WorldWideScience

Sample records for earnings management nas

  1. Testing Earning Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractEarnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses implies that the time series properties of the last quarter in the fiscal year differ from those of the other three quarters. We propose a simple parametric methodology to diagnose such differences. Application to a random sample

  2. Earned Value Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EVMS is a system for measuring project performance and progress in an objective manner by supporting earned value management. EVMS has the ability to combine...

  3. Earned value project management

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Quentin W

    2010-01-01

    Organizations that follow the principles of good Earned Value Management (EVM) create an environment that allows teams to successfully operate and thrive ? even in the face of challenges that could negatively impact their projects. Earned Value Project Management (EVPM) is a methodology used to measure and communicate the real physical progress of a project taking into account the work completed, the time taken and the costs incurred to complete that work. As a result, EVPM allows more educated and effective management decision-making, which helps evaluate and control project risk by measuring project progress in monetary terms. In the first two editions of Earned Value Project Management, Quentin W. Fleming and Joel M. Koppelman provided guidance for project management practitioners already familiar with EVPM, was well as those who were new to the use of this technique. The third edition expanded the information available on of EVPM for medium and smaller projects while still being relevant for larger projec...

  4. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    2005-01-01

    losses) by examining the earnings (changes) frequency distribution. This approach captures neither the magnitude nor how earnings are managed. Consequently, the relation between main "manageable" elements of working capital, current assets (among these the key components inventory and accounts receivable...... asset accounts by using the well known Jones model to "identify" the pre-managed earnings in order to compare these pre-managed earnings with the reported earnings It is shown that the combination of the research of earnings management based on studies of irregularities in the earnings frequency...... losses); and second: firm managers control "manageable" accounting accruals in anticipation of managing earnings....

  5. Ownership structure and earnings management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Jai, Hind

    2012-01-01

    Does poor legal protection of minority shareholders provide enough incentives for majority shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders and hide their unscrupulous behavior through accounting manipulations? This paper attempts to study the effect of ownership structure (ownership of the larg...... effect and result in lower earnings management or cause entrenchment effect and result in higher earnings management....... of the largest shareholder and identity of the largest shareholder) on earnings management in Morocco. Using annual estimates of discretionary accruals, we document that the presence of institutions as the largest shareholder has a negative impact on earnings management. Our results show that firms with foreign...... or local institutions as the largest shareholders engage in significantly lower earnings management than other firms. Our results are consistent with prior literature that considers institutions – which have greater resources, more sophistication than individual investors, and more relevant expertise...

  6. Management Information & Control for Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Provides the ability to track and manage earnings inquiries from the general public by automated selection of cases for quality review. It also provides Management...

  7. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: SUATU TELAAH PUSTAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Ary Gumanti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Earnings management is a new phenomenon, which has contributed to the development of accounting theory. The term earnings management occurs as a direct consequence of the efforts undertaken by managers or preparers of financial statements in an attempt to affect accounting information, especially earnings, for his/her own and/or company's benefits. Earnings management can not be interpreted as a negative action since it does not solely concern with earnings manipulation. Theoretically, there are many ways or methods available for managers or preparers of financial statements to affect reported earnings, which are considerably possible from the view of positive accounting theory. The positive accounting theory suggests that managers may have the incentives and intention to behave opportunistically for obtaining his/her private gains by selecting certain accounting methods. Empirical studies have shown that earnings management is evidenced in many economic contexts. This indicates that certain economic events or variables can be utilized as a mechanism for managing earnings. This evidence provides opportunity for accounting researchers, in particular, and management researchers to examine the possibility of occurrence of earnings management in various economic contexts. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Earnings management atau manajemen laba merupakan suatu fenomena baru yang telah menambah wacana perkembangan teori akuntansi. Istilah manajemen laba muncul sebagai konsekuensi langsung dari upaya-upaya manajer atau pembuat laporan keuangan untuk melakukan manajemen informasi akuntansi, khususnya laba (earnings, demi kepentingan pribadi dan/atau perusahaan. Manajemen laba itu sendiri tidak dapat diartikan sebagai suatu upaya negatif yang merugikan karena tidak selamanya manajemen laba berorientasi pada manipulasi laba. Secara teoritis ada banyak cara atau metode yang dapat ditempuh oleh manajer (pembuat laporan keuangan untuk mempengaruhi laba yang

  8. Debt Issues and Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Piloto Sincerre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to analyze earnings management (EM surrounding debenture issues of companies listed on the BM&FBOVESPA. EM is an intentional intervention in external financial reports in order to obtain some private gain. This practice is especially important at the time of issuing debentures because if earnings are inflated, investors may pay an artificially high price. To measure earnings management, current discretionary accruals were used as a proxy, based on the Modified Jones and Modified Jones with ROA econometric models. All of the regressions considered the fixed effects of the companies and the time series effects of the analyses. Evidence was found that companies inflate their financial results in the issuing period in order to positively influence their investors. The results suggest that there is EM in the quarter preceding the issue (t = - 1, indicating the influence that investors may have been under when making the decision to invest in debentures from these companies. In addition, it was verified that companies with higher debt, profitability, and sales growth ratios have higher levels of earnings management. The reputation of the auditor was not statistically significant regarding reductions in the level of management. The results also show that companies listed on Level II and New Market had higher levels of management when considering the Modified Jones with ROA model. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a greater level of earnings management in companies that issue debentures in the period preceding the event. Finally, the variable that is directly related to the level of earnings management is sales growth.

  9. Ownership structure and earnings management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Jai, Hind

    2012-01-01

    – as important monitoring device. Interestingly, our results show that ownership concentration – percentage shareholding of the largest shareholder – has no significant impact on earnings management. The result is in contrast to prior literature that suggests ownership concentration to either cause alignment...

  10. Market Response toward Accrual Earnings Management, Real Transactions, and Strategic Revenue Recognition - Earnings Management1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy Puspita Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the capital market response to a variety of earnings management tools i.e., accrual-based earnings management, real transaction activities, and strategic revenue recognition. We measure the market response to the information content of earnings by the earnings response coefficient (ERC. By using pooled-OLS regression from 748 firm-years data of public listed companies on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX in 2004-2009, we find some evidence of a negative association between earnings response coefficients and information content of earnings that contained earnings management. Our study find that real transactions earnings management in operating activities has negative association with earnings response coefficient, but we do not find any evidence from the other earnings management tools. The findings of this study imply that the market participants are able to capture a certain kind of earnings management behaviour that may reduce the earnings response coefficient.

  11. Earnings management, corporate governance and expense sticki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost and expense stickiness is an important issue in accounting and economics research, and the literature has shown that cost stickiness cannot be separated from managers’ motivations. In this paper, we examine the effects that earnings management has on expense stickiness. Defining small positive profits or small earnings increases as earnings management, we observe significant expense stickiness in the non-earnings-management sub-sample, compared with the earnings-management sub-sample. When we divide expenses into R&D, advertising and other general expenses, we find that managers control expenses mainly by decreasing general expenses. We further examine corporate governance’s effect on expense stickiness. Using factor analysis, we extract eight main factors and find that good corporate governance reduces expense stickiness. Finally, we investigate the interaction effects of earnings management and corporate governance on expense stickiness. The empirical results show that good corporate governance can further reduce cost stickiness, although its effect is not as strong as that of earnings management.

  12. Earnings management, corporate governance and expense stickiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Xue; Yun Hong

    2016-01-01

    Cost and expense stickiness is an important issue in accounting and economics research, and the literature has shown that cost stickiness cannot be separated from managers’ motivations. In this paper, we examine the effects that earnings management has on expense stickiness. Defining small positive profits or small earnings increases as earnings management, we observe significant expense stickiness in the non-earnings-management sub-sample, compared with the earnings-management sub-sample. When we divide expenses into R&D,advertising and other general expenses, we find that managers control expenses mainly by decreasing general expenses. We further examine corporate governance’s effect on expense stickiness. Using factor analysis, we extract eight main factors and find that good corporate governance reduces expense stickiness. Finally, we investigate the interaction effects of earnings management and corporate governance on expense stickiness. The empirical results show that good corporate governance can further reduce cost stickiness,although its effect is not as strong as that of earnings management.

  13. Do managers manipulate earnings prior to management buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Yaping; Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    To address the question as to whether managers intending to purchase their company by means of a levered buyout transaction manipulate earnings in order to buy their firm on the cheap, we study the different types of earnings management prior to the transaction: accrual management, real earnings

  14. Accrual-based and real earnings management to achieve earnings benchmarks: evidence from Finnish listed companies during 2005-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Henri

    2015-01-01

    This study examines earnings management to achieve earnings benchmarks. Earnings management is examined in terms of both accrual-based earnings management and real earnings management, the latter of which, is further decomposed into separate investigation of sales manipulation and overproduction. This study particularly focuses on earnings management associated with the following three earnings benchmarks: meeting analysts' earnings expectations, reporting positive profits and improving previ...

  15. How do nonprofit hospitals manage earnings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Andrew J; Van Horn, R Lawrence

    2005-07-01

    We hypothesize that, unlike for-profit firms, nonprofit hospitals have incentives to manage earnings to a range just above zero. We consider two ways managers can achieve this. They can adjust discretionary spending [Hoerger, T.J., 1991. 'Profit' variability in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Journal of Health Economics 10, 259-289.] and/or they can adjust accounting accruals using the flexibility inherent in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). To test our hypothesis we use regressions as well as tests of the distribution of earnings by Burgstahler and Dichev [Burgstahler, D., Dichev, I., 1997. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses. Journal of Accounting and Economics 24, 99-126.] on a sample of 1,204 hospitals and 8,179 hospital-year observations. Our tests support the use of discretionary spending and accounting accrual management. Like Hoerger (1991), we find evidence that nonprofit hospitals adjust discretionary spending to manage earnings. However, we also find significant use of discretionary accruals (e.g., adjustments to the third-party-allowance, and allowance for doubtful accounts) to meet earnings objectives. These findings have two important implications. First, the previous evidence by Hoerger that nonprofit hospitals show less variation in income may at least partly be explained by an accounting phenomenon. Second, our findings provide guidance to users of these financial statements in predicting the direction of likely bias in reported earnings.

  16. Voluntary Management Earnings Forecasts and Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramlich, Jeffrey; Sørensen, Ole Vagn

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether Danish managers exercise discretionary accruals to reach earnings forecast targets they voluntarily specify in conjunction with initial public offerings (IPOs). Because the Danish accounting and legal environment is more permissive than the US, we use Denmark...... as a natural laboratory for learning how business would occur without strict rules, enforcement and sanctions. Danish managers often volunteer pro forma financial statements for results that are expected to occur subsequent to the IPO. We examine a sample of 58 Danish firms that issue voluntary management...... earnings forecasts in connection with IPOs that occur between 1984 and 1996. The evidence we uncover strongly suggests that pre-managed earnings are adjusted toward these targets. In contrast with Kasznik's (1999 Kasznik, R. (1999). On the association between voluntary disclosure and earnings management...

  17. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Each year the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) sends SSA a file to be verified and matched against the Master Earnings File (MEF) and Employer Information File...

  18. Earnings Management Priorities of Private Family Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolmohammadi, Mohammad; Kvaal, Erlend; Langli, John Christian

    2010-01-01

    We compare earnings management priorities of private family and private non-family firms. Our study is made possible by the availability of a new and unique database on family relationships between CEOs, board members and owners of private Norwegian firms. We hypothesize and find that compared with private non-family firms, private family firms are likely to manage earnings downward. However, we also find that highly leveraged private family firms make more income increasing accounting choice...

  19. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system...

  20. Management’s causal reasoning on performance and earnings management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, W.A.A.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the association between the intensity of causal reasoning on performance in a firm’s annual management commentary and its earnings management propensity. Anticipated earnings management concerns are argued to constitute a significant accountability predicament, bringing management to

  1. THE ACCURACY OF EARNINGS FORECAST AND POST-IPO EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanthi Hutagaol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies showed that before IPO, many companies conducted earnings management in order to attractpotential investors through impressive earnings figures. This study aimed to investigate the tendency of earningsmanagement practice post - IPO. This practice of earnings management was motivated to preserve managers’reputation in achieving their earnings forecasts. Using a total of 165 IPOs in IDX during year 2000-2010, thisstudy employed descriptive analyses to identify the earnings management differences within the sample. A crosssectionanalysis was conducted to test the difference of earnings management indicator among the forecasters.Then, controlling for audit quality, ownership, firm size, and firm leverage, a regression analysis was performedto test the impact of earnings forecasts accuracy on the earnings management. The result of this research showedthat there was an indication that the forecasters conducted more earnings management than the non-forecasters.The study found that forecast accuracy was significantly related to managers’ behavior to manage post-IPOearnings. Further analysis showed that optimistic forecasters tended to engage more in more earning managementthan conservative forecasters. The cross section analysis confirmed that optimistic earnings forecast strengthenedthe relationship of forecast accuracy and post-IPO earnings management, while high audit quality failed toweaken it.

  2. A study on relationship between earnings response coefficient and earnings management: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khaksarian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to find the relationship between earnings response coefficient and earnings management on some selected firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE. The study uses Johns’s model to investigate the behavior of earnings management [Jones, J. J. (1991. Earnings management during import relief investigations. Journal of accounting research, 29(2, 193-228]. In addition, the proposed study uses Ohlson’s model [Ohlson, J. A. (1995. Earnings, book values, and dividends in equity valuation. Contemporary accounting research, 11(2, 661-687] to estimate earnings response coefficient. The study gathers the necessary information from 250 firms from TSE market over the period 2006-2012. The result of our survey indicates that there was a negative and meaningful relationship between earnings response coefficient and earnings management.

  3. Management's performance justification and failure to meet earnings thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Aerts, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We examine the intensity of management's performance justification as a remedial narrative impression management device, by investigating the association between behavioural earnings thresholds and causal language intensity on earnings-related outcomes in annual management commentary reports. Not me

  4. The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Accrual Earnings Management and Real Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliyah Wulandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on accrual earnings management and real earnings management. This study using control variables company size, KAP quality, and leverage. Sample of this study Obtained with purposive sampling for all non-financial company listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2001 to 2012. This study will use the data secondary, such as annual report. Data analysis will perform using multiple regressions. Result show that Corporate Social Responsibility is influence to accrual earnings management. Corporate Social Responsibility is a real influence to both abnormal earnings management of cash flow from operations and abnormal of production costsDOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i1.3116

  5. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (APR 2008) (a) In the performance of...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.234-2 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Earned Value Management... and Clauses 1852.234-2 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 1834.203-70(b) insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (NOV 2006) (a) In the performance of this contract,...

  7. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hui Hsu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010. In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms with more Level 3 assets and liabilities (i.e., less value relevant fair value measurement are more likely to recognize positive unrealized gains to meet or beat analyst forecast target. In addition, we find that only firms with weak corporate governance disclose more Level 3 fair value liabilities and recognize unrealized gains into reported earnings to meet or beat analyst forecast target. This evidence suggests that managers manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurement in order to manage reported earnings via the adoption of fair value option.

  8. A comparison of ethical perceptions of earnings-management practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonie Jooste

    2011-01-01

    .... However, in the light of increased financial frauds and failures, new and increased emphasis has been placed on the importance of the concepts of earnings quality and earnings-management practices...

  9. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  10. Earned Value Management (EVM) Implementation Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Earned Value Management (EVM) guidance for the effective application, implementation, and utilization of EVM on NASA programs, projects, major contracts and subcontracts in a consolidated reference document. EVM is a project management process that effectively integrates a project s scope of work with schedule and cost elements for optimum project planning and control. The goal is to achieve timely and accurate quantification of progress that will facilitate management by exception and enable early visibility into the nature and the magnitude of technical problems as well as the intended course and success of corrective actions.

  11. Perbedaan Persepsi Etis Mahasiswa Akuntansi terhadap Praktik Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether gender influences accounting students' perceptions of earnings management. Earnings management is the practice of making discretionary accounting choices or timing operating decisions to move reported earnings toward a desired goal. In this research, earning management has 4 four indicators: type of manipulation, direction of manipulation, materiality, and intention. Prior research reveals wide disagreement among both students and business executives regarding the ethical acceptability of earnings management. Male and female accounting students from Surabaya were evaluated using thirteen items that indicate and describe earnings management practices. No differences were detected between the responses of the male and female students or between the working and non-working students. The result shows that the practice of earnings management is perceived similarly in all groups of students studied.

  12. PRAKTIK EARNING MANAGEMENT DALAM PERSPEKTIF ETIKA SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diska Arliena Hafni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Earning Management representing one of choice to manager in determining policy of accountancy to reach specific purposes. The target is to maximize manager utilitas and improve company value. This target relate manager motivation in earning management praktik as: getting high bonus, debt in bond fund, trust of public in capital market, low tax expense, achievement which both for CEO, and positive reaction of investor in IPO. With existence of the target of profit management to maximize utilitas, hence profit management activity can be classified into ethics understanding of utilitarianisme. But which still become question in earning management will delivering many benefit to management agent or principle, particularly all stakeholder

  13. Accrual-based and real earnings management and political connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Geert; Nandy, Monomita; Weitzel, Utz; Lodh, Suman

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether the trade-off between real and accrual-based management strategies differs between firms with and without political connections. We argue that politically connected firms are more likely to substitute real earnings management for accrual-based earnings management than non

  14. Do Managers Manipulate Earnings Prior to Management Buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Y.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: To address the question as to whether managers manipulate accounting numbers downwards prior to management buyouts (MBOs), we implement an industry-adjusted buyout-specific approach and receive an affirmative answer. In UK buyout companies, negative earnings manipulation (understating the

  15. Do Managers Manipulate Earnings Prior to Management Buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Y.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: To address the question as to whether managers manipulate accounting numbers downwards prior to management buyouts (MBOs), we implement an industry-adjusted buyout-specific approach and receive an affirmative answer. In UK buyout companies, negative earnings manipulation (understating the

  16. Corporate Governance Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan. Using a panel data set of all industrial and service firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE during the period 2009-2013; this paper provides evidence that earnings management is affected negatively by corporate governance quality. In particular; the results show that earnings management is affected negatively by overall categories of governance index represented by board of director, board meeting, Audit and nomination and compensation committee. Furthermore, results suggest that corporate governance quality has increased over time. Thus, its ability to constrain earnings management has also increased. It is recommended to industrial and service companies to boost their compliance with corporate governance code to improve the integrity and reliability of financial reports. This paper fills a gap in the literature by providing evidence about the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan as an emerging economy.

  17. Earned Value Management: Making it Personal; Making it Work!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    teammates regularly. Managers intervene only when there are significant delays. Each developer "buys into" her/his commitments because she/he made...Value (= BCWP) EVM Earned Value Management IQA Internal Quality Audit Performance BCWP / ACWP QMS Quality Management System WBS Work Breakdown Structure ...Earned Value Management : © 2010 Judy Bamberger Making it Personal; Making it Work Printed: April 3, 2011 / 9:03 PM 1 Created: 101002/v0.1 EVM

  18. Information asymmetry, mutual funds and earnings management: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhao Dai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how information asymmetry and mutual fund ownership affect listed companies’ earnings management. We show that (1 reducing information asymmetry improves firms’ earnings management behavior; (2 relative to short-term mutual funds, long-term mutual funds promote earnings quality by adopting a monitoring role; and (3 by dividing firms into high/low information asymmetry groups, we find that the information environment significantly increases the effect of long-term mutual funds on firms’ earnings management. In this paper, we provide new evidence for the role that institutional investors play in a typical emerging capital market. Our results have clear policy implications: to increase earnings quality, it is essential to improve information transparency and develop long-term institutional investors.

  19. Information asymmetry, mutual funds and earnings management: Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunhao; Dai; Dongmin; Kong; Li; Wang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how information asymmetry and mutual fund ownership affect listed companies’ earnings management. We show that(1) reducing information asymmetry improves firms’ earnings management behavior;(2)relative to short-term mutual funds, long-term mutual funds promote earnings quality by adopting a monitoring role; and(3) by dividing firms into high/low information asymmetry groups, we find that the information environment significantly increases the effect of long-term mutual funds on firms’ earnings management. In this paper, we provide new evidence for the role that institutional investors play in a typical emerging capital market. Our results have clear policy implications: to increase earnings quality, it is essential to improve information transparency and develop long-term institutional investors.

  20. A comparison of ethical perceptions of earnings-management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Jooste

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, Bruns and Merchant (1990 surveyed earnings-management practices and asked the readership of the Harvard Business Review to rate the acceptability of those practices. Prior to the Bruns and Merchant (1990 study, the morality of short-term earnings-management was of little concern to researchers and accounting practitioners. However, in the light of increased financial frauds and failures, new and increased emphasis has been placed on the importance of the concepts of earnings quality and earnings-management practices. Despite increased research focusing on business ethics since 1990, there is little evidence that the profession is educating accountants about earnings-management practices. This study compares the results of studies on earnings-management practices. Students and business managers were surveyed at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU and these results were compared to studies prior to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 in the USA. The aim of the study is to determine if there have been changes in attitudes towards earnings-management practices since the acceptance of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

  1. Earning Management and Dividend Policy: Evidence from Pakistani Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the impact of earning management on dividend payout policy. This research is conducted by taking the data of textile industry from the year of 1966 to 2008. All the companies listed with Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE are used as sample. Measurement of dividend policy is done by calculating dividend payout ratio. The dividend payout (DPO is taken as a dependent variable and the earning management (EM is taken as an independent variable, discretionary accruals are taken as proxy of earning management and three variables are treated as control variables; return on equity (ROE, size of the firm (SF and self finance ratio (SFR. Results explored earning management and all control variables have negative relation with dividend payout policy.

  2. IFRS ADOPTION AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN BRAZILIAN PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto Midoguti Joia; Silvio Hiroshi Nakao

    2014-01-01

    .... This study was aimed at verifying any changes in the earnings management levels after 2010 and whether this happened in function of the full adoption of the IFRS by the Brazilian publicly traded companies...

  3. Earning Management and Dividend Policy: Evidence from Pakistani Textile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aurangzeb; Tasfoura Dilawer

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze the impact of earning management on dividend payout policy. This research is conducted by taking the data of textile industry from the year of 1966 to 2008. All the companies listed with Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) are used as sample. Measurement of dividend policy is done by calculating dividend payout ratio. The dividend payout (DPO) is taken as a dependent variable and the earning management (EM) is taken as an independent variable, discretionary acc...

  4. Earnings Management, Corporate Tax Shelters, and Book–Tax Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Mihir A.; Dharmapala, Dhammika

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews recent evidence analyzing the link between earnings management and corporate tax avoidance and considers the implications for how policymakers should evaluate the financial reporting environment facing firms. A real–world tax shelter is dissected to illustrate how tax shelter products enable managers to manipulate reported earnings. A stylized example is developed that generalizes this view of corporate tax avoidance and empirical evidence consistent with this view is discu...

  5. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT, AUDIT QUALITY AND LEGAL ENVIRONMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Unsal Memis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between earnings management-audit quality and earnings management-legal system quality by using 1507 firms’ observations from listed companies in private firms across different 8 emerging countries. Consistent with previous research, differentiation between Big 4 and non-Big 4 audit firms are used as a audit quality proxy and discretionary accruals are used to measure the earnings management. According to the results, only for Brazilian and Mexican companies, there is significant relationship between the discretionary accruals and audit quality. For the other countries there is not significant relationship. Furthermore efficiency of the legal system helps decrease earnings management incentives. Along with results, the big four auditors do not constrain the earnings management incentives in every emerging country but effective legal system does. In this analysis we used other earnings management related variables like the size of the firms, leverage, lagged ROA of the firms which have loss in the previous year and Tobin Q as control variables.

  6. Social Desirability Bias and Earnings Management around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niszczota Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test whether inter-country variation in individuals’ tendency to conform, as measured by the Lie (social desirability scale used in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, can explain differences in the propensity to employ corporate earnings management around the world. Such a link is feasible, given that survey data suggest executives tend to be under severe pressure to meet earnings benchmarks, to which they often succumb by engaging in earnings management (to the detriment of the company’s long-term prospects. We hypothesize that in countries where the propensity to act in a socially desirable (outsider-satisfying way is stronger, earnings management should be more prevalent. Research results support our hypothesis, and demonstrate the existence of a positive relationship between the prevalence of earnings management in a country and the mean score of individuals from that country on the Eysenck Lie scale, which further evidences that capital market pressure is a significant determinant of earnings management.

  7. Ownership Structure and Earnings Management in periods of Executive Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Rasmus S.

    This paper reports evidence of earnings management associated with non-routine executive changes in a Danish context. It is hypothesised that incoming executives in non-owner-controlled companies decrease earnings by means of discretionary accruals in the financial statements relating to the period...... this is not the case for owner-controlled companies. Also, a test shows a significant difference in earnings management in owner- versus non-owner-controlled companies around executive changes. The study elaborates on the research in the area by including ownership structure. Furthermore, the study is carried out...... of the executive change. A modified, modified Jones model is used to divide income before tax into discretionary and non-discretionary components. The empirical evidence is consistent with the hypothesis. Non-owner-controlled companies significantly decrease earnings around executive changes, while...

  8. The Islamic Capital Market Response to the Real Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Yuliana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove the effect of the company's status, i.e membership on the Islamic capital market and the status as suspect firm, as a determinant of real earnings management (REM. REM is conducted by abnormally increasing sales, increasing production and reducing discretionary costs in order to achieve a certain earnings target. This study uses Earnings Distribution Analysis (EDA technique, which refers to the Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979 to identify the suspect firms. Suspect firms are companies that have small positive earnings. The samples of this research are companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2011 and 2012. Based on the result of regression analysis, hypothesis testing results show that the suspect firms conduct real earnings management in all three types of activities more aggressively than the non-suspect firms. Furthermore, this study also showed empirical evidence that there are differences in real earnings management actions between companies listed in the Islamic capital market compared to conventional capital markets. Then, this study also showed that the Islamic capital market is more appropriate in response to the REM than the conventional capital market.

  9. Seasoned Equity Offerings and"Herd Behavior"of Earnings Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A model to explain the dynamic characters of earnings management was developed based on the interaction among several firms' disclosure policies. Under the condition of incomplete information, each firm's earnings management will be influenced by the earnings disclosure policies of other firms. It can lead to "herd behavior" of earnings management. This paper studies the relationship between earnings manipulation and rights issue policy based on the distribution of earnings after management. The results indicate that Chinese listed companies trend towards controlling ROE in the narrow ranges just above 6% and 10% .Therefore, "herd behavior" exists in the earnings management.

  10. Earning management: analysis of publications in brazilian accounting journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Gomes Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to identify characteristics, from the perspective of social networks, of the scientific literature on earning management in Brazilian accounting journals. Specifically, were identified: a authors and their social networks of scientific production; b researched topics, models for accruals detection, authors’ networks and the period studied; c methodological procedures used. A bibliometric survey, with a quantitative approach was performed through the analysis of 17 Brazilian accounting journals, since their first edition until the year 2010. Out of them, 10 published articles having the theme earning management in the title, abstract or keywords. The 32 identified articles were submitted to content analysis and then the data were presented from the perspective of social networks. The survey results show that: the authors and their social networks of production originates mostly from Universidade de São Paulo (USP; the most researched theme was the methods or means to conduct earnings management, and accruals measurement models, with emphasis on Kang and Sivaramakrishnan Model; the descriptive research, based on document and quantitative approach were the most commonly used forms in the articles researched. It is noteworthy that structural gaps are the topics, such as compensation plans, political costs and earnings management in different contractual environments. The research results can contribute to academia to highlight some features of the earnings management theme and its researchers, in the field of publications in Brazilian accounting journals.

  11. Earnings management and the quality of the financial reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Shuli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last time in the development of the financial reporting and frauds there have emerged several problems related to the quality of several indicators on the financial statements and especially the quality of the earnings indicator. According to the literature on the financial reporting it results that companies have the possibility to smooth earnings or manage earnings as a tool to avoid reporting a loss. While the economic entities are using the national and international accounting standards, the working practice of accountants/auditors shows episodes of the management of the earnings. One of the conclusions of this paper is that there is not enough information among accounting professionals regarding the practices of the earnings management. One of the recommendations is to include issues of fair and ethical reporting in the modules of the faculty of economics especially on the master level.Based on the many studies of this issue in other countries, this paper will show if this phenomenon is known in Albania and furthermore how important it is for the quality of the financial reporting in Albania. In order to achieve this objective it has been done a review of related studies. Because of the new legislation on the financial reporting being implemented in our country the recommendations of this paper may be valuable to the enforcement of the accounting standards mechanisms.

  12. Earnings management: estudo de caso do Banco Nacional Earnings management: Central Bank's case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo promove um estudo de caso de uma das maiores instituições financeiras brasileiras da década de 90: o Banco Nacional S.A. (BNSA. O BNSA teve sua intervenção decretada pelo Banco Central do Brasil em 1995, após ser identificada a existência de ativos insolventes, originados por gerenciamento fraudulento dos lucros da entidade. O estudo visa investigar a gestão fraudulenta de lucros do Banco Nacional S.A., tanto nos seus aspectos motivadores, quanto em relação aos seus efeitos na composição patrimonial da entidade. A abordagem metodológica contempla: (i pesquisa explicativa, quanto aos objetivos do estudo; (ii estudo de caso, quanto aos procedimentos aplicados e (iii pesquisa qualitativa, quanto à abordagem do problema. Constatou-se que pode haver interesses inconciliáveis entre o agente e o principal, conforme disciplinado pela teoria da agência. O artigo, ainda, ressalta a importância do conhecimento dos dados financeiros na identificação dos fatos de interesse, dos ajustes pertinentes e da correta evidenciação da situação patrimonial da entidade.This paper features a case study of one of the main Brazilian banks of the 90's: Banco Nacional S/A (BNSA. The bank had its intervention decreed by Central Bank of Brazil in 1995, after the existence of insolvent assets, originated by fraudulent earnings management, were identified. The study aims to investigate the fraudulent earnings management of BNSA, both in motivational aspects and in relation of the effects in its balance sheet structure. The methodological approach of the study encompasses: (i an explanatory research, regarding the intended aim of the study; (ii case study, regarding the applied procedures; and (iii a qualitative research, regarding the approach to the problem. It was concluded that irreconcilable conflicts of interest might occur between the agent and the principal, according to the Agency Theory. The paper also emphasizes the importance of

  13. CEO origin and accrual-based earnings management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.F. Kuang; B. Qin; J. Wielhouwer

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of CEO origin on accrual-based earnings management and how these effects evolve over the CEO's tenure in office. Compared with CEOs promoted from within the company, CEOs recruited from outside have a stronger incentive to demonstrate their abilities in the initial

  14. International Financial Reporting Standards and Earnings Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Timm Rathke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level of earnings management in Latin America after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and analyzes the role of cross-listing in the United States. The literature on earnings management in less developed countries is still under construction, and few studies focus on this issue, especially with respect to Latin America, despite its relevant role in the global economy. This paper fills this gap in the literature as it analyzes the level of IFRS earnings management regarding the first and main Latin American countries applying IFRS (Brazil and Chile, when compared to the main Anglo-Saxon countries with IFRS tradition (United Kingdom and Australia, and with the main Continental European economies (France and Germany. The results show that Latin American firms present a higher level of earnings management than Continental European and Anglo-Saxon firms, and this opportunistic behavior remains significant when only global players with cross-listing in the United States are analyzed. Thus, even with a unique set of high quality accounting standards (IFRS and strong reporting incentives, countries’ specific characteristics still play an important role in the way IFRS is implemented in each country.

  15. An Investigation into Managers' Language Use in Earnings Press Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracey Jean

    2011-01-01

    For years, researchers have examined financial data in corporate earnings announcements and their influence on market participants. More recently, a body of research has been developing recognizing the impact of narrative disclosures and managers' deliberate language choices. However, no prior studies have investigated those language choices of…

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility and Earnings Management : Evidence from Asian Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kang, Feng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how earnings management is associated with corporate social responsibility (CSR) and investor protection with 139 firms in ten Asian countries. In Asia, CSR is increasingly attracting attention but the legal system generally is perceived as being poor. We hypothesize that there is an

  17. Earnings Management Behaviour of Telecom India: A Review of MTNL and Bharti Airtel Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Goel

    2014-01-01

    Earnings behaviour of the management is the key concern for every shareholder. This has assumed importance on account of increasing number of corporate frauds at the global level. It is identified by the level of accruals exercised by the management as it forms the basis of earnings management. Telecom sector being a part of service sector is more vulnerable to this discretionary earnings behaviour. Therefore, the present paper attempts to highlight earnings management behavior in Indian tele...

  18. Information Environment, Timing of Annual Reports and Earnings Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiongyuan; Zhang, Peng; Gu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that both timing patterns and the dealings of accruals are essentials for the corporate disclosure, especially for the mandatory ones. While earnings management, a key technology that is widely adapted during this procedure, instead of facilitating its neutral operation, renders private gains. (Schipper, 1989), the strategy of disclosure based on the timing patterns can help the managers to amplify the effect from the good news but to eliminate those from the bad one...

  19. The influence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems' performance on earnings management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Kuen-Chang; Liu, Jau-Yang; Lin, Sin-Jin; Chou, Yu-Wei

    2012-11-01

    We analyse whether there is a linkage between performance measures of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems and earnings management. We find that earnings management decreases with the higher performance of ERP systems. The empirical result is as expected. We further analyse how the dimension of the DeLone and McLean model of information systems success affects earnings management. We find that the relationship between the performance of ERP systems and earnings management depends on System Quality after ERP implementation. The more System Quality improves, the more earnings management is reduced.

  20. Geography, business strategy and accruals-based earnings management

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Mei Sen

    2017-01-01

    Clusters are characterized as geographical concentrations of firms in a similar industry with the benefits of sharing resources and creating better opportunities for innovation. This study examines the effect of geographical cluster’s characteristics – cluster size and cluster knowledge, on the earnings management behavior of firms. Cluster size refers to the industry density of firms in a region, while cluster knowledge is a proxy for innovation activities within the same geographic area. ...

  1. Detectando Earnings management no Brasil: estimando os accruals discricionários Detecting Earnings management in Brazil: estimating discretionary accruals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os modelos clássicos existentes na literatura acadêmica internacional para estimar os accruals discricionários, que são uma proxy empírica para detectar Earnings Manangement. Adicionalmente, evidencia que as Cias. Brasileiras "gerenciam" os seus resultados contábeis como resposta a estímulos do mercado de capitais. O primeiro passo é elucidar o significado de alguns conceitos relevantes tais como: accruals totais e accruals discricionários. Posteriormente, após uma análise crítica dos principais modelos de accruals agregados, implementar no contexto de empresas brasileiras, o modelo Kang e Silvaramakrishnan (1995, diagnosticado como o tecnicamente mais acurado para o Brasil. Para atestar a validade do modelo aplicado, investigamse circunstâncias em que o incentivo para gerenciamento de resultados é particularmente forte. Os resultados corroboram as hipóteses de gerenciamento de resultados para: a Evitar reportar perdas; b Sustentar o desempenho recente e c Piorar o resultado presente em prol de resultados futuros (take a bath.This paper analyzes classic models used in international academic literature to estimate discretionary accruals, which are an empirical proxy to detect earnings management. Additionally, it provides evidence that Brazilian public companies practice earnings management in response to capital market incentives. Initially, some important concepts are clarified, such as accruals and discretionary accruals. After a critical analysis of the main accruals model, the Kang & Silvaramakrishnan model (1995 was implemented in the context of Brazilian companies, which is technically considered the most accurate model for Brazil. To check the robustness of the model, circumstances were investigated where there were strong incentives to practice earnings management. The results confirm the earnings management hypothesis. Evidences were documented that Brazilian public companies manage their earnings to

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting and Earnings Management: The Role of Political Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Yip

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Francis, Nanda and Olsson (2008 proposed that earnings quality influence firms’ disclosure decisions. We examine whether Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure is related to earnings management and if the relationship is mitigated by political cost considerations or by the firm’s ethical predisposition. We argue that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is context-specific and we consider one particular context, the political environment. We test our hypotheses by regressing earnings management on CSR disclosure while controlling for other factors that may affect the level of earnings management. We find a significant relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management, and more specifically, we find evidence of a negative (complementary relationship in the oil and gas industry while we find evidence of a positive (substitutive relationship in the food industry. The evidence supports the view that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is affected by the political environment and not by ethical considerations.

  3. EARNING MANAGEMENT, STOCK RETURN AND COMPANIES’ MERGER AND ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Handoyo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the practice earning management before merger and acquisitionannouncement. It also aimed to examine the differences of stock return before and after merger and acquisitionannouncement among companies that were listed on Indonesia stock exchange. The samples were 35 companiesthat did merger and acquisition and listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX period 2004–2013. Then, thedata analysis was performed by computer statistic program SPSS. These samples were selected by usingpurposive sampling method. Analysis hypothesis used Independent sample t-test and Wilcoxon sign rankstest. The result of independent sample t-test showed that the companies tended to do earning managementbefore merger and acquisitions. While the result of Wilcoxon signed ranks test showed that there was nodifference between stock return before and after merger and acquisition announcement.

  4. 业绩预告披露与盈余管理研究%Earnings Forecasts and Earnings Management Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔君; 宋海燕

    2012-01-01

    Since the existence of earnings management is information asymmetry between investors and manage ment. Earnings forecast , to a large extent will affect the assessment of investors in listed companies and their invest ment decisions. This paper disclosures notice from the performance characteristics. The study notices the relation ship between earnings forecast and earnings management, Including notice of the nature of the performance, notice of accuracy ,notice errors of the relationship with earnings management. The results shows that: notice issued per formance of the company, higher levels of earnings management. Notice and the notice of the accuracy of earnings management during the current and forecast levels are related to the level of forecast errors and negative eamings management. When the message type a different time, predict whether or not mandatory and the "change" of the different levels of earnings management. Conclusion supports the results of listed company financial reports meet the notice of the earnings forecast.%盈余管理存在的根本原因在于投资者与管理层之间的信息不对称。业绩预告作为上市公司未来经营成果、财务状况与现金流量的预测,在很大程度上会影响投资者对上市公司的评估及其投资决策。从业绩预告披露的特征方面出发,研究业绩预告披露与盈余管理之间的关系,包括业绩预告的性质、预告精确度、预告误差分别与盈余管理程度的关系,结果发现:发布业绩预告的公司,盈余管理水平更高。预告精确度以及预告期间与预测当期盈余管理水平正相关,预测误差与盈余管理水平负相关。当消息类型不同的时候,预测的强制性与否以及"变脸"对盈余管理水平的影响不同。结论支持了上市公司财务报告迎合业绩预告披露的说法。

  5. Analysis of Corporate Income Tax Rate Changes and Earnings Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyadi, Martin Surya; Anwar, Yunita; Yanny, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Özet: It is known that tax is one of the biggest contributor to state income all over the world. For Indonesia, income tax contribute an average of 36% to the state’s income. With the high contribution of tax, government could adjust the income tax rate in order to increase the tax income. However, the high rate of income tax would have an impact to investment decision as tax will reduce the net income. Usually the taxpayer will apply an earnings management in order to avoid high tax payme...

  6. THE EFFECT OF COMPANY DIVERSIFICATION TOWARDS EARNING MANAGEMENT MODERATED BY MANAGERIAL OWNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kusumaningtyas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of diversification towards earnings management moderated by managerial ownership. The sample in this research is 48 manufacturing companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange period 2009- 2013. Purposive sampling was utilized as a sampling technique in this study. This research used moderating regression analysis to examine the proposed of hypothesis. The result found that diversification has significant positive effect on earnings management. Managerial ownership also has significant positive effect in moderating the relationship between corporate diversification with earnings management. While the three control variables such as company size (size, the company’s growth (growth and leverage have no significant effect on earnings management.

  7. IFRS ADOPTION AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: MODERATING ROLE OF INSTITUTIONAL OWNERSHIP IN NIGERIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musa Nura Dakata; Kamardin Hasn

    2016-01-01

    ...) to the international financial reporting standards (IFRS). However, it is been debated without consensus whether the adoption of the IFRS lead to the reduction of opportunistic earnings management...

  8.  Debates and studies on earnings management: a geographical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Callao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available  Earnings management has received considerable attention in the accounting literature. However some aspects and environments are still unexplored. We present the debates on this subject: real transactions or accounting practices, respecting the rules or crossing the boundaries, efficient or opportunistic earnings management. Based on diligent investigation of more than two hundred papers, we present the evolution of the earnings management concept and present our own definition. Finally, we conduct a literature review on earnings management from a geographical perspective.

  9. IFRS ADOPTION AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN BRAZILIAN PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Midoguti Joia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Brazil adopted the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Studies involving publicly traded companies in different countries around the world indicate that these new standards tend to improve the information quality and make it more comparable and transparent. This study was aimed at verifying any changes in the earnings management levels after 2010 and whether this happened in function of the full adoption of the IFRS by the Brazilian publicly traded companies (except for financial institutions. The data were extracted from the three-monthly financial statements of the databases from Economática and the Brazilian Securities Commission for the period from 2006 till 2011. To achieve the research objectives, two tests were applied. The first showed that the average discretionary accruals, calculated through the Modified Jones Model, were lower after 2010. Next, the regression analysis was elaborated, using panel data with Newey-West’s correction. The results did not confirm the hypothesis that the adoption of the IFRS affected the earnings management level in the period under analysis, but showed that the size and indebtedness significantly explain the discretionary accruals, independently of the adoption of the IFRS. The results suggest that larger companies with a large proportion of own capital tend to produce higher quality reports, independently of the adoption of the IFRS.

  10. Earnings Management before Rights Issues and the Subsequent Cash Transfer in Chinese Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei

    2009-08-01

    Unlike private enterprises in developed markets, political influence is profound upon Chinese state-dominated firms. Under this consideration, this paper demonstrates how political impact interferes in Chinese managers' decisions. State-assigned managers were found to deliberately transfer cash raised via rights issues from the public shareholders to the state by cash dividends in order to please Chinese politicians. Especially, to meet the regulatory requirement of rights issues, managers from firms which distributed more cash dividends in the same year of rights issues were more likely to inflate earnings before rights issues. The earnings inflation which managers use to boost firm's incomes is defined as "earnings management." Furthermore, the empirical results also exhibit that firm's close relationship with the state enables managers to obtain approvals of rights issues easily, which reduces the firm's earnings management tendency. The manager's incentives of earnings management is closely attributed to the political intervention.

  11. 48 CFR 352.234-3 - Full earned value management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-3 Section 352.234-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-3 Full earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(c), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Full Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The...

  12. 48 CFR 352.234-4 - Partial earned value management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-4 Section 352.234-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-4 Partial earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(d), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Partial Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a)...

  13. Executive stock options and earnings management in the portuguese listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, executive stock options align managers’ and shareholders’ interests. However, previous studies have indicated that stock options may engender manager-shareholder conflicts (Jensen, 2005 and create incentives for earnings management (e.g. Jensen, Murphy and Wruck, 2004; Burns and Kedia, 2006; Efendi, Srivastava and Swanson, 2007. Therefore, this paper examines the implications of stock option grants on earnings management. In particular, we address the following question: Does stock options grant induce incentives for earnings management? Using a sample of 33 non-financial listed Portuguese firms-year from 2003 to 2010, we find that managers are more likely to engage in earnings management when they hold stock options. This study suggests that stock options may not always be effective in aligning the interests of managers and shareholders. Rather, executive stock options seem to affect the informational quality of earnings negatively, and consequently reduce the quality and value relevance of published financial data.

  14. Bank earnings management through loan loss provisions : A double-edged sword?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Norden (Lars); A. Stoian (Anamaria)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate whether banks use of loan loss provisions (LLPs) to manage the level and volatility of their earnings and examine the implications for bank risk. We find that banks use LLPs to manage the level and volatility of earnings downward when they are abnormally high and when expe

  15. Real economic activity and earnings management from a cross-country perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tylsch (Romy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides empirical evidence on differences in the extent of earnings management across countries. I use an earnings management detection model developed by Leuz et al. (2003) to determine this extent in Germany, Japan, and the USA. Based on previous research, I hypothesize due

  16. Real economic activity and earnings management from a cross-country perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tylsch (Romy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides empirical evidence on differences in the extent of earnings management across countries. I use an earnings management detection model developed by Leuz et al. (2003) to determine this extent in Germany, Japan, and the USA. Based on previous research, I hypothesize due

  17. Development of Earned Value Management System in PP Construction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Moon, Byeong-Suk [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The NPP construction project has been determined in the form of a rather lump-sum contract with little details in resource requirements and estimations. Therefore, Earned Value Management System (EVMS) needs to be applied to the NPP projects in order to incorporate scope, schedule and cost targeting efficient and to control effective resource. The NPP projects in Korea have not applied EVMS. EVMS has phased in NPP construction project by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP), playing the role of project master manager in NPP construction in Korea. This study presented the EVMS unlike other system. Accordingly, EVMS is expected to reduce risks and increase efficiency in the NPP project. The NPP construction project is a technology ntensive multi-construction project that should be based on economics and stability and that takes over ten years to complete, requiring investment of billions of dollars, a great number of persons concerned, and a vast store of human and material resources. KHNP is phasing EVMS in NPP construction project for overseas contracts and the efficient management, the paper presented the pilot EVMS in KHNP. It expected to control and identify of NPP construction projects by using EVMS as a computerized management tool which is quantitative and objective management criteria. It is necessary to improve of the contract system related EVM for enterprise system, and the effort will be required, such as on-site support and training so that this can be done in collaboration with the relevant stakeholders.

  18. Expropriation Risk Through Real Earnings Management on Islamic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surifah Surifah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model of expropriation through real earnings management (REM in the Indonesian Islamic banking industry. The purpose of this study is to test a new model by examining the relationship between REM, bank ownership types, and performance of Islamic banks in Indonesia in the period of 2006 - 2013. This study finds that there are significant differences in REM and performance scores in banks with different ownership types. The REM and performance scores for family-owned banks and private-owned banks are relatively similar. However, Islamic banks with government as the controlling shareholder have the highest REM scores and the lowest performance scores. In contrast, foreign-owned banks have the lowest REM scores and the highest performance scores. The indications of expropriation can be seen from the magnitude of REM. A high REM can lower profitability and efficiency while increasing the risks faced by Islamic banks in Indonesia.

  19. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC CRISES IN THE BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldy Fernandes da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 economic crisis challenged accounting, either demanding recognition and measurement criteria well adjusted to this scenario or even questioning its ability to inform appropriately entities’ financial situation before the crisis occurred. So, our purpose was to verify if during economic crises listed companies in the Brazilian capital market tended to adopt earnings management (EM practices. Our sample consisted in 3,772 firm-years observations, in 13 years – 1997 to 2009. We developed regression models considering discretionary accruals as EM proxy (dependent variable, crisis as a macroeconomic factor (dummy variable of interest, ROA, market-to-book, size, leverage, foreign direct investment (FDI and sector as control variables. Different for previous EM studies two approaches were used in data panel regression models and multiple crises were observed simultaneously. Statistics tests revealed a significant relation between economic crisis and EM practices concerning listed companies in Brazil in both approaches used.

  20. Listed companies’ income tax planning and earnings management: Based on China’s capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanwei Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Ministry of Finance issued the new China accounting standards on February 15, 2006(CAS2006, which require the listed companies to use the balance sheet liability method for the income tax accounting. Thus, it give us an opportunity to investigate the earnings management of listed companies from the perspective of income tax. Under the balance sheet liability method, because conforming earnings management strategies and nonconforming earnings management strategies have different income tax cost and the current income payable will also vary, the listed companies need to choose conforming earnings management and nonconforming earnings management. Our research just try to investigate the relationship between the listed companies’ income tax planning and earnings management on the background of this new system.Design/methodology/approach: Our research approach combines theoretical analysis and empirical analysis. This paper first make a deep theoretical analysis on the listed companies’ choice between pretax earnings management activities that have current income tax consequences (book-tax ‘conforming earnings management’ and earnings management activities that do not have current income tax consequences (book-tax ‘nonconforming earnings management’,and then we exemplify our theory. Next, we come up with two hypotheses based on the theoretical analysis, build up a restatement model and conduct the empirical examination. The empirical analysis employs the method of descriptive statistics and logistic regression.Findings: When engaging in earnings management, listed companies will trade off conforming and nonconforming earnings management from the perspective of income tax cost. We find that managers’ motivations and purposes will influence the choice. On the one hand, when companies are facing the punishment of the suspension or termination of the listing for three consecutive losses, they will have a great incentive to

  1. A study on relationship between audit quality and earnings management in Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masihi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between audit quality and earnings management in Iranian banking industry. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from 18 different Iranian banks over the period 2005-2012. The study considers the effects of three independent variables including type of auditing, tenure of auditing and size of bank on earning managements. The result of our survey has indicated that there was a meaningful and reverse relationship between type of accounting and earnings management. In addition, the longer an auditing firm perform auditing program, the better the firm reports earnings management. Finally, as the size of firm increases, there is a better earnings management.

  2. EXTREME PROGRAMMING PROJECT PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT BY STATISTICAL EARNED VALUE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Lu; Li Lu

    2013-01-01

    As an important project type of Agile Software Development, the performance evaluation and prediction for eXtreme Programming project has significant meanings. Targeting on the short release life cycle and concurrent multitask features, a statistical earned value analysis model is proposed. Based on the traditional concept of earned value analysis, the statistical earned value analysis model introduced Elastic Net regression function and Laplacian hierarchical model to construct a Bayesian El...

  3. Aplicação do earned value em projetos complexos - um estudo de caso na EMBRAER On the use of the earned value management system approach for complex projects in the brazilian aircraft industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdala Giacometti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O gerenciamento do Earned Value vem obtendo aceitação crescente nas empresas e entre profissionais tais como gerentes de projetos e funcionais, devido à sua efetividade no controle dos resultados do projeto. Earned Value é definido como uma ferramenta de controle que permite avaliar simultaneamente de maneira quantitativa como se encontram os custos e prazos em uma data de controle, permitindo também prever a data de término e o valor gasto (VARGAS, 2005. Este artigo avalia a aplicabilidade do earned value como ferramenta de controle de projetos aeronáuticos na EMBRAER. Contribui também para a aplicação do earned value no controle de projetos complexos. Utilizam-se como técnicas de coleta de dados: entrevistas, observações e análise documental. Conclui-se que o earned value é utilizado apenas nos projetos da área de aviação de defesa, por ser uma exigência contratual. O uso do earned value nas áreas de programas executivos e comerciais restringe-se às fases de definição conjunta, projeto detalhado e certificação, pois o escopo do projeto é bem definido, o cronograma é detalhado e os custos são previstos e obtidos com maior acuidade. Nas demais fases de desenvolvimento do produto, o uso do earned value é restrito, devido principalmente às constantes alterações de escopo do produto e do projeto.Earned value management has been increasingly used by companies as well as by functional and project managers due to its effectiveness in controlling project results. It is defined as a control tool that enables a quantitative and simultaneous evaluation of the costs and process time within a pre-scheduled date as well as predicting the deadline and the total value spent (VARGAS, 2005.This study evaluates the earned value applicability as a tool to control aeronautical projects at EMBRAER, A Brazilian Aeronautical Company. It is also concerned with the application of earned value in the control of complex projects. The data

  4. Accounting ethics – an empirical investigation of managing short-term earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Jooste

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Short-term earnings are managed in most, if not all, companies. The management of short-term earnings is vulnerable to misinterpretation, manipulation or deliberate deception even if these misleading accounting practices are prohibited by accounting regulations. Hence, the problem with managing short-term earnings is that it becomes an ethical practice, regardless of who is or may be affected by the practice or the information that flows from it. As a result of the publicity received by Enron and WorldCom on financial failures and fraud, and the subsequent legislation, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, students are expected to understand the morality issues of earnings-management practices. Therefore, the ethics of earnings-management practices affects the accounting educator. Accounting students and business managers were surveyed and the findings indicated that there is no significant difference between gender regarding the ethicality of twenty earning management practices. The results, however, show that there is a significant difference between the perceptions of business managers and students regarding the morality of earnings-management practices. However, no significant differences were found between genders.

  5. Impact of economic crisis on earnings management in European listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Grabiński

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the impact of global economic crisis 2007–2009 on earnings man-agement in European listed companies. In the first section concepts of economic and financial crisis are explained from the perspective of economic theory. Then the concept of earnings management is present-ed. Hypothesis development constitutes the third part of the paper. The main hypothesis postulates that macroeconomic conditions of crisis restrain earnings management. The next section explains the meth-odology of empirical study. Using adapted Dechow model, earnings management is measured in more than 36 thousand firm-level observations from 27 European countries. Then using panel regression with fixed effects the magnitude of earnings management is investigated from the perspective of crisis and non-crisis period. The last section presents results of the study, which provide evidence that during the crisis period earnings management is curbed. Additionally, the analysis shows that macroeconomic con-ditions associated with economic crisis like GDP drop rates and increase of unemployment affect differ-ently the magnitude of earnings management.

  6. Earnings Management of Firms Reporting Long Term Debt: An Alternative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Jogi Christiawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to apply an alternative detection model to prove that the earnings management will be occured when a company has long-term debts as well as the pressure of operating income. Generally, the literature study of earnings management indicates that the detection of earnings management can be grouped into two objectives, 1] to find variables for detecting earnings management (accruals, real activity and classification shifting and 2] to use some advanced statistical or mathematical models to detect earnings management. This study applies a quantitative approach using secondary data of financial statements. The study was conducted on 50 companies with the largest market capitalization, 50 of the most active companies based on trading volume, 50 of the most active companies based on the value of trade and 50 of the most active companies by frequency trading. All of them are 200  public company (listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange-ID based on IDX statistical report 2013. The results of this study are expected to provide a new method to detect earnings management and its application in the context of positive accounting theory (PAT. The results of the study proves that the model is able to detect earnings management by utilizing foreign exchange transaction losses and use these models to support PAT (particularly on debt covenant hypothesis. These results contribute that earnings management can be done by using the foreign exchange gain / loss. However, the limitation of this study is the model has not been able to capture the phenomenon of earnings management if a company does not report any long-term debt nor foreign exchange gain/ loss.

  7. Political connections and tax-induced earnings management: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chen; Wang, Yaping; Wu, Liansheng; Xiao, Jason Zezhong

    2013-01-01

    We use the occasion of a change in tax policy that raised the tax rate for many of the listed companies in China to examine tax-induced earnings management (TEM) from the perspective of political connections. We find that when the tax rate increased, only those affected firms with politically connected management engaged in TEM. This suggests that, in addition to motivation for managing earnings, capability of influencing tax authorities is also an important determinant of TEM. We also find t...

  8. 76 FR 7526 - Major System Acquisition; Earned Value Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments... National Standards Institute/Electronics Industries Alliance (ANSI/EIA) Standard-748, Earned...

  9. The Role of Analysts as Gatekeepers: Enhancing Transparency and Curbing Earnings Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of analysts’ coverage, forecasting errors and earnings management. It corroborates the role of analysts as gatekeepers by finding that analysts enhance transparency and reduce the scope of earnings management. To identify analysts’ coverage we used the I/B/E/S, from where we also obtained information on the consensus projections of analysts for listed Brazilian companies. The results indicated a negative correlation between the number of analysts covering firms and the magnitude of their discretionary accruals in absolute terms, indicating that more scrutiny inhibits earnings management. We also found a negative correlation between analysts’ coverage and forecasting errors. Multivariate regressions showed statistically significant results in the same sense. Therefore, market analysts, despite the severe criticism they receive from the specialized press, actually have a beneficial effect on corporate governance by monitoring managers and inhibiting earnings management.

  10. Board of Commisioner Duality Role, Governance and Earnings Management of Initial Public Offerings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Prasetiawati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public firm is required to implement good corporate governance as assurance to reduce information asymmetry between firm and its stockholders. Corporate governance mechanism should be able to limit any improper actions of the firm’s management. This study investigates whether the duality role of the board affects earnings management practice of firms making initial public offering at Indonesian Stock Exchange. The study also examines other corporate governance mechanism factors, namely the number of board of commission-ners, the proportion of independent board of commissioners, size of firm, financial leverage, and profitability. Earnings management was measured using Cross-Sectional Modified Jones model. The study employs a total of 60 firms that went public from 2000 to 2006. The results show that duality status of board of commissioners positively and significantly affects earnings management in IPO firms. This could be interpreted that board of directors with duality role had a lower function in monitoring the firms’ performance so that management have opportunity to manage reported earnings. When board of commissioners have dual role, the level of earnings management is getting intense, and vice versa. Size of board of commissioners and profitability are positively related to earnings management.

  11. Earnings management behavior of the initial public offering (IPO) firms during pre-IPO, IPO, and post-IPO years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Benali, Meryem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the pattern of earnings management around the IPO year in Morocco during the period between 2001 and 2007. Our results show that earnings management reaches its maximum level during the year of an IPO followed earnings management during the pre-IPO years and the post-IPO years....... We argue that the need for making reputation as a profitable firm induces management to managing earnings during the pre-IPO years. This need to manage earnings is the most during the year of an IPO because announcing earnings that are lesser than the previous years would hurt the reputation...... of a firm in the eyes of potential investors/shareholder and would reduce the offering proceeds. However, as firm enters the post-IPO years, lower requirements of raising capital in immediate future along with greater scrutiny from stock market participant’s result in lower incentives to manage earnings....

  12. Investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and earnings management: Evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Gras-Gil

    2016-10-01

    The results show that corporate social responsibility practices may be an organizational device that leads to more effective use of resources, which then has a negative impact on earnings management practices.

  13. A study on relationship between institutional investors and earnings management: Evidence from the Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Emamgholipour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Institutional investors play important role on formation of different changes on corporate governance systems. They can significantly influence on companies by monitoring the performance of management and limiting their opportunistic behaviors and manipulating their financial statements. Therefore, the main objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship between institutional investors and earnings management on some listed companies on Tehran Stock Exchange by examining a sample of 700 firm-years data over the period 2006-2010. In this study, the discretionary accruals are used as an indicator for earnings management. The results indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between institutional investors and earnings management and suggest that increasing the ownership percentage of institutional shareholders increases earnings management. In addition, the results of the control variables have shown that firm size had no impact on earnings management, but financial leverage and return on sales, respectively had negative and positive effect on the earnings management of companies.

  14. Effect on Value Earnings Management Company with Good Corporate Governance Practices as Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Emylia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Firm value reflects the size of the stock market reaction to the company. Increasing the value of the company is an achievement that suitable with the desire of the owner, because as the value of the company increasing as well the welfare of the owner. Earnings management has an influence on the value of the company. Good Corporate Governance to be one way to eliminate the management engineering efforts specifically to make regulations with the requirement for the companies to disclose certain information mandatorily and voluntarily. This research will discuss the influence of earnings management on company value, the effect of Corporate Governance on company value directly, and the effect of Corporate Governance as a moderating variable from the influence of earnings management and firm value. Data analysis technique used in this research is a descriptive data analysis method, analysis model and classical assumption check because this research aims to determine the effect of earnings management, company value and Corporate Governance on Enterprise State-owned Enterprises listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results of this study are earnings management negatively affect the value of the company, corporate governance itself has no effect on firm value, but as a moderating variable of corporate governance affect earnings management effect on firm value.

  15. The Effect of IFRS Convergence and the Proportion of Woman in Audit Committee on Earning Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siswanti Dwi Surti; Hudayati Ataina

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to find empirical evidence the effect of IFRS convergence and the proportion of woman in audit committee on earning management. Respondents used in this study were companies listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange for the year 2011 until 2013. Using moderated regression analysis this study supports the hypothesis that IFRS convergence and the proportion of woman in audit committee have negative effect on earning management. This finding implies that IFRS convergence and the proportio...

  16. DETECTING ASSET IMPAIRMENT EARNINGS MANAGEMENT ON IFRS CONTEXT: SOME EVIDENCE FROM GREEK LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini C. Laskaridou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is two fold: (a to bring on issues of asset impairment manipulation in the IFRS context (b to examine, any statistical inference validating impairment discretionary charges and firms’ earning experience. The Impairment Accounting Standard (IAS 36, enters new requirements for asset impairment provided to satisfying accrued loss amounts. Earning Management through the use of asset impairments within constrains of taking accounting process results to income manipulation representing (a an external demand to meet earnings forecasts (b internal demand for communicating board’ level performance. We expect to present a critical view of the earnings discretion and provide an answer on the prevailing content of asset impairment. The sample constituted of 236 firms, listed in the Greek Stock Exchange Market on the basis of impairment observations. We analyze the earnings levels for impairer companies, for 2004-2012 years. Findings suggest (a firms recording impairment charges possess lower earnings than do their counterparts not recording write downs and (b the impairment losses are likely reported as timely opportunity to taking “big bath” and increasing future earnings. However we estimate that Greek firms’ operating performance is engaged to earning adjustments on (a taxable environment and (b new accounting rules liable to income strategies."

  17. Earnings Management through Goodwill Impairment: CEO and CFO tenure impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.V. Visnevskaá (Olga)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary This paper examines the relationship between the extent of goodwill impairment and the properties of CEOs and CFOs of a selection of FTSE Eurotop 100 Index companies. Prior research indicated that it is likely that CEOs tend to take earnings baths early in their tenure,

  18. Earnings Management through Goodwill Impairment: CEO and CFO tenure impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.V. Visnevskaá (Olga)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary This paper examines the relationship between the extent of goodwill impairment and the properties of CEOs and CFOs of a selection of FTSE Eurotop 100 Index companies. Prior research indicated that it is likely that CEOs tend to take earnings baths early in their tenure,

  19. Investigating the influence of risk management on earnings volatility of the listed companies in Tehran stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Akbari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This invetigation aims to examine the impact of risk management practices on earnings volatility of the listed companies in Tehran stock exchange. All listed companies in Tehran stock exchange were selected as the statistical population of the research during 2005 to 2015. Risk management, liquidity risk management and operational risk management, and earnings volatility were selected as the independent and dependent variables of the study, respectively. Dechow & Tang (2008 model is used for measuring earnings volatility in this research. 130 firms were selected as the statistical population based on the systematic elimination method. The obtained results show that risk management doesn’t impact on earnings volatility. As well, liquidity risk management significantly and negatively impact on earnings volatility, and operational risk management positively and significantly influence on earnings volatility.

  20. ACCRUAL DAN REAL EARNING MANAGEMENT DALAM MERESPON PENURUNAN TARIF PAJAK PENGHASILAN BADAN TAHUN 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiadi Alim Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted by Guenther (1994 shows the behavior of management to conduct income decreasingearning management in the period of one year before the income tax rate reduction in order to obtain relief theburden of income tax paid. The research of Alim (2009 showed indications of income decreasing earningmanagement in the 2008 financial statements of business entities in Indonesia Stock Exchange responding toa decrease in income tax corporate tax-payers in 2009. This study aimed to investigate whether there is anindication of income decreasing earning management and also on the 2009 financial statements of businessentities in Indonesia Stock Exchange responding to reduced income tax rate for corporate tax-payers in 2010.To detect the presence of income decreasing earning management variables to discretionary accruals will beused to indicate the presence of accrual/accounting earnings management and abnormal variable cash flowsfrom operations and abnormal discretionary expenses that may indicate the presence of real earning management.The results showed an indication of income decreasing earning management is detected through avariable discretionary accruals and abnormal cash flow from operations but not found through variableabnormal discretionary expenses.

  1. Fair Value Accounting, Earnings Management and the use of Available-for-Sale Instruments by Bank Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, M. E. (Mary E.); Gómez-Biscarri, J. (Javier); Kasznik, R. (Ron); López-Espinosa, G. (Germán)

    2012-01-01

    Fair value accounting in banking has been criticized for the increased volatility that it generates in some accounting variables. One of its advantages, however, is that it reduces the possibility of discretionary earnings management, given that all gains and losses are immediately recognized. In this paper we qualify both considerations. The accounting regime of available-for-sale (AFS) securities allows for some degree of earnings and capital management: an AFS asset is reported at fair val...

  2. A study on relationship between earnings management and operating cash flows management: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Banimahd

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of earnings management on operating cash flows management over the period 2004-2011 using the information of 119 firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. Results indicate that there is a meaningful relationship between earnings management and operating cash flows management. In other words, earnings management creates and shapes operating cash flows management. In addition, after controlling for the loss reporting, firm size and firm's financial risk, the results show that there was a relationship between loss reporting and firm size with the cash flows management. When firms report loss, then operating cash flows increases. Finally, operating cash flows decreases when firm size increases. However, our survey does not provide any evidence to believe there is any relationship between financial risk and cash flows management.

  3. Does audit quality influence the relation between earnings management and internal control weakness in the post - SOX period?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenstein, J.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Kalantonis, P.; Kaldis, P.

    2013-01-01

    Material weaknesses in the internal control system of a company create more opportunities for managers to engage in opportunistic earnings management. In this study the authors investigate the relation between earnings management and disclosed material weaknesses in the internal controls, both under

  4. 48 CFR 352.234-2 - Notice of earned value management system-post-award Integrated Baseline Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management system-post-award Integrated Baseline Review. 352.234-2 Section 352.234-2 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.234-2 Notice of earned value management system—post-award Integrated... provision: Notice of Earned Value Management System—Post-Award Integrated Baseline Review (October 2008)...

  5. 48 CFR 352.234-1 - Notice of earned value management system-pre-award Integrated Baseline Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management system-pre-award Integrated Baseline Review. 352.234-1 Section 352.234-1 Federal Acquisition... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.234-1 Notice of earned value management system—pre-award Integrated... provision: Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award Integrated Baseline Review (October 2008)...

  6. Does audit quality influence the relation between earnings management and internal control weakness in the post - SOX period?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenstein, J.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Kalantonis, P.; Kaldis, P.

    2013-01-01

    Material weaknesses in the internal control system of a company create more opportunities for managers to engage in opportunistic earnings management. In this study the authors investigate the relation between earnings management and disclosed material weaknesses in the internal controls, both under

  7. A Study of the Effective Variables on Earning Management: Iranian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Moradi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to examine the effective variables an earning management in Tehran Stock exchange during 2004 -2010. In this research the discretionary accruals from modified Jones model to determine earning management in the firms have been used and auditor change and type of auditor (for examining accounting quality, type of ownership, number of main shareholders, percentage of ownership for largest shareholder, percentage of ownership main shareholders (for examining corporate governance, incentives of earning management (number of employee, equity-debt ratio, leverage and tax and also financial ratios (performance coefficient, changes in net income, gross income to sale ratio and current ratio, used firm size and type of industry variables have been considered as control variable. To analyze data the multiple regression and backward regression as well as interaction regression have been used cross-sectionally and collectively.

  8. The role of discretionary accruals in earnings management: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maranjory

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Earnings management via discretionary accruals is a manager's instrument for changing stock holders’ expectations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of discretionary accruals in the earnings management of Iranian firms. There are two hypotheses associated with this study on the relationship between income smoothness and discretionary accruals and the proposed study is implemented on selected firms from Tehran Stock Exchange. The result of the first hypothesis indicates the relationship between earnings smoothness and discretionary accruals variables. It means that discretionary accruals (DA leads to the converse relationship among discretionary accruals variation and current and future cash flow. The result of the second hypothesis indicates that the firms with high variation in Iran utilize more discretionary accruals compared with the firms with lower variation.

  9. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT AND CHANGES IN THEACCOUNTING STANDARD ON BAD DEBTPROVISIONS EVIDENCE FROM CHINESE LISTEDFIRMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhenyuShen; JinshengWang; ShuangXue

    2004-01-01

    The US GAAP is believed to be the best and most comprehensive set of accounting standards in the world. However, the Enron scandal has made the world reconsider it. According to research reports by the US SEC and FASB, principle-based accounting standards should be adopted in the US. But which is better, a GAAP based on principles or on rules? By considering the shift from a rule-based accounting standard to a principle-based one on bad debt provisions in China, this paper examines the association between earnings management and types of accounting standards. We find that listed firms are more likely to manage earnings with discretion under principle-based accounting standards, while rule-based accounting standards limit firms' earnings management behaviour.

  10. Timing earnings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghua; Chen; Xiangqin; Qi; Yongjian; Shen; Huimiao; Lin

    2011-01-01

    Since the opening of China’s securities market,there have been a number of bull and bear cycles.This paper discusses how executives use the market timing approach to manage earnings in different cycles to maximize firm value.We find that Chinese listed companies choose to release more earnings during bull markets and this phenomenon is more evident in companies that are more profitable and have higher valuations.We also find that executives who do not release more earnings during bull markets are more likely to be dismissed.

  11. Examining the Perceived Value of Integration of Earned Value Management with Risk Management-Based Performance Measurement Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Akhtar H.

    2014-01-01

    Many projects fail despite the use of evidence-based project management practices such as Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), Earned Value Management (EVM) and Risk Management (RM). Although previous researchers have found that integrated project management techniques could be more valuable than the same techniques used by themselves, these…

  12. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: A STATE OF THE ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladu Alina Beattrice

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extant research have for long identified that corporate governance has the potential to affect both financial performance and the opportunistic behavior of managers. Studies on the influence of corporate governance mechanisms on firm performance do not often assess the possibility that reported earnings can be misrepresented by managers with the scope of achieving various objectives. This paper examines the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and earnings management practices. According to prior empirical studies in the field, corporate governance can reduce the extent of manipulative practices and increase the quality of financial reporting. As stated above, this study examined prior research investigating different corporate governance mechanisms that can have negative impact on earnings management practices. In this regard the legal system and the effects of takeover were examined as external mechanisms of corporate governance on manipulative behavior of managers. Internal mechanisms of corporate governance were also assessed. Board independence was found to enhance certain monitoring behaviors of managers while an audit committee can oversee the internal control for financial reporting and the quality of financial information. This paper contributes to corporate governance literature by providing detailed reviews of different corporate governance mechanisms on the most documented practice of creative accounting: earnings management. Limits of the current research are explored as well as the scope for future research.

  13. FIRMS' FINANCIAL AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATION WITH EARNING MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: A META-ANALYSIS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Abdul Hamid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the association between firm’s corporate governance and financial attributes (namely, board of directors’ size, board of directors’ independence, chief executive officer (CEO duality, ownership structure , audit type, firm’s size, firm’s return and leverage with earnings management practices. The study applies a comprehensive meta - analysis of the findings of 25 journal articles published between 2003 and 2013. The analysis permits this research to accumulate and assimilate the results of previous literature, and their generalization to a wider range of settings. The results showed that all corporate governance and financial characteristics variables have a significant association with earnings management practices.

  14. The Effect of IFRS Convergence and the Proportion of Woman in Audit Committee on Earning Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswanti Dwi Surti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find empirical evidence the effect of IFRS convergence and the proportion of woman in audit committee on earning management. Respondents used in this study were companies listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange for the year 2011 until 2013. Using moderated regression analysis this study supports the hypothesis that IFRS convergence and the proportion of woman in audit committee have negative effect on earning management. This finding implies that IFRS convergence and the proportion of woman in audit committee will increase the quality of financial reporting.

  15. Cash Flows versus Accounting Earnings in Managing Exchange Rate Exposures: An Empirical Study of Non-Financial Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    Financial theory argues that companies should manage cash flows and not accounting earnings when they hedge exchange rate exposures. Still, empirical evidence shows that a number of companies choose to manage accounting earnings. This empirical study of Danish, non-financial companies finds (1...... for profitability) in company characteristics between the group of companies that manage cash flows versus the group of companies that manage accounting earnings as a first priority. The decision in real business on whether to manage cash flows or accounting earnings when hedging exchange rate exposures seems......) that when hedging the majority of companies expect to add value to their company by avoiding financial distress (reduce down side risk), (2) that when hedging managing cash flows versus managing accounting earnings as a first priority splits the companies in two, (3) a lack of difference (except...

  16. Management earnings forecasts and analyst forecasts:Evidence from mandatory disclosure system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao; Wang; Yunsen; Chen; Juxian; Wang

    2015-01-01

    Distinct from the literature on the effects that management earnings forecasts(MEFs) properties, such as point, range and qualitative estimations, have on analyst forecasts, this study explores the effects of selective disclosure of MEFs.Under China’s mandatory disclosure system, this study proposes that managers issue frequent forecasts to take advantage of opportune changes in predicted earnings. The argument herein is that this selective disclosure of MEFs increases information asymmetry and uncertainty, negatively influencing analyst earnings forecasts. Empirical evidence shows that firms that issue more frequent forecasts and make significant changes in MEFs are less likely to attract an analyst following, which can lead to less accurate analyst forecasts. The results imply that the selective disclosure of MEFs damages information transmission and market efficiency, which can enlighten regulators seeking to further enhance disclosure policies.

  17. Institutional investors, corporate governance, and earnings management around merger: evidence from French absorbing firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Njah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the association between institutional ownership and the earnings management behavior of some French absorbing firms. Using a sample of 76 French mergers and absorptions concluded over the period ranging from 2000 to 2010, we undertake to present some empirical evidence highlighting that absorbing-firms manipulate earnings relevant to the year preceding the merger-offer in the presence of institutional cross-holding. However, the presence of active institutions turns out to limit the managerial accruals discretion. The monitoring role exerted by the active-institutional investors does restrict the opportunities of earnings management around mergers and acquisitions. Further analyses suggest that the average value of discretionary accruals with regards to the absorbing firms proves to be influenced by the nature of merger deal (takeover vs. restructuring.

  18. Macroeconomic control,political costs and earnings management:Evidence from Chinese listed real estate companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghua; Chen; Jieying; Li; Shangkun; Liang; Guojun; Wang

    2011-01-01

    Firms in China have faced high political costs during China’s economic transition,because they are affected by macroeconomic policies.However,research to date has offered no consistent conclusions on the relationship between political costs and earnings management in China.This study tests whether real estate firms attempt to decrease earnings during periods of macroeconomic control,using variables related to the national real estate market as proxies for political costs.We find that political costs are negatively related to earnings management in listed real estate firms.In addition,we find that non-state-owned enterprises utilized more income-decreasing accruals during this period.Our results are consistent with the political costs hypothesis.

  19. Consequences for Future Return with Earnings Management through Real Operating Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article analyzes earnings management through real operating activities by firms in the Brazilian capital market. This way of manipulating outcomes takes place when managers make suboptimal decisions in terms of timing and volume of operating activities. This study tests the hypothesis that firms engaged in earnings management through real operating activities might have a negative impact on future returns. Our analysis is restricted to nonfinancial firms listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA with annual data made available by the Economatica(r for the years from 1989 to 2012. Empirical tests involving regression on panel data and estimation of future firm returns and outcomes indicate a negative impact on return on assets (ROA related to manipulation through real operating activities. This finding is useful for several stakeholders. It demonstrates that manipulation through real operating activities takes place in the Brazilian capital market, suggesting that earnings management extends beyond discretionary accounting choices in this country. The main contribution is demonstrating a negative relation between earnings management by using real operating activities and future returns. This finding is relevant for investors, particularly for the purposes of comparison and valuation of securities.

  20. Evaluating Federal Information Technology Program Success Based on Earned Value Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Mae N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the use of earned value management (EVM) techniques to track development progress, federal information (IT) software programs continue to fail by not meeting identified business requirements. The purpose of this logistic regression study was to examine, using IT software data from federal agencies from 2011 to 2014, whether a relationship…

  1. Under-performance of listed companies? Real earnings management and M&A: Chinese empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiao Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether acquiring firms attempt to adopt real earnings management strategy to upward reported earnings in the period of M&A announcement and provide an explanation for the underperformance of post-M&A in share payment M&A affairs occurring in China’s capital market from 2008-2010. Design/methodology/approach: The author uses Roychowdhury’s(2006 methodology to measure the magnitude of real earnings management of acquiring firms in stock for stock M&A by exploiting financial date from 2006 to 2011. The methodology includes three models, which are cash ?ow from operations, production costs and discretionary expenditures, respectively. Findings: It was found that firms using stock as a financing medium exhibit significant negative abnormal cash flows and abnormal discretionary expenses yet abnormal production costs significantly positive during the current period of M&A. Moreover, it was also documented that acquiring firms use real activities manipulation to overstate earnings for the purpose of improving market confidence. Finally, a negative association was found between REM and under-performance of post-M&A. Research limitations/implications: To some extent, these results explain the puzzle of performance decline over the following period of post-M&A. Meanwhile, our study adds to prior literature that capital market pressures induce acquiring firms inflate reported earnings by manipulating real activities in stock-financed M&A occurring in China’s capital market. Practical implications: The author’s result imply that investors, analysts and regulators cannot ignore more undetectable opportunism behaviors underlying reported earnings than accrual-based earnings management and the impact on the performance of post-M&A when they use financial statements to evaluate acquiring firms. Social implications: Our study plays important role in making public policies. Furthermore, it is necessary to

  2. KAR YÖNETİMİ VE YÖNTEMLERİ - EARNINGS MANAGEMENT AND ITS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim ALTUK ÖZDEN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetKar yönetimi, finansal raporlama sürecinde yöneticilerin takdir yetkilerini kullanmaları sonucundaortaya çıkmaktadır. Birtakım işlemler yoluyla ya da Genel Kabul Görmüş Muhasebe İlkeleri’ndeki (GKGMİesnekliklerden faydalanılarak uygulanan kar yönetimi, finansal tablo kullanıcılarına yanıltıcı bilgi vermesinedeniyle son derece önemli bir konu haline gelmektedir. GKGMİ, işletmenin gerçek finansal durumunuyansıtabilmeleri açısından, muhasebe tercihlerini yaparken, yöneticilere, birçok seçenek sunmaktadır. Buseçenekler ise kar yönetimi uygulamalarına olanak sağlayabilmektedir. Çünkü yöneticiler, bunları,işletmenin veya kendi çıkarları doğrultusunda kullanabilmektedirler. Bu durum ise finansal raporlarıngerçeği yansıtmasına engel olacaktır. Bu çalışmanın amacı kar yönetimine, hile ile kar yönetimi arasındakifarklara ve kar yönetiminde kullanılan yöntemlere ilişkin bilgiler verilmektedir.AbstractEarnings management occurs when managers use their judgment in financial reporting process.Earnings management which is applied either through some transactions or by utilizing the flexibilitiesin the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP, is crucial for financial statement users formisleading them. This study focuses on earnings management and the techniques applied. While managerswere making their accounting choices, GAAP provides them lots of alternatives to reveal the real financialstatement of the business. These accounting choices may enable earnings management. For managers mayexploit these choices for themselves or the business. And this situation will prevent financial reports toreveal the real statement of the business. This study focuses on earnings management, differences betweenearnings management and fraud, and earnings management techniques

  3. 盈余管理的实证研究综述%Empirical study overview on the earnings management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱文; 董继刚

    2013-01-01

    Empirical Study of earnings management gradually has become the main aspects of research on earnings management, and the specific contents of empirical research is extremely complex. To explore the empirical study on earnings management of domestic and in-ternational scholars specific content, and trend of earnings management empirical study. An empirical study on the content of earnings management is from the early focus on the motivation of earnings management means to focus on earnings management and accounting policies, related party transactions, corporate governance, audit, enterprise merger between such specific aspects of development.%  盈余管理的实证研究渐亦成为盈余管理研究的主要方面,而实证研究的具体内容却极其庞杂。通过对国内外学者盈余管理实证研究具体内容的探寻,进而发现盈余管理实证研究的发展趋势。盈余管理的实证研究内容正在从早期的专注于盈余管理动机手段等向注重于盈余管理与会计政策、关联交易、公司治理、审计、企业并购的关系等具体方面发展。

  4. Pengaruh Firm Size, Leverage, Return On Investment (Roi) Free Cash Flow (Fcf), Dividend Payout Ratio (Dpr),Dan Price Earning Ratio (Per) Terhadap Earning Management Pada Perusahaan Manufakturyang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Siallagan, Evi Handayani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of firm size, leverage, free cash flow, return on investment, dividend payout ratio, and price earning ratio on earning management. Earning management is measured by discretionary accruals using Kaznik Model. This study uses secondary data were taken from the manufacturing companies which are listed in . Sample selection is done by purposive sampling method and sample obatained from this researh were 36 of a total 141 companies. Met...

  5. 盈余管理问题的研究%Research on the Management of Earnings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹭

    2013-01-01

      随着资本市场的发展,盈余管理问题受到越来越多的关注。从研究来看,许多学者对盈余管理有自己的定义,在这些学者的定义当中,盈余管理被概括为企业管理当局为满足自身利益,有意采取会计或非会计的方式对企业收益进行调整。通过对盈余管理存在的动机及客观的前提条件的分析,从某种程度上来讲,盈余管理不论对于企业还是整个市场都有一定的必要。对于企业来讲,提高当前盈余水平或是透过洗大澡的方式可以短暂的缓解企业面临的困难,利润平滑化则可以帮助企业维持良好社会形象,使企业运营进入良性循环。%  Problems concerning the management of earnings are increasingly attracting attention along with the development of capital markets. Many researchers have their own definitions of earnings management in their studies. The studies generally summerize the earn-ings management as a regulation conducted deliberately by an enterprise with accounting or non-accounting approach in an effort to meet its own interests. It is found that earnings management is necessary, to some extent, to both the enterprise and the whole market by an analysis of the existence motivation and objective preconditions of earnings management. The enterprise can ease the difficulty in short terms by improving the surplus level or taking a big bath. Income soothing will help the enterprise maintain a good social image and enter into a virtuous circle.

  6. Risk Management: Earning Recognition with an Automated Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberry, Linden; Strasburger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is a huge task that requires diligent oversight to avoid penalties, fines, or lawsuits. Add in the burden of limited resources that schools face today, and the challenge of meeting the required training, reporting, compliance, and other administrative issues associated with a safety program is almost insurmountable. Despite an…

  7. The Relationship between Earned Value Management Metrics and Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) products have a high rate of failure. Only 25% of IT projects were completed within budget and schedule, and 15% of completed projects were not operational. Researchers have not investigated the success of project management systems from the perspective of customer satisfaction. In this quantitative study, levels of…

  8. Risk Management: Earning Recognition with an Automated Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberry, Linden; Strasburger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is a huge task that requires diligent oversight to avoid penalties, fines, or lawsuits. Add in the burden of limited resources that schools face today, and the challenge of meeting the required training, reporting, compliance, and other administrative issues associated with a safety program is almost insurmountable. Despite an…

  9. The Relationship between Earned Value Management Metrics and Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) products have a high rate of failure. Only 25% of IT projects were completed within budget and schedule, and 15% of completed projects were not operational. Researchers have not investigated the success of project management systems from the perspective of customer satisfaction. In this quantitative study, levels of…

  10. Earnings management and Stock Market Return: An Investigation of Lean against the Wind Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sajjad Khan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the “lean against the wind hypothesis”. For this purpose the relationship of earnings management to that of the aggregate stock market return was investigated. Data for the year 2005 to 2009 was examined and Panel Data techniques were applied on the data set. F-statistics were used to check for appropriateness of the model, Housman test were used to finally decide for fixed effect model. Results of the paper were against the existence of lean against the wind behavior of the firms towards the aggregate under valuation of stock market returns. These Results were in favor of the past study of Cohen and Zarowin (2011.Keywords: Earnings management, Discretionary accruals, Modified Jones model, KSE

  11. Análise do Gerenciamento de Resultados e o Rodízio de Firmas de Auditoria nas Empresas de Capital AbertoAnalysis of Earnings Management and Turnover of Auditors Firms in Companies TradedAnálisis de la Gestión por Resultados y la Alternancia de las Firmas de Auditoría en las Empresas de Capital Abierto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Júlio Orestes da

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOOs auditores independentes têm função de atestar as demonstrações contábeis, de modo a atender com a fidedignidade da situação financeira e econômica da empresa. Assim acredita-se que a troca da firma de auditoria contribui para o aumento da independência entre o relacionamento da auditoria e do cliente, que se pode desgastar durante o tempo. Espera-se que o novo auditor seja severo em relação à prática do Gerenciamento de Resultados (GR e, como consequência, ocorra um menor nível de gerenciamento de resultados. Neste sentido, o objetivo desta pesquisa é verificar se o rodízio de auditoria influencia no gerenciamento de resultados das empresas de capital aberto dos setores econômicos da Bovespa, utilizando o modelo de Kang e Sivaramakrishnan (1995. Tem-se, como hipótese, que no ano da troca da firma de auditoria o gerenciamento de resultados tende a diminuir e que nos anos subsequentes tende a aumentar. A pesquisa foi realizada nos dados das três empresas com maior ativo de cada setor econômico, que possuem papéis negociados na Bovespa no exercício de 2008, excluindo o setor financeiro. Desta forma, a pesquisa se caracteriza como descritiva e documental com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados evidenciam que a troca de firma de auditoria não está diretamente relacionada à diminuição do gerenciamento de resultados. Alguns setores apresentam uma tendência para tal, porém, não se pode aceitar as hipóteses em sua totalidade.ABSTRACTThe job of Independent auditors is to certify the financial statements in order to demonstrate the real of financial and economic situation of the company. Thus it is believed that the change of accounting firm contributes to the independence increase of the relationship between the audit and the client that can be worn out during the time. It is expected that the new auditor be severe in the practice of earnings management and, consequently, a lower level of earnings management

  12. Executive stock options and earnings management in the portuguese listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, executive stock options align managers’ and shareholders’ interests. However, previous studies have indicated that stock options may engender manager-shareholder conflicts (Jensen, 2005 and create incentives for earnings management (e.g. Jensen, Murphy and Wruck, 2004; Burns and Kedia, 2006; Efendi, Srivastava and Swanson, 2007. Therefore, this paper examines the implications of stock option grants on earnings management. In particular, we address the following question: Does stock options grant induce incentives for earnings management? Using a sample of 33 non-financial listed Portuguese firms-year from 2003 to 2010, we find that managers are more likely to engage in earnings management when they hold stock options. This study suggests that stock options may not always be effective in aligning the interests of managers and shareholders. Rather, executive stock options seem to affect the informational quality of earnings negatively, and consequently reduce the quality and value relevance of published financial data.RESUMENTeóricamente, las opciones sobre acciones para ejecutivos permiten alinear los intereses de la dirección con los de los accionistas. No obstante, los estudios anteriores han indicado que las opciones sobre acciones pueden provocar conflictos de intereses entre ejecutivos y accionistas (Jensen, 2005 y crear incentivos para la gestión de resultados (e.g. Jensen et al., 2004; Burns and Kedia, 2006; Efendi et. al., 2007. Así, este trabajo examina las implicaciones de la atribución de opciones sobre acciones en la gestión de resultados. En particular, planteamos la siguiente pregunta: ¿La atribución de opciones sobre acciones induce la práctica de gestión de resultados? Utilizando una muestra de 33 empresas portuguesas no financieras cotizadas para el período 2003-2010, observamos que los ejecutivos son más propensos a la adopción de prácticas de gestión de resultados cuando poseen opciones sobre

  13. THE IMPACT OF AUDITOR`S OPINION ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra GAJEVSZKY

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the relation between modified audit opinion and abnormal accruals in the case of listed Romanian entities. In order to investigate the influence of auditor`s opinion on earnings management, a multiple regression was designed. The final sample, after eliminating the financial institutions due to homogeneity considerations, consists of 61 companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange – tier I, II and III- through a period of five years, from 2008 until 2012. The dependent variable of the regression which measures the discretionary accruals is represented by abnormal accruals, while the independent variables, namely audit opinion, audit firm size, firm size and current ratio of liquidity, constitute the explanatory variables of the regression which aims to capture properly the impact of auditor`s opinion on reducing earnings management in order to improve the quality of financial reporting process. This research contributes to the existent literature in several ways. First of all, at this point, it is the first article that tackles the issue of auditor`s opinion impact on earnings management in Romania. Second, the results of this study might influence the academic environment by contributing to a better understanding of the theoretical implications that can be adapted into an improved practice for the Romanian listed entities.

  14. Studi Pengaruh Good Corporate Governance Terhadap Praktik Earnings Management pada Perusahaan Terdaftar di PT Bursa Efek Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner R. Murhadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is done for the purpose of finding out the effect of Good Governance practice can reduce earnings management practice done by company. This research uses companies registered in manufacture sector in Indonesia Stock Exchange observation period 2005-2007 as samples. Last sample used in this research is 384 years of observation. This research uses OLS method. The result shows that only 2 variables have significant effect to Earning Management practice which is CEO Duality and controlling shareholder existence. Other independent variables such as independent commissioner and audit committee and also shareholder coalition outside the controlling shareholder don’t have any effect to earning management practice in the company. Control variable like coverage analyst and debt don’t have any effect either, to earning management practice existence.

  15. The study of relationship between free cash flows and earnings management in companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Darvish Narenjbon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to the study of relationship between free cash flows and earnings management in companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. Free cash flows as an independent variable and earnings management, as a dependent variable. The statistical population consists of companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange during the years 2010 till 2012, which based on the systematic removal method, 67 companies were sampled. In this study, to measure earnings management, Jones’ the modified model was used and to determine free cash flow, Len and Pelson’s model. In the present study, it was conducted to investigate first descriptive statistic of the research variables and then test variance heterogeneity and test F-Limaer; and finally carry with regression test to confirm or reject any of the research hypotheses. There is a significant relationship between free cash flows and earnings management.

  16. Pengaruh Earnings power dan Firm size Terhadap Earning Management dengan Good Corporate Governance sebagai Variabel Moderating pada Perusahaan Manufacturing yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI) Tahun 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Andika Nanran

    2016-01-01

    This research aim is to understand the effects of earning power and firm size to earning management with good corporate governance as moderating variable in manufacturing companies listed on Indonesian Stock Exchange period 2012-2014. This research uses 29 companies as samples with 3 years of observation, with multiple regression analysis and moderating regression analysis. Research shows that earning power and firm size are affecting positively and significantly, partially only firm size whi...

  17. Implementing Earned Value Management in the CxP EVA Systems Project Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Les L.

    2009-01-01

    Earned Value Management (EVM), like project management, is as much art as it is science to develop an implementation plan for a project. This presentation will cover issues that were overcome and the implementation strategy to deploy Earned Value Management (EVM) within the Constellation Program (CxP), EVA Systems Project Office (ESPO), as well as discuss additional hurdles that currently prevent the organization from optimizing EVM. Each organization and each project within an organization needs to mold an EVM implementation plan around existing processes and tools, while at the same time revising those existing processes and tools as necessary to make them compatible with EVM. The ESPO EVM implementation covers work breakdown structure, organizational breakdown structure, control account, work/planning package development; integrated master schedule development using an integrated master plan; incorporating reporting requirements for existing funding process such as Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution (PPBE) and JSC Internal Task Agreements (ITA); and interfacing with other software tools such as the Systems Applications and Products (SAP) accounting system and the CxP wInsight EVM analysis tool. However, there are always areas for improvement and EVM is no exception. As EVM continues to mature within the NASA CxP, these areas will continue to be worked to resolution to provide the Program Managers, Project Managers, and Control Account Managers the best EVM data possible to make informed decisions.

  18. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with posttreatment abstinence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M

    2011-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine-abusing methadone-maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self-reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence, such as pretreatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM.

  19. MANAGEMENT EARNINGS FORECAST DISCLOSURE: A STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EBITDA FORECAST AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Folster

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The creation of overly optimistic information can compromise the decision-making process on part of shareholders and other stakeholders. Considering that this type of information can create problems and additional costs stemming from erroneous choices made by users, the present work sought to identify financial indicators associated with the disclosure of Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation and Amortization (EBITDA estimates in Management Earnings Forecasts (Guidance reporting. The sample examined was composed of 42 companies and analyses were carried out using logistic and multiple linear regression techniques. The results showed that larger (as per total assets and more-leveraged companies show a higher level of disclosure. Companies with higher return on equity (ROE and Current Liquidity ratios, as well as lower Net Margins, present less precise earnings forecast. The companies providing more timely forecasts are also the ones that show higher ROE and Current Liquidity ratios, as well as lower Net Margins. These results indicate that users must take caution when basing decisions on such information, given that the possibility exists that companies bearing these characteristics are more likely to better-timed albeit less-accurate disclosure.

  20. A study on relationship between tail risk on earning management in Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk management plays an important role in banking industry and there are literally many investigations to reduce any risk components in this industry. In this paper, we present a study on relationship between tail risk on earning management in Iranian banking industry. In this survey, we use two series of data. The first set is associated with yearly information of 19 different banks over the period 2005-2011 and it contains 114 observations. The second set of data includes weekly historical data of eight banks over the same period 2005-2011. In this survey, there are four objectives to be investigated. The first hypothesis considers the effects of seven independent variables on loan loss allowance as a fraction of total loans. The second model is associated with the effects of two independent variables on realized gains and losses on securities. The third objective is to study the effects of different independent variables with various interruptions on return of banking sectors. Finally, the last model investigates the effects of revenue management on tail risk. The result of this survey indicates that there is no relationship between tail risk and earning management.

  1. Ownership balance, supervisory efficiency of independent directors and the quality of management earnings forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunling Song

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Chinese securities market, with its characteristics of influence through personal relationships (Guanxi and underdeveloped standards of law and enforcement, can independent directors play the supervisory role expected by securities regulators? In this study we use the degree of precision and accuracy in corporate earnings forecasts as proxies for the quality of information disclosure by listed companies and examine the supervisory efficiency of independent directors with respect to information disclosure. Using data from 2007 to 2009, we find that in the absence of ownership balance, independent directors have a significant positive effect on the accuracy of management forecasts. In addition, the personal backgrounds of independent directors have specific effects on management earnings forecasts. Directors with certified public accountant (CPA expertise significantly improve the precision of management forecasts. However, directors with industrial expertise significantly reduce the precision of management forecasts. In other words, having directors with CPA expertise improves the independence of boards, but having independent directors with industrial expertise has the opposite effect.

  2. Ownership balance, supervisory efficiency of independent directors and the quality of management earnings forecasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunling; Song; Xinwei; Ji; Chi-Wen; Jevons; Lee

    2013-01-01

    In the Chinese securities market, with its characteristics of influence through personal relationships(Guanxi) and underdeveloped standards of law and enforcement, can independent directors play the supervisory role expected by securities regulators? In this study we use the degree of precision and accuracy in corporate earnings forecasts as proxies for the quality of information disclosure by listed companies and examine the supervisory efficiency of independent directors with respect to information disclosure. Using data from 2007to 2009, we find that in the absence of ownership balance, independent directors have a significant positive effect on the accuracy of management forecasts.In addition, the personal backgrounds of independent directors have specific effects on management earnings forecasts. Directors with certified public accountant(CPA) expertise significantly improve the precision of management forecasts. However, directors with industrial expertise significantly reduce the precision of management forecasts. In other words, having directors with CPA expertise improves the independence of boards, but having independent directors with industrial expertise has the opposite effect.

  3. External audit quality and ownership structure: interaction and impact on earnings management of industrial and commercial Tunisian sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Kouaib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the significance of researching the cross effect of using jointly external audit quality and ownership structure over managerial discretion in a largely unexplored, non-Western and emerging context. The analysis is based on a sample of 61 Tunisian firms listed and unlisted on the Tunis Stock Exchange and operating in the industrial and commercial sectors during the period 2007-2011. To provide evidence on this topic, we conduct an empirical examination. First, we examine the effect of external audit quality and ownership structure on the discretionary accruals for the whole sample. We find that only auditor reputation has a negative and significant effect on earnings management. Second, this article provides empirical evidence on the cross effect of external audit quality variables and capital concentration on earnings management. This test suggests that this combination has a negative and significant effect on earnings management in industrial firms but it has a positive and non significant effect in commercial firms. Finally, the third empirical test concerns the combined effect of external audit quality and institutional property on earnings management. We find that the cross effect of this combined relation is negatively and significantly associated with earnings management of industrial firms but it has no significant effect on the earnings management of commercial firms. As for the cross effect of the auditor seniority and the institutional property, it has a positive and a significant effect in the commercial sectors, while, it is positively and non-significantly associated with earnings management of industrial firms.

  4. Institutional Ownership and Earnings Management%机构投资者持股与盈余管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Bringing accruals earnings management and real activities earnings management into the framework of analysis and adopting Chinese listed companies’ data from 2007 to 2011, the paper empirically examines the relationship between institutional ownership and earnings management using two-stage least squares method.The results demonstrate that:institutional ownership positively correlates with accruals earnings management as well as real activities earnings manage-ment, suggesting that institutional investor plays an active monitoring role in corporate governance; real activities earn-ings management negatively correlates with long-term operating performance, accruals earnings management negatively correlates with short-term operating performance, while institutional ownership positively correlates with long-term op-erating performance, suggesting that institutional investor contributes to companies’ long-term value, and monitoring and restricting earnings management is one of the roles it plays in corporate governance.%本文以我国上市公司2007-2011数据为样本,将应计项目操控和真实活动操控纳入分析框架,采用两阶段最小二乘法对机构投资者持股与盈余管理之间的关系进行实证研究。结果显示:机构投资者持股比例与上市公司的应计项目盈余管理水平及真实活动盈余管理水平显著负相关,表明机构投资者在公司治理活动中发挥了积极的监督作用;真实活动盈余管理水平与上市公司长期业绩表现显著负相关,应计项目盈余管理水平与上市公司短期业绩表现显著负相关,而机构投资者持股与上市公司长期业绩表现显著正相关,说明机构投资者持股比例的增加有助于提升上市公司的长期价值,其积极治理作用的一个重要体现在于对盈余管理行为的监督和制约。

  5. A study on effect of information asymmetry on earning management: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Dadbeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information asymmetry is a situation in which one party in a transaction has more or superior information compared with another. This often happens in transactions where the seller knows more than the buyer does although the reverse also may happen. Potentially, this could be a harmful circumstance because one party can take advantage of the other party's lack of knowledge. In this paper, we examine the effect of information asymmetry on earning management. To test the research hypotheses, a sample of 47 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2002-2008 based on panel data was taken. In these models, the presence or absence of effects models (fixed or random is reviewed and finally the best model is estimated. Inference is based on significant level or p-value, thus likely that any value or significance level of the test is less than 0.05 is rejected at the 95 percent confidence level. The result shows that the information asymmetry has some meaningful effects on earnings management.

  6. The role of earnings management and dividend announcement in explanation of information asymmetry: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between earnings management and information asymmetry based on some companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period of 2005-2010. The study only uses qualified samples by taking into account all limitations and necessary criteria. Based on the results of this survey, we can conclude that there is not a significant relationship between earning management and information asymmetry in Tehran Stock Exchange. There is also not a significant relationship between low or high earning management and information asymmetry. Estimated dividend announcement has information content and it can influence on information asymmetry. Finally, in Tehran Stock Exchange, there is information asymmetry and after dividend announcement, its value is more than before.

  7. Employing Earned Value Management in Government Research and Design - Lessons Learned from the Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tom

    2009-01-01

    To effectively manage a project, the project manager must have a plan, understand the current conditions, and be able to take action to correct the course when challenges arise. Research and design projects face technical, schedule, and budget challenges that make it difficult to utilize project management tools developed for projects based on previously demonstrated technologies. Projects developing new technologies by their inherent nature are trying something new and thus have little to no data to support estimates for schedule and cost, let alone the technical outcome. Projects with a vision for the outcome but little confidence in the exact tasks to accomplish in order to achieve the vision incur cost and schedule penalties when conceptual solutions require unexpected iterations or even a reinvention of the plan. This presentation will share the project management methodology and tools developed through trial and error for a NASA research and design project combining industry, academia, and NASA inhouse work in which Earned Value Management principles were employed but adapted for the reality of the government financial system and the reality of challenging technology development. The priorities of the presented methodology are flexibility, accountability, and simplicity to give the manager tools to help deliver to the customer while not using up valuable time and resources on extensive planning and analysis. This presentation will share the methodology, tools, and work through failed and successful examples from the three years of process evolution.

  8. The Association between Related Party Transactions and Real Earnings Management: Internal Governance Mechanism as Moderating Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khober Limanto Genius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the association between related party transactions (RPT and real earnings management (REM. We also investigate the role of internal governance mechanism through the effectiveness of board of commissioner and audit committee in mitigating the association between RPT and REM. Our research sample consists of 386 firm-years of manufacturing firms listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX from year 2010 - 2014. Using linear regression, we find evidence that RPT has positive association with REM, only when the firm has higher RPT but not in the lower RPT. We find a contradictory result that board of commissioners strengthen the positive association between RPT and REM. Finally, we find evidence that the effectiveness of audit committees weaken the positive association between RPT and REM, both in full sample and in high RPT sample.

  9. Avaliação do processo de desenvolvimento de um novo produto utilizando earned value management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Tonissi Moroni Cutovoi

    2011-01-01

    (Earned Value Management System methodology, which is used in the management of projects based on time and cost performance indicators. The final analysis confirmed the importance of applying lean thinking in the process of product development, which has repercussions throughout the supply chain. However, problems may occur as a result of the multiplicity of techniques and tools associated with this process, making the PDP very complex. In order to simplify procedures, a checklist was created to avoid waste in project management.

  10. Earnings management behavior of the initial public offering (IPO) firms during pre-IPO, IPO, and post-IPO years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Benali, Meryem

    2012-01-01

    of a firm in the eyes of potential investors/shareholder and would reduce the offering proceeds. However, as firm enters the post-IPO years, lower requirements of raising capital in immediate future along with greater scrutiny from stock market participant’s result in lower incentives to manage earnings....

  11. Earnings management and European Regulation 1606/2002: Evidence from non-financial Portuguese companies listed in Euronext

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Pereira

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: This research will achieve two distinct contributions. First, filling a gap at the national level, given that there was no such study, that considered the analyzed period, and second, the enrichment of the literature on this subject, since it shows that in a country of continental Europe after the mandatory adoption of IFRS earning management continues to exist.

  12. The Mandatory Introduction of IFRS as a Single Accounting Standard in the European Union and the Effect on Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.W. Lippens (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary In this study, it was investigated whether the mandatory adoption of IFRS from 1 January 2005 by all listed companies in the European Union led to significantly lower levels of earnings management. I found that, despite the stricter character of IFRS compared to

  13. The Mandatory Introduction of IFRS as a Single Accounting Standard in the European Union and the Effect on Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.W. Lippens (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary In this study, it was investigated whether the mandatory adoption of IFRS from 1 January 2005 by all listed companies in the European Union led to significantly lower levels of earnings management. I found that, despite the stricter character of IFRS compared to nationa

  14. Drivers of Earnings Management and Conservatism in the German Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Nina Angela

    2011-01-01

    The thesis analyzes how IFRS introduction, governance and other firm characteristics influence earnings quality among German listed firms. Results suggest that differences in earnings characteristics among German firms are mainly driven by differences in corporate governance structures, general firm characteristics such as firm size and the respective capital market environment, whereas the adoption of IFRS only shows limited influence. Thereby, family firms exhibit more conservative earnings...

  15. Enforcement actions and their effectiveness in securities regulation:Empirical evidence from management earnings forecasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunling Song; Xinwei Ji

    2012-01-01

    Due to resource constraints,securities regulators cannot find or punish all firms that have conducted irregular or even illegal activities(hereafter referred to as fraud).Those who study securities regulations can only find the instances of fraud that have been punished,not those that have not been punished,and it is these unknown cases that would make the best control sample for studies of enforcement action criteria.China’s mandatory management earnings forecasts solve this sampling problem.In the A-share market,firms that have not forecasted as mandated are likely in a position to be punished by securities regulators or are attempting to escape punishment,and their identification allows researchers to build suitable study and control samples when examining securities regulations.Our results indicate that enforcement actions taken by securities regulators are selective.The probability that a firm will be punished for irregular management forecasting is significantly related to proxies for survival rates.Specifically,fraudulent firms with lower return on assets(ROAs) or higher cash flow risk are more likely to be punished.Further analysis shows that selective enforcement of regulations has had little positive effect on the quality of listed firms’ management forecasts.

  16. Enforcement actions and their effectiveness in securities regulation: Empirical evidence from management earnings forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunling Song

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to resource constraints, securities regulators cannot find or punish all firms that have conducted irregular or even illegal activities (hereafter referred to as fraud. Those who study securities regulations can only find the instances of fraud that have been punished, not those that have not been punished, and it is these unknown cases that would make the best control sample for studies of enforcement action criteria. China’s mandatory management earnings forecasts solve this sampling problem. In the A-share market, firms that have not forecasted as mandated are likely in a position to be punished by securities regulators or are attempting to escape punishment, and their identification allows researchers to build suitable study and control samples when examining securities regulations. Our results indicate that enforcement actions taken by securities regulators are selective. The probability that a firm will be punished for irregular management forecasting is significantly related to proxies for survival rates. Specifically, fraudulent firms with lower return on assets (ROAs or higher cash flow risk are more likely to be punished. Further analysis shows that selective enforcement of regulations has had little positive effect on the quality of listed firms’ management forecasts.

  17. Results of a NASA Kennedy Space Center Earned Value Management Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Hector N.; Rhodeside, Glenn R.

    2004-01-01

    The Earn Value Management Pilot provided a tremendous amount of data on the strengths and weaknesses of the new financial system, the ability to support EVM from many viewpoints, the lack of tools for small to medium projects implementing EVM, and the training and environment necessary to successfully deploy EVM to all projects. This data along with other pilots will prove invaluable. Deploying EVM should not be taken lightly - a full assessment of capabilities and supporting infrastructure should be done prior to any deployment, and some very basic questions should be asked. For instance, will sufficient training be provided? Can the project managers readily and easily obtain all the necessary data? If EVM is to thrive in all projects regardless of cost, the transition should be as seamless as possible, minimizing cost and effort, and with the end user in mind. In setting up an EVM implementation, the question, "How does the project manager benefit from this process?" must remain at the forefront. Further research in this area is needed to answer the question,"Is EVM cost effective in small projects?" The authors welcome knowledge sharing with other organizations that are striving to gain the benefits of EVM on small projects.

  18. De-mystifying earned value management for ground based astronomy projects, large and small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Timothy; Brennan, Patricia; Mueller, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The scale and complexity of today's ground based astronomy projects have justifiably required Principal Investigator's and their project teams to adopt more disciplined management processes and tools in order to achieve timely and accurate quantification of the progress and relative health of their projects. Earned Value Management (EVM) is one such tool. Developed decades ago and used extensively in the defense and construction industries, and now a requirement of NASA projects greater than $20M; EVM has gained a foothold in ground-based astronomy projects. The intent of this paper is to de-mystify EVM by discussing the fundamentals of project management, explaining how EVM fits with existing principles, and describing key concepts every project can use to implement their own EVM system. This paper also discusses pitfalls to avoid during implementation and obstacles to its success. The authors report on their organization's most recent experience implementing EVM for the GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) project. G-CLEF is a fiber-fed, optical echelle spectrograph that has been selected as a first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), planned for construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile's Atacama Desert region.

  19. Improved cost monitoring and control through the Earned Value Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Howard; Fitzgerald, Richard; Barlow, Dewey

    2014-01-01

    As economic pressure and competition for budget among federal agencies has increased, there has been an increasing need for more granular data and robust management information systems. This is especially true for the execution of major civilian space programs. This need has resulted in new program management requirements being implemented in an attempt to limit cost and schedule growth. In particular, NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 7120.5D requires the implementation of an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) compliant with the requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Electronic Industries Alliance Standard 748-B. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) program management team at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) made a decision to implement an EVMS on RBSP during Phase B—a year earlier than specified in the contractual Phase C reporting requirement as defined in the NPR. This decision was made so that the project would have the benefit of 12 months of training and hands-on implementation during Phase B. Although there were a number of technical and process hurdles encountered during Phase B and into Phase C, the system was working well when the Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) was held in August 2009. The IBR was a success because it met the review requirements. It was also clear to all IBR participants that the EVMS was providing value to the project management team. Although the IBR pointed out some areas of concern regarding process and ANSI compliance, the system had markedly improved the project's ability to monitor cost and schedule. This, in turn, allowed the project team to foresee problems in advance, formulate corrective actions, and implement course corrections without causing significant adverse impact to the project. Opponents of EVMS systems often communicate the unfavorable opinion that EVMS systems create unnecessary cost and administration. Although it is undeniable that EVMS

  20. 现金分红、盈余管理方式选择与企业价值%Cash Dividends,Earnings Management Choice and Corporate Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘衡; 苏坤; 李彬

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,there is increasing public concern about the phenomena of em-phasizing on financing and ignoring investors‘return of China‘s listed companies.The China Securities Regulatory Commission has issued a series of announcements designed to strength-en cash dividends of listed companies and strengthen the awareness of the investor‘s returns. Cash dividends and earnings management are hot issues of capital market,but accrual-based earnings management is the main content of the traditional earnings management research,re-al earnings management has been neglected.In theory,the behavior of cash dividend reduces the level of corporate cash flow,the change of earnings management can improve the level cash flow and the corporate performance,which eventually leads to the change of corporate value. Using China‘s A-share market listed companies panel data from 1 998 to 2010,this paper studies the relationships between cash dividends,earnings management and corporate value. We find that the extent of real earnings management of cash dividend companies is significant-ly lower than the corresponding extent of non-cash dividends companies,and the extent of ac-crual-based earnings management of cash dividend companies is greatly higher than the corre-sponding extent of non-cash dividends companies,which means that cash dividend behavior has a significant impact on the choice of the listed company earnings management,and there is the phenomenon of collusion between real earnings management and accrual-based earnings management.The cash dividend company has a higher corporate value than the non-cash divi-dend company,which indicates that the listed company‘s cash dividend behavior helps to en-hance the corporate value.Further research suggests real earnings management and accrual-based earnings management have significant intermediary roles in the relationship between cash dividends and corporate value.These conclusions provide helpful insight for revealing the

  1. 基于市值管理视域的盈余管理分析%Analysis of Earnings Management Based on Market Value Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立斌

    2015-01-01

    Earnings management is widespread accounting behavior at home and abroad companies, which is ascendant in China's capital market. The means of earnings management mainly include accounting and non accounting, which can not substantially increase or decrease of an enterprise's surplus. The study finds that there is a link between earnings management and market value management. An enterprise should carry out the earnings management based on the market value management, to truly raise the level of company surplus.%盈余管理是国内外公司普遍存在的会计行为,在中国资本市场上正方兴未艾,其手段主要包括会计类和非会计类两种,但这些并不能实质性地增加或减少公司盈余. 通过研究发现盈余管理和市值管理存在有机联系,企业应当立足于市值管理的高度进行盈余管理,以提高公司盈余水平.

  2. Exploration on Listed Companies' Earnings Management and Its Effect%企业盈余管理及其效应探研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婕

    2012-01-01

    With the development of capital markets , more and more people pay attention to the listed companies'earnings management. This paper analyzes the effects of the earnings management from both the positive and negative aspects, and finds the result is thai almost all the Chinese enterprises have earnings management. Finally, this article puts forward some suggestions to deal with the earnings management.%随着我国资本市场的发展,上市公司的盈余管理行为逐渐被人们所关注.本文对盈余管理进行论述,从正反两方面分析了盈余管理的效应,得出我国企业普遍存在盈余管理的结论,并进一步提出了改善盈余管理的建议.

  3. C EO 权力对盈余管理影响的实证研究%Empirical Study on Impact of CEO Power on Earning Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 谭庆美; 李胜楠; 董小芳

    2015-01-01

    以操纵性应计利润衡量盈余管理程度,以我国上市企业2007—2013年数据为样本,实证分析了CEO综合权力及不同权力维度变量对盈余管理的影响。研究结果表明,我国上市企业的CEO综合权力越大,企业盈余管理程度越高,权力大的CEO越可能实施正向盈余管理。较高的股权集中度和董事会独立性能够减少CEO利用权力实施盈余管理的行为,持有股份越多的CEO越不可能实施盈余管理。%Based on the sample of listed firms in China during the period 2007-2013, the impact of CEO power on earning management was investigated while discretionary accruals were employed as measurement of earning management.The results show that the CEO power has significantly positive impact on earning management;the CEOs with strong powers are more likely to implement positive earning management.The higher ownership concentration and board independence can decrease earning man-agement of CEOs.The CEOs who own stake are less likely to implement earning management.

  4. An Integrated Gate Turnaround Management Concept Leveraging Big Data Analytics for NAS Performance Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William W.; Ingram, Carla D.; Ahlquist, Douglas Kurt; Chachad, Girish H.

    2016-01-01

    "Gate Turnaround" plays a key role in the National Air Space (NAS) gate-to-gate performance by receiving aircraft when they reach their destination airport, and delivering aircraft into the NAS upon departing from the gate and subsequent takeoff. The time spent at the gate in meeting the planned departure time is influenced by many factors and often with considerable uncertainties. Uncertainties such as weather, early or late arrivals, disembarking and boarding passengers, unloading/reloading cargo, aircraft logistics/maintenance services and ground handling, traffic in ramp and movement areas for taxi-in and taxi-out, and departure queue management for takeoff are likely encountered on the daily basis. The Integrated Gate Turnaround Management (IGTM) concept is leveraging relevant historical data to support optimization of the gate operations, which include arrival, at the gate, departure based on constraints (e.g., available gates at the arrival, ground crew and equipment for the gate turnaround, and over capacity demand upon departure), and collaborative decision-making. The IGTM concept provides effective information services and decision tools to the stakeholders, such as airline dispatchers, gate agents, airport operators, ramp controllers, and air traffic control (ATC) traffic managers and ground controllers to mitigate uncertainties arising from both nominal and off-nominal airport gate operations. IGTM will provide NAS stakeholders customized decision making tools through a User Interface (UI) by leveraging historical data (Big Data), net-enabled Air Traffic Management (ATM) live data, and analytics according to dependencies among NAS parameters for the stakeholders to manage and optimize the NAS performance in the gate turnaround domain. The application will give stakeholders predictable results based on the past and current NAS performance according to selected decision trees through the UI. The predictable results are generated based on analysis of the

  5. Accounting Conservatism and Earnings Management in the Banking Industry : The effect of discretionary loan loss provisions on conditional accounting conservatism in the United States banking industry for the period of 2002 to 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Molenaar (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary Previous studies have examined the relation between accounting conservatism and earnings management. Those studies conclude that accounting conservatism reflected in earnings is explained mostly by the accrual component of earnings instead of the cash flow component (Ro

  6. Accounting Conservatism and Earnings Management in the Banking Industry : The effect of discretionary loan loss provisions on conditional accounting conservatism in the United States banking industry for the period of 2002 to 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Molenaar (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary Previous studies have examined the relation between accounting conservatism and earnings management. Those studies conclude that accounting conservatism reflected in earnings is explained mostly by the accrual component of earnings instead of the cash flow component (Ro

  7. Measuring the Actual Energy Cost Performance of Green Buildings: A Test of the Earned Value Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay N. Dwaikat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced energy consumption is a key aspect of the green building. Nonetheless, research indicates that there is a performance gap between the predicted and the actual energy performance once buildings are occupied, which implies a cost deviation from the anticipated energy cost performance. However, the cost deviation also might result from lower or higher energy rates than expected. As an appropriate research methodology for existing theory testing, case study research strategy was adopted to empirically examine the earned value management (EVM approach to measure the actual life cycle cost performance of energy in green buildings. With slight methodological and terminological adaptations, it is found that the EVM approach can be applied to conduct a holistic cost performance measurement of the actual energy consumption in green buildings. The strength of the earned value approach is that it allows for detecting whether the energy cost saving or overrun results from lower or higher energy consumption, or from actual energy rate variations. The earned value approach allows for quantifying each cost variance independently, which is a significant aspect of actual energy cost performance measurement in green buildings.

  8. Research on Earnings Management under the New Accounting Standards%新会计准则下盈余管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2011-01-01

    Earnings management is an operational behavior that enterprise management uses accounting method or takes action to make the enterprise's book surplus reach the desired level to get enterprise or individual benefit, which is widespread phenomenon and closely linked to accounting standards. This article started with the relationship between accounting standards and earnings management, analyzed the influence of accounting standards on earnings management, and measures of earnings management under the new accounting standards, and finally come up with some suggestions of perfecting earnings management.%盈余管理通常是指企业管理层为了给企业或个人谋取利益,而通过使用会计手段,或通过采取实际行动使企业的账面盈余达到所期望的水平的操作性行为,是公司普遍存在的现象,与会计准则有着紧密联系.文章拟从会计准则与盈余管理的关系出发,分析新会计准则对盈余管理的影响及新准则下企业进行盈余管理可采用的手段,并对新会计准则下完善盈余管理提出一些建议.

  9. The Influence of Good Corporate Governance Mechanism on Earnings Management: Empirical Study in Indonesian Stock Exchange Listed Company for Periods of 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermiyetti Hermiyetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of good corporate governance mechanism about earnings management in companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2010. The independent variables include the size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, and commissioner meeting frequency. The dependent variable is earnings management which is measured by discretionary revenue model (Stubben, 2010. Size of company is used as the control variable in this research. The population of this research is 465 samples from companies listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2010. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling method. In addition, the data analysis method used is regression analysis and descriptive statistics. The result of this research indicates that the mechanism of good corporate governance which is represented by the size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, and commissioner meeting frequency do not have any significant impact on earnings management. However, the result shows that company size gave positive influence toward earning management. Keywords: Good corporate governance, size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, commissioner meeting frequency, earnings management

  10. 中小盈余管理问题研究%Study of Problems Concerning Earnings Management for SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文萍; 王立君

    2013-01-01

      盈余管理是企业管理层在会计准则、法规及制度许可的范围内以获取私人利益为最终目的,企业通过会计估计的变更、政策的选择和对未来交易的计划等手段控制调节企业的盈余,从而实现会计报表数据达到预期的效果。在治理中小企业盈余管理的行为时,应完善中小企业的公司治理结构,提高会计人员的理论水平和职业道德教育,加强外部监督和加大监管力度,提高会计信息的可靠性。%  Earnings management is carried out by the executives of enterprises aiming at acquiring private profitwhile abiding by the ac-counting principles, regulations and system. In order to make the data of accounting statements meetan expected outcome,the enterprises control and regulate their earnings by means of transferring accounting estimate, selecting policies, and planning future transactions. To control the earnings, SMEs should improve the corporate governance structure, increase the professional capability and ethical standards of accountants, strengthen external supervision and the supervision intensity, and enhance the credibility of accounting information.

  11. 股权再融资中盈余管理探讨%The Discussion on Earning Management in Secondary Equity Offering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段琳

    2012-01-01

    股权再融资中的盈余管理违背了会计中立原则,为实现融资者的利益,损害了其他利益相关者的利益。股权再融资中盈余管理现象在国内外广泛存在,其治理措施主要是努力消除契约摩擦和沟通摩擦。%Earnings Management in Secondary Equity offering violates the neutrality principle in accounting. In order to achieve financial interests, financing company damages the interests of other stakeholders. Earnings management exists at home and abroad extensively, and the measures to deal with Earnings management are mainly to eliminate contracting frictions and communication frictions.

  12. Working Capital Management Efficiency Impact on Corporate Earnings Level and Earnings Quality Research%营运资本管理效率对企业盈利水平和盈利质量的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁卫秋

    2015-01-01

    以制造业上市公司为研究对象,利用其在2000—2009年间的有关财务数据,对其营运资本管理效率与盈利水平和盈利质量之间的关系进行了深入研究,结果显示,缩短现金周期能够提高盈利水平,适当延长应收账款周转期能够有助于改善公司的净资产收益率和总资产报酬率,因此,应充分重视营运资本管理效率对企业经营活动及现金净流量的影响。%Taking the manufacturing listed companies as the research object, using its relevant financial data during 2000-2009, the working capital management efficiency and quality of earnings and earnings were studied, the results show that shortening the cash cycle can improve the level of earnings, the appropriate extension of the accounts receivable turnover period can help to improve the company's return on equity and total assets return rate. Therefore, we should take attention to working capital management efficiency of enterprise operation activities and cash flows.

  13. Earnings Management, Social Responsibility and Cash Dividends Tendencies%盈余管理、社会责任与现金股利倾向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周钰颖; 林川

    2015-01-01

    Based on 9361 samples of the Chinese listed companies from 2007 to 2013, the relationship among earnings manage-ment, social responsibility and cash dividend tendency is tested empirically. On the perspective of corporate internal governance, the negative impact of earnings management on cash dividend tendency is discussed , and the positive effect of social responsibility perfor-mance analyzed. At the same time, it divides earnings management into account earnings management and real earnings management, in order to observe which is more harmful for the listed companies. The study found that there is a significantly negative correlation between earnings management and cash dividend tendency. This negative correlation exists in the accrual management and real earnings management. Compared to the accrual earnings management, real earnings management contains a stronger negative effect. However, there is a significantly positive correlation between social responsibility and cash dividend tendency , and the negative effect of earnings management is reduced after taking into account the social responsibility. This paper provides the listed companies with empirical evid-ence and strategy to suppress the negative impact from earnings management based on the implementation of the social responsibility.%文章基于2007-2013年间中国上市公司9361个样本,实证检验了盈余管理、社会责任与现金股利倾向之间的关系。研究基于公司内部治理视角,在讨论盈余管理对现金股利倾向产生的负面影响的基础上,研究了社会责任履行状况起到的正面效果,同时文章还将盈余管理分为应计盈余管理与真实盈余管理,以便观察哪一种盈余管理模式对上市公司产生了更加严重的破坏。研究发现,盈余管理与现金股利倾向间存在显著地负相关关系,而且这种负相关关系存在于应计盈余管理与真实盈余管理中,但是相较于应计盈余管理

  14. CEO权力、环境不确定性与盈余管理%CEO Power,Environment Uncertainty and Earnings Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢盛纹; 叶王春子

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges from 2007 to 2012,this paper tests the relationship among CEO power, environmental uncertainty and earnings management.The results indicate that there is a positive association between CEO power and earnings management.This association is strengthened with an increase in environment uncertainty.In addition,the results are robust when real earnings management is substituted for accrued earnings management. The findings provide new evidence about the motivation for CEOs to engage in earnings management,and empirical reference for improving the earnings quality and governance structure.%以2007-2012年我国深沪主板A股上市公司为样本,对CEO权力与盈余管理的关系,以及环境不确定性对两者关系的影响程度进行实证研究。结果表明:CEO权力越大,盈余管理程度越高;在环境不确定性高时,CEO权力与盈余管理的正相关性越显著;进一步地,将应计视角的盈余管理换成真实交易的盈余管理,这些关系依然一致。研究结果为CEO操纵盈余管理的动机提供新的视角证据,对改善公司盈余信息质量与治理结构提供经验参考。

  15. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at the... leave to an employee's leave account, as earned, in multiples of 1 day....

  16. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

    2014-01-01

    Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

  17. Complete fuzzy scheduling and fuzzy earned value management in construction projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Luís PONZ-TIENDA; Eugenio PELLICER; Víctor YEPES

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present a comprehensive proposal for project scheduling and control by applying fuzzy eamed value.It goes a step further than the existing literature:in the formulation of the fuzzy earned value we consider not only its duration,but also cost and production,and alternatives in the scheduling between the earliest and latest times.The mathematical model is implemented in a prototypical construction project with all the estimated values taken as fuzzy numbers.Our findings suggest that different possible schedules and the fuzzy arithmetic provide more objective results in uncertain environments than the traditional methodology.The proposed model allows for controlling the vagueness of the environment through the adjustment of the a-cut,adapting it to the specific circumstances of the project.

  18. The Evolution of the Accounting Practices During the Recent Economic Crisis: Empirical Survey Regarding the Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Gorgan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial markets rely on confidence and confidence is supported by the presumption that financial statements are accurate and reflect the economic reality. Financial scandals from 2001-2002 as well as the recent economic crisis have raised questions about the integrity of accounting information provided to investors and other categories of users. In this context, our study aims to analyze the extent to which financial reporting is involved in financial crisis and, on the other hand to outline the changes produced by the crisis in the quality of financial information reported by companies. The main objective of the paper consist in arguing that earnings management by discretionary accruals for big European companies decline during the recent economic crisis compared to previous period

  19. 商业银行社会责任与盈余管理%Social Responsibility and Earnings Management of Commercial Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾林

    2012-01-01

    本文以2007—2010年间中国上市银行为样本,实证检验了商业银行社会责任与盈余管理之间的关系。研究结果发现,商业银行社会责任与盈余管理间存在“道德标准说”,即商业银行具有重视履行社会责任的道德观。具体而言。商业银行社会责任与盈余管理间存在显著地负相关关系,即履行社会责任越好的商业银行,其盈余管理程度越低。%The paper, using the data of China's listed commercial banks from 2007 to 2010, empirically tests the relationship be- tween the social responsibility and earnings management of commercial banks. The study finds that there exists "moral standard" be- tween social responsibilities and earnings management, which means commercial banks pay more attention to the morality of the social responsibilities. To be specific, there exists the significantly negative correlation between social responsibility and earnings manage- . ment, ie the better the commercial bank has social responsibility, the lower the level of earnings management.

  20. The optimization of internal control under the behavior of earnings management%盈余管理行为下的内部控制优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯文哲; 赵越

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's capital market,their interests are not consistent,moral hazard,opportunistic behavior has become more prominent,degree of existing internal control to completely inhibit the earnings management behavior. Through the discussion of internal controls to inhibit the earnings management behavior and to analyze the improper earnings management behavior consequences and the reasons,from internal control angle starting find regulate the listed companies' earnings management behavior.%伴随着我国资本市场的迅速发展,利益不一致、道德风险、机会主义行为也日渐凸显,现有的内部控制程度不足以完全抑制盈余管理行为。通过讨论内部控制如何抑制盈余管理行为,并分析不当的盈余管理行为后果及其原因,从内部控制角度出发找出规范上市公司盈余管理行为的方式。

  1. Accounting standards and earnings management : The role of rules-based and principles-based accounting standards and incentives on accounting and transaction decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beest, van F.

    2012-01-01

    This book examines the effect that rules-based and principles-based accounting standards have on the level and nature of earnings management decisions. A cherry picking experiment is conducted to test the hypothesis that a substitution effect is expected from accounting decisions to transaction deci

  2. Accounting standards and earnings management : The role of rules-based and principles-based accounting standards and incentives on accounting and transaction decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beest, van F.

    2012-01-01

    This book examines the effect that rules-based and principles-based accounting standards have on the level and nature of earnings management decisions. A cherry picking experiment is conducted to test the hypothesis that a substitution effect is expected from accounting decisions to transaction

  3. World Record Earned Value Management System Certification for Cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA - 13181

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Ray; Hirschy, Anita [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR), East Tennessee Technology Park D and D and Environmental Remediation Project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On projects that require Earned Value Management (EVMS) Certification, it is critical to quickly prepare for and then successfully obtain certification. This is especially true for government contracts. Projects that do poorly during the review are subject to financial penalties to their company and they lose creditability with their customer creating problems with the project at the outset. At East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), we began preparing for Department of Energy (DOE) certification early during proposal development. Once the contract was awarded, while still in transition phase from the previous contractor to our new company, we immediately began reviewing the project controls systems that were in place on the project and determined if any replacements needed to be made immediately. The ETTP contract required the scheduling software to be upgraded to Primavera P6 and we determined that no other software changes would be done prior to certification. Next, preparation of the Project Controls System Description (PCSD) and associated procedures began using corporate standards as related to the project controls systems. During the transition phase, development was started on the Performance Measurement Baseline which is the resource loaded schedule used to measure our performance on the project and which is critical to good Earned Value Management of the project. Early on, and throughout the baseline review, there was positive feedback from the Department of Energy that the quality of the new baseline was good. Having this superior baseline also contributed to our success in EVMS certification. The combined companies of URS and CH2M Hill had recent experience with certifications at other Department of Energy sites and we were able to capitalize on that knowledge and experience. Generic PCSD and procedures consistent with our co-operations approach to Earned Value Management were available to us and were easily tailorable to the specifics of our contract

  4. The Study of the Relationship between CEO Over-confidence and Earnings Management%CEO过度自信与盈余管理关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立伟

    2014-01-01

    随着资本市场的发展,尽管监管制度越来越严格,盈余管理现象发生的频率却越来越高。盈余管理不是单纯的财务金融问题,更是多方利益共同作用下的结果。我国的中小上市公司中,CEO多具有绝对的决定权,伴随产生的就是存在较为明显的过度自信倾向。实证检验表明: CEO长期过度自信进行负向盈余管理的程度相对较高,而进行正向盈余管理的程度相对较低;CEO短期过度自信对盈余管理的影响表现为,进行负向盈余管理的程度相对较低,而进行正向盈余管理的程度相对较高。%With the development of capital markets,although the degree of supervision is increasingly strin-gent,the frequency of occurrence of the phenomenon of earnings management is increasingly high. Earnings man-agement is not purely financial problem,but joint action under the multiple interests. In China's small and medium sized listed companies,CEOs have absolute power of decisions,which is accompanied by the more obvious tenden-cies to overconfidence. Empirical test shows that: The degree of negative earnings management is relatively high be-cause of the long term of overconfidence of CEO while the degree of positive earnings management is relatively low;the short term overconfidence’s impact on earnings management,mainly reflects in,the degree of negative earnings management relatively low while the degree of positive earnings management relatively high.

  5. Research and Commentary on the Earnings Management Of Real Activity Control%真实活动操控盈余管理研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪国爱; 张敏

    2011-01-01

    目前学术界对盈余管理进行的大量研究都是基于应计利润的盈余管理(Accrual-basedearningsmanagement).真实活动操控的盈余管理在最近几年才开始受到国际学术界青睐,但国内关于真实活动操控的研究极少。当前国际学术界关于真实盈余管理的有限研究主要包括真实活动盈余管理的方式识别、影响因素、经济后果、投资者对真实盈余管理的反应、应计项目操控与真实活动操控的相互影响及管理者对之选择的“啄序”理论等几个方面。%So far in academia lots of research into the earnings management is all about the accrual-based earnings management while the earnings management of real activity control, to which importance begins to be attached in international academia, has been given few researches at home. So far in international academia the limited research into the real earnings management mainly includes such aspects as manner identification, effect factors, economic consequences, investors" response to the real earnings management, the interaction of accrual program control and real activity control and the "order-pecking" theory of managers" choice.

  6. 盈余管理方式与审计师风险感知研究%Earnings Management and Auditors'Risk Perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝莉莉

    2016-01-01

    以2009~2013年沪深两市 A 股上市公司为样本,研究应计盈余管理和真实盈余管理对审计师风险感知的影响,研究结论表明,审计师既能感知到应计盈余管理行为带来的风险,同时还能感知到真实盈余管理行为的风险,并会从审计意见类型和审计费用两个方面采取风险应对措施。相较于有限责任制会计师事务所,特殊普通合伙制会计师事务所的审计师对盈余管理行为的风险感知更敏感。%Based on the A-shares in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Markets for the period 2009-2013,the research studies that accrual earnings management and the auditor risk perception, real earnings management and the auditor risk perception.Then we find that the auditors can per-ceive the risk of accrual earnings management and the risk of real earnings management,and the auditor will take measures to respond to the risk.And different forms of CPA firm's organization will have a major impact.That is to say if the CPA firm's organizational form is special ordinary partnership,the auditors will be more sensitive to the risk perception of earnings management.

  7. The association between the accuracy of long-run qualitative earnings forecasts by managers and discretionary accounting in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, Henk P.A.J.; Dorsman, André B.

    1997-01-01

    Many earnings forecasts studies are conducted for the Anglo-Saxon countries, but to date very few have focused on continental Europe. This paperexamines whether there is a relationship between discretionary accounting and the accuracy of long-run forecasts of annual earnings voluntarilydisclosed by

  8. Intergenerational earnings mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This article gives various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility by applying different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components. The methodology enables us to investigate how sensitive results are to different delimitations and, thereby, to make more accurate international...

  9. An Investigation of Techniques for Detecting Data Anomalies in Earned Value Management Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Management Studio Harte Hanks Trillium Software Trillium Software System IBM Info Sphere Foundation Tools Informatica Data Explorer Informatica ...Analyst Informatica Developer Informatica Administrator Pitney Bowes Business Insight Spectrum SAP BusinessObjects Data Quality Management DataFlux...menting quality monitoring efforts and tracking data quality improvements Informatica http://www.informatica.com/products_services/Pages/index.aspx

  10. Earning public trust and confidence: Requisites for managing radioactive wastes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management was created in April 1991 by former Secretary James D. Watkins, who asked the group to analyze the critical institutional question of how the Department of Energy (DOE) might strengthen public trust and confidence in the civilian radioactive waste management program. The panel met eight times over a period of 27 months and heard formal presentations from nearly 100 representatives of state and local governments, non-governmental organizations, and senior DOE Headquarters and Field Office managers. The group also commissioned a variety of studies from independent experts, contracted with the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Public Administration to hold workshops on designing and leading trust-evoking organizations, and carried out one survey of parties affected by the Department`s radioactive waste management activities and a second one of DOE employees and contractors.

  11. Incorporation of Fuzzy Sets and Earned Value Management into a Cost-Time Trade-off Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Salari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-cost trade-off (TCT problem is a well-known subject in the project scheduling contexts. None of previous studies in this area of research emphasize on the incorporation of the TCT problem into the started project’s performance in order to present a comprehensive model for scheduling and controlling the project in its whole life. The aim of this paper is to provide a novel control mechanism which includes scheduling the project prior to start date, monitoring the project’s performance through the execution, predicting future performance of the project, determining the necessity for re-scheduling, and providing an approach for re-scheduling of the project. In the proposed model, several options with specific time and cost have been considered for the initiation of each activity. These options make different paths for the construction of the project. Due to vagueness and imprecision presented in real case projects, the time and cost behavior for each option has been presumed as fuzzy numbers. Earned Value Management (EVM has been then utilized for measuring project performance and ultimately, statistical modeling has been also employed in predicting the future trend of EVM’s indices. The model has resulted in selection of the best path for implementation purpose among all available paths. Moreover, the proposed model provides the advantage of assessing the possibility of rescheduling process. An illustrative case has been studied to analyze the application of the proposed model .

  12. Real Activities Earnings Management and Cost of Equity Capital%真实活动盈余管理与权益资本成本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮亮

    2013-01-01

    盈余质量的经济后果是资本市场会计研究的核心问题,囿于变量测度和模型估计等问题,学术界还较少关注真实活动盈余管理与隐含权益资本成本之间的关系。基于 Roy-chowdhury 行业-年度预测模型估计真实活动盈余管理程度,基于 GLS、OJN、GGM 和 CT 等估计模型通过矩阵运算得到隐含权益资本成本,运用1999年至2011年中国上市公司样本,检验真实活动盈余管理对隐含权益资本成本的影响。研究结果表明,销售操控、生产操控和酌量性费用操控3类真实活动盈余管理的幅度都与权益资本成本正相关,基于3类真实活动盈余管理构建的综合指标与权益资本成本正相关,在控制应计项目盈余管理因素的影响下,真实活动盈余管理与权益资本成本之间的关系依旧存在。研究结论为探讨隐含权益资本成本影响因素提供了经验证据。%The economic consequences of earnings management are essential questions in the field of capital market accounting . However , due to problems in variable measures and model estimates , there are few empirical evidences on the link between real earnings management and implied cost of equity capital .Employing industry-year estimation model developed by Roychowdhury to estimate the degree of real earnings management and estimation models such as GLS , OJN, GGM and CT to perform matrix calculation to estimate implied cost of equity capital , this study investigates how real earnings management affects implied cost of equity capital based on data from the Chinese listed companies from 1999 to 2011.The results suggest that:①three types of real earnings management , sales control , production control and cost control , are positively related to cost of equity capital;②com-prehensive indicators based on three types of real earnings management is positively related to cost of equity capital ;and③when the effects of accrual

  13. Application of Earned Value Management in Engineering Contracting Project%赢得值管理在工程总承包项目中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琨

    2012-01-01

    the paper takes the earned value management in engineering contracting project as the object of study. At present, engineering project puts higher demand for schedule, cost control. Using scientific earned value management can organically combine with the project schedule and cost, which is significant to development of contracting project.%本文以工程总承包工程项目中的赢得值管理为研究对象,目前的工程项目对进度、造价控制提出了更高的要求,采用科学的赢得值管理,可以将项目的进度与成本有机地结合起来,对开展总承包项目具有一定的应用意义.

  14. Nursing Management Visionary Leader 2006: North Carolina chief nurse officer earns journal's annual leadership award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The following manuscript is the winning Visionary Leader 2006 entry submitted to Nursing Management by the staff of Moses Cone Health System, Greensboro, N.C., in recognition of Joan Wessman, chief nurse officer at the organization. Joan was formally recognized for her achievements during the opening ceremony of Congress 2006, October 15, in Philadelphia, Pa., during which she received the award, sponsored this year by B.E. Smith.

  15. Pengaruh Earning Management Dan Kebijakan Hutang Terhadap Nilai Perusahaan Dengan Corporate Governance Dan Ukuran Perusahaan Sebagai Variabel Moderating Pada Perusahaan Perbankan Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Mitha Christina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of research was to empirically examine the influence of earning management and debt policy on the value of the firm with corporate governance and firm size as a moderating variable of the banking enterprises registered in The Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2007 until 2011. The population was 24 banking enterprises registered in the Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2007 until 2011, and 18 of them were used as the samples, using purposive sampling method. The data were processed simultane...

  16. Earnings Management Based on Disposal of Assets%基于资产处置的盈余管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福胜; 程富; 吉姗姗

    2013-01-01

    Taking A-share listed companies in stock markets of Shenzhen and Shanghai from 2009 to 2010 as research samples , the study measures real earnings by net income , after deducting the profit and loss from the disposal of non-current assets .We divide research samples into three types , i.e., loss firms, earnings decreasing firms and earnings increasing firms , use univari-ate analysis and OLS regression model to investigate whether firms manipulate earnings through the disposal of assets , and utilize Logistic regression model to explore detailed incentives to manage earnings through the disposal of assets for each type of firms . The results show that:①loss firms and earnings decreasing firms tend to increase reported earnings through the disposal of assets to avoid reporting losses and earnings decreases;②earnings increasing firms tend to decrease reported earnings through the dis-posal of assets to smooth earnings;③the probability that the loss firms avoid reporting losses through the disposal of assets is neg -atively associated with the extent of losses before assets disposal and positively associated with previous period losses , delisting risks and performance-related compensation contract;④the probability that the earnings decreasing firms avoid earnings decrea-ses through the disposal of assets is negatively associated with the extent of earnings decreases before assets disposal and positive -ly associated with the degree of information asymmetry , current period losses and asset-liability ratio;and ⑤the probability that the earnings increasing firms smooth earnings through the disposal of assets is positively associated with the extent of earnings in -creases before assets disposal , the profit level and tax costs , and negatively associated with asset-liability ratio and previous peri-od losses.%选取2009年至2010年沪深两市A 股上市公司为研究样本,以扣除非流动资产处置损益后的净利润衡量真实盈余,将研究

  17. Environmental Assessment for the management of the Greenbelt Area at Naval Air Station (NAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 3,595 acres of land around Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, known as the greenbelt, are out leased to local farmers for agricultural production. In...

  18. 国外项目挣值管理研究述评%Review on the External Study of Project Earned Value Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊琴琴; 毛晔

    2013-01-01

    项目挣值管理方法被称为项目管理最佳实践。国外项目挣值管理的研究主要集中在项目挣值管理方法命名、项目挣值管理方法实施过程、项目挣得进度管理,以及项目未来状况预测方面的研究等方面。从以上几个方面对项目挣值管理近三十年的研究成果进行述评,并指出未来的研究方向。%Earned value management is considered the best practice in project management .The researches abroad focuses much on the earned value management nomenclature , the implementation process , the earned schedule theory , and the pre-diction methods .This article reviews the previous achievements in the past thirty years and points out the future research di -rection.

  19. Essays on Earnings Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mark

    affect the accuracy of analysts´earnings forecasts. Finally, the objective of the dissertation is to investigate how the stock market is affected by the accuracy of corporate earnings projections. The dissertation contributes to a deeper understanding of these issues. First, it is shown how earnings...... of analysts’ earnings forecasts. Furthermore, the dissertation shows how the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of information about corporate earnings depends on how well corporate earnings can be predicted. The dissertation indicates that the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of earnings...... forecasts are not more accurate than the simpler forecasts based on a historical timeseries of earnings. Secondly, the dissertation shows how accounting standards affect analysts’ earnings predictions. Accounting conservatism contributes to a more volatile earnings process, which lowers the accuracy...

  20. 从盈余管理角度论会计准则的完善%Discussion on the Perfection of Accounting Standards from the Perspective of Earnings Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马广奇; 张伟娜

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,earnings management of domestic capital market has aroused more and more attention.Excessive earnings management not only affected the allocation of market resources but also damaged investors' interests.This paper analyzed the influence of current accounting standards on the earnings management,and then put forward the advice of earnings management specification and perfection of accounting standards.%近年来,国内资本市场的盈余管理引起了越来越多的关注。过度的盈余管理影响了市场资源的优化配置,损害了投资者的利益。文章分析了现行会计准则对盈余管理的影响,进而提出了规范盈余管理、完善会计准则的建议。

  1. The net effects of the Project NetWork return-to-work case management experiment on participant earnings, benefit receipt, and other outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, R; Rupp, K

    2000-01-01

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) initiated Project NetWork in 1991 to test case management as a means of promoting employment among persons with disabilities. The demonstration, which targeted Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) applicants and recipients, offered intensive outreach, work-incentive waivers, and case management/referral services. Participation in Project NetWork was voluntary. Volunteers were randomly assigned to the "treatment" group or the "control" group. Those assigned to the treatment group met individually with a case or referral manager who arranged for rehabilitation and employment services, helped clients develop an individual employment plan, and provided direct employment counseling services. Volunteers assigned to the control group could not receive services from Project NetWork but remained eligible for any employment assistance already available in their communities. For both treatment and control groups, the demonstration waived specific DI and SSI program rules considered to be work disincentives. The experimental impact study thus measures the incremental effects of case and referral management services. The eight demonstration sites were successful in implementing the experimental design roughly as planned. Project NetWork staff were able to recruit large numbers of participants and to provide rehabilitation and employment services on a substantial scale. Most of the sites easily reached their enrollment targets and were able to attract volunteers with demographic characteristics similar to those of the entire SSI and DI caseload and a broad range of moderate and severe disabilities. However, by many measures, volunteers were generally more "work-ready" than project eligible in the demonstration areas who did not volunteer to receive NetWork services. Project NetWork case management increased average annual earnings by $220 per year over the first 2 years following

  2. 基于生命周期阶段的企业盈余管理研究%Enterprise Earnings Management Based on Stages of a Life Circle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟伯承; 张瑜

    2014-01-01

    In a market economy, enterprises have to manage the earnings in an effort to raise funds, evade government regulation, lessen tax burden, obtain qualification for going public and issuing additional rationed shares, and avoid special treatment and delisting threats. Earnings management approaches are selected by means of the adjustment of the confirmation period of revenue and expense, capitaliza-tion of interest, interest-expenditure conversion, accounting policies or accounting estimate methods. At different life circle stages, enter-prises have different earnings management motivation and chose various management approaches. Earnings management affects the quality of accounting information publicized by the enterprises. As a result, external users need to analyze and screen the management motivation and behavior to obtain the real accounting information as far as possible in ways that help make wise investment and financing decisions.%市场经济条件下,企业管理当局出于筹集资金、规避政府监管、减少赋税压力、取得上市或配股增发资格以及避免特别处理和退市威胁等方面的考虑,经常要进行盈余管理。在盈余管理方式的选择上往往倾向于利用收入费用确认期间的调整、利息资本化及费用化的选择、会计政策和会计估计方法的选择等。企业处于不同生命周期阶段,在盈余管理的动机及方式选择上也会有较大的差异。盈余管理影响到企业对外提供会计信息的质量,外部使用者应对企业盈余管理动机及行为进行仔细的甄别与细致分析,尽可能还原真实的会计信息,进而做出高质量的投融资决策。

  3. The Effect of Short-Term Earnings Forecasts on Earnings Management:Evidence from Chinese A-Share Stock Markets%企业短期业绩预期对盈余管理的影响分析--基于中国A股市场的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宇欣; 任永平

    2016-01-01

    Earnings management has always been a hot topic in the research of capital market.Based on the data collected from Chinese A-share stock markets from 2000 to 2014,the paper analyzes Chinese listed companies'quarter forecasts by adopting propensity-score matched method to control the samples of companies, the abnormal accruals model and the discretionary revenues model to measure companies'earnings management, and finally the regress model to investigate the relationship between short-term earnings forecasts and earnings management to see whether the companies'earnings forecasts will lead to the increase of their earnings manage-ment.The result shows that earnings forecasts do not cause the companies to increase earnings management for the sake of short-term earnings target,but to decrease it.%盈余管理问题一直是资本市场研究的热点问题之一。以我国 A 股市场2010—2014年上市公司为研究样本,采取倾向评分匹配法控制企业样本,从上市公司非正常收益模型和随意收入模型两种方法量化盈余管理,构建上市公司盈余管理与短期业绩预期之间相互关系的线性回归模型,分析上市公司发布短期业绩预期是否引起企业为了追求短期盈利目标而导致盈余管理的增加。研究表明,企业对短期业绩的预期不会导致企业为了过度追求短期效益目标而增加盈余管理,只会相对减少企业应用盈余管理。

  4. Decommissioning Programme Management: reducing risk and cost while accelerating schedules through improved planning, Earned Value Management and safe work execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.E. [CH2M Hill International Nuclear Services (United States)

    2008-07-01

    CH2M HILL experience includes more than two decades of managing nuclear facilities and providing clean-up and operations support for commercial and government facilities worldwide. Our expertise ranges from decommissioning and defence sector businesses to nuclear technology development and innovation. Our approach places top priority on the safe execution of work while reducing both risk and cost. Our nuclear services include: programme management, nuclear safety analysis, radiological protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear remediation, nuclear materials and waste transportation management, nuclear safeguards and security services, and nuclear decontamination and decommissioning. This paper will discuss our approach which has resulted in a strong track record of accelerating schedules and reducing costs of major nuclear programmes, including Rocky Flats, Idaho, and our work at UKAEA sites. (author)

  5. 长期资产减值与盈余管理方式选择%Choice of the management mode of the long-term assets impairment and the earnings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟

    2013-01-01

    The long-term assets impairment policy change in 2007 as the background, the preferences of earnings management in listing Corporation. Through the research discovery, accruals and real activities earnings management is the mode of earnings management can be selected, the company will be two kinds of earnings management based on the cost of earnings management to select specific; prohibit long-term impairment reversal of loss will correspond to project earnings management has deterrent, and very likely to exist in the enter-prise management bias the use of real activities earnings management trend.%  以2007年长期资产减值的政策变化为背景,研究上市公司盈余管理方式的选择偏好变化。通过研究发现,应计项目和真实活动盈余管理是公司可选择的盈余管理方式,公司会基于两种盈余管理方式的成本来选择具体的盈余管理方式;禁止长期减值损失的转回会对应计项目盈余管理有遏制作用,同时极有可能存在企业管理者偏向使用真实活动盈余管理的趋势。

  6. Intergenerational earnings mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This article gives various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility by applying different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components. The methodology enables us to investigate how sensitive results are to different delimitations and, thereby, to make more accurate international...... comparisons of intergenerational earnings mobility. We find that intergenerational earnings mobility is found to be substantially lower when hourly wage rates rather than annual earnings are used, whether the latter are inclusive or exclusive of public transfers. Moreover, when the same specifications...... are applied for Denmark as for other countries, we find that intergenerational earnings mobility from father to son in Denmark is on the same level as in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, whereas the intergenerational earnings mobility in all the Nordic countries is found to be higher than in the United Kingdom...

  7. Essays on Earnings Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mark

    affect the accuracy of analysts´earnings forecasts. Finally, the objective of the dissertation is to investigate how the stock market is affected by the accuracy of corporate earnings projections. The dissertation contributes to a deeper understanding of these issues. First, it is shown how earnings...... forecasts can be generated based on historical timeseries patterns of financial ratios. This is done by modeling the return on equity and the growth-rate in equity as two separate but correlated timeseries processes which converge to a long-term, constant level. Empirical results suggest that these earnings...... of analysts’ earnings forecasts. Furthermore, the dissertation shows how the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of information about corporate earnings depends on how well corporate earnings can be predicted. The dissertation indicates that the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of earnings...

  8. Market liquidity around earnings announcements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Prior literature indicates that bid-ask spreads are higher and depths are lower around earnings announcements than during non-announcement periods. This thesis investigates two important aspects of this drop in market liquidity, namely (a) the ability of management to mitigate the drop in market

  9. Market liquidity around earnings announcements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Prior literature indicates that bid-ask spreads are higher and depths are lower around earnings announcements than during non-announcement periods. This thesis investigates two important aspects of this drop in market liquidity, namely (a) the ability of management to mitigate the drop in market liq

  10. Research on the Influence of Internal Control on Earnings Management of Listed Companies%上市公司内部控制对盈余管理的影响研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绮; 何萍; 张静玲

    2013-01-01

    The paper selects 1434 listed companies in 2010 as the research sample data,then analyzed the influence that internal control makes on earnings management,and divide earnings management into accounting earnings management and real activities earnings management .Quality of internal control of listed companies are the important factors that affect the degree of earnings management,high quality of internal control can not only reduce the accounting choice of earnings management of listed companies,also can inhibit real earnings management behavior.So it is necessary to quantify the internal control evaluation,in order to improve the level of internal control of listed companies.%文中以2010年1434家A股上市公司作为研究样本,通过对内部控制指数与盈余管理进行回归分析,研究内部控制指数与盈余管理的相关性。上市公司内部控制质量是影响盈余管理程度的重要因素,高质量的内部控制不仅能够减少上市公司的会计选择盈余管理,也能抑制真实活动盈余管理行为。因此有必要对内部控制进行量化评价,以提高上市公司的内部控制水平。

  11. Earnings Management Also Exists in Non-profit Organizations%非盈利组织液存在盈余管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王逸远

    2015-01-01

    Domestic literatures about earnings management pay more attention to the listed company such as for-profit businesses, rarely focusing on non-profit organizations. In this article, through analyzing the characteristics of the non-profit organization, it is concluded that non-profit organizations also have a surplus management motivation, threshold effect will occur by earnings management. And its different forms comparing with enterprises are explored. It is pointed out a possible surplus information error in non-profit organizations in order to cause the attention of the interested party, to strengthen the specification and supervision of non-profit organization.%国内关于盈余管理的文献,多关注上市公司等营利组织,鲜少聚焦于非营利组织。本文通过分析非营利组织的特点,说明非营利组织同样具有盈余管理动机,也会发生盈余管理的门槛效应,并探索其与企业的不同表现方式,指出非营利组织中可能存在盈余信息偏误,以期引起各利害关系人的关注,加强对非营利组织的规范和监督。

  12. How Hours of Work Affect Occupational Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, David

    1998-01-01

    In most managerial, management-related, sales, production, and transportation occupations, workers with longer hours earned a high hourly rate. The reverse was true for some jobs, including computer specialists, engineers, schoolteachers, and construction workers. (JOW)

  13. Why Do Listed Companies Hide Their Good Earnings Information? A Study of the Motive for the Violation of Mandatory Earnings Guidance Based on Market Value Management%上市公司为何隐瞒利好的业绩?)基于市值管理的业绩不预告动机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆蓉; 潘宏

    2012-01-01

    Based on the actual execution data of earnings forecast, this paper studies the behavior of hiding good earnings information from the perspective of market value manage- ment of listed companies. The empirical results show that earnings forecast leads to the quick decrease in investors~ opinion divergence and the stock prices will rapidly reduce ac- cording to the assumption raised by Miller in 1977. In order to achieve the goal of maximi- zing the market value, managers have incentives to hide good earnings information. It enri- ches researches on earnings forecast and earnings announcement and provides reference for the regulation over information disclosure and investment decision-making.%本文利用业绩预告实际执行数据,从上市公司市值管理角度对上市公司隐瞒利好业绩这一行为的动机和原理进行了研究。实证结果显示,业绩预告会导致投资者意见分歧迅速减少,根据Miller(1977)假说,股价将会迅速降低。为实现市值最大化的目标,管理者有动力不预告利好的业绩信息。本文的研究丰富了业绩预告、盈余公告研究的相关理论,研究结论对于信息披露的监管和投资决策提供了参考。

  14. 我国上市公司盈余管理的成因、手段及识别%Causes, Means and Identification of Earnings Management of Listed Companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2012-01-01

    The listed companies cover up the business losses and whitewash accounting reports through earnings management, resulting in distortion of accounting information, hindering the healthy development of the securities market. The paper put forward the identification methods of earnings management through the analysis of the causes and means of the earnings management of listed companies in China.%上市公司通过盈余管理掩盖企业亏损,粉饰会计报告,造成会计信息失真,阻碍了证券市场的健康发展.本文通过对我国上市公司盈余管理的成因,手段分析,提出了识别盈余管理的方法.

  15. 我国微利上市公司盈余管理方式选择研究%Research on the Earnings Management Model in the Listed Companies with Meager Profit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓红; 唐祖薇; 柳雅君

    2013-01-01

    盈余管理是造成会计信息质量低下的重要原因之一。面对可以相互替代使用的真实盈余管理和应计盈余管理两种方式,管理者如何权衡决策以及盈余管理方式选择的影响因素是投资者和监管部门识别和防范盈余管理行为的核心和关键。本文以2001-2009年微利上市公司为样本,在Hausman设定误差检验结果的基础上构建联立方程,研究盈余管理方式选择的时间次序和盈余管理方式选择的影响因素。研究发现管理者在进行盈余管理决策时,真实盈余管理决策和应计盈余管理决策是同时做出的,两类盈余管理程度相互影响;盈余管理成本影响盈余管理方式的选择,当企业处于缺少行业竞争力的地位时,真实盈余管理的空间较小,管理者会采用相对较多的应计盈余管理,而当企业本身的会计业务受到严格监管时,管理者则会倾向采用较多的真实盈余管理实现预期目标。%Earnings management is one of the important reasons causing poor quality of accounting information .Real earnings management and Accrual -based earnings management can substitute each other when they are used , so trade-off decision for managers between two ways and selection factors for effecting different earnings management ways are the keys for investors and regulatory authorities to prevent and treat the earnings management activities .The article uses a sample of A-share listed companies over 2001-2009 in China and builds a simultaneous equation model based on the result of Hausman Test to verify the trade -off decision sequence of earnings management strategies and find factors effec-ting choice for earnings management .The research results show that the trade -off decision of real and accrual -based earnings management strategies is a simultaneous decision , the two earnings management manipulations influence each other;managers trade off the two earnings management

  16. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers.......The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...

  17. Earned Value Management in the Implementation of the Information System Development Project%挣值管理在信息系统开发项目中的实施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钰

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the earned value management in the implementation of the software development project, and provids the Earned Value Analysis in a project management as an example.%该文探讨了挣值管理在软件开发项目实施中的应用,以某公司信息系统开发项目为例,对挣值分析在项目管理中的应用实施进行了分析。

  18. Managerial Power, Executive Compensation and Earnings Management under Complete Circulation%高管控制权、薪酬与盈余管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅颀; 邓川

    2013-01-01

      This paper studies the underlying relationship between remuneration schemes and earnings management from the managerial power perspective under complete circulation .These data are based on China's listed companies from 2008-2010.This paper finds that the executive compensation and the percentage of CEO 'stock option is significantly positive to DTAC.It reveals that it is possible for the executives to be allured to manipulate earnings in order to satisfy the motivation function and achieve income from stock option .At the same time, the paper finds that managerial power is also significantly positive to DTAC, which shows the level of managerial power could truly influence these companies 'earnings management be-havior.Finally, the paper puts forward some suggestions to modify the executive compensation schemes from the company 's and government's point of view.%  以2008-2011年度我国沪深两市的A股上市公司为对象,从管理层权力视角考察薪酬激励与盈余管理问题的内在联系。研究发现:在全流通时代公司完全有可能诱使管理层为满足激励函数而操纵会计盈余,以实现股票期权收益;在薪酬业绩挂钩的激励机制下,管理层权力大的公司其盈余管理行为更加明显,说明管理层权力的大小确实能够影响企业的盈余管理行为。同时,从公司和监管层的角度分别提出建立更为合理的与业绩挂钩的长效薪酬管理体系和进一步完善强制性高管薪酬披露制度等相关建议。

  19. Earnings Management before CEO Departure: The Role of the Corporate Governance%高管离任前的盈余管理:公司治理机制能起到作用吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小刚; 张远飞; 连燕玲

    2012-01-01

    Executives will appear some abnormal behavior before their turnovers. For example in the state- owned enterprises, since the executives' remuneration is controlled by the government, they cannot get the satisfac- tory income in according to their efforts during their tenure. So that the executives who believe themselves should get much more returns may take risks when facing the end of tenure. A kind of "59-year-old" phenomenon appears in the state-owned firms, which means that executive inclines to take risk to invade and occupy other stakeholders' interest before he or she lose the management control. The topic of the executives' earning management behavior has attracted many scholars' attention; however they have not gotten by them is that managers have the dominant status about the the consistent conclusion. A basic conclusion made company business information, and their interests ( such as remuneration, career, etc. ) are closely related to the enterprises' operation performance, in order to max- imize their own revenue, the executives are more likely to make earnings management before departure in order to affect the shareholders' assessment on them( Pourciau, 1993; Dechow, et al, 1995 ). other studies show that execu- tives outgoing will not necessarily lead to take earnings management behavior (Murphy and Zimmerman, 1993 ), because of the unpredictability of unconventional changes to executives' jobs (Pourciau, 1993). In this paper, our key research question us that whether the CEO will have significant earnings management before departure, why some executives who left the company have serious earnings management while others rarely take earnings manage- ment? Exploring the root causes of this phenomenon is very important to understand the earnings management hap- pened in the firm. Based on the data of the listed companies in China from 2003 to 2009, in the overall sample, the level of earn- ings management between the one year before the CEO departure and

  20. An Empirical Study of Relation Between Equity Incentives and Earnings Management of Listed Companies%上市公司股权激励与盈余管理关系的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋嵘

    2012-01-01

      本文以在2006-2008年间公布实施高管股权激励方案的79家上市公司为样本,利用修正的Jones模型来估计盈余管理程度,建立面板数据多元回归模型,实证检验了股权激励对我国上市公司盈余管理的影响,结果表明:股权激励程度与盈余管理程度呈正相关关系,但统计上不显著。%  his paper takes 79 listed companies between 2006 and 2008 who implemented a release of the executives equity incentive plan of companies as the sample, and uses the amended Jones model to estimate the extent of earnings management and establishes panel data multiple regression models to testify the impact of the equity incentives towards earnings management of listed companies in China. The empirical results show that the degree of earnings management incentive stocks a positive correlation with that of earnings management, but it is not obvious from the statistics.

  1. On Earned Value Management of Power Plant EPC Project Based on Task Package%浅谈基于任务包的电站EPC项目挣值管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟全珂; 杨多志

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the thought for power plant EPC project earned value management based on task package, discusses the method of earned value curve generation and analysis, so as to realize the joint control of project cost and schedule.%文章介绍基于任务包开展电站EPC项目挣值管理的思路,论述挣值曲线生成和分析的方法,从而实现对项目成本和进度的联合管控。

  2. Earning Management and Top Management’s Departure: the Chairman or the Person in Charge of Finance%盈余管理与高管离任:董事长还是财务负责人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙茂竹; 张雯; 代江蕾

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of earnings management on the chairman turnover and the CFO turnover,and then this paper focuses on the effect of the separation degree of ownership and control on the relationships between earnings and the turnover of the CEO and CFO.The result indicates that positive the higher the degree of earnings management is,the CFO,the easier to change,while the chairman of the board is less likely to change;negative higher to the extent of earnings management,the CFO is less easy to change,and the chairman of the board the easier to change;the higher the separation degree of ownership and control,negative correlation between the chairman change and earnings management is more significant,while the separation degree of ownership and control had no significant effect on the CFO change and earnings management.The finding not only enriches the literatures about the earnings management of the listed companies,its conclusions also provide a reference for the turnover of the top management.%分析了盈余管理对董事长变更、CFO变更的影响,以及两权分离度对盈余管理与董事长变更、CFO变更关系的影响。研究结果表明:正向的盈余管理程度越高,CFO越容易变更,董事长却越不容易变更,而负向的盈余管理程度越高,CFO越不容易变更,董事长却越容易变更;两权分离度越高,董事长与盈余管理之间的负相关关系越显著,而两权分离度对CFO与盈余管理之间的关系没有显著影响。

  3. The Empirical Research about the Influence of the Related Party Transactions on Earnings Management of Listed Company%上市公司关联交易对盈余管理影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵向龙; 胡海文; 王雨; 贾艳艳; 李美瑛; 金芳; 梁倩; 侯倩倩

    2013-01-01

      On the basis of studying relevant theory and research from home and abroad, combined with the status of the related party transactions of listed company in our country, the article proposes four hypotheses. Then the article uses modified cross-sectional Jones model to measure the earnings management of the listed company. Through empirical test, confirmed Chinese listed companies are still associated with related party transactions earnings management, a large proportion of related party purchase and sale of goods and services in previous as the form of earnings management tend to become more and more diluted, and listed companies shows a significant positive correlation relations between earnings management and related party transactions funds used, also reflects the current type of related party transactions in earnings management of listed companies is changing, that is more inclined to Implement earnings management activity through related parties of funds used, and confirmed the debt ratio and earnings management show significant positive correlation.%  本文在对国内外相关理论及研究成果分析的基础上,结合我国上市公司关联交易的现实情况,提出四个假设,采用修正的横截面 Jones 模型度量上市公司的盈余管理程度,通过实证检验,证实了目前我国上市公司中仍存在关联交易盈余管理行为。实证结果显示,以往占很大比例的关联方商品和劳务购销形式的盈余管理越来越趋于淡化,而关联方资金占用与盈余管理呈显著的正相关,反映出目前我国上市公司利用关联交易进行盈余管理的方式正在发生变化。同时,实证结果表明,资产负债率与盈余管理存在着显著的正相关关系。

  4. The Entrepreneurial Earnings Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing; Åstebro, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    underreporting by entrepreneurs. Using a nationwide panel survey representing U.S. households over 15 years, we estimate that entrepreneurs on average earn 4% less per year than employees. However, after correcting for income underreporting, the mean financial gain to entrepreneurship is positive and large......A review of recent evidence on relative earnings from entrepreneurship versus wage work presents a puzzle: why do individuals become entrepreneurs when entrepreneurs on average apparently earn less than employees? After considering several potential explanations, we empirically analyze one: income...

  5. MENDETEKSI EARNINGS MANAGEMENT DAN AKUN-AKUN YANG BERPENGARUH (Studi Pada Perusahaan Yang Melakukan Aktivitas Penawaran Saham Perdana Di Bursa Efek Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OTTO - BUDIHARDJO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Earnings Management (EM is an effort performed by company management as financial report issuer on purpose to influence the readers and stakeholders behavior who rely on financial reports as their primary information source, in accordance with firm managements’ direction.   EM motivations may vary, from remuneration reason, merger and acquisition event, to comply with particular requirement and regulation, to initial public offering (IPO motivation. This study revealed EM effort in IPO event due to management motivation to demonstrate good performance to public before and during such activity. This study took 50 IPO firms listed at Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX within 1998-2002. EM detection adopted Modified Jones Model as a powerful model to detect EM. Test result proved that EM was occurred on JSX IPO firms as stated by positive discretionary accruals (DA.                  Further study tried to reveal accounts used as EM tools. This study utilized linear regression with DA as fixed variable to indicate EM and predicted accounts on financial reports used as way to do EM as explanatory variables. Such explanatory variables are account receivable, account payable, inventory, accrued liability, accumulated depreciation, expenses (selling and general administrative and other income (expense. Test result showed that only two variables statistically significant to dependent variable, i.e. DA, they were account receivable and account payable. This result supports a study by Marquardt and Wiedman (2002 who found that EM during IPO activity was influenced by account receivable in positive direction. However, this study does not support Wiedyaningdyah (2001 who concluded IPO activity in JSX during 1994-1997 was significantly influenced by liability (leverage. This study recommends investors or any other parties who rely on firm financial report during IPO activity on JSX to behave more conservative on net income as reported by

  6. Restraining Measures for Earnings Management of Listed Real Estate Companies%抑制房地产上市公司进行盈余管理的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯雪筠; 邵婧姣

    2011-01-01

    房地产上市公司的盈余管理行为是指为使经营者自身利益或企业价值最大化而利用预售制度和会计政策选择等多种手段影响盈余的行为。通过对房地产上市公司盈余管理行为的动因及手段进行分析,指出企业进行盈余管理对经济发展的影响,提出抑制房地产上市公司进行盈余管理的措施,以期达到增强信息使用者对财务信息的识别能力,利益相关方做出正确判断和决策,推动我国市场经济健康稳定地发展。%Earnings management of listed real estate companies is to pursue maximization of self-interest or corporate value. The advance sale system and accounting policy influence earnings. By analyzing the motive and method of earnings management of listed real estate companies, the paper points out that earnings management has an impact on the development of economy, and puts forward restraining measures for earnings management. Therefore, information users will make correct identification of financial information and the parties concerned will make right judgments and decisions, which is beneficial to the sound and stable development of China' s market economy.

  7. 我国上市公司微利区间的盈余管理行为%Earnings Management of Listed Companies in the Range of Meager Profits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯剑平; 张颖

    2014-01-01

    为了规避监管以及提高市场形象的需要,国内上市公司尤其是微利上市普遍存在着盈余管理行为,盈余管理行为影响了投资者对公司真实价值的判断。为了更好的判断公司真实盈利,文中将盈余分布法与应计利润分离法相结合,研究了上市公司为避免出现亏损而进行盈余管理的行为,证实了净资产收益率在略高于零的区间内分布频数显著偏高的事实,并进一步揭示了微利上市公司盈余管理的程度。在盈余分布的修正中,创新性地采用样条插值的方法,克服了主观假设真实盈余分布的盲目性。研究结果表明国内上市公司在微利区间存在着明显的盈余管理行为,这种行为具有政策驱动的特征。研究丰富了盈余管理的理论,完善了上市公司盈余管理的研究方法。%In order to avoid regulation and to improve their market image ,earnings management is prevalent in China’s listed companies ,especially in the meager-profit companies .Earnings management affects investors’ judgments about the company ’ s true value .In order to better determine the true profitability of the company ,the paper presents a method w hich combine the earnings frequency distribution with the accrual separation .By this method ,the behavior of earnings management for some listed companies to avoid loss is studied .The study confirms that the frequency of ROE is significantly high in the range just above zero ,and reveals the level of earnings management of these meager-profit companies .The spline interpolation method is applied in the correction of the earnings frequency distribution ,which overcomes the blindness of subjective assumptions real earnings distribution .The results show that China’s listed companies have significant earnings management in the meager profit interval ,and this behavior has a policy-driven feature .T he study enriches the theory on earnings management ,and

  8. An Integrated Gate Turnaround Management Concept Leveraging Big Data/Analytics for NAS Performance Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William; Chachad, Girish; Hochstetler, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Gate Turnaround Management (IGTM) concept was developed to improve the gate turnaround performance at the airport by leveraging relevant historical data to support optimization of airport gate operations, which include: taxi to the gate, gate services, push back, taxi to the runway, and takeoff, based on available resources, constraints, and uncertainties. By analyzing events of gate operations, primary performance dependent attributes of these events were identified for the historical data analysis such that performance models can be developed based on uncertainties to support descriptive, predictive, and prescriptive functions. A system architecture was developed to examine system requirements in support of such a concept. An IGTM prototype was developed to demonstrate the concept using a distributed network and collaborative decision tools for stakeholders to meet on time pushback performance under uncertainties.

  9. Earnings Management, Financing Costs of Corporate Bonds and Initial Credit Ratings%盈余管理、公司债券融资成本与首次信用评级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娥平; 施燕平

    2014-01-01

    公司盈利能力显著影响公司的信用评级,进而影响公司债券融资成本的大小,故发债公司存在基于评级的盈余管理动机。选取2007年至2012年发行公司债券且具有信用评级的A股非金融类上市公司为研究样本,采用事件研究法检验发债公司获得首次评级之前盈余管理的分布状况,运用OLS和oprobit回归模型验证盈余管理、公司债券融资成本与首次信用评级之间的关系。研究结果表明,发债公司在获得首次信用评级前,正向的盈余管理程度持续上升,评级后出现持续下调甚至为负的现象;控制公司正常应计利润后,发行公司的盈余管理程度与首次信用评级之间正相关,且主体信用评级表现显著,说明评级机构的决策受发债公司盈余管理行为的影响;另外,债券收益率与信用评级负相关,而考虑盈余管理与评级之间交互项的影响时,市场参与者面对公司的盈余管理行为将要求更高的收益率加以补偿,公司的盈余管理行为减弱了评级对债券收益率的影响。%The company′s profitability significantly affect the company′s credit ratings , and then affect the financing costs of cor-porate bonds , therefore the companies have earnings management motivation for credit ratings purpose .Selecting the A-share lis-ted and non-financial companies which issued corporate bonds during 2007-2012 as research sample , this paper uses the event study to obtain the distribution of earnings management before initial credit ratings .OLS and ordered probit regression model are employed to verify the relationships among earnings management , financing costs of corporate bonds and initial credit ratings . The results showed that before getting the initial credit ratings , company′s positive earnings management keeps rising , and be-comes a sustained downward tend and even reaches negative values after getting the initial credit

  10. 董事会特征、盈余管理动机与非流动资产处置%Characteristics of Board of Directors, Earnings Management Motivation and Disposal of Non-current Assets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敦力; 崔海红

    2016-01-01

    本文以沪深两市2007-2014年发生非流动资产处置损益的A股上市公司为样本,分析处置非流动资产的盈余管理动机以及公司董事会特征对真实盈余管理的抑制作用。研究结果表明:上市公司为了实现扭亏的目标,存在利用非流动资产处置收益实施盈余管理的行为;董事会治理机制中,董事长与总经理两职合一、独立董事比例和董事会开会次数与真实盈余管理水平显著负相关;相对于民营上市公司,国有上市公司真实盈余管理动机更强,其董事长与总经理两职合一和独立董事比例抑制盈余管理的功能优于民营上市公司,而民营上市公司的董事会开会次数的监督功能更为有效。%Using data of listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges with non-current asset disposal gains and losses in the period of 2007-2014, this paper analyzes the earnings management motivation of non-current assets disposal and the control effect of board of directors on earnings management. The results of the study are as follows:The listed compa-nies will make use of the disposal of non-current assets to turn loss into profit in current profit-loss year; In the mechanism of board of directors, the size of the board does not have a direct impact on the real earnings management, but there is a signifi-cant negative conrrelation between the general manager duality, the proportion of independent directors, the frequency of board meetings and the real earnings management;Compared with the private listed companies, state-owned enterprises are more in-clined to choose real earnings management for earnings manipulation. In the state-owned enterprises, both the general manager duality and the proportion of independent directors are more perfect, whereas in the private enterprises the supervisory role of board meetings is more effective.

  11. Application of break-even analysis and earned value management in cost management%盈亏平衡分析与赢得值法在成本管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建; 陆鹏飞; 杜红磊

    2015-01-01

    为了进一步提高施工项目成本管理水平,在现行施工成本管理方法中,综合应用盈亏平衡分析法和赢得值法.利用盈亏平衡分析法进行成本预测,制订详细和可行的成本管理计划.利用赢得值法对成本管理进行分析和考核.结合邱圩节制闸混凝土工程进行成本管理,制定切实可行的成本管理计划.施工中及时发现成本偏差,并做出相应调整,最终实现了15.6%盈利水平,比预期目标值高出5.6%.%In order to improve cost management level of project engineering,break‐even analysis and earned value management are applied in current cost management.We use break‐even analysis to carry out cost forecast and establish detailed and feasible cost management plan.Then we use earned value management to carry out analysis and evaluation on cost management.Combing cost management of concrete work in Qiuwei regulator,we make feasible cost management plan.During construction,we discover the cost variance in time and make corresponding adjustment.Finally we realize the profitability of 15.6% which is 5.6% higher than expectation.

  12. 强势企业、政治关系与盈余管理方式来自深沪上市公司的经验证据%The Strong Enterprises,Political Relations and the Way of Earnings Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊艳

    2016-01-01

    The earnings management is divided into accrual earnings management and real earnings management.This study found that the stronger companies had relatively higher real earnings management and lower accrual earnings management than the weaker ones,using a sam-ple of Shanghai and Shenzhen A-Share listed companies between 2009 and 2013.The stronger companies with political relations had higher accrual earnings management than those without po-litical relations.Due to the concealment of earnings management,the strong enterprises makes the strong performances stronger.%将盈余管理方式分为应计盈余管理与真实活动盈余管理,以深沪两市19个行业的企业2009~2013年数据为样本,研究发现强势企业较弱势企业进行了相对较高的真实盈余管理与较低的应计盈余管理。有政治关系的强势企业比无政治关系的强势企业进行了较高的应计盈余管理。从真实盈余管理的方向来看,强势企业利用隐蔽的盈余管理方式将业绩做大使得其强者表现更强。

  13. Relationship Study of Executive Compensation and Earnings Management:Empirical Evidence from Listed Companies in China%高管薪酬与盈余管理关系研究--基于中国上市公司的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建英; 戴龙辉

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects the 2008-2010 China A-share listed companies as the study sample,handling accru-als as a proxy variable of the extent of earnings management.It examines the relationship between executives annual salary and earnings management,the managerial ownership and earnings management,and the both respectively and earnings management.The empirical results show that short-term annual salary can contribute to earnings man-agement,and managerial ownership can inhibit earnings management,but the mix of them can inhibit the earnings management behavior.%选取2008-2010年间中国A股上市公司作为研究样本,以操控性应计利润作为盈余管理程度的代理变量,实证检验了高管年薪、持股及两者交叉项分别与盈余管理之间的关系。实证结果显示,短期年薪可以促进盈余管理,高管持股可以抑制盈余管理,但短期年薪和高管持股两者相乘的交叉项却可以抑制高管的盈余管理行为。

  14. Framework on the Earnings Management Behavior of State-owned Enterprises’Executives Under Multi-task Situation%多任务情景下国企高管盈余管理行为的研究框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 王垒; 刘新民

    2016-01-01

    s:The earnings management behavior of State-owned enterprises’executives has a certain particularity under the multi-task situation.This study first generalizes the existing literature,then,on the basis of analyzing the various tasks of the state-owned en-terprises,discusses the influence of the change of multi-task’s particular stress on the earnings management behavior of their man-agers.It is believed that in order to satisfy the enterprise or individual interests,the earnings management motivation will be pro-duced which will cause earnings management behavior.The change of the external policies and regulations will increase the earnings management behavior and shares of different types of institutional investors will also have an impact on that.According to the con-clusions of existing research of earnings management from the multitask perspective,the effect direction and degree are different due to the enterprise scope,data time and earnings management model.Future research can discuss the influence of multitasks’in-teraction on management behavior of the managers of state-owned enterprises by introducing different types of state-owned enter-prises and the preference of executive behavior and improving the comprehensive measurement model of earnings management.%多任务情景下国企高管盈余管理行为具有一定的特殊性。通过对现有文献的梳理,在分析国企承担的多项任务特点的基础上,探讨了多任务偏重变化对国企高管盈余管理行为的影响。认为国企高管为了满足企业或个人私利会产生盈余管理动机并引发盈余管理行为,外部政策法规的变化将加剧盈余管理行为,不同类型机构投资者的入股也会对盈余管理行为产生影响。现有国企多任务对高管盈余管理行为的研究由于选取的企业范围、数据时间和盈余管理计量模型不同,在影响方向及程度得出的研究结论未能统一。未来研究可以引入

  15. Application of Earned Value Management in the Performance Audit of Engineering Construction Project%挣值管理在工程建设项目绩效审计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雯

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the earned value management method is applied to the performance audit of engineering construction projects. The earned value analysis method is used for the comprehensive performance audit of the schedule and cost of the construction project. First, the connotation, main indicators and basic parameters of earned management are introduced. Based on project structure decomposition and perform data collection, the performance audit process is designed again according to the characteristics of earned value management. By applying earned value management to performance audit, the quantitative description of the completion cost and schedule performance make the audit result more objective. At last, targeted suggestions are proposed for the application of earned value management in performance audit, to provide a new idea and technical support for the performance audit personnel.%本文探索将挣值管理法应用于工程建设项目绩效审计中,利用挣值分析法对建设项目的进度、成本等进行综合绩效审计。首先介绍了挣值管理的内涵、主要指标和基本参数,在项目结构分解和执行数据采集的基础上,针对挣值管理法的特点,对绩效审计流程进行了再设计。将挣值管理应用于绩效审计中,通过对完工成本、进度绩效的量化描述,使得绩效审计结果更加公正客观。最后,对挣值管理方法在绩效审计中的应用提出了有针对性的建议,以及为我国绩效审计人员提供一种新的思路和技术支持。

  16. The Audit Committee Characteristics and Earnings Quality: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam Mohammed Mousa Hamdan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the relationship between audit committee characteristics and earnings management. Samples in the study included 50 industrial companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange ASE. Two models were used to measure earnings quality: one which depends on earnings continuity as an indication of quality, and one which depends on the decrease of discretionary accruals of quality, using pooled data regression for the two tests (Ordinary Least Squares OLS and Binary Logit. The study found that there was an influence of some standard characteristics of the audit committee on earnings quality.

  17. The Application of Earned Value Management in Engineering Project Cost Control%赢得值法在工程项目成本控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金连

    2013-01-01

    本文对赢得值法的三个基本参数和四个评价指标的确定与关系进行分析,提出相应的处理措施,并结合某工程项目成本控制进行案例分析,为赢得值法在工程项目成本控制中的应用提供一定的参考。%This paper analyzes the determinations and relationships of earned value management's three basic parameters and four evaluations, then proposes appropriate measures, and analyzes the case combined with an engineering project's cost control, which provides some references for the application of earned value management in engineering projects' cost control.

  18. 5 CFR 581.401 - Aggregate disposable earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggregate disposable earnings. 581.401 Section 581.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... § 581.401 Aggregate disposable earnings. The “aggregate disposable earnings”, when used in reference...

  19. 5 CFR 550.105 - Biweekly maximum earnings limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biweekly maximum earnings limitation. 550.105 Section 550.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.105 Biweekly...

  20. 5 CFR 847.507 - Earnings after transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earnings after transfer. 847.507 Section 847.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... INSTRUMENTALITIES Transfers of Contributions Under the Retroactive Provisions § 847.507 Earnings after...

  1. 5 CFR 582.401 - Aggregate disposable earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggregate disposable earnings. 582.401 Section 582.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Aggregate disposable earnings. In accordance with the Consumer Credit Protection Act, the...

  2. 5 CFR 550.106 - Annual maximum earnings limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual maximum earnings limitation. 550.106 Section 550.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.106 Annual...

  3. 半强制分红政策影响了再融资企业的盈余管理吗?%Does Semi-mandatory Dividend Policy Affect the Earnings Management of Refinancing Companies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴志敏; 楼杰云

    2016-01-01

    半强制分红政策首先影响上市公司分红政策,进而影响盈余管理行为。文章以2008年颁布的《关于修改上市公司现金分红若干规定的决定》为政策背景,研究了现金分红门槛对再融资企业盈余管理行为的影响。研究发现“:优质企业”为了降低现金分红水平,传递企业质量信号,更有可能进行负向盈余管理;相反,“普通企业”只能进行正向盈余管理迎合业绩门槛,但是并没有增加现金分红水平。进一步分析发现,市场并不排斥再融资前的负向盈余管理行为,但是对正向盈余管理较为抵触。研究得到的启示是:一方面,半强制分红政策影响了“优质企业”的盈余管理动机,产生了现金分红的负向激励;另一方面,导致“普通企业”迎合行为更加困难。%The semi-mandatory dividend policy firstly affects listed companies’dividend policies,and then affects their earnings management behavior. This paper sets the“Decisions on Amending Some Provisions on Cash Dividends by Listed Companies”released in 2008 as the policy background,and researches the influence of cash dividend threshold on the refinancing companies’ earnings management behavior. The research finds that“the high-quality refinancing companies”tend to carry out negative earnings management to reduce the payment level of cash dividends and signal quality. However,the“ordinary-quality refinancing companies”have to cater to the earnings threshold by positive earnings management without increasing cash dividends payment. Furthermore,investors prefer negative earnings management to positive earnings management. The implications are that the semi-mandatory dividend policy effectively,on the one hand,affects the high-quality companies’motivation of earnings management, and generates the passive encourage for its dividends payment;on the other hand,the decisions make the ordinary

  4. Personality, Education and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Economists are only beginning to understand the relationship between personality traits and economic outcomes. This paper examines the influence of childhood social maladjustment on cognitive development, labor market earnings and career progression using longitudinal data drawn from the National Child Development Study. Net of differences in…

  5. Presentation of 2004 earnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    This presentation offers financial information on the AREVA Group earnings for the year 2004. With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, Areva offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The Group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. (A.L.B.)

  6. 20 CFR 404.429 - Earnings; defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... significant work activity you performed in the operation or management of a trade, profession, or business... countable for purposes of the earnings test until it is shown to our satisfaction that such income may be... employees in running the business for you; (D) Personally contacting an old and valued customer solely for...

  7. Future NAS Flight Demand Generation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aviation and Air Traffic Management researchers are increasingly utilizing complex regional or NAS-wide simulations to evaluate future concepts. These analyses...

  8. On the Changes of Earnings Management Degree of the Growth Enterprises in China before and after Listing%我国创业板公司上市前后盈余管理程度的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路吊霞

    2015-01-01

    The opening quotation of growth enterprises market on October 30, 2009 provides a good financing platform for innovative small and medium-sized enterprises. But it is limited by the listed conditions, the growth enterprises in China have the behavior of varnishing statements to manage the earnings in the process of coming into the market. This paper takes the first 36 enterprises in China come into the market as the example, uses the modified Jones model to analyze the earnings management of growth enterprises in the 5 years. The final results show that: there are different degrees of earnings management of the growth enterprises in China before and after coming into the market. Before listing, the earnings management is on the rise, it is the highest in the listed year, after listed it slowly declines. Based on this, the author puts forward the measures to decrease the degree of earnings management of the growth enterprises in China.%我国2009年10月30日创业板市场的开盘为创新型中小企业提供了良好的融资平台,但受到上市条件的限制,我国创业板公司在上市过程中存在粉饰报表进行盈余管理的行为。本文以我国首批在创业板上市的36家公司为样本,运用修正的琼斯模型对创业板公司上市前后5年的盈余管理进行了实证分析。最终得出结论:我国创业板公司在上市前后确实存在着不同程度的盈余管理,在上市前呈上升趋势,上市当年达到最高,上市后缓慢下降。基于此,笔者提出了降低我国创业板公司的盈余管理程度的对策。

  9. 经济周期、控股股东利益输送行为与盈余管理%Economic Cycle, Behavior of Controlling Shareholders′Interest Transfer and Earning Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华夏; 洪荭

    2015-01-01

    The systematic affection of economic cycle and interest transfer behavior of shareholders on earnings management was empirically investigated from two perspectives of system features and listed companies when the listed companies in Shenzhen A-share stock exchanges in 2002 to 2013 were taken as samples .The results show that earning management behavior in eco-nomic upturn will be less than that in economic downturn .Both in expansionary phase of economic cycle and period of economic cycle contraction , listed companies in China are more inclined to conduct accrual earnings management means rather than real earnings management means .Meanwhile, the economic cycle will exert the behavior of controlling shareholders , interest transfer behaviors occurred more frequently in expansionary phase of economic cycle .Interest transferred by controlling shareholders dra-matically increases discretionary accruals of quoted companies .On the background of the economic cycle fluctuation , controlling shareholders'interest transfer behaviors have a greater influence on earning management in economic upturn .%基于系统特征和主体影响两个视角,选取2002—2013年深交所上市公司为样本,实证检验了经济周期、控股股东利益输送行为对上市公司盈余管理行为的系统性影响。研究结果发现,经济上行期公司盈余管理活动程度小于经济下行期,且无论在经济上行期还是在经济下行期,我国上市公司都更倾向于应计盈余管理手段而非真实盈余管理手段;同时,经济周期将对控股股东行为产生影响,经济上行期的利益输送行为更为频繁;控股股东的利益输送显著增加了上市公司的盈余管理程度,且在经济周期波动的大背景下,经济上行期的控股股东利益输送行为对上市公司盈余管理的影响程度较经济下行期更大。

  10. 基于真实交易盈余管理的股权制衡治理效应%The Effectiveness of Governance Check-and-Balance Ownership Structure Based on Real Earnings Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芳; 许慧

    2012-01-01

    Some scholars early have shown that a number of corporate governance factors should play a limited role in terms of accrual-based earnings management,but we don't have sufficient evidence that whether corporate governance could affect the real earnings management.Therefore,this article takes an empirical test to check the relation between the check-and-balance ownership on the governance structures and the extent of real earnings management,we find that the check-and-balance ownership has a certain degree effectively reduce the face of product cost and discretionary expenses in real earnings management and the overall degree adjust the profit manipulation.The findings of this research article,which is check-and-balance ownership inhibits the real earnings management provides us a new interpretation,furthermore,in order to further understand the effectiveness of the balances of shares on the corporate governance,it also provides some supporting evidence.%公司治理中的一些因素会对公司管理层进行应计盈余管理起到限制作用,其是否也会影响公司管理层进行真实交易盈余管理尚未有充足的证据。因此,本文就股权制衡这一治理结构安排与公司管理层进行的真实交易盈余管理予以实证检验,研究发现,股权制衡能在一定程度上有效地降低管理层在产品成本方面和可操纵性费用方面的真实交易盈余管理和整体调节利润的操纵程度。本文对股权制衡会抑制真实交易盈余管理的研究结论提供了新的解释,为进一步认识股权制衡的公司治理功效提供了支持性证据。

  11. Family Control and Earnings Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bona Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza la relación entre el control familiar y la calidad de la información contable en un contexto en el que el tradicional conflicto de agencia entre directivos y accionistas se desplaza a la divergencia de intereses entre accionistas controladores y minoritarios. Los resultados alcanzados muestran que, en comparación con las no familiares, las empresas de naturaleza familiar divulgan unos resultados de mayor calidad, tanto en términos de menores ajustes por devengo discrecionales como de mayor capacidad de los componentes actuales del resultado para predecir los cash flows futuros. Además, el aumento en los derechos de voto en manos de la familia controladora incrementa la calidad de los resultados contables. La evidencia obtenida se muestra consistente con la presencia de un efecto reputación/vinculación a largo plazo asociado a la empresa familiar. Adicionalmente, el trabajo refleja que a medida que disminuye la divergencia entre los derechos de voto y de cash flow en manos de la familia controladora, aumenta la calidad de la información contable.PALABRAS CLAVE: derechos de voto, divergencia, empresa familiar, calidad delresultado, reputación, beneficios privados.This work examines the relationship between family control and earnings quality in a context where the salient agency problem shifts away from the classical divergence between managers and shareholders to conflicts between the controlling owner and minority shareholders. The results reveal that, compared to non-family firms, family firms reveal higher earnings quality in terms of both lower discretionary accruals and greater predictability of future cash flows. They also show a positive relationship between the level of voting rights held by the controlling family and earnings quality. The evidence is consistent with the presence of a reputation/long-term involvement effect associated with the family firm. Moreover, the work reflects that, as the divergence

  12. 5 CFR 839.1003 - How will OPM compute the amount of lost earnings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... earnings? 839.1003 Section 839.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... computed in accordance with the Board's lost earnings regulations (5 CFR 1606 of chapter VI). However, the... ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Lost Earnings for Certain Make-up Contributions to the...

  13. 5 CFR 842.505 - Reduction in annuity supplement because of excess earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of excess earnings. 842.505 Section 842.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Supplement § 842.505 Reduction in annuity supplement because of excess earnings. (a)(1) Except as provided in... excess earnings in the test year, divided by twelve. (2) Any annuity supplement payable during the...

  14. 5 CFR 630.202 - Full biweekly pay period; leave earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Full biweekly pay period; leave earnings. 630.202 Section 630.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... biweekly pay period; leave earnings. (a) Full-time employees. A full-time employee earns leave during...

  15. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Talented individuals are seen as drivers of long-term growth, but how do they realize their full potential? In this paper, I show that lifetime earnings of high-IQ men and women are substantially influenced by their personality traits, in addition to intelligence and education. Personality traits......, as identified in a factor model, significantly affect earnings, but not for young workers. The effects are furthermore heterogeneous by educational attainment. For women, personality traits do not affect family earnings in the same way as own earnings. Personality and IQ also influence earnings indirectly...

  16. A Comparison of Earned Value and Earned Schedule Duration Forecast Methods on Department of Defense Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Bruchey, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Earned value management is a project management tool that integrates project scope with cost, schedule, and performance elements for optimum project planning and control. Earned value management is required by the Department of Defense for cost and incentive type contracts equal or greater than $20 million as part of a comprehensive approach to improving critical acquisitions. It is used to forecast the programs schedule performance us...

  17. 机构投资者持股与企业应计盈余管理和真实盈余管理行为选择%Institutional Ownership and the Choice between Accrual and Real Earnings Management Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁知柱; 王泽燊; 郝文瀚

    2014-01-01

    采用异常操控性项目的计算方法度量企业应计盈余管理和真实盈余管理程度,以2003年至2011年中国上市公司为研究样本,构建多元线性回归模型和联立方程模型,考察机构投资者持股对应计盈余管理和真实盈余管理行为选择的影响。研究结果表明,机构投资者持股比例与真实盈余管理程度显著负相关,与应计盈余管理程度显著正相关;对机构投资者明细类别的检验结果发现这种相关关系在投资基金、证券公司、QFII、保险公司和社保基金这5类机构投资者中均存在,但企业年金、信托公司、财务公司和银行持股对盈余管理行为的影响不显著;按照机构投资者持股规模、股权分置改革和终极控制人性质的分组检验结果表明,这种相关关系在不同的内外部环境中均存在,且相对于国有控股上市公司,非国有控股上市公司中机构投资者抑制真实盈余管理行为的作用更强;机构投资者持股与整体盈余管理程度显著负相关。%Taking the methods of abnormal manipulation terms to measure corporate accrual and real earnings management respec -tively, this study constructs multiple linear regression model and simultaneous equation model to examine the influence of institu -tional ownership on the choice between accrual earnings management and real earnings management activities with Chinese listed companies from 2003 to 2011 as samples .The empirical results show that:institutional ownership is significantly and negatively correlated with real earnings management and positively and correlated with accrual earnings management .Details test according to the types of institutional investors finds that the relationship exists when the institutional investors are investment funds , securi-ties companies , QFII, insurance companies and pension funds , but not for the enterprise annuity , trust companies , finance com-panies and

  18. Big 4 auditing companies, earnings manipulation and earnings conservatism: evidence from an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabang Mokoaleli-Mokoteli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on South African listed companies and investigates the relation between Big 4 auditing companies, earnings management and earnings conservatism. It shows that companies audited by a Big 4 auditor leads to a more timely recognition of large losses and to lower levels of earnings manipulation and higher conditional conservatism. The findings report that the conditional form of conservatism is negatively related to unconditional conservatism. Higher conservatism is also reported for firms with high leverage and those that convey bad news. The opposite has been found for firms with high growth. The findings, in general support the notion that the new Companies’ Act in South Africa and the King III are effective corporate governance tools and the observed cases of corporate failure may be due to other factors, including management hubris.

  19. Application of Earned Value Management in Material Life Cycle Cost Control%挣值管理在装备寿命周期费用控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米裕; 贺波; 郝晶; 王宏伟

    2011-01-01

    Base of the concept and the evaluating index system about earned value measure? We established three-dimensional model about earned value Management Applied in material life cycle cost control, and connected the each landmark in schedule dimension to the process of material life cycle, then we applied the ABC measure to account plan value of each landmark. Last, this paper give an example to illuminate earned value measure can forecast and control effectively to material life cycle cost.%在阐述挣值法的概念以及评价指标体系的基础上,建立了挣值管理在装备寿命周期费用控制中的三维模型,并将进度维中的各个里程碑与寿命周期过程结合起来,应用作业成本法对各个里程碑计划价值进行求解,最后举例说明,挣值法能够对装备寿命周期费用进行有效的预测和控制.

  20. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    , as identified in a factor model, significantly affect earnings, but not for young workers. The effects are furthermore heterogeneous by educational attainment. For women, personality traits do not affect family earnings in the same way as own earnings. Personality and IQ also influence earnings indirectly...... through education, which has sizeable positive rates of return for men in this sample. Women’s returns to education past a bachelor’s degree are lowered through worse marriage prospects, which offset gains to education in terms of own earnings. The causal effect of education is identified through matching......Talented individuals are seen as drivers of long-term growth, but how do they realize their full potential? In this paper, I show that lifetime earnings of high-IQ men and women are substantially influenced by their personality traits, in addition to intelligence and education. Personality traits...

  1. Earnings and bank profitability in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank earnings in form of retained profit help in the capital formation of banks. This is critical because capital inadequacy is often a cause of bank failures. During the banking crisis in Nigeria the gross earnings of many banks diminished considerably due to frauds and bad management. For example, in 2009 the Central Bank of Nigeria revoked the operating licences of fourteen banks which had huge nonperforming loans and were making losses. The fragility in the Nigerian banking system in the 1990s and beyond was compounded due to wide spread poor corporate governance practices and imprudent lending that led to the erosion of gross earnings and profitability. The study employed the exploratory research design. Data analyses were done through description statistics and the regression technique using the statistical package for the social sciences. The regression result was Y = 4.926 + 1.877x meaning that with an increase of 1 percent in gross earnings bank profitability increases by 1.88 percent. This is the crux of the study.

  2. 审计质量与盈余管理方式选择﹡--来自中国上市公司的经验证据%Audit Quality and the Choice of Earnings Management Patterns:Evidence from Chinese Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管考磊

    2016-01-01

    应计和真实盈余管理是公司管理盈余的两种方式,本文检验了审计质量对公司两种盈余管理方式选择的影响。研究发现,审计师的行业专长和职业声誉与应计盈余管理程度显著负相关,与真实盈余管理程度和选择倾向显著正相关;而审计师的独立性无论是与应计还是与真实盈余管理程度均显著负相关。这一结论表明,审计师的行业专长和职业声誉限制了公司实施应计盈余管理的能力,促使公司转而实施了更多的真实盈余管理;而审计师的独立性却能够同时抑制公司的应计和真实盈余管理。本文的研究为监管机构进一步完善上市公司的会计监管提供了重要借鉴。%Accrual-based and real-based earnings management is two ways of corporate managing earnings. This paper investigates the effect of audit quality on the management choice between accrual-based and real-based earnings management. The author finds that auditor’s industry expertise and higher professional reputation have negative impact on accrual-based earnings management, and have positive impact on the amount and tendency of real-based earnings management. The auditor’s independence is negatively related to accrual-based and real-based earnings management. This conclusion implies that auditor’s industry expertise and professional reputation are able to constrain the accrual-based earnings management, then the management of the listed companies resort to implement more real-based earnings management. In addition, auditor’s independence is able to constrain accrual-based and real-based earnings management. This paper provides some important suggestions for the improvement of accounting regulation of listed companies.

  3. Pengaruh Manajemen Laba, Ukuran Perusahan, dan Leverage terhdap Earning Per Share dengan Reputasi Auditor sebagai Variabel Moderasi pada Perusahaan Perbankan yang terdaftar di BEI 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Viranda, Vira

    2015-01-01

    This research aim is to understand and analyse the effects of earning management, firm size, and leverage to earning per share with auditor reputation as a moderating variable of Banking Corporations listed on IDX period 2012-2014. This is a causal research with 26 corporations as samples, and secondary data are used as data sources. Research shows that simultaneously, earning management, firm size, and leverage, are positive and significantly affected earning per share. Partially, earning ma...

  4. 用赢得值法进行测绘项目进度和费用控制%Mapping the Project Schedule and Cost Control with the Earned Value Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉忱; 王敬华

    2016-01-01

    基于工程项目管理理论,主要探讨了用赢得值法进行测绘项目进度和费用控制的方法,对测绘工程项目进行有效管理,从而实现项目目标,提高项目管理水平。%In this paper, based on the theory of project management, mainly discusses using earned value management to control the schedule and cost of Surveying and mapping project, effective management of Surveying and mapping engineering project, in order to achieve the project objectives, improve the level of project management.

  5. 7 CFR 1767.25 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retained earnings. 1767.25 Section 1767.25....25 Retained earnings. The retained earnings accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Retained Earnings 433-439 Retained Earnings 433-439 ...

  6. The Effect of Board Independence on the Earnings Quality: Evidence from Portuguese Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agency theory suggests that independent outside board members may have an important monitoring function of the financial reporting process. As a result, boards with more independent directors have a tendency for increased monitoring and are therefore expected to insist on better earnings quality. This study examines whether board independence improves earnings quality by reducing earnings management in Portugal, a country with significantly different institutional and legal characteristics from the Anglo-Saxon countries. Using ordinary least square (OLS and two stage least squares (2SLS techniques to control potential simultaneity problems between board independence and earnings quality, we find evidence that independent board members improve earnings quality by reducing earnings management for a sample of Portuguese listed firms. This result suggests that strengthening the independence of boards by appointing more independent board members is a positive step toward improving earnings quality.

  7. 基于挣值法的项目进度-成本管理决策模型研究%Decision-making Model for Project Schedule-Cost Management Based on Earned Value Method 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧君; 常澜潇; 娄海艳

    2012-01-01

    Earned value management is a very important and effective method in monitoring project schedule and cost. This method is mainly used for analyzing schedule, cost variance and forecasting the unperfect project duration and cost. Combining with management reserve, it proposes a quantitative decision - making model based on earned value method and the improved model. This can help project manager to take proper action to correct schedule and cost variance.%挣值法作为一种先进的项目管理方法,在国际上已被普遍应用于项目进度-成本的综合控制.在挣值法及其改进方法的基础上,结合管理储备的思想,提出了定量化的决策模型和调整成本优化模型,进一步辅助项目经理采取合适的进度-成本纠偏措施.

  8. 基于深市上市公司IPO盈余管理实证研究%Empirical Study of IPO Earnings Management Based on Listed Companies in Shenzhen Stock Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟云凤; 李刚

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing IPO earnings management motivation, this paper studies the means and influence of IPO companies earnings management. Regarding the 71 companies listing in Shenzhen stock exchange as the object of the re- search, through the research of 2006-2010 economic data and using the improved Jones model could draw two conclusions: there are significant differences of the performance of listed companies before and after IPO, the performance of two years, before listing is higher than those years and two years after listing; the listed companies manipulate earnings through adjustment accrued profits.At last, in view of the analysis results, this paper puts forward corresponding countermeasures, in order to strengthen the securities market supervision, perfect the corporate governance structure, help investors to make investment deci- sion.%在分析IPO盈余管理动机的基础上,研究了IPO公司进行盈余管理的手段及其影响。以2008年在深圳证券交易所上市的71家公司为对象,通过研究其2006-2010五年的经济数据,运用改进后的Jones模型,得出两个结论:上市公司的业绩在IPO前后存在明显的差异,并且上市前两年的业绩高于IPO当年及IPO后两年;上市公司通过调整应计利润进行盈余的操纵。最后针对分析结果提出相应对策,以期对加强证券市场监管,完善公司治理结构,帮助投资者进行投资决策做出贡献。

  9. Education and Earnings in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psacharopoulos, George; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Uses 1990 Household Survey data for Paraguay to analyze the education-earnings relationship. Human capital characteristics account for about 40% of individual earnings variance; each extra year of schooling yields a private return rate of 11.5%. Social and private return rates are highest for primary education, followed by secondary education.…

  10. Earnings, employment and income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,

  11. 企业生命周期、股权激励与盈余管理研究%Research of Enterprise Life Cycle,Eqity Incentives and Earnings Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查慧园; 蒋冰清; 潘先栋

    2016-01-01

    Since the capital market of our country has been built more than 20 years,the corporate governance mechanism has improved constantly,it also has carried on the beneficial exploration to equity incentive mechanism. However,it started relatively late,the results of research is not much,and the results of study do not have high de-gree of consistency. So the study for the earnings management behavior of the management of the listed companies which implement the equity incentive mechanism is even less. This article uses A-share listed companies which implement the equity incentive mechanism in 2009 -2012 as samples,and tries to take enterprise life cycle into consideration,find the relationship about equity incentive and the correlation of earnings management,validity of eq-uity incentive mechanism and earnings management. The results show that the enterprise life cycle have influence on equity incentive,the length of the period of validity and the earnings management. On this basis,the article put for-ward some reasonable suggestionss about how to use equity incentive mechanism effectively and ease the earnings management behavior.%自我国资本市场建立二十多年以来,公司治理机制不断完善,对于股权激励机制也进行了有益地探索,但由于研究起步比较晚,取得的研究成果不多,研究成果也不具有高度的一致性,针对实施了股权激励机制的上市公司其管理层的盈余管理行为的研究更是少。文章从企业生命周期角度切入,以我国2009-2012年间实施了股权激励机制的A股上市公司为样本,对股权激励与盈余管理的相关性以及股权激励机制中有效期与盈余管理的关系进行研究,发现企业生命周期分别对股权激励及其中的有效期与盈余管理的关系都有影响,结合研究结果,为企业高效利用股权激励机制,缓解盈余管理行为提出建议。

  12. Behaviors of Earnings Management in Seasoned Equity Offerings: Take Manufacturing Industry as an Example%股权再融资中的盈余管理行为—以制造业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘述新; 康进军; 李欣

    2012-01-01

    The behaviors of earnings management in seasoned equity offerings were studied by the adjusted Jones model and real manipulations model using 154 listed companies in manufacturing industry as samples between 2006-2008. The results show that the company manages earnings not only through the manipulation of accruals but also through the manipulation of real activities in the seasoned equity offerings.%以2006-2008年间进行股权再融资的154家制造业上市公司为样本,利用修正的截面琼斯模型和真实活动操控模型,研究了股权再融资过程中的盈余管理行为.结果表明,公司在股权再融资过程中不仅通过操控应计项目进行盈余管理,而且还采用了更为隐蔽的真实活动盈余管理.

  13. Earnings Public-Use File, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Social Security Administration released Earnings Public-Use File (EPUF) for 2006. File contains earnings information for individuals drawn from a systematic random...

  14. UAS-NAS Stakeholder Feedback Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Debra; Murphy, Jim; Grindle, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vital importance to national security and defense, emergency management, science, and to enable commercial applications has been continually increasing over the past few years. To address this need, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Integrated Aviation Systems Program (IASP) formulated and funded the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project (hereafter referred to as UAS-NAS Project) from 2011 to 2016. The UAS-NAS Project identified the following need statement: The UAS community needs routine access to the global airspace for all classes of UAS. The Project identified the following goal: To provide research findings to reduce technical barriers associated with integrating UAS into the NAS utilizing integrated system level tests in a relevant environment. This report provides a summary of the collaborations between the UAS-NAS Project and its primary stakeholders and how the Project applied and incorporated the feedback.

  15. 基于多级挣值分析的项目费用与进度管理研究%The Research of Cost and Schedule Management Based on the Analysis of Multi-level Earned Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石明喜; 蒋理; 王喜平

    2011-01-01

    The traditional earned value analysis is to evaluate and predict the overall implementation of project, owing to neglect the logical relationship between the work packages of project, it is easy to cause the bias between the evaluation result and the actual execution. Based on the traditional earned value method, the multi-level earned value analysis method are put forward, this method can predict the total cost and total duration more accurately, and then, it can timely find the deviation place of cost and schedule in project, so as to rectify the schedule plan and provide more scientific basis for the schedule and cost management of project.%传统挣值分析法评价和预测项目的总体执行情况,由于忽略了项目内部各个工作包之间的逻辑关系,从而容易导致项目进度的评价结果与实际执行情况相背离。本文在传统挣值法的基础上提出多级挣值分析法,该方法能更加准确的预测项目总成本和总工期,并且能及时找到项目成本和进度出现偏差的位置,从而及时纠正进度计划,为项目进度管理和成本控制提供更加科学的依据。

  16. PENGARUH PREMANAGED EARNINGS DAN DIVIDEN YANG DIHARAPKAN TERHADAP PRAKTIK MANAJEMEN LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Anita Wibiksono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether the companies paying dividend in the previous year (payers are more likely to perform earnings management than companies that do not (non-payers in order to meet the expected dividend. The study also examines the impact of premanaged earnings and expected dividend on earnings management practices. Sample used in this research are manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010-2012. The findings suggest that there is a significant negative relationship between premanaged earnings and discretionary accruals, and a significant positive relationship between the expected dividends and discretionary accruals. This study concludes that dividend is important determinant of earnings thresholds. However, dividend is not a unique motivation to perform earnings management.

  17. Efeito de sistemas de manejo nas propriedades físicas de um latossolo vermelho-escuro Effect of soil management on soil physical properties of an oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonir Secco

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em 1995 na área experimental da Universidade de Cruz Alta, UNICRUZ, Cruz Alta - RS, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo nas propriedades físicas de um latossolo vermelho-escuro distrófico, bem como no rendimento de grãos da cultura da soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os sistemas de manejo do solo foram: (1 plantio direto contínuo -PDC; (2 plantio direto e escarificação de acordo com a necessidade (sistema dinâmico - PDSD; (3 plantio direto no verão com escarificação no outono/inverno - PD V; (4 plantio convencional: escarificador mais grade niveladora - PCEG; e, (S plantio convencional: arado de discos mais grade niveladora - PCAG. Determinou-se o espaço poroso (porosidade total, macro e microporosidade e a densidade do solo. As amostras foram coletadas em dois pontos por parcela nas profundidades de 0-7, 7-14 e 14-21 cm. A densidade do solo foi maior nas profundidades de 0-7 cm e 7- l4cm para o tratamento PDC que diferiu dos demais tratamentos à exceção ao tratamento PDSD. A porosidade lote e a microporosidade foram menores nos tratamentos PDC e PDSD, nas profundidades de 0-7, 7-14 e 14-21 cm, quando comparados aos tratamentos P D V, PCEG e PCAG. Para a microporosidade, apenas na profundidade de 7-14cm encontrou-se diferença significativa entre os valores, onde o tratamento PDC diferiu com valor superior apenas do tratamento PCAG. O rendimento de grãos de soja não diferiu entre os sistemas de manejo do solo utilizados.This research v/as carried out in 1995 in the experimental area of the University of Cruz Alta, UNICRUZ, Cruz Alta, RS, aiming to evaluate the effects of different soil management systems on soil physical properties of an oxisol, as well as on soybean yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized blocks with four replications. Soil management systems used were; (1

  18. 董事会制度对盈余管理影响的实证研究--基于安徽省上市公司年报数据%Empirical Study of the Impact of Earnings Management Board System:Based on the Annual Report Data of Listed Companies in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆园; 谷莉

    2016-01-01

    董事会是企业公司治理的重要组成,与企业盈余管理有着密切的联系。结合安徽省上市公司近5年的年报数据,系统检验了董事会制度对盈余管理的影响。结果表明:董事会规模与盈余管理程度呈U型关系,独立董事比例与盈余管理程度呈正相关,而董事长与CEO的兼任对盈余管理的相关性没有得到验证。基于此提出相应的改善公司盈余管理的董事会制度。%The board of directors is the important part in the corporate governance,which has the close relation with corporate earn-ings management. Combining with the annual report data of listed companies in recent five years , the system tests the board of directors system's impact on earnings management. The result indicates that the board scale and the degree of earnings management becomes u-shaped relation, the independent directors proportion is positively correlated with the degree of earnings management, and the chairman and CEO of correlation of earnings management has not been verified. Based on this the paper puts forward the corresponding improve-ment system of the company's board.

  19. Earnings Inequality in Germany and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GIACOMO; CORNEO

    2015-01-01

    The current paper discusses the evolution of earnings inequality in Germany with an eye to its potential lessons for China. Inequality is assessed from two different perspectives: the distribution of annual earnings, and the distribution of lifetime earnings. This paper proposes to implement closer monitoring of lifetime earnings and take a proactive stance in the formation of the wage-bargaining regime.

  20. 12 CFR 1805.504 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retained earnings. 1805.504 Section 1805.504... earnings. (a) An Applicant may use its retained earnings to match a request for a financial assistance... requirements by committing available earnings retained from its operations shall be subject to the restrictions...

  1. 积极回应内部控制法案与管理层利润预测精度——基于日本数据的实证研究%Positive Response to J-SOX and Accuracy of Management Earnings Forecasts:An Empirical Analysis Based on Japanese Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡大力

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether companies with accounting firms′ consulting services for the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act("J-SOX") have higher accuracy of management earnings forecasts than those without such services.Using the management earnings forecast' error after linking the abnormal accruals as a measure of accuracy of management earnings forecasts,the result indicated that,compared to companies without consulting services,companies with consulting services for J-SOX had higher accuracy of management earnings forecasts.This finding supports the notion that effective internal controls can help companies to implement a comprehensive budget management.%以日本上市公司为研究对象,在考虑盈余管理行为的基础上分析并检验积极回应内部控制法案的上市公司是否具有较高的管理层利润预测精度。结果表明,那些委托会计师事务所构建和完善其内部控制系统以应对内部控制法案的上市公司具有较高的管理层利润预测精度。因此,有效的内部控制有助于企业实施全面预算管理。

  2. 企业盈余管理方式抉择、政府监管与企业社会责任的博弈研究%Game Research on Earnings Management Decision, Government Regulation and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃朝晖; 彭华超; 高鑫

    2016-01-01

    用博弈论的方法,对企业的盈余管理行为及方式和政府监管之间的关系进行分析。在分析基础上进一步利用无限次重复博弈的方法,发现企业出于长期发展的考虑,以履行社会责任和诚实披露信息是最优的选择。%The relationship between earnings management behavior and way of the enterprises and government regulation is analyzed by using the game theory. Based on analyzing the basic, the infinite repeated game is further used. It is found that for the long-term development of enterprises, to fulfill their social responsibility and honestly disclose the information is the best choice.

  3. 上市公司会计舞弊与盈余管理比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Accounting Frauds and Earnings Management of Public-Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔奇

    2014-01-01

    In capital markets, motivation and excuses for accounting frauds and earnings management exist as long as there are information asymmetry and benefit game. It is hard to acquire fruitful outcome through eliminating stress and excuses;substantial effect in governing accounting frauds and earnings management could only be obtained through cutting down opportunity elements in terms of conditions and opportunities for conducting the behavior. As the consequence and legal liability of the two are entirely different, respective governance strategies are different. Accounting frauds shall be administered by focusing on punishment with the help of precaution strategies. The pre-caution, supervision of external auditing and severe punishment of exposed frauds are indispensable. The space for earnings management could be compressed by a constant reform, improvement of relative policies and regulations, and information disclosure. In addition, corpo-rate behavior could be guided through institutional improvement and moral construction. In so doing, the impact of earnings management on accounting information quality could be reduced gradually.%在资本市场中,只要存在信息不对称和利益博弈,会计舞弊和盈余管理的动机和借口就永远存在。对于财务舞弊和盈余管理的治理,是很难通过消除压力和借口来取得成效的,只有尽量减少机会因素,即行为实施的条件和机会,才能真正取得实质性成效。由于两者在行为后果和法律责任上的截然不同,因而相应的治理策略也有所不同。对于会计舞弊的治理则需要以“治”为主、“防”“治”结合的策略,事前的有效防范、事后外部审计的有效监督和发现后的严厉惩罚缺一不可。对于盈余管理问题,只能通过不断改革和完善相关会计政策规范,加强信息披露等来压缩盈余管理的空间,同时还应通过制度建设和道德建设来引导公司的行为

  4. 企业银行借款融资中的盈余管理研究--来自中国A股上市公司的经验证据%Research on Earnings Management for Bank Loan Financing of Enterprises--Evidence from Chinese A-Share Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹崇延; 王阿静

    2013-01-01

    银行借款是我国上市公司重要的融资途径,企业有没有为了自身利益而围绕借款过程进行盈余管理?研究将盈余管理的借款动机从其他动机中分离出来,并针对两组变量:银行借款与当期盈余、银行借款与当期盈余增量分别使用分布检验,以揭示企业在借款过程中是否存在盈余管理并探究其盈余管理的表现形式。从而发现企业基于借款融资动机进行了盈余管理,且其表现形式为制造正盈余以避免亏损。另外,企业并没有刻意制造盈余上升的趋势。使用Probit回归进行补充验证,进一步证实企业围绕银行借款过程进行了盈余管理。对盈余管理的频率进行分析,发现约有4.74%到14.15%的企业存在避免亏损的盈余管理行为,且存在借款融资动机时,盈余管理频率将更高。%Bank loan financing is an important way of Chinese listed companies’ capital raising. Do enterprises manage their earnings around the process of bank loan financing with consideration of their own interests? In order to reveal whether the borrowing enterprises adopt earnings management for bank loan financing and explore the form of their earnings management, the authors separate the incentive of bank loan financing from other incentives and use a distributional test based on two groups of variables: (1) bank loans and current earnings; (2) bank loans and current change in earnings. The result shows that enterprises adopt earnings management for bank loan financing and the form is counterfeiting positive earnings to avoid losses. In addition, they don’t deliberately make an upward tendency in earnings to avoid earnings decreases. The conclusion that the borrowing enterprises manage their earnings to avoid losses is further confirmed by the following probit regression. The authors analyze the frequency of earnings management and find approximately 4.74% to 14.15% of the enterprises being studied

  5. 我国上市商业银行盈余管理与市场约束——基于投资收益及风险管理的视角%Earnings management of listed commercial banks and the market constraints——Based on investment income and risk management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵胜民; 翟光宇; 张瑜

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses earnings management and market discipline,significance and correlation,analysis of the commercial banks earnings management methods and the existence of commercial bank market discipline approach.Using a fixed effects model based on loan loss provisions and investment income as a tool analyzes earnings management;using GMM dynamic panel analyzes stock-based transactions of commercial banks,market discipline of risk.The empirical results show that the stock market trading of non-systematic fluctuations of the commercial bank market discipline the risk management.China's commercial banks did not improve the capital adequacy ratio for earnings management,there is no investment income through earnings management to smooth profits.However,a loan loss provision for the smooth management of the surplus profits.The market-oriented of China's commercial banks are being gradually strengthened,and make relevant recommendations of the market supervision.%本文论述了商业银行盈余管理与市场约束的内涵、意义及相互关系。分析了商业银行进行盈余管理的方法和我国商业银行市场约束存在的途径。实证部分用固定效应和随机效应模型分析了基于贷款损失准备与投资收益为工具的盈余管理;用GMM动态面板分析了基于股票交易的对商业银行风险的市场约束。实证结果显示,股票市场交易的非系统性波动对商业银行的风险管理构成了市场约束。我国商业银行没有进行以提高资本充足率为目的的盈余管理,也没有通过投资收益进行平滑利润的盈余管理,但是用贷款损失准备进行了平滑利润的盈余管理。本文的结论表明我国商业银行的市场化程度正得到逐步加强,并为银行监管的市场监督角度提出了相关建议。

  6. 内部控制信息披露与盈余管理相关性研究%A Case Study on the Relationship Between Internal Control Information Disclosure and Earnings Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冬

    2015-01-01

    On January 1 of 2012, the"Guidelines for Enterprises' Internal Control"was formally implemented in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchange. This series of guidelines mandated that the listed companies should disclose in-formation on the internal control and publish the audit report issued by certified public accountants. Can the implementa-tion of this series of guidelines enhance the quality of internal controlinformation disclosure of China's listed compa-nies,enhance the reliability of financial reports and inhibit the earnings management behavior? This paper collected the Shanghai-listed non-financecompanies' internal control reports and internal control audit reports from 2010 to 2012 as the sample and carried out descriptive statistical analysis. In this paper,the relationship between internal control infor-mation disclosure of listed companies and the earnings management, and the results of the implementation for"Enter-prises' Internal Control Guidelines"are studied.%2012年1月1日,《企业内部控制配套指引》在深沪主板上市公司中正式实施.按此指引规定,上市公司必须对外披露内部控制信息,公布经注册会计师审核的鉴证报告.本文对该指引的施行效果进行了研究.结果发现:内部控制信息披露与盈余管理显著负相关;指引的实施能够提高上市公司披露的内控信息质量、增进财务报告可靠性,并抑制盈余管理行为.

  7. 基于公允价值的盈余管理动因及治理对策探析%Study on the Earnings Management Motivation and Countermeasures Based on the Fair Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜建博; 仇俊林

    2012-01-01

    公允价值是一种计量属性,它与盈余管理之间本没有必然的联系。但其在计量过程中的一些特殊性,使得公允价值在提高了会计信息有用性的同时,客观上增加了企业管理中会计处理的自由度,可能成为盈余管理的工具。文中通过探析公允价值在金融工具、投资性房地产、非货币性资产交换、债务重组等会计准则中的具体应用,指出可能存在的盈余管理行为。并提出了防范滥用公允价值进行盈余管理的相关措施,为公允价值在我国较好的运行提供帮助。%In view of analyzing the application of fair value in the accounting standards, such as the financial tools, investment property, non - monetary assets exchange, and debt reconstruction, the possible behaviors of earnings management are pointed out. It also puts forward measures to prevent the abuse of fair value for earnings management, such as: improving the recognition ability of the users~financial information; strengthening the inter- nal and external monitoring of the fair value measurement further, introducing the asset assessment institution to determine the fair value of the assets, changing the concept of the income, as well as introducing the comprehen- sive income theory.

  8. Liderança e influência nas fases da gestão de projetos Leadership and influence in the phases of management of projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária de Fátima Segger Macri Russo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o papel de liderança como um dos fatores críticos de sucesso do gerente de projetos. Com base em um levantamento, foram identificadas algumas das competências e as habilidades que mais contribuíram para o sucesso do projeto, dentro das fases definidas pelo PMI (2004. Essas competências e habilidades foram classificadas segundo as características dos projetos. O levantamento foi feito junto a uma amostra de concluintes de cursos de gerenciamento de projetos. O trabalho não fornece recomendações, mas princípios encontrados nas situações selecionadas pelos respondentes. Os resultados deste estudo podem ser relevantes para pessoas que gerenciam ou gerenciarão projetos, para que possam refletir sobre como melhorar ou como adquirir algumas habilidades, elevando a probabilidade de sucesso.This article analyzes the role of leadership as a critical factor for success of project manager. On the basis of a survey, it was identified some of competences and skills that most contributed to the success of the project, within the phases described by PMI (2004. These competences and skills were classified by project characteristics. The survey was done with a sample graduated senior students of management projects courses. This work does not give advices, but principles founded in interviews select situation. The results could be relevant for project managers or future project managers in order to reflect about improving or acquiring some competence, in a way to raise the possibility of success.

  9. 股票增发上市公司股权结构与盈余管理的相关性研究%Study on the Correlation between Ownership Structure and Earnings Management of the Listed Companies after Stock Additional Issuance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇

    2011-01-01

    Through choosing all A - shares listed companies who having additional stock issuance during 2003 - 2009 years as the sample data, we do an empirical analysis about the correlation between ownership structure and earnings management behavior of the listed companies after stock additional issuance. The results show that there is a positively correlation between the first major shareholders and enterprise' earnings management, and the circulation stock shareholder and institutional ownership have negatively correlated with earnings management behavior of the listed companies, but the nature of property rights didn' t influence on the earnings management of issued company.%通过选取2003—2009年所有股票增发的A股上市公司作为样本数据,对股票增发上市公司的股权结构与其盈余管理行为的相关性进行实证分析。研究结果表明,第一大股东的持股比例与盈余管理程度呈正相关关系,流通股股东与机构投资者持股比例与盈余管理程度呈负相关关系,但增发公司盈余管理程度不受其产权主体性质的影响。

  10. 私募股权投资下的应计盈余管理与真实盈余管理--基于PIPE投资的经验研究%The Effect of Private Equity Investment on Accruals-based and Real Earnings Management---An Empirical Research Based on PIPE Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子尧; 张雪兰; 赵绍阳

    2016-01-01

    私募股权投资已成为活跃在国际资本市场上的新兴力量,因其高度参与所投资企业的经营管理而带来的公司治理优化效应日益受到广泛重视。但是,对我国上市公司的相关研究发现:由于契约短期性等限制,私募股权的参与并未发挥公司治理优化效应,反而加剧了正向盈余管理;私募股权参与的上市公司盈余管理的方式更隐蔽,应计盈余管理及真实盈余管理兼而有之,且真实盈余管理的程度要高于应计盈余管理的程度;声誉、是否联合投资等私募股权特征显著影响上市公司盈余管理。据此,要发挥私募股权投资在优化公司治理、净化资本市场的积极作用,相关制度设计须兼顾有效约束私募基金因投资契约而做出的短视行为。%In view of insufficient academic research on private equity investment in listed companies confronted with current vigorous practice development, and based on the sample of private equity institutions invested into the listed companies between 2001 and 2011 , this paper discusses the influence mechanism and the effect of private equity on earnings management of listed companies. The results show that due to some restrictions such as short-term contract, instead of optimizing the effects of corporate governance, PE exacerbates the positive earnings management. Also, the way of PE participating in earnings management is more hidden—there is a concurrence of accrued and real earnings management, and the degree of real earnings management is higher than accrued earnings management. Further, PE characteristics such as reputation and joint investment significantly affect earnings management of listed companies. Accordingly, the relevant system design is necessary in order to prompt PE to play a positive role in optimizing the corporate governance and purifying the capital market.

  11. Empirical Research on the Market Power and Earnings Manageent--Empirical Evidence from Chinese Listed Corporation%产品市场势力与盈余管理实证研究--来自中国上市公司的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘勇

    2013-01-01

      Earnings management is an important topic in the field of Accounting Research,which reflects the fairness of corporate financial reporting.Lots of research focused on the motivation of earnings management,the earnings management metrics and the relations between earnings management and corporate governance,but there are less Literature studying the influence of the product market competition on the earnings management.In view of this,we use the Chinese listed corporation data from the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Market between 2010 and 2011,studying the issues of earnings management at the perspective of the product market power.Empirical analysis shows that:listed companies with a strong market power tend to trade-off a low level of earnings management.%  盈余管理是会计研究领域的一个重要课题,它反映企业财务报告的公允性。目前对盈余管理问题的研究大量集中在盈余管理动机、盈余管理衡量以及盈余管理与公司治理关系等领域,而对盈余管理与产品市场竞争关系的研究较少。结合产业组织理论和盈余管理理论,采用2010—2011年间沪深 A 股非金融类上市公司横截面数据,从产品市场势力的视角对上市公司盈余管理问题进行实证研究。研究发现,产品市场势力强的上市公司趋向于选择低程度的盈余管理。

  12. 从企业投资效率看盈余管理的经济后果——来自中国上市公司的经验证据%The Economic Consequences of Earnings Management from the Perspective of Corporate Investment Efficiency:Empirical Evidence from Listed Companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春艳

    2012-01-01

    Taking the companies listed in Shanghai Stock Exchange and Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2009 as an example, this paper studies the economic consequences of earnings management in China from the perspective of investment efficiency. The results show that corporate earnings management is negatively related to future investment efficiency, name- ly listed companies with higher level of earnings management have lower future investment efficiency. Then it arrives at a conclusion that earnings management not only misleads external investors' judgments and decision-making, but also leads to adverse effects on corporate internal decision-making and the allocation of market resources, therefore corporate earnings management should be curbed.%文章以2005--2009年沪深两市上市公司为样本,从投资效率的角度检验了中国现实制度背景下盈余管理的经济后果。研究发现,企业盈余管理程度与未来投资效率显著负相关,上市公司盈余管理程度越高,其未来投资效率越低。文章由此得出结论:盈余管理不仅可能误导外部投资者的判断和决策,也对企业的内部决策产生了不利影响,损害了市场资源的有效配置,因此必须采取措施抑制企业的盈余管理行为。

  13. 真实盈余管理与 R & D 支出--一个创业板上市公司的经验证据%Real Earnings Management and R & D Investment:The Empirical Evidence of GEM Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代霞

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes 763 GEMcompanies from 2010 to 2013 as the sample,and carries out the empirical analysis on the relationship between real earnings management and R&D investment.The result shows that there is significantly nega-tive correlation between real earnings and R&D investment,which means real earnings management degree is higher and the degree of R&D investment of the GEMlisted companies is less.At the same time,this paper finds there are zero threshold differences in real earnings management of GEMlisted companies.%以2010—2013年间我国创业板上市公司763个样本进行实证分析,讨论真实盈余管理与 R&D 支出之间的关系。研究发现,真实盈余管理与创业板上市公司间存在显著的负相关关系,即真实盈余管理程度越高,则创业板上市公司的 R&D 支出程度就越少;同时还发现上市公司中存在真实盈余管理的零阈值差异。

  14. Learn and Earn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁会珍

    2008-01-01

    <正>Charlie and Jackie joined a wholesale company together just after graduation. They both worked very hard. After several years, the boss made Jackie sales manager, but Charlie sub>1sub> a salesman. One day Charlie could not sub>2sub> it any more. He handed in his

  15. Demographic cycles, cohort size, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M C

    1989-05-01

    This article examines whether position in the demographic cycle is an important factor in determining earnings and earnings growth. Earnings equations for white males are estimated by using March Current Population Survey data. Position in the demographic cycle is captured by including both measures of own cohort size and the size of surrounding cohorts in the estimated earnings equations. Position in the demographic cycle matters. Increases in own cohort size lead to flatter earnings profiles, whereas increases in the size of surrounding cohorts are associated with steeper earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some college, and college graduates.

  16. Sexual orientation, disclosure and earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, E.; Berkhout, P.

    2008-01-01

    Gay/bisexual workers tend to earn less than other men. Does this occur because of discrimination or because of selection? In this paper we address this question and collect new information on workplace disclosure to separate out discrimination effects from selection effects. Using a large sample of

  17. The Black- White Earnings Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sandra; Bernard, Keith

    1974-01-01

    Using projected labor force data (race, sex, and education) nondiscriminatory and discriminatory black-white occupational patterns and earnings ratios are defined to the year 2000. Rather than realistic estimates, the projections are designed as standards to measure progress in eliminating racial discrimination in the labor market. (EA)

  18. The SMART-NAS Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Rudolph A.

    2015-01-01

    The SMART-NAS Testbed for Safe Trajectory Based Operations Project will deliver an evaluation capability, critical to the ATM community, allowing full NextGen and beyond-NextGen concepts to be assessed and developed. To meet this objective a strong focus will be placed on concept integration and validation to enable a gate-to-gate trajectory-based system capability that satisfies a full vision for NextGen. The SMART-NAS for Safe TBO Project consists of six sub-projects. Three of the sub-projects are focused on exploring and developing technologies, concepts and models for evolving and transforming air traffic management operations in the ATM+2 time horizon, while the remaining three sub-projects are focused on developing the tools and capabilities needed for testing these advanced concepts. Function Allocation, Networked Air Traffic Management and Trajectory Based Operations are developing concepts and models. SMART-NAS Test-bed, System Assurance Technologies and Real-time Safety Modeling are developing the tools and capabilities to test these concepts. Simulation and modeling capabilities will include the ability to assess multiple operational scenarios of the national airspace system, accept data feeds, allowing shadowing of actual operations in either real-time, fast-time and/or hybrid modes of operations in distributed environments, and enable integrated examinations of concepts, algorithms, technologies, and NAS architectures. An important focus within this project is to enable the development of a real-time, system-wide safety assurance system. The basis of such a system is a continuum of information acquisition, analysis, and assessment that enables awareness and corrective action to detect and mitigate potential threats to continuous system-wide safety at all levels. This process, which currently can only be done post operations, will be driven towards "real-time" assessments in the 2035 time frame.

  19. ATRF Earns Three Green Globes, Exceeds NIH Building Standards | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer From project management and energy and water efficiency to emissions and the indoor environment, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) was built with sustainability in mind, exceeding the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) building standards and earning three Green Globes from the Green Building Initiative (GBI).

  20. Earnings of Students Who Change Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlund, Linda; Regner, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Using data on Swedish university entrants, this study finds that earnings are significantly lower for students who change universities compared to students who do not change. Earnings differences decrease over time and over the earnings distribution. The pattern in the estimates seems consistent with non-transfer students having higher earnings…

  1. 47 CFR 32.4550 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retained earnings. 32.4550 Section 32.4550... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4550 Retained earnings. (a) This account shall include the undistributed balance of retained earnings derived from the...

  2. A literature review on the effect of executive compensation and investor sentiment on Earnings Management%高管薪酬与投资者情绪对盈余管理影响的文献综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁一

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the topic of the earnings management has been the focus of accounting academic research, especially with the continuous development and improvement of China's capital market, management, creditors, shareholders and so on a number of stake-holders in the decision making, often to the enterprise accounting information more attention. Executive compensation contracts especially equity incentive can play a role in the corporate governance, reduce the agency cost is a hot topic of research in recent years.%近年来,有关盈余管理的话题一直是会计界学术研究的热点,尤其是随着我国的资本市场的不断发展与完善,管理层、债权人、股东等等一些利益相关者在做出决策时,往往对企业的会计信息更加关注。高管薪酬契约尤其是股权激励能否发挥公司治理作用、降低代理成本是近年来研究的热点问题。

  3. 赢得值法在电网工程项目施工管理中的应用%Application of Earned Value Management in Power Grid Project Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焱; 刘士李

    2012-01-01

    赢得值法作为一种先进的管理方法,已普遍应用于项目进度、成本控制中。以电力施工企业某变电站土建工程为例,详细介绍赢得值法的使用,并探索其在应用中的缺陷及对策分析,通过主要参数对比,及时发现解决问题,促进工程施工费用与进度的统一。%Earned Value Management ( EVM ), an advanced management method, has been widely applied in the project scheduling and cost control. This paper has elaborated on the application of EVM and explored its application deficiencies and countermeasures based on the case study of the civil work of a transformer substation in a power construction enterprise. By comparing the main parameters, the problems and the solutions are to be found out in order to promote the harmony between construction cost and orogress.

  4. 公司治理差异下管理者变更与盈余管理的关系--基于股东和董事会视角%The Relationship between Managers’ Turnover and Earnings Management under Different Corporate Governance-From the Perspective of Shareholders and Board of Directors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    文章以2010-2013年沪深两市的上市公司为对象,研究了董事长和总经理的变更对盈余管理程度的影响,并进一步探索了股东和董事会治理差异对两者关系的作用机制。结果表明:管理者在正常离职前的一年至两年内会进行盈余操纵,且正常变更前一年的盈余管理程度比变更前两年高。另外,股东和董事会治理水平的差异会显著影响管理者变更与盈余管理的关系,即股权集中度较低或董事会规模较小的情况下,管理者进行盈余管理的程度更大。%By taking the listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets from 2010 to 2013 as the object,this pa⁃per studies the impact of chairman and general manager’s turnover on earnings management,and further explores the mecha⁃nism of different shareholders and board governance on the relationship between chairman and general manager’s turnover and earnings management. The results show that the managers will manipulate earnings within a year to two years before their normal leave,and the earnings management level of the previous year is higher than that in two years ago. In addition,the difference of shareholders and board governance has a significant impact on the relationship between managers ’ turnover and earnings management, namely managers’earnings management level is higher in companies which have a lower ownership concentration or smaller board size.

  5. Earning a Certification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Max; Messmer; 夏晓燕

    2001-01-01

    本文作者是美国Robert Half国际公司的董事长兼总裁。也是Management Your Care和Job Hunting等多部著作的作者。Messmer在这篇短文中首先强调:美国的金融和财会人员必须不断进修、深造并获得有关证书和文凭。Messmer接着介绍在美国如何取得有关证书和文凭后又特别指出:单有文凭是不会带来事业成功。 在就业竞争日趋激烈的中国,Messmer的观点:A commitment to learning and excelling in your profession is important in any job market也极富参考价值。

  6. 管理者过度自信与盈余管理关系研究--基于董事会治理视角实证检验%Research on the Relationship between Manager's Overconfidence and Earnings Management:Based on Board Governance Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启銮; 高玲

    2014-01-01

    基于行为财务理论,本文选取我国上市公司A股市场作为研究样本,在董事会治理的视角下,考虑了管理者过度自信与盈余管理之间的关系。%Based on behavioral finance theory, this paper selected listed companies in China A-share market as the research sample, took into account the relationship between managerial overconfidence and earnings management from the perspective of board governance.

  7. Auditors’ Organizational Form and Earnings Management of Clients in China%会计师事务所组织形式与客户企业盈余管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the relationship of auditors ’ organizational form and earnings management of clients in China , this paper employs data from 2000 to 2002 of listed companies.The results show that compared with auditors in limited liability fims ,the size of client discretionary accruals audited by auditors in partnership firms are significantly lower .Auditors in partnership firms have significant influence on lowering the probability that cli-ent firms adjust discretionary accruals upward.To get a reliable result ,this paper settles the problem of endogeneity with the instrumental variables methods.%以我国2000~2002年A股上市公司作为样本,对会计师事务所组织形式与客户企业盈余管理的关系进行了研究。为了解决盈余管理存在的内生性问题,采用工具变量法进行估计,研究发现:相对有限责任公司制的会计师事务所,经合伙制会计师事务所审计的客户公司,其可操控性盈余显著降低,而且合伙制会计师事务所会显著降低客户企业正向盈余管理的概率。

  8. 基于赢得值法的混凝土坝工期预测方法研究%Research on the Duration Prediction of Concrete Dam Based on Earned Value Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志达; 梁海俊

    2014-01-01

    Concrete dam project is a complex system engineering, and it last for long period usually. In the project implementation process, the project schedule/cost conjoint analysis and integrated management are very important. This article, on the basis of the project cost/schedule for joint analysis, put forward a joint plan based on network technology and earned value method for the duration prediction, which has some theoretical significance for real-time control of construction progress and project completion forecast total duration of the concrete dam and has verified the feasibility of the method through example analysis.%混凝土坝工程是复杂巨系统工程,施工周期长,在项目实施过程中对项目进度/费用联合分析、集成管理非常重要。文章正是在对项目费用/进度进行联合分析的基础上,提出了基于网络计划技术与挣值法联合预测的方法,对于实时控制混凝土坝工程的施工进度以及预测工程完工总工期有一定的理论意义,并通过实例分析验证了方法的可行性。

  9. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  10. Cost and Earning Dynamism: The Cointegration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde James Sunday

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examine the existence of a long run equilibrium between various cost variables and earning and the existence of cost variables stability of the in the firm. Secondary data from the financial reports of Cadbury Nigeria plc covering 2001 to 2010 was adopted for the study. The Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF unit root technique was used for the stationary test while the Engle-Granger approach was adopted for the cointegration test. The study reveals that long run relationships exist between the variables and the long run stability relationships exist between the variables, however, at weak significant point. It was recommended that cost management and review strategies should be adopted by the firm to strengthen the position of the firm in the industries and to put the firm in long run control of it cost and performance horizon.

  11. Gerenciamento de resultados em bancos com uso de TVM: validação de modelo de dois estágios Securities-based earnings management in nanks: validation of a two-stage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alves Dantas

    2013-04-01

    menor porte e nos controlados por capital privado.Studies investigating earnings management in banks have been particularly concerned with the use of Loan Loss Provisions (LLP and mainly use two-stage models to identify discretionary management actions. Another type of record that has received attention from researchers in identifying discretionary management actions is the classification and measurement of the fair value of securities. In this case, however, one-stage models have prevailed. The present study aims to develop and validate a two-stage model for the identification of discretionary management actions using gains obtained from securities. Our model incorporates macroeconomic indicators and specific attributes of the securities portfolios to the traditional parameters used in models previously utilized in the literature. To validate the proposed model, the results are compared with the results from the estimation of a one-stage model - a methodology widely used in the literature. Tests conducted with the two models reveal evidence of income smoothing using securities and the classification of available-for-sale securities among the actions taken by management. The consistency of the results across the two models validates the proposed model, thereby contributing to the development of research on the topic that is not only concerned with determining whether earnings management is practiced but also whether it can be associated with other variables. We also find that securities-based earnings management is more significant in smaller-sized banks and in banks controlled by private capital.

  12. Application of earned value management of critical pat in progress control of water conservancy and hydropower projects%关键路径赢得值法在水利水电工程项目进度管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付志霞

    2014-01-01

    赢得值法在跟踪指导水利水电工程项目进度管理中发挥了其独特的效果。但实际应用过程中,却发现传统赢得值法存在着许多缺陷,为了弥补其不足,引入了关键路径的赢得值法,将关键路径上三个基本参数提取出来,单独对其进行分析,使其更加客观、准确的反映项目实际进度情况。%The earned value management plays a unique role in following the progress control of water conser-vancy and hydropower project. But in the practical application, people find many defects in the earned value management. In order to making up for the shortcomings, this paper raises the earned value management of critical path, separately analyzing the three basic parameters extracted from the critical path, and making it to reflect the actual progress objectively and accurately.

  13. The Influence of We Media on Earnings Management of Listed Real Estate Companies in China--With Sina Micro-blog for Example%自媒体对我国上市房地产企业盈余管理的影响研究--以新浪微博为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封华; 田高良

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses financial data of 2010~2013 listed real estate companies in China to study the relationship between Sina micro-blog exposure and earnings management. The result shows that micro-blog exposure can improve the discretionary accruals and decrease real activity earnings management. And corporate governance has a negative effect on both two kinds of earnings management.%本文采用2010~2013年我国A股上市房地产企业的财务数据,研究了自媒体(新浪微博)曝光度对我国上市房企应计项目盈余管理和真实活动盈余管理的影响。研究结果表明,微博曝光度会促使我国上市房企进行应计项目盈余管理,抑制真实活动盈余管理,并且公司治理对两种不同的盈余管理都起到了负向的调节作用。

  14. Abnormal Retained Earnings Around The World

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Paulo; Silva,Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Using a firm-level survey database covering 50 countries we evaluate firms´ abnormal retained earnings. The results of our work indicate that firms located in emerging markets retain more earnings than firms from developed countries. On the other hand, firms located on common law based countries retain earnings above the expected and higher than firms placed on civil law based countries. A possible explanation, according to our results, can be seen in the economic growth that these countries ...

  15. 盈余管理:创业板风险投资与ipo后市场表现的实证研究%Research on the Relationship between Pre-IPO Earnings Management and Post-IPO Performance for China Gem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹崇延; 吴菡洁; 王辉

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between pre-IPO earnings management and post-IPO performance under the background of risk investment using a sample of 152 IPO firms in China gem market during October 30th 2009 and December 31st 2010.The Empirical research result indicates that degree of earnings management in the pre-IPO years with the background of risk investment more than the degree of earnings management without risk investment,and the difference significantly;The short-term performance of the public company with venture capital is better than the company without venture capital, but medium-term market performance is quite opposite.China gem do exists positive earnings management, pre-IPO earnings management negatively related with post-IPO market performance both long-term and medium-temvmd the difference significantly.%文章以2009年10月30日到2010年12月31日期间上市的152家深圳创业板公司为研究样本,研究有无风险投资背景前提下,创业板公司IPO前是否存在正向盈余管理与IPO后市场表现之间的关系.实证结果显示:有风投背景上市公司盈余管理程度较无风投公司盈余程度低,差异显著;有风投背景的上市公司短期市场表现强于无风投公司,中期市场表现则与之相反.创业板公司存在正向盈余管理行为,且IPO前盈余管理和IPO后中短期市场表现呈负相关且差异显著.

  16. Performance Commitments and Earnings Management of Listed Companies: Taking Supervision in the Split-share Reform for Example%业绩承诺与上市公司盈余管理——以股权分置改革中的管制为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浩; 杨尔稼; 麻樟城

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on domestic listed companies' motivation for earnings management focus on IPO, refinancing and the reverse of losses and so on. And this paper tries to discuss the new motivation for earnings management, namely performance commitments, based on the sample of companies which have made performance commitments during the split-share reform. It finds that: firstly, companies which have made performance commitments have the earnings management behavior of increasing profits, and are apt to apply non-routine transactions to increase profits; secondly, main- ly in private companies, when the performance commitments cannot be realized, the more shares re-allotted to minority shareholders by large shareholders result in more severe earnings management. This paper provides practical meanings that, although the split-share reform has finished, the preference of China Securities Regulatory Commission for performance commitments of listed companies made in major asset restructuring is constantly enhancing and supervision may continuously give rise to new earnings management of listed companies.%与以往对国内上市公司盈余管理的动机研究主要集中于IPO、再融资和扭亏等不同,文章以股权分置改革中业绩承诺公司为样本,试图探讨我国上市公司盈余管理的新动因——业绩承诺。研究发现:(1)业绩承诺公司存在调高利润的盈余管理行为,在盈余管理方法选择上倾向于采用非经常性交易;(2)在业绩承诺无法实现时,民营企业的大股东向小股东追送股份越多,上市公司盈余管理越严重。文章研究的实践意义在于:虽然股权分置改革已经结束,但是证监会对于上市公司在重大资产重组中要求业绩承诺的偏好不断加强,管制可能持续诱发上市公司新的盈余管理。

  17. 浅析盈余管理程度作为上市公司审计质量的评价指标%Earnings Management Degree as the Audit Quality Evaluation Index for Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜

    2014-01-01

    At present, the audit quality is attracting more and more attention of the theory cycle, practice cycle and social public. Only high quality audit can improve the reliability of accounting information of listed companies, so it is necessary to select strong feasibility and representative indicators to establish audit quality evaluation system, to make an objective and quantitative evaluation of audit quality. Based on the analysis of existing indicators for audit quality this article analyzes the feasibility of making earnings management degree as the audit quality evaluation index of listed companies and the index calculation method.%院目前,审计质量越来越受到理论界、实务界及社会公众的关注,只有高质量的审计才能提高上市公司财务信息的可信度,因此,我们有必要选取可行性和代表性较强的指标,建立审计质量评价体系,对审计质量进行客观、定量地评价。本文在对现有衡量审计质量的指标进行分析后,进一步分析了以盈余管理程度作为上市公司审计质量评价指标的可行性和指标的计算方法。

  18. 不同公司治理强度下的股权激励与真实盈余管理--兼论市场化进程的保护作用%The Management Equity Incentive and Real Earnings Under the Different Company Governance Strength---The Protective Role of Marketization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓红; 姜蕴芝

    2015-01-01

    As the research object of the implementation of equity incentive plans of the implementation of equity incentive planfrom 2007 to 2012, we use the method of principal component analysis to extract the intensity index of corporate gover-nance relates to board of directors, ownership structure, institutional investors, the four aspects of the external audit, and an empirical test of high, low, different corporate governance strength on the relationship between equity incentive and real earn-ings management influence.The results show that: corporate governance intensity has a significant impact on the relationship between equity incentives and real earnings management; high corporate governance intensity can significantly restrain real earnings management. With the decrease in corporate governance intensity,this inhibition disappears; Marketization can restrain earnings management induced by equity incentives, and the higher corporate governance intensity is, the stronger protective role marketization plays.%以2007—2012年实施股权激励计划的非金融类上市公司为研究对象,运用主成分分析法提炼出涉及董事会、股权结构、机构投资者、外部审计四方面的公司治理强度指标,实证检验高、中、低不同公司治理强度对股权激励与真实盈余管理关系的影响。研究显示:高公司治理强度能明显抑制股权激励诱发的真实盈余管理行为,随着公司治理强度的下降,其抑制作用消失;市场化进程也会抑制股权激励诱发的真实盈余管理,对股权激励的实施具有保护作用,且公司治理强度越高,市场化进程发挥的保护作用越强。

  19. 5 CFR 839.1002 - Will OPM compute the lost earnings if my qualifying retirement coverage error was previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will OPM compute the lost earnings if my... Section 839.1002 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Lost Earnings for Certain Make-up Contributions to the TSP § 839.1002 Will...

  20. 5 CFR 839.1004 - Are lost earnings payable if I separated or if the employee died?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are lost earnings payable if I separated... MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) CORRECTION OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE ERRORS UNDER THE FEDERAL ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Lost Earnings for Certain...

  1. Insult to Injury: Disability, Earnings, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…

  2. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  3. The College Payoff: Education, Occupations, Lifetime Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Cheah, Ban

    2011-01-01

    A college degree pays off--but by just how much? In this report from the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, the authors examine just what a college degree is worth--and what else besides a degree might influence an individual's potential earnings. This report examines lifetime earnings for all education levels and…

  4. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  5. The NAS Computational Aerosciences Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Kristina D.; Globus, Al; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    performed by NAS staff members and collaborators. Visual results, which may be available in the form of images, animations, and/or visualization scripts, are generated by researchers with respect to a certain research project, depicting dataset features that were determined important by the investigating researcher. For example, script files for visualization systems (e.g. FAST, PLOT3D, AVS) are provided to create visualizations on the user's local workstation to elucidate the key points of the numerical study. Users can then interact with the data starting where the investigator left off. Datasets are intended to give researchers an opportunity to understand previous work, 'mine' solutions for new information (for example, have you ever read a paper thinking "I wonder what the helicity density looks like?"), compare new techniques with older results, collaborate with remote colleagues, and perform validation. Supporting meta-information associated with the research projects is also important to provide additional context for research projects. This may include information such as the software used in the simulation (e.g. grid generators, flow solvers, visualization). In addition to serving the CAS research community, the information archive will also be helpful to students, visualization system developers and researchers, and management. Students (of any age) can use the data to study fluid dynamics, compare results from different flow solvers, learn about meshing techniques, etc., leading to better informed individuals. For these users it is particularly important that visualization be integrated into dataset archives. Visualization researchers can use dataset archives to test algorithms and techniques, leading to better visualization systems, Management can use the data to figure what is really going on behind the viewgraphs. All users will benefit from fast, easy, and convenient access to CFD datasets. The CAS information archive hopes to serve as a useful resource to

  6. The Gender impact in Earnings Inequality: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arun, Thankom; Borooah, Vani Kant

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates an earnings function for Sri Lanka, followed by a decomposition analysis of male-female earnings suggest that the gender disparity in earnings largely represents ‘discrimination’ against women...

  7. 77 FR 49029 - Submission for Review: Annuity Supplement Earnings Report, RI 92-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Annuity Supplement Earnings Report, RI 92- 22 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Retirement Services, Office of Personnel Management (OPM) offers the general public and other federal agencies the...

  8. System Earned Readiness Management for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Pugh  1991),  Kasser’s  ( Kasser  2004)  First  Requirements   Elucidator  Demonstration  (FRED),  Integrated  Design  Model...Council  on  Systems   Engineering  (NCOSE),  Seattle,  Washington.   Kasser ,  J.  E.  (2004).  "The  first  requirements

  9. Empirical Research on the Impact of Real Earnings Management on Accounting Conservatism--Evidence From the Panel Data of China A-Share Quoted Company%真实盈余管理对会计稳健性影响的实证研究--来自中国A股上市公司的面板数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 倪国爱

    2013-01-01

      Traditional earnings management research focuses on visits Accruals manipulation, less explore-s real earnings management. Based on panel data listed in Shenzhen and Shanghai A-share listed companies from 2006 to 2010, through the analysis of operating cash flow (CFO), the costs of production costs and discretion to identify real earnings management to achieve earnings targets management, and analyze the impact of this behavior on accounting conservatism, detected through real activities manipulation of the company's reported earnings and unmanaged earnings information to confirm the asymmetric timeliness. Report less positive net income in the same year level, there are abnormally low cash flow from operating activities, as appropriate, costs and unusually high production costs, prove for Boldwin motives, the company will temporarily give price discounts to promote sales by overproduction with reduce discretion sexual costs to increase in the annual report of the surplus. In addition, the real activities manipulation will reduce the asymmetric timeliness of earnings information to confirm the presence of the real activities manipulation enterprise accounting conservatism worse.%  传统盈余管理研究重在考察应计利润操控,较少探索真实盈余管理。文章基于2006至2010年在深沪两市上市的A股上市公司面板数据,通过分析经营活动现金流(CFO)、生产成本与斟酌性费用来识别为满足保盈目标的真实盈余管理,并分析了这一行为对会计稳健性的影响,检测了通过真实活动操控公司的报告盈余与未被管理盈余信息确认的非对称及时性。发现在同年度水平上报告较少的正净收入公司存在异常低的经营活动现金流、斟酌性费用与异常高的生产成本,证明出于保盈动机,公司会通过暂时性地给予价格折扣促进销售、通过生产过剩与降低斟酌性费用来增加年度报告盈余。另外,企业

  10. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  11. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  12. 综合收益列报、估值判断和盈余管理识别的实验研究基于评估师认知视角%An Experimental Study on the effects of Presentation Formats of Comprehensive Income on Valuation Judgments and Identification of Earning Management from the Point of Valuers'Cognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志红; 孙茜

    2016-01-01

    估值判断会因综合收益列报模式的不同而有差异,因此利用实验设计检验了列报模式对评估师估值判断的影响,及其识别盈余管理的能力。调查和分析表明不同的综合收益列报模式对评估判断的影响不存在显著差异,符合中国评估行业现状;评估师能够识别盈余管理,但综合收益和它的组成部分的详细披露并没有显著增强公司盈余管理的透明度。%Valuation j udgments would be affected by presentation formats of comprehensive income.An experiment was designed to make clear if there were different effects of different dis-closure modes of comprehensive income on j udgments of professional appraisers.At the same time,the ability of appraisers to identify earnings management was presented.The survey and a-nalysis showed that there was no significant difference in the effects of comprehensive income for-mats on valuation j udgments which departs from the hypothesis.While valuers could identify earnings management,detailed disclosure of comprehensive income and its components did not significantly improve the transparency of earnings management.

  13. 自愿披露能提高上市公司信息披露质量吗——基于我国上市公司业绩预告的分析%Can Voluntary Disclosure Improve Information Disclosure Quality of the Chinese Listed Company - Analysis Based on Management Earnings Forecast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩传模; 杨世鉴

    2012-01-01

    利用2007~2010年上市公司业绩预告的季度样本数据,检验了自愿披露和强制披露的业绩预告对业绩预告质量的影响。研究发现,我国上市公司业绩预告的自愿披露与预告质量显著相关。相对于强制披露,自愿披露业绩预告的精确度、准确度和及时性都显著提高,而且自愿披露的信息关注度也更高,能够受到更多分析师的跟踪,这些都说明自愿披露的业绩预告能显著提高信息质量并得到分析师市场的认可。%Based on 2007-2010 management earnings forecast of listed companies quarterly samples, this paper tests voluntary disclosure and mandatory disclosure of information of the influence on the quality of forecast. Controlling for other factors affecting the information quality, the authors find that voluntary disclosure can improve information disclosure quality of the listed company. Relative to the mandatory disclosure, the precise, accuracy and timeliness are significantly higher for voluntary management earnings forecast disclosure. Moreover, voluntary management earnings forecast disclosure followed by more analysts, which further proved the findings.

  14. Accounting earnings properties and determinants of earnings response coefficient in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental issue at the interface of economics, finance, and accounting involves the relation between a firm\\'s reported earnings and its stock returns. The lack of research in this field using Brazilian data and the limitations of previous research in terms of time-series data (small length available) motivates the present research. In addition, the practical justification of this research is that time-series properties of accounting earnings and the determinants of Earnings Response Coef...

  15. Marianas Boat Fishing Cost Earnings Study 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  16. Hawaii Bottomfish Cost-Earnings Survey 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Main Hawaiian Islands bottomfish fishery for the 2010 operating year. Data collected include fisher classification,...

  17. Cost Earnings Data 1993 - Hawaii Longline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected to support the first cost-earnings study of this fleet. Operational and vessel costs were collected by in-person interviews with vessel...

  18. Hawaii Charter Fishing Cost Earnings Survey 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the main Hawaiian Island Charter fishing fleet in 2012. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  19. Can Venture Capital Improve the Governance Efficiency of the Portfolio Company? A Earnings Management Perspective%风险资本能改善风险投资企业治理效率吗?——一个盈余管理视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建新; 张驰; 刘凤元

    2012-01-01

    We study the governance of the portfolio company invested by the venture capital how to work in the earnings management of the portfolio company. Through the empirical analysis for the listing companies in the second hoard in the Shenzhen, we find that only the size of the hoard affects the earnings management of the portfolio company. However, the proportion of the independent director in the hoard, the proportion of the venture capital director in the board, the size of the board of supervisors , the proportion of the out supervisor don' t affect the earnings management. The earnings management of the portfolio companies mainly is affected by the scale, the leverage and the industry of the portfolio companies.%从风险资本积极投资者的角度研究了风险资本投资企业的公司治理结构对风险投资企业创业板上市时盈余管理的影响。实证结果表明,风险投资企业公司治理结构中仅有董事会规模对公司盈余管理有抑制作用;独立董事比例、风险资本董事比例、监事会规模和外部监事比例对公司盈余管理都没有显著影响。同时,董事会、监事会持股比例,CEO持股比例对公司上市时盈余管理也没有显著影响。创业板上市风险投资企业的盈余管理程度主要受公司规模、财务杠杆比例以及公司行业特征影响。

  20. “机会主义”还是“道德行为”?--履行社会责任公司的盈余管理行为研究%Opportunism or Ethical Behavior?Earnings Management of the Companies Committed to Corporate Social Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉利; 何熙琼; 毛洪涛

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill corporate social responsibilities and disclose the information may be an ethical behavior.However, it could be an opportunistic behavior to mask.The paper, firstly, examines the earnings management behaviors of companies committed to social re-sponsibilities from the perspective of the companies'motivation to conduct social responsi-bilities.Secondly, it examines the effects of corporate social responsibility on the relation-ship between earnings management and firm value.The findings indicate that corporate so-cial responsibility is negatively related to earnings management, while corporate social re-sponsibility mitigates the negative effects of real earnings management on the firm value. This paper suggests that to fulfill social responsibility is a kind of ethical behaviors that are valued by investors.%企业社会责任履行及信息披露,既可能是一种负责任的道德行为,也可能是一种掩饰包装的机会主义行为。一方面从企业履行社会责任的动机出发,考察履行社会责任公司的盈余管理程度;另一方面以企业社会责任为调节变量,考察企业履行社会责任在盈余管理对企业价值影响中的作用。实证研究发现,企业履行社会责任程度与盈余管理程度负相关,且企业履行社会责任能够正向调节真实盈余管理对企业价值的负面影响,说明我国企业履行社会责任是一种获得投资者认可的道德行为。

  1. The quality of accruals and earnings - and the market pricing of earnings quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on earnings quality by investigating the quality of accruals using the approach introduced by Dechow & Dichev (2002). One essential element is the role of accrual estimation errors, and another is whether the equity market impounds information about the quality of earnings....... observable firm characteristics (e.g. volatility of accruals and earnings, etc.). Further, since an analysis of this type in general can be said to be somewhat mechanical, it is also investigated whether and how, the equity market (e.g. observable earnings-price-ratios) impounds information about the quality...

  2. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  3. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  4. A Study on the Effects of Accounting Reform of the Assets Devaluation from the Perspective of Earnings Management%基于盈余管理视角的资产减值会计变革效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金龙; 戴五七

    2011-01-01

    以我国财政部2006颁布的新会计准则体系中的《企业会计准则第8号——资产减值》实施为背景,首先从理论层面阐述新资产减值会计的变革对于企业管理当局行为的影响,然后分析我国A股上市公司资产减值的历史趋势,并选用2005年和2007年深圳A股上市公司作为研究样本,通过单样本T检验和多元回归检验分析新资产减值会计准则实施的效应,进而得出结论:在新资产减值会计变革的影响下,企业管理当局倾向于减少利用资产减值准备,尤其是长期资产减值准备作为盈余管理的手段,同时并没有增加流动资产减值的应用;而且,上市公司计提资产减值准备的行为趋于理性,会更多地考虑经济因素,新的资产减值会计准则变革有着较好的正效应。%On this background of implementing the Enterprises Accounting Regulation No. 8--Assets Devaluation of new accounting system, witch made by China's Ministry of Finance in 2006, we discussed the influences to the enterprise administration from the new changes of assets devaluation in theoretic field and analyzed the historical trend of assets devalua- tion on the A-share listed companies. Then we take the Shenzhen A-share listed companies from 2005 to 2007 as samples, through an analysis of a single sample T test and multi-regression testing, to analyze the effects of accounting regulation of assets devaluation in implementation. We get a conclusion: under the influence of implementation of the new accounting standards on asset impairment, the enterprise administrations tend to less use of asset impairment in reserve, especially the long-term assets impairment in reserve, witch does not increase the application of current assets impairment as a mean of earnings management. Moreover, corporate managements become more rational to the depreciation, and give more consideration to economic factors. In a word, the new change in

  5. Impact of the corporate governance characteristics and ownership on earnings quality of the Islamic private banks in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates corporate governance and ownership effects on earning quality in Iranian private banks. The study uses the information of 12 private banks from year 2005 to 2010 using regression analysis based on panel data. Among different factors, the effect of big five shareholder are considered to be significant and positive on earning quality. In addition, the effect of one variable regression test reveals that institutional ownership has positive impact on earning quality. However, the impacts of other variables including percentage of ownership concentration, the size of board of directors, reliance on debt, logarithm of sum of assets, return of assets, logarithm of operating cash flow on earning quality are not meaningful. The result of this survey indicates that institutional ownership plays an important role earning quality simply because institutions normally have the access on professionals to control management.

  6. A study on relationship between cultural values and earnings quality: A case study on Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This performs an empirical investigation to evaluate the relationship between cultural values and earnings quality in some Iranian banks over the period 2005-2011. The individualism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance and masculinity dimensions are regarded as criteria for cultural values. The study also considers change in return on assets and loan loss provisions as the main criteria for earnings quality of banks. For measuring the cultural values, the questionnaire of Hofstede [Hofstede, G. (1994. The business of international business is culture. International business review, 3(1, 1-14.]. The study also uses two measures to calculate earnings quality: 1-just-meet-or-beat the prior year’s earnings and 2- Income smoothing through loan loss provisions based on compound linear regression. Research results showed that there was a weak relationship between cultural values and earnings management.

  7. Comparison of earnings management and its economic consequences through asset impairment under the previous and current asset policies in China%新旧准则下资产减值盈余管理及其经济后果的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏亚

    2012-01-01

    The motivations of enterprises to conduct the provision for impairment of assets under the old and new asset impairment policies in China were compared, with an emphasis on whether the implementation of the new guidelines has achieved expected results, and whether it could effectively curb the earnings manipulation of listed companies through asset impairment. Tests conducted show that under the new guidelines, companies can still use asset impairment to achieve the goal of avoiding losses or meeting the financing conditions, which shows that there may be other hidden channels for companies to manipulate asset impairment. The regression results of earnings management and market response show that the market cannot identify whether companies have implemented earnings management.%以新旧资产减值政策为背景,对比研究在不同政策背景下企业计提资产减值的动机,特别是新准则的实施是否如预期有效遏制上市公司利用资产减值进行盈余操纵.检验表明,新准则下企业依然可以利用资产减值实现扭亏、配股等目标,这表明,在禁止部分资产减值转回的情况下,企业可能存在别的隐蔽渠道.盈余管理与市场反应的回归结果表明市场并没有对企业的盈余管理行为区别对待,或者说,市场并没有看穿企业利用资产减值实行盈余管理的行为.

  8. 76 FR 26705 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost and Earnings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Commerce, to make informed decisions about the expected economic effects of proposed management...; Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost and Earnings Data Collection Survey in the Northeast Region AGENCY: National... legislative requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the...

  9. Separating the Stock Market′s Reaction to Simultaneous Dividend and Earnings Announcements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sponholtz, Carina Margit

    asymmetries between shareholders and management. We find that the stock market reacts to surprise in management forecasts of next year's earnings and the current dividend. Additional breakdowns reveal that the signalling models and free cash flow hypothesis provide explanations for separate components...... of the market reaction. Thus, our results do not support the dividend irrelevancy proposition....

  10. Earnings benchmarks, information systems, and their impact on the degree of honesty in managerial reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaels, Eddy

    This paper provides experimental evidence about how the interaction between a company's earnings and its information system influences the degree of honest reporting by managers in a capital budgeting task. Specifically, the results show that participants overstate cost less when the manager's cost

  11. Earnings benchmarks, information systems, and their impact on the degree of honesty in managerial reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaels, Eddy

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence about how the interaction between a company's earnings and its information system influences the degree of honest reporting by managers in a capital budgeting task. Specifically, the results show that participants overstate cost less when the manager's cost

  12. Separating the Stock Market′s Reaction to Simultaneous Dividend and Earnings Announcements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sponholtz, Carina Margit

    asymmetries between shareholders and management. We find that the stock market reacts to surprise in management forecasts of next year's earnings and the current dividend. Additional breakdowns reveal that the signalling models and free cash flow hypothesis provide explanations for separate components...... of the market reaction. Thus, our results do not support the dividend irrelevancy proposition....

  13. 新会计准则对上市公司盈余管理的影响分析--来自制造业上市公司的经验证据%An Analysis of the Impact of the New Accounting Standards on Earnings Management of Listed Companies--Empirical Evidence from the Manufacturing Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯文

    2013-01-01

      本文选取A股制造业上市公司2004—2011年的数据为样本,实证研究发现,在新会计准则下,制造业上市公司的盈余管理水平高于旧会计准则下的盈余管理水平。在此基础上,进一步对新会计准则下制造业上市公司盈余管理的新手段进行分析。%  This paper selects A-share Listed Manufacturing Companies data (2004-2011) as samples,the empirical research finds that,under the new accounting standards,the level of earnings management is higher under the new accounting standards than under the old ones in the manufacturing listed companies. On this basis,the paper analyzes the new means of earnings management in manufacturing listed companies under the new accounting standards.

  14. Agile software development in an earned value world: a survival guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Jeffrey; Long, Kevin; Becla, Jacek; Economou, Frossie; Gelman, Margaret; Juric, Mario; Lambert, Ron; Krughoff, Simon; Swinbank, John D.; Wu, Xiuqin

    2016-08-01

    Agile methodologies are current best practice in software development. They are favored for, among other reasons, preventing premature optimization by taking a somewhat short-term focus, and allowing frequent replans/reprioritizations of upcoming development work based on recent results and current backlog. At the same time, funding agencies prescribe earned value management accounting for large projects which, these days, inevitably include substantial software components. Earned Value approaches emphasize a more comprehensive and typically longer-range plan, and tend to characterize frequent replans and reprioritizations as indicative of problems. Here we describe the planning, execution and reporting framework used by the LSST Data Management team, that navigates these opposite tensions.

  15. Childhood Physical Activity and Adulthood Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Tammelin, Tuija H; Viinikainen, Jutta; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Pehkonen, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the associations between childhood physical activity level and adulthood earnings. The data were drawn from the ongoing longitudinal Young Finns Study, which was combined with register-based Finnish Longitudinal Employer-Employee Data and register-based parents' background information from the Longitudinal Population Census of Statistics Finland. The study consisted of children who were 9 yr (n = 1257, 52% boys), 12 yr (n = 1662, 51% boys), and 15 yr (n = 1969, 49% boys) of age at the time when physical activity was measured. The children were followed until 2010, when they were between 33 and 45 yr old. Leisure-time physical activity in childhood was self-reported, whereas earnings in adulthood were register based and covered over a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Ordinary least squares models were used to analyze the relationship between physical activity and earnings. Childhood physical activity level was positively associated with long-term earnings among men (P childhood physical activity can have far-reaching positive effects on adulthood earnings. Possibilities for improving physical activity during childhood may not only promote health but also affect long-term labor market outcomes.

  16. Race Composition and Earnings: Effects by Race, Region, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer

    1996-12-01

    For more than 40 years, studies have reported that the higher the proportion of blacks in a community, the more white men earn, but the less black men earn. Researchers have speculated that black men earned less because earnings discrimination increases with percent black. Others have suggested that the negative effect of black representation on black men's earnings reflects black men's limited occupational opportunities. This study (1) investigates whether pay discrimination and regional location condition the relationship between black representation and workers' earnings and (2) examines the relationship between black representation and earnings for women. The results, based on 1980 Census data for black and white workers from 267 SMSAs, show that black representation was associated with higher earnings for white men and lower earnings for black men in both the north and south, and that part of the effect for southern black men stemmed from earnings discrimination. Southern black men's earnings gains from black representation offset some of the effects of discrimination, while northern black men encountered costs of black representation even in the absence of earnings discrimination. These findings reflect the disparate economic opportunities of black men in each region as manufacturing jobs have disappeared from the north and relocated to the south. For women, black representation led to higher earnings for blacks and whites. I argue that black representation does not lower black women's earnings because occupational sex segregation prevents black women from threatening white men's economic status.

  17. Family migration and relative earnings potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette

    2016-01-01

    A unitarian model of family migration in which families may discount wives’ private gains is used to derive testable predictions regarding the type of couples that select into migrating. The empirical tests show that gender neutral family migration cannot be rejected against the alternative...... of husband centered migration. Couples are more likely to migrate if household earnings potential is disproportionally due to one partner, and families react equally strongly to a male and a female relative advantage in educational earnings potential. These results are driven by households with a strong...

  18. TESTING OF PECKING ORDER THEORY THROUGH THE RELATIONSHIP: EARNINGS, CAPITAL STRUCTURE, DIVIDEND POLICY, AND FIRM’S VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmono Harmono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the pecking order theory through its correlation among earnings dimension, capitalstructure, dividend policy and firm’s value perspective. By loading the correlation between dimension one toanother, it indicated that management behavior tended to retained earnings accumulation or to debt collectionin financing the operation of the firm. The pecking order theory were tested when the management behaviortended to retained earnings in accumulating sources of the fund equity rather than borrowing liabilities fromcreditors. Therefore, rationally if the capital structure was optimum, management tended to external financinguntil any trade off between earnings and debt financing. Based on the testing hypothesis, it indicated that therole of capital structure dimension had significance as intervening variable between earnings dimension andfirm’s value. On the other hand, the dividend policy had no significance to become intervening variable.Empirically, it could be concluded that the management behavior in Indonesia tended to leverage rather thanretained earnings accumulation in supporting the pecking order theory. Furthermore, the variable had the roleto differentiate the characteristic of industries represented by the capital structure dimension, especially, debtto assets and debt to equity ratio.

  19. The Research on the Efficiency of Equity - based Incentive of Chinese Listed Companies --Based on the Perspective of Earnings Management%股权分置改革后上市公司股权激励的有效性——基于盈余管理的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧辉; 赵媛; 潘飞

    2012-01-01

    opposing perspective on the relationship between equity-based compensation and future firm value. The convergence of interest perspective typically advocates that equity-based compensation is an effective device to align managers' interests with those of shareholders to reduce the moral hazard problem. In contrast, the managerial power perspective posits that weak corporate governance and acquiescent boards allow executives to determine their own pay, resulting in inefficiently compensation system to decrease the agency cost. So, adding more equity-based compensation in the executive compensation structure cannot enhance firm performance and shareholders' wealth since it will cause serious problem of insider control and opportunism, which increases the agency cost between inside-managers and outside-shareholders. Thereby, this paper researches the efficiency of equity-based incentive ( i. e. , whether or not the equity-based compensations add the future value of the firm) of Chinese listed companies based on the perspective of eamings management. We directly examine the relation between the managers' equity incentives-arising from equity-based- compensation-and the earnings management opportunism by using 92 A-Share listed companies awarded stock or option to executives by the Board of directors over the periods from the year of 2006 to 2010. Using the compared T-test method, we find that the executives do downwards accruals earnings management a quarterprior to the announcement of equity-based incentive plans and a year prior to the stock option exercised or restricted stock unlocked, while they do upward accruals earnings management a quarter prior to the sale of the equity, which support our hypothesis that managers with equity incentives have motivations to engage in earnings management to decrease the cost of these incentive-shares acquirement, reach the earnings thresholds constrained by the stock option exercised or restricted stock unlocked, and to

  20. Analysts' earnings forecasts and international asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Carel; Plantinga, Auke

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether financial analysts’ earnings forecasts are informative from the viewpoint of allocating investments across different stock markets. Therefore we develop a country forecast indicator reflecting the analysts’ prospects for specific stock markets. The

  1. Differences in Occupational Earnings by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Derek

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of the female/male wage gap in diverse countries looks at pay scales/job rates, average wage/salary rates, and average earnings in medical, public service, banking, and finance occupations. Explanations for differences and discussion of methodological issues are offered. (SK)

  2. Childbearing and Wives' Foregone Earnings. Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Charles A.; Espenshade, Thomas J.

    This report combines the techniques of multistate life table analysis with the human capital theory of wages to derive new estimates of the impact of children on hours of market work and earnings for American women aged 15 to 55 years old. The impact of fertility on female labor force behavior is analyzed, and opportunity expenditures (the money…

  3. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  4. Language and the Earnings of Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Christian; van Soest, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of panel data on immigrants to Germany 1984-94 focused on the relationship of language proficiency and productivity. Results show how time-varying measurement errors can lead to downward bias on the effect of fluency on earnings. Language proficiency is thus far more important than studies have suggested. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  5. Empirical Research on the Level of Earnings Management for A-share Companies and B-share Companies before and after the Abolishment of Duplicate Auditing Institution%双重审计制度取消前后A、B股上市公司盈余管理水平的实证研究:初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芃

    2012-01-01

    The change of difference in earnings management between A-share market and B-share market before and after the abolishment of the mandatory duplicate auditing institution in 2007 with the tool of Jones model and modified Jones model to calculate discretional accruals is focus on, and the samples are constituted by listed companies in A-share market and B-share market in the period of 2001 and 2009. The result shows that before the abolishment of the institution, the level of earnings management for B-share market is significantly lower than that of the A-share market, while after the abolishment of the institution, the difference gets narrower and less significant. The mandatory duplicate auditing institution in China from the view of earnings management has been contributed to the research.%以2001-2009年期间在国内A、B股上市交易的所有公司为研究对象,采用琼斯模型和修正的琼斯模型计量上市公司可操控盈余状况.分析研究了A、B股市场上市公司在2007年B股市场强制性双重审计制度取消前后盈余管理水平之间的差异.实证结果表明,强制性双重审计制度取消前,B股市场盈余管理水平显著低于A股市场;而制度取消后,差异依旧存在,但不再显著.从盈余管理的角度研究了中国特有的双重审计制度下上市公司的行为特征,对国内审计和盈余管理研究作出了一定补充.

  6. Direction of Auditor Switch, Earning Management and Market Reaction%审计师变更方向、盈余管理与市场反应——基于公司在内资审计师之间变更的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓川

    2011-01-01

    本文以2004-2009年度发生内资审计师之间变更的公司为对象,分析了不同审计师变更方向下的公司盈余管理情况和市场反应,研究发现:由大到小变更公司的盈余管理程度在变更后显著更高,市场对该类公司做出了显著负面的反应。另一方面,由小到大变更公司的盈余管理程度显著更低.市场对该类公司反应正面但不显著。内资十大会计师事务所已形成了一定的声誉.也表明近年来我国注册会计师行业实施“做大做强”战略已产生了一定的成效。从提高监管效率出发.监管部门可以将监管重点放在由大到小变更的公司。%Based on the ranking by China institute of certified public accountants, the paper analyzes the auditor switching between the domestic-funded accounting firms from 2004 to 2009. Specially, it studies the earning management and market reaction between different directions of switching, i.e. from big 10 to non-big 10 (downsize companies), from non-big 10 to big 10 (upsize companies). The paper finds that the earning management of downsize companies is higher than other direction of switching. The market reaction of downsize companies is significantly negative. On the other hand, the earning management of upsize companies is the lowest,the market reaction of upsize companies is positive but not significant. Big 10 have got their reputation gradually. The paper also suggests that the regulator may pay more attention to the downsize companies to improve the regulation efficiency.

  7. National Airspace System (NAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ...Complete .. , IOT &E Start •• Complete -· Full Rate Production Contr. .. c- FOT&E Start , ... VOICE (VCSS) Program Review •:a. AUTOMATION (DAAS...JUN 1999 DEC 1999 OCT 1999 IOT &E Start JUL 2000 JUL 2000 JAN 2001 JUL 2000 Complete OCT 2003 OCT 2003 OCT 2004 OCT 2004 Full Rate Production Contract

  8. Immigrant-Native Differences in Earnings Mobility Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Esmaeilzadeh, Rayhaneh; Hansen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the earnings mobility between immigrants and natives within and between Denmark and Canada. Both countries have different labour market conditions and immigration history which leads to an interesting comparison of earning mobility processes. The paper employs a dynamic...... that immigrants-native differences in earnings mobility, structural state dependence, and segmentation of earnings distribution are relatively more prominent in Denmark compared to Canada...

  9. Education, Family Backgrounds and Racial Earnings Inequality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the role of race, family background and education in earnings inequality between whites and the African descendent population in Brazil. It uses quantile Mincer earnings regressions to go beyond the usual decomposition of average earnings gaps. Differences in human capital, including parental education and education quality, and in its returns, account for most but not all of the racial earnings gaps. There appears to be greater pay discrimination at the higher salary ...

  10. 78 FR 28006 - Submission for Review: 3206-0194, Annuity Supplement Earnings Report, RI 92-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: 3206-0194, Annuity Supplement Earnings Report, RI 92-22 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 30-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Retirement Services, Office of Personnel Management (OPM) offers the general public and other Federal agencies...

  11. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable income...

  12. 20 CFR 416.1110 - What is earned income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-kind earned income. However, if you are a domestic or agricultural worker, the law requires us to treat your in-kind pay as unearned income. (b) Net earnings from self-employment. Net earnings from self..., severance pay, and any other special payments received because of your employment. They may also include the...

  13. 5 CFR 844.402 - Restoration of earning capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of earning capacity. 844.402... Reinstatement of Disability Annuity § 844.402 Restoration of earning capacity. (a) Earning capacity... capacity is considered to be restored. The disability annuity will terminate on the June 30 after the...

  14. 17 CFR 256.216 - Unappropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retained earnings. This account shall include the balance, either debit or credit, arising from earnings... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unappropriated retained earnings. 256.216 Section 256.216 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  15. 17 CFR 256.215 - Appropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriated retained earnings... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.215 Appropriated retained earnings. This account shall include the amount of retained earnings which has been appropriated or set...

  16. Produção de laranja 'Pêra' em sistemas de preparo de solo e manejo nas entrelinhas Fruit yields of 'Pêra' orange under different soil tillage and interrow management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2008-02-01

    ção acumulada de frutos nas safras de 1996 a 2005. O preparo de solo em faixas, com manutenção de gramínea remanescente nas entrelinhas, mostrou-se apropriado para implantação dos pomares. As plantas de cobertura permanente utilizadas nas entrelinhas do pomar não comprometeram a produção de laranja, sendo importantes para melhoria da fertilidade do solo. As gramíneas foram mais indicadas que as leguminosas como cobertura vegetal nas entrelinhas do pomar.The conventional soil tillage used in the implantation of citrus orchards is based on the removal of the plant residues and soil tilling in the entire area, and the management of orchards on the elimination of any plant residues from the interrows. This has led to erosion and reduced soil fertility, with negative effects on the trees and the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil management systems that decrease soil erosion and improve the fertility status of a Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone, cultivated with citrus in the northwestern state of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area, and strip-tillage (ST with 2 m width, with different interrow management systems. The citrus cultivar was Pêra orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia rootstock. The citrus orchard was established in August 1993, and the tree rows were spaced 7 m apart with 4 m between trees. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with three replications and six treatments: (1 CT and pineapple intercropping in the first year followed by weed control with post emergence herbicide; (2 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous crop Calopogonium mucronoides; (3 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (4 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (5 CT and cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation and (6 ST and maintenance of the

  17. Her earnings: Exploring variation in wives' earning contributions across six major Asian groups and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Veena S

    2015-07-01

    Previous research on understanding race-ethnic differentials in employment and economic contributions by married women has primarily focused on Blacks, Hispanics, or Whites. This study investigates variations in wives' earning contributions as measured by wives earnings as a proportion of total annual household earnings among six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese relative to native born non-Hispanic White. I disaggregate the six Asian groups by their ethnicity and nativity status. Using pooled data from 2009-2011 American Community Survey, the findings show significance of human capital, hours of paid labor market engagement and nativity status. There is strong and negative association between husbands' human capital and labor supply with wives' earning contributions suggesting near universality of male-breadwinner status. Notwithstanding the commonalities, there is significant intergroup diversity. While foreign born and native born Filipina wives despite their spouses' reasonably high human capital and work hours, contribute one of the highest shares, the same cannot be said for the Asian Indians and Japanese. For foreign born Asian Indian and to some extent Japanese women, their high human capital is not translated to high earning contribution after controlling for husband's human capital. Further, nativity status impacts groups differentially. Native born Vietnamese wives contribute the greatest. Overall, the findings underscore the relevance of employing multiple conceptual frameworks in understanding earning contributions of foreign and native born Asian wives belonging to the six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Least limiting water range and physical quality of soil under groundcover management systems in citrus Intervalo hídrico ótimo e qualidade física do solo em sistemas de manejo nas entrelinhas de citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Machinery-based farming operations used for perennial fruit crops often damage soils, particularly if the soil is wet and prone to compaction. We hypothesized that perennial vegetation growing in the interrows of orange orchards can mitigate the soil physical degradation from machinery traffic. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different groundcover management systems on the soil physical quality indicators including the least limiting water range (LLWR. An experiment was started in 1993 in a Typic Paleudult to evaluate three groundcover management systems: Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum with mowing, perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi, and natural regrowth in which weeds were controlled by herbicide. The experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. In May 2003, 216 undisturbed soil samples were collected at 0-0.15-m depths under and between wheel tracks in the orchard interrows. The soil bulk density, soil organic carbon content, resistance to penetration, soil water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration curve were determined in order to estimate the LLWR. The higher LLWR under wheel tracks in Bahia grass compared to perennial peanut or natural regrowth suggest that a better soil physical quality was achieved with Bahia grass.Operações motomecanizadas utilizadas no manejo das entrelinhas dos pomares de frutas com freqüência causam a degradação física do solo, especialmente quando realizadas com o solo úmido e suscetível à compactação. A hipótese desse estudo é que a manutenção da vegetação permanente nas entrelinhas do pomar pode mitigar a degradação física do solo causada pelo tráfego de máquinas. O objetivo desse estudo é verificar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de manejo da cobertura permanente das entrelinhas sobre o intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO e a qualidade física do solo. Um experimento foi iniciado em 1993 num Argissolo Vermelho distr

  19. Environmental management of works in pipelines at natural protected areas; Gestao ambiental em obras de faixas de dutos nas areas naturais protegidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raul, Vanderlei Lourenco; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de; Campos, Cleber Lucio dos Santos; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The TRANSPETRO pipeway in the State of Sao Paulo crosses different scenarios, including Permanent Preservation Areas and Conservation Units, as the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - PESM, which contains the most extensive Mata Atlantica fragment, with more than 315,000 hectares. The rigor of environmental organisms imposes a number of extra conditions to critical points to be considered in activities with interference in the conservation unit. It was studied the case of thirty two kilometer pipeline substitution of OSBAT pipeway, in the Sao Sebastiao city, in the area covered by the PESM, to know the effective of environmental controls adopted. It was able to analyze the results about the application of management instruments at different levels, including independent external audit, audit of the Company that realized the work activities and audit of the own specialized people of TRANSPETRO and PETROBRAS. (author)

  20. 企业社会责任能抑制盈余管理吗?--基于强制披露企业社会责任报告准实验%Can Corporate Social Responsibility Inhibit Earnings Management?---A Quasi-Experiment of the Mandatory Disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 魏娟; 巫丽兰

    2016-01-01

    具有负责任声誉的企业一定会做出负责任的行为吗?本文以2006-2013年沪、深A股上市公司为样本,研究强制披露企业社会责任报告对盈余管理的影响。研究发现:强制披露企业社会责任报告与操纵性应计利润显著负相关,说明企业承担社会责任后显著地减少了操纵性应计,提高了会计信息质量。同时,强制披露企业社会责任报告对真实盈余管理,特别是操纵性酌量费用,存在显著抑制作用。由于业绩好坏会影响企业盈余管理动机,本文进一步分析企业业绩对强制披露企业社会责任与操纵性应计、真实盈余管理关系的调节作用。区分不同盈利状况,我们发现强制披露企业社会责任对应计项目和真实盈余管理的抑制作用主要集中在盈利较差的样本组,声誉机制在高风险公司效果更为显著。考虑机构投资者和分析师监督作用、随机效应和关键变量测量误差影响后,声誉责任的监督作用依旧存在。%Whether firms taking corporate social responsible activities will behavior responsibly in other corporate decisions? The regulation on mandatorily disclosure of corporate social responsibility report provides a good quasi-experience to study this research question. This paper tests the impact of mandatorily disclosure of corporate social responsibility report on accrual and real earnings management using the samples of A-share listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2013. We find that whether mandatorily disclosure corporate social responsibility report is negatively related to discretionary accrual. Meanwhile, mandatorily disclosure corporate social responsibility report can decrease real earnings management, especially discretional expense. These results suggest that mandatorily disclosure corporate social responsibility report can generate “reputation responsible” effect, which can monitor

  1. Heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after IFRS adoption: evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Black

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims to investigate the existence of heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. IFRS adoption is generally associated with an increase in the quality of financial statements. However, companies within the same country are likely to have different economic incentives regarding the disclosure of information. Thus, treating companies equally, without considering the related economic incentives, could contaminate earnings quality investigations. The case of Brazil is analyzed, which is a country classified as code-law, in which tax laws determined accounting practice and in which IFRS adoption is mandatory. First, Brazilian companies listed on the São Paulo Stock, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA were separated into two classes: companies issuing American Depositary Receipts (ADRs before IFRS adoption and companies that did not issue ADRs until the adoption of IFRS. Then, this second class of companies was grouped, using cluster analysis, into two different subclasses according to economic incentives. Based on the groups identified, the quality of accounting earnings is tested for each class of the companies before and after IFRS adoption. This paper uses timely recognition of economic events, value relevance of net income, and earnings management as proxies for the quality of accounting earnings. The results indicate that a particular class of companies began showing conditional conservatism, value relevance of net income, and lower earnings management after IFRS adoption. On the other hand, these results were not found for the two other classes of companies.

  2. Income Smoothing as a Form of Accounting Policy by Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Tokuga, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Ayami

    2011-01-01

    Firms often attempt to control fluctuations in reported earnings and steer them to levels they consider desirable. Either managing reported figures to increase earnings when management thinks its initially planned term-end settlement targets (smoothing level figures) cannot be achieved or managing reported figures to decrease earnings when achievement of earnings higher than planned is certain may be implemented during a given fiscal period. This type of management accounting behavior is call...

  3. 上市公司股权激励与盈余管理关系实证分析--以生命周期作为调节变量%Relationship between Equity Incentives and Earnings Management of Listed Companies Empi rical Analysis- To Life Cycle as Regulating Variable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗锐; 储朝凤

    2014-01-01

    股权激励与盈余管理的相关关系研究一直被视为学术界的热点话题之一。将2008至2012年的沪、深2市A股市场实行股权激励的公司分为成长期和成熟期2个研究样本。通过加入生命周期变量,对处于不同生命周期的企业行为进行研究。实证结果表明,在公司发展的生命周期过程中,其股权激励与盈余管理关系是不同的。根据相关分析提出政策意见,规范上市公司的高管行为,优化资本市场。%The correlation between equity incentives and earnings management research has been considered one of the hot topics of academia .Article according to the Shanghai and shenzhen two city from 2008 to 2012 a-share market implement equity incentive , it can be divided into two sample growth and maturation .By joining life cycle variables ,we study of different life cycle of enterprise behavior . The empirical results show that in the process of life cycle for the development of the company , the relationship between equity incentives and earnings management is different .According to the correlation analysis is put forward policy advice ,regulating the behavior of the executives of listed companies ,optimizing the capital market .

  4. Natural attenuation software (NAS): Assessing remedial strategies and estimating timeframes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, E.; Widdowson, M.; Chapelle, F.; Casey, C.

    2005-01-01

    Natural Attenuation Software (NAS) is a screening tool to estimate remediation timeframes for monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and to assist in decision-making on the level of source zone treatment in conjunction with MNA using site-specific remediation objectives. Natural attenuation processes that NAS models include are advection, dispersion, sorption, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution, and biodegradation of either petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated ethylenes. Newly-implemented enhancements to NAS designed to maximize the utility of NAS for site managers were observed. NAS has expanded source contaminant specification options to include chlorinated ethanes and chlorinated methanes, and to allow for the analysis of any other user-defined contaminants that may be subject to microbially-mediated transformations (heavy metals, radioisotopes, etc.). Included is the capability to model co-mingled plumes, with constituents from multiple contaminant categories. To enable comparison of remediation timeframe estimates between MNA and specific engineered remedial actions , NAS was modified to incorporate an estimation technique for timeframes associated with pump-and-treat remediation technology for comparison to MNA. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 8th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium (Baltimore, MD 6/6-9/2005).

  5. Evaluating impacts of unexpected earning on precision of profit estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kazemi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Precision in earning report has always been a concern among investors, and when there are some negative adjustments on earning, investor may find it challenging to decide whether they should hold or sell their shares. This paper studies the impact of earning precision and unexpected earning adjustments on firms whose share are listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The proposed study of this paper considers three hypotheses including whether earning precision has negative relationship with unexpected profit, whether it has a negative with unexpected decline in profit and finally, whether, in prediction on negative news compared with positive news, there is a negative relationship between stronger earnings forecast and precision of earning forecast. The study gathers the necessary data from official news released for some firms whose shares were active over the period 2003-2012. The study uses two regression models and the results of regression analysis have confirmed all hypotheses of this survey.

  6. Firm Life Cycle, Book-Tax Differences and Earnings Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to show if the life cycle explains the relation between the Book-Tax Differences (BTDs and earnings persistence, as well as to inform on the future gains and their relation with the BTDs. Therefore, univariate tests were applied to verify the differences between the mean BTDS, life cycle stages and regression coefficient for the Earnings Before Income Tax (EBIT. The study focused on Brazilian publicly traded companies between 2009 and 2013. The results indicated that the control of earnings persistence was related with the stages of the life cycle. The information relevance of the life cycle and the Book-Tax Differences for earnings persistence is registered. In conclusion, the firm life cycle should be included in the analysis of the relation between the BTDs and earnings persistence. The evidence registered here is crucial to identify the quality of the earnings and incorporate them into earnings valuation models.

  7. Based on the earned value method municipal engineering project integrated management of the three elements of applied research%基子挣值法的市政工程项目三要素集成管理的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦雷娥

    2011-01-01

    项目集成管理是整个近代项目管理中最为系统的集成管理内容。考虑工程质量因素,运用层次分析法,构建模糊综合质量评价体系,基于挣值法,对市政工程项目进行工期、成本、质量三个核心要素进行集成管理,最后通过某工程实例对三要素集成管理进行探讨。%The Project Integration Management is the most systematic integration management content of project management in modem history.Considering that analytic hierarchy process, the system of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is built.Based on earned value ,the time, cost and quality of municipal engineering is carried on integration mamagement. At last, the integration management is discussed by some engineering project.

  8. Earned Income Tax Credit Eligibility and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    to assist the working poor . The EIC is intended to offset the burden of the Social Security payroll tax on low - income workers and to encourage low ...The Earned Income Tax Credit (EIC), which is expected to provide over $30 billion in refundable credits in fiscal year 2002, is major federal effort... income individuals to work. The amounts of credit that taxpayers receive depend on the taxpayers’ incomes and the number of qualifying children they have

  9. Twitter sentiment around the Earnings Announcement events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovšek, Peter; Aleksovski, Darko; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between social media, Twitter in particular, and stock market. We provide an in-depth analysis of the Twitter volume and sentiment about the 30 companies in the Dow Jones Industrial Average index, over a period of three years. We focus on Earnings Announcements and show that there is a considerable difference with respect to when the announcements are made: before the market opens or after the market closes. The two different timings of the Earnings Announcements were already investigated in the financial literature, but not yet in the social media. We analyze the differences in terms of the Twitter volumes, cumulative abnormal returns, trade returns, and earnings surprises. We report mixed results. On the one hand, we show that the Twitter sentiment (the collective opinion of the users) on the day of the announcement very well reflects the stock moves on the same day. We demonstrate this by applying the event study methodology, where the polarity of the Earnings Announcements is computed from the Twitter sentiment. Cumulative abnormal returns are high (2-4%) and statistically significant. On the other hand, we find only weak predictive power of the Twitter sentiment one day in advance. It turns out that it is important how to account for the announcements made after the market closes. These after-hours announcements draw high Twitter activity immediately, but volume and price changes in trading are observed only on the next day. On the day before the announcements, the Twitter volume is low, and the sentiment has very weak predictive power. A useful lesson learned is the importance of the proper alignment between the announcements, trading and Twitter data.

  10. Ethnicity and Earnings in Urban Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ñopo, Hugo; Saavedra, Jaime; Torero, Máximo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between ethnic exclusion and earnings in Urban Peru. Our approach to the concept of ethnicity involves the usage of instruments in many of its several dimensions: mother tongue, parental background, religion, migration events and race. In order to approximate what can be called racial differences in a context like the Peruvian in which "racial mixture" is the main characteristic of the population, we use a score-based procedure to capture both the diffe...

  11. Twitter sentiment around the Earnings Announcement events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grčar, Miha

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between social media, Twitter in particular, and stock market. We provide an in-depth analysis of the Twitter volume and sentiment about the 30 companies in the Dow Jones Industrial Average index, over a period of three years. We focus on Earnings Announcements and show that there is a considerable difference with respect to when the announcements are made: before the market opens or after the market closes. The two different timings of the Earnings Announcements were already investigated in the financial literature, but not yet in the social media. We analyze the differences in terms of the Twitter volumes, cumulative abnormal returns, trade returns, and earnings surprises. We report mixed results. On the one hand, we show that the Twitter sentiment (the collective opinion of the users) on the day of the announcement very well reflects the stock moves on the same day. We demonstrate this by applying the event study methodology, where the polarity of the Earnings Announcements is computed from the Twitter sentiment. Cumulative abnormal returns are high (2–4%) and statistically significant. On the other hand, we find only weak predictive power of the Twitter sentiment one day in advance. It turns out that it is important how to account for the announcements made after the market closes. These after-hours announcements draw high Twitter activity immediately, but volume and price changes in trading are observed only on the next day. On the day before the announcements, the Twitter volume is low, and the sentiment has very weak predictive power. A useful lesson learned is the importance of the proper alignment between the announcements, trading and Twitter data. PMID:28235103

  12. GESTÃO EDUCACIONAL: A ATUAÇÃO DO PROFISSIONAL SECRETÁRIO NAS ORGANIZAÇÕES EDUCACIONAIS EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT: THE ROLE OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONALS AMONG EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Cristina Gianini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Com diversas oportunidades no mercado de trabalho, consequentemente o profissional secretário tem a oportunidade de atuar em diversos setores, tendo em vista seu conhecimento multifuncional e formação pluralista em diversas áreas do conhecimento, bem como a capacidade de organizar, planejar, executar e ainda otimizar tarefas. Atualmente é responsável por informações valiosas, assume cargos de chefias, assessora executivos e em várias situações é gestor. O presente artigo teve como objetivo abordar informações referentes a atuação do Profissional Secretário nas organizações educacionais e abrir espaço para discussão que este profissional, por sua formação abrangente, está apto a atuar em ambientes acadêmicos e não somente nos ambientes empresarias tradicionais.

    With several opportunities in the labor market, hence the professional secretary has the opportunity to perform in various industries. This is because of his knowledge and training multifunctional pluralistic in many areas of knowledge and the ability to organize, plan, execute and optimize tasks yet. He is currently responsible for valuable information, assume positions of leadership, executive and consultant in many situations a manager. This article aims to address information concerning the action of Professional Secretary in educational organizations and open space for discussion that this professional training for its comprehensive, is able to act in academic environments and not only in traditional enterprise settings. This work grounded in bibliographic study raises questions regarding the professional practice of executive secretary, interweaving their activities with those of the educational manager. The study results show that the professional executive secretary is able to perform their professional activities also in academic environment, given its pluralistic training, ensuring effective performance of

  13. The Opportunism of Venture Capital During the Equity Selling:A Study Based on Earnings Management%风险投资减持过程中的机会主义--基于盈余管理视角的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志颖; 蔡卫星; 丁园园; 韩金金

    2013-01-01

    hazard problem of VCs.Therefore,this paper studies VCs’equity selling from earnings management perspectives under Chian’s current institutional background. We find that VCs try to put pressure on the management to increase accounting income before selling,and finally receive higher selling returns.However,this phenomenon only ex-ists in the equity selling right after the third-quarter and annual financial report,which means that the success of VCs’equity selling timing through earnings management depends on the portfolio firms’motive to management earnings management.And also,VCs’ability to in-fluence the quarterly earnings management increases with their stockholding before selling. Further result shows that due to stronger bargaining power and more participation in the portfolio firms,government-sponsored VCs behavior significantly more opportunistically than non-government-sponsored VCs.After controlling of endogenous problem,the conclusions remain unchanged.Our paper gives evidence to the opportunistic behavior of VCs in China’s market and enlarges the institutional investors opportunism literature through the equity sell-ing after the expiration of lock-up period and earnings management.%通过研究风险投资减持过程中的盈余管理,本文发现,在减持过程中,风险投资试图影响管理层,以提高减持前的会计收益,从而获得更高的减持收益,但这种模式只存在利用后半年定期报告进行减持时机选择的情况下,这意味着风险投资的盈余管理减持时机选择有赖于上市公司本身的盈余管理动机。且随着风险投资在减持前持股比例的增加,风险投资减持对后半年季度盈余管理的影响能力进一步增加。进一步研究发现,由于国有风险投资对被投资企业的谈判能力更强,参与程度更高,其表现出比非国有风险投资更显著的减持机会主义。在控制内生性问题后,上述结论依然没有发生重大变化。

  14. 股权再融资、盈余管理与上市公司业绩滑坡——基于应计项目操控与真实活动操控方式下的研究%Equity Refinancing, Earnings Management and the Performance Decline of China Listed Companies:Viewpoint from Accruals and Real Activities Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增福; 郑友环; 连玉君

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates both the accrual and real-based earning management activities around seasoned equity offerings (SEOs), and their effects on firm performance in China.The results show that both accrual and real manipulations are used around SEOs, but their effects are different.In specifically, the accruals manipulation leads to performance decline in short run, while the real activities manipulation may hurt long-run performance.In comparison, the company's poor performance post SEO is more attributable to real earnings management.Our findings contribute to the literature by showing that the post-SEO performance decline due to the real activities management is more severe than that due to accrual management.%本文采用应计项目操控与真实活动操控两种模型,研究了我国上市公司股权再融资过程中的盈余管理行为及其对公司业绩的影响.结果表明,在股权再融资过程中,上市公司会同时使用应计项目操控和真实活动操控两种盈余管理方式.二者的影响效果存在明显差异.应计项目盈余管理会导致融资后公司业绩的短期下滑,而真实盈余管理则会引起公司业绩的长期下滑.相对而言,真实盈余管理是上市公司股权再融资之后业绩滑坡的主要原因.上述结果修正了以往文献将股权再融资后的业绩滑坡完全归因于应计项目操控的研究结论.

  15. nas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Varas

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET are difficult to diagnose. Their accurate localization using imaging techniques is intended to provide a definite cure. The goal of this retrospective study was to review a PET series from a private institution. Patients and methods: the medical records of 19 patients with PETs were reviewed, including 4 cases of MEN-1, for a period of 17 years (1994-2010. A database was set up with ten parameters: age, sex, symptoms, imaging techniques, size and location in the pancreas, metastasis, surgery, complications, adjuvant therapies, definite diagnosis, and survival or death. Results: a total of 19 cases were analyzed. Mean age at presentation was 51 years (range: 26-67 y (14 males, 5 females, and tumor size was 5 to 80 mm (X: 20 mm. Metastatic disease was present in 37% (7/19. Most underwent the following imaging techniques: ultrasounds, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Fine needle aspiration punction (FNA was performed for the primary tumor in 4 cases. Non-functioning: 7 cases (37%, insulinoma: 2 cases [1 with possible multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN], Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES from gastrinoma: 5 (3 with MEN-1, glucagonoma: 2 cases, 2 somatostatinomas; carcinoid: 1 case with carcinoide-like syndrome. Most patients were operated upon: 14/19 (73%. Four (4/14: 28% has postoperative complications following pancreatectomy: pancreatitis, pseudocyst, and abdominal collections. Some patients received chemotherapy (4, somatostatin (3 and interferon (2 before or after surgery. Median follow-up was 48 months. Actuarial survival during the study was 73.6% (14/19. Conclusions: age was similar to that described in the literature. Males were predominant. Most cases were non-functioning (37%. Most patients underwent surgery (73% with little morbidity (28% and an actuarial survival of 73.6% at the time of the study.

  16. Genetic parameters for earnings in Quarter Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A P A; Curi, R A; Langlois, B; Silva, J A Ii V

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we estimated the heritability (h(2)) of earnings in the Quarter Horse in order to evaluate the inclusion of this trait in breeding programs. Records from 14,754 races of 2443 horses from 1978-2009 were provided by Sorocaba Hippodrome, São Paulo, Brazil. All ancestors of the registered horses were included in the pedigree file until the 4th generation. Log-transformed performance measures (LPM) were analyzed for animals aged 2, 3, and 4 years and during their entire career. The h(2) estimates were obtained using a multi-trait model and Gibbs sampling that included the effects of sex, year of race, and animal in all analyses. Five analyses were performed: 1 in which LPM was divided by the number of prizes, 1 in which LPM was divided by the number of race starts, and 3 analyses that included the number of prizes, number of race starts, and both (LPM_cNPS) as covariates. Analysis was performed with and without inclusion of the maternal effect. Models were compared based on the deviance information criterion and LPM_cNPS including maternal effects was found to be the best model. The h(2) estimates and standard deviation obtained using model LPM_cNPS were 0.19 ± 0.08, 0.21 ± 0.08, 0.22 ± 0.09, and 0.21 ± 0.07 for earnings at 2, 3, and 4 years of age and total career, respectively. Our analyses indicate that earnings are subject to selection and can be included in breeding programs to improve the racing performance of Quarter Horses.

  17. Labour Supply Response of a Retirement Earnings Test Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Hernæs, Erik; Jia, Zhiyang

    2009-01-01

    Norwegian administrative data are used to evaluate the impact of a doubling of the threshold in the earnings test on the labour force activity. We find no impact on labour market participation, but positive effects on earnings. The effect increases with exposure to the reform and is stronger for individuals with earnings around the threshold and with high education. Individuals who remain active until retirement age respond more to the reform than those who left labour force earlier. The resu...

  18. The effect of own and spousal parental leave on earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Elly-Ann

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of parental leave - both own and spousal - on subsequent earnings using different sources of variation. Using fixed-effect models, and in line with previous results, parental leave is found to decrease each parent's future earnings. Also spousal leave is important, but only for mothers. In fact, each month the father stays on parental leave has a larger positive effect on maternal earnings than a similar reduction in the mother's own leave. Using two reforms...

  19. National Air Space (NAS) Data Exchange Environment Through 2060

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aloke

    2015-01-01

    NASA's NextGen Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project focuses on capabilities to improve safety, capacity and efficiency of the National Air Space (NAS). In order to achieve those objectives, NASA sought industry-Government partnerships to research and identify solutions for traffic flow management, dynamic airspace configuration, separation assurance, super density operations, airport surface operations and similar forward-looking air-traffic modernization (ATM) concepts. Data exchanges over NAS being the key enabler for most of these ATM concepts, the Sub-Topic area 3 of the CTD project sought to identify technology candidates that can satisfy air-to-air and air/ground communications needs of the NAS in the year 2060 timeframe. Honeywell, under a two-year contract with NASA, is working on this communications technology research initiative. This report summarizes Honeywell's research conducted during the second year of the study task.

  20. Within- and Cross-Firm Mobility and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander Karl

    of mobility interact is important for understanding earnings growth. Cross-firm moves at the non-executive level provide sizeable short-run earnings growth (similar to the effect of being promoted to an executive position). These gains, however, appear modest compared with the persistent impact on earnings......It is widely accepted that promotions within firms and mobility across firms lead to significant earnings progression. Existing research generally examined cross-firm mobility separately from hierarchical advancement. Yet, as our descriptive evidence from Danish panel data shows, how the two types...

  1. Within- and cross-firm mobility and earnings growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander Karl

    While it is well established that both promotions within firms and mobility across firms lead to substantial earnings progression, few studies offer an integrated analysis of the effects of these two types of mobility on earnings growth. To do this, we exploit a large Danish panel data set......, and not horizontal mobility across firms is what ultimately matters for gross earnings growth. However, because of progressive taxation, we do not see any effects of vertical mobility on net earnings growth. Instead, the fruits of promotions are enjoyed in the form of tax shields such as future consumption via tax...

  2. Applied research on the method of earned value management in large intelligent project%挣值管理法在大型智能项目中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芳

    2013-01-01

    为优化项目控制,研究用挣值管理方法,对某大型智能项目已实施阶段的进度和投资进行关键路径和非关键路径的挣值分析,综合评价该项目已实施阶段的绩效情况,并预测该项目未实施阶段的进度和成本.研究结果显示,当前该智能项目进度滞后,成本额外增加;根据当前的绩效情况推测,关键路径将会改变,预计总工期将延长.因此,建议在该智能项目未来的实施过程中,应进行全面控制,特别是加强对改变关键路径工作的控制,以提高项目整体绩效,保证项目按计划乃至高效益完成.%To optimize the control of project, this paper explored earned value analysis of both the critical path and the non - critical path concerning the progress and investment of the stage that one large intelligent project was achieved, evaluated comprehensively the performance of the ongoing project, and further predicted the schedule and cost of the unimplemented phase of the project. The results show that the cost will be increased unexpectedly on the condition that the schedule of the project can not be fulfilled on time. Meanwhile the critical path will change based on the current speculation of performance, and the total duration of the project will be extended accordingly. Therefore, it is suggested that in the future we should carry out a comprehensive control of the project implementation, especially the control of change in critical path so that the whole performance can be improved , which ensures the completion of the project punctually and efficiently.

  3. Pertumbuhan Earning Per Share, Price To Book Value dan Price Earning Ratio Sebagai Dasar Keputusan Stock Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Budiardjo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to examine the effect of earning per share, price to book value and price earning ratio on firms stock split. According to signaling hypothesis, stock split decision can be proxies with the growth of earning per share, while trading range hypothesis can be proxies with the price to book value and price earning ratio. The population of this research is manufacturing firms that did stock split between years 2003 to 2008. The samples consist of 40 firms, and the analysis using logistic regression model. The result is that the growth of earning per share did not have a significant effect to firm stock split decision, while price to book value and price earning ratio did have significant effect to the prediction of firms in doing stock split.

  4. Does Media Influence Auditor Behavior?--An empirical analysis from the earning-management-based risk identification%媒体报道影响审计师专业判断吗?——基于盈余管理风险判断视角的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕敏康; 冉明东

    2012-01-01

    Based on the media agenda setting and related audit theories, the specific mechanism about how the media coverage impacts auditor's risk identification is issued. During the audit pricing, media coverage affects the presence of information and priorities of risk factor using media "cognitive effects" and "issues salience". Then the change of information presence and risk factor salience makes auditor paying more attention to the risk raised by high media coverage. Finally, the premium fee is charged for the risk. In this paper, the media influence on the relationship between earning management and audit fee has been investigated using the Chinese stock A market data during year 2005-2010. The authors find earning management is positively correlated with annual audit fee, and media coverage can enlarge the positive correlation between earning management and fee. The issued mechanism has been tested by findings. The paper not only enriches audit pricing and media governance, but also implies the procedure that media impacts auditor behavior.%基于传播学的议程设置理论和审计学相关研究成果,本文提出了媒体报道影响审计师专业判断的具体路径,即媒体通过“认知模式”和“显著性模式”等议程设置功能影响审计师的信息占有和风险因素权重判断,这些影响在“策略假说”和“认知假说”机制作用下对审计师的专业判断和行为调整发挥作用。丈中运用2005-2010年A股上市公司数据,研究发现媒体关注会显著加强审计费用对盈余管理风险的正向敏感度。结果表明,媒体报道影响了审计师在定价契约谈判过程中的信息占有和盈余管理风险权重的判断,在“策略假说”和“认知假说”机制影响下,审计师更加关注盈余管理行为的风险,并最终将其反映在审计定价上。本研究不仅丰富了审计定价和媒体治理的相关文献,更重要在于其揭示并验证了媒体

  5. Industrial Change and Black Men's Relative Earnings: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroman, Wayne

    This study examines the relative earnings of black men from a time series perspective covering 1930 to 1990. Regression analyses were fitted to annual data to isolate factors responsible for changes in relative earnings. National and regional data on population growth and employment growth by industry were analyzed to determine the degree of…

  6. How Informative are the Unpredictable Components of Earnings Forecasts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.P. de Bruijn (Bert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ An analysis of about 300000 earnings forecasts, created by 18000 individual forecasters for earnings of over 300 S&P listed firms, shows that these forecasts are predictable to a large extent using a statistical model that includes publicly available information. When w

  7. Unchanging Child Support Orders in the Face of Unstable Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yoonsook; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The underlying theory behind child support guidelines implies that child support orders should change when the incomes of noncustodial parents change. This paper documents changes in noncustodial fathers' earnings over a five-year period and examines the relationship between the changes in earnings and modifications in child support orders. Using…

  8. Post Earnings Announcement Drift : More Risk than Investors can Bear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows how post earnings announcement drift may arise in a capital market with rational investors if the firm's earnings in consecutive periods are positively correlated and there is a fixed supply of the firm's shares.This result is driven by the fact that equilibrium share prices depend

  9. Within- and cross-firm mobility and earnings growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander Karl

    While it is well established that both promotions within firms and mobility across firms lead to substantial earnings progression, few studies offer an integrated analysis of the effects of these two types of mobility on earnings growth. To do this, we exploit a large Danish panel data set and te...

  10. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  11. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  12. Effects of Foreign Education on Immigrant Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao, Xingshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study explores the effects of foreign education on earnings. Previously, most research used indirect estimated information about foreign education, and documented the lower earnings of immigrants who had foreign education in comparison to those who had domestic education. Using direct information obtained from respondents of a recent survey, this research goes beyond the existing studies by suggesting three factors in earning discounts: (1 whether the highest level of education was received overseas, (2 the country where foreign education was received, and (3 name recognition of the foreign university. In addition, our study points out that social networks can reduce the foreign education discount, especially in nonprofessional occupations.RésuméCette recherche explore les effets de l’éducation acquise à l’étranger sur le niveau des gains. Auparavant, la majorité des enquêtes se basaient sur une estimation indirecte des données sur l’éducation acquise à l’étranger et documentaient les gains moins élevés des immigrants qui avaient reçu leur éducation à l’étranger en comparaison à ceux qui avaient suivi leurs études au pays. En utilisant des données directes recueillies auprès des répondants d’un récent sondage, cette étude va plus loin que les études actuelles en suggérant trois facteurs dans la réduction des gains : 1 est-ce que le plus haut niveau de scolarité a été acquis à l’étranger, 2 dans quel pays l’éducation a-t-elle été reçue, et 3 quel est le niveau de réputation de l’université étrangère. De plus, notre étude indique que les réseaux sociaux peuvent diminuer la réduction des gains causée par l’éducation acquise à l’étranger, particulièrement dans les professions non-diplômées.

  13. NAS Panel faults export controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. 挣时管理:一种基于挣值的项目进度绩效评价方法%Earned time:a new optimal method of project schedule performance evaluation based on earned value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文静; 周晓宏

    2014-01-01

    The Earned Value Management methodology is a very important and systematic technique that evaluates project performance.This paper studies the disadvantages and limitations of traditional earned value method while evaluating the project Schedule Performance from the application point of view based on the introduction of the traditional earned value management method,and puts forward a performance evaluation method called Earned Time method.It corrects the deviation from traditional earned value method when evaluating the project Schedule Performance,and all the information needed comes form the traditional earned value management.%挣值管理方法是现代项目管理中评价项目绩效的一个非常重要的系统方法。本文在对传统挣值管理方法简要介绍基础上,从实际应用角度就传统挣值管理方法在项目进度绩效评价方面存在的不足和局限进行分析,提出了一种基于时间进度的进度绩效评价方法-挣时分析法。该方法能够改进传统挣值法在进度评价方面的偏差,而且该方法所有信息都来自传统挣值分析,不需要增加额外的信息。

  15. Reconciling Estimates of Earnings Processes in Growth Rates and Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Moira; Hryshko, Dmytro; Manovskii, Iourii

    The stochastic process for earnings is the key element of incomplete markets models in modern quantitative macroeconomics. It determines both the equilibrium distributions of endogenous outcomes and the design of optimal policies. Yet, there is no consensus in the literature on the relative...... magnitudes of the permanent and transitory innovations in earnings. When estimation is based on the earnings moments in levels, the variance of transitory shocks is found to be relatively high. When the moments in differences are used, the variance of the permanent component is relatively high instead. We...... of earnings spells quantitatively accounts for the full amount of discrepancy in the estimates. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we show that this property of earnings induces a substantial upward bias in the estimate of consumption insurance against permanent shocks....

  16. The impact of economic fluctuations on earnings forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Molodpoor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in the area of earnings forecasts hold a common characteristic, they make no distinction as to the economic cycle when evaluating voluntary earnings disclosures. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between actual as well as forecasted earnings and growth domestic product during the economic growth and recession on Tehran Stock Exchange. Using the information of 60 firms over the period of 2007-2012, the study has determined that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between earnings forecast and growth domestic product during economic growth. In addition, the study has determined a meaningful relationship between actual earnings and growth domestic product during the recession.

  17. Measuring the effect of managerial ability on earning quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Bahri Sales

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the effect of managerial ability on earning quality on selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2013. The proposed study uses data envelopment analysis to measure the relative efficiency of selected firms where Sales is considered as output and Cost of goods (COGS, Selling, General and Administrative Expenses (SG&A, Net Property Plant and Equipment (PPE, Net operating Leases (OpsLease, Research & Development (R&D, Purchased Good will (Goodwill and Other intangible assets (OtherIntan are considered as inputs. Earning quality in this survey consists of three parts of quality of accruals, earnings and earnings forecast persistence. The results of our survey have indicated that managerial ability influences positively on earning quality.

  18. Occupational change, employer change, internal migration, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, R G

    1997-02-01

    "In this paper I use microdata from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics to measure the financial returns to intercounty and interstate migration for individuals in a temporal framework accounting for gains that accrue over time.... To account for the indirect effects of migration on earnings, explanatory variables are created by interacting migration status with: (1) occupational change, (2) employer change and (3) changes in both occupation and employer. These interaction terms are then included in the earnings functions. Earnings are estimated for three years subsequent to the migration decision to account for the financial returns to migration accruing over time. Results indicate that, when estimating earnings, the use of a simple migration dummy variable will mask the indirect effects of migration on earnings."

  19. UAS-NAS Flight Test Series 3: Test Environment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ty; Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communications (Comm), and Certification to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Detect and Avoid (DAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project is conducting a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) and flight test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity, and

  20. Greenhouse policy study from NAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The National Academy of Sciences will produce a study for the Environmental Protection Agency on policy responses to global warming. The report is due out before the end of 1990.Dan J. Evans, former U.S. Senator and former Governor of Washington, will chair a panel of the Commission on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, a body of the councils of the NAS, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. Evans is a registered civil engineer and previously chaired the Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council.The 13-person panel includes AGU members Stephen Schneider of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and Robert Frosch, Vice President of Research Laboratores at General Motors Corp., Jessica Mathews, Vice President of the World Resources Institute, and Sir Crispin Tickell, the United Kingdom's Ambassador to the United Nations.

  1. 下属会计人员能否抑制财务经理盈余偏好之实验与检验%Experiment and Inspection of whether Subordinate Accountants Inhibit the Earnings Preference of Finance Managers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹德超; 张继勋; 张丽霞

    2012-01-01

    Reliable financial information is the basis for the healthy operation of capital market. In general, while financial managers are in charge of the preparation of financial statements in com- panies, the preparation of financial statements are relied on the details work of subordinate accountants, so the accounting estimates of subordinate accountants have a material influence on the reliability of financial information. Subordinate accountants is an important part of internal control, and is the first line of defense to limit and constraint the management from the perspective of internal control. This paper investigates the effect of financial managers' reference, subordinate account- ants' ethics perception, and financial managers-subordinate accountants relationship quality on biased accounting estimates by an experimental method. The results show that the accountants' estimate biases are lower when they believe that providing accounting estimate requested by financial managers is a relatively high level ethical task; Subordinate accountants provide accounting estimates that are less satisfied with the financial managers' requests for income-increasing estimates than the requests for income-decreasing estimates; the relationship between financial managers and subordinate accountants doesn't have a significant effect on accounting estimate biases provided of subordinate accountants.%可靠的财务报告信息是保证资本市场健康运行的基础。采用实验的方法研究财务经理的盈余偏好、下属会计人员感知的道德水平以及下属会计人员与财务经理之间的关系质量对会计估计偏差的影响,结果显示,下属会计人员感知的财务经理要求进行有偏好会计估计涉及道德程度(即道德感知水平)越高,其估计偏差程度越低;下属会计人员对财务经理所提的增加利润的估计要求给予的满足程度比较低,对财务经理所提的减少利润的估计

  2. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  3. Self-employment income at low earnings levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prero, A J

    1976-02-01

    If self-employment were much more prevalent at moderate and high earnings levels than at low levels and if the incidence of both the employee and employer taxes on wages is on the employee, then the social security tax structure would be regressive relative to taxable earnings. Analysis shows, however, that this is the case only in a very limited sense. For 1970, 6.5 percent of taxable earnings derives from self-employment. At least 6.3 percent of taxable earnings consists of self-employment income in each observed interval from $400 to $3,600. The proportion declines slightly with rising earnings until near the taxable maximum, when it begins to rise. If the average tax rate on earnings up to the maximum were tabulated by earnings both below and above the maximum, it appears very likely that mild regressivity would be shown beyond the taxable maximum, but of not more than a few tenths of a percent.

  4. Earned Value Conference at CERN - 25-26 November 2009 (Main Building, first floor)

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    Next week, 25-26 November, 60 participants from universities and industry will meet at CERN for the first European conference on Earned Value Management and Analysis. This project control methodology was first introduced -in anger- during LHC, and will further be in use for the LHC upgrade projects like Linac4. During the conference, more information on the methodology will be presented and experiences will be shared on how “Earned Value” has been used at CERN and in industry. More information On the web site, you can also find the conference schedule. If you would like to attend some of the presentations, please send an email to jurgen.de.jonghe@cern.ch

  5. Impact of the FY 2009 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-06-17

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose input-output model called ImSET is used in this study of 14 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2009 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2008. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2025. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 258,000 jobs and about $3.7 billion in earned income (2007$) by the year 2025.

  6. Earnings instability of job stayers and job changers

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, Marco

    2003-01-01

    I use the PSID to decompose the rise in wage inequality into a permanent and a transitory component. I consider separately job stayers and job changers. I find that earnings instability (the variance of the transitory component of earnings) increased much more among job changers than among job stayers. I interpret the evidence in a search and matching model with on-the-job search. The increasing variance of the transitory component of earnings is modeled as a mean-preserving spread of the dis...

  7. Earnings, Uncertainty, and the Self-Employment Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Maire, Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    2007-01-01

    -employed can retain earnings and thereby transfer income across tax-years. Secondly, expected income level and income variance are important determinants in choice of occupation. Thirdly, men put more emphasis on expected earnings level, while women appears more risk averse, which contribute to explain why......This paper investigates the relationship between self-employment choice, expected earnings, and uncertainty. Several interesting results emerge from our analysis on Danish longitudinal register data: Firstly, self-employed (taxable) personal income bunch at kink points in the tax system since self...

  8. GaInNAs laser gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-05-23

    The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

  9. Disparities in earnings and education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Geetha Rani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of different levels of education, religion, caste as well as the impact of living in urban and rural communities on earnings in India. Besides these conventional stratification, yet another academic caste which influence earnings—the English language ability, is also examined. The paper uses a large cross-section sample of India Human Development Survey to estimate Mincer and augmented Mincer equations. The rates of return estimates obtained in these data and method confirm that returns to education increase with the level of education across location, caste-religion and English language ability. Returns to lower levels of education are low across different groups, indicating the low quality of basic schooling in the country. Returns to higher education vary at a great deal ranging between 4.9% among the rural workers and 38.2% among fluent English ability group. This is in contrast to Duraisamy reporting the highest returns to secondary education in India, between the period 1983 and 1993–1994. In a decade’s time, with changes in the economy and in the labour market, higher education especially the English language ability along with higher education brings in the highest wage premium.

  10. Differential mortality by lifetime earnings in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rembrandt D. Scholz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available e estimate mortality rates by a measure of socio-economic status in a very large sample of male German pensioners aged~65 or older. Our analysis is entirely nonparametric. Furthermore, the data enable us to compare mortality experiences in eastern and western Germany conditional on socio-economic status. As a simple summary measure, we compute period life expectancies at age~65. Our findings show a lower bound of almost 50 percent (six years on the difference in life expectancy between the lowest and the highest socio-economic group considered. Within groups, we find similar values for the former GDR and western Germany. Our analysis contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, we provide the first population-based differential mortality study for Germany. Second, we use a novel measure of lifetime earnings as a proxy for socio-economic status that remains applicable to retired people. Third, the comparison between eastern and western Germany may provide some interesting insights for transformation countries.

  11. Cost Earnings Survey of NWHI Bottomfish Fleets (1993): Obsolete

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study collected cost-earnings information for the 12 vessels which had reported bottomfish landings from Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 1993 in order to...

  12. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2014. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics, levels of...

  13. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 1995-1996. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  14. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2007-2008. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  15. Impairment of Long-term Assets,Earning Management and Value-Relevance——An Empirical Research Based on the Change of the New Accounting Standards%长期资产减值、盈余管理与价值相关性——基于新会计准则变化的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姝; 黄雯

    2011-01-01

    2006年2月15日财政部颁布了新的《企业会计准则》,引起了人们广泛的关注,准则中要求长期资产减值准备一经计提就不能转回,这与IASB和FASB对资产减值的规定明显不同。本文就是基于这样的背景,研究按照新会计准则提供的资产减值的信息是否增强了会计信息的价值相关性,一经计提就不能转回的规定是否能有效抑制上市公司的盈余管理行为。文章采用多元线性回归分析以及成对样本非参数检验的方法,对上述问题进行实证分析。研究结果表明,在新会计准则的规定下,上市公司计提的长期减值准备本身具有增量价值相关性,并且新准则实施以后上市公司计提的长期资产减值准备的价值相关性显著高于执行旧会计准则的年度。同时,新准则实施以后上市公司计提短期资产减值准备的盈余管理动机强于长期资产减值准备。这为2007年1月1日起实施的新会计准则中关于已计提的长期资产减值准备不可转回的变革提供了实证支持。%The objective of this paper is to test if the new accounting standards for impairment of long-term assets are effective in enhancing the value relevance of accounting information and restrain listed companies from earning management.The results show that under the new accounting standards a listed company's provision for impairment of long-term assets does have value relevance.The value relevance during 2007-2009 is higher than that during 2004-2006 when the old accounting standards were adopted.And after new accounting standards were adopted,intention of earning management through the impairment of short-term assets is more intense than through the impairment of long-term assets.

  16. The Wage Gap: Women's and Men's Earnings. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lois; Gish, Melinda; Braunstein, Jill; Allore, Sara

    After remaining virtually unchanged from 1995 through the 1970s, the wage gap between women and men began to decline in the 1980s. By the early 1990s, the ratio of the annual earnings of women employed full time year-round to the annual earnings of their male counterparts reached 72.0%. That ratio decreased slightly (to 71.4%) in 1995. The wage…

  17. Immigrant-Native Differences in Earnings Mobility Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Esmaeilzadeh, •Rayhaneh

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the earnings mobility between immigrants and natives within and between Denmark and Canada. Both countries have different labour market conditions and immigration history which leads to an interesting comparison of earning mobility processes. The paper employs a dynamic...... multinomial logit model with discrete factor approximation for the specification of unobserved individual heterogeneity. The model takes into account the effect of the endogenous initial conditions problem and unobserved heterogeneity to separate structural and spurious state dependence. The results show...

  18. Immigrant-Native Differences in Earnings Mobility Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Esmaeilzadeh, Rayhaneh; Hansen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the earnings mobility between immigrants and natives within and between Denmark and Canada. Both countries have different labour market conditions and immigration history which leads to an interesting comparison of earning mobility processes. The paper employs a dynamic...... multinomial logit model with discrete factor approximation for the specification of unobserved individual heterogeneity. The model takes into account the effect of the endogenous initial conditions problem and unobserved heterogeneity to separate structural and spurious state dependence. The results show...

  19. Earnings inequality, returns to education and immigration into Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Alan; Fitz Gerald, John; Nolan, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Increasing earnings inequality has been an important feature of the US and UK labour markets in recent years. The increase appears to be related to an increased demand for skilled labour and an increase in the returns to education. In this paper we examine what has happened to earnings inequality and the returns to education in Ireland between 1987 and 1997. We find that while both increased between 1987 and 1994, the increases slowed dramatically between 1994 and 1997. This is somewhat surpr...

  20. The Post-Military Earnings of Female Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    if an occupation change is also involved. 5 To estimate veteran-nonveteran wage differentials among women, earnings functions are specified using the...unadjusted veteran wage differentials is small, but as indicated in column 2, veterans have substantially larger earnings endowments than do nonveterans. The...When veteran wage differentials are examined by schooling group, as shown in line 3, women with high school diplomas (or less) and those with some

  1. 25 CFR 700.173 - Average net earnings of business or farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average net earnings of business or farm. 700.173 Section... PROCEDURES Moving and Related Expenses, Temporary Emergency Moves § 700.173 Average net earnings of business or farm. (a) Computing net earnings. For purposes of this subpart, the average annual net earnings...

  2. 18 CFR 367.4360 - Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Appropriations of retained earnings. 367.4360 Section 367.4360 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4360 Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings. This account must include appropriations of retained earnings as follows: (a) Appropriations required...

  3. Equity Private Placement, Earnings Management and the Decreased Performance of China Listed Companies Based on Accruals Manipulation and Real Activities Manipulation%股票定向增发、盈余管理与公司的业绩滑坡——基于应计项目操控与真实活动操控方式下的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增福; 黄华林; 连玉君

    2012-01-01

    This paper adopts two models of accual manipulation and real activities manipulation to research the earnings management in the process of equity private placement of China's listed companies and the later result performance. It finds that China's listed companies will use the two manners of accual manipulation and real activities manipulation at the same time in the process of equity private placement; Further study finds the accual manipulation will cause the result decline in a short term and the real activities manipulation will cause the result decline in a long term. The real activities are the key reasons which cause result decline after equity private placement of listed companies.%本文采用了应计项目操控与真实活动操控两种模型研究了我国上市公司定向增发新股过程中盈余管理行为以及之后的业绩表现,结果发现:中国上市公司在定向增发过程中会同时使用应计项目操控与真实活动操控两种盈余管理方式;进一步研究发现应计项目盈余管理会导致上市公司定向增发后业绩的短期滑坡,真实活动盈余管理会引起公司业绩的长期滑坡,真实活动盈余管理是上市公司定向增发之后业绩滑坡的主要原因。

  4. The flexible fairness: equality, earned entitlement, and self-interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Luo, Yi; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S; Shen, Xueyi; Tian, Tengxiang; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored whether earned entitlement modulated the perception of fairness in three experiments. A preliminary resource earning task was added before players decided how to allocate the resource they jointly earned. Participants' decision in allocation, their responses to equal or unequal offers, whether advantageous or disadvantageous, and subjective ratings of fairness were all assessed in the current study. Behavioral results revealed that participants proposed more generous offers and showed enhanced tolerance to disadvantageous unequal offers from others when they performed worse than their presumed "partners," while the reverse was true in the better-performance condition. The subjective ratings also indicated the effect of earned entitlement, such that worse performance was associated with higher perceived feelings of fairness for disadvantageous unequal offers, while better performance was associated with higher feelings of fairness for advantageous unequal offers. Equal offers were considered "fair" only when earned entitlement was even between two parties. In sum, the perception of fairness is modulated by an integration of egalitarian motivation and entitlement. In addition to justice principles, participants were also motivated by self-interest, such that participants placed more weight on entitlement in the better-performance condition than in the worse-performance condition. These results imply that earned entitlement is evaluated in a self-serving way.

  5. Investor reaction to strategic emphasis on earnings numbers: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shibley Sadique

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the earnings information and stock prices of S&P500 firms and find that investors following S&P500 stocks (i respond more to pro forma earnings than to GAAP earnings, (ii respond to an emphasis on pro forma earnings, and (iii are fixated on pro forma earnings. We provide the first direct evidence that a strategic emphasis on earnings numbers may affect return volatility. Further, our results do not support the argument that a larger investor response to Street earnings might be driven by large differences between the Street numbers and GAAP numbers.

  6. 浅谈关联方交易中的不当盈余管理--基于上市公司的实例分析%Improper Earnings Management in the Related-Party Transaction:Based on the Case Study of Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏杨; 刘艳萍; 辛姝怡

    2015-01-01

    在关联方交易活动中,一些企业为了达到利润操纵、转移资金、侵占资产等目的,往往利用对其关联方的控制权或影响力进行有悖于市场公平交易原则的舞弊行为,以此获得不当盈余。从关联购销、资金往来、关联担保、资产重组四个方面,通过上市公司的实例来分析关联交易中不当盈余管理的方式。关联方交易不当盈余手段多样,但都是在关联方交易的外壳下进行的违规的暗箱操纵,上市公司利用关联方交易进行利润操纵、转移资金、侵占资产等违法行为,损害了公司的利益及其他相关者的权益。加强上市公司关联交易的监控及管理,对于维持公司自身的健康经营、保护投资者的合法权益以及提高资本市场的运作效率都具有十分重要的意义。%In order to gain impropersurplusandachieve the profit manipulation, transfer funds and embezzlement, some enterprisesoften have corrupt transactionwhich goes against the principle of fair trade market by means ofthe control or influencein the related-party trans-actions activities.Analyzing the improper earnings management based on the case study oflisted companies in terms of related buying and selling, funds, associated guarantees, and asset restructuring, the related-party transaction has various meansof illegal black case work, which harm the rights and the interests of the company and other stakeholders.The listed companies shouldstrengthen the monitoring and management, so as to maintain the company's own health management, protect the lawful rights and interests of investors and improve the operational efficiency of the capital market.

  7. FUNDAMENTAL INFORMATION, EARNINGS QUALITY,AND FUTURE EARNINGS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CHINA's A-SHARE LISTED COMPANIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianboZhou

    2004-01-01

    The earnings quality of listed companies is an issue of public concern. This paper conducts an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of how to measure the earnings quality of listed companies by using empirical methods. The indicators of earnings quality used in this paper include not only cash flow but also indicators that affect the growth of future earnings. We find that, firstly, in our stock return regressions, both specific and composite indicators of earnings quality have incremental explanatory power for stock returns after controlling for earnings per share, changes in earnings per share, and firm size. Secondly, in our future earnings regressions, both specific and composite indicators of earnings quality have incremental explanatory power for future earnings after controlling for earnings per share, changes in earnings per share, and firm size. Thirdly, listed companies with lower (higher) earnings quality have poorer (better) earnings performance in future years.

  8. Efeito da mobilização do solo nas micorrizas arbusculares de cereais de Inverno Effects of soil management on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in autumn-sown crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Brito

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobilização do solo reduz a taxa de colonização por micorrizas arbusculares (MA uma vez que ao provocar a disrupção do micélio extraradicular, faz com que a colonização seja preferencialmente iniciada por fontes de inoculo de crescimento mais lento. Em solos pouco perturbados, o aumento da taxa de colonização micorrízica é normalmente associado, embora nem sempre, a uma vantagem comparativa destas plantas numa fase inicial do crescimento. No sentido de potenciar os benefícios proporcionados pela micorrização e numa óptica de sustentabilidade dos sistemas agrícolas, é fundamental o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos que elucidem sobre a ecologia funcional das MA nestes sistemas. O trabalho desenvolvido em condições de campo no Alentejo permitiu confirmar de forma clara que raízes de trigo e de triticale cultivados em sistema de sementeira directa (SD apresentaram uma taxa de colonização micorrízica superior, em cerca de 6 vezes, quando comparadas com raízes de plantas das mesmas espécies cultivadas em sistema de mobilização tradicional (MT. Os resultados obtidos indicam também que o triticale parece ser mais micotrófico que o trigo. Para uma melhor compreensão das implicações desta situação nas plantas desenvolveram-se ensaios em vasos. A perturbação do solo induzida pela mobilização foi reproduzida através da crivagem do solo por um crivo de 4mm. Vários parâmetros de crescimento da planta e de colonização micorrízica foram avaliados. Após 4 ciclos de 3 semanas de cultura de trigo com indução diferencial de estrutura ao nível do solo, todos os parâmetros de colonização micorrízica foram significativamente afectados. A colonização arbuscular, vesicular e por hifas foi maior em solo não perturbado. Presentemente esta metodologia de ciclos de perturbação do solo está a ser usada para avaliar diferentes aspectos da micorrização como sejam a sobrevivência de inoculo ao longo do Verão e a

  9. Metabolismo do cobre nas epilepsias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marques de Assis

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available Partindo do fato de que o metabolismo do cobre está alterado nas epilepsias, o autor estudou sob que forma essa alteração se manifesta e, mediante o uso de curare em pacientes mentais submetidos ao eletrochoque, a influência da hiperatividade muscular própria da crise convulsiva sobre o metabolismo do cobre. Além disso, o autor estudou as correlações entre sexo e idade dos pacientes epilépticos, de um lado, e cupremia e cuprorraquia, do outro, e fez a correlação entre os níveis de cobre do soro e do LCR desses pacientes. Nos pacientes epilépticos (84 foram colhidas amostras de sangue (81 casos e de LCR (66 casos em período intercrítico para dosagem do cobre total. Nos pacientes mentais (32 foram colhidas amostras de sangue antes e imediatamente após crise convulsiva determinada pelo eletrochoque simples (22 casos para dosagem de ceruloplasmina, e imediatamente após eletrochoque sob ação de curare (10 casos para dosagem do cobre total. Os resultados foram submetidos a análise estatística, tendo o autor chegado às seguintes conclusões: 1 o nível de cobre do sangue e do LCR dos pacientes epilépticos não depende do sexo nem da idade; 2 o teor de cobre do LCR está correlacionado com o do sangue nos pacientes epilépticos; 3 a supressão, mediante o uso de substância curarizante, das manifestações musculares da crise produzida pelo eletrochoque acarreta queda não significativa do nível de cobre do sangue; 4 a queda do nível de cobre do sangue após convulsões determinadas pelo eletrochoque depende da hiperatividade muscular que caracteriza a crise convulsiva; 5 a queda do nível de cobre do sangue após convulsões determinadas pelo eletrochoque depende principalmente do cobre de reação direta; 6 a queda dos níveis de cobre do sangue após convulsões determinadas pelo eletrochoque é devida à pas* sagem desse elemento para os espaços intracelulares.

  10. Simultaneous Estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydralazine Hydrochloride, and Reserpine Using PCA, NAS, and NAS-PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Badyal, Pragya Nand; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2015-01-01

    In this study, new and feasible UV-visible spectrophotometric and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were described for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), hydralazine hydrochloride (H.HCl), and reserpine (RES) in combined pharmaceutical tablets. Methanol was used as a solvent for analysis and the whole UV region was scanned from 200-400 nm. The resolution was obtained by using multivariate methods such as the net analyte signal method (NAS), principal component analysis (PCA), and net analyte signal-principal component analysis (NAS-PCA) applied to the UV spectra of the mixture. The results obtained from all of the three methods were compared. NAS-PCA showed a lot of resolved data as compared to NAS and PCA. Thus, the NAS-PCA technique is a combination of NAS and PCA methods which is advantageous to obtain the information from overlapping results.

  11. 76 FR 40280 - Major System Acquisition; Earned Value Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NASA is... compliance with the American National Standards Institute/Electronics Industries Alliance (ANSI/EIA)...

  12. Planning to Execution Earned Value Risk Management Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    BCWS budgeted cost of work scheduled BFA business financial analyst COTS commercial off-the-shelf CPI cost performance index CPM critical path...by Decisioneering and @Risk by Palisade. Both researched tools require cost data input into spreadsheet models using a program such as MS Excel...Team Members Project Planner Project Executorroject xecutor Business Financial Analystusiness inancial nalyst Fabrication, Assembly & Testing Group

  13. Earnings, Uncertainty, and the Self-Employment Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Maire, Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between self-employment choice, expected earnings, and uncertainty. Several interesting results emerge from our analysis on Danish longitudinal register data: Firstly, self-employed (taxable) personal income bunch at kink points in the tax system since self......-employed can retain earnings and thereby transfer income across tax-years. Secondly, expected income level and income variance are important determinants in choice of occupation. Thirdly, men put more emphasis on expected earnings level, while women appears more risk averse, which contribute to explain why...... fewer women are self-employed. Finally, our results suggest that non-western immigrants are marginalized into self-employment. Occupational choice, self-employment, wage-di¤erentials, income uncertainty, risk aversion, overcon…dence, self-selection, gender di¤erences.  ...

  14. Danwei Profitability and Earnings Inequality in Urban China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has debated the relative importance of such factors as human capital, political capital and region in determining workers’ earnings in reform-era urban China. This article argues that a main agent of social stratification in contemporary China continues to be the danwei, the work unit. Using data from a 1999 survey we conducted in three large Chinese cities, Wuhan, Shanghai and Xi’an, we assess the extent to which workers’ earnings (including regular wages, bonuses and subsidies) depend on the profitability of their danwei. Results show that the financial situation of the danwei is one of the most important determinants of earnings in today’s urban China. Furthermore, the importance of danwei profitability does not vary by city or by employment sector. PMID:20445771

  15. Antimycobacterial Activity and Mechanism of Action of NAS-91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratraud, Paul; Surolia, Namita; Besra, Gurdyal S; Surolia, Avadhesha; Kremer, Laurent

    2008-03-01

    The antimalarial agents NAS-91 and NAS-21 were found to express potent antimycobacterial activity, NAS-91 being more active than NAS-21. They partially inhibited mycolic acid biosynthesis and profoundly altered oleic acid production. The development of a cell-free assay for Delta 9-desaturase activity allowed direct demonstration of the inhibition of oleic acid biosynthesis by these compounds.

  16. Earnings among young and mature Danish university graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    for a longer period of time and to control for more labour market-relevant variables than any previous study of graduation age and earnings. The results show that graduation age has either a slightly positive or an insignificant impact on starting wages within the public sector or a negative impact on starting...... wages among private sector employees. This applies to both genders, but the differences are stronger among male employees. The analyses of long-term wages reveal a more homogeneous pattern. Mature graduates earn less in all the years investigated. The wage differences are greatest among male graduates...... employed in private enterprises, and the gap increases throughout their careers....

  17. Banking system reform, earnings quality and credit allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Zhu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates credit allocation before and after the 2003 banking system reform in China. We find that relationships between earnings quality and new short-term loans, long-term loans and total loans in listed companies changed significantly after the banking system reform, especially in state-owned listed companies. Further investigation shows that due to the influence of rent-seeking, banks have eased the earnings requirements of non-state-owned listed companies. These findings enhance our understanding of the economic consequences of the banking system reform and of credit discrimination under the new regime.

  18. Banking system reform, earnings quality and credit allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuli Zhu; Lianjun Li; Yunkui Xue

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates credit allocation before and after the 2003 banking system reform in China. We find that relationships between earnings quality and new short-term loans, long-term loans and total loans in listed companies changed significantly after the banking system reform, especially in stateowned listed companies. Further investigation shows that due to the influence of rent-seeking, banks have eased the earnings requirements of non-stateowned listed companies. These findings enhance our understanding of the economic consequences of the banking system reform and of credit discrimination under the new regime.

  19. Within- and cross-firm mobility and earnings growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander

    , we show that cross-firm moves at the non-executive level provide sizeable short-run gains (similar to the effect of a promotion), consistent with the existing literature. These gains, however, appear modest when compared with the persistent impact on earnings growth of promotions (either within......While it is well established that both promotions within firms and mobility across firms lead to significant earnings progression, little is known about the interaction between these types of mobility. Exploiting a large Danish panel data set and controlling for unobserved individual heterogeneity...

  20. Dimensions of Well-Being: Earnings, Happiness and Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    CARMO DOS SANTOS, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks at three important aspects of the well-being of individuals. The first chapter looks at earnings and tries to estimate earnings over the life course accounting for selection. It does so by being silent a priori about the relative productivity of those who stay out of work and instead lets the data speak. Data suggest that nonworkers are not always worse than workers, and it also suggests cohort effects are also important when lifecycle profiles do not follow the same people ...

  1. NASSN: a NAS-based storage network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN De-zhi

    2007-01-01

    With the digital information and application requirement on the Internet increasing fleetly nowadays,it is urgent to work out a network storage system with a large capacity, a high availability and scalability. To solve the above-mentioned issues, a NAS-based storage network ( for short NASSN) has been designed. Firstly,the NASSN integrates multi-NAS,iNAS (an iSCSI-based NAS) and enterprise SAN with the help of storage virtualization, which can provide a greater capacity and better scalability. Secondly, the NASSN can provide high availability with the help of server and storage subsystem redundancy technologies. Thirdly, the NASSN simultaneously serves for both the file I/O and the block L/O with the help of an iSCSI module, which has the advantages of NAS and SAN. Finally, the NASSN can provide higher I/O speed by a high network-attached channel which implements the direct data transfer between the storage device and client. In the experiments, the NASSN has ultra-high-throughput for both of the file I/O requests and the block I/O requests.

  2. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-3 - Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assumed under the contract; (2) The proportion of retained earnings (as established under generally... scope. (6) Retained earnings (reserves) shall be identified and a plan for their use and disposition developed. (7) The use of retained earnings as a result of performance of laboratory management and...

  3. Gestão dos corpos nas mídias contemporâneas: os universitários em pauta = Managing bodies in contemporary media: university students under discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Roberto Rafael Dias da

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo examina os modos pelos quais nas mídias contemporâneas faz-se possível visibilizar estratégias de gestão dos corpos dos sujeitos universitários. Toma-se como ponto de partida uma pesquisa que analisou o Caderno Vestibular/ ZH, suplemento publicado semanalmente pelo jornal Zero Hora (RS endereçado aos sujeitos em preparação para o ingresso na universidade. Teoricamente a pesquisa aproxima-se dos estudos do filósofo francês Michel Foucault, sobretudo aqueles centrados no conceito de governamentalidade. Analiticamente apontamos que, sob a grade do neoliberalismo americano, os sujeitos universitários são interpelados a administrar seus corpos, tornando-os produtivos para o sucesso em sua vida pessoal e profissional, fazendo com que o eixo dessa gestão opere mais próximo do controle e da regulação do que da disciplina. Enfim, apontamos que a construção de um universitário de sucesso passa pela gestão de seu corpo, um corpo regulado e controlado para competir livre e individualmente nos fluxos neoliberais do mercado de trabalho

  4. ANALISIS VARIABEL YANG MEMPENGARUHI EARNINGS PER SHARE PADA INDUSTRI FOOD AND BAVERAGES YANG GO PUBLIC DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTEJO - -

    2012-05-01

    the significantly influencing independent variables net sales (X2 and current ratio (X3 showed negative influence on earnings per share. Negative correlation was found between net sales (X2 and earnings per share and was due to the increase of operating expenses and the number of outstanding stock each year. The increasing number of outstanding stock and net sales (X2 which was not sustained by the efficiency of operating expenses, will decrease the earnings per share. On the other hand, the negative correlation between the current ratio (X3 and earnings per share was due to the increase of current asset components, namely, cash, account receivables, and inventory. This indicates over investment in current assets, which in turn, deteriorates the operating efficiency of the firms. Based on this research findings the firm management needs to focus more on factors proven to influence the earnings per share in making their strive to improve the corporate performance as indicated by their earnings per share. Keyword: earning per share.

  5. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai Wong

    2016-11-01

    Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  6. Reconsidering the Use of Nonlinearites in Intergenerational Earnings Mobility as a Test for Credit Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Nathan D.

    2004-01-01

    The intergenerational earnings regression in Canada suggest that credit limits educational choice. Nonlinearities in earnings regressions cannot be used as evidence of binding credit constraints, and concave regressions do not follow from credit constraints.

  7. Post-Service Earnings of Veterans: Evidence from the Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Security Administration Records," American Economic Review (June): 80: 313-336. (1989). "Why Do World War II Veterans Earn More Than Nonveterans...Relations Research Association, pp. 422-431. DeTray, Dennis (1982). "Veteran Status as a Screening Device," American Economic Review (March) 72: 133-142

  8. Mental Illness and Labour Market Outcomes: Employment and Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of severe mental illness on the capacity to hold a job and to earn an income. We find that the employment rate is reduced with about 1/3 during the development of the disease. Hospital admission seems to stabilize employment for all diagnoses. The employment rate...

  9. Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings in the Microenterprise Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Susana M.; Pagan, Jose A.

    Chapter 5 in "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," presents a study analyzed male-female differences in earnings in rural and urban microenterprises in Mexico. Data were gathered from surveys of 1,944 households in 54 rural communities and 11,461 microenterprise owners in 34 urban areas. Findings indicate that female-headed…

  10. The Motherhood Earnings Dip: Evidence from Administrative Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Kranz, Daniel; Lacuesta, Aitor; Rodriguez-Planas, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Using Spanish Social Security records, we document the channels through which mothers fall onto a lower earnings track, such as shifting into part- time work, accumulating lower experience, or transitioning to lower-paying jobs, and are able to explain 71 percent of the unconditional individual fixed- effects motherhood wage gap. The earnings…

  11. Job Mobility and Earnings over the Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George J.

    1981-01-01

    The prospect of a job change for any reason creates a disincentive for a worker to invest in training that is specific to the current job, and therefore those who change jobs frequently may earn less over their life cycle than those who, other things equal, seldom change jobs. (Author/CT)

  12. Reconciling Estimates of Earnings Processes in Growth Rates and Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Moira; Hryshko, Dmytro; Manovskii, Iourii

    The stochastic process for earnings is the key element of incomplete markets models in modern quantitative macroeconomics. It determines both the equilibrium distributions of endogenous outcomes and the design of optimal policies. Yet, there is no consensus in the literature on the relative...

  13. Rural Earnings Holding Steady in the Early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate an overall decline in the rural-urban pay gap during the early 1990s (due to declining urban wages, not rising rural wages). In 1993, the earnings of 30 percent of rural full-time workers were below the poverty level. Compares low-income workers by gender, age group, education, and race/ethnicity. (LP)

  14. A Price Earnings Index for the Danish Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Price-earnings ratios are part of the toolkit that is used for assessing the valuation ofindividual firms on the stock market as well as the entire market itself. This paperpresents consistent P/E series for the liquid Danish shares adjusted for share buybacks.The results show that over the period...

  15. Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings in the Microenterprise Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Susana M.; Pagan, Jose A.

    Chapter 5 in "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," presents a study analyzed male-female differences in earnings in rural and urban microenterprises in Mexico. Data were gathered from surveys of 1,944 households in 54 rural communities and 11,461 microenterprise owners in 34 urban areas. Findings indicate that female-headed microenterprises in…

  16. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stock is not wholly owned by members of the consolidated group immediately after the former common... section apply rather than those of § 1.1502-32(b)(3)(iv)(D). (2) Affiliated earnings and profits. The... stock, the stock is owned for the entire year, S owns no stock of lower-tier members, the tax year...

  17. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  18. Rural Earnings Holding Steady in the Early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate an overall decline in the rural-urban pay gap during the early 1990s (due to declining urban wages, not rising rural wages). In 1993, the earnings of 30 percent of rural full-time workers were below the poverty level. Compares low-income workers by gender, age group, education, and race/ethnicity. (LP)

  19. Educators' Degrees Earned on Internet Raise Fraud Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how the degrees earned by a dozen educators on the Internet have raised fraud issues. Small firms known as "credential evaluators" help states and school districts detect educators who present phony or flimsy academic credentials from overseas institutions--a safeguard that is becoming more important with the growth of…

  20. Language Fluency and Earnings : Estimation with Misclassified Language Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dustmann, C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1998-01-01

    We use panel data from the German Socio Economic Panel to estimate the determinants of language fluency of immigrants, and its impact on earnings. Self reported measures of language proficiency contain substantial reporting errors. We specify a panel data model which takes explicitly account of misc

  1. Earnings and income inequality in the EU during the crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, P.

    2012-01-01

    The author examines the impact of the economic crisis on employment, earnings, inequality and poverty in the EU, focusing on Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, Spain and the United Kingdom during the period 2008-10. After reviewing the literature, he analyses recent trends, finding that during this stage o

  2. Gender gap in earnings at the industry level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, J; Sanders, K

    In this article the authors seek an answer to the question: does the percentage of women working in an industry have an effect on earnings distinct from the effect of sex at the individual level? On the basis of the 'comparable worth' approach, the authors hypothesized that, controlling for

  3. 12 CFR 615.5215 - Distribution of earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5215 Distribution of earnings. The boards of directors of System institutions may not reduce the permanent capital of the institution... capital of the institution would fail to meet the minimum permanent capital adequacy standard...

  4. Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings in the Microenterprise Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Susana M.; Pagan, Jose A.

    Chapter 5 in "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," presents a study analyzed male-female differences in earnings in rural and urban microenterprises in Mexico. Data were gathered from surveys of 1,944 households in 54 rural communities and 11,461 microenterprise owners in 34 urban areas. Findings indicate that female-headed…

  5. Audit firm rotation, audit firm tenure and earnings conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.T.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Vasileiou, K.Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate around the possibility of mandating audit firm rotation. Specifically, it examines conservatism as an attribute of earnings quality, which has not attracted particular attention in the auditor rotation research. Applying regression analyses on a sample,

  6. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  7. Estimating the effect of personality on male-female earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, G.; Plug, E.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The authors adopt the Five-Factor Model of personality structure to explore how personality affected the earnings of a large group of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and were re-interviewed in 1992. All five basic traits--extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness

  8. Estimating the Effect of Personality on Male-Female Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mueller; E.J.S. Plug (Erik)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper uses the Five-Factor Model of personality structure as an organizing framework to explore the effects of personality on earnings. Using data from a longitudinal survey of American high school graduates, we find that extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism a

  9. The College Payoff: Education, Occupations, Lifetime Earnings. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Cheah, Ban

    2011-01-01

    Education and earnings interact in complex and often unexpected ways--but there are rules to the game. "The College Payoff," a new paper from the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, uses in-depth data analysis to identify, illuminate and elucidate those rules. This executive summary provides a glimpse of the education and…

  10. PENGARUH PENGUNGKAPAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TERHADAP EARNING RESPONSE COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Mitha Dwi Restuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh negatif pengungkapan Corporate Sosial Responsibility (CSR disclosure terhadap Earning Response Coefficient (ERC. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis regresi berganda.Sampel yang digunakan adalah sebanyak 150 perusahaan yang terdaftar pada Bursa Efek Indonesia pada tahun 2010. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility tidak berpengaruh terhadap Earning Response Coefficient (ERC. Hal ini dapat dikatakan bahwa investor belum memperhatikan informasi-informasi sosial yang diungkapkan dalam laporan tahunan perusahaan sebagai informasi yang dapat mempengaruhi investor dalam melakukan keputusan investasi. Investor masih mengganggap informasi laba lebih bermanfaat dalam menilai perusahaan dan dianggap lebih mampu memberikan informasi untuk mendapatkan return saham yang diharapkan oleh investor dibandingkan dengan informasi sosial yang diungkapkan oleh perusahaan.The purpose of this study is to determine the negative effect of Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure (CSR disclosure of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The samples were 150 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010. Based on the research, the result was the disclosures of Corporate Social Responsibility did not influence Earning Response Coefficient (ECR. It can be said that investors did not pay attention to social information that was disclosed in the company’s annual report as information that could affect investors in making investment decisions. Investor did not consider sosial information; they only consider profit information to assess the company value and their investment return

  11. Gender gap in earnings at the industry level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, J; Sanders, K

    2002-01-01

    In this article the authors seek an answer to the question: does the percentage of women working in an industry have an effect on earnings distinct from the effect of sex at the individual level? On the basis of the 'comparable worth' approach, the authors hypothesized that, controlling for educatio

  12. The NAS Alert System: a look at the first eight years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam L.; Neilson, Matt; Huge, Dane H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database program (http://nas.er.usgs.gov) tracks the distribution of introduced aquatic organisms across the United States. Awareness of, and timely response to, novel species introductions by those involved in nonindigenous aquatic species management and research requires a framework for rapid dissemination of occurrence data as it is incorporated into the NAS database. In May 2004, the NAS program developed an alert system to notify registered users of new introductions as part of a national early detection/rapid response system. This article summarizes information on system users and dispatched alerts from the system's inception through the end of 2011. The NAS alert system has registered over 1,700 users, with approximately 800 current subscribers. A total of 1,189 alerts had been transmitted through 2011. More alerts were sent for Florida (134 alerts) than for any other state. Fishes comprise the largest taxonomic group of alerts (440), with mollusks, plants, and crustaceans each containing over 100 alerts. Most alerts were for organisms that were intentionally released (414 alerts), with shipping, escape from captivity, and hitchhiking also representing major vectors. To explore the archive of sent alerts and to register, the search and signup page for the alert system can be found online at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/AlertSystem/default.aspx.

  13. Understanding Complexity and Self-Organization in a Defense Program Management Organization (Experimental Design)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-18

    start of the program. Earned value management data will be used to determine program schedule variance. Program Performance Program performance will...and schedule of the program. Table 4 provides a definition of key earned value terms. Table 4. Earned Value Management Key Terms Subsequent...Sasieni, M. W. (1968). The engineering and management of an effective system. Management Science, 14(12), B-721–B-730. Fredrickson, J. W

  14. Mental health, absenteeism and earnings at a large manufacturing worksite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T.; Zarkin, Gary A.

    1998-12-01

    BACKGROUND: A few recent studies have examined the relationship between mental illness and labor market variables. The findings are inconsistent, however, and leave unanswered many questions concerning both the nature and magnitude of the relationship. AIMS OF THE STUDY: A recently available worksite-based data set is analyzed to explore the relationship between symptoms of emotional and psychological problems and employee absenteeism and earnings among employees at a large US worksite. METHODS: The analysis was based on data collected through a random and anonymous survey of workers at a large US manufacturing worksite. Two measures of absenteeism are combined - days absent during the past 30 days due to sickness or injury and days absent during the past 30 days because the employee did not want to be at work - to create both a dichotomous (i.e., ever absent) and a continuous (i.e., number of days absent) absenteeism variable. Annual earnings were measured as personal earnings from the primary job. Various statistical models were tested to determine the independent and joint (with alcohol and illicit drug use) relationship between symptoms of emotional problems and labor market variables. RESULTS: The analysis consistently finds that workers who report symptoms of emotional/psychological problems have higher absenteeism and lower earnings than otherwise similar coworkers. This finding is robust to model specification and to the inclusion of comorbid conditions such as alcohol and illicit drug use. DISCUSSION: This study contributes new information to the literature in this area by estimating the effects of emotional/psychological symptoms on two important labor market variables: absenteeism and earnings. Several specifications of the absenteeism and earnings equations were estimated to test the independent effect of emotional symptoms and the joint effects of emotional symptoms and other comorbid conditions. The results suggest that employers should consider the

  15. Earnings risk and demand for higher education: a cross-section test for Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Diaz-Serrano, L.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a simple human capital model for optimum schooling length when earnings are stochastic, and highlight the pivotal role of risk attitudes and the schooling gradient of earnings risk. We use Spanish data to document the gradient and to estimate individual response to earnings risk in

  16. A Study on the Relationship of Earnings and Cash Flows: Evidence of Finance Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is investigating the quality of annual accounting earnings in banking firms that have been listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE and it evaluates the most important information of accounting that is earnings and cash flows. The study also intends to investigate the relationship between earnings and cash flows regarding their relationship with the expected return of stocks and the extent of informing in the analysis of the inevitable return of stocks. The analyses of data during 6 years revealed that the earnings in comparison to the cash flows are very important as they have positive effects on the stock. Moreover, in the case of the relations of earnings and earnings changes with the expected return of stocks and the relation of cash flows and cash flow changes with the expected return of stock, it was found that there is only a meaningful relationship between earning changes and the expected return of stock in banking groups. However, there is no meaningful relationship between earning and cash flows with the expected return of stock. The result was that the informational content test didn’t support the value relation of earning and cash flows. Furthermore, the classifying of information through banking group indicated that the changes of earning was in the first rank and next were earning, the changes of cash flow and cash flows.Keywords: Earnings; Cash flows; expected return; Value relevance; Banking risks

  17. Autonomy, Dependence, or Display? The Relationship between Married Women's Earnings and Housework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjiv

    2007-01-01

    I argue that both the dominant models of the relationship between earnings and housework, economic dependence and gender display, have fundamental defects. They focus on the effect of women's earnings compared to their husbands' on their housework and ignore the possibility of an independent relationship between women's own earnings and their time…

  18. 28 CFR 523.32 - How much DCEGT can I earn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much DCEGT can I earn? 523.32 Section 523.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION... How much DCEGT can I earn? (a) You can earn 5 days DCEGT for each month you were enrolled in a...

  19. 20 CFR 404.210 - Average-indexed-monthly-earnings method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Indexed-Monthly-Earnings Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.210 Average-indexed-monthly-earnings method. (a) Who is...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1574a - When and how we will average your earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When and how we will average your earnings... Activity § 404.1574a When and how we will average your earnings. (a) If your work as an employee or as a... has been no change in the substantial gainful activity earnings levels, we will average your...