAP particles were performed. The morphology of the HAP particles were assessed thoroughly using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The experimental results indicate that the obtained HAP using the natural sucrose as a chelating agent is of phase pure, with a well defined morphology having discrete particles without any agglomeration than the HAP from commercially available sucrose. Further, the reduced particle size can be achieved from the stem sugarcane extract as the source of the chelating agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Soft chelating irrigation protocol optimizes bonding quality of Resilon/Epiphany root fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Namen, Fátima; Galan, João; Zehnder, Matthias

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to test the impact of either a strong (MTAD) or a soft (1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate [HEPB]) chelating solution on the bond strength of Resilon/Epiphany root fillings. Both 17% EDTA and the omission of a chelator in the irrigation protocol were used as reference treatments. Forty extracted human upper lateral incisors were prepared using different irrigation protocols (n = 10): G1: NaOCl, G2: NaOCl + 17% EDTA, G3: NaOCl + BioPure MTAD (Dentsply/Tulsa, Tulsa, OK), and G4: NaOCl + 18% HEPB. The teeth were obturated and then prepared for micropush-out assessment using root slices of 1 mm thickness. Loading was performed on a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons were used to compare the results among the experimental groups. EDTA- and MTAD-treated samples revealed intermediate bond strength (0.3-3.6 MPa). The lowest bond strengths were achieved in NaOCl-treated samples (0.3-1.2 MPa, p < 0.05). The highest bond strength was reached in the HEBP-treated samples (3.1-6.1 MPa, p < 0.05). Under the present in vitro conditions, the soft chelating irrigation protocol (18% HEBP) optimized the bonding quality of Resilon/Epiphany (Resilon Research LLC, Madison, CT) root fillings.

  16. [Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soils Using Sedum alfredii Hance with Biodegradable Chelate GLDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ze-bin; Chen, Xiao-hong; Wu, Qi-tang; Tan, Meng

    2015-05-01

    Chemically enhanced phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator has been proposed as an effective approach to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil. Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of application of the biodegradable chelate GLDA (L glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid) at different doses or the combination of GLDA with EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) or CIT (citric acid) on the uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by Sedum alfredii Hance (a Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator). Experimental results showed that GLDA addition to soil significantly increased the concentrations of Cd and Zn in Sedum alfredii Hance and its Cd and Zn phytoextraction compared to the control. Additionally, GLDA at 2.5 mmol · kg(-1) resulted in the highest phytoextraction, being 2.5 and 2.6 folds of the control for Cd and Zn, respectively. However, the combined application of GLDA + EDTA (1:1) and GLDA + CIT (1 :1 and 1:3) at a total dose of 5 mmol · kg(-1) did not increase the phytoextraction of Zn and Cd, compared to the GLDA only treatment. Therefore, the biodegradable chelate GLDA could be regarded as a good chelate candidate for the phytoextraction of heavy metals of heavy metals from contaminated soils, particularly for Cd and Zn contaminated soils.

  17. Effects of hydroxycinnamic acids on blue color expression of cyanidin derivatives and their metal chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, G T; Robbins, R J; Collins, T M; Giusti, M M

    2017-11-01

    Mechanisms to recreate many anthocyanin blue hues in nature are not fully understood, but interactions with metal ions and phenolic compounds are thought to play important roles. Bluing effects of hydroxycinnamic acids on cyanidin and chelates were investigated by addition of the acids to triglycosylated cyanidin (0-50×[anthocyanin]) and by comparison to hydroxycinnamic acid monoacylated and diacylated Cy fractions by spectrophotometry (380-700nm) and colorimetry in pH 5-8. With no metal ions, λ max and absorbance was greatest for cyanidin with diacylation>monoacylation>increasing [acids]. Hydroxycinnamic acids added to cyanidin solutions weakly impacted color characteristics (ΔEacid attachment) resulted in ΔE 5-15. Triglycosylated cyanidin expressed blue color (pH 7-8), suggesting glycosylation pattern also plays a role. Al 3+ chelation increased absorbance 2-42× and λ max ≳40nm (pH 5-6) compared to added hydroxycinnamic acids. Metal chelation and aromatic diacylation resulted in the most blue hues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. XAS studies of the effectiveness of iron chelating treatments of Mary Rose timbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berko, A; Schofield, E J; Chadwick, A V; Smith, A D; Jones, A M; Mosselmans, J F W

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation of sulfur in marine archaeological timbers under museum storage conditions is a recently identified problem, particularly for major artefacts such as historic ships excavated from the seabed. Recent work on the Vasa has stressed the role of iron in catalysing the oxidative degradation of the wood cellulose and the polyethylene glycols used to restore mechanical integrity to the timbers. In developing new treatment protocols for the long term preservation of Henry VIII of England's flagship, the Mary Rose, we are investigating the potential of chelating agents to neutralise and remove the iron products from the ships timbers. We have explored the use of aqueous solutions of chelating agents of calcium phytate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ammonium citrate to extract the iron compounds. All of these solutions exhibit some level of iron removal; however the key is to find the most effective concentration at pH of around 7 of the reagent solution, to minimise the treatment time and find the most cost-effective treatment for the whole of the Mary Rose hull. Fe K-edge XAFS data from samples of Mary Rose timbers, before and after treatment by the chelating agents mentioned has been collected. The data collected provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of the treatment solutions.

  19. Effect of chelators and nisin produced in situ on inhibition and inactivation of gram negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boziaris, I S; Adams, M R

    1999-12-15

    The ability of chelators and nisin generated in situ to inhibit and inactivate E. coli and other gram negatives in a model substrate was investigated. The effect of various chelators and different concentrations of exogenous nisin on inhibition of E. coli in broth medium showed that only EDTA and pyrophosphates were able to cause appreciable inhibition of E. coli by nisin. In a broth where L. lactis NCFB 497 produced nisin in a concentration of 250-300 IU/ml, pyrophosphates were unable to inactivate E. coli. Under the same conditions, addition of EDTA led to inactivation of E. coli at neutral and slightly acidic pH only. A cocktail of strains of E. coli was less sensitive than E. coli ATCC 25922 alone. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more sensitive and salmonellae more resistant. EDTA also caused a slight reduction in the L. lactis population and its biochemical activity as regards pH drop and acid production. Some of the inhibition of E. coli could be ascribed to the physical presence of Lactococcus cells rather than their metabolites excreted into the medium. Failure to observe any inhibition in fermented broths at their natural pH (4.0) was ascribed to the poor chelating power of EDTA under acid conditions.

  20. Effect of the Alkyl Chain Length on the Adsorption Properties of Malonamide Chelating Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.M.; Nogami, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of the alkyl chain length of malonamide chelating resins on the rate of uptake of U(VI) ions and Ce(III) Ions, lV,N,N',N'-tetraethyl malonamide (TEMA), N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-propyl malonamide (TPrMA), lV,lV,N',N'-tetra-n-butyl malonamide (TBMA) and N,l V,N',N'-tetra-n-pentyl malonamide (Tamp) chelating resins were synthesized by chemically bonding these function groups to CMS-DVB co-polymer beads. N,lV,N',N'-tetraphenyl malonamide (TPhMA) chelating resin was also investigated and the results of these resins were compared with those of N,lY,N',N-tetra methylmalonamide (TMMA) previously reported. The batch technique was used to study the thermodynamic equilibrium, in terms of distribution coefficient, and the kinetics of the adsorption U(VI) and Ce(III) ions from 3 M HNO 3 , Acid, and 3 M NaNO 3 + 0.05 M HNO 3 , Salt, media. The introduction ratio of the function group into the polymer base and the uptake of U(VI) ions and C(III) ions were found to decrease with the increase in the alkyl chain length. The uptake was found to diminish in case of TPhMA resin due to the decrease of the function group ratio and the steric-hinder effect

  1. The interactive effects of chelator, fertilizer, and rhizobacteria for enhancing phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Cutright, T.J. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Akron, Akron, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The role of chelator, fertilizer, and enriched rhizobacteria in facilitating Cd, Cr, and Ni accumulation by Helianthus annuus was studied. It was found that by adding a synthetic chelator, EDTA, the shoot concentrations of Cd and Ni were significantly increased from 34.2 mg kg{sup -1} and 14.5 mg kg{sup -1} to 115 mg kg{sup -1} and 117 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. However, the total biomass of plants was drastically decreased by 50 to 60%. Compared with this treatment, inoculating enriched rhizobacteria to plants grown under similar conditions maintained the surged shoot concentrations of Cd and Ni while increasing the plants biomass by more than 1.6-fold. It was also found that introducing a commercial fertilizer, Hydro-Gro trademark, to plants significantly increased the Ni accumulation by 3-fold and the plant biomass by 1.43-fold. These results suggest that combing fertilizers, chelators and/or rhizobacteria might provide a more effective approach for enhancing phytoremediation. (orig.)

  2. Separation and recovery of uranium ore by chlorinating, chelate resin and molten salt treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Tomohiro

    2000-12-01

    Three fundamental researches of separation and recovery of uranium from uranium ore are reported in this paper. Three methods used the chloride pyrometallurgy, sodium containing molten salts and chelate resin. When uranium ore is mixed with activated carbon and reacted for one hour under the mixed gas of chlorine and oxygen at 950 C, more than 90% uranium volatilized and vaporization of aluminum, silicone and phosphorus were controlled. The best activated carbon was brown coal because it was able to control the large range of oxygen concentration. By blowing oxygen into the molten sodium hydroxide, the elution rate of uranium attained to about 95% and a few percent of uranium was remained in the residue. On the uranium ore of unconformity-related uranium deposits, a separation method of uranium, molybdenum, nickel and phosphorus from the sulfuric acid elusion solution with U, Ni, As, Mo, Fe and Al was developed. Methylene phosphonic acid type chelate resin (RCSP) adsorbed Mo and U, and then 100 % Mo was eluted by sodium acetate solution and about 100% U by sodium carbonate solution. Ni and As in the passing solution were recovered by imino-diacetic acid type chelate resin and iron hydroxide, respectively. (S.Y.)

  3. Impact of metal binding on the antitumor activity and cellular imaging of a metal chelator cationic imidazopyridine derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mithun; Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V S K; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah; Karande, Anjali A; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2011-05-14

    A new water soluble cationic imidazopyridine species, viz. (1E)-1-((pyridin-2-yl)methyleneamino)-3-(3-(pyridin-2-yl)imidazo[1,5-a]pyridin-2(3H)-yl)propan-2-ol (1), as a metal chelator is prepared as its PF(6) salt and characterized. Compound 1 shows fluorescence at 438 nm on excitation at 342 nm in Tris-HCl buffer giving a fluorescence quantum yield (φ) of 0.105 and a life-time of 5.4 ns. Compound 1, as an avid DNA minor groove binder, shows pUC19 DNA cleavage activity in UV-A light of 365 nm forming singlet oxygen species in a type-II pathway. The photonuclease potential of 1 gets enhanced in the presence of Fe(2+), Cu(2+) or Zn(2+). Compound 1 itself displays anticancer activity in HeLa, HepG2 and Jurkat cells with an enhancement on addition of the metal ions. Photodynamic effect of 1 at 365 nm also gets enhanced in the presence of Fe(2+) and Zn(2+). Fluorescence-based cell cycle analysis shows a significant dead cell population in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle suggesting apoptosis via ROS generation. A significant change in the nuclear morphology is observed from Hoechst 33258 and an acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual nuclear staining suggesting apoptosis in cells when treated with 1 alone or in the presence of the metal ions. Apoptosis is found to be caspase-dependent. Fluorescence imaging to monitor the distribution of 1 in cells shows that 1 in the presence of metal ions accumulates predominantly in the cytoplasm. Enhanced uptake of 1 into the cells within 12 h is observed in the presence of Fe(2+) and Zn(2+).

  4. Uranium accumulation in Brassica rapa L. and effect of citric acid and humic acids as chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del R, H.; Perez C, G. A.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.; Rodriguez H, G.

    2016-09-01

    Phyto extraction is a technique that makes use of plants for the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. In this study the uranium incorporation in the Brassica rapa L. species was evaluated, in artificially contaminated inert soils with 40 mg U/kg, and the effect of adding of the natural chelating agents citric acid and humic acids in the accumulation of uranium was analyzed. Soil free of organic matter and biologically inert was obtained by controlled calcination s of natural soil. Cultures in the prepared soil consisted of five growth treatments: 1) cultivation without uranium or additives; 2) cultivation in the uranium presence; 3) cultivation with uranium and citric acid (2 g/kg); 4) cultivation with uranium and humic acids (10 g/kg); 5) uranium cultivation and combination of citric and humic acids at the same concentrations. There was no adverse effect on plant growth with the presence of uranium at the given concentration. Regarding the controls, the total biomass in the presence of uranium was slightly higher, while the addition of humic acids significantly stimulated the production of biomass with respect to the citric acid. The combined action of organic acids produced the highest amount of biomass. The efficiency of phyto extraction followed the order Humic acids (301 μg U/g) > Non-assisted (224 μg U/g) >> Citric acid + Humic acids (68 μg U/g) > Citric acid (59 μg U/g). The values of uranium concentration in the total biomass show that the species Brassica rapa L. has the capacity of phyto extraction of uranium in contaminated soils. The addition of humic acids increases the uranium extraction while the addition of citric acid disadvantages it. (Author)

  5. Development of Iron-Chelating Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Packaging for Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Tian, Fang; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-05-27

    Foods such as bulk oils, salad dressings, and nutritionally fortified beverages that are susceptible to oxidative degradation are often packaged in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with metal chelators added to the food to maintain product quality. In the present work, a metal-chelating active packaging material is designed and characterized, in which poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) metal-chelating moieties were grafted from the surface of PET. Biomimetic PHA groups were grafted in a two-step UV-initiated process without the use of a photoinitiator. Surface characterization of the films by attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested successful grafting and conversion of poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) to PHA chelating moieties from the surface of PET. Colorimetric (ferrozine) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) assays demonstrated the ability of PET-g-PHA to chelate iron in a low-pH (3.0) environment containing a competitive metal chelator (citric acid). Lipid oxidation studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of PET-g-PHA films in inhibiting iron-promoted oxidation in an acidified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion model system (pH 3.0). Particle size and ζ-potential analysis indicated that the addition of PET-g-PHA films did not affect the physical stability of the emulsion system. This work suggests that biomimetic chelating moieties can be grafted from PET and effectively inhibit iron-promoted degradation reactions, enabling removal of metal-chelating additives from product formulations.

  6. Leach studies of chelating agents and influence on radionuclide leaching from simulated LLW/ILW cement waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejmelka, P.; Koester, R.; Ferrara, D.; Wacks, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Leach studies were performed on cemented waste forms containing sodium nitrate, trace amounts of cesium-137, and cobalt-60, and a chelating agent (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), or citric acid). Leaching of the chelates was measured in water and the effect of the chelates on the release of the Cs-137 and Co-60 was studied. The time dependence of the release rate of the chelates is comparable but the chelate concentration in solution and the released fractions are different. EDTA shows the highest release rate followed by NTA and citrate. The release of the non complex forming cesium is not affected by the presence of the chelates. Independent from the strong complex formation of cobalt with EDTA, NTA, and citrate in the alkaline region the cobalt release is also not affected by the presence of the chelates. The high calcium content of the system decreases the stability of the Co complexes in the high pH region (12-13). Experiments were performed to determine the equilibrium concentration of the chelates between liquid and solid phases. The liquid phases were deionized water, saturated sodium chloride, 24 percent magnesium chloride and Q-brine. The equilibrium studies are based on the assumption that in time a stable final condition is to be established in the near field of the waste form in which each compound is at chemical equilibrium between the dissolved and the various solid phases. The total release may be assessed from the concentration in solution and flow rate out of the near field. The fraction of EDTA released from the cement ranged from 0.2 in the Q-brine to 0.5 in the saturated sodium chloride. The concentration of EDSA in solution was dependent on the original amount in the cement sample, but the released fraction was independent of the initial loading. Indicating, EDTA concentration is not affected by solubility limits. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Impact on the earth, ocean and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, T.J.; O'Keefe, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several hundred impact craters produced historically and at times as early as 1.9 x 10/sup 9/ years ago with diameters in the range 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup 2/ km are observed on the surface of the earth. Earth-based and spacecraft observations of the surfaces of all the terrestrial planets and their satellites, as well as many of the icy satellites of the outer planets, indicated that impact cratering was a dominant process on planetary surfaces during the early history of the solar system. Moreover, the recent observation of a circumstellar disk around the nearby star, β-Pictoris, appears to be similar to the authors' own hypothesized protosolar disk. A disk of material around our sun has been hypothesized to have been the source of the solid planetesimals from which the earth and the other planets accreted by infall and capture. Thus it appears that the earth and the other terrestrial planets formed as a result of infall and impact of planetesimals. Although the present planets grew rapidly via accretion to their present size (in --10/sup 7/ years), meteorite impacts continue to occur on the earth and other planets. Until recently meteorite impact has been considered to be a process that was important on the earth and the other planets only early in the history of the solar system. This is no longer true. The Alvarez hypothesis suggests that the extinction of some 90% of all species, including 17 classes of dinosaurs, is associated with the 1 to 150 cm thick layer of noble-element rich dust which is found all over the earth exactly at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The enrichment of noble elements in this dust is in meteorite-like proportions. This dust is thought to represent the fine impact ejecta from a --10 km diameter asteroid interacting with the solid earth. The Alvarez hypothesis associates the extinction with the physics of a giant impact on the earth

  8. Chelation: A Fundamental Mechanism of Action of AGE Inhibitors, AGE Breakers, and Other Inhibitors of Diabetes Complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Rhoji; Murray, David B.; Metz, Thomas O.; Baynes, John

    2012-03-01

    Advanced glycation or glycoxidation end-products (AGE) increase in tissue proteins with age, and their rate of accumulation is increased in diabetes, nephropathy and inflammatory diseases. AGE inhibitors include a range of compounds that are proposed to act by trapping carbonyl and dicarbonyl intermediates in AGE formation. However, some among the newer generation of AGE inhibitors lack reactive functional groups that would trap reaction intermediates, indicating an alternative mechanism of action. We propose that AGE inhibitors function primarily as chelators, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions. The AGE-inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers is also consistent with their chelating activity. Finally, compounds described as AGE breakers, or their hydrolysis products, also have strong chelating activity, suggesting that these compounds also act through their chelating activity. We conclude that chelation is the common, and perhaps the primary, mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors and breakers, and that chronic, mild chelation therapy should prove useful in treatment of diabetes and age-related diseases characterized by oxidative stress, inflammation and increased chemical modification of tissue proteins by advanced glycoxidation and lipoxidation end-products.

  9. Impact of educational programme regarding chelation therapy on the quality of life for B-thalassemia major children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Samra, Omayma; Auda, Wafaa; Kamhawy, Heba; Al-Tonbary, Youssef

    2015-06-01

    Objectives Thalassemia is the most common genetic disorder in Egypt, with an estimated carrier rate of 9-10%. It is a genetic blood disorder which can be fatal if proper chelation is not received. The introduction of chelating agents capable of removing excessive iron from the body has dramatically increased life expectancy and improved the overall quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of educational programmes regarding chelation therapy on the quality of life of thalassemic children. Methods The study was carried out at the Mansoura University Children's Hospital in the period between March 2010 and May 2011. It included 173 B-thalassemia children (84 boys and 89 girls) with age ranging between 8-18 years. The researcher used a predesigned interviewing questionnaire to collect data regarding children's knowledge about thalassemia and its management, especially regarding chelation therapy. The paediatric quality-of-life inventory tool (Peds QL 4.0 generic core) was also used to assess the studied children's quality of life. Results There was a significant statistical difference of the studied children's knowledge regarding chelation therapy and their quality of life. Conclusion There was a positive effect of the educational programme in improving children's knowledge score and their quality of life. Application of educational programmes for thalassemic children and their nurses regarding chelation therapy and its importance in preventing thalassemia complications is established.

  10. EARTH FROM SPACE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. EARTH FROM SPACE · Slide 2 · Earth System · Slide 4 · Global water cycle · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Direct Observations of Recent Climate Change · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Snow cover and Arctic sea ice are decreasing · Polar Melting & Global Heat Transport · Antarctica: Melting and Thickening · Slide 14 · Slide 15.

  11. Earth and Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosygin, Yu A

    1986-12-01

    Rocks, the age of which according to certain data exceeds considerably the recognized age of the Earth and approximates the age of the Universe, have been detected on the Earth. There is a necessity to coordinate the geological data with cosmological structures.

  12. Hands On Earth Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  13. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  14. Earth System Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  15. Characterization of amorphous yttria layers deposited by aqueous solutions of Y-chelate alkoxides complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Soon, E-mail: kyscjb@i-sunam.com; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kim, Byeong-Joo; Lee, Jae-Hun; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Hunju

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Economical method for crack-free amorphous yttria layer deposition by dip coating. • Simpler process for planar yttria film as a diffusion barrier and nucleation layer. • Easy control over the film properties with better characteristics. • Easy control over the thickness of the deposited films. • A feasible process that can be easily adopted by HTSCC industries. - Abstract: Crack-free amorphous yttria layers were deposited by dip coating in solutions of different Y-chelate alkoxides complex. Three Y-chelate solutions of different concentrations were prepared using yttrium acetate tetrahydrate, yttrium stearic acid as Y source materials. PEG, diethanolamine were used as chelating agents, while ethanol, methanol and tetradecane were used as solvent. Three different combinations of chelating and solvents were used to prepare solutions for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dip coating on SUS, electropolished and non-electropolished Hastelloy C-276 substrates. The thickness of the films was varied by changing the number of dipping cycles. At an optimized condition, the substrate surface roughness (rms) value was reduced from ∼50 nm to ∼1 nm over a 10 × 10 μm{sup 2} area. After Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition, MgO was deposited using ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD), then LaMnO{sub 3} (LMO) was deposited using sputtering and GdBCO was deposited using reactive co-evaporation by deposition and reaction (RCE-DR). Detailed X-ray study indicates that LMO/MgO/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GdBCO/LMO/MgO/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stack films have good out-of-plane and in-plane textures with strong c-axis alignment. The critical current (Ic) of GdBCO/LMO/MgO/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayer structure varied from 190 to 420 A/cm with different solutions, when measured at 77 K. These results demonstrated that amorphous yttria can be easily deposited by dip coating using Y-chelates complex as a diffusion barrier and nucleation layer.

  16. Heavy Metal Displacement in Chelate-Assisted Phytoremediation of Biosolids Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, M. B.; Liphadzi, M. S.

    2005-05-01

    Heavy metals in biosolids (sewage sludge) applied to land contaminate the soil. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with biosolids following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals, as affected by a chelate, in soil (Haynie very fine sandy loam) from a 25-year old sludge farm. Soil columns (105 cm long; 39 cm in diameter) either had a plant (hybrid poplar; Populus deltoides Marsh. x P. nigra L.) or no plant. When the poplars were 144 days old, the tetrasodium salt of the chelating agent EDTA (ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid) was irrigated onto the soil at a rate of 1 g per kg of soil. Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for three toxic heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb) and four essential heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn). Without EDTA, concentrations of the seven heavy metals in the leachate from columns with or without plants were low or below detection limits. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized all heavy metals and increased their concentration in drainage water. Without plants, the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn in the leachate from columns with EDTA were above drinking-water standards. (There is no drinking-water standard for Ni.) The presence of poplar plants in the soil reduced the concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Zn in the leachate so it fell within drinking-water standards. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in the leachate remained above drinking-water standards with or without plants. At harvest (124 days after the EDTA application), total concentration of each heavy metal in the soil at different depths in the columns with EDTA was similar to that in the columns without EDTA. The chelate did not affect the concentration of heavy metals in the roots, stems, or leaves

  17. Repurposing of Copper(II)-chelating Drugs for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Valeria; Milardi, Danilo; Di Natale, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Giuseppe

    2018-02-12

    There is mounting urgency to find new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. A large number of reviews have exhaustively described either the molecular or clinical aspects of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD). Conversely, reports outlining how known drugs in use for other diseases can also be effective as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases are less reported. This review focuses on the current uses of some copper(II) chelating molecules as potential drug candidates in neurodegeneration. Starting from the well-known harmful relationships existing between the dyshomeostasis and mis-management of metals and AD onset, we surveyed the experimental work reported in the literature, which deals with the repositioning of metal-chelating drugs in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. The reviewed papers were retrieved from common literature and their selection was limited to those describing the biomolecular aspects associated with neuroprotection. In particular, we emphasized the copper(II) coordination abilities of the selected drugs. Copper, together with zinc and iron, are known to play a key role in regulating neuronal functions. Changes in copper homeostasis are crucial for several neurodegenerative disorders. The studies included in this review may provide an overview on the current strategies aimed at repurposing copper (II) chelating drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Starting from the exemplary case of clioquinol repurposing, we discuss the challenge and the opportunities that repurposing of other metal-chelating drugs may provide (e.g. PBT-2, metformin and cyclodipeptides) in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In order to improve the success rate of drug repositioning, comprehensive studies on the molecular mechanism and therapeutic efficacy are still required. The present review upholds that drug repurposing makes significant advantages over drug discovery since

  18. New Chelators for Low Temperature Al(18)F-Labeling of Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeren, Frederik; Lecina, Joan; Billaud, Emilie M F; Ahamed, Muneer; Verbruggen, Alfons; Bormans, Guy M

    2016-03-16

    The Al(18)F labeling method is a relatively new approach that allows radiofluorination of biomolecules such as peptides and proteins in a one-step procedure and in aqueous solution. However, the chelation of the {Al(18)F}(2+) core with the macrocyclic chelators NOTA or NODA requires heating to 100-120 °C. Therefore, we have developed new polydentate ligands for the complexation of {Al(18)F}(2+) with good radiochemical yields at a temperature of 40 °C. The stability of the new Al(18)F-complexes was tested in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 and in rat serum. The stability of the Al(18)F-L3 complex was found to be comparable to that of the previously reported Al(18)F-NODA complex up to 60 min in rat serum. Moreover, the biodistribution of Al(18)F-L3 in healthy mice showed the absence of in vivo defluorination since no significant bone uptake was observed, whereas the major fraction of activity at 60 min p.i. was observed in liver and intestines, indicating hepatobiliary clearance of the radiolabeled ligand. The acyclic chelator H3L3 proved to be a good lead candidate for labeling of heat-sensitive biomolecules with fluorine-18. In order to obtain a better understanding of the different factors influencing the formation and stability of the complex, we carried out more in-depth experiments with ligand H3L3. As a proof of concept, we successfully conjugated the new AlF-chelator with the urea-based PSMA inhibitor Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys to form Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys(Ahx)L3, and a biodistribution study in healthy mice was performed with the Al(18)F-labeled construct. This new class of AlF-chelators may have a great impact on PET radiochemical space as it will stimulate the rapid development of new fluorine-18 labeled peptides and other heat-sensitive biomolecules.

  19. Curcumin induces apoptosis and protective autophagy in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells through iron chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chunguang Yang,1,* Xueyou Ma,1,* Zhihua Wang,1 Xing Zeng,1 Zhiquan Hu,1 Zhangqun Ye,1 Guanxin Shen2 1Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, 2Department of Immunology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Curcumin induces apoptosis and autophagy in different cancer cells. Moreover, chemical and biological experiments have evidenced that curcumin is a biologically active iron chelator and induces cytotoxicity through iron chelation. We thus hypothesized that curcumin may induce apoptosis and autophagy in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC cells through its iron-chelating properties.Materials and methods: CRPC cells were loaded with curcumin alone or in combination with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling (TUNEL assay and caspase activity. Autophagy status was analyzed by the detection of autophagosomes and light chain 3-II (LC3-II using transmission electron microscopy and Western blot. Iron-binding activity of curcumin was assessed by spectrophotometry and MTT assay. The expression levels of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1 and iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1 were examined by Western blot.Results: Curcumin induced apoptosis and autophagy in CRPC cells. Combining curcumin with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine [3-MA] synergized the apoptotic effect of curcumin. Moreover, curcumin bound to FAC at a ratio of ~1:1, as assessed by spectrophotometry and MTT assay. Apoptosis and autophagy induced by curcumin were counteracted by equal amounts of FAC. At apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing concentrations, curcumin enhanced the expression levels of TfR1 and IRP1, indicative of iron deprivation induced by curcumin

  20. Characterization of the effect of serum and chelating agents on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation; chelating agents augment biofilm formation through clumping factor B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nabil Mathew

    Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of a diverse array of acute and chronic infections, and some these infections, including infective endocarditis, joint infections, and medical device-associated bloodstream infections, depend upon its capacity to form tenacious biofilms on surfaces. Inserted medical devices such as intravenous catheters, pacemakers, and artificial heart valves save lives, but unfortunately, they can also serve as a substrate on which S. aureus can form a biofilm, attributing S. aureus as a leading cause of medical device-related infections. The major aim of this work was take compounds to which S. aureus would be exposed during infection and to investigate their effects on its capacity to form a biofilm. More specifically, the project investigated the effects of serum, and thereafter of catheter lock solutions on biofilm formation by S. aureus. Pre-coating polystyrene with serum is frequently used as a method to augment biofilm formation. The effect of pre-coating with serum is due to the deposition of extracellular matrix components onto the polystyrene, which are then recognized by MSCRAMMs. We therefore hypothesized that the major component of blood, serum, would induce biofilm formation. Surprisingly, serum actually inhibited biofilm formation. The inhibitory activity was due to a small molecular weight, heat-stable, non-proteinaceous component/s of serum. Serum-mediated inhibition of biofilm formation may represent a previously uncharacterized aspect of host innate immunity that targets the expression of a key bacterial virulence factor: the ability to establish a resistant biofilm. Metal ion chelators like sodium citrate are frequently chosen to lock intravenous catheters because they are regarded as potent inhibitors of bacterial biofilm formation and viability. We found that, while chelating compounds abolished biofilm formation in most strains of S. aureus, they actually augmented the phenotype in a subset of strains. We

  1. PIXE studies on elemental characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, D.; Saxena, A.; Choudhury, R.K.; Maind, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission Technique (PIXE) has been used for elemental characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants, with a proton beam of energy 4 MeV at Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA) at BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, India. The offset printing ink was tagged with rare-earth (La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate chelates at about 1000 ppm level for each element separately. Small aliquots (approximately 20 mg) of tagged inks were coated on paper supports and then analyzed. Well-resolved rare-earth L X-rays were detected using a high resolution Si(Li) detector. Satisfactory results to identify and quantify the taggants were achieved. (author)

  2. Extrafibrillar collagen demineralization-based chelate-and-rinse technique bridges the gap between wet and dry dentin bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Sui; Wei, Chin-Chuan; Gu, Li-Sha; Tian, Fu-Cong; Arola, Dwayne D; Chen, Ji-Hua; Jiao, Yang; Pashley, David H; Niu, Li-Na; Tay, Franklin R

    2017-07-15

    Limitations associated with wet-bonding led to the recent development of a selective demineralization strategy in which dentin was etched with a reduced concentration of phosphoric acid to create exclusive extrafibrillar demineralization of the collagen matrix. However, the use of acidic conditioners removes calcium via diffusion of very small hydronium ions into the intrafibrillar collagen water compartments. This defeats the purpose of limiting the conditioner to the extrafibrillar space to create a collagen matrix containing only intrafibrillar minerals to prevent collapse of the collagen matrix. The present work examined the use of polymeric chelators (the sodium salt of polyacrylic acid) of different molecular weights to selectively demineralize extrafibrillar dentin. These polymeric chelators exhibit different affinities for calcium ions (isothermal titration calorimetry), penetrated intrafibrillar dentin collagen to different extents based on their molecular sizes (modified size-exclusion chromatography), and preserve the dynamic mechanical properties of mineralized dentin more favorably compared with completely demineralized phosphoric acid-etched dentin (nanoscopical dynamic mechanical analysis). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy provided evidence for retention of intrafibrillar minerals in dentin surfaces conditioned with polymeric chelators. Microtensile bond strengths to wet-bonded and dry-bonded dentin conditioned with these polymeric chelators showed that the use of sodium salts of polyacrylic acid for chelating dentin prior to bonding did not result in significant decline in resin-dentin bond strength. Taken together, the findings led to the conclusion that a chelate-and-rinse conditioning technique based on extrafibrillar collagen demineralization bridges the gap between wet and dry dentin bonding. The chelate-and-rinse dental adhesive bonding concept differentiates from previous research in that it is based on the size

  3. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium extraction separation of rare earth metals in presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in aqueous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azis, Abdul; Teramoto, Masaaki; Matsuyama, Hideto.

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium and non-equilibrium extraction separations of rare earth metals were carried out in the presence of chelating agent in the aqueous phase. The separation systems of the rare earth metal mixtures used were Y/Dy, Y/Ho, Y/Er and Y/Tm, and the chelating agent and the extractant were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (CYANEXR 272), respectively. For Y/Dy and Y/Ho systems, higher selectivities were obtained in equilibrium separation compared with those in non-equilibrium separation. On the other hand, the selectivities in non-equilibrium separation were higher for Y/Er and Y/Tm systems. In the separation condition suitable to each system, the addition of DTPA to the aqueous phase was found to be very effective for obtaining higher selectivities. The distribution ratios of the rare earth metals and the selectivities in the equilibrium separations obtained experimentally were thoroughly analyzed by considering various equilibria such as the extraction equilibrium and the complex formation equilibrium between rare earth metals and DTPA in the aqueous phase. Moreover, the extraction rates and the selectivities in the non-equilibrium separations were also analyzed by the extraction model considering the dissociation reactions of the rare earth metal-DTPA complexes in the aqueous stagnant layer. Based on these analyses, we presented an index which is useful for selecting the optimum operation mode. Using this index, we can predict that the selectivities under equilibrium conditions are higher than those under non-equilibrium conditions for Y/Dy and Y/Ho systems, while for Y/Er and Y/Tm systems, higher selectivities are obtained under non-equilibrium conditions. The experimental results were in agreement with predictions by this index. Further, the selectivities in various systems including other chelating agents and extractants were discussed based on this index. (J.P.N.)

  4. An advanced method of contributing emissions to short-lived chemical species (OH and HO2: the TAGGING 1.1 submodel based on the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy 2.53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Rieger

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate the human impact on climate change, it is essential to determine the contribution of emissions to the concentration of trace gases. In particular, the source attribution of short-lived species such as OH and HO2 is important as they play a crucial role for atmospheric chemistry. This study presents an advanced version of a tagging method for OH and HO2 (HOx which attributes HOx concentrations to emissions. While the former version (V1.0 only considered 12 reactions in the troposphere, the new version (V1.1, presented here, takes 19 reactions in the troposphere into account. For the first time, the main chemical reactions for the HOx chemistry in the stratosphere are also regarded (in total 27 reactions. To fully take into account the main HO2 source by the reaction of H and O2, the tagging of the H radical is introduced. In order to ensure the steady-state assumption, we introduce rest terms which balance the deviation of HOx production and loss. This closes the budget between the sum of all contributions and the total concentration. The contributions to OH and HO2 obtained by the advanced tagging method V1.1 deviate from V1.0 in certain source categories. For OH, major changes are found in the categories biomass burning, biogenic emissions and methane decomposition. For HO2, the contributions differ strongly in the categories biogenic emissions and methane decomposition. As HOx reacts with ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, reactive nitrogen compounds (NOy, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN, the contributions to these species are also modified by the advanced HOx tagging method V1.1. The contributions to NOy, NMHC and PAN show only little change, whereas O3 from biogenic emissions and methane decomposition increases in the tropical troposphere. Variations for CO from biogenic emissions and biomass burning are only found in the Southern Hemisphere.

  5. Earth as art three

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  6. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  7. Effect of disodium EDTA chelation regimen on cardiovascular events in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the TACT randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Gervasio A; Goertz, Christine; Boineau, Robin; Mark, Daniel B; Rozema, Theodore; Nahin, Richard L; Lindblad, Lauren; Lewis, Eldrin F; Drisko, Jeanne; Lee, Kerry L

    2013-03-27

    Chelation therapy with disodium EDTA has been used for more than 50 years to treat atherosclerosis without proof of efficacy. To determine if an EDTA-based chelation regimen reduces cardiovascular events. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial randomized trial enrolling 1708 patients aged 50 years or older who had experienced a myocardial infarction (MI) at least 6 weeks prior and had serum creatinine levels of 2.0 mg/dL or less. Participants were recruited at 134 US and Canadian sites. Enrollment began in September 2003 and follow-up took place until October 2011 (median, 55 months). Two hundred eighty-nine patients (17% of total; n=115 in the EDTA group and n=174 in the placebo group) withdrew consent during the trial. Patients were randomized to receive 40 infusions of a 500-mL chelation solution (3 g of disodium EDTA, 7 g of ascorbate, B vitamins, electrolytes, procaine, and heparin) (n=839) vs placebo (n=869) and an oral vitamin-mineral regimen vs an oral placebo. Infusions were administered weekly for 30 weeks, followed by 10 infusions 2 to 8 weeks apart. Fifteen percent discontinued infusions (n=38 [16%] in the chelation group and n=41 [15%] in the placebo group) because of adverse events. The prespecified primary end point was a composite of total mortality, recurrent MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. This report describes the intention-to-treat comparison of EDTA chelation vs placebo. To account for multiple interim analyses, the significance threshold required at the final analysis was P = .036. Qualifying previous MIs occurred a median of 4.6 years before enrollment. Median age was 65 years, 18% were female, 9% were nonwhite, and 31% were diabetic. The primary end point occurred in 222 (26%) of the chelation group and 261 (30%) of the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]; P = .035). There was no effect on total mortality (chelation: 87 deaths [10%]; placebo, 93 deaths [11%]; HR, 0

  8. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  9. Project Earth Science

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Project Earth Science: Astronomy, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on Earth's position in our solar system. How do we measure astronomical distances? How can we look back in time as we gaze across vast distances in space? How would our planet be different without its particular atmosphere and distance to our star? What are the geometries among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun that yield lunar phases and seasons? Students explore these concepts and others in 11 teacher-tested activities.

  10. Earth formation porosity log

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the porosity of earth formations in the vicinity of a cased well borehole is described, comprising the steps of: irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the cased well borehole with fast neutrons from a source of fast neutrons passed into the borehole; and generating a signal representative of the fast neutron population present in the well borehole at a location in the borehole, the signal is functionally related to the porosity of the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole

  11. Earth before life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  12. Characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants by X-ray emission techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, D.; Saxena, A.; Choudhury, R.K.; Maind, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques have been used for elemental characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants. The offset printing ink was tagged with rare-earth (La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate chelates at about 1000-ppm level for each element separately. Small aliquots (approximately 20 mg) of tagged inks were coated on paper supports in the form of small circles having diameter 10-15 mm each and then analyzed. In the case of PIXE, a proton beam of energy 4 MeV and in the case of EDXRF a radioisotope source of 241 Am (100 mCi) was used to excite the samples. The PIXE analysis showed well-resolved rare-earth L X-rays and EDXRF analysis showed the K X-rays of rare earths. Satisfactory results to identify and quantify the taggants were achieved. (author)

  13. Monochloro non-bridged half-metallocene-type zirconium complexes containing phosphine oxide-(thio)phenolate chelating ligands as efficient ethylene polymerization catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yong-Xia; Liu, San-Rong; Liu, Jing-Yu; Li, Yue-Sheng

    2013-01-14

    A series of novel monochloro half-zirconocene complexes containing phosphine oxide-(thio)phenolate chelating ligands of the type, ClCp'Zr[X-2-R(1)-4-R(2)-6-(Ph(2)P=O)C(6)H(2)](2) (Cp' = C(5)H(5), 2a: X = O, R(1) = Ph, R(2) = H; 2b: X = O, R(1) = F, R(2) = H; 2c: X = O, R(1) = (t)Bu, R(2) = H; 2d: X = O, R(1) = R(2) = (t)Bu; 2e: X = O, R(1) = SiMe(3), R(2) = H; 2f: X = S, R(1) = SiMe(3), R(2) = H; Cp' = C(5)Me(5), 2g: X = O, R(1) = SiMe(3), R(2) = H), have been synthesized in high yields. These complexes were identified by (1)H {(13)C} NMR and elemental analyses. Structures for 2b, 2c and 2f were further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Structural characterization of these complexes reveals crowded environments around the zirconium. Complexes 2b and 2c adopt six-coordinate, distorted octahedral geometry around the zirconium center, in which the equatorial positions are occupied by three oxygen atoms of two chelating phosphine oxide-bridged phenolate ligands and a chlorine atom. The cyclopentadienyl ring and one oxygen atom of the ligand are coordinated on the axial position. Complex 2f also folds a six-coordinate, distorted octahedral geometry around the Zr center, consisting of a Cp-Zr-O (in P=O) axis [177.16°] and a distorted plane of two sulfur atoms and one oxygen atom of two chelating phosphine oxide-bridged thiophenolate ligands as well as a chlorine atom. When activated by modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO), all the complexes exhibited high activities towards ethylene polymerization at high temperature (75 °C), giving high molecular weight polymers with unimodal molecular weight distribution. The formation of 14-electron, cationic metal alkyl species might come from the Zr-O (in phenol ring) bond cleavage based on the DFT calculations study.

  14. Earth's variable rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  15. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  16. Earth study from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  17. Earth's electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  18. Near Earth Asteroid Scout

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, or NEA Scout, is a 6U CubeSat developed jointly between NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA...

  19. Gambling with the earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Muir, H

    2000-01-01

    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  20. Jupiter and planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of Jupiter and Earth are discussed along with their atmospheres, the radiation belts around both planets, natural satellites, the evolution of life, and the Pioneer 10. Educational study projects are also included

  1. Earth retaining structures manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  2. Earliest life on earth

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Suzanne D

    2010-01-01

    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  3. The effect of pore diameter in the arrangement of chelating species grafted onto silica surfaces with application to uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, A.; Cuer, F.; Grandjean, A.

    2017-01-01

    A series of five silica supports with different pore diameters were functionalized in two steps by post-grafting, producing three types of material: (1) initial supports with pores smaller than 4 nm are heterogeneously functionalized because of steric effects; (2) when the pores range from 5 to 20 nm in diameter, a homogeneous organic monolayer is grafted onto the silica skeleton; and (3) when the pores are larger than 30 nm, an organic multilayer covalently linked to the surface is obtained. These hybrid materials were then used to extract uranium from a sulphuric solution. Our results show that the efficiency, capacity and selectivity of the extraction can be controlled through the effect the initial pore size has on the organic structures that form therein. After regeneration moreover, these materials can be reused with the same efficiency. (authors)

  4. Polyaminoquinoline iron chelators for vectorization of antiproliferative agents: design, synthesis, and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcé, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Guihéneuf, Solène; Renault, Eric; Renaud, Stéphanie; Cannie, Isabelle; Tripier, Raphaël; Lima, Luís M P; Julienne, Karine; Gouin, Sébastien G; Loréal, Olivier; Deniaud, David; Gaboriau, François

    2012-09-19

    Iron chelation in tumoral cells has been reported as potentially useful during antitumoral treatment. Our aim was to develop new polyaminoquinoline iron chelators targeting tumoral cells. For this purpose, we designed, synthesized, and evaluated the biological activity of a new generation of iron chelators, which we named Quilamines, based on an 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) scaffold linked to linear polyamine vectors. These were designed to target tumor cells expressing an overactive polyamine transport system (PTS). A set of Quilamines bearing variable polyamine chains was designed and assessed for their ability to interact with iron. Quilamines were also screened for their cytostatic/cytotoxic effects and their selective uptake by the PTS in the CHO cell line. Our results show that both the 8-HQ moiety and the polyamine part participate in the iron coordination. HQ1-44, the most promising Quilamine identified, presents a homospermidine moiety and was shown to be highly taken up by the PTS and to display an efficient antiproliferative activity that occurred in the micromolar range. In addition, cytotoxicity was only observed at concentrations higher than 100 μM. We also demonstrated the high complexation capacity of HQ1-44 with iron while much weaker complexes were formed with other cations, indicative of a high selectivity. We applied the density functional theory to study the binding energy and the electronic structure of prototypical iron(III)-Quilamine complexes. On the basis of these calculations, Quilamine HQ1-44 is a strong tridentate ligand for iron(III) especially in the form of a 1:2 complex.

  5. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, D.; Almendros, P.; Alvarez, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1) and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1) soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn); Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM) yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn) was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils) and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil). The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk. (Author)

  6. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology under development to selectively recover valuable or regulated metal ions from process or wastewaters. The technology uses water-soluble chelating polymers that are designed to selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular weight that they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration (UF) technology. The UF range is generally considered to include molecular weights from about 3000 to several million daltons and particles sizes of about 2 to 1000 nm. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the UF membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions that are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Some of the advantages of polymer filtration relative to technology now in use are rapid binding kinetics, high selectivity, low energy and capital costs, and a small equipment footprint. Some potential commercial applications include electroplating rinse waters, photographic processing, nuclear power plant cooling water; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; removal of mercury contamination; and textile, paint and dye production. The purpose of this project is to evaluate this technology to remove plutonium, americium, and other regulated metal ions from various process and waste streams found in nuclear facilities. The work involves preparation of the water-soluble chelating polymers; small-scale testing of the chelating polymer systems for the required solubility, UF properties, selectivity and binding constants; followed by an engineering assessment at a larger scale to allow comparison to competing separation technologies. This project focuses on metal-ion contaminants in waste streams at the Plutonium Facility and the Waste Treatment Facility at LANL. Potential applications at other DOE facilities are also apparent

  7. Improving the efficiency of phytoremediation using electrically charged plant and chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbian, Iman; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar

    2016-02-01

    The low efficiency of phytoremediation is a considerable problem that limits the application of this environmentally friendly method on heavy metal-polluted soils. The combination of chelate-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation could offer new opportunities to improve the effectiveness of phytoextraction. The current experiment aims to investigate the effects of electrical fields and chelating agents on phytoremediation efficiency. In a pot experiment using mine soil, poultry manure extract (PME), cow manure extract (CME), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were applied to soil as chelating agents (2 g kg(-1)) at the beginning of the flowering stage. A week later, Helianthus annuus (sunflower) was negatively charged by inserting a stainless steel needle with 10 and 30 V DC electricity in the lowest part of the stems for 1 h each day for a 14-day period. At the end of the experiment, the shoot and root dry weight, lead (Pb) concentration in plant organs, translocation factor (TF), metal uptake index (UI), and soil available Pb (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) were detected. Results indicated that the application of electrical fields had no significant impact on the shoot and root dry weights, while Pb concentration and UI increased in the 10-V EDTA treatment by 500 % compared to control. There was no significant difference between UI in 30- and 10-V EDTA treatments. Soil available Pb significantly increased in the 30-V treated soil. A positive correlation was observed between the available Pb in soil near the root and Pb concentration in shoot, its TF, and UI. In conclusion, a negatively charged plant along with the application of EDTA significantly increased the phytoremediation efficiency.

  8. Transition Metal Chelator Induces Progesterone Production in Mouse Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes and Corpora Lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X; Anthony, K; Diaz, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    Progesterone production is upregulated in granulosa cells (cumulus and mural) after the LH surge, but the intra-follicular mechanisms regulating this transition are not completely known. Recent findings show that the transition metal chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylenediamine (TPEN), impairs ovarian function. In this study, we provide evidence that chelating transition metals, including zinc, enhances progesterone production. The findings show that TPEN (transition metal chelator) increases abundance of Cyp11a1 and Star messenger RNA (mRNA) between 8- and 20-fold and progesterone production more than 3-fold in cultured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). Feeding a zinc-deficient diet for 10 days, but not 3 days, increased Star, Hsd3b, and prostaglandin F2 alpha receptor (Ptgfr) mRNA ~2.5-fold, suggesting that the effect of TPEN is through modulation of zinc availability. Progesterone from cumulus cells promotes oocyte developmental potential. Blocking progesterone production with epostane during maturation reduced subsequent blastocyst formation from 89 % in control to 18 % in epostane-treated complexes, but supplementation with progesterone restored blastocyst developmental potential to 94 %. Feeding a zinc-deficient diet for 5 days before ovulation did not affect the number of CL, STAR protein, or serum progesterone. However, incubating luteal tissue with TPEN increased abundance of Star, Hsd3b, and Ptgfr mRNA 2-3-fold and increased progesterone production 3-fold. TPEN is known to abolish SMAD2/3 signaling in cumulus cells. However, treatment of COC with the SMAD2/3 phosphorylation inhibitor, SB421542, did not by itself induce steroidogenic transcripts but did potentiate EGF-induced Star mRNA expression. Collectively, the results show that depletion of transition metals with TPEN acutely enhances progesterone biosynthesis in COC and luteal tissue.

  9. Assessment of a gel-type chelating preparation containing 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, S; Paqué, F; Badertscher, M; Sener, B; Zehnder, M

    2005-11-01

    To test an aqueous gel containing 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) regarding its interactions with sodium hypochlorite, its calcium binding capacity, and its potential in preventing the formation of a smear layer when used in conjunction with rotary root canal preparation. The experimental aqueous gel consisted of (w/v) 2% alginate, 3% aerosil, 10% Tween 80 and 18% HEBP. Interactions of gel components with hypochlorite were assessed using iodometric titration and monochromatic ultraviolet spectrometry. Two commercial paste-type chelators containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and peroxide (RC-Prep and Glyde) served as controls. Calcium-binding capacities were measured in mixtures with a Ca2+ standard solution buffered at pH 10 using a calcium-selective measuring chain. Finally, root canals of 16 extracted single-rooted premolars per group were instrumented using ProFile instruments dipped in the experimental gel, RC-Prep, or nothing. Additionally, canals were rinsed with 10 mL of a 1% NaOCl solution during/after preparation. Smear scores in instrumented teeth were monitored using scanning electron microscopy. None of the experimental gel components showed short-term interactions with hypochlorite, whilst EDTA, peroxide, RC-Prep and Glyde immediately reduced the hypochlorite in solution. The experimental gel chelated 30 mg Ca2+ g-1, compared with 16 mg Ca2+ g-1 and 11 mg Ca2+ g-1 chelated by RC-Prep and Glyde respectively. Smear scores obtained with the experimental gel were significantly (P<0.05) lower than with RC-Prep in coronal and middle root thirds, whilst no differences were observed in apical root thirds. Under the conditions of this study, an HEBP gel appeared advantageous over currently available products.

  10. Metal Chelation as a Powerful Strategy to Probe Cellular Circuitry Governing Fungal Drug Resistance and Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Polvi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to sense host-relevant cues and coordinate cellular responses, which enable virulence and drug resistance. Defining circuitry controlling these traits opens new opportunities for chemical diversity in therapeutics, as the cognate inhibitors are rarely explored by conventional screening approaches. This has great potential to address the pressing need for new therapeutic strategies for invasive fungal infections, which have a staggering impact on human health. To explore this approach, we focused on a leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds to identify those that potentiate the activity of echinocandins, which are front-line therapeutics that target fungal cell wall synthesis. We identified 19 compounds that enhance activity of the echinocandin caspofungin against an echinocandin-resistant clinical isolate, with the broad-spectrum chelator DTPA demonstrating the greatest synergistic activity. We found that DTPA increases susceptibility to echinocandins via chelation of magnesium. Whole genome sequencing of mutants resistant to the combination of DTPA and caspofungin identified mutations in the histidine kinase gene NIK1 that confer resistance to the combination. Functional analyses demonstrated that DTPA activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1, and that NIK1 mutations block Hog1 activation in response to both caspofungin and DTPA. The combination has therapeutic relevance as DTPA enhanced the efficacy of caspofungin in a mouse model of echinocandin-resistant candidiasis. We found that DTPA not only reduces drug resistance but also modulates morphogenesis, a key virulence trait that is normally regulated by environmental cues. DTPA induced filamentation via depletion of zinc, in a manner that is contingent upon Ras1-PKA signaling, as well as the transcription factors Brg1 and Rob1. Thus, we establish a new mechanism by which

  11. Preparation of Ga-67 labeled monoclonal antibodies using deferoxamine as a bifunctional chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Furukawa, T.; Ohmomo, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Ga-67 labeled monoclonal IgG or F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments against α-fetoprotein and β-subunit of human choriogonadotropin (HCG), were prepared using Deferoxamine (DFO) as a bifunctional chelating agent. DFO, a well-known iron chelating agent, was conjugated with monoclonal antibodies (Ab) by a glutaraldehyde two step method and the effect of conjugation on the Ab activities was examined by RIA and Scatchard plot analysis. In both monoclonal Ab preparations, the conjugation reaction was favored as the pH increased. However, Ab-binding activities decreased as the molecular ratios of DFO to Ab increased. Preserved Ab activities were observed when Ab contained DFO per Ab molecule less than 2.1. At a ratio of over 3.3 DFO molecules per Ab, the maximal binding capacity rather than the affinity constant decreased. The inter-molecular cross linkage seemed to be responsible for the deactivation of binding activities. The obtained DFO-Ab conjugates, were then easily labeled with high efficiency and reproducibility and Ga-67 DFO-Ab complexes were highly stable both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, biodistribution of Ga-67 labeled F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments of monoclonal Ab to HCG β-subunit was attempted in nude mice transplanted with HCG-producing human teratocarcinoma. Tumor could be visualized, in spite of relatively high background imaging of liver, kidney and spleen. The use of DFO as a bifunctional chelating agent provided good evidence for its applicability to labeling monoclonal Ab with almost full retention of Ab activities. Further, availability of Ga-68 will make Ga-68 DFO-monoclonal Ab a very useful tool for positron tomography imaging of various tumors

  12. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology under development to selectively recover valuable or regulated metal ions from process or wastewaters. The technology uses water-soluble chelating polymers that are designed to selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular weight that they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration (UF) technology. The UF range is generally considered to include molecular weights from about 3000 to several million daltons and particles sizes of about 2 to 1000 nm. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the UF membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions that are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Some of the advantages of polymer filtration relative to technology now in use are rapid binding kinetics, high selectivity, low energy and capital costs, and a small equipment footprint. Some potential commercial applications include electroplating rinse waters, photographic processing, nuclear power plant cooling water; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; removal of mercury contamination; and textile, paint and dye production. The purpose of this project is to evaluate this technology to remove plutonium, americium, and other regulated metal ions from various process and waste streams found in nuclear facilities. The work involves preparation of the water-soluble chelating polymers; small-scale testing of the chelating polymer systems for the required solubility, UF properties, selectivity and binding constants; followed by an engineering assessment at a larger scale to allow comparison to competing separation technologies. This project focuses on metal-ion contaminants in waste streams at the Plutonium Facility and the Waste Treatment Facility at LANL. Potential applications at other DOE facilities are also apparent.

  13. SYNTHESIS OF N- ACETONITRIL AND N- ETHYLAMINE- 3- HYDROXYPYRIDINONES AS IRON (III CHELATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. SAGHAEI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The need of iron-chelating agents as orally active alternatives to desferal for the treatment of iron overload in thalassaemic patients, has stimulated considerable research efforts in the synthesis of new metal chelators. One of the member of hydroxypyridinones (2,3- dimethyl-3- hydroxypyridinones has so far received the most attention. This compound is rapidly glucuronidated into a non-chelating metabolite, which partly explains why high doses of the compound has to be used in order to achieve negative balance. This metabolic behavior has led the medicinal chemists to design compounds such as N-hydroxyalkyl derivatives which do not undergo extensive metabolism. The objective of the present work was to further synthesis and design new derivatives of hydroxypyridinones (N- acetonitril and N-ethylamine derivatives Methods. The synthesis route involves the benzylation of hydroxyl group of maltol (ethyl maltol using benzyl chloride conversion of the benazylated maltol (ethyl maltol to the N-acetonitril bezylated pyridinone derivatives by introducing the aminoacetonitril in pyridine solvent and cleavage of benzyl group by hydrogenation method or using the bromodimethyl borane to form the N-acetonitril or N- ethylamine- 3- hydroxypyridinones respectively.
    Results. In this work three final compounds such as 1- (2- aminoethyl- 2- methyl- 3-hydroxypyridin- 4- one, 1- (2- aminoethyl- 2- ethyl- 3- hydroxypyridin-4- one and 1- cyanomethyl -2- methyl- 3- hydroxypyridin- 4- one were synthesized.
    Discussion. Identification and structural elucidation of compounds were achieved by IH NMR and Mass spectra, elemental analysis and through physical constants. The biological effects of compounds will be studied in the near future.

  14. Iron Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

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  15. Moessbauer and EPR studies on iron-dihydroxybenzoic acid and iron-itoic acid chelate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagyinka, Cs.; Horvath, L.I.; Keszthelyi, L.

    1984-01-01

    Low molecular weight iron-dihydroxybenzoic acid and iron-itoic acid complexes were investigated by Moessbauer and EPR spectroscopy. In strong acidic medium the iron is chelated in high spin ferrous form. By varying the pH of the medium a (S=2)Fesup(2+)→(S=5/2)Fesup(3+) transition was found with a midpoint pH value of 4. From the g'-tensor anisotropy it is concluded that the metal atom is coordinated by six oxygen atoms in rhombically distorted octahedral configuration. The biological significance of these structural data is briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Chelating extractants of improved selectivity. Progress report, 1 August 1979-31 July 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    During the current contract year, mixed ligand chelate extraction systems for separating lanthanides was extended to elucidating the underlying reasons for the observed enhancement by quaternary ammonium salts. Equilibrium studies reveal the formation of anionic complexes (LnL 4 .HL - ) (where HL is 8-quinolinol) that was extracted when paired with a quaternary ammonium ion. Lathanum, as a lone exception was extracted as R 4 N + , LaL 4 - . Work is underway in the application of similar extractants, 5,7-dibromo-8-quinolinol and Kelex 100 (a 7-alkenyl-8-quinolinol) to the separation of lanthanides

  17. A Patient with Beta-Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration: Treatment with Iron Chelation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Yang Lim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration, a form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. The patient harbored a novel mutation in the WDR45 gene. A detailed video and description of her clinical condition are provided. Her movement disorder phenomenology was characterized primarily by limb stereotypies and gait dyspraxia. The patient’s disability was advanced by the time iron-chelating therapy with deferiprone was initiated, and no clinical response in terms of cognitive function, behavior, speech, or movements were observed after one year of treatment.

  18. Chelating agents improve enzymatic solubilization of pectinaceous co-processing streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    of different levels of ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, oxalic acid, and phosphate was assessed in relation to enzymatic solubilization of isopropanol precipitatable oligo- and polysaccharides from sugar beet pulp, citrus peel, and two types of potato pulp. The two types of potato pulp...... solubilization yields. The effect of the chelating agents correlated to their dissociation constants (pKa values) and calcium binding constants and citric acid and EDTA exerted highest effects. Maximum polysaccharide yield was obtained for FiberBind 400 where the enzymatic treatment in presence of citric acid...

  19. Chromatographic methods for determination of metals as chelate compounds with heterocyclic azo reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basova, E.M.; Bol'shova, T.A.; Shpigun, O.A.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Methods for separation and concentration of transition metals as well as cadmium in form of chelates with heterocyclic azo compounds namely, PAN(1-(2-pyridylaso)-2-naphthol), PAR(4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcin), Br-PAAP (2-(5-bromine-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl aminophenol) are considered. The Br-PAAP reagent is the most sensitive and widely-applied one in extraction and highly-efficient liquid chromatography. Methods of sorption concentration with subsequent element determination directly on the sorbent without microelements separation or destruction are the most promissing ones

  20. Bis-ligated Ti and Zr complexes of chelating N-heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    El-Batta, Amer

    2011-07-01

    In this communication we report the synthesis of novel titanium and zirconium complexes ligated by bidentate "salicylaldimine-like" N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). Double addition of the NHC chelate to either TiCl4(thf)2 or ZrCl4 forms bis-ligated organometallic fragments with a distorted octahedral geometry. These complexes are rare examples of group IV transition-metal NHC adducts. Preliminary catalytic tests demonstrate that in the presence of methylaluminoxane (MAO) these complexes are useful initiators for the polymerization of ethylene and the copolymerization of ethylene with norbornene and 1-octene. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.