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Sample records for earnings management nas

  1. Mendeteksi Earning Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahim Abdurahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas perkembangan model-model yang dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi adanya earnings management berdasarkan akrual (accrual-based models. Masing-masing model memiliki asumsi dan metoda yang berbeda dalam mendeteksi adanya earnings management. Masing-masing model memiliki kelemahan-kelemahan yang melekat disamping kelebihan-kelebihan yang dimilikinya. Dari keempat model yang dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi earnings management yaitu, Healy Model, DeAngelo Model, Jones model, Modified Jones model dan Industry model, diuji oleh Dechow et al. (1995, dalam hal tingkat keakuratannya dalam mendeteksi adanya earnings management. Masing-masing model diuji tingkat kemungkinannya memiliki kesalahan dalam mengukur adanya earnings management dengan tipe kesalahan I dan tipe kesalahan II. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa sangat penting bagi para pengguna laporan keuangan untuk menginvestigasi faktor-faktor yang mendorong timbulnya earnings management yang berkaitan dengan kinerja keuangan perusahaan. Hasil lain diperoleh pula bahwa modified Jones Model (1991 memiliki kemampuan yang baik untuk mendeteksi adanya earnings management

  2. Earned Value Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EVMS is a system for measuring project performance and progress in an objective manner by supporting earned value management. EVMS has the ability to combine...

  3. Earned value project management

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Quentin W

    2010-01-01

    Organizations that follow the principles of good Earned Value Management (EVM) create an environment that allows teams to successfully operate and thrive ? even in the face of challenges that could negatively impact their projects. Earned Value Project Management (EVPM) is a methodology used to measure and communicate the real physical progress of a project taking into account the work completed, the time taken and the costs incurred to complete that work. As a result, EVPM allows more educated and effective management decision-making, which helps evaluate and control project risk by measuring project progress in monetary terms. In the first two editions of Earned Value Project Management, Quentin W. Fleming and Joel M. Koppelman provided guidance for project management practitioners already familiar with EVPM, was well as those who were new to the use of this technique. The third edition expanded the information available on of EVPM for medium and smaller projects while still being relevant for larger projec...

  4. Earned Value Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, J

    2002-01-01

    Earned Value Management is a methodology used to measure and communicate the real physical progress of a project and show its true cost situation. This tool was developed by the US Department of Defense in 1967 and later used successfully for monitoring DOE projects, in particular the US LHC accelerator project. A clear distinction must be made between an earned value management system and other tools under consideration or already existing at CERN which permit accurate predictions of the amount and date of future payments or a detailed follow up of contracts.

  5. Industry Valuation Driven Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jiao (Tao); G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates whether industry valuation impacts firms’ earnings management decisions. Existing accounting literature assumes that industry valuation has a constant impact on this decision. We argue that a higher industry valuation increases the perceived benefits of earnings

  6. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on earnings management by investigating the frequency distribution of the reported earnings (changes) by use of the approach documented by Burgstahler & Dichev (1997). In this study, it is investigated whether Danish firms use earnings management to avoid earnings decreases (an...... losses); and second: firm managers control "manageable" accounting accruals in anticipation of managing earnings....... losses) by examining the earnings (changes) frequency distribution. This approach captures neither the magnitude nor how earnings are managed. Consequently, the relation between main "manageable" elements of working capital, current assets (among these the key components inventory and accounts receivable......) and current liabilities, and reported earnings (changes) are examined. To address the problem further the modified Jones (1991) model is used to identify and separate discretionary accruals in order to identify pre-managed earnings (changes). The frequency distribution of these calculated premanaged earnings...

  7. Engaging in Earnings Management to Avoid Negative Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Subekti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the earnings management behavior of companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (ISE. Specifically, the study investigates whether companies engaging in real earnings management or accrual management intent to avoid negative earnings; it also examines whether earnings management behavior supports efficient contracting or opportunistic behavior perspective. The sample of this study comprised 166 firm-years of manufacturing industrial sector during the period 2004 – 2005. Using multiple regressions, the study finds evidence that the companies engage in both earnings management, which are discretionary expenses (proxy of real earnings management and accruals management. This evidence supports the studies of Graham, Harvey, & Rajgopal (2005 and Roychowdhury (2006. Another result shows that the real earnings management conducted by the companies is efficient partially, while the accruals management is opportunistic.

  8. Management Information & Control for Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Provides the ability to track and manage earnings inquiries from the general public by automated selection of cases for quality review. It also provides Management...

  9. Market Response toward Accrual Earnings Management, Real Transactions, and Strategic Revenue Recognition - Earnings Management1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy Puspita Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the capital market response to a variety of earnings management tools i.e., accrual-based earnings management, real transaction activities, and strategic revenue recognition. We measure the market response to the information content of earnings by the earnings response coefficient (ERC. By using pooled-OLS regression from 748 firm-years data of public listed companies on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX in 2004-2009, we find some evidence of a negative association between earnings response coefficients and information content of earnings that contained earnings management. Our study find that real transactions earnings management in operating activities has negative association with earnings response coefficient, but we do not find any evidence from the other earnings management tools. The findings of this study imply that the market participants are able to capture a certain kind of earnings management behaviour that may reduce the earnings response coefficient.

  10. Earnings Management, Value Relevance Of Earnings and Book Value of Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Imam

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies examining relationship between earnings management and value relevance of accounting information show that earnings management decrease value relevance of accounting information. Generally, the studies apply accruals earnings management. In contrast, the present study applies integrated earnings management proxies i.e. real and accruals earnings manage-ment. Real earnings management proxies are measured by abnormal cash flow of operation, ab-normal production cost, and abnorm...

  11. investors behavior, earnings management and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afraa Khzouri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between earnings management, governance and investors behavior, since this latter can inform about the nature of earnings management and can be considered as a governance mechanism to reduce accounts manipulations. On the basis of a sample of 700 American firms for the period of 1996-2006, our empirical results show that investors who take short positions, are able to interpret the information detected from the earnings management. The activity of these investors may be considered as an indicator of the quality of the governance structure and the presence and nature of earnings management. The under-reaction of investors to information leads to short-term sale of the shares of poorly governed firms and characterized by an opportunistic earnings management and to invest in firms well-governed and characterized by an informational earnings management therefore an abnormal profit can be realized.

  12. Earnings Management: Obvious Phenomenon in Albanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Llukani

    2013-07-01

    This paper is focused on reviewing the existing literature with regard to the Earnings Management in response to the growing pressure of investors, policy makers, and companies’ governance reform mechanisms to curb opportunistic behavior of the managers of these companies. It also examines the existence of this phenomenon in Albanian context as well as tests the importance of Modified Jones Model as an efficient tool for detection of abnormal accruals, used as a proxy for earnings management. The results show that firms in the Albanian market are engaged in earnings management initiatives.

  13. Earnings management, corporate governance and expense sticki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost and expense stickiness is an important issue in accounting and economics research, and the literature has shown that cost stickiness cannot be separated from managers’ motivations. In this paper, we examine the effects that earnings management has on expense stickiness. Defining small positive profits or small earnings increases as earnings management, we observe significant expense stickiness in the non-earnings-management sub-sample, compared with the earnings-management sub-sample. When we divide expenses into R&D, advertising and other general expenses, we find that managers control expenses mainly by decreasing general expenses. We further examine corporate governance’s effect on expense stickiness. Using factor analysis, we extract eight main factors and find that good corporate governance reduces expense stickiness. Finally, we investigate the interaction effects of earnings management and corporate governance on expense stickiness. The empirical results show that good corporate governance can further reduce cost stickiness, although its effect is not as strong as that of earnings management.

  14. Do managers manipulate earnings prior to management buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Yaping; Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    To address the question as to whether managers intending to purchase their company by means of a levered buyout transaction manipulate earnings in order to buy their firm on the cheap, we study the different types of earnings management prior to the transaction: accrual management, real earnings

  15. How do nonprofit hospitals manage earnings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Andrew J; Van Horn, R Lawrence

    2005-07-01

    We hypothesize that, unlike for-profit firms, nonprofit hospitals have incentives to manage earnings to a range just above zero. We consider two ways managers can achieve this. They can adjust discretionary spending [Hoerger, T.J., 1991. 'Profit' variability in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Journal of Health Economics 10, 259-289.] and/or they can adjust accounting accruals using the flexibility inherent in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). To test our hypothesis we use regressions as well as tests of the distribution of earnings by Burgstahler and Dichev [Burgstahler, D., Dichev, I., 1997. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses. Journal of Accounting and Economics 24, 99-126.] on a sample of 1,204 hospitals and 8,179 hospital-year observations. Our tests support the use of discretionary spending and accounting accrual management. Like Hoerger (1991), we find evidence that nonprofit hospitals adjust discretionary spending to manage earnings. However, we also find significant use of discretionary accruals (e.g., adjustments to the third-party-allowance, and allowance for doubtful accounts) to meet earnings objectives. These findings have two important implications. First, the previous evidence by Hoerger that nonprofit hospitals show less variation in income may at least partly be explained by an accounting phenomenon. Second, our findings provide guidance to users of these financial statements in predicting the direction of likely bias in reported earnings.

  16. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Each year the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) sends SSA a file to be verified and matched against the Master Earnings File (MEF) and Employer Information File...

  17. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN U.S. HOSPITALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gang Nathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the hospital management practices of manipulating financial earnings within the bounds of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). We conduct regression analyses that relate earnings management to hospital characteristics to assess the economic determinants of hospital earnings management behavior. From the CMS Cost Reports we collected hospital financial data of all U.S. hospitals that request reimbursement from the federal government for treating Medicare patients, and regress discretionary accruals on hospital size, profitability, asset liquidity, operating efficiency, labor cost, and ownership. Hospitals with higher profit margin, current ratio, working capital, days of patient receivables outstanding and total wage are associated with more earnings management, whereas those with larger size and higher debt level, asset turnover, days cash on hand, fixed asset age are associated with lower level of earnings manipulation. Additionally, managers of non-profit hospitals are more likely to undertake some form of window-dressing by manipulating accounting accruals without changing business models or pricing strategies than their public hospital counterparts. We provide direct evidence of the use of discretionary accruals to manage financial earnings among U.S. hospitals and the finding has profound policy implications in terms of assessing the pervasiveness of accounting manipulation and the overall integrity of financial reporting in this very special public and quasi-public service sector.

  18. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  19. THE ACCURACY OF EARNINGS FORECAST AND POST-IPO EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanthi Hutagaol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies showed that before IPO, many companies conducted earnings management in order to attractpotential investors through impressive earnings figures. This study aimed to investigate the tendency of earningsmanagement practice post - IPO. This practice of earnings management was motivated to preserve managers’reputation in achieving their earnings forecasts. Using a total of 165 IPOs in IDX during year 2000-2010, thisstudy employed descriptive analyses to identify the earnings management differences within the sample. A crosssectionanalysis was conducted to test the difference of earnings management indicator among the forecasters.Then, controlling for audit quality, ownership, firm size, and firm leverage, a regression analysis was performedto test the impact of earnings forecasts accuracy on the earnings management. The result of this research showedthat there was an indication that the forecasters conducted more earnings management than the non-forecasters.The study found that forecast accuracy was significantly related to managers’ behavior to manage post-IPOearnings. Further analysis showed that optimistic forecasters tended to engage more in more earning managementthan conservative forecasters. The cross section analysis confirmed that optimistic earnings forecast strengthenedthe relationship of forecast accuracy and post-IPO earnings management, while high audit quality failed toweaken it.

  20. Earnings Management and Valuation of Biological Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Menezes da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fair value to measure the worth of biological assets allows discretionary choices when using discounted cash flow in the absence of an active market, influencing the quality of accounting information. The objective of this study was to investigate evidence of earnings management among Brazilian companies that have adopted fair value based on the discounted cash flow method. The firms were investigated with regard to: a disclosure of the discount rate, b BM&FBovespa corporate governance levels; and c adherence to disclosure requirements in the Brazilian accounting standard CPC 29 (IAS 41. We analyzed 31 firms with significant biological assets from 2010 to 2012. The earnings management measurements were calculated according to the modified Jones, the Teoh, Welch and Wong (1998, and the KS models. The Mann-Whitney test of the means was applied and revealed evidence of greater earnings management for companies that use discounted cash flow, and the ones that least meet CPC 29 disclosure requirements, considering the KS model estimates. Regarding the other proposals, testing did not offer enough evidence of differences in discretionary accruals. In this sense, only hypotheses 1 and 4 are partially accepted, demanding more research in this area. We also present evidence in favor of adopting Exposure Draft ED/2013/08 Agriculture: Bearer Plants, Proposed amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 41, which proposes to measure biological assets at cost, because firms already following these rules showed lower earnings management in this study.

  1. Voluntary Management Earnings Forecasts and Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramlich, Jeffrey; Sørensen, Ole Vagn

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether Danish managers exercise discretionary accruals to reach earnings forecast targets they voluntarily specify in conjunction with initial public offerings (IPOs). Because the Danish accounting and legal environment is more permissive than the US, we use Denmark...

  2. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Hui Hsu; Youan (Robert) Lin

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010). In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms ...

  3. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (APR 2008) (a) In the performance of this...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.234-2 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Earned Value Management... and Clauses 1852.234-2 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 1834.203-70(b) insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (NOV 2006) (a) In the performance of this contract, the...

  5. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hui Hsu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010. In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms with more Level 3 assets and liabilities (i.e., less value relevant fair value measurement are more likely to recognize positive unrealized gains to meet or beat analyst forecast target. In addition, we find that only firms with weak corporate governance disclose more Level 3 fair value liabilities and recognize unrealized gains into reported earnings to meet or beat analyst forecast target. This evidence suggests that managers manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurement in order to manage reported earnings via the adoption of fair value option.

  6. Earnings Management and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Uyagu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study lies at the heart of the issue of reliability of financial statements. Reliability is the accountant’s terminology for integrity of financial statements. This study focused on the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on earnings management in the Nigerian manufacturing sectors. The study is motivated by the paucity of research on subject matter in manufacturing sub-sector in Nigeria. The study employed the ordinary least square multivariate regression technique. A sample of fifty- two manufacturing firms was used. The result shows that there is a positive relationship between CSR and earnings management. This study recommended that statutory bodies should put a ceiling on the amount to be expended on CSR which must be exceeded by any firm.

  7. Earnings Management and Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Uyagu; Alexander Olawumi Dabor

    2017-01-01

    This study lies at the heart of the issue of reliability of financial statements. Reliability is the accountant’s terminology for integrity of financial statements. This study focused on the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on earnings management in the Nigerian manufacturing sectors. The study is motivated by the paucity of research on subject matter in manufacturing sub-sector in Nigeria. The study employed the ordinary least square multivariate regression technique. A sample of fi...

  8. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  9. Earned Value Management (EVM) Implementation Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Stefanie M.; Richards, Brad W.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Earned Value Management (EVM) guidance for the effective application, implementation, and utilization of EVM on NASA programs, projects, major contracts and subcontracts in a consolidated reference document. EVM is a project management process that effectively integrates a project?s scope of work with schedule and cost elements for optimum project planning and control. The goal is to achieve timely and accurate quantification of progress that will facilitate management by exception and enable early visibility into the nature and the magnitude of technical problems as well as the intended course and success of corrective actions.

  10. Credibility of management earnings forecasts and future returns

    OpenAIRE

    Norio Kitagawa; Akinobu Shuto

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of managerial discretion over their initial earnings forecasts on future performance. First, by estimating the discretionary portion of initial management earnings forecasts (defined as discretionary forecasts) based on the findings of fundamental analysis research, we find that firms with higher discretionary forecasts are more likely to miss their earnings forecast at the end of the fiscal year and revise their forecasts downward to meet their earnings for...

  11. Earnings management environment : with the case of Troms Kraft

    OpenAIRE

    Nødset, Ingrid Foss

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I examine the topic of earnings management and use a case example. In the first part of the paper I review theory on two closely related topics - earnings management and fraud - and present and discuss incentives, methods, typical indications and frequency of earnings management in the financial statements. I continue to describe the frameworks and laws that apply to revenue recognition and how income is recognized in the power industry, as this is especially relevant for the ca...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF AUDIT COMMITTEE CHARACTERISTICS ON REAL EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyaningsih Supriyaningsih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Current study tests the impact of audit committees to the real earnings management.Using the manufacturing public listed companies from Indoensia Stock Exchange from 2012 until 2014, we found that that financial and accounting expertise of audit committee members and audit committee size have positive effect on real earnings management. Furthermore, we also found that the dual positions of the audit committee chairman have a negative effect on earnings management. The Tenure of audit committee chairman however, has no impact on real earnings management.

  13. Accrual-based and real earnings management and political connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Nandy, M.; Weitzel, G.U.; Lodh, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether the trade-off between real and accrual-based management strategies differs between firms with and without political connections. We argue that politically connected firms are more likely to substitute real earnings management for accrual-based earnings management than

  14. Do Managers Manipulate Earnings Prior to Management Buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Y.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: To address the question as to whether managers manipulate accounting numbers downwards prior to management buyouts (MBOs), we implement an industry-adjusted buyout-specific approach and receive an affirmative answer. In UK buyout companies, negative earnings manipulation (understating the

  15. WHY DO COMPANIES FROM EMERGING COUNTRIES MANAGE EARNINGS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Callao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence in terms of the incentives which lead managers from emerging European countries to manage earnings. In particular, we focused on four Eastern European countries: the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia, as the majority of studies on earnings management in developing countries were based on the Asian emerging market. The market of developing European countries is still barely explored. After we confirmed that managers from emerging European companies manage earnings, we find that within the different incentives which lead managers to earnings management, the avoidance of debt covenants violations is a strong incentive for managers. Additionally, those firms considered as poor investments (with less value have incentives to manage earnings down as a consequence to opt for market niche. Moreover, emerging Eastern European companies have incentives to flatten earnings of current periods in order to benefit in the future as the source of future nonmanipulated earnings will be insufficient, as they may expect reduced, or at least lower future performance of their companies affected by increasing global competition. Finally, we confirm that privately-owned companies tend to maximize accounting earnings more than state-owned companies because they are in a weaker position related to a specific political and historical factors.

  16. Corporate Governance Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan. Using a panel data set of all industrial and service firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE during the period 2009-2013; this paper provides evidence that earnings management is affected negatively by corporate governance quality. In particular; the results show that earnings management is affected negatively by overall categories of governance index represented by board of director, board meeting, Audit and nomination and compensation committee. Furthermore, results suggest that corporate governance quality has increased over time. Thus, its ability to constrain earnings management has also increased. It is recommended to industrial and service companies to boost their compliance with corporate governance code to improve the integrity and reliability of financial reports. This paper fills a gap in the literature by providing evidence about the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan as an emerging economy.

  17. The Earnings Management Motivation: Accrual Accounting vs. Cash Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Goel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Accrual basis of accounting has always found favour amongst corporate practitioners of earnings management. There have been extensive studies on earnings management, focusing on earnings hazards. This paper contributes to the literature by showing market inclination to accrual basis of accounting as motivated by a desire for earnings management. It analyzes the sample units’ performance in regard to accrual-indicators vs. cash-indicators and their pervasiveness on stock pricing in India. In India, the corporate ownership model is the Promoter Dominated Shareholders Model (PDSHM which makes this study unique in highlighting earnings management motivation. The units show a market preference for accrual numbers and motivation for earnings management as clear in their stock pricing behavior. I hope the study improves investors’ perception of the reliability of a firm’s performance, as measured by earnings. It is of use to the users of financial accounting and corporate finance globally for rationalizing the motivation behind earnings manipulation by the management.

  18. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: DETERMINANT FACTORS AND STOCK PRICE IN DEVELOPING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Fanani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prove whether manager coped its earnings for the purpose ofinformative or target opportunistic. Research also investigated whether investment opportunity setinfl uenced the choice of manager to report as opportunistic to hide performance, or to report earningmore informative concerning with debt, political cost, market share, and earning. Sample of thisresearch was chosen by using purposive sampling of 350 manufacturing business listed in the JakartaStock Exchange, started from 1997 up to 2002. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM by using programof Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS was considered as the appropriate statistical technique toexamine pattern relation of formed model. The results showed that earning management conductedby manager in Developing Market such as Indonesia represented informative earning managementwhich meant all investors had more own belief in earning reporting, but this research could notprove that company owning high investment opportunity set tended to conduct informative earningmanagement.

  19. Information asymmetry, mutual funds and earnings management: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhao Dai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how information asymmetry and mutual fund ownership affect listed companies’ earnings management. We show that (1 reducing information asymmetry improves firms’ earnings management behavior; (2 relative to short-term mutual funds, long-term mutual funds promote earnings quality by adopting a monitoring role; and (3 by dividing firms into high/low information asymmetry groups, we find that the information environment significantly increases the effect of long-term mutual funds on firms’ earnings management. In this paper, we provide new evidence for the role that institutional investors play in a typical emerging capital market. Our results have clear policy implications: to increase earnings quality, it is essential to improve information transparency and develop long-term institutional investors.

  20. Ownership Structure and Earnings Management in periods of Executive Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Rasmus S.

    This paper reports evidence of earnings management associated with non-routine executive changes in a Danish context. It is hypothesised that incoming executives in non-owner-controlled companies decrease earnings by means of discretionary accruals in the financial statements relating to the period...

  1. A comparison of ethical perceptions of earnings-management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Jooste

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, Bruns and Merchant (1990 surveyed earnings-management practices and asked the readership of the Harvard Business Review to rate the acceptability of those practices. Prior to the Bruns and Merchant (1990 study, the morality of short-term earnings-management was of little concern to researchers and accounting practitioners. However, in the light of increased financial frauds and failures, new and increased emphasis has been placed on the importance of the concepts of earnings quality and earnings-management practices. Despite increased research focusing on business ethics since 1990, there is little evidence that the profession is educating accountants about earnings-management practices. This study compares the results of studies on earnings-management practices. Students and business managers were surveyed at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU and these results were compared to studies prior to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 in the USA. The aim of the study is to determine if there have been changes in attitudes towards earnings-management practices since the acceptance of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

  2. Earnings Management Surrounding CEO Turnover: Evidence from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    JONG-SEO CHOI; YOUNG-MIN KWAK; CHONGWOO CHOE

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the empirical relation between CEO turnover and earnings management in Korea using a sample of 317 CEO turnovers and 634 non-turnover control firms during the period of 2001-2008. We classify CEO turnovers into four types depending on whether the departure of outgoing CEO is peaceful or forced and the incoming CEO is promoted from within or recruited from outside the firm. We measure earnings management by both discretionary accruals and real activities management. We al...

  3. The effect of leverage increases on real earnings management

    OpenAIRE

    Zagers-Mamedova, Irina

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMain subject of this paper is to understand whether there could be an incentive for managers to manipulate cash flow from operating activities (CFO) through the use of real earnings management (REM), in situations with increasing leverage. Based upon a study of Jelinek (2007) who researched the correlation between increasing levels of leverage and accrual earnings management, I developed my main hypothesis with respect to the effect of leverage increases on REM to influence CFO. R...

  4. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT, AUDIT QUALITY AND LEGAL ENVIRONMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Unsal Memis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between earnings management-audit quality and earnings management-legal system quality by using 1507 firms’ observations from listed companies in private firms across different 8 emerging countries. Consistent with previous research, differentiation between Big 4 and non-Big 4 audit firms are used as a audit quality proxy and discretionary accruals are used to measure the earnings management. According to the results, only for Brazilian and Mexican companies, there is significant relationship between the discretionary accruals and audit quality. For the other countries there is not significant relationship. Furthermore efficiency of the legal system helps decrease earnings management incentives. Along with results, the big four auditors do not constrain the earnings management incentives in every emerging country but effective legal system does. In this analysis we used other earnings management related variables like the size of the firms, leverage, lagged ROA of the firms which have loss in the previous year and Tobin Q as control variables.

  5. BOARD OF DIRECTORS STRUCTURE AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: BIST MANUFACTURING CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin TEMİZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate association between firms’ board structure (independent members, audit comittee, female membership and board of directors size and earnings management. For the purpose of investigating associations four different earnings management models were used. In addition, four hypotheses were tested in the context of the study.  Within the scope of the study, data covering the years 2012 - 2016 belonging to the firms operating in the BIST Manufacturing Sector were used. According to results there is a relationship between the proportion of independent members in the board and earnings management practices based on accrual and sales manipulation. Obtained results confirm that the increase in the proportion of female members on the board reduces earnings management practices based on cash flow and sales manipulation. There is also evidence that an increase in the size of the board reduces earnings management practices based on cash flow and income manipulation. There is no supporting evidence that the proportion of audit comittee members reduces earnings management practices.

  6. Social Desirability Bias and Earnings Management around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niszczota Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test whether inter-country variation in individuals’ tendency to conform, as measured by the Lie (social desirability scale used in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, can explain differences in the propensity to employ corporate earnings management around the world. Such a link is feasible, given that survey data suggest executives tend to be under severe pressure to meet earnings benchmarks, to which they often succumb by engaging in earnings management (to the detriment of the company’s long-term prospects. We hypothesize that in countries where the propensity to act in a socially desirable (outsider-satisfying way is stronger, earnings management should be more prevalent. Research results support our hypothesis, and demonstrate the existence of a positive relationship between the prevalence of earnings management in a country and the mean score of individuals from that country on the Eysenck Lie scale, which further evidences that capital market pressure is a significant determinant of earnings management.

  7. The Islamic Capital Market Response to the Real Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Yuliana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove the effect of the company's status, i.e membership on the Islamic capital market and the status as suspect firm, as a determinant of real earnings management (REM. REM is conducted by abnormally increasing sales, increasing production and reducing discretionary costs in order to achieve a certain earnings target. This study uses Earnings Distribution Analysis (EDA technique, which refers to the Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979 to identify the suspect firms. Suspect firms are companies that have small positive earnings. The samples of this research are companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2011 and 2012. Based on the result of regression analysis, hypothesis testing results show that the suspect firms conduct real earnings management in all three types of activities more aggressively than the non-suspect firms. Furthermore, this study also showed empirical evidence that there are differences in real earnings management actions between companies listed in the Islamic capital market compared to conventional capital markets. Then, this study also showed that the Islamic capital market is more appropriate in response to the REM than the conventional capital market.

  8. Earning management: analysis of publications in brazilian accounting journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Gomes Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to identify characteristics, from the perspective of social networks, of the scientific literature on earning management in Brazilian accounting journals. Specifically, were identified: a authors and their social networks of scientific production; b researched topics, models for accruals detection, authors’ networks and the period studied; c methodological procedures used. A bibliometric survey, with a quantitative approach was performed through the analysis of 17 Brazilian accounting journals, since their first edition until the year 2010. Out of them, 10 published articles having the theme earning management in the title, abstract or keywords. The 32 identified articles were submitted to content analysis and then the data were presented from the perspective of social networks. The survey results show that: the authors and their social networks of production originates mostly from Universidade de São Paulo (USP; the most researched theme was the methods or means to conduct earnings management, and accruals measurement models, with emphasis on Kang and Sivaramakrishnan Model; the descriptive research, based on document and quantitative approach were the most commonly used forms in the articles researched. It is noteworthy that structural gaps are the topics, such as compensation plans, political costs and earnings management in different contractual environments. The research results can contribute to academia to highlight some features of the earnings management theme and its researchers, in the field of publications in Brazilian accounting journals.

  9. Audit Committee Attributes and Earnings Management: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afensimi Elijah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the agency theoretical framework, the  study postulates that audit committee attributes can impact significantly, constraining accrual-based distortion of financial reporting credibility and thus improve the quality of financial reporting. To assess our arguments, audit committee size, audit committee financial literacy, audit committee attendance at meetings, audit committee independence and audit meetings frequency of meeting were regressed on financial reporting quality measured by discretionary accruals. The findings for the full sample and negative discretionary accruals sample confirm our expectation that audit committee characteristics have a constraining effect on earnings management. Specifically, audit committee financial expertise, audit committee size, audit committee independence and diligence showed an inverse and significant relationship with earnings management. This is in tandem with theoretical expectations and suggest that increases in these variables we exert a declining influence on earnings management. The study concludes that there is the need for companies to focus on attributes that strengthen the effectiveness of their audit committees.

  10. The effect of leverage increases on real earnings management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Zagers-Mamedova (Irina)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMain subject of this paper is to understand whether there could be an incentive for managers to manipulate cash flow from operating activities (CFO) through the use of real earnings management (REM), in situations with increasing leverage. Based upon a study of Jelinek (2007) who

  11. 76 FR 7526 - Major System Acquisition; Earned Value Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... that they may compare planned spending with actual spending, isolate the source of performance problems..., since the cost incurred by the government is fixed the requirement for ANSI compliance for performance... Earned Value Management (EVM) is a performance-based tool that gives agency managers an early warning of...

  12. Earnings management: estudo de caso do Banco Nacional Earnings management: Central Bank's case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo promove um estudo de caso de uma das maiores instituições financeiras brasileiras da década de 90: o Banco Nacional S.A. (BNSA. O BNSA teve sua intervenção decretada pelo Banco Central do Brasil em 1995, após ser identificada a existência de ativos insolventes, originados por gerenciamento fraudulento dos lucros da entidade. O estudo visa investigar a gestão fraudulenta de lucros do Banco Nacional S.A., tanto nos seus aspectos motivadores, quanto em relação aos seus efeitos na composição patrimonial da entidade. A abordagem metodológica contempla: (i pesquisa explicativa, quanto aos objetivos do estudo; (ii estudo de caso, quanto aos procedimentos aplicados e (iii pesquisa qualitativa, quanto à abordagem do problema. Constatou-se que pode haver interesses inconciliáveis entre o agente e o principal, conforme disciplinado pela teoria da agência. O artigo, ainda, ressalta a importância do conhecimento dos dados financeiros na identificação dos fatos de interesse, dos ajustes pertinentes e da correta evidenciação da situação patrimonial da entidade.This paper features a case study of one of the main Brazilian banks of the 90's: Banco Nacional S/A (BNSA. The bank had its intervention decreed by Central Bank of Brazil in 1995, after the existence of insolvent assets, originated by fraudulent earnings management, were identified. The study aims to investigate the fraudulent earnings management of BNSA, both in motivational aspects and in relation of the effects in its balance sheet structure. The methodological approach of the study encompasses: (i an explanatory research, regarding the intended aim of the study; (ii case study, regarding the applied procedures; and (iii a qualitative research, regarding the approach to the problem. It was concluded that irreconcilable conflicts of interest might occur between the agent and the principal, according to the Agency Theory. The paper also emphasizes the importance of

  13. CEO origin and accrual-based earnings management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.F.; Qin, B.; Wielhouwer, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of CEO origin on accrual-based earnings management and how these effects evolve over the CEO's tenure in office. Compared with CEOs promoted from within the company, CEOs recruited from outside have a stronger incentive to demonstrate their abilities in the initial

  14. CEO Origin and Accrual-Based Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.; Qin, B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of CEO origin on accrual-based earnings management and how these effects evolve over the CEO’s tenure in office. Compared with CEOs promoted from within the company, CEOs recruited from outside have a stronger incentive to demonstrate their abilities in the initial

  15. International Financial Reporting Standards and Earnings Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Timm Rathke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level of earnings management in Latin America after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and analyzes the role of cross-listing in the United States. The literature on earnings management in less developed countries is still under construction, and few studies focus on this issue, especially with respect to Latin America, despite its relevant role in the global economy. This paper fills this gap in the literature as it analyzes the level of IFRS earnings management regarding the first and main Latin American countries applying IFRS (Brazil and Chile, when compared to the main Anglo-Saxon countries with IFRS tradition (United Kingdom and Australia, and with the main Continental European economies (France and Germany. The results show that Latin American firms present a higher level of earnings management than Continental European and Anglo-Saxon firms, and this opportunistic behavior remains significant when only global players with cross-listing in the United States are analyzed. Thus, even with a unique set of high quality accounting standards (IFRS and strong reporting incentives, countries’ specific characteristics still play an important role in the way IFRS is implemented in each country.

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility and Earnings Management : Evidence from Asian Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kang, Feng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how earnings management is associated with corporate social responsibility (CSR) and investor protection with 139 firms in ten Asian countries. In Asia, CSR is increasingly attracting attention but the legal system generally is perceived as being poor. We hypothesize that there is an

  17. Incorporating Function Points into Earned Value Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    th th t b t it it t dorgan za on s ou  use  ose  a   es  su   s  managemen  nee s. – 3.7.2 Apportioned Effort • Apportioned effort is work for which...Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202...of  management and technology issues.  He is an experienced project manager, managing over 50 projects during  hi M R t h i ll id d t i ht i t f t j

  18. The influence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems' performance on earnings management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Kuen-Chang; Liu, Jau-Yang; Lin, Sin-Jin; Chou, Yu-Wei

    2012-11-01

    We analyse whether there is a linkage between performance measures of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems and earnings management. We find that earnings management decreases with the higher performance of ERP systems. The empirical result is as expected. We further analyse how the dimension of the DeLone and McLean model of information systems success affects earnings management. We find that the relationship between the performance of ERP systems and earnings management depends on System Quality after ERP implementation. The more System Quality improves, the more earnings management is reduced.

  19. Earnings management through loss avoidance: Does South Africa have a good story to tell?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangakane Lehlogonolo Pududu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether South African managers manage earnings to avoid reporting small losses (small earnings decreases. The study covers all the companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE from 2003 to 2011. In line with Burgstahler and Dichev (1997, the cross-sectional distributions of earnings and changes in earnings are examined and the distributions are shown in histograms. Previous research (using data from the United States has shown that the distribution curve for both the earnings and the change in earnings variable had noticeably fewer observations just below zero than would normally be expected, and a significantly higher number of observations just above zero. This pattern in the distributions suggests that managers manage reported earnings to ensure that earnings do not fall below a specific threshold, this being zero or the previous year’s performance. Interestingly, and in contrast with  the previous  literature, using the Burgstahler and Dichev (1997 research model of analysis, our results show no evidence in South Africa of managers managing earnings to avoid reporting small losses or small decreases in earnings. A possible reason for this could be the relatively smaller size of the JSE (compared with stock exchanges in the United States. In addition, and more important, is the possibility that investors and analysts in South Africa may be fixated on other performance indicators, such as revenue and headline earnings per share, rather than on earnings (profits.  This study adds to the limited research on earnings management in South Africa, which is a developing economy. Furthermore, previous research shows an inverse relationship between earnings management and earnings quality. The results of this study may therefore be useful to the users and the regulators of financial reports, both are concerned with earnings for the purposes of assessing the cost of capital and how companies

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting and Earnings Management: The Role of Political Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Yip

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Francis, Nanda and Olsson (2008 proposed that earnings quality influence firms’ disclosure decisions. We examine whether Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure is related to earnings management and if the relationship is mitigated by political cost considerations or by the firm’s ethical predisposition. We argue that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is context-specific and we consider one particular context, the political environment. We test our hypotheses by regressing earnings management on CSR disclosure while controlling for other factors that may affect the level of earnings management. We find a significant relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management, and more specifically, we find evidence of a negative (complementary relationship in the oil and gas industry while we find evidence of a positive (substitutive relationship in the food industry. The evidence supports the view that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is affected by the political environment and not by ethical considerations.

  1. Technical Performance Measurement, Earned Value, and Risk Management: An Integrated Diagnostic Tool for Program Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pisano, N

    2002-01-01

    ...) and in private industry. Currently-reported earned value data contains invaluable planning and budget information with proven techniques for program management, however, shortcomings of the system are its emphasis...

  2. IFRS ADOPTION AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN BRAZILIAN PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Midoguti Joia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Brazil adopted the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Studies involving publicly traded companies in different countries around the world indicate that these new standards tend to improve the information quality and make it more comparable and transparent. This study was aimed at verifying any changes in the earnings management levels after 2010 and whether this happened in function of the full adoption of the IFRS by the Brazilian publicly traded companies (except for financial institutions. The data were extracted from the three-monthly financial statements of the databases from Economática and the Brazilian Securities Commission for the period from 2006 till 2011. To achieve the research objectives, two tests were applied. The first showed that the average discretionary accruals, calculated through the Modified Jones Model, were lower after 2010. Next, the regression analysis was elaborated, using panel data with Newey-West’s correction. The results did not confirm the hypothesis that the adoption of the IFRS affected the earnings management level in the period under analysis, but showed that the size and indebtedness significantly explain the discretionary accruals, independently of the adoption of the IFRS. The results suggest that larger companies with a large proportion of own capital tend to produce higher quality reports, independently of the adoption of the IFRS.

  3. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Dilger; Sabine Graschitz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. ...

  4. EFFECTS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE VARIABLES ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanus Remond Waworuntu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of corporate governance on earnings management, this paper analyzed 171 annualreports from issued 2006 to 2009 by 57 non-financial, joint stock companies implementing GCG (GoodCorporate Governance practices, which were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. Six corporategovernance variables (board composition, independent commissioners, separate chairman/CEO roles, auditcommittee, managerial share ownership, and audit quality as well as three control variables (leverage, size,and ROA were used. The results showed that two corporate governance variables significantly influencedearnings management practices (separate chairman/CEO roles and managerial share ownership; the othervariables had no effect because these companies used GCG practices only to follow regulations rather than tomonitor and control.

  5. 48 CFR 352.234-3 - Full earned value management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-3 Section 352.234-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-3 Full earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(c), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Full Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The Contractor...

  6. 48 CFR 352.234-4 - Partial earned value management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-4 Section 352.234-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-4 Partial earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(d), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Partial Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The...

  7. Studying the Relationship between Economic Massive Changes with Earnings Management of Listed Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMANİ SERYASAT, Hamid; PİRAYESH, Reza; NOORALİDOKHT, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigates the relationship between earnings management and profitability of companies listed in Tehran stock exchange and its purpose is to examine the existence of earnings management phenomenon of listed companies in Tehran stock exchange. One of the executives' main objectives about earning management is creation a more stable flow, in order to support higher earning payments. More stable earnings flow can be perceived as a lower risk that leads to higher stock pric...

  8. ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERPENGARUH TERHADAP EARNINGS MANAGEMENT PADA PERUSAHAAN GO PUBLIC DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Utari Widyaningdyah

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Earnings management is a management act in financial statement preparing process in order to obtain whether his personality welfare or his company's value. This research is a replication from Dechow et.al (1996 who had tested causes and consequences of earnings manipulation in firms subject to AAER (Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Release by SEC (Securities Exchange Commission. Purpose of this research is to give empirically evidence the influence of auditor reputation, board of directors, leverage, and public offering stock percentage at IPO time to the earnings management in initial public offering's firms which was listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange at 1994 until 1997.Statistical analysis method used is multiple regression. This research's result shows that leverage has significant influence to earnings management. It is mean that earnings management has a relation with external financing, especially debt. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Earnings management merupakan tindakan manajemen yang berupa campur tangan dalam proses penyusunan laporan keuangan dengan maksud untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraannya secara personel maupun untuk meningkatkan nilai perusahaan. Penelitian ini merupakan hasil replikasi dari penelitian Dechow et.al (1996 yang menguji sebab dan konsekuensi earnings management pada perusahaan yang menjadi subjek diberlakukannya AAER(Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Release oleh SEC (Securities Exchange Commision. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan secara empiris pengaruh reputasi auditor, jumlah dewan direksi, leverage, dan persentase saham yang ditawarkan kepada publik saat IPO terhadap earnings management pada perusahaan yang melakukan IPO (Initial Public Offerring di Bursa Efek Jakarta pada tahun 1994 sampai dengan 1997. Metode analisis statistik yang digunakan adalah multiple regression. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hanya faktor leverage yang berpengaruh signifikan terhadap earnings management. Hal ini

  9. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC CRISES IN THE BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldy Fernandes da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 economic crisis challenged accounting, either demanding recognition and measurement criteria well adjusted to this scenario or even questioning its ability to inform appropriately entities’ financial situation before the crisis occurred. So, our purpose was to verify if during economic crises listed companies in the Brazilian capital market tended to adopt earnings management (EM practices. Our sample consisted in 3,772 firm-years observations, in 13 years – 1997 to 2009. We developed regression models considering discretionary accruals as EM proxy (dependent variable, crisis as a macroeconomic factor (dummy variable of interest, ROA, market-to-book, size, leverage, foreign direct investment (FDI and sector as control variables. Different for previous EM studies two approaches were used in data panel regression models and multiple crises were observed simultaneously. Statistics tests revealed a significant relation between economic crisis and EM practices concerning listed companies in Brazil in both approaches used.

  10. Development of Earned Value Management System in PP Construction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Moon, Byeong-Suk [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The NPP construction project has been determined in the form of a rather lump-sum contract with little details in resource requirements and estimations. Therefore, Earned Value Management System (EVMS) needs to be applied to the NPP projects in order to incorporate scope, schedule and cost targeting efficient and to control effective resource. The NPP projects in Korea have not applied EVMS. EVMS has phased in NPP construction project by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP), playing the role of project master manager in NPP construction in Korea. This study presented the EVMS unlike other system. Accordingly, EVMS is expected to reduce risks and increase efficiency in the NPP project. The NPP construction project is a technology ntensive multi-construction project that should be based on economics and stability and that takes over ten years to complete, requiring investment of billions of dollars, a great number of persons concerned, and a vast store of human and material resources. KHNP is phasing EVMS in NPP construction project for overseas contracts and the efficient management, the paper presented the pilot EVMS in KHNP. It expected to control and identify of NPP construction projects by using EVMS as a computerized management tool which is quantitative and objective management criteria. It is necessary to improve of the contract system related EVM for enterprise system, and the effort will be required, such as on-site support and training so that this can be done in collaboration with the relevant stakeholders.

  11. Peran Praktek Corporate Governance Sebagai Moderating Variable dari Pengaruh Earnings Management Terhadap Nilai Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinola Herawaty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the empirical study is to examine the role of Corporate Governance Practices as a variable that moderates the effect of Earnings Management to the value of the firm. The result gives the evidence that corporate governance practices that have a significant impact to the value the firm are outside independent director and institutional ownership, in the model regression with moderating variable. It also indicates that Independent director, audit quality and institutional ownership are moderating variables of the relationship between earnings management and the value of the firm, but not the managerial ownership. Thus, earnings Management can be minimized with the monitoring mechanism i.e. (1 independent director that can monitor the management of the company in aligning the interest of principal and agent, (2 institutional ownership shareholders - the sophitisticed investor that also monitor the management to decrease the motivation of management to manipulate Earnings and (3 audit quality with the role of auditors to give the credibility of the reported financial statement by management. Abstract in Bahasa Indoesia: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menge¬tahui secara empiris pengaruh earnings management terhadap nilai perusahaan, praktek corporate governance nilai perusahaan dan pengaruh praktek corporate governance terhadap hubungan antara earnings management dan nilai perusahaan dan memahami peranan praktek corporate governance terhadap praktek earnings management yang dilakukan yang perusahaan dalam upaya meningkatkan nilai perusahaan. Hasil penelitian membuktikan corporate governance berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap nilai perusahaan dengan variabel komisaris inde¬penden dan kepemilikan institusional. Kepemilikan manajerial akan menurunkan nilai perusahaan sedangkan kualitas audit akan meningkatkan nilai perusahaan. Komisaris independen, kualitas audit dan kepemilikan institusional merupakan variabel pemoderasi antara

  12. The Effects of Tax Avoidance, Accrual Earnings Management, Real Earnings Management, and Capital Intensity on the Cost of Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrie Firmansyah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effects of tax avoidance, accrual profit management, real profit management, and capital intensity on equity costs. The population of this study is a manufacturing company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange which amounted to 146 companies. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling and resulted in 420 units of analysis. This type of research is quantitative causality by performing hypothesis testing analysis is done by using multiple linear regression model. The findings of this research are tax avoidance will add to the risks that must be borne by investors thus increasing uncertainty over their investment. Investors consider that accrual profit management actions are opportunistic as risk-taking actions as well as real profit management actions. While on Capital Intensity, investors assume the information on the company’s fixed assets is not useful in making investment decisions. The conclusions that can be taken are tax avoidance, accrual profit management, and earnings management real positive to the cost of equity. However, capital intensity has a negative effect.

  13. THE IMPACT OF IFRS ADOPTION ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN BANKING COMPANIES IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Santy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the IFRSadoption as a standard that can lead to a reduction of earnings management. The research aimed to give empirical evidence concerning the impact of the IFRS adoption on earnings management, and the test of the difference level of earnings management between before and after the IFRS adoption. The research scope focused on the implementation of IFRS adoption particularly in PSAK No. 50 and PSAK No. 55 (revised 2006 concerningfinancial instruments. The research objects were the banking companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange for 4 years (2008-2011, i.e. as many as 23 banks. Samples were taken by using the purposive sampling technique. The main variables in this research are IFRS and earnings management,and includes several control variable, among others are, size, financial leverage, market to book value and institutional investors. The data were analyzed usingmultiple regression analysis and different t-test analysis. The research result indicates that the IFRS adoption has not effect the decreaseon the earnings management.Among the four control variables, the variable institutional investor is found not to have theeffect on earnings management, whereas the other three variables haveeffect.The result of the different t-test analysis also indicates that statistically there is not significant difference on the level of the earnings management between before and after IFRS adoption. Thus, based on this study concluded that the adoption of IFRS still allow for the occurrence of earnings management.

  14. Listed companies’ income tax planning and earnings management: Based on China’s capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanwei Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Ministry of Finance issued the new China accounting standards on February 15, 2006(CAS2006, which require the listed companies to use the balance sheet liability method for the income tax accounting. Thus, it give us an opportunity to investigate the earnings management of listed companies from the perspective of income tax. Under the balance sheet liability method, because conforming earnings management strategies and nonconforming earnings management strategies have different income tax cost and the current income payable will also vary, the listed companies need to choose conforming earnings management and nonconforming earnings management. Our research just try to investigate the relationship between the listed companies’ income tax planning and earnings management on the background of this new system.Design/methodology/approach: Our research approach combines theoretical analysis and empirical analysis. This paper first make a deep theoretical analysis on the listed companies’ choice between pretax earnings management activities that have current income tax consequences (book-tax ‘conforming earnings management’ and earnings management activities that do not have current income tax consequences (book-tax ‘nonconforming earnings management’,and then we exemplify our theory. Next, we come up with two hypotheses based on the theoretical analysis, build up a restatement model and conduct the empirical examination. The empirical analysis employs the method of descriptive statistics and logistic regression.Findings: When engaging in earnings management, listed companies will trade off conforming and nonconforming earnings management from the perspective of income tax cost. We find that managers’ motivations and purposes will influence the choice. On the one hand, when companies are facing the punishment of the suspension or termination of the listing for three consecutive losses, they will have a great incentive to

  15. Auditor report and earnings management: Evidence from FTSE 350 companies in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhadab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between audit report and real-based and accrual-based earnings management based on a UK sample. Prior research has mostly focused on US data and examined the relationship between auditor report (qualified vs. non-qualified and earnings management (proxied by discretionary accruals, and found evidence that qualified audit report is positively associated with the level of discretionary accruals. Despite the importance of the role of audit firms to constrain the use of earnings management, there is no research to date has examined the relationship between auditor reports and real earnings management activities based on UK sample. This paper therefore fills this gap in the literature by providing the first evidence for UK FTSE 350 companies that auditor report is positively associated with real and accrual earnings management. The paper also provide evidence that firms received qualified audit report share different characteristics as compared to firms received un-qualified audit report

  16. A study on relationship between audit quality and earnings management in Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masihi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between audit quality and earnings management in Iranian banking industry. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from 18 different Iranian banks over the period 2005-2012. The study considers the effects of three independent variables including type of auditing, tenure of auditing and size of bank on earning managements. The result of our survey has indicated that there was a meaningful and reverse relationship between type of accounting and earnings management. In addition, the longer an auditing firm perform auditing program, the better the firm reports earnings management. Finally, as the size of firm increases, there is a better earnings management.

  17. An Empirical Examination of Ownership Structure, Earnings Management and Growth Opportunities in Mexican Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel San Martín Reyna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the influence of ownership structure, board and leverage on the earnings management when companies either face, or do not face, profitable growth opportunities for a sample of 90 listed Mexican firms during the period 2005-2009. The results confirm the relevance of debt and board of directors in terms of earnings management by showing a positive relationship between earnings management and both board of directors and leverage in the presence of growth opportunities. In contrast, this relationship becomes negative when firms have no profitable investment projects. The results also demonstrate the relevance of controlling shareholders on earnings management under a growth opportunity setting.Therefore, our results show that ownership structure, composition and size of board and leverage play a dual role: reduce the earnings management when there are no investments projects, but impact positively in presence of growth opportunities.

  18. Aplicação do earned value em projetos complexos - um estudo de caso na EMBRAER On the use of the earned value management system approach for complex projects in the brazilian aircraft industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdala Giacometti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O gerenciamento do Earned Value vem obtendo aceitação crescente nas empresas e entre profissionais tais como gerentes de projetos e funcionais, devido à sua efetividade no controle dos resultados do projeto. Earned Value é definido como uma ferramenta de controle que permite avaliar simultaneamente de maneira quantitativa como se encontram os custos e prazos em uma data de controle, permitindo também prever a data de término e o valor gasto (VARGAS, 2005. Este artigo avalia a aplicabilidade do earned value como ferramenta de controle de projetos aeronáuticos na EMBRAER. Contribui também para a aplicação do earned value no controle de projetos complexos. Utilizam-se como técnicas de coleta de dados: entrevistas, observações e análise documental. Conclui-se que o earned value é utilizado apenas nos projetos da área de aviação de defesa, por ser uma exigência contratual. O uso do earned value nas áreas de programas executivos e comerciais restringe-se às fases de definição conjunta, projeto detalhado e certificação, pois o escopo do projeto é bem definido, o cronograma é detalhado e os custos são previstos e obtidos com maior acuidade. Nas demais fases de desenvolvimento do produto, o uso do earned value é restrito, devido principalmente às constantes alterações de escopo do produto e do projeto.Earned value management has been increasingly used by companies as well as by functional and project managers due to its effectiveness in controlling project results. It is defined as a control tool that enables a quantitative and simultaneous evaluation of the costs and process time within a pre-scheduled date as well as predicting the deadline and the total value spent (VARGAS, 2005.This study evaluates the earned value applicability as a tool to control aeronautical projects at EMBRAER, A Brazilian Aeronautical Company. It is also concerned with the application of earned value in the control of complex projects. The data

  19. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dilger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. Although several measurements for earnings management like abnormal accruals or income smoothing exist, this paper is predominantly using the distribution of net income scaled by total assets (RoA respectively total sales (RoS as earnings management measure. These earnings management measures have been selected as they can measure the frequency of earnings management in reality and no estimates are necessary. Findings – In general, analyses show that the distribution in earnings management intervals differ from the total population. Most noteworthy is that by adoption of principle-based accounting standards (IFRS/US-GAAP, in case of this study no differences of earnings quality was observable. The other two variables yield in mixed results due to the robustness checks, which indeed questions the scaling variables for data-sets including the financial industries. Research limitations/implications – First, according to the chosen measurement parameter no distinct assertion concerning the reasons for execution or non-execution of earnings management can be deduced. Second, the method of earnings management's identification is not dividable and therefore real-, accounting-, legal- and illegal- earnings management cannot be identified. Third, the research results are just partially generalizable concerning representativity (e.g. other countries, non-market listed companies and taken for granted just for similar data-sets. Originality/value – Although prior

  20. Accounting ethics – an empirical investigation of managing short-term earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Jooste

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Short-term earnings are managed in most, if not all, companies. The management of short-term earnings is vulnerable to misinterpretation, manipulation or deliberate deception even if these misleading accounting practices are prohibited by accounting regulations. Hence, the problem with managing short-term earnings is that it becomes an ethical practice, regardless of who is or may be affected by the practice or the information that flows from it. As a result of the publicity received by Enron and WorldCom on financial failures and fraud, and the subsequent legislation, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, students are expected to understand the morality issues of earnings-management practices. Therefore, the ethics of earnings-management practices affects the accounting educator. Accounting students and business managers were surveyed and the findings indicated that there is no significant difference between gender regarding the ethicality of twenty earning management practices. The results, however, show that there is a significant difference between the perceptions of business managers and students regarding the morality of earnings-management practices. However, no significant differences were found between genders.

  1. Earnings management behavior of the initial public offering (IPO) firms during pre-IPO, IPO, and post-IPO years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Benali, Meryem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the pattern of earnings management around the IPO year in Morocco during the period between 2001 and 2007. Our results show that earnings management reaches its maximum level during the year of an IPO followed earnings management during the pre-IPO years and the post-IPO years...

  2. Financial Risk Ratios and Earnings Management: Reducing Uncertainties in Shariah-compliant Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Kazemian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether Shariah-compliant companies practice earnings management by investigating the relationship among the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow in discretionary accruals, which function as a substitute for earnings management. This empirical research is conducted on a sample of Malaysian Shariah-compliant companies from all industries in Bursa Malaysia from 2012 to 2014. Results show that Shariah-compliant companies are highly influenced by the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow. This study argues that working as either Shariah-compliant or non-Shariah-compliant does not affect the level of earnings management through financial distress, high leverage, and free cash flow by managers. Results should be of interest to stakeholders, shareholders, and regulatory bodies (i.e., the Shariah Advisory Council and the Securities Commission that oversee the accountability of corporate financial reporting to prevent earnings management in Shariah-compliant companies. Findings can also aid relevant authorities (i.e., the Shariah Advisory Council and the Security Commission in Malaysia in overcoming or reducing problems related to earnings management. This study is one of the most significant works in Malaysia in terms of sample size and methodology. It argues that the three elements of earnings management (i.e., financial distress, high leverage, and free cash flow influence better disclosure of reported earnings.

  3. A modified earned value management using activity based costing

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    Vahid Aminian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Earned Value Management (EVM has been a well-known methodology used since the 1960s when the US department of defense proposed a standard method to measure project perfor-mance. This system relies on a set of often straightforward metrics to measure and evaluate the general health of a project. These metrics serve as early warning signals to timely detect project problems, or to exploit project opportunities. A key aspect of EVM is to estimate the completion cost of a project by considering both cost and schedule performance indices. However, good performance of cost and schedule performance indices does not necessarily guarantee cost effec-tiveness of the project regardless of the overhead costs. The reason is because, in most project-based organizations, overhead costs constitute a significant proportion of the total costs. Howev-er, EVM indices are usually calculated in the absence of the so-called overhead costs. This paper, first, seeks to remedy this problem by proposing a practical procedure of allocating overhead costs in project-based organizations. Then the traditional EVM indices are revised by consider-ing the allocated overhead costs. Finally, a case study demonstrates the applicability of the pro-posed method for a real-life project.

  4. The Role of Analysts as Gatekeepers: Enhancing Transparency and Curbing Earnings Management in Brazil

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    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of analysts’ coverage, forecasting errors and earnings management. It corroborates the role of analysts as gatekeepers by finding that analysts enhance transparency and reduce the scope of earnings management. To identify analysts’ coverage we used the I/B/E/S, from where we also obtained information on the consensus projections of analysts for listed Brazilian companies. The results indicated a negative correlation between the number of analysts covering firms and the magnitude of their discretionary accruals in absolute terms, indicating that more scrutiny inhibits earnings management. We also found a negative correlation between analysts’ coverage and forecasting errors. Multivariate regressions showed statistically significant results in the same sense. Therefore, market analysts, despite the severe criticism they receive from the specialized press, actually have a beneficial effect on corporate governance by monitoring managers and inhibiting earnings management.

  5. Board of Commisioner Duality Role, Governance and Earnings Management of Initial Public Offerings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Prasetiawati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public firm is required to implement good corporate governance as assurance to reduce information asymmetry between firm and its stockholders. Corporate governance mechanism should be able to limit any improper actions of the firm’s management. This study investigates whether the duality role of the board affects earnings management practice of firms making initial public offering at Indonesian Stock Exchange. The study also examines other corporate governance mechanism factors, namely the number of board of commission-ners, the proportion of independent board of commissioners, size of firm, financial leverage, and profitability. Earnings management was measured using Cross-Sectional Modified Jones model. The study employs a total of 60 firms that went public from 2000 to 2006. The results show that duality status of board of commissioners positively and significantly affects earnings management in IPO firms. This could be interpreted that board of directors with duality role had a lower function in monitoring the firms’ performance so that management have opportunity to manage reported earnings. When board of commissioners have dual role, the level of earnings management is getting intense, and vice versa. Size of board of commissioners and profitability are positively related to earnings management.

  6. Investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and earnings management: Evidence from Spain

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    Ester Gras-Gil

    2016-10-01

    The results show that corporate social responsibility practices may be an organizational device that leads to more effective use of resources, which then has a negative impact on earnings management practices.

  7. Audit Committee Accounting Expert and Earnings Management with “Status” Audit Committee as Moderating Variable

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    Edy Suprianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the effect of accounting expert of audit committee on earnings management. This research also assesses the role of audit committee on earnings management with audit committee status as moderating variable. The population is all of firm’s which listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Purposive sampling is used to collect data. Data used financial statements and annual report companies from Indonesia Stock Exchange website. Moderated regression analysis (MRA is used to analyze the hypothesis. The result shows that accounting expert of audit committee has negative effect on earnings management. Yet, variable of audit committee status cannot moderate the relationship between accounting expert of audit committee and earnings management in Indonesia.

  8. Proposing a model for limiting earning management practices: The case of Jordanian listed firms

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    Dea’a Al-Deen Al-Sraheen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of this paper is to propose a model for limiting earning management practices among manufacturing firms in Jordan. In order to do so, two independent variables are examined in this paper, namely, political influence and CEO Duality. Discretionary total accruals according to the modified Jones model (1991 was used in order to estimate the level of earnings management, which is the dependent variable. The sample comprised 64 companies for the financial year 2013. The results suggest that a positive and significant association existed among both political influence and CEO duality and earning management. This means that both independent variables exacerbated earnings management. Further research is required to determine what urgent legislation should be developed to restrict the presence of members who have political connections on the board of directors. Also, the need exists for the separation of roles of Chairman and CEO to ensure the independence and complying with the requirements of corporate governance.

  9. Role of Social Relations of Outside Directors with CEO in Earnings Management

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    Muhammad Shaique

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of social relations among the board members on earnings management in Pakistani listed companies. Specifically, we have analyzed the social networks between CEO and outside board members. The modified Jones model has been used in this study to measure earnings management and we have captured social relations through SOCIAL (Social networking index. Our results suggest that firms with more connected boards show a positive relationship between board independence and earnings management. Further, we have shown that firms with CEO duality exhibit a higher association between social connections of the board and earnings management than firms with non-duality. Social relations among the board members undermine monitoring ability of outside directors and the impact becomes more severe in the presence of CEO duality.

  10. The Role of Corporate Governance as a Leverage Moderating and Free Cash Flow on Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Yendrawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to agency theory there were separation of function between principal and agent. This separation created different interest between principal and agent. This condition occurs because of the asymmetric information that agent more knew company information than principal. Therefore, it was interesting to study the actions of management.This research aimed to analyze the influence of leverage and free cash flow to earning management and the ability to analyze the influence corporate governance consisting of managerial ownership, institutional ownership, independent commissioner, and audit committee in influencing earnings management on the listed manufacturing companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange during years 2010-2014. The results showed that leverage significantly influence to earnings management and free cash flow significantly influence to earnings management moderating variables that influence the relationship of leverage to earnings management is managerial ownership, independent commissioner,audit committee, and moderating variables that influence the relationship of free cash flow to earning management was managerial ownership and institutional ownership.

  11. Management Earnings Forecasts as a Performance Target in Executive Compensation Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Shota Otomasa; Atsushi Shiiba; Akinobu Shuto

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and how Japanese firms use management earnings forecasts as a performance target for determining executive cash compensation. Consistent with the implications of the principal-agent theory, we find that the sensitivity of executive cash compensation varies with the extent to which realized earnings exceed initial management forecasts. In particular, we find that, for a sample of Japanese firms comprising 14,899 firm-year observations from 2005 to 2012, the exec...

  12. Does Accrual Management Impair the Performance of Earnings-Based Valuation Models?

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Courteau; Jennifer L. Kao; Yao Tian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines empirically how the presence of accrual management may affect firm valuation. We compare the performance of earnings-based and non-earnings-based valuation models, represented by Residual Income Model (RIM) and Discounted Cash Flow (DCF), respectively, based on the absolute percentage pricing and valuation errors for two subsets of US firms: “Suspect” firms that are likely to have engaged in accrual management and “Normal” firms matched on industry, year and size. Results ...

  13. Earnings management and financial reporting fraud: can external auditors spot the difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Kassem, Rasha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to increase external auditors’ knowledge about earnings management and help them spot the difference between earnings management and financial reporting fraud. A thorough literature review was undertaken to achieve the paper’s aim. The secondary data used in this paper was obtained from different databases like Ebscohost, Business Search Premier, Academic Search Premier, Emerlad, Sciencedirect, and Jstor. The current paper suggests a new approach and way of thinking f...

  14. Keterkaitan Antara Nilai Etika Dengan Akuntansi Keuangan (Tinjauan Atas Praktik Earnings Management)

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, H.Y. Sri

    2009-01-01

    Started in 1990s, Accounting practices introduced many terms like: Creative Accounting, Aggressive Accounting, Earnings Management and Financial Shenanigans. Creative Accounting has a positive meaning in terms of language, that is why so many people accepted and justified this Accounting practice as a good idea. Many Academicians argued that creative accounting is permissible as long as it is not contrary to the rule. In this article we will evaluate Earnings Management from th...

  15. Earnings Management through Goodwill Impairment: CEO and CFO tenure impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.V. Visnevskaá (Olga)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary This paper examines the relationship between the extent of goodwill impairment and the properties of CEOs and CFOs of a selection of FTSE Eurotop 100 Index companies. Prior research indicated that it is likely that CEOs tend to take earnings baths early in their tenure,

  16. Goodwill Impairment as a Tool for Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Lemans (Jamilla)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary This research examines whether or not goodwill impairments are being used by Dutch listed firms to manipulate earnings. Two different regression models are used for this purpose which include firm-specific factors as well as proxies for big bath accounting, income

  17. The Balance Sheet As an Earnings Management Constraint (Case Study In Indonesia Manufacture Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sudaryati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research has the purpose to examine the balance sheet existence as an earnings management constraint. This research use the secondary which it is taken from the quarterly financial statement of manufacture companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX during 2008-2009 periods. This research used 68 manufacture companies as its sample. Then, the obtained data has regression analyzed by Generalized Ordered Logit Model. The Output of regression indicates that there is significant relation between net assets with the earnings surprise. The reporting earnings surprise smaller negative or larger positive decrease when the value of net asset is overstated. So, it can be concluded that balance sheet is as an earnings management constraint.

  18. Beneish M-score and detection of earnings management in Italian SMEs

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    Christian Corsi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accounting literature on the reliability of financial information presents several mathematical models whose purpose is to identify the existence of values manipulations. The phenomenon is described as earnings management and presents a broad discussion concerning the search for suitable models to measure the distortions in values. In this respect, the present paper aims to compare the ability of two versions of the same mathematical model of classify the risk of earnings manipulation in a discriminant way.

  19. ACCRUAL DAN REAL EARNING MANAGEMENT DALAM MERESPON PENURUNAN TARIF PAJAK PENGHASILAN BADAN TAHUN 2010

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    Setiadi Alim Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted by Guenther (1994 shows the behavior of management to conduct income decreasingearning management in the period of one year before the income tax rate reduction in order to obtain relief theburden of income tax paid. The research of Alim (2009 showed indications of income decreasing earningmanagement in the 2008 financial statements of business entities in Indonesia Stock Exchange responding toa decrease in income tax corporate tax-payers in 2009. This study aimed to investigate whether there is anindication of income decreasing earning management and also on the 2009 financial statements of businessentities in Indonesia Stock Exchange responding to reduced income tax rate for corporate tax-payers in 2010.To detect the presence of income decreasing earning management variables to discretionary accruals will beused to indicate the presence of accrual/accounting earnings management and abnormal variable cash flowsfrom operations and abnormal discretionary expenses that may indicate the presence of real earning management.The results showed an indication of income decreasing earning management is detected through avariable discretionary accruals and abnormal cash flow from operations but not found through variableabnormal discretionary expenses.

  20. Discretionary Actions in Measuring Derivatives as a Mechanism for Earnings Management in Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alves Dantas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the purpose of identifying whether Brazilian banks use discretionary accounting choices when recognizing and measuring derivatives for practicing earnings management and which are the determinants of this practice. Using a two-stage model to segregate the discretionary part in the estimated fair value of derivatives and based on information from the third quarter of 2002 to the fourth quarter of 2010, the empirical results confirm the reversing nature of these discretionary actions, show that banks utilize this type of action as a mechanism for earnings smoothing, and disclose that this practice is more common in private institutions, smaller in asset size and with lower capitalization. The evidence advances with respect to the previous literature, which have identified the use of derivatives in practicing earnings management by banks, but have not associated this practice to discretionary actions by the management.

  1. The Role Of Good Corporate Governance In Minimizing Earning Management To Increase Value Of Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiani Tanjung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The theory of an agency problem describes about the conflict of the agents interests and the principal which influence the value of a firm. The gap of information between them puts an agent in certain places to become more superior than the principal to do earning management. Good corporate governance is as a controlling mechanism and a balancing system in the company in accommodating the interest of the agent and the principal. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual model of best corporate governance role earning management the value of the firm by adding a compensation as another variable to minimize earning management. Good corporate governance consists of the three mechanisms which are Institutional shareholders Independent commissioner and executive compensation.

  2. The role of discretionary accruals in earnings management: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

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    Mehdi Maranjory

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Earnings management via discretionary accruals is a manager's instrument for changing stock holders’ expectations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of discretionary accruals in the earnings management of Iranian firms. There are two hypotheses associated with this study on the relationship between income smoothness and discretionary accruals and the proposed study is implemented on selected firms from Tehran Stock Exchange. The result of the first hypothesis indicates the relationship between earnings smoothness and discretionary accruals variables. It means that discretionary accruals (DA leads to the converse relationship among discretionary accruals variation and current and future cash flow. The result of the second hypothesis indicates that the firms with high variation in Iran utilize more discretionary accruals compared with the firms with lower variation.

  3. Does managerial behavior of managing earnings mitigate the relationship between corporate governance and firm value? Evidence from an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Sajid Nazir

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between corporate governance and managerial choices for value creation is a topic of continuing interest for researchers. One of most significant managerial decisions that affect value is Discretionary Earnings Management (DEM which is the judgmental adjustments in firm's reported accounting earnings by managers to upsurge firm value temporarily. Effective corporate governance structure to control this opportunistic behavior of mangers can presumably make accounting earnings more reliable and more informative for the stakeholders and hence, increase firm value. Based on 1944 firm year observations for listed firms in Pakistan, this study aims at to analyze the role of corporate governance in enhancing firm value along with the moderating role of DEM using models proposed by Kasznik (1999 and Beatty, Ke, & Petroni (2002 for detecting earnings management practices of managers. The results report that corporate governance significantly and positively influences firm value confirming the positive role of corporate governance in mitigating agency problem and enhancing the firm value. Moreover, corporate governance mechanisms may mitigate the managers’ opportunistic behavior of manipulating the reported earnings. Furthermore, the results report that the behavior of managers is opportunistic towards managing earnings and they are destroying the current and subsequent firm value by manipulating the reported accounting earning. Finally, this opportunistic behavior of managers to manipulate earnings is negatively moderating the well-established positive relationship of corporate governance and firm value. Keywords: Corporate governance, Firm value, Discretionary earnings management, Opportunistic behavior, Kasznik model, Moderating effect

  4. A study on relationship between earnings management and operating cash flows management: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Banimahd

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of earnings management on operating cash flows management over the period 2004-2011 using the information of 119 firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. Results indicate that there is a meaningful relationship between earnings management and operating cash flows management. In other words, earnings management creates and shapes operating cash flows management. In addition, after controlling for the loss reporting, firm size and firm's financial risk, the results show that there was a relationship between loss reporting and firm size with the cash flows management. When firms report loss, then operating cash flows increases. Finally, operating cash flows decreases when firm size increases. However, our survey does not provide any evidence to believe there is any relationship between financial risk and cash flows management.

  5. Does audit quality influence the relation between earnings management and internal control weakness in the post - SOX period?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenstein, J.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Kalantonis, P.; Kaldis, P.

    2013-01-01

    Material weaknesses in the internal control system of a company create more opportunities for managers to engage in opportunistic earnings management. In this study the authors investigate the relation between earnings management and disclosed material weaknesses in the internal controls, both under

  6. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: A STATE OF THE ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladu Alina Beattrice

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extant research have for long identified that corporate governance has the potential to affect both financial performance and the opportunistic behavior of managers. Studies on the influence of corporate governance mechanisms on firm performance do not often assess the possibility that reported earnings can be misrepresented by managers with the scope of achieving various objectives. This paper examines the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and earnings management practices. According to prior empirical studies in the field, corporate governance can reduce the extent of manipulative practices and increase the quality of financial reporting. As stated above, this study examined prior research investigating different corporate governance mechanisms that can have negative impact on earnings management practices. In this regard the legal system and the effects of takeover were examined as external mechanisms of corporate governance on manipulative behavior of managers. Internal mechanisms of corporate governance were also assessed. Board independence was found to enhance certain monitoring behaviors of managers while an audit committee can oversee the internal control for financial reporting and the quality of financial information. This paper contributes to corporate governance literature by providing detailed reviews of different corporate governance mechanisms on the most documented practice of creative accounting: earnings management. Limits of the current research are explored as well as the scope for future research.

  7. The Effect of IFRS Convergence and the Proportion of Woman in Audit Committee on Earning Management

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    Siswanti Dwi Surti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find empirical evidence the effect of IFRS convergence and the proportion of woman in audit committee on earning management. Respondents used in this study were companies listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange for the year 2011 until 2013. Using moderated regression analysis this study supports the hypothesis that IFRS convergence and the proportion of woman in audit committee have negative effect on earning management. This finding implies that IFRS convergence and the proportion of woman in audit committee will increase the quality of financial reporting.

  8. The Effect of Moral Reasoning Level and Emotional Intelligence on Employment Ethics Assessment of Earnings Management

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    Dewita Puspawati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of moral level reasoning and emotional intelligence on the assessment of earnings management ethics. The theory used is the theory of planned behavior. Respondents in this study are S1 Accounting Department Faculty of Economics and Business University of Muhammadiyah Surakarta. The samples used were 89 respondents with convenience sampling technique. The results showed that the moral level of reasoning affect the evaluation of earnings management ethics, while emotional intelligence does not affect the dependent variable.

  9. Examining the Perceived Value of Integration of Earned Value Management with Risk Management-Based Performance Measurement Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Akhtar H.

    2014-01-01

    Many projects fail despite the use of evidence-based project management practices such as Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), Earned Value Management (EVM) and Risk Management (RM). Although previous researchers have found that integrated project management techniques could be more valuable than the same techniques used by themselves, these…

  10. Cash Flows versus Accounting Earnings in Managing Exchange Rate Exposures: An Empirical Study of Non-Financial Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    Financial theory argues that companies should manage cash flows and not accounting earnings when they hedge exchange rate exposures. Still, empirical evidence shows that a number of companies choose to manage accounting earnings. This empirical study of Danish, non-financial companies finds (1......) that when hedging the majority of companies expect to add value to their company by avoiding financial distress (reduce down side risk), (2) that when hedging managing cash flows versus managing accounting earnings as a first priority splits the companies in two, (3) a lack of difference (except...... for profitability) in company characteristics between the group of companies that manage cash flows versus the group of companies that manage accounting earnings as a first priority. The decision in real business on whether to manage cash flows or accounting earnings when hedging exchange rate exposures seems...

  11. The Effect of Management Compensation and Debt Requirements on Earnings Management Concerning The Impairment of Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Kevin Co Abrigo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the relationship between the impairment decision, as well as its magnitude, and two earnings management motivations, namely increasing management compensation, and meeting debt requirements. The computation of value in use in the impairment loss is subject to management’s estimate of future cash flows and choice of discount rate, which tolerates earnings management. Certain indicators and financial ratios were used to depict the effect of the two motives on impairment. In addition to this, the effect of firm size on impairment was also analyzed. The data were obtained from the OSIRIS database and the SEC form 17-A of the respective companies, as well as from telephone interviews and surveys. Probit regression was used to analyze the effect of the different motives to the impairment decision while multiple linear regression was used for the impairment magnitude. The findings show that publicly listed companies in the Philippines are engaging in “income smoothing” and “big bath” accounting with the use of impairment. Results also indicate that most “big bath” happens during periods where changes in the company’s executive officers occur. Lastly, there is also evidence that financially strong companies are deferring their impairment recognition to obtain a lower cost of financing.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF EARNING MANAGEMENT TO FIRM VALUE IN INDONESIA MANUFACTURING COMPANIES

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    Mitha FILANDARI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Firm value is one of the indicators in determining whether the company is in health state and deservesto invest in it. This makes the manager to act appropriately by performing earnings management practicesto increase the firm value but with the implementation of GCG it is expected to reduce the earningsmanagement practices. This study aimed to examine the effect of GCG mechanisms (independentcommissioner, managerial ownership, institutional ownership, and audit quality as moderating variablesin the relationship between earnings management and firm value. The object in this study is a manufacturingcompany listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange period in 2010-2014. This study uses purposive samplingmethod so that 31 companies were obtained as study sample. Data used in this study are secondary whichare financial statement and annual report. Data analysis in this study uses multiple linear regressionanalysis and Moderated Regression Analysis with SPSS 21. The results show that GCG mechanisms whichcan be moderating variable between earnings management and firm value are independent commissionerand audit qualities whereas managerial ownership and institutional ownership cannot moderate therelationship between earnings management and firm value.

  13. The Influence of Corporate Governance Mechanism on the Relationship between Related Party Transactions and Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Farah Mita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between related party transactions (RPT and earnings management. This study argues there is a different influence between RPT a priori likely to result in expropriation and RPT a priori not likely to result in expropriation. RPT a priori likely to result in expropriation creates an incentive to management or controlling shareholder to overstate income to cover or mask their expropriation. This study uses non-absolute discretionary accruals based on Kazsnik model to proxy earnings management. Corporate governance mechanism should reduce the incentive to overstate income in a company that involves in RPT a priori likely to result in expropriation. The results of this study show that the earnings management (income increasing is affected by the existence of RPT a priori likely to result in expropriation and corporate governance mechanism, but it is not affected by the size/value of the transactions. As expected, companies involving in RPT a priori likely to result in expropriation with weak corporate governance mechanism, tend to manage earnings that increase income. We find that strong corporate governance mechanism decreases the discretionary accruals in companies which have RPT a priori likely to result in expropriation.

  14. 48 CFR 352.234-1 - Notice of earned value management system-pre-award Integrated Baseline Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of earned value management system-pre-award Integrated Baseline Review. 352.234-1 Section 352.234-1 Federal Acquisition... provision: Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award Integrated Baseline Review (October 2008) The...

  15. 48 CFR 352.234-2 - Notice of earned value management system-post-award Integrated Baseline Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of earned value management system-post-award Integrated Baseline Review. 352.234-2 Section 352.234-2 Federal Acquisition... provision: Notice of Earned Value Management System—Post-Award Integrated Baseline Review (October 2008) (a...

  16. Excesso de confiança do Chief Executive Officer e a prática de gerenciamento de resultados = Overconfident chief executive officer and earnings management practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bau Dal Magro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudos têm sugerido que o excesso de confiança leva a expectativas de desempenho futuro, e os gerentes podem desenvolver predisposição para o gerenciamento de resultados. O objetivo do estudo é identificar a influência do excesso de confiança de gestores nas práticas de gerenciamento de resultados das empresas brasileiras. A metodologia da pesquisa é descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa, por meio de pesquisa documental. Os métodos estatísticos utilizados foram: entropia, TOPSIS e a regressão linear múltipla. A amostra foi composta de 127 empresas brasileiras listadas na BM&FBovespa. Conclui-se que o menor excesso de confiança impacta positivamente no gerenciamento de resultados. Sugere que os gestores com menor confiança acreditam, com menor intensidade, em suas habilidades, e, para garantir resultados organizacionais que satisfaçam às expectativas de analistas, praticam o gerenciamento de resultados de maneira oportuna para aumentar os resultados organizacionais. Several studies have suggested that overconfidence leads to expectations of future performance, and managers can develop predisposition to earnings management. The objective of the study is to identify the influence of overconfident managers on Brazilian companies’ earning management practices. The methodology of the research is descriptive, with quantitative approach, through documentary research. The statistical methods used were: entropy, TOPSIS and multiple linear regression. The sample consisted of 127 Brazilian companies listed on the BM&FBovespa. It is concluded that lower overconfidence has a positive impact on earnings management, suggesting that less confident managers believe with less intensity in their abilities, and, in order to guarantee organizational results that satisfy the expectations of analysts, they conduct the earnings management in an opportunistic way so as to increase organizational results.

  17. Earnings management under price regulation. Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill-de-Albornoz, Belen; Illueca, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of price regulation on the accounting policy of Spanish electricity companies over the period 1991-2001. As predicted by the political costs hypothesis (Watts and Zimmerman, 1986) (Watts, R.L., Zimmerman, J.L. 1986. Positive accounting theory, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ), managers artificially reduce reported earnings when the government establishes tariff increases. In this way, companies attempt to diminish their political visibility and counteract social outcry arising from the government's decision. Several abnormal accruals models existent in the literature are used to obtain a proxy for managerial accounting discretion on earnings

  18. Under-performance of listed companies? Real earnings management and M&A: Chinese empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiao Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether acquiring firms attempt to adopt real earnings management strategy to upward reported earnings in the period of M&A announcement and provide an explanation for the underperformance of post-M&A in share payment M&A affairs occurring in China’s capital market from 2008-2010. Design/methodology/approach: The author uses Roychowdhury’s(2006 methodology to measure the magnitude of real earnings management of acquiring firms in stock for stock M&A by exploiting financial date from 2006 to 2011. The methodology includes three models, which are cash ?ow from operations, production costs and discretionary expenditures, respectively. Findings: It was found that firms using stock as a financing medium exhibit significant negative abnormal cash flows and abnormal discretionary expenses yet abnormal production costs significantly positive during the current period of M&A. Moreover, it was also documented that acquiring firms use real activities manipulation to overstate earnings for the purpose of improving market confidence. Finally, a negative association was found between REM and under-performance of post-M&A. Research limitations/implications: To some extent, these results explain the puzzle of performance decline over the following period of post-M&A. Meanwhile, our study adds to prior literature that capital market pressures induce acquiring firms inflate reported earnings by manipulating real activities in stock-financed M&A occurring in China’s capital market. Practical implications: The author’s result imply that investors, analysts and regulators cannot ignore more undetectable opportunism behaviors underlying reported earnings than accrual-based earnings management and the impact on the performance of post-M&A when they use financial statements to evaluate acquiring firms. Social implications: Our study plays important role in making public policies. Furthermore, it is necessary to

  19. Cost Control and Performance Review of Software Projects by Using the Earned Value Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available EVM (Earned Value Management is a method that can be successfully used to measure the performance of a project from the cost and schedule points of view. Initially developed for the US government programs in the 60s, it later becomes an important feature of any modern project management practice thanks to its simplicity and efficiency in signaling project anomalies in time. EVM become extremely popular because it can be equally applied for any project in any industry.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF EARNING MANAGEMENT TO FIRM VALUE IN INDONESIA MANUFACTURING COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mitha FILANDARI; Susy SUHENDRA

    2018-01-01

    Firm value is one of the indicators in determining whether the company is in health state and deservesto invest in it. This makes the manager to act appropriately by performing earnings management practicesto increase the firm value but with the implementation of GCG it is expected to reduce the earningsmanagement practices. This study aimed to examine the effect of GCG mechanisms (independentcommissioner, managerial ownership, institutional ownership, and audit quality) as moderating variabl...

  1. Análise do Gerenciamento de Resultados e o Rodízio de Firmas de Auditoria nas Empresas de Capital AbertoAnalysis of Earnings Management and Turnover of Auditors Firms in Companies TradedAnálisis de la Gestión por Resultados y la Alternancia de las Firmas de Auditoría en las Empresas de Capital Abierto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Júlio Orestes da

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOOs auditores independentes têm função de atestar as demonstrações contábeis, de modo a atender com a fidedignidade da situação financeira e econômica da empresa. Assim acredita-se que a troca da firma de auditoria contribui para o aumento da independência entre o relacionamento da auditoria e do cliente, que se pode desgastar durante o tempo. Espera-se que o novo auditor seja severo em relação à prática do Gerenciamento de Resultados (GR e, como consequência, ocorra um menor nível de gerenciamento de resultados. Neste sentido, o objetivo desta pesquisa é verificar se o rodízio de auditoria influencia no gerenciamento de resultados das empresas de capital aberto dos setores econômicos da Bovespa, utilizando o modelo de Kang e Sivaramakrishnan (1995. Tem-se, como hipótese, que no ano da troca da firma de auditoria o gerenciamento de resultados tende a diminuir e que nos anos subsequentes tende a aumentar. A pesquisa foi realizada nos dados das três empresas com maior ativo de cada setor econômico, que possuem papéis negociados na Bovespa no exercício de 2008, excluindo o setor financeiro. Desta forma, a pesquisa se caracteriza como descritiva e documental com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados evidenciam que a troca de firma de auditoria não está diretamente relacionada à diminuição do gerenciamento de resultados. Alguns setores apresentam uma tendência para tal, porém, não se pode aceitar as hipóteses em sua totalidade.ABSTRACTThe job of Independent auditors is to certify the financial statements in order to demonstrate the real of financial and economic situation of the company. Thus it is believed that the change of accounting firm contributes to the independence increase of the relationship between the audit and the client that can be worn out during the time. It is expected that the new auditor be severe in the practice of earnings management and, consequently, a lower level of earnings management

  2. Earned Value Management Considering Technical Readiness Level and Its Application to New Space Launcher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-In; Ahn, Jaemyung

    2018-04-01

    Earned value management (EVM) is a methodology for monitoring and controlling the performance of a project based on a comparison between planned and actual cost/schedule. This study proposes a concept of hybrid earned value management (H-EVM) that integrates the traditional EVM metrics with information on the technology readiness level. The proposed concept can reflect the progress of a project in a sensitive way and provides short-term perspective complementary to the traditional EVM metrics. A two-dimensional visualization on the cost/schedule status of a project reflecting both of the traditional EVM (long-term perspective) and the proposed H-EVM (short-term perspective) indices is introduced. A case study on the management of a new space launch vehicle development program is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed H-EVM concept, associated metrics, and the visualization technique.

  3. The Relationship between Earned Value Management Metrics and Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) products have a high rate of failure. Only 25% of IT projects were completed within budget and schedule, and 15% of completed projects were not operational. Researchers have not investigated the success of project management systems from the perspective of customer satisfaction. In this quantitative study, levels of…

  4. Risk Management: Earning Recognition with an Automated Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberry, Linden; Strasburger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is a huge task that requires diligent oversight to avoid penalties, fines, or lawsuits. Add in the burden of limited resources that schools face today, and the challenge of meeting the required training, reporting, compliance, and other administrative issues associated with a safety program is almost insurmountable. Despite an…

  5. The Effects of Tax Avoidance, Accrual Earnings Management, Real Earnings Management, and Capital Intensity on the Cost of Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Amrie Firmansyah; Ahmad Sigid Febriyanto

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of tax avoidance, accrual profit management, real profit management, and capital intensity on equity costs. The population of this study is a manufacturing company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange which amounted to 146 companies. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling and resulted in 420 units of analysis. This type of research is quantitative causality by performing hypothesis testing analysis is done by using multiple linear regressio...

  6. The impact of credit ratings and CEOs’ work experience on earnings management and post-issue performance of U.S. IPOs

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hang Minh

    2016-01-01

    The IPO market is characterised by a high level of information asymmetry; thus, self-interested managers have strong incentives to overstate earnings during the IPO to inflate stock prices. Prior literature has provided evidence of earnings manipulation by managers around IPOs. If managers opportunitically manipulate earnings in the IPO year, the reported earnings will not be sustainable, and the IPO firms will exhibit negative abnormal stock returns in subsequent periods due to investors’ do...

  7. Earnings management and Stock Market Return: An Investigation of Lean against the Wind Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sajjad Khan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the “lean against the wind hypothesis”. For this purpose the relationship of earnings management to that of the aggregate stock market return was investigated. Data for the year 2005 to 2009 was examined and Panel Data techniques were applied on the data set. F-statistics were used to check for appropriateness of the model, Housman test were used to finally decide for fixed effect model. Results of the paper were against the existence of lean against the wind behavior of the firms towards the aggregate under valuation of stock market returns. These Results were in favor of the past study of Cohen and Zarowin (2011.Keywords: Earnings management, Discretionary accruals, Modified Jones model, KSE

  8. Earnings Management and CSR Disclosure. Family vs. Non-Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Gavana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on Institutional theory and Signaling theory, integrated with the socioemotional wealth (SEW approach, we studied the effect of earnings management (EM practices on a firm’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure behavior. In so doing, we analyzed a sample of 226 non-financial, family and non-family listed firms for the period, 2006–2015. Our results suggest that family firms, in instances of downward earnings management, are more prone to diverting attention from these practices by means of CSR disclosure, compared to non-family firms, although the level of family ownership exerts a moderating effect. Moreover, we found that a firm’s visibility, in terms of size, significantly enhances this behavior and that the effect is higher for family firms.

  9. The Effect of Independence Audit Committee on Earnings Management: The Case in French

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Ben Amar

    2014-01-01

    Corporate failures and accounting scandals (e.g. Enron, Worldcom cases etc.) have provided a strong incentive to regulators to consider the major role that audit committees can play. This current study extends the Piot and Janin (2007) study and examines the relationship between independence audit committee and the proceeded measures of earnings management. Using a sample consisting of 279 firm- year observations concerning the years ranging from 2002 to 2005, the results of this study shows ...

  10. Corporate governance and earning management: Evidence from 200 Malaysian listed firms from the period of 2007 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Hisyam Ab Razak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effectiveness of some corporate governance variables to monitor management behavior with the respect to their incentives to manage earnings. A set of 200 Malaysian listed firms for the year 2007 to 2011 in Bursa Malaysia have been investigated to analyze the relationship between corporate governance and earnings management. The corporate governance variables examined are CEO duality (when the chairman and the CEO is the same person, the proportion of independent non-executive directors and board size. We find discretionary accruals as a proxy for earnings management is negatively related to the board size and ROA, but positively related to the existence of CEO-Chairman duality, size of the firms, and operating cash flow. However, the results do not show a significant association between the proportion of independent non-executive directors on the board and earnings management.

  11. THE IMPACT OF AUDITOR`S OPINION ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra GAJEVSZKY

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the relation between modified audit opinion and abnormal accruals in the case of listed Romanian entities. In order to investigate the influence of auditor`s opinion on earnings management, a multiple regression was designed. The final sample, after eliminating the financial institutions due to homogeneity considerations, consists of 61 companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange – tier I, II and III- through a period of five years, from 2008 until 2012. The dependent variable of the regression which measures the discretionary accruals is represented by abnormal accruals, while the independent variables, namely audit opinion, audit firm size, firm size and current ratio of liquidity, constitute the explanatory variables of the regression which aims to capture properly the impact of auditor`s opinion on reducing earnings management in order to improve the quality of financial reporting process. This research contributes to the existent literature in several ways. First of all, at this point, it is the first article that tackles the issue of auditor`s opinion impact on earnings management in Romania. Second, the results of this study might influence the academic environment by contributing to a better understanding of the theoretical implications that can be adapted into an improved practice for the Romanian listed entities.

  12. Rising labor costs, earnings management, and financial performance of health care providers around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gang Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Amid increasing interest in how government regulation and market competition affect the cost and financial sustainability in health care sector, it remains unclear whether health care providers behave similarly to their counterparts in other industries. The goal of this chapter is to study the degree to which health care providers manipulate accruals in periods of financial difficulties caused, in part, by the rising costs of labor. We collected the financial information of health care provider in 43 countries from 1984 to 2013 and conducted a pooled cross-sectional study with country and year fixed-effects. The empirical evidence shows that health care providers with higher wage costs are more likely to smooth their earnings in order to maintain financial sustainability. The finding of this study not only informs regulators that earnings management is pervasive in health care organizations around the world, but also contributes to the studies of financial booktax reporting alignment, given the existing empirical evidence linking earnings management to corporate tax avoidance in this very sector.

  13. Implementing Earned Value Management in the CxP EVA Systems Project Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Les L.

    2009-01-01

    Earned Value Management (EVM), like project management, is as much art as it is science to develop an implementation plan for a project. This presentation will cover issues that were overcome and the implementation strategy to deploy Earned Value Management (EVM) within the Constellation Program (CxP), EVA Systems Project Office (ESPO), as well as discuss additional hurdles that currently prevent the organization from optimizing EVM. Each organization and each project within an organization needs to mold an EVM implementation plan around existing processes and tools, while at the same time revising those existing processes and tools as necessary to make them compatible with EVM. The ESPO EVM implementation covers work breakdown structure, organizational breakdown structure, control account, work/planning package development; integrated master schedule development using an integrated master plan; incorporating reporting requirements for existing funding process such as Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution (PPBE) and JSC Internal Task Agreements (ITA); and interfacing with other software tools such as the Systems Applications and Products (SAP) accounting system and the CxP wInsight EVM analysis tool. However, there are always areas for improvement and EVM is no exception. As EVM continues to mature within the NASA CxP, these areas will continue to be worked to resolution to provide the Program Managers, Project Managers, and Control Account Managers the best EVM data possible to make informed decisions.

  14. Report on Allegation of Unsatisfactory Conditions Regarding Actions by the Defense Contract Management Agency, Earned Value Management Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    object ivity of Defen se Contract Management Agency to carry ou t its ea rn ed va lue managemen t oversight responsibilities; and DCMA Response: Non...Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302...Earned Value Management Center Director advised us that the 2-week time frame was “standard operating procedure” for performing compliance reviews at

  15. MANAGEMENT EARNINGS FORECAST DISCLOSURE: A STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EBITDA FORECAST AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Folster

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The creation of overly optimistic information can compromise the decision-making process on part of shareholders and other stakeholders. Considering that this type of information can create problems and additional costs stemming from erroneous choices made by users, the present work sought to identify financial indicators associated with the disclosure of Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation and Amortization (EBITDA estimates in Management Earnings Forecasts (Guidance reporting. The sample examined was composed of 42 companies and analyses were carried out using logistic and multiple linear regression techniques. The results showed that larger (as per total assets and more-leveraged companies show a higher level of disclosure. Companies with higher return on equity (ROE and Current Liquidity ratios, as well as lower Net Margins, present less precise earnings forecast. The companies providing more timely forecasts are also the ones that show higher ROE and Current Liquidity ratios, as well as lower Net Margins. These results indicate that users must take caution when basing decisions on such information, given that the possibility exists that companies bearing these characteristics are more likely to better-timed albeit less-accurate disclosure.

  16. Ownership balance, supervisory efficiency of independent directors and the quality of management earnings forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunling Song

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Chinese securities market, with its characteristics of influence through personal relationships (Guanxi and underdeveloped standards of law and enforcement, can independent directors play the supervisory role expected by securities regulators? In this study we use the degree of precision and accuracy in corporate earnings forecasts as proxies for the quality of information disclosure by listed companies and examine the supervisory efficiency of independent directors with respect to information disclosure. Using data from 2007 to 2009, we find that in the absence of ownership balance, independent directors have a significant positive effect on the accuracy of management forecasts. In addition, the personal backgrounds of independent directors have specific effects on management earnings forecasts. Directors with certified public accountant (CPA expertise significantly improve the precision of management forecasts. However, directors with industrial expertise significantly reduce the precision of management forecasts. In other words, having directors with CPA expertise improves the independence of boards, but having independent directors with industrial expertise has the opposite effect.

  17. A study on relationship between tail risk on earning management in Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk management plays an important role in banking industry and there are literally many investigations to reduce any risk components in this industry. In this paper, we present a study on relationship between tail risk on earning management in Iranian banking industry. In this survey, we use two series of data. The first set is associated with yearly information of 19 different banks over the period 2005-2011 and it contains 114 observations. The second set of data includes weekly historical data of eight banks over the same period 2005-2011. In this survey, there are four objectives to be investigated. The first hypothesis considers the effects of seven independent variables on loan loss allowance as a fraction of total loans. The second model is associated with the effects of two independent variables on realized gains and losses on securities. The third objective is to study the effects of different independent variables with various interruptions on return of banking sectors. Finally, the last model investigates the effects of revenue management on tail risk. The result of this survey indicates that there is no relationship between tail risk and earning management.

  18. Accounting Conservatism and Earnings Management in the Banking Industry : The effect of discretionary loan loss provisions on conditional accounting conservatism in the United States banking industry for the period of 2002 to 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Molenaar (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary Previous studies have examined the relation between accounting conservatism and earnings management. Those studies conclude that accounting conservatism reflected in earnings is explained mostly by the accrual component of earnings instead of the cash flow component

  19. Designing an integrated model based on the indicators Quality and Earned Value for risk management in Information Technology Projects

    OpenAIRE

    TATLARI, Mohammad Reza; KAZEMİPOOR, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    There are two effective factors on Information Technology (IT) projects risk including quality and earned value so that by controlling these two factors and their increased level in IT projects, the corresponding risk can be decreased. Therefore in present study, an integrated model was designed based on quality and earned value indicators for risk management in IT projects on a new and efficient approach. The proposed algorithm included the steps such as preparing a list of several indicator...

  20. DETECTION OF EARNINGS MANAGEMENT - A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK BASED ON ACCRUALS APPROACH RESEARCH DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladu Alina Beattrice

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this theoretical research is to outline recommendations for improving the complex process of detection of accounts manipulation. In this respect we turned to the previous literature and assessed empirical studies in order to be able to develop a robust model for understand the process of detection for accounts manipulation and further to ease the path of detection by proposing as we stated above a theoretical framework in this respect. Since there is a constant conjecture between cause and effect we are able to assert that two direction of research can be identified and both can explain further the roots for limiting earnings management since its detection can be much easier approached: the event that can represent the root for accounts manipulation and the normal trend considered for a certain company related to the accruals level and economic trend. In the end if we know the cause we can interpret the event and combat its appearance. But when this kind of research appears, another question springs. Should we fight earnings management practices? Clikeman (2003:78 sensed that by using those practices companies are walking on a very slippery slope where minor accounting gimmicks become more and more aggressive until they create material misstatements in the financial statements. So, the recourse to such practices creates a stake that is not negligible. The users of financial statements are misled when making decisions based on manipulated accounting numbers. To a certain extent, the existence of earnings management distorts the usefulness of financial statements, and in this respect the process of detecting it can be regarded both as being important and challenging. Our proposal is not related to a technical process of detecting earnings management as typical empirical studies found in the literature and more than that we open a new stream of research based on understanding the forms of manifestation for accounts manipulation

  1. Employing Earned Value Management in Government Research and Design - Lessons Learned from the Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tom

    2009-01-01

    To effectively manage a project, the project manager must have a plan, understand the current conditions, and be able to take action to correct the course when challenges arise. Research and design projects face technical, schedule, and budget challenges that make it difficult to utilize project management tools developed for projects based on previously demonstrated technologies. Projects developing new technologies by their inherent nature are trying something new and thus have little to no data to support estimates for schedule and cost, let alone the technical outcome. Projects with a vision for the outcome but little confidence in the exact tasks to accomplish in order to achieve the vision incur cost and schedule penalties when conceptual solutions require unexpected iterations or even a reinvention of the plan. This presentation will share the project management methodology and tools developed through trial and error for a NASA research and design project combining industry, academia, and NASA inhouse work in which Earned Value Management principles were employed but adapted for the reality of the government financial system and the reality of challenging technology development. The priorities of the presented methodology are flexibility, accountability, and simplicity to give the manager tools to help deliver to the customer while not using up valuable time and resources on extensive planning and analysis. This presentation will share the methodology, tools, and work through failed and successful examples from the three years of process evolution.

  2. The Association between Related Party Transactions and Real Earnings Management: Internal Governance Mechanism as Moderating Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khober Limanto Genius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the association between related party transactions (RPT and real earnings management (REM. We also investigate the role of internal governance mechanism through the effectiveness of board of commissioner and audit committee in mitigating the association between RPT and REM. Our research sample consists of 386 firm-years of manufacturing firms listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX from year 2010 - 2014. Using linear regression, we find evidence that RPT has positive association with REM, only when the firm has higher RPT but not in the lower RPT. We find a contradictory result that board of commissioners strengthen the positive association between RPT and REM. Finally, we find evidence that the effectiveness of audit committees weaken the positive association between RPT and REM, both in full sample and in high RPT sample.

  3. The Mandatory Introduction of IFRS as a Single Accounting Standard in the European Union and the Effect on Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.W. Lippens (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary In this study, it was investigated whether the mandatory adoption of IFRS from 1 January 2005 by all listed companies in the European Union led to significantly lower levels of earnings management. I found that, despite the stricter character of IFRS compared to

  4. Accounting Conservatism and Earnings Management in the Banking Industry: The effect of discretionary loan loss provisions on conditional accounting conservatism in the United States banking industry for the period of 2002 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Molenaar, John

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary Previous studies have examined the relation between accounting conservatism and earnings management. Those studies conclude that accounting conservatism reflected in earnings is explained mostly by the accrual component of earnings instead of the cash flow component (Roychowdhury and Watts, 2006 and Pae, 2007). To measure earnings management, the accrual component of earnings is often used. Because of the different nature of accruals at financial firms, in prior ...

  5. Enforcement actions and their effectiveness in securities regulation: Empirical evidence from management earnings forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunling Song

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to resource constraints, securities regulators cannot find or punish all firms that have conducted irregular or even illegal activities (hereafter referred to as fraud. Those who study securities regulations can only find the instances of fraud that have been punished, not those that have not been punished, and it is these unknown cases that would make the best control sample for studies of enforcement action criteria. China’s mandatory management earnings forecasts solve this sampling problem. In the A-share market, firms that have not forecasted as mandated are likely in a position to be punished by securities regulators or are attempting to escape punishment, and their identification allows researchers to build suitable study and control samples when examining securities regulations. Our results indicate that enforcement actions taken by securities regulators are selective. The probability that a firm will be punished for irregular management forecasting is significantly related to proxies for survival rates. Specifically, fraudulent firms with lower return on assets (ROAs or higher cash flow risk are more likely to be punished. Further analysis shows that selective enforcement of regulations has had little positive effect on the quality of listed firms’ management forecasts.

  6. Earnings management, audit committee effectiveness and the role of blockholders ownership: Evidence from UK large firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murya Habbash

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature documents that the quality of financial reporting is higher when firms have effective audit committees. However, recent studies find that audit committees are not effective in family firms where agency conflicts arise between controlling and non-controlling shareholders. This study extends the previous findings by investigating the effectiveness of audit committees in firms with similar agency conflicts when one owner obtains effective control of the firm. Compared to firms with a low level of block ownership, high-blockholder firms face less agency problems due to the separation of ownership and management, but more severe agency problems between controlling (blockholders and non-controlling shareholders (minority shareholders. Using a unique hand-collected sample, this study tests the largest 350 UK firms for three years from 2005 to 2007, and shows that firms with effective audit committees have less earnings management. This study also documents that the monitoring effectiveness of audit committees is moderated in firms with high blockholder ownership. The results are not sensitive to the endogeneity test and hold for alternative specifications of both dependent and independent variables. Overall, these findings suggest that audit committees are ineffective in mitigating the majority-minority conflict compared to their effectiveness in reducing owners-managers conflicts. These conclusions, along with some recent similar evidence (e.g., Rose, 2009 and Guthrie and Sokolowsky, 2010, may raise doubts about the monitoring role of blockholders asserted by agency theorists and widely accepted in corporate governance literature.

  7. A Review on Accounts Manipulation via Loan Loss Provisions to Manage Earnings and Impact of IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulena Shala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is extensive research on financial reporting in banking industry. We also find a lot of studies specifically devoted to investigation of the estimation techniques of the amount of provisions, which represent important accrual amounts for a bank. In this paper we employ a non-statistical technique of meta-synthezis, through which we try to research the motives, existence, and effects of IFRS in income smoothing of banking institutions. As the theory of agency implies, the management can apply income smoothing because they may be oriented towards bonuses and wage increases more than towards the benefit of the economic entity. Factors such as their own reputation regarding the prediction of incomes, avoiding lack of analists’ expectations on incomes, to signal information on incomes, also contribute to earnings management. We find that most of the research find income smoothing in the banking sector, but also in other industries. Another issue that seems to emerge is that, based on research, the application of IFRS-es does not seem to have decreased the income smoothing phenomena in most of the countries where the studies were conducted.

  8. Management decisions based on the measurement of enterprise performance through “Earnings per share“ indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Bogdan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Earnings per share indicator does not provide though the possibility to compare all the enterprises which compute it due to the difficulties in interpreting the differences noticed from one enterprise to another, differences which can result from the different number of shares issued by each of them and from the different categories of shares issued. The accounting policy of IASB regarding the determination and interpretation of earnings per share of the enterprise is implemented through IAS 33. The main objective of our paper has in view the description and exemplification of the computing model of the Earnings per share indicator.

  9. An Analysis Of The Benefits And Application Of Earned Value Management (EVM) Project Management Techniques For Dod Programs That Do Not Meet Dod Policy Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    VALUE MANAGEMENT (EVM) PROJECT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR DOD PROGRAMS THAT DO NOT MEET DOD POLICY THRESHOLDS December 2017 By: Randy Schneider...Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN ANALYSIS OF THE BENEFITS AND APPLICATION OF EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT (EVM) PROJECT MANAGEMENT ...performance reporting. The immediate objective of this research project was to examine the question: Can the application of EVM-Lite project management

  10. 现金分红、盈余管理方式选择与企业价值%Cash Dividends,Earnings Management Choice and Corporate Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘衡; 苏坤; 李彬

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,there is increasing public concern about the phenomena of em-phasizing on financing and ignoring investors‘return of China‘s listed companies.The China Securities Regulatory Commission has issued a series of announcements designed to strength-en cash dividends of listed companies and strengthen the awareness of the investor‘s returns. Cash dividends and earnings management are hot issues of capital market,but accrual-based earnings management is the main content of the traditional earnings management research,re-al earnings management has been neglected.In theory,the behavior of cash dividend reduces the level of corporate cash flow,the change of earnings management can improve the level cash flow and the corporate performance,which eventually leads to the change of corporate value. Using China‘s A-share market listed companies panel data from 1 998 to 2010,this paper studies the relationships between cash dividends,earnings management and corporate value. We find that the extent of real earnings management of cash dividend companies is significant-ly lower than the corresponding extent of non-cash dividends companies,and the extent of ac-crual-based earnings management of cash dividend companies is greatly higher than the corre-sponding extent of non-cash dividends companies,which means that cash dividend behavior has a significant impact on the choice of the listed company earnings management,and there is the phenomenon of collusion between real earnings management and accrual-based earnings management.The cash dividend company has a higher corporate value than the non-cash divi-dend company,which indicates that the listed company‘s cash dividend behavior helps to en-hance the corporate value.Further research suggests real earnings management and accrual-based earnings management have significant intermediary roles in the relationship between cash dividends and corporate value.These conclusions provide helpful insight for revealing the

  11. An Integrated Gate Turnaround Management Concept Leveraging Big Data Analytics for NAS Performance Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William W.; Ingram, Carla D.; Ahlquist, Douglas Kurt; Chachad, Girish H.

    2016-01-01

    "Gate Turnaround" plays a key role in the National Air Space (NAS) gate-to-gate performance by receiving aircraft when they reach their destination airport, and delivering aircraft into the NAS upon departing from the gate and subsequent takeoff. The time spent at the gate in meeting the planned departure time is influenced by many factors and often with considerable uncertainties. Uncertainties such as weather, early or late arrivals, disembarking and boarding passengers, unloading/reloading cargo, aircraft logistics/maintenance services and ground handling, traffic in ramp and movement areas for taxi-in and taxi-out, and departure queue management for takeoff are likely encountered on the daily basis. The Integrated Gate Turnaround Management (IGTM) concept is leveraging relevant historical data to support optimization of the gate operations, which include arrival, at the gate, departure based on constraints (e.g., available gates at the arrival, ground crew and equipment for the gate turnaround, and over capacity demand upon departure), and collaborative decision-making. The IGTM concept provides effective information services and decision tools to the stakeholders, such as airline dispatchers, gate agents, airport operators, ramp controllers, and air traffic control (ATC) traffic managers and ground controllers to mitigate uncertainties arising from both nominal and off-nominal airport gate operations. IGTM will provide NAS stakeholders customized decision making tools through a User Interface (UI) by leveraging historical data (Big Data), net-enabled Air Traffic Management (ATM) live data, and analytics according to dependencies among NAS parameters for the stakeholders to manage and optimize the NAS performance in the gate turnaround domain. The application will give stakeholders predictable results based on the past and current NAS performance according to selected decision trees through the UI. The predictable results are generated based on analysis of the

  12. Principles of Prudential in Ifrs Financial Statements and Its Effect on Earnings Response Coefficient and Profit Management

    OpenAIRE

    Suryani, Arna; Herianti, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of prudential principle of financial statements in IFRS on earnings response coefficients and profit management of manufakturing companies. This study uses analytical methods Partial Least Square (PLS) through analisys software called Smart PLS 2.0 M3. The object of this research is manufacturing companies in Indonesia with a total of 57 analysis unit manufacturing company during the period from 2013 to 2015.Based on the results of the stud...

  13. Does the competency attributes of board members’ enhance the monitoring of earning management? Evidence from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Najeeb Mosa Ghazalat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring role of the board of directors has been extensively slammed as being ineffective since it depends on several factors. This study sheds light on some of the directors’ attributes and the impact on mitigating the opportunistic behaviour. By adopting different perspectives, we argued whether the directors with more expertise, tenure, outside directorships become more effective in mitigating the opportunistic behaviour. These attributes could have a curvilinear effect since such optimal attributes could improve the competency level of the directors. Hence, the board becomes more effective. Meanwhile, its effect could turn inversely to make the directors ineffective. This study adopted discretionary accruals as an indicator for earnings management. A sample of 114 service and industrial firms listed in Amman Stock Exchange (ASE from 2009-2015 were chosen for this study. Pooled OLS regression model is enlisted to avoid the inconsistently of the slope across individual units and time period. Results show that the directors with financial expertise are more effective to minimise the level of earnings management practices. Conversely, the independent directors with high tenure besides the higher directors with outside directorships are engaged with a high level of earnings management practices. This implies the existence of each of the friendliness hypothesis and the busyness hypothesis in the Jordanian market. Similarly, this also explains the weakness of the board of directors in complying to their monitoring role in the emerging markets in general

  14. Patient-Provider Communication: Experiences of Low-Wage-Earning Breast Cancer Survivors in Managing Cancer and Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Helen M; Swanberg, Jennifer E; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2018-02-26

    In 2017, there will be more than 250,000 new diagnoses of invasive breast cancer; most cases will occur in working-age women. The goal of this qualitative study was to explore low-wage-earning breast cancer survivors' experiences communicating with their oncology team about cancer and employment issues. Twenty-four low-wage-earning breast cancer survivors in the USA were interviewed in 2012 using a structured interview protocol. Sociodemographic data, cancer history, and patient-provider communication experiences regarding the management of cancer and work were collected. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory strategy of constant comparative analysis. Low-wage-earning breast cancer survivors' experiences communicating with their oncology team about employment and cancer focused on three dimensions of patient-provider communication: extent, quality, and content. Over 70% of respondents reported no communication or only routine communication with their providers regarding work; three quarters of women reported poor or standard communication quality, and content of work-related communication covered scheduling issues, work absences, continuing to work during treatment, and financial concerns. Communication between oncology care teams and low-wage-earning cancer patients is critical to the successful management of treatment and work responsibilities given the vulnerable employment situation of these women. There is a need for education of oncology team members about how cancer and its treatment can impact employment for all workers, but especially for low-wage workers, thereby allowing the care team to address these issues proactively and help patients successfully manage both cancer treatment and work responsibilities.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF EARNINGS MANAGEMENT ON ACCOUNTING CONSERVATISM MODERATED BY CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISM (STUDY OF MANUFACTURING COMPANIES LISTEDON INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGEIN 2008 – 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMMAR AL ASYARI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimsto examine earnings management by companies manufacturing in Indonesia affect the choice of managers to implement aconservative accounting policy. With corporate governance mechanisms in influencing the relationship of Earning Management on Accounting Conservatism. Methods of analysis using multiple linear regression analysis with one independent variable, one dependent variable and two variables moderation. Corporate governance mechanismuses two characteristics as moderating variables, managerial ownership and board of commissioners. Size using the accrua lconservatism, according to those used by Givolyand Hayn (2002 and discretionary accruals as aproxy for earnings management is computed using the Modified Jones Model (Dechow etal., 1995. By using the purposive sampling method, the sample in this research consists of 23 manufacturing companies that listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008 – 2010. This research use secondary data which is collected from the firm’s annual report and financial statements. The result of this research shows that simultaneously, earning management, managerial ownership, and board of commissioners influence accounting conservatism. Partially, only earning management that significantly influences accounting conservatism. While managerial ownership and board of commissioners do not significantly influence the relationship of Earning Management on Accounting Conservatism.

  16. Study on the association between earnings management and value relevance based on the reporting method used for operating cash flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Mironiuc

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the association between earnings management and value relevance of accounting information, for a number of 556 observations from a sample of 65 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange during a 10 year period: 2006-2015. Sampled companies are classified according to the method used for the reporting of operating cash flows. Findings confirm that entities using the indirect method have a higher level of discretionary accruals and are more tempted to opportunistically increase their earnings. As far as value relevance is concerned, results show that participants on the Romanian capital market place more weight on the information reported by entities experiencing higher levels of discretionary accruals.

  17. The Influence of Good Corporate Governance Mechanism on Earnings Management: Empirical Study in Indonesian Stock Exchange Listed Company for Periods of 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermiyetti Hermiyetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of good corporate governance mechanism about earnings management in companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2010. The independent variables include the size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, and commissioner meeting frequency. The dependent variable is earnings management which is measured by discretionary revenue model (Stubben, 2010. Size of company is used as the control variable in this research. The population of this research is 465 samples from companies listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2010. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling method. In addition, the data analysis method used is regression analysis and descriptive statistics. The result of this research indicates that the mechanism of good corporate governance which is represented by the size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, and commissioner meeting frequency do not have any significant impact on earnings management. However, the result shows that company size gave positive influence toward earning management. Keywords: Good corporate governance, size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, commissioner meeting frequency, earnings management

  18. 股权再融资中盈余管理探讨%The Discussion on Earning Management in Secondary Equity Offering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段琳

    2012-01-01

    股权再融资中的盈余管理违背了会计中立原则,为实现融资者的利益,损害了其他利益相关者的利益。股权再融资中盈余管理现象在国内外广泛存在,其治理措施主要是努力消除契约摩擦和沟通摩擦。%Earnings Management in Secondary Equity offering violates the neutrality principle in accounting. In order to achieve financial interests, financing company damages the interests of other stakeholders. Earnings management exists at home and abroad extensively, and the measures to deal with Earnings management are mainly to eliminate contracting frictions and communication frictions.

  19. ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, DEFAULT RISK AND CONSERVATISM EFFECT TO EARNING MANAGEMENT WITH GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AS MODERATING VARIABLE IN MANUFACTURING COMPANY WHOSE SHARES INCORPORATED IN INDONESIA SHARIA STOCK INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Gautama Siregar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and analyze Good Corporate Governance in moderating the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (as measured by economic, environmental and social, Default Risk (as measured by debt to equity ratio and debt to assets ratio and Conservatism (as measured by earning / stock return relation, accruals and net assets Earnings Management. The sample used is a manufacturing company during the period 2011- 2015. The total sample used is 170 samples. Sampling technique used is saturated sample method. The analytical model used in this research with Structural Equation Modeling. The results showed that Corporate Social Responsibility, as measured by the economy and environment, has a positive and significant effect on earning management, while Corporate Social Responsibility measured by social have negative and significant effect to earning management. Default risk, as measured by debt to equity ratio and debt to asset ratio, has positive and significant effect on Earnings Management. Also, conservatism measured by earning / stock return relation and accrual has adverse and insignificant effect on earning management. Good Corporate Governance moderates weakening the effect of Corporate Social Responsibility as measured by economic, environmental to Earnings Management. Meanwhile, the interaction of Corporate Social Responsibility proxy by social with good corporate governance has a positive and significant effect. Good Corporate Governance moderates weakening the effect of default risk measured by debt to equity ratio on Earnings Management, while the interaction between default risk measured by debt to asset ratio with good corporate governance has positive and insignificant effect, so GCG does not moderate the effect of default risk as measured by debt to asset ratio to Earnings Management. Another result was that good Corporate governance does not moderate Conservatism effect measured by Earning

  20. THE EFFECT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISM, OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE, AND EXTERNAL AUDITOR TOWARD CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DISCLOSURE WITH EARNING MANAGEMENT AS MODERATING VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwana M.A.J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of earning management on corporate governance mechanism, ownership structure, and external auditor toward corporate social responsibility disclosure. This study finds that the increase of ownership structure (foreign ownership and institutional ownership will increase corporate social responsibility disclosure. However corporate governance mechanism and external auditor is not affecting corporate social responsibility disclosure. Furthermore, this study provides additional empirical evidence for agency theory especially agency cost, that corporate governance mechanism, ownership structure, and Big Four audit firm do not have an effective role as agency cost to prevent or decrease earning management practice.

  1. Gap Analysis: Application to Earned Value Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Gary O.; Franck, Raymond (Chip)

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) Earned Value is regarded as a useful tool to monitor commercial and defense system acquisitions. This paper applies the theoretical foundations and systematics of Gap Analysis to improve Earned Value Management. As currently implemented, Earned Value inaccurately provides a higher value for the work performed. This preliminary research indicates that Earned Value calculations can be corrected. Value Analysis, properly defined and enacted,...

  2. The Evolution of the Accounting Practices During the Recent Economic Crisis: Empirical Survey Regarding the Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Gorgan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial markets rely on confidence and confidence is supported by the presumption that financial statements are accurate and reflect the economic reality. Financial scandals from 2001-2002 as well as the recent economic crisis have raised questions about the integrity of accounting information provided to investors and other categories of users. In this context, our study aims to analyze the extent to which financial reporting is involved in financial crisis and, on the other hand to outline the changes produced by the crisis in the quality of financial information reported by companies. The main objective of the paper consist in arguing that earnings management by discretionary accruals for big European companies decline during the recent economic crisis compared to previous period

  3. World Record Earned Value Management System Certification for Cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA - 13181

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Ray; Hirschy, Anita [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR), East Tennessee Technology Park D and D and Environmental Remediation Project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On projects that require Earned Value Management (EVMS) Certification, it is critical to quickly prepare for and then successfully obtain certification. This is especially true for government contracts. Projects that do poorly during the review are subject to financial penalties to their company and they lose creditability with their customer creating problems with the project at the outset. At East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), we began preparing for Department of Energy (DOE) certification early during proposal development. Once the contract was awarded, while still in transition phase from the previous contractor to our new company, we immediately began reviewing the project controls systems that were in place on the project and determined if any replacements needed to be made immediately. The ETTP contract required the scheduling software to be upgraded to Primavera P6 and we determined that no other software changes would be done prior to certification. Next, preparation of the Project Controls System Description (PCSD) and associated procedures began using corporate standards as related to the project controls systems. During the transition phase, development was started on the Performance Measurement Baseline which is the resource loaded schedule used to measure our performance on the project and which is critical to good Earned Value Management of the project. Early on, and throughout the baseline review, there was positive feedback from the Department of Energy that the quality of the new baseline was good. Having this superior baseline also contributed to our success in EVMS certification. The combined companies of URS and CH2M Hill had recent experience with certifications at other Department of Energy sites and we were able to capitalize on that knowledge and experience. Generic PCSD and procedures consistent with our co-operations approach to Earned Value Management were available to us and were easily tailorable to the specifics of our contract

  4. World Record Earned Value Management System Certification for Cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA - 13181

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Ray; Hirschy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    On projects that require Earned Value Management (EVMS) Certification, it is critical to quickly prepare for and then successfully obtain certification. This is especially true for government contracts. Projects that do poorly during the review are subject to financial penalties to their company and they lose creditability with their customer creating problems with the project at the outset. At East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), we began preparing for Department of Energy (DOE) certification early during proposal development. Once the contract was awarded, while still in transition phase from the previous contractor to our new company, we immediately began reviewing the project controls systems that were in place on the project and determined if any replacements needed to be made immediately. The ETTP contract required the scheduling software to be upgraded to Primavera P6 and we determined that no other software changes would be done prior to certification. Next, preparation of the Project Controls System Description (PCSD) and associated procedures began using corporate standards as related to the project controls systems. During the transition phase, development was started on the Performance Measurement Baseline which is the resource loaded schedule used to measure our performance on the project and which is critical to good Earned Value Management of the project. Early on, and throughout the baseline review, there was positive feedback from the Department of Energy that the quality of the new baseline was good. Having this superior baseline also contributed to our success in EVMS certification. The combined companies of URS and CH2M Hill had recent experience with certifications at other Department of Energy sites and we were able to capitalize on that knowledge and experience. Generic PCSD and procedures consistent with our co-operations approach to Earned Value Management were available to us and were easily tailorable to the specifics of our contract

  5. Measuring earnings quality: Evidence from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nurul Houqe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We utilize two basic approaches to measure the quality of earnings which control two different dimensions of earnings management. The research design is structured primary on the basis of calculating two different measures of the quality of earnings on the industry level and on the company level. We calculate earnings quality for New Zealand public firms from the OSIRIS (http://www.osiris.com database for 2004-2007. This research concludes that various stakeholders should apply more than one measure for the quality of earning in order to have strong evidence about the level of quality before taking any corrective action or making any decision related to that company. If one company is having low quality of earning according to one technique and high quality of earnings according to another, the stakeholders cannot have a final conclusion about that company and they need more investigations and analysis to assess the quality of earnings

  6. Accounting standards and earnings management : The role of rules-based and principles-based accounting standards and incentives on accounting and transaction decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beest, van F.

    2012-01-01

    This book examines the effect that rules-based and principles-based accounting standards have on the level and nature of earnings management decisions. A cherry picking experiment is conducted to test the hypothesis that a substitution effect is expected from accounting decisions to transaction

  7. An Investigation of Techniques for Detecting Data Anomalies in Earned Value Management Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Management Studio Harte Hanks Trillium Software Trillium Software System IBM Info Sphere Foundation Tools Informatica Data Explorer Informatica ...Analyst Informatica Developer Informatica Administrator Pitney Bowes Business Insight Spectrum SAP BusinessObjects Data Quality Management DataFlux...menting quality monitoring efforts and tracking data quality improvements Informatica http://www.informatica.com/products_services/Pages/index.aspx

  8. An Analysis of Earned Value Management Implementation Within the F-22 System Program Office's Software Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dibert, John C; Velez, John C

    2006-01-01

    .... Acquisition Category ID programs like the US Air Force F-22 fighter program use EVM to manage their software development efforts, but has the program's implementation of EVM followed the industry...

  9. Earning public trust and confidence: Requisites for managing radioactive wastes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management was created in April 1991 by former Secretary James D. Watkins, who asked the group to analyze the critical institutional question of how the Department of Energy (DOE) might strengthen public trust and confidence in the civilian radioactive waste management program. The panel met eight times over a period of 27 months and heard formal presentations from nearly 100 representatives of state and local governments, non-governmental organizations, and senior DOE Headquarters and Field Office managers. The group also commissioned a variety of studies from independent experts, contracted with the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Public Administration to hold workshops on designing and leading trust-evoking organizations, and carried out one survey of parties affected by the Department`s radioactive waste management activities and a second one of DOE employees and contractors.

  10. Earning public trust and confidence: Requisites for managing radioactive wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management was created in April 1991 by former Secretary James D. Watkins, who asked the group to analyze the critical institutional question of how the Department of Energy (DOE) might strengthen public trust and confidence in the civilian radioactive waste management program. The panel met eight times over a period of 27 months and heard formal presentations from nearly 100 representatives of state and local governments, non-governmental organizations, and senior DOE Headquarters and Field Office managers. The group also commissioned a variety of studies from independent experts, contracted with the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Public Administration to hold workshops on designing and leading trust-evoking organizations, and carried out one survey of parties affected by the Department's radioactive waste management activities and a second one of DOE employees and contractors

  11. A study of the planned value estimation method for developing earned value management system in the nuclear power plant construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Moon, B.S.; Lee, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Earned Value Management System (EVMS) is a project management technique for measuring project performance and progress, and then forward projection through the integrated management and control of cost and schedule. This research reviewed the concept of the EVMS method, and proposes two Planned Value estimation methods for the potential application to succeeding NPP construction projects by using the historical data from the proceeding NPP projects. This paper is to introduce the solution for the problems caused by the absence of relevant management system incorporating schedule and cost, which has arisen as repeated issues in NPP construction project management. (author)

  12. A study of the planned value estimation method for developing earned value management system in the nuclear power plant construction project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Moon, B.S., E-mail: gustblast@khnp.co.kr, E-mail: moonbs@khnp.co.kr [Korea Hydro & Nuclear power co.,Ltd., Central Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H., E-mail: ljh@kkprotech.com [Kong Kwan Protech Co.,Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The Earned Value Management System (EVMS) is a project management technique for measuring project performance and progress, and then forward projection through the integrated management and control of cost and schedule. This research reviewed the concept of the EVMS method, and proposes two Planned Value estimation methods for the potential application to succeeding NPP construction projects by using the historical data from the proceeding NPP projects. This paper is to introduce the solution for the problems caused by the absence of relevant management system incorporating schedule and cost, which has arisen as repeated issues in NPP construction project management. (author)

  13. Nursing Management Visionary Leader 2006: North Carolina chief nurse officer earns journal's annual leadership award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The following manuscript is the winning Visionary Leader 2006 entry submitted to Nursing Management by the staff of Moses Cone Health System, Greensboro, N.C., in recognition of Joan Wessman, chief nurse officer at the organization. Joan was formally recognized for her achievements during the opening ceremony of Congress 2006, October 15, in Philadelphia, Pa., during which she received the award, sponsored this year by B.E. Smith.

  14. The U.S. Department of Defenses Earned Value ManagementAnalyst Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Military Departments or the Combat- ant Commands” ( Higgins and Ramsey, 2009, p. 2). 2 The Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) offers its workforce its...LeBlanc, Michelle Trigg, and Jonathan Higgins . The data call would not have been fielded without their expertise and support. Finally, we acknowledge...the BFM workforce. As indicated in Figure 3.1, EVM 101 (Fundamentals of EVM) is required for level I certification and EVM 201 ( Intermediate EVM) is

  15. Pengaruh Mekanisme Good Corporate Governance, Financial Distress terhadap Earning Management dengan Variabel Financial Distress sebagai Mediasi : Studi Empiris pada Perusahaan Pertambangan yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Fathoni, Ahmad Fauzan; Ewanto, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of good corporate governance on Earning Management and Financial Distress on mining companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI ) in the year 2009-2011. Variables tested in this study consists of institutional ownership,managerial ownership, the proportion of audit committee and independent commissioners, earningsmanagement and financial distress.The sample was mining companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange ( IDX years 2009-2011). The sam...

  16. An ex ante control chart for project monitoring using earned duration management observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaji, Seyed Taha Hossein; Noori, Siamak; Noorossana, Rassoul; Bagherpour, Morteza

    2017-12-01

    In the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in developing project control systems. The primary purpose of such systems is to indicate whether the actual performance is consistent with the baseline and to produce a signal in the case of non-compliance. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in monitoring project's performance indicators, by plotting them on the Shewhart-type control charts over time. However, these control charts are fundamentally designed for processes and ignore project-specific dynamics, which can lead to weak results and misleading interpretations. By paying close attention to the project baseline schedule and using statistical foundations, this paper proposes a new ex ante control chart which discriminates between acceptable (as-planned) and non-acceptable (not-as-planned) variations of the project's schedule performance. Such control chart enables project managers to set more realistic thresholds leading to a better decision making for taking corrective and/or preventive actions. For the sake of clarity, an illustrative example has been presented to show how the ex ante control chart is constructed in practice. Furthermore, an experimental investigation has been set up to analyze the performance of the proposed control chart. As expected, the results confirm that, when a project starts to deflect significantly from the project's baseline schedule, the ex ante control chart shows a respectable ability to detect and report right signals while avoiding false alarms.

  17. Essays on Earnings Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mark

    This dissertation addresses the prediction of corporate earnings. The thesis aims to examine whether the degree of precision in earnings forecasts can be increased by basing them on historical financial ratios. Furthermore, the intent of the dissertation is to analyze whether accounting standards...... forecasts are not more accurate than the simpler forecasts based on a historical timeseries of earnings. Secondly, the dissertation shows how accounting standards affect analysts’ earnings predictions. Accounting conservatism contributes to a more volatile earnings process, which lowers the accuracy...... of analysts’ earnings forecasts. Furthermore, the dissertation shows how the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of information about corporate earnings depends on how well corporate earnings can be predicted. The dissertation indicates that the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of earnings...

  18. The net effects of the Project NetWork return-to-work case management experiment on participant earnings, benefit receipt, and other outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, R; Rupp, K

    2000-01-01

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) initiated Project NetWork in 1991 to test case management as a means of promoting employment among persons with disabilities. The demonstration, which targeted Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) applicants and recipients, offered intensive outreach, work-incentive waivers, and case management/referral services. Participation in Project NetWork was voluntary. Volunteers were randomly assigned to the "treatment" group or the "control" group. Those assigned to the treatment group met individually with a case or referral manager who arranged for rehabilitation and employment services, helped clients develop an individual employment plan, and provided direct employment counseling services. Volunteers assigned to the control group could not receive services from Project NetWork but remained eligible for any employment assistance already available in their communities. For both treatment and control groups, the demonstration waived specific DI and SSI program rules considered to be work disincentives. The experimental impact study thus measures the incremental effects of case and referral management services. The eight demonstration sites were successful in implementing the experimental design roughly as planned. Project NetWork staff were able to recruit large numbers of participants and to provide rehabilitation and employment services on a substantial scale. Most of the sites easily reached their enrollment targets and were able to attract volunteers with demographic characteristics similar to those of the entire SSI and DI caseload and a broad range of moderate and severe disabilities. However, by many measures, volunteers were generally more "work-ready" than project eligible in the demonstration areas who did not volunteer to receive NetWork services. Project NetWork case management increased average annual earnings by $220 per year over the first 2 years following

  19. Cooking the books around initial public offerings : A study about the pervasiveness of earnings management and investor protection regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Seger (Jasper)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMost prior studies suggest that firms opportunistically increase their earnings around an initial public offering (IPO). With a sample of 512 IPOs in 24 countries worldwide I find that IPO firms that are under suspicion of such behaviour, represent only a small proportion (+/-10%) of the

  20. Women's Earnings: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, women's real earnings rose whereas those of men declined. Even as the gender pay gap narrowed, earnings differences between white women and black and Hispanic women continued to grow. (Author)

  1. The Entrepreneurial Earnings Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing; Åstebro, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A review of recent evidence on relative earnings from entrepreneurship versus wage work presents a puzzle: why do individuals become entrepreneurs when entrepreneurs on average apparently earn less than employees? After considering several potential explanations, we empirically analyze one: income...

  2. Decommissioning Programme Management: reducing risk and cost while accelerating schedules through improved planning, Earned Value Management and safe work execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    CH2M HILL experience includes more than two decades of managing nuclear facilities and providing clean-up and operations support for commercial and government facilities worldwide. Our expertise ranges from decommissioning and defence sector businesses to nuclear technology development and innovation. Our approach places top priority on the safe execution of work while reducing both risk and cost. Our nuclear services include: programme management, nuclear safety analysis, radiological protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear remediation, nuclear materials and waste transportation management, nuclear safeguards and security services, and nuclear decontamination and decommissioning. This paper will discuss our approach which has resulted in a strong track record of accelerating schedules and reducing costs of major nuclear programmes, including Rocky Flats, Idaho, and our work at UKAEA sites. (author)

  3. Market liquidity around earnings announcements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Prior literature indicates that bid-ask spreads are higher and depths are lower around earnings announcements than during non-announcement periods. This thesis investigates two important aspects of this drop in market liquidity, namely (a) the ability of management to mitigate the drop in market

  4. Thoughts on Earned Value Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pido, Kelle

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned Value reporting and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,

  5. Does Hazy Weather Influence Earnings Management of Heavy-Polluting Enterprises? A Chinese Empirical Study from the Perspective of Negative Social Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2014 APEC Conference, there was a long presence of blue sky (APEC Blue after a long-time occurrence of hazy weather in Beijing, China, which prompted the public’s attention to heavy-polluting enterprises to reach a new peak. Will the public’s negative concern about the incident will affect the operation of heavy-polluting enterprises? In this paper, we analyzed the influence of the haze-related exogenous events before and after the “APEC Blue” on earnings management of heavy-polluting enterprises from a new perspective of negative social attention. We carry out research from three perspectives for further research, which involve the growth in the demand for accounting information disclosure, the increase of consumers’ low-carbon consciousness and differences in the amount of attention on enterprises with different properties and scales. Results indicate that heavy-polluting enterprises have stronger preference for downward earnings management, especially in those enterprises that are large in scale, non-state owned, or have a direct relationship with consumers.

  6. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...... by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers....

  7. Accounting standards and investor perception of earnings quality: IAS/IFRS vs. German Gaap

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari Mascia; Momentè Francesco; Reggiani Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the earnings quality under the IAS/IFRS and German GAAP by evaluating the earnings management degree in IAS and HGB adopters and by investigating what is the level of uncertainty (reliability) that investors perceive from the earnings announced. Our results show that IAS and HGB adopters do not present any significant differences in earnings management, if we examine the working capital accruals, while IAS/IFRS sub-sample is less engaged in earnings management, considering the tota...

  8. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Earnings Management: Empirical Evidence from the Top 5,000 Non-Listed Stock Italian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Account manipulation has been the subject of accounting discussions not only in the U.S. but across the world, especially during times of financial crises. This paper investigates the impact of the recent financial crisis on account manipulation probability by adopting the Beneish Model (1999, 2013 of eight performance ratios. The analysis has been conducted using the Top 5,000 Non-Listed Stock Italian Companies (Società Per Azioni ranked by revenues during the time period 2005-2012. We use the AIDA Bureau Van Dijk database. We test the existence of earnings management (EM within the Top Non-Listed Stock Italian Companies through a comparison between the pre-crisis period (2005-2008 and the crisis period (2009-2012. Our findings show that the number of firms with a higher likelihood of earnings manipulation decreases by 4.53% from the pre-crisis to crisis period. As a consequence, we argue that EM increases when the crisis is weak while EM decreases during the crisis period.

  9. Spent nuclear fuel management system of research reactor KINR NAS of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slisenko, V.I.; Makarovskij, V.N.; Mazina, N.I.; D'yakov, A.G.; Andronov, O.B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of work - development of optimum, technically simple and reliable system of SNF management of research nuclear reactor taking into account received statistics and experience of long-term operation of reactor. The objective of this work - to place existing system of SNF management in conformity with modern normative requirements on the basis of 'ALARA' principle and taking into account the specificity of the object of application

  10. Industry earnings plummet 34%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.B.; Sanders, V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that earnings for the first 9 months of 1992 plunged from the year ago level for a sample of U.S. oil and gas companies. However, increased natural gas prices sparked improvement in the third quarter. Year to date earnings for a group of integrated and nonintegrated companies fell 34% to $8.6 billion compared to a year ago on revenues that fell less than 1%. But third quarter earnings for the group jumped 28% to $3.3 billion on revenues that increased 7% to $119.9 billion. Special charges for restructuring, writedowns, and property dispositions continued to affect companies in the third quarter

  11. An Integrated Gate Turnaround Management Concept Leveraging Big Data/Analytics for NAS Performance Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William; Chachad, Girish; Hochstetler, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Gate Turnaround Management (IGTM) concept was developed to improve the gate turnaround performance at the airport by leveraging relevant historical data to support optimization of airport gate operations, which include: taxi to the gate, gate services, push back, taxi to the runway, and takeoff, based on available resources, constraints, and uncertainties. By analyzing events of gate operations, primary performance dependent attributes of these events were identified for the historical data analysis such that performance models can be developed based on uncertainties to support descriptive, predictive, and prescriptive functions. A system architecture was developed to examine system requirements in support of such a concept. An IGTM prototype was developed to demonstrate the concept using a distributed network and collaborative decision tools for stakeholders to meet on time pushback performance under uncertainties.

  12. MENDETEKSI EARNINGS MANAGEMENT DAN AKUN-AKUN YANG BERPENGARUH (Studi Pada Perusahaan Yang Melakukan Aktivitas Penawaran Saham Perdana Di Bursa Efek Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OTTO - BUDIHARDJO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Earnings Management (EM is an effort performed by company management as financial report issuer on purpose to influence the readers and stakeholders behavior who rely on financial reports as their primary information source, in accordance with firm managements’ direction.   EM motivations may vary, from remuneration reason, merger and acquisition event, to comply with particular requirement and regulation, to initial public offering (IPO motivation. This study revealed EM effort in IPO event due to management motivation to demonstrate good performance to public before and during such activity. This study took 50 IPO firms listed at Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX within 1998-2002. EM detection adopted Modified Jones Model as a powerful model to detect EM. Test result proved that EM was occurred on JSX IPO firms as stated by positive discretionary accruals (DA.                  Further study tried to reveal accounts used as EM tools. This study utilized linear regression with DA as fixed variable to indicate EM and predicted accounts on financial reports used as way to do EM as explanatory variables. Such explanatory variables are account receivable, account payable, inventory, accrued liability, accumulated depreciation, expenses (selling and general administrative and other income (expense. Test result showed that only two variables statistically significant to dependent variable, i.e. DA, they were account receivable and account payable. This result supports a study by Marquardt and Wiedman (2002 who found that EM during IPO activity was influenced by account receivable in positive direction. However, this study does not support Wiedyaningdyah (2001 who concluded IPO activity in JSX during 1994-1997 was significantly influenced by liability (leverage. This study recommends investors or any other parties who rely on firm financial report during IPO activity on JSX to behave more conservative on net income as reported by

  13. A Digital Analysis Of The Reported Earnings Of Asian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kathy H.Y. Hsu; Thomas E. Wilson, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research (Carslaw, 1988; Thomas, 1989) has noted unusual patterns in the frequency of occurrence of certain digits contained in reported earnings. Employing digital analysis, studies have found that managers in the U.S. and Australia may round reported earnings numbers to achieve income-smoothing objectives. This study extends prior literature by examining whether reported earnings of firms from six Asian countries: South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and China follo...

  14. The Effect of Leverage and Financial Distress on Earnings Management with Good Corporate Governance as the Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anugerah Iman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available t Every investor wants his company’s financial statement to be in accordance with the condition of the company. In practice, it often occurs that a company does profit management to attract investors’ interest. The factors which can increase the practice of profit management are leverage and financial distress. The objective of the research was to find out and to analyze the influence of leverage and financial distress on profit management with good corporate governance as moderating variable in banking companies in Indonesia. The research used descriptive explanatory method. The data were gathered by conducting documentary study. The population was 42 banking companies listed in BEI (Indonesia Stock Exchange and the population target was 30 companies. The gathered data were analyzed by using path analysis with E-views 7.0 Software program. The result of the first model showed that leverage and financial distress simultaneously had positive and significant influence on profit management in banking companies in Indonesia at the coefficient determination (R2 of 0.1243 or 12.43%. Partially, leverage had positive and significant influence on profit management, and financial distress had negative but significant influence on profit management in banking companies in Indonesia. The result of the second model showed that institutional ownership as moderating variable could not weaken and strengthen the influence of financial distress on profit management and was considered as potential moderation. The result of the third model showed that managerial ownership as moderating variable could weaken the influence of leverage on profit management and was stated as quasi moderation. It can also weaken the influence of financial distress on profit management and was stated as quasi moderation. The result of the fourth model showed that independent commissioners as moderating variable could not weaken or strengthen the influence of leverage on profit

  15. Personality, Education and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Economists are only beginning to understand the relationship between personality traits and economic outcomes. This paper examines the influence of childhood social maladjustment on cognitive development, labor market earnings and career progression using longitudinal data drawn from the National Child Development Study. Net of differences in…

  16. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  17. Presentation of 2004 earnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This presentation offers financial information on the AREVA Group earnings for the year 2004. With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, Areva offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The Group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. (A.L.B.)

  18. The Audit Committee Characteristics and Earnings Quality: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam Mohammed Mousa Hamdan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the relationship between audit committee characteristics and earnings management. Samples in the study included 50 industrial companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange ASE. Two models were used to measure earnings quality: one which depends on earnings continuity as an indication of quality, and one which depends on the decrease of discretionary accruals of quality, using pooled data regression for the two tests (Ordinary Least Squares OLS and Binary Logit. The study found that there was an influence of some standard characteristics of the audit committee on earnings quality.

  19. Family Control and Earnings Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bona Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza la relación entre el control familiar y la calidad de la información contable en un contexto en el que el tradicional conflicto de agencia entre directivos y accionistas se desplaza a la divergencia de intereses entre accionistas controladores y minoritarios. Los resultados alcanzados muestran que, en comparación con las no familiares, las empresas de naturaleza familiar divulgan unos resultados de mayor calidad, tanto en términos de menores ajustes por devengo discrecionales como de mayor capacidad de los componentes actuales del resultado para predecir los cash flows futuros. Además, el aumento en los derechos de voto en manos de la familia controladora incrementa la calidad de los resultados contables. La evidencia obtenida se muestra consistente con la presencia de un efecto reputación/vinculación a largo plazo asociado a la empresa familiar. Adicionalmente, el trabajo refleja que a medida que disminuye la divergencia entre los derechos de voto y de cash flow en manos de la familia controladora, aumenta la calidad de la información contable.PALABRAS CLAVE: derechos de voto, divergencia, empresa familiar, calidad delresultado, reputación, beneficios privados.This work examines the relationship between family control and earnings quality in a context where the salient agency problem shifts away from the classical divergence between managers and shareholders to conflicts between the controlling owner and minority shareholders. The results reveal that, compared to non-family firms, family firms reveal higher earnings quality in terms of both lower discretionary accruals and greater predictability of future cash flows. They also show a positive relationship between the level of voting rights held by the controlling family and earnings quality. The evidence is consistent with the presence of a reputation/long-term involvement effect associated with the family firm. Moreover, the work reflects that, as the divergence

  20. Share price reaction to earnings announcement on the JSE-ALtX: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of testing this concept has been the observation of stock market reaction to corporate ... earnings. Earnings also display management's competitiveness in profitably running a company ... drifts positively in the case of good announcements or negatively in the case of bad ... the gains from trading on annual earnings strategy.

  1. Ownership structure and earnings management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Jai, Hind

    2012-01-01

    Does poor legal protection of minority shareholders provide enough incentives for majority shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders and hide their unscrupulous behavior through accounting manipulations? This paper attempts to study the effect of ownership structure (ownership of the larg......Does poor legal protection of minority shareholders provide enough incentives for majority shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders and hide their unscrupulous behavior through accounting manipulations? This paper attempts to study the effect of ownership structure (ownership...

  2. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Talented individuals are seen as drivers of long-term growth, but how do they realize their full potential? In this paper, I show that lifetime earnings of high-IQ men and women are substantially influenced by their personality traits, in addition to intelligence and education. Personality traits......, as identified in a factor model, significantly affect earnings, but not for young workers. The effects are furthermore heterogeneous by educational attainment. For women, personality traits do not affect family earnings in the same way as own earnings. Personality and IQ also influence earnings indirectly...... through education, which has sizeable positive rates of return for men in this sample. Women’s returns to education past a bachelor’s degree are lowered through worse marriage prospects, which offset gains to education in terms of own earnings. The causal effect of education is identified through matching...

  3. Birth Order, Schooling, and Earnings.

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R; Taubman, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Birth-order effects are posited by many to affect earnings and schooling. The authors show how such effects can be interpreted to shift either the earnings possibility frontier for siblings or parental preferences. The authors find empirical evidence for birth- order effects on (age-adjusted) schooling and on earnings for young U.S. adults, though the latter is not robust for all specifications. The examination of intrahousehold allocations suggests that these birth-order differences occur, d...

  4. Obesity, Unemployment, and Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Härkönen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effects of obesity—a clear signal of weight abnormality—on unemployment and earnings among Finnish men and women. Our empirical data consist of the last four waves (waves 4 to 8 of the Finnish section of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP data collected between 1998 and 2001. According to our results, obese women have a significantly higher risk of unemployment (even after controlling for age, level of education and other related factors, than women who are not obese. Furthermore, the generally weaker occupational positions of obese women tend to translate to lower earnings. Overall, obese women are more likely to have weaker labour market attachment  and hold socio-economically weaker positions. Similar results were not found among men. Thus, our results indicate the presence of gender discrimination in the Finnish labour market. In the conclusions we further discuss weight related impacts on succeeding in the labour market, but also its role as a possible risk factor in drifting away from employment. We reflect on this issue as a form of inequality that can have an increasing significance in the future.

  5. UAS-NAS Stakeholder Feedback Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Debra; Murphy, Jim; Grindle, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vital importance to national security and defense, emergency management, science, and to enable commercial applications has been continually increasing over the past few years. To address this need, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Integrated Aviation Systems Program (IASP) formulated and funded the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project (hereafter referred to as UAS-NAS Project) from 2011 to 2016. The UAS-NAS Project identified the following need statement: The UAS community needs routine access to the global airspace for all classes of UAS. The Project identified the following goal: To provide research findings to reduce technical barriers associated with integrating UAS into the NAS utilizing integrated system level tests in a relevant environment. This report provides a summary of the collaborations between the UAS-NAS Project and its primary stakeholders and how the Project applied and incorporated the feedback.

  6. Earnings and bank profitability in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank earnings in form of retained profit help in the capital formation of banks. This is critical because capital inadequacy is often a cause of bank failures. During the banking crisis in Nigeria the gross earnings of many banks diminished considerably due to frauds and bad management. For example, in 2009 the Central Bank of Nigeria revoked the operating licences of fourteen banks which had huge nonperforming loans and were making losses. The fragility in the Nigerian banking system in the 1990s and beyond was compounded due to wide spread poor corporate governance practices and imprudent lending that led to the erosion of gross earnings and profitability. The study employed the exploratory research design. Data analyses were done through description statistics and the regression technique using the statistical package for the social sciences. The regression result was Y = 4.926 + 1.877x meaning that with an increase of 1 percent in gross earnings bank profitability increases by 1.88 percent. This is the crux of the study.

  7. 7 CFR 1767.25 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retained earnings. 1767.25 Section 1767.25....25 Retained earnings. The retained earnings accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] ...

  8. Earnings, employment and income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,

  9. 47 CFR 32.4550 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4550 Retained earnings. (a) This account shall include the undistributed balance of retained earnings derived from the...

  10. Earnings Public-Use File, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Social Security Administration released Earnings Public-Use File (EPUF) for 2006. File contains earnings information for individuals drawn from a systematic random...

  11. R&D EXPENDITURES AND EARNINGS TARGETS: EVIDENCE FROM FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Guidara, Rihab; Boujelbene, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) investments reduce current-period earnings while the benefits associated with the investments occur in the future. This problem implies an earnings management tool to boost short-term performance. While there is much evidence regarding managerial discretion through R&D capitalization, empirical studies that directly examine managerial discretion through R&D expenditure adjusting have not been widely provided in the European context. This paper seeks ...

  12. R&D EXPENDITURES AND EARNINGS TARGETS: EVIDENCE FROM FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Guidara, Rihab; Boujelbene, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) investments reduce current-period earnings while the benefits associated with the investments occur in the future. This problem implies an earnings management tool to boost short-term performance. While there is much evidence regarding managerial discretion through R&D capitalization, empirical studies that directly examine managerial discretion through R&D expenditure adjusting have not been widely provided in the European context. This ...

  13. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of personality traits and IQ on lifetime earnings of the men and women of the Terman study, a high-IQ U.S. sample. Age-by-age earnings profiles allow a study of when personality traits affect earnings most, and for whom the effects are strongest. I document...... a concave life-cycle pattern in the payoffs to personality traits, with the largest effects between the ages of 40 and 60. An interaction of traits with education reveals that personality matters most for highly educated men. The largest effects are found for Conscientiousness, Extraversion...

  14. Cancer pain management and the opioid crisis in America: How to preserve hard-earned gains in improving the quality of cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paice, Judith A

    2018-06-15

    Cancer pain remains a feared consequence of the disease and its treatment. Although prevalent, cancer pain can usually be managed through the skillful application of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions. Unfortunately, access to these therapies has been hampered by interventions designed to contain another serious public health problem: the opioid misuse epidemic. This epidemic and the unintended consequences of efforts to control this outbreak are leading to significant barriers to the provision of cancer pain relief. Oncologists and other professionals treating those with cancer pain will require new knowledge and tools to provide safe and effective pain control while preventing additional cases of substance use disorders (SUDs), helping patients in recovery to maintain sobriety, and guiding those not yet in recovery to seek treatment. How do these 2 serious epidemics intersect and affect oncology practice? First, oncology professionals will need to adopt practices to prevent SUDs by assessing risk and providing safe pain care. Second, oncology practices are likely to see an increased number of patients with a current or past SUD, including opioid misuse. Few guidelines exist for the direct management of pain when opioids may be indicated in these individuals. Third, modified prescribing practices along with the education of patients and families are warranted to prevent the exposure of these medications to unintended persons. Finally, advocacy on behalf of those with cancer pain is imperative to avoid losing access to essential therapies, including opioids, for those who might benefit. Cancer 2018;124:2491-7. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  15. Social desirability of earnings tests

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    In many countries pension systems involve some form of earnings test; i.e., an invidual's benefits are reduced if he has labor income. This paper examines whether or not such earning tests emerge when pension system and income tax are optimally designed. We use a simple model with individuals differing both in productivity and their health status. The working life of an individual has two 'endings': an official retirement age at which he starts drawing pension benefits (while possibly supplem...

  16. Can earnings manipulation create value?

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Miglo

    2008-01-01

    Existing literature usually considers earnings manipulation to be a negative social phenomenon. We argue that earnings manipulation can be a part of the equilibrium relationships between firm's insiders and outsiders. We consider an optimal contract between an entrepreneur and an investor where the entrepreneur is subject to a double moral hazard problem (one being the choice of production effort and the other being intertemporal substitution, which consists of transferring cash flows between...

  17. Earnings Inequality in International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Peracchi, Franco

    1999-01-01

    The increase in dispersion of personal earnings in the USA has received considerable attention and has been analyzed extensively. The evidence for other countries is less systematic. There are a few comparative studies, but they tend to focus on descriptions of the overall distribution of income or earnings. This paper compares the USA with other countries in order to understand whether the US experience is relatively unique or is instead part of a global (or perhaps industrial countries) phe...

  18. Self-Esteem and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Recent research in economics suggests a positive association between self-esteem and earnings. A major problem in this literature is that from simple cross-sectional wage regressions it is not possible to conclude that self-esteem has a causal impact on earnings. While classical measurement error leads to an attenuation bias, reverse causality and omitted variable are likely to drive the OLS coefficient on self-esteem upward. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that adminis...

  19. PENGARUH PREMANAGED EARNINGS DAN DIVIDEN YANG DIHARAPKAN TERHADAP PRAKTIK MANAJEMEN LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Anita Wibiksono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether the companies paying dividend in the previous year (payers are more likely to perform earnings management than companies that do not (non-payers in order to meet the expected dividend. The study also examines the impact of premanaged earnings and expected dividend on earnings management practices. Sample used in this research are manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010-2012. The findings suggest that there is a significant negative relationship between premanaged earnings and discretionary accruals, and a significant positive relationship between the expected dividends and discretionary accruals. This study concludes that dividend is important determinant of earnings thresholds. However, dividend is not a unique motivation to perform earnings management.

  20. Effects of pasture system management on physical properties Efeitos de sistemas de manejo de pastagens nas propriedades físicas do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Martins Ferreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil physical quality is associated with infiltration, retention and availability of water for plants respond to the management and resists degradation, allows the exchange of heat and gases with the atmosphere and allows plant roots and root growth. The objective of this review is to gather information on soil quality and the effects of anthropogenic systems of pasture management on physical properties. Between physical properties proposed for study of soil quality in pastures, to include vegetation, water erosion, organic matter, aggregate stability, soil macrofauna, density, porosity and water retention in soil because they distinguish the effects caused by soil management systems and contribute to the monitoring of pasture management.A qualidade física do solo está associada à infiltração, retenção e disponibilização de água às plantas; responde ao manejo e resiste à degradação; permite as trocas de calor e de gases com a atmosfera e raízes de plantas e permite o crescimento das raízes. Objetivou-se nesta revisão reunir informações sobre a qualidade do solo e os efeitos das ações antrópicas dos sistemas de manejo de pastagens nas propriedades físicas. Dentre os parâmetros propostos para estudo da qualidade do solo com pastagens, incluem-se a cobertura vegetal, a erosão hídrica, a matéria orgânica, a estabilidade de agregados, a macrofauna do solo, a densidade, a porosidade e a retenção de água no solo, pois os mesmos permitem distinguir os efeitos proporcionados pelos sistemas de manejo nos solos e contribuem para o monitoramento do manejo das pastagens.

  1. Liderança e influência nas fases da gestão de projetos Leadership and influence in the phases of management of projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária de Fátima Segger Macri Russo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o papel de liderança como um dos fatores críticos de sucesso do gerente de projetos. Com base em um levantamento, foram identificadas algumas das competências e as habilidades que mais contribuíram para o sucesso do projeto, dentro das fases definidas pelo PMI (2004. Essas competências e habilidades foram classificadas segundo as características dos projetos. O levantamento foi feito junto a uma amostra de concluintes de cursos de gerenciamento de projetos. O trabalho não fornece recomendações, mas princípios encontrados nas situações selecionadas pelos respondentes. Os resultados deste estudo podem ser relevantes para pessoas que gerenciam ou gerenciarão projetos, para que possam refletir sobre como melhorar ou como adquirir algumas habilidades, elevando a probabilidade de sucesso.This article analyzes the role of leadership as a critical factor for success of project manager. On the basis of a survey, it was identified some of competences and skills that most contributed to the success of the project, within the phases described by PMI (2004. These competences and skills were classified by project characteristics. The survey was done with a sample graduated senior students of management projects courses. This work does not give advices, but principles founded in interviews select situation. The results could be relevant for project managers or future project managers in order to reflect about improving or acquiring some competence, in a way to raise the possibility of success.

  2. 新会计准则对上市公司盈余管理的影响研究%Research on the Effect of New Accounting Principles to Earnings Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪思梦

    2012-01-01

    Earnings management has become a focus in the field of accounting research, as the negative effect caused by it on the capital market and the investors' interest has grown severer. Accounting principle is the key factor of harnessing earnings management. The financial data of the listed companies from 2004 to 2009 is analyzed, to find out whether this new accounting principle can reduce earnings management. The results show that there is no obvious improvement of accounting information. Difference effect appears among different industries.%盈余管理对资本市场的有效性和投资者的利益的损害日以彰显,针对它的研究一直是我国会计实证研究的热点问题.2007年,我国开始在上市公司实施新会计准则.针对新会计准则实施后是否改善中国盈余管理的现象进行研究,选取2004年-2009年我国上市公司财务数据为样本,运用截面修正Jones模型,进行实证分析.在对可操控性应计利润的计量上,分别采用不包括先下项目的应计利润法和包括线下项目的应计利润法.得出以下结论:整体而言,新会计准则并没有改善上市公司盈余管理程度;研究进一步对中国上市公司按照行业进行分类,研究新会计准则实施后对盈余管理程度的影响在行业间是否存在差异,结果发现,在2007年新会计准则实施以后,盈余管理的变化情况随行业不同而不同.

  3. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  4. Sexual orientation, disclosure and earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, E.; Berkhout, P.

    2008-01-01

    Gay/bisexual workers tend to earn less than other men. Does this occur because of discrimination or because of selection? In this paper we address this question and collect new information on workplace disclosure to separate out discrimination effects from selection effects. Using a large sample of

  5. Physical Attractiveness, Employment, and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Pfeifer

    2011-01-01

    Survey data is used to estimate the impact of physical attractiveness rated by the interviewer as well as by the respondent on employment probability and labor income of men and women. In addition to mean linear and non-linear effects on earnings, simultaneous quantile regressions are applied to analyze heterogeneity across the wage distribution.

  6. Improving the Measurement of Earnings Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Moira K.; Hryshko, Dmytro; Manovskii, Iourii

    The stochastic process for earnings is the key element of incomplete markets models in modern quantitative macroeconomics. We show that a simple modification of the canonical process used in the literature leads to a dramatic improvement in the measurement of earnings dynamics in administrative....... Accounting for these effects enables more accurate analysis using quantitative models with permanent and transitory earnings risk, and improves empirical estimates of consumption insurance against permanent earnings shocks....

  7. ATRF Earns Three Green Globes, Exceeds NIH Building Standards | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer From project management and energy and water efficiency to emissions and the indoor environment, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) was built with sustainability in mind, exceeding the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) building standards and earning three Green Globes from the Green Building Initiative (GBI).

  8. Do analysts disclose cash flow forecasts with earnings estimates when earnings quality is low?

    OpenAIRE

    Bilinski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cash flows are incrementally useful to earnings in security valuation mainly when earnings quality is low. This suggests that when earnings quality decreases, analysts will be more likely to supplement their earnings forecasts with cash flow estimates. Contrary to this prediction, we find that analysts do not disclose cash flow forecasts when the quality of earnings is low. This is because cash flow forecast accuracy depends on the accuracy of the accrual estimates and the precision of accrua...

  9. Earnings and Job Satisfaction of Employed Spanish Doctoral Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Canal Domínguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for highly qualifi ed workers in developed countries has raised a new interest in analysing whether doctoral training meets the needs of the European labour market. Job satisfaction enables an approach to both the relationship between training and job position and to a company?s successful management of its relationship with those workers who are PhD holders. The results indicate that an analysis based on earnings is relevant, as it makes it possible to identify two clear job satisfaction behaviours: on the one hand, as earnings increase, so does job satisfaction, although this is found to a lesser extent in the higher earnings range; on the other hand, when moving up in the salary range, the relative assessment of job satisfaction components changes, as well as their signifi cance in explaining the variations in job satisfaction.

  10. Separating the Stock Market′s Reaction to Simultaneous Dividend and Earnings Announcements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sponholtz, Carina Margit

    asymmetries between shareholders and management. We find that the stock market reacts to surprise in management forecasts of next year's earnings and the current dividend. Additional breakdowns reveal that the signalling models and free cash flow hypothesis provide explanations for separate components......We analyze simultanous announcements of current dividends, current earnings and managment forecasts of next year's earnings. By conducting the empirical analysis using Danish data, this study is the first not to suffer from problems related to low levels of agency costs and informational...

  11. Numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.; Ballhaus, W.F. Jr.; Bailey, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program is designed to provide a leading-edge computational capability to the aerospace community. It was recognized early in the program that, in addition to more advanced computers, the entire computational process ranging from problem formulation to publication of results needed to be improved to realize the full impact of computational aerodynamics. Therefore, the NAS Program has been structured to focus on the development of a complete system that can be upgraded periodically with minimum impact on the user and on the inventory of applications software. The implementation phase of the program is now under way. It is based upon nearly 8 yr of study and should culminate in an initial operational capability before 1986. The objective of this paper is fivefold: 1) to discuss the factors motivating the NAS program, 2) to provide a history of the activity, 3) to describe each of the elements of the processing-system network, 4) to outline the proposed allocation of time to users of the facility, and 5) to describe some of the candidate problems being considered for the first benchmark codes

  12. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  13. Job Search and Earnings Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    David Turchick

    2014-01-01

    Measures of social mobility provide an extra dimension for testing job search models. The present note tests the dynamic model in [Acemoglu, D., 1999. Changes in unemployment and wage inequality: an alternative theory and some evidence. American Economic Review 89, 1259-1278] with respect to Fields’ mobility-as-an-equalizer-of-longer-term-incomes index. The 1980s in the U.S. were not only a period of raising inequality, but also one of longer-term earnings becoming even more unequal than shor...

  14. Abnormal Retained Earnings Around The World

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Paulo; Silva, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Using a firm-level survey database covering 50 countries we evaluate firms´ abnormal retained earnings. The results of our work indicate that firms located in emerging markets retain more earnings than firms from developed countries. On the other hand, firms located on common law based countries retain earnings above the expected and higher than firms placed on civil law based countries. A possible explanation, according to our results, can be seen in the economic growth that these countries ...

  15. Optimal earnings-related umemployment benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Taslimi, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Existing unemployment insurance systems in many OECD countries involve a ceiling on insurable earnings. The result is lower replacement rate for employees with relatively high earnings. This paper examines whether replacement rates should decrease as the level of earnings rises. The framework is a search equilibrium model where wages are determined by Nash bargaining between firms and workers, job search intensity is endogenous and workers are heterogeneous. The analysis suggests higher repla...

  16. Gerenciamento de resultados em bancos com uso de TVM: validação de modelo de dois estágios Securities-based earnings management in nanks: validation of a two-stage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alves Dantas

    2013-04-01

    menor porte e nos controlados por capital privado.Studies investigating earnings management in banks have been particularly concerned with the use of Loan Loss Provisions (LLP and mainly use two-stage models to identify discretionary management actions. Another type of record that has received attention from researchers in identifying discretionary management actions is the classification and measurement of the fair value of securities. In this case, however, one-stage models have prevailed. The present study aims to develop and validate a two-stage model for the identification of discretionary management actions using gains obtained from securities. Our model incorporates macroeconomic indicators and specific attributes of the securities portfolios to the traditional parameters used in models previously utilized in the literature. To validate the proposed model, the results are compared with the results from the estimation of a one-stage model - a methodology widely used in the literature. Tests conducted with the two models reveal evidence of income smoothing using securities and the classification of available-for-sale securities among the actions taken by management. The consistency of the results across the two models validates the proposed model, thereby contributing to the development of research on the topic that is not only concerned with determining whether earnings management is practiced but also whether it can be associated with other variables. We also find that securities-based earnings management is more significant in smaller-sized banks and in banks controlled by private capital.

  17. 会计准则模式、会计专业能力与盈余管理行为%Accounting Principle Mode, Accounting Professional Ability and the Earnings Management Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶陈刚; 徐伟; 冯银波

    2016-01-01

    本文依据会计准则制定的两种基本模式,分析中国会计准则(CAS)新修订后的实际应用效果差异及经济后果。会计人员(管理层)的专业判断和决策能力是会计原则的应用和执行关键性因素,合理专业地运用职业判断是高质量财务报告信息质量的根本保证。有效甄别专业判断行为和管理层盈余操纵经济交易事项和报表数据行为,还原经济事项实质,提供高质量信息,减少会计专业能力对会计原则的滥用和误判。为会计准则制定机构洞察会计原则的效果状况、修订完善提供参考。%The article introduces two basic mode of accounting principle setting, and analysis the actual application effect and economic consequences after Chinese Accounting Standards (CAS) was revised. Accounting professional judgment and decision making of accounting personnel (management) executing are the key factors of accounting principles application, and the reasonable use of professional judgment is a fundamental guarantee of high quality financial reporting information. All these require to effectively identify professional judgment behavior and earning management that manipulate economic transactions and report data, to restore economic essence, to provide high quality information, and to reduce accounting principles’ miscalculation or abuse of accounting professional ability. Insight into the effect of accounting principles for accounting standard setting institutions provides reference to revise and perfect accounting standard.

  18. Insult to Injury: Disability, Earnings, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…

  19. The Earnings Gap between Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The size of the earnings gap between men and women has not changed substantially in recent years. The sustained earnings differential contrasts significantly with recent gains women have made in the job market. Several factors contribute to the wage differences: (1) The majority of women are in lower-paying occupations and lower-status jobs even…

  20. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  1. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; net earnings from self-employment. (a) Reporting requirements and conditions under which a report of earnings, that is, wages and/or net earnings from self-employment, is required. (1) If you have not reached...

  2. Intraoccupational Earnings Inequality. Human Capital and Institutional Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Jon

    1987-01-01

    Examines the distribution of earnings within occupations. Finds that these are more widely distributed than earnings among differing occupations. Suggests some gender differences in the processes generating earnings disparities within occupations. (CH)

  3. Tailoring Earned Value Management. General Guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Partial Contents: General Principles, A Spectrum of Implementation, OMB Guidance, A Special Note about DOD, Risk Factors to Consider, How can EVMS be tailored, Tailor EVMS to Inherent Risk, Application Thresholds-DoD...

  4. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Saville

    2011-01-01

    Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study rev...

  5. Hawaii Bottomfish Cost-Earnings Survey 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Main Hawaiian Islands bottomfish fishery for the 2010 operating year. Data collected include fisher classification,...

  6. Marianas Boat Fishing Cost Earnings Study 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  7. Racial Earnings Differentials and Performance Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, John S.; O'Halloran, Patrick L.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative analysis between output-based payment and time rates payment is presented. It is observed that racial or gender earnings discrimination is more likely in time rates payment and supervisory evaluations.

  8. Cost Earnings Data 1993 - Hawaii Longline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected to support the first cost-earnings study of this fleet. Operational and vessel costs were collected by in-person interviews with vessel...

  9. Hawaii Charter Fishing Cost Earnings Survey 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the main Hawaiian Island Charter fishing fleet in 2012. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  10. Informativeness of accounting earnings in family firms

    OpenAIRE

    DOMINGO JAVIER SANTANA MARTÍN; JERÓNIMO PÉREZ ALEMÁN; CAROLINA BONA SÁNCHEZ

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the relationship between the family control and informativeness of accounting earnings in listed non-financial Spanish companies between 1997 and 2003. The results reveal a negative relationship between the family nature of the controlling shareholder and the credibility of accounting information. Moreover, as the level of voting rights in the hands of the family ultimate owner increases, the informativeness of earnings decreases. Only in family firms where the CEO is hired...

  11. Self-Employment, Earnings, and Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, Christopher; Jepsen, Lisa K.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies document differences by sexual orientation in earnings and other labor-market outcomes, little is known about differences in self-employment. Our study contributes to both the self-employment literature and sexual-orientation literature by analyzing differences in self-employment rates and earnings by sexual orientation. Gay men are less likely to be self-employed than married men, whereas lesbians are equally likely to be self-employed as married women. We find that gay...

  12. Disparities in earnings and education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, P. Geetha

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of different levels of education, religion, caste as well as the impact of living in urban and rural communities on earnings in India. Besides these conventional stratification, yet another academic caste which influence earnings-the English language ability, is also examined. The paper uses a large cross-section sample of India Human Development Survey to estimate Mincer and augmented Mincer equations. The rates of return estimates obtained in these data and met...

  13. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  14. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  15. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  16. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  17. 18 CFR 367.2160 - Account 216, Unappropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Unappropriated retained earnings. 367.2160 Section 367.2160 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... retained earnings. This account must include the balances, either debit or credit, of unappropriated retained earnings arising from earnings of the service company. This account must not include any amounts...

  18. Aplicação do gerenciamento de riscos no processo de desenvolvimento de produtos nas empresas de autopeças Application of risk management in the product development process of auto parts companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Sanches da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa analisa a incorporação do gerenciamento de riscos no processo de desenvolvimento de produtos (PDP nas empresas de autopeças, fundamentado no Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP, enfatiza as entregas do projeto de desenvolvimento preconizadas pelo Production Parts Approval Process (PAPP e realiza uma revisão bibliográfica estabelecendo os fundamentos teóricos para seu desenvolvimento. O método de pesquisa utilizado foi a pesquisa-ação, cujos dados foram coletados por meio de análise documental, entrevistas e observações dos pesquisadores. A incorporação do gerenciamento de riscos no PDP contribui para o processo decisório, principalmente nas etapas de análise de riscos qualitativos e de planejamento de respostas aos riscos, fornecendo maior precisão quanto aos prazos e à identificação das atividades críticas. Os fatores que se destacaram para se obter a precisão dos resultados são: a formação da equipe; a discussão coletiva dos prazos fornecidos, tendo como resultado o comprometimento; o papel do gerente do projeto, propiciando o feedback entre os participantes, e a existência de evidências objetivas do apoio da alta administração. Conclui-se que a formação da equipe influencia no gerenciamento de riscos, sendo preponderante na percepção dos riscos a formação educacional.This research analyzes the incorporation of risk management in the product development process (PDP in auto parts companies, based on Advanced Product and Quality Planning (APQP, and emphasizes the delivery of project development proposed by the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP and conducts a review of the literature, establishing the theoretical foundations for its development. The research method used was action research, where data were collected through documentary analysis, interviews and researchers' observations. The incorporation of risk management contributes to the PDP-making processes, especially in the stages

  19. How Sensitive is Intergenerational Earnings Mobility to Different Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; D. Munk, Martin; Bonke, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The article provides various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility based on Danish administrative register information. The aim is to calculate how sensitive the results are to different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components enabling the most accurate cross country comp...... find that intergenerational earnings mobility from father to son in Denmark is on the same level as in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, whereas the intergenerational earnings mobility in all the Nordic countries is found higher than in the UK and USA....

  20. Using the Pareto Distribution to Improve Estimates of Topcoded Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Armour; Richard V. Burkhauser; Jeff Larrimore

    2014-01-01

    Inconsistent censoring in the public-use March Current Population Survey (CPS) limits its usefulness in measuring labor earnings trends. Using Pareto estimation methods with less-censored internal CPS data, we create an enhanced cell-mean series to capture top earnings in the public-use CPS. We find that previous approaches for imputing topcoded earnings systematically understate top earnings. Annual earnings inequality trends since 1963 using our series closely approximate those found by Kop...

  1. Stock Prices and Earnings: A History of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia M. Dechow; Richard G. Sloan; Jenny Zha

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Accounting earnings summarize periodic corporate financial performance and are key determinants of stock prices. We review research on the usefulness of accounting earnings, including research on the link between accounting earnings and firm value and research on the usefulness of accounting earnings relative to other accounting and nonaccounting information. We also review research on the features of accounting earnings that make them ...

  2. Do managerial incentives drive cost behavior? Evidence about the role of the zero earnings benchmark for labor cost behavior in Belgian private firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierynck, B.; Landsman, W.R.; Renders, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of managerial incentives to meet or beat the zero earnings benchmark on labor cost behavior of private Belgian firms. We posit that relative to managers of firms reporting healthy profits, managers meeting or beating the zero earnings benchmark will increase

  3. An empirical study of the relationship between earnings forecasts and risk profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekian Esfandiar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to examine the relationship between the excess of forecast based on characteristics toward management forecast and business risk is provided in this research at companies listed on the stock exchange in Tehran.The customary (traditional (approach is based on the regression of management forecast errors of past years. Therefore, the observable and unobservable inputs, such as managements, incentive misalignment, are used to predict management forecast errors. In this study, the future earnings is at first estimated by using characteristics including earnings per share, loss indicator, Neg. accruals per share , Pos. accruals per share ,asset growth , dividend indicator (non-payment of the dividend, Book-to-market value, share price and dividend per share for companies. Based on that, a criterion (CO for estimating the earnings forecast error was developed, which is the alternative forecasted errors. One should notice that, business risk is considered as a measure of company performance. In this study, measures of business risk are volatility of earnings and dividend ratio. Research findings show that, there is a significant relationship between the CO and volatility of earnings, on the contrary there is no significant relationship between this criteria and dividend ratio

  4. Gestão de efluentes nas explorações leiteiras do Entre Douro e Minho Slurry management in the milk farms of Entre Douro e Minho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Brito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Na bacia leiteira primária (BLP da região de Entre Douro e Minho (EDM, Portugal, existe uma pressão ambiental muito forte provocada pelo chorume das explorações de pecuária leiteira (EPL intensiva, em concelhos densamente povoados. A superfície agrícola útil (SAU por EPL aproxima-se dos 10 ha, sendo 97% de regadio. O encabeçamento ultrapassa as 5 CN/ha e a sua variabilidade é independente da SAU/EPL. Os efluentes são aplicados ao solo (95 m³/ha SAU principalmente nas culturas de milho na Primavera e de azevém no Outono, e correspondem a uma quantidade anual média de azoto de 266 kg/ha. As fossas possuem uma capacidade de armazenamento de quase 40 m³/ha SAU ou 7,6 m³/CN, permitindo o armazenamento por um período de 5 meses, para o conjunto dos 10 concelhos da BLP. Para minimizar o impacto ambiental e aumentar a eficiência da utilização do chorume na BLP são referidos um conjunto de boas práticas agrícolas.The primary milk production zone (PMPZ of the region of Entre Douro e Minho (EDM, Portugal is under strong environmental pressure caused by intensive dairy cattle farms (DCF in high-density population areas. Arable land (AL of these DCF is around 10 ha, of which 97% is irrigated land. The number of milking cows (Livestock unit, LU is greater than 5 LU/ha and its variability does not depend upon the AL/DCF. The slurry is mainly applied to the soil surface (95 m³/ha before sowing maize in the spring, and Italian ryegrass in autumn, at rates of 266 kg/ha per year. Slurry tanks have a mean capacity of almost 40 m³/ha or 7.6 m³/LU, enough for a 5 month storage period, for the overall 10 districts of the PMPZ. To minimize environmental impacts and increase the use efficiency of slurry a series of good farming practices and strategies are discussed.

  5. Impact of the corporate governance characteristics and ownership on earnings quality of the Islamic private banks in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates corporate governance and ownership effects on earning quality in Iranian private banks. The study uses the information of 12 private banks from year 2005 to 2010 using regression analysis based on panel data. Among different factors, the effect of big five shareholder are considered to be significant and positive on earning quality. In addition, the effect of one variable regression test reveals that institutional ownership has positive impact on earning quality. However, the impacts of other variables including percentage of ownership concentration, the size of board of directors, reliance on debt, logarithm of sum of assets, return of assets, logarithm of operating cash flow on earning quality are not meaningful. The result of this survey indicates that institutional ownership plays an important role earning quality simply because institutions normally have the access on professionals to control management.

  6. Earnings benchmarks, information systems, and their impact on the degree of honesty in managerial reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaels, Eddy

    This paper provides experimental evidence about how the interaction between a company's earnings and its information system influences the degree of honest reporting by managers in a capital budgeting task. Specifically, the results show that participants overstate cost less when the manager's cost

  7. Cameco sees improved earnings through nine months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Cameco Corporation says it had net earnings of $29 million in the first nine months of this year, compared to a profit of $5.4 million in the same period last year. The 1990 earnings do not include a $60.2 million gain on the sale of Cameco's Rabbit Lake assets. The increased earnings, the company says, reflected lower interest expense, gains on foreign exchange and improved product margins. Uranium concentrate sales volumes were virtually unchanged from last year, but sales revenues rose 5.6%, largely due to the mix of contracts, as Cameco continued to avoid the spot market, as it has since 1988, in favour of seeking longer term contracts at better prices

  8. The Impact of Surplus Free Cash Flow, Corporate Governance and Firm Size on Earnings Predictability in Companies Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Shadmehri, Samaneh Ahmadi; Khansalar, Ehsan; Giannopoulos, George; Dasht-Bayaz, Mahmoud Lari

    2017-01-01

    Among the most important cases considered in financial statements by investors and other users of financial statements is earnings-related information. Given the need of the users of financial statements for the future information of companies and use of past data to predict the future, it seems that earnings forecast is among the favorite items of investors. In fact, earnings forecast by the management provides information about the future of companies. The main objective of the present stud...

  9. Post-earnings announcement drift in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, William; Giannopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents evidence regarding the post-earnings announcement drift (PEAD) anomaly for the Greek market in the years 2000–2006 (covering earnings announcements in the years 2001–2007). The impact of the introduction of International Financial Reporting Standards on the size and prevalence of the PEAD anomaly is examined. Unlike recent evidence for the US market we find PEAD to be\\ud alive and well, and of growing importance in our Greek sample. It may be the adoption of international ...

  10. Family migration and relative earnings potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette

    2016-01-01

    of husband centered migration. Couples are more likely to migrate if household earnings potential is disproportionally due to one partner, and families react equally strongly to a male and a female relative advantage in educational earnings potential. These results are driven by households with a strong......A unitarian model of family migration in which families may discount wives’ private gains is used to derive testable predictions regarding the type of couples that select into migrating. The empirical tests show that gender neutral family migration cannot be rejected against the alternative...

  11. Produção de laranja 'Pêra' em sistemas de preparo de solo e manejo nas entrelinhas Fruit yields of 'Pêra' orange under different soil tillage and interrow management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2008-02-01

    ção acumulada de frutos nas safras de 1996 a 2005. O preparo de solo em faixas, com manutenção de gramínea remanescente nas entrelinhas, mostrou-se apropriado para implantação dos pomares. As plantas de cobertura permanente utilizadas nas entrelinhas do pomar não comprometeram a produção de laranja, sendo importantes para melhoria da fertilidade do solo. As gramíneas foram mais indicadas que as leguminosas como cobertura vegetal nas entrelinhas do pomar.The conventional soil tillage used in the implantation of citrus orchards is based on the removal of the plant residues and soil tilling in the entire area, and the management of orchards on the elimination of any plant residues from the interrows. This has led to erosion and reduced soil fertility, with negative effects on the trees and the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil management systems that decrease soil erosion and improve the fertility status of a Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone, cultivated with citrus in the northwestern state of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area, and strip-tillage (ST with 2 m width, with different interrow management systems. The citrus cultivar was Pêra orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia rootstock. The citrus orchard was established in August 1993, and the tree rows were spaced 7 m apart with 4 m between trees. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with three replications and six treatments: (1 CT and pineapple intercropping in the first year followed by weed control with post emergence herbicide; (2 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous crop Calopogonium mucronoides; (3 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (4 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (5 CT and cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation and (6 ST and maintenance of the

  12. Bangladesh's SMP earns top marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    A recent evaluation funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) confirms that Bangladesh's contraceptive social marketing program has exceeded its planner's goals and demonstrated the ability of such a system to widely distribute contraceptive products at a low cost. The project, which began contraceptive sales in 1975, distributes condoms, oral contraceptives, and foaming vaginal tablets. Almost 25% of contraceptive users in Bangladesh are serviced by the social marketing program. By the end of 1983, the program was providing 1,022,000 couple years of protection; this included 84 million condoms, 1.7 million pill cycles, and 5.1 million spermicidal tablets each year. The program's cost for 1 couple year of protection is US$1.66. Social marketing sales have accounted for all increases in couple years of protection experienced by the country's national population program since 1975. Sales have been boosted by recent efforts to draw rural medical practitioners into family planning activities. Mobile film units have further increased sales. The USAID report identifies 3 elements that have spearheaded the social marketing program's achievements: 1) the existence of a committed core management team, 2) the granting of autonomy to make daily decisions to this management team, and 3) central control fo the product distribution system by management rather than by subcontractors. Overall, the social marketing program is credited with legitimizing discussion of contraception in a country formerly considered too conservative to tolerate open product promotion.

  13. Using historic earnings to value hydro energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, I.A.; Whittington, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly presents a technique for assigning a value to the water held in and removed from the hydro reservoir. Using historic earnings as the basis for a series of equations, it aims to give engineers trading energy a reliable means of placing a value on what is effectively a ''free'' resource. (Author)

  14. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  15. Analysts' earnings forecasts and international asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Carel; Plantinga, Auke

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether financial analysts’ earnings forecasts are informative from the viewpoint of allocating investments across different stock markets. Therefore we develop a country forecast indicator reflecting the analysts’ prospects for specific stock markets. The

  16. Enterprise Bargaining and the Gender Earnings Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examination of the widening gender earnings gap in Australia indicates that women's wages continue to lag behind those of men. The main factor appears to be women's concentration in part-time work in enterprises where bargaining is less likely to occur. (JOW)

  17. Least limiting water range and physical quality of soil under groundcover management systems in citrus Intervalo hídrico ótimo e qualidade física do solo em sistemas de manejo nas entrelinhas de citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Machinery-based farming operations used for perennial fruit crops often damage soils, particularly if the soil is wet and prone to compaction. We hypothesized that perennial vegetation growing in the interrows of orange orchards can mitigate the soil physical degradation from machinery traffic. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different groundcover management systems on the soil physical quality indicators including the least limiting water range (LLWR. An experiment was started in 1993 in a Typic Paleudult to evaluate three groundcover management systems: Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum with mowing, perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi, and natural regrowth in which weeds were controlled by herbicide. The experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. In May 2003, 216 undisturbed soil samples were collected at 0-0.15-m depths under and between wheel tracks in the orchard interrows. The soil bulk density, soil organic carbon content, resistance to penetration, soil water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration curve were determined in order to estimate the LLWR. The higher LLWR under wheel tracks in Bahia grass compared to perennial peanut or natural regrowth suggest that a better soil physical quality was achieved with Bahia grass.Operações motomecanizadas utilizadas no manejo das entrelinhas dos pomares de frutas com freqüência causam a degradação física do solo, especialmente quando realizadas com o solo úmido e suscetível à compactação. A hipótese desse estudo é que a manutenção da vegetação permanente nas entrelinhas do pomar pode mitigar a degradação física do solo causada pelo tráfego de máquinas. O objetivo desse estudo é verificar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de manejo da cobertura permanente das entrelinhas sobre o intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO e a qualidade física do solo. Um experimento foi iniciado em 1993 num Argissolo Vermelho distr

  18. Environmental management of works in pipelines at natural protected areas; Gestao ambiental em obras de faixas de dutos nas areas naturais protegidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raul, Vanderlei Lourenco; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de; Campos, Cleber Lucio dos Santos; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The TRANSPETRO pipeway in the State of Sao Paulo crosses different scenarios, including Permanent Preservation Areas and Conservation Units, as the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - PESM, which contains the most extensive Mata Atlantica fragment, with more than 315,000 hectares. The rigor of environmental organisms imposes a number of extra conditions to critical points to be considered in activities with interference in the conservation unit. It was studied the case of thirty two kilometer pipeline substitution of OSBAT pipeway, in the Sao Sebastiao city, in the area covered by the PESM, to know the effective of environmental controls adopted. It was able to analyze the results about the application of management instruments at different levels, including independent external audit, audit of the Company that realized the work activities and audit of the own specialized people of TRANSPETRO and PETROBRAS. (author)

  19. Lifetime earnings for physicians across specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; Tancredi, Daniel; Jerant, Anthony; Romano, Patrick S; Kravitz, Richard L

    2012-12-01

    Earlier studies estimated annual income differences across specialties, but lifetime income may be more relevant given physicians' long-term commitments to specialties. Annual income and work hours data were collected from 6381 physicians in the nationally representative 2004-2005 Community Tracking Study. Data regarding years of residency were collected from AMA FREIDA. Present value models were constructed assuming 3% discount rates. Estimates were adjusted for demographic and market covariates. Sensitivity analyses included 4 alternative models involving work hours, retirement, exogenous variables, and 1% discount rate. Estimates were generated for 4 broad specialty categories (Primary Care, Surgery, Internal Medicine and Pediatric Subspecialties, and Other), and for 41 specific specialties. The estimates of lifetime earnings for the broad categories of Surgery, Internal Medicine and Pediatric Subspecialties, and Other specialties were $1,587,722, $1,099,655, and $761,402 more than for Primary Care. For the 41 specific specialties, the top 3 (with family medicine as reference) were neurological surgery ($2,880,601), medical oncology ($2,772,665), and radiation oncology ($2,659,657). The estimates from models with varying rates of retirement and including only exogenous variables were similar to those in the preferred model. The 1% discount model generated estimates that were roughly 150% larger than the 3% model. There was considerable variation in the lifetime earnings across physician specialties. After accounting for varying residency years and discounting future earnings, primary care specialties earned roughly $1-3 million less than other specialties. Earnings' differences across specialties may undermine health reform efforts to control costs and ensure adequate numbers of primary care physicians.

  20. The quality of accruals and earnings - and the market pricing of earnings quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    2004-01-01

    of some more specific company key accruals, where especially the two balance sheet accounts, inventory and accounts receivable, are of interest. This is documented and discussed by relating empirical measures of the quality of the different specific key-accruals as well as aggregated accruals quality vs......This study focuses on earnings quality by investigating the quality of accruals using the approach introduced by Dechow & Dichev (2002). One essential element is the role of accrual estimation errors, and another is whether the equity market impounds information about the quality of earnings....... The basic assumption is that the quality of accruals and earnings is decreasing as the magnitude of estimation errors in the accruals is increasing. The paper contributes to the literature on accrual (and earnings) quality by investigating not only the quality of aggregated accruals but also the quality...

  1. Earnings inequality and market work in husband-wife families

    OpenAIRE

    Pencavel, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Constructing pseudo-panel data from successive Current Population Surveys, this paper analyzes earnings inequality in husband and wife families over the life cycle and over time. Particular attention is devoted to the role of labor supply in influencing measures of earnings inequality. Compact and accurate descriptions of earnings inequality are derived that facilitate the analysis of the effect of the changing market employment of wives on earnings inequality. The growing propensity of marri...

  2. TESTING OF PECKING ORDER THEORY THROUGH THE RELATIONSHIP: EARNINGS, CAPITAL STRUCTURE, DIVIDEND POLICY, AND FIRM’S VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmono Harmono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the pecking order theory through its correlation among earnings dimension, capitalstructure, dividend policy and firm’s value perspective. By loading the correlation between dimension one toanother, it indicated that management behavior tended to retained earnings accumulation or to debt collectionin financing the operation of the firm. The pecking order theory were tested when the management behaviortended to retained earnings in accumulating sources of the fund equity rather than borrowing liabilities fromcreditors. Therefore, rationally if the capital structure was optimum, management tended to external financinguntil any trade off between earnings and debt financing. Based on the testing hypothesis, it indicated that therole of capital structure dimension had significance as intervening variable between earnings dimension andfirm’s value. On the other hand, the dividend policy had no significance to become intervening variable.Empirically, it could be concluded that the management behavior in Indonesia tended to leverage rather thanretained earnings accumulation in supporting the pecking order theory. Furthermore, the variable had the roleto differentiate the characteristic of industries represented by the capital structure dimension, especially, debtto assets and debt to equity ratio.

  3. Her earnings: Exploring variation in wives' earning contributions across six major Asian groups and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Veena S

    2015-07-01

    Previous research on understanding race-ethnic differentials in employment and economic contributions by married women has primarily focused on Blacks, Hispanics, or Whites. This study investigates variations in wives' earning contributions as measured by wives earnings as a proportion of total annual household earnings among six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese relative to native born non-Hispanic White. I disaggregate the six Asian groups by their ethnicity and nativity status. Using pooled data from 2009-2011 American Community Survey, the findings show significance of human capital, hours of paid labor market engagement and nativity status. There is strong and negative association between husbands' human capital and labor supply with wives' earning contributions suggesting near universality of male-breadwinner status. Notwithstanding the commonalities, there is significant intergroup diversity. While foreign born and native born Filipina wives despite their spouses' reasonably high human capital and work hours, contribute one of the highest shares, the same cannot be said for the Asian Indians and Japanese. For foreign born Asian Indian and to some extent Japanese women, their high human capital is not translated to high earning contribution after controlling for husband's human capital. Further, nativity status impacts groups differentially. Native born Vietnamese wives contribute the greatest. Overall, the findings underscore the relevance of employing multiple conceptual frameworks in understanding earning contributions of foreign and native born Asian wives belonging to the six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 17 CFR 256.215 - Appropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriated retained earnings... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.215 Appropriated retained earnings. This account shall include the amount of retained earnings which has been appropriated or set...

  5. 17 CFR 256.216 - Unappropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retained earnings. This account shall include the balance, either debit or credit, arising from earnings... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unappropriated retained earnings. 256.216 Section 256.216 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  6. 18 CFR 367.2150 - Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings. 367.2150 Section 367.2150 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... retained earnings. This account must include the amount of retained earnings that has been appropriated or...

  7. Earnings Differences between Women and Men. Facts on Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Although the gap between women's and men's wages differs slightly depending on how the gap is measured, no matter how they are measured, women's earnings are below those received by men in 97% of the occupations for which data are available. Since 1979, women's earnings have been climbing when compared with men's earnings, gaining steeply during…

  8. Gypsum effects on soil chemical properties under two management systemsEfeito do gesso nas propriedades químicas do solo sob dois sistemas de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Brito Chaim Jardim Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The combination of gypsum application and soil management may influence soil chemical properties. In this context, the aim of this paper was to evaluate soil chemical properties under two management systems and residual gypsum in soil after 55 months from treatment application. This experiment was developed in FCA/UFGD in Dourados-MS, Brazil under a randomized block design with subdivided plots and four replications. Main plots, subplots and subsubplots consisted of tillage systems (conventional and no tillage, gypsum application and soil depth (0-0,05, 0,05-0,10, 0,10-0,15, 0,15-0,20 and 0,20-0,30 m, respectively. There were no effects of residual gypsum on calcium levels. The combination of no tillage system and residual gypsum increased potassium and sulfur as well as reduced potential acidity. However, residual gypsum increased soil potential acidity in conventional system. No tillage system increased calcium levels in the depths 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m, organic matter down to 0.05 m, sulfur accumulation in the depths 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.15 m, sum of bases and base saturation in the depth 0.05-0.10. Conversely, magnesium levels in the depth 0.10-0.15 m, phosphorus from 0.05 to 0.15 m, potential acidity from 0.05 to 0.10 m and ECC in the depth 0.10-0.15 m were decreased. Effects of residual gypsum increased sulfur and base saturation from 0.20 to 0.30 m, but decreased magnesium and phosphorus levels in the depth 0.05-0.10 m. Soil active acidity and potassium levels were decreased in deeper soil layers. A combinação de gessagem e manejo do solo podem influenciar as propriedades químicas do solo. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as propriedades químicas do solo submetido a dois manejos do solo e ao efeito residual de gesso, após 55 meses de implantação dos tratamentos. Desenvolvido em uma área experimental da FCA/UFGD de Dourados, MS, o experimento foi disposto no delineamento de blocos casualizados com os fatores

  9. nas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Varas

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET are difficult to diagnose. Their accurate localization using imaging techniques is intended to provide a definite cure. The goal of this retrospective study was to review a PET series from a private institution. Patients and methods: the medical records of 19 patients with PETs were reviewed, including 4 cases of MEN-1, for a period of 17 years (1994-2010. A database was set up with ten parameters: age, sex, symptoms, imaging techniques, size and location in the pancreas, metastasis, surgery, complications, adjuvant therapies, definite diagnosis, and survival or death. Results: a total of 19 cases were analyzed. Mean age at presentation was 51 years (range: 26-67 y (14 males, 5 females, and tumor size was 5 to 80 mm (X: 20 mm. Metastatic disease was present in 37% (7/19. Most underwent the following imaging techniques: ultrasounds, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Fine needle aspiration punction (FNA was performed for the primary tumor in 4 cases. Non-functioning: 7 cases (37%, insulinoma: 2 cases [1 with possible multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN], Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES from gastrinoma: 5 (3 with MEN-1, glucagonoma: 2 cases, 2 somatostatinomas; carcinoid: 1 case with carcinoide-like syndrome. Most patients were operated upon: 14/19 (73%. Four (4/14: 28% has postoperative complications following pancreatectomy: pancreatitis, pseudocyst, and abdominal collections. Some patients received chemotherapy (4, somatostatin (3 and interferon (2 before or after surgery. Median follow-up was 48 months. Actuarial survival during the study was 73.6% (14/19. Conclusions: age was similar to that described in the literature. Males were predominant. Most cases were non-functioning (37%. Most patients underwent surgery (73% with little morbidity (28% and an actuarial survival of 73.6% at the time of the study.

  10. The effect of non-recurring items on analysts’ earnings forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the effects of non-recurring profits and losses on statement users’ decision-making processes from the perspective of securities analysts. We examine the relationship between analysts’ forecast revisions and firms’ non-recurring earnings. We find that 1 non-recurring gains and losses can influence analysts’ earnings forecast revision; 2 compared with non-recurring items resulting from policy changes, analysts are more concerned about those attributed to changes in business scope; 3 if listed companies use non-recurring items to turn losses into gains during earnings management, it will weaken the effects of non-recurring items on analysts’ earnings forecast revision. The results suggest that non-recurring items that result from changes in business scope incorporate information that users need for the future operation of the business. This article verifies the information relevance of non-recurring items and provides evidence for the necessity of non-recurring item disclosure. Keywords: Non-recurring items, Earnings forecasts, Revisions

  11. Must producers earn a resource rent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    In petroleum producing countries it has been a prevailing opinion that a resource rent should be earned by petroleum producers due to the commodities' non-renewable nature. An important element in this logic is that the supply of oil and natural gas is limited to relatively few places in the world. As the resources are exploited, the remaining reserves are reduced. What is extracted today cannot be extracted tomorrow. Rationing of the scarce resource takes place through pricing mechanisms. Due to the scarcity the consumers must pay a higher price than the marginal production costs, so that the amounts supplied and demanded become equal. Most producers of oil and gas and not just the ones that produce the cheapest, have therefore until now earned an economic rent

  12. Timing of Earnings and Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Miglo, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that asymmetric information about the timing of earnings can affect corporate capital structure. It sheds some new light on two following questions: why may profitable firms be interested in issuing equity, and why does debt not necessarily signal a firm quality. These issues seem to be puzzling from the classical pecking-order theory or signalling theory point of view. The paper also contributes to the analysis of the link between debt-equity choice and subsequent performanc...

  13. Heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after IFRS adoption: evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Black

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims to investigate the existence of heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. IFRS adoption is generally associated with an increase in the quality of financial statements. However, companies within the same country are likely to have different economic incentives regarding the disclosure of information. Thus, treating companies equally, without considering the related economic incentives, could contaminate earnings quality investigations. The case of Brazil is analyzed, which is a country classified as code-law, in which tax laws determined accounting practice and in which IFRS adoption is mandatory. First, Brazilian companies listed on the São Paulo Stock, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA were separated into two classes: companies issuing American Depositary Receipts (ADRs before IFRS adoption and companies that did not issue ADRs until the adoption of IFRS. Then, this second class of companies was grouped, using cluster analysis, into two different subclasses according to economic incentives. Based on the groups identified, the quality of accounting earnings is tested for each class of the companies before and after IFRS adoption. This paper uses timely recognition of economic events, value relevance of net income, and earnings management as proxies for the quality of accounting earnings. The results indicate that a particular class of companies began showing conditional conservatism, value relevance of net income, and lower earnings management after IFRS adoption. On the other hand, these results were not found for the two other classes of companies.

  14. An investigation on the relationship between quarterly earnings adjustment and market value in selected firms listed on TSE Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tehrani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earning reports are the primary basis of investment decisions among many individuals and fund managers. Any positive/negative adjustment on quarterly financial report could influence investment strategies, which consequently make significant change on market value. In this paper, we present an empirical study on some selected firms on Tehran Stock exchange by looking the effects of quarterly earning adjustment on firm and market’s return. The proposed study selects all firms whose shares were actively and publicly traded over the period 2006-2011. The study investigates whether there is a meaningful relationship between the content of quarterly earnings report and stock price with/without the presence of control variables. The results have concluded that there are some meaningful relationships between change in earning and market value and return on firm with market value but market value seems to have no relationship with market return changes.

  15. Earning the social licence for nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguay, A.K.; Hoornweg, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to safe nuclear operation, a critical component of earning the social licence is effective communication. This paper outlines development of a communications strategy contributing to overall utility operation and project goals through: 1) Relationships with employees, host communities and the general public that are transparent and honest; 2) Processes that effectively interconnect the internal and external communications; and 3) Organizational leadership models that support communication excellence. With strategic development of these three focus areas the nuclear operator will contribute to increased support of the operator's own licence to operate and of support for the nuclear industry as a whole. (author)

  16. Earning the social licence for nuclear operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duguay, A.K. [New Brunswick Power, New Brunswick (Canada); Hoornweg, B.J. [Ontario Power Generation, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In addition to safe nuclear operation, a critical component of earning the social licence is effective communication. This paper outlines development of a communications strategy contributing to overall utility operation and project goals through: 1) Relationships with employees, host communities and the general public that are transparent and honest; 2) Processes that effectively interconnect the internal and external communications; and 3) Organizational leadership models that support communication excellence. With strategic development of these three focus areas the nuclear operator will contribute to increased support of the operator's own licence to operate and of support for the nuclear industry as a whole. (author)

  17. FEMALE EARNINGS AND DIVORCE RATES:SOME AUSTRALIAN EVIDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Phillips; William Griffiths

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether female earnings have influenced divorce rates in Australia, using state-level data for the past four decades. Following a recent study by Ressler and Waters (2000), which concludes from comparable US data that female earnings and divorce rates may be jointly endogenous, initial testing is performed to identify whether female earnings can be treated as exogenous. A Hausman specification error test finds no evidence of a simultaneous relationship ...

  18. Who Marries Differently-Aged Spouses? Earnings, Ability and Appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Hani; McKinnish, Terra

    2012-01-01

    In direct contrast to conventional wisdom and most economic models of gender differences in age of marriage, we present robust evidence that men and women who are married to differently-aged spouses are negatively selected. Earnings analysis of married couples in the 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000 Decennial Censuses finds that male earnings decrease with within-couple age difference, regardless of whether the man is older or younger than his wife. In contrast, female earnings increase with within-...

  19. UAS-NAS Flight Test Series 3: Test Environment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ty; Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communications (Comm), and Certification to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Detect and Avoid (DAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project is conducting a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) and flight test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity, and

  20. Gender Earnings Gap among Young European Higher Education Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the composition of the gender earnings gap among young European higher education graduates, with a particular focus on competencies controlling for individual background and job characteristics. The results show that much of the female worker's earnings advantage can be explained by job characteristics. With respect to the…

  1. Post-Service Earnings of Vietnam-Era Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    vets, for ihany faictors that civilian waces . 1contribLitC to earnings. f5 S. Bolin. Hess & Little Reereosion analysis Use of military trainingiI! %1...changes in the economy on the lifetime earnings of the sample members. He concluded that average annual income had increased while the returns to an

  2. OGJ group earnings show big gain for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Sanders, V.

    1994-01-01

    Earnings for Oil and Gas Journal's group of 22 large US oil companies advanced sharply last year, increasing 70.9% from 1992. Group profits totaled $16.1 billion, with the gain stemming largely from lack of one time charges that depressed earnings in 1992. Adoption of new accounting rules associated with future postretirement costs caused the 1992 charges. US exploration and production earnings were mixed, tied in part to oil and gas production volumes. Higher gas prices and production helped boost earnings for a number of companies. But the earnings improvement from gas was offset by reduced oil production and prices. Results from non-U.S. E and P also were mixed. Average worldwide crude oil export prices were down from year earlier levels. However, for some companies this was offset by higher production levels and lower exploration costs. Earnings from refining and marketing were improved from 1992 levels, particularly for non-US operations. Lower feedstock costs, especially in the fourth quarter, helped boost earnings in this sector. Refining earnings gains also flowed from lower costs due to restructuring and an accompanying improvement in operating efficiency. The paper discusses world trends, operations and prices, US exploration and production, non-US E and P, US and non-US refining and marketing, petrochemicals, and the forecast for future demand

  3. Immigrant-Native Differences in Earnings Mobility Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Esmaeilzadeh, Rayhaneh; Hansen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the earnings mobility between immigrants and natives within and between Denmark and Canada. Both countries have different labour market conditions and immigration history which leads to an interesting comparison of earning mobility processes. The paper employs a dynamic...

  4. Immigrant-Native Differences in Earnings Mobility Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Esmaeilzadeh, •Rayhaneh

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the earnings mobility between immigrants and natives within and between Denmark and Canada. Both countries have different labour market conditions and immigration history which leads to an interesting comparison of earning mobility processes. The paper employs a dynamic...

  5. 5 CFR 630.303 - Part-time employees; earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Part-time employees; earnings. 630.303... AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.303 Part-time employees; earnings. A part-time employee for whom there... workweek, and a part-time employee on a flexible work schedule for whom there has been established only a...

  6. 5 CFR 844.402 - Restoration of earning capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occupied immediately before retirement. The income limitation for most disability annuitants is based on... same as income for the purposes of the Internal Revenue Code. (2) Income earned from one source is not offset by losses from another source. Income earned as wages is not reduced by a net loss from self...

  7. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  8. Occupational change, employer change, internal migration, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, R G

    1997-02-01

    "In this paper I use microdata from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics to measure the financial returns to intercounty and interstate migration for individuals in a temporal framework accounting for gains that accrue over time.... To account for the indirect effects of migration on earnings, explanatory variables are created by interacting migration status with: (1) occupational change, (2) employer change and (3) changes in both occupation and employer. These interaction terms are then included in the earnings functions. Earnings are estimated for three years subsequent to the migration decision to account for the financial returns to migration accruing over time. Results indicate that, when estimating earnings, the use of a simple migration dummy variable will mask the indirect effects of migration on earnings." excerpt

  9. Measuring the effect of managerial ability on earning quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Bahri Sales

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the effect of managerial ability on earning quality on selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2013. The proposed study uses data envelopment analysis to measure the relative efficiency of selected firms where Sales is considered as output and Cost of goods (COGS, Selling, General and Administrative Expenses (SG&A, Net Property Plant and Equipment (PPE, Net operating Leases (OpsLease, Research & Development (R&D, Purchased Good will (Goodwill and Other intangible assets (OtherIntan are considered as inputs. Earning quality in this survey consists of three parts of quality of accruals, earnings and earnings forecast persistence. The results of our survey have indicated that managerial ability influences positively on earning quality.

  10. Rising U.S. Earnings Inequality and Family Labor Supply: The Covariance Structure of Intrafamily Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Dean R. Hyslop

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the labor supply contributions to individual and family earnings inequality during the period of rising wage inequality in the early 1980's. Working couples have positively correlated labor market outcomes, which are almost entirely attributable to permanent factors. An intertemporal family labor supply model with this feature is used to estimate labor supply elasticities for husbands of 0.05, and wives of 0.40. This implies that labor supply explains little of the rising a...

  11. NAS Decadal Review Town Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine is seeking community input for a study on the future of materials research (MR). Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey will look at defining the frontiers of materials research ranging from traditional materials science and engineering to condensed matter physics. Please join members of the study committee for a town hall to discuss future directions for materials research in the United States in the context of worldwide efforts. In particular, input on the following topics will be of great value: progress, achievements, and principal changes in the R&D landscape over the past decade; identification of key MR areas that have major scientific gaps or offer promising investment opportunities from 2020-2030; and the challenges that MR may face over the next decade and how those challenges might be addressed. This study was requested by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. The National Academies will issue a report in 2018 that will offer guidance to federal agencies that support materials research, science policymakers, and researchers in materials research and other adjoining fields. Learn more about the study at http://nas.edu/materials.

  12. Correlação entre gestão da tecnologia e gestão ambiental nas empresas Correlation between technology management and environmental management in the companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Teixeira da Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a correlação entre a gestão da tecnologia de produtos e processos e a gestão ambiental em empresas de manufatura. Partindo de um modelo conceitual simplificado e desdobramentos das dimensões gestão da tecnologia e gestão ambiental, foi possível analisar em pesquisa de campo vários conceitos disponíveis na literatura para esses dois campos, envolvendo 78 empresas do setor de manufaturados, através de "projeto de pesquisa survey" e "projeto de pesquisa qualitativa". Visando avaliar a capabilidade tecnológica das organizações, foram usados os conceitos de microtecnologia e macrotecnologia relatados em Silva (2003. Concluiu-se que, dentro do campo pesquisado de empresas, existe correlação positiva entre os níveis de capabilidade tecnológica e os níveis de capabilidade ambiental.This work analyzes the correlation between the technology management of products and processes and the environmental management, in manufacture companies. Leaving from a simplified conceptual model, and doing deployment of the dimensions technology management and environmental management, it was possible to analyze several concepts available in the literature for these fields, involving 78 manufacture companies, through "survey research project" and "qualitative research project", regarding also the technology capability of the organization through the new concepts of microtecnologia and macrotecnologia related in Silva (2003. It concluded that, inside the field searched of companies, there is a positive correlation between the levels of technology capability and environmental capability.

  13. Management salaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, D.

    1993-01-01

    Salary charts presenting the median salaries of general managers of locally owned electric utilities are given. These data are given by revenue class, and by customer size class. It was found that general managers of locally owned electric utilities earned a mean (average) salary of $56,034 as of June 1, 1992 and the median salary was $52,000. The data show that utilities servicing a larger customer base and hence, earning higher receives pay higher salaries

  14. Immigrants’ initial firm allocation and earnings growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While employers are playing an increasingly important role in immigration selection in Canada, little is known about how firm-level characteristics affect the economic integration of immigrants. Using a Canadian employer–employee matched dataset, this paper considers whether immigrants initially employed in low-paying firms in Canada experienced inferior earnings growth than those initially employed in high-paying firms. The results show that the large earnings differential observed between immigrants initially employed in low- and high-paying firms diminished only slightly over the subsequent 14 years, even when differences in demographic and general human capital characteristics are taken into account. Alors que les employeurs jouent un rôle de plus en plus important dans la sélection des immigrants qui s’établissent au Canada, on en sait peu sur la façon dont les caractéristiques au niveau de l’entreprise influencent l’intégration économique de ces derniers. Au moyen d’un ensemble de données appariées sur les employeurs et les employés, le présent document vise à déterminer si la croissance des gains des immigrants employés initialement au Canada par des entreprises à bas salaires est plus faible que celle des gains des immigrants employés au départ par des entreprises à hauts salaires. Les résultats montrent que l’écart important observé entre les gains des immigrants employés au départ par des entreprises à bas salaires et de ceux employés par des entreprises à hauts salaires ne diminuait que légèrement au cours des 14 années suivantes, même après avoir tenu compte des différences de caractéristiques démographiques et de caractéristiques générales du capital humain.

  15. Educational Pairings, Motherhood, and Women's Relative Earnings in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bavel, Jan; Klesment, Martin

    2017-12-01

    As a consequence of the reversal of the gender gap in education, the female partner in a couple now typically has as much as or more education compared with the male partner in most Western countries. This study addresses the implications for the earnings of women relative to their male partners in 16 European countries. Using the 2007 and 2011 rounds of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (N = 58,292), we investigate the extent to which international differences in women's relative earnings can be explained by educational pairings and their interaction with the motherhood penalty on women's earnings, by international differences in male unemployment, or by cultural gender norms. We find that the newly emerged pattern of hypogamy is associated with higher relative earnings for women in all countries and that the motherhood penalty on relative earnings is considerably lower in hypogamous couples, but neither of these findings can explain away international country differences. Similarly, male unemployment is associated with higher relative earnings for women but cannot explain away the country differences. Against expectations, we find that the hypogamy bonus on women's relative earnings, if anything, tends to be stronger rather than weaker in countries that exhibit more conservative gender norms.

  16. Marketization, occupational segregation, and gender earnings inequality in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangye; Wu, Xiaogang

    2017-07-01

    This article analyzes a large sample of the 2005 population mini-census data and prefecture-level statistics of China to investigate gender earnings inequality in the context of economic marketization, paying special attention to the changing role of occupational segregation in the process. We approximate marketization by employment sectors and also construct an index of marketization at the prefecture level. Results show that, despite the tremendous economic growth, marketization has exacerbated gender earnings inequality in urban China's labor markets. Gender earnings inequality is the smallest in government/public institutions, followed by public enterprises, and then private enterprises. The gender inequality also increases with the prefecture's level of marketization. Multilevel analyses show that occupational segregation plays an important role in affecting gender earnings inequality: the greater the occupational segregation, the more disadvantaged women are relative to men in earnings in a prefecture's labor market. Moreover, the impact of occupational segregation on gender earnings inequality increases with the prefectural level of marketization. These findings contribute to understanding the dynamics of gender earnings inequality and have important implications for policy to promote gender equality in urban China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reconciling Estimates of Earnings Processes in Growth Rates and Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Moira; Hryshko, Dmytro; Manovskii, Iourii

    The stochastic process for earnings is the key element of incomplete markets models in modern quantitative macroeconomics. It determines both the equilibrium distributions of endogenous outcomes and the design of optimal policies. Yet, there is no consensus in the literature on the relative...... magnitudes of the permanent and transitory innovations in earnings. When estimation is based on the earnings moments in levels, the variance of transitory shocks is found to be relatively high. When the moments in differences are used, the variance of the permanent component is relatively high instead. We...

  18. Disparities in earnings and education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Geetha Rani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of different levels of education, religion, caste as well as the impact of living in urban and rural communities on earnings in India. Besides these conventional stratification, yet another academic caste which influence earnings—the English language ability, is also examined. The paper uses a large cross-section sample of India Human Development Survey to estimate Mincer and augmented Mincer equations. The rates of return estimates obtained in these data and method confirm that returns to education increase with the level of education across location, caste-religion and English language ability. Returns to lower levels of education are low across different groups, indicating the low quality of basic schooling in the country. Returns to higher education vary at a great deal ranging between 4.9% among the rural workers and 38.2% among fluent English ability group. This is in contrast to Duraisamy reporting the highest returns to secondary education in India, between the period 1983 and 1993–1994. In a decade’s time, with changes in the economy and in the labour market, higher education especially the English language ability along with higher education brings in the highest wage premium.

  19. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  20. Earned Value Conference at CERN - 25-26 November 2009 (Main Building, first floor)

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    Next week, 25-26 November, 60 participants from universities and industry will meet at CERN for the first European conference on Earned Value Management and Analysis. This project control methodology was first introduced -in anger- during LHC, and will further be in use for the LHC upgrade projects like Linac4. During the conference, more information on the methodology will be presented and experiences will be shared on how “Earned Value” has been used at CERN and in industry. More information On the web site, you can also find the conference schedule. If you would like to attend some of the presentations, please send an email to jurgen.de.jonghe@cern.ch

  1. PENGUKURAN PERMANENT EARNINGS PADA HUBUNGAN DENGAN KEBIJAKAN DIVIDEND PERUSAHAAN : REVIEW PENELITIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Manuhara Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporate earnings divided into a permanent component of earnings and transitory earnings will be very useful in estimating the future value of the company, that will be useful in decision making stock return. Be more relevant for investors and financial analysts in analyzing the earnings based on the permanent and transitory earnings. On permanent earnings will be more focused to get the gain from investments. One focus of research is based on this component is to test the relationship with the earnings dividend payment policy. Based on several studies obtained different results concerning the relationship with the permanent earnings dividend policy. Research that focuses on permanent earnings using two approaches to determine the accuracy of the proxy of permanent earnings. Determination of permanent earnings through the stock price and the latter by using the accounting profit.

  2. Simultaneous Estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydralazine Hydrochloride, and Reserpine Using PCA, NAS, and NAS-PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Badyal, Pragya Nand; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2015-01-01

    In this study, new and feasible UV-visible spectrophotometric and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were described for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), hydralazine hydrochloride (H.HCl), and reserpine (RES) in combined pharmaceutical tablets. Methanol was used as a solvent for analysis and the whole UV region was scanned from 200-400 nm. The resolution was obtained by using multivariate methods such as the net analyte signal method (NAS), principal component analysis (PCA), and net analyte signal-principal component analysis (NAS-PCA) applied to the UV spectra of the mixture. The results obtained from all of the three methods were compared. NAS-PCA showed a lot of resolved data as compared to NAS and PCA. Thus, the NAS-PCA technique is a combination of NAS and PCA methods which is advantageous to obtain the information from overlapping results.

  3. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2007-2008. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  4. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 1995-1996. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  5. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2014. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics, levels of...

  6. Cost Earnings Survey of NWHI Bottomfish Fleets (1993): Obsolete

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study collected cost-earnings information for the 12 vessels which had reported bottomfish landings from Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 1993 in order to...

  7. Why does the Job Corps increase gender earnings inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Strittmatter, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Several studies considering the Job Corps find more positive earnings effects for males than for females. This effect heterogeneity in favor of males contrasts with the results of the majority of other training program evaluations. Applying the translated quantile approach of Bitler, Hoynes, and Domina (2014), I show that an important mechanism behind the surprising findings for the Job Corps operates through existing gender earnings inequality rather than Job Corps trainability differences b...

  8. The Effects of Unemployment on the Earnings of Young Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Gray

    2000-01-01

    The high rates of youth unemployment experienced in a number of OECD economies has raised concerns about the effect of this on subsequent earnings. Using the Australian Youth Survey (AYS) a longitudinal survey of Australian youth, we estimate the effects of unemployment on subsequent hourly and weekly earnings. The estimates suggest that, when unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account, it is only long histories of unemployment which have a negative effect on hourly wages. On the other ha...

  9. The Wage Gap: Women's and Men's Earnings. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lois; Gish, Melinda; Braunstein, Jill; Allore, Sara

    After remaining virtually unchanged from 1995 through the 1970s, the wage gap between women and men began to decline in the 1980s. By the early 1990s, the ratio of the annual earnings of women employed full time year-round to the annual earnings of their male counterparts reached 72.0%. That ratio decreased slightly (to 71.4%) in 1995. The wage…

  10. Within- and cross-firm mobility and earnings growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander Karl

    While it is well established that both promotions within firms and mobility across firms lead to substantial earnings progression, few studies offer an integrated analysis of the effects of these two types of mobility on earnings growth. To do this, we exploit a large Danish panel data set and te...... deductable pension contributions and more expensive real estate or financed consumption where interest is tax deductable....

  11. How Working Time Reduction Affects Employment and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    December 1, 1996 Portugal introduced a new law on working hours which gradually reduced the standard workweek from 44 hours to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory working hours reduction affected employment and earnings of workers involved. We find for workers who were affected by the new law that working hours decreased, while hourly wages increased, keeping monthly earnings approximately constant. We also find that the working hours reduction did not lead to an increased job loss of worke...

  12. Education, work and earnings of Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E M

    1996-01-01

    This study describes trends in educational attainment among women in Peru, and examines the determinants of educational attainment, labor force participation and employment, and earnings. Data were obtained from the Peruvian Living Standards Survey among a sample of 5644 women aged 20-59 years. Findings indicate that parents' educational variables had a positive and statistically significant relationship with the educational attainment of their daughters. The impact declined over time from older to younger cohorts. School reforms improved women's access to education. Education became more universal and compulsory over time. Daughters of mothers with white collar occupations had higher levels of schooling than farmers' daughters. The effects of fathers' education was larger. There was a wider gap between farmers and nonfarmers. Textbooks, teachers, and number of grades offered were the only primary school inputs that showed any clear cohort trend in their effect on years of schooling. As primary schools became more available, textbooks had a greater impact on school attainment. The impact of textbooks was larger for women than for men. The number of grades offered had a large positive effect which increased across cohorts from older to younger. Findings suggest weak effects of school reforms on women's likelihood of participating in the paid or unpaid labor force. Years of schooling had a very small and negative effect on total labor force participation. Woman's paid employment was influenced by age, education and training, household characteristics, and family's unearned income. Educational attainment had a small positive effect on participation in paid employment for younger women and no effect for older women. The average rate of return in paid employment to primary education was about 12%. Primary education had the highest rate of return. The return to job tenure was higher for younger women.

  13. Earning on Response Coefficient in Automobile and Go Public Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisdawati Arifin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze factors that influence earnings response coefficients (ERC, simultaneously and partially, composed of leverage, the systematic risk (beta, growth opportunities (market to book value ratio, and the size of the firm (firm size, selection of the sample in this study the author take 12 automakers and components that meet the criteria of completeness of the data from the year 2008 to 2012, entirely based on consideration of the following criteria: (1 the company's automotive and components are listed on the stock exchange, (2 have the financial statements years 2008-2012 (3 has a return data (closing price the first day after the date of issuance of the financial statements. This study uses secondary data applying multiple linear regression models to analyze and test the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable partially (t-test, simultaneous (f-test, and the goodness of fit (R-square on a research model. The result shows that leverage, beta, growth opportunities (market to book value ratio and size along with (simultaneously the effect on the dependent variable (dependent variable earnings response coefficients. Partially leverage negatively affect earnings response coefficients, partially beta negatively correlated earnings response coefficients, partially growth opportunities (market to book value ratio significant effect on earnings response coefficients, partially sized companies (firm size significantly influence earnings response coefficients.

  14. Efeito da mobilização do solo nas micorrizas arbusculares de cereais de Inverno Effects of soil management on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in autumn-sown crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Brito

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobilização do solo reduz a taxa de colonização por micorrizas arbusculares (MA uma vez que ao provocar a disrupção do micélio extraradicular, faz com que a colonização seja preferencialmente iniciada por fontes de inoculo de crescimento mais lento. Em solos pouco perturbados, o aumento da taxa de colonização micorrízica é normalmente associado, embora nem sempre, a uma vantagem comparativa destas plantas numa fase inicial do crescimento. No sentido de potenciar os benefícios proporcionados pela micorrização e numa óptica de sustentabilidade dos sistemas agrícolas, é fundamental o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos que elucidem sobre a ecologia funcional das MA nestes sistemas. O trabalho desenvolvido em condições de campo no Alentejo permitiu confirmar de forma clara que raízes de trigo e de triticale cultivados em sistema de sementeira directa (SD apresentaram uma taxa de colonização micorrízica superior, em cerca de 6 vezes, quando comparadas com raízes de plantas das mesmas espécies cultivadas em sistema de mobilização tradicional (MT. Os resultados obtidos indicam também que o triticale parece ser mais micotrófico que o trigo. Para uma melhor compreensão das implicações desta situação nas plantas desenvolveram-se ensaios em vasos. A perturbação do solo induzida pela mobilização foi reproduzida através da crivagem do solo por um crivo de 4mm. Vários parâmetros de crescimento da planta e de colonização micorrízica foram avaliados. Após 4 ciclos de 3 semanas de cultura de trigo com indução diferencial de estrutura ao nível do solo, todos os parâmetros de colonização micorrízica foram significativamente afectados. A colonização arbuscular, vesicular e por hifas foi maior em solo não perturbado. Presentemente esta metodologia de ciclos de perturbação do solo está a ser usada para avaliar diferentes aspectos da micorrização como sejam a sobrevivência de inoculo ao longo do Verão e a

  15. 18 CFR 367.4360 - Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Appropriations of retained earnings. 367.4360 Section 367.4360 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4360 Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings. This account must include appropriations of retained earnings as follows: (a) Appropriations required...

  16. CRM NAS ORGANIZAÇÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Arruda Ribas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Frente às forças impostas pela globalização, Internet e evolução tecnológica, aliadas a uma era de descontinuidade, tem-se como resultado um novo tipo de consumidor, mais questionador e exigente, que as organizações têm de conquistar, de forma a atingir sua fidelização. Várias são as empresas que trabalham para conhecer melhor os seus clientes, operando mudanças das culturais organizacionais, que passam a ter o foco nas necessidades do seu público. Nesse contexto, muitas organizações implementam o CRM (Customer relationship management, objetivando maior integração com os clientes, através da coleta de informações sobre as atividades e necessidades destes, para entender o seu comportamento, obter sua satisfação e, conseqüentemente, sua retenção. Este trabalho pretende esclarecer a experiência do CRM e de sua implantação no âmbito internacional e nacional. Verificou-se forte tendência não apenas mundial, mas também das organizações brasileiras, à implementação do CRM. Uma das exigências fundamentais para sua implementação de sucesso é o completo entendimento dessa filosofia de trabalho e sua absorção pela cultura da organização. Outro aspecto relevante é a contribuição do suporte eletrônico (softwares na integração entre as vendas, o marketing e as funções de apoio ao cliente.

  17. Investor reaction to strategic emphasis on earnings numbers: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shibley Sadique

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the earnings information and stock prices of S&P500 firms and find that investors following S&P500 stocks (i respond more to pro forma earnings than to GAAP earnings, (ii respond to an emphasis on pro forma earnings, and (iii are fixated on pro forma earnings. We provide the first direct evidence that a strategic emphasis on earnings numbers may affect return volatility. Further, our results do not support the argument that a larger investor response to Street earnings might be driven by large differences between the Street numbers and GAAP numbers.

  18. Occupational injury and illness meet the labor market: lessons from labor economics about lost earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Leslie I

    2006-09-01

    Recent labor economics studies in the United States and Canada have demonstrated that occupational injuries and illnesses often lead to substantial lost earnings for workers and their families. Other studies have shown substantial long-term lost earnings attributable to large-scale layoffs, where no health impairment has taken place. This article uses evidence from these and other studies of apparently different situations to draw inferences about how managers' actions and public policy choices can affect the costs of occupational injuries and illnesses. Although primary prevention remains the policy of choice, reduction in the impact of workplace injuries and illnesses can decrease the costs of these events and can provide substantial benefits. This article proposes two hypotheses and discusses the evidence for each: (a) Loss of the job held at the onset of illness or injury increases time off work and exacerbates workers' lost earnings. (b) Workers' losses may be substantially reduced by policies that encourage employers to rehire people recovering from or disabled by workplace injuries and illnesses.

  19. Internal migration, earnings, and the importance of self-selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A M; Sirageldin, I

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of internal migration on earnings within the human capital model framework. Since migrants constitute a non-random sample of population, the endogenous nature of migration decision warrants necessary correction for the selectivity bias in their earnings function. The Mincer-type earnings model is thus augmented to determine the extent of this bias. Besides estimating the standard Mincerian earnings model, the paper also attempts to verify the learn-as-you-go proposition by introducing migration duration variables in the earnings model. Based on the household level Population, Labor Force, and Migration (1979-80) survey data, the analysis yields the following important conclusions: (i) the data allowed a meaningful estimation of Mincerian earnings function for migrants and non-migrants; (ii) the level of schooling was one of the important determinants of the distribution of income both for migrants and nonmigrants--the four categorical variables of education were in general statistically significant with expected signs, implying that the hypothesis of a positive relationship between income and education was accepted; (iii) the rates of return to education improved systematically with higher levels of education, thus confirming the notion that education serves as a signalling device; (iv) the age-income profile was almost linear for migrants but showed concavity for nonmigrants; (v) the presence of sample-selection was observed for migrants; and (vi) even after controlling for the influence of personal characteristics, i.e., education and experience, the long-standing migrants earned relatively more at the destination than the more recent migrants.

  20. Lie. kū́nas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simas Karaliūnas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available LIТН. kū́nas “BODY”SummaryThe cognates of Lith. kū́nas “body” and Latv. kûnis (kи̃пе, kũņа “body; chrysalis; caterpil­lar of a butterfly; bee pupae” are supposed to be Lith. kūпа “carrion”, pa-kū́nė “sore, furuncle; upper lamella, a layer under the roots”, Latv. kипа “wart, excrescence”, kunis “bottom of a sheaf” and others. Lith. kū́nas, kūпа may represent substantivized forms of the adjective Latv. kûns“round, obese, stout”, while Latv. kûnis, kũņа, kūne seem to be derivatives of the suffixes *-o-*-ā-, *-ē-.

  1. Planning to Execution Earned Value Risk Management Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    software application. This functional architecture is presented in Chapter IV. A storyboard , in the form of a wireframe prototype, was put together...using the established functional architecture. This storyboard was used to continuously capture the feedback of the stakeholders and to make sure that...next stage through storyboards and further development of the MS Excel models. Through the stakeholder interview process and subsequent ideation

  2. Using Earned Value Management (EVM) in Spiral Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brownsword, Lisa; Smith, Jim

    2005-01-01

    .... First, projects no longer develop all components of a system as custom components. Instead, projects use pre-existing, off-the-shelf packages, components, or entire systems, potentially along with custom components...

  3. Real earnings management activities prior to bond issuance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Mellado-Cid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine real activities manipulation by firms prior to their debt issuances and how such manipulation activities affect bond yield spreads. We find that bond-issuing firms increase their real activities manipulation in the five quarters leading to a bond issuance. We document an inverse association between yield spread and pre-issue real activities manipulation, i.e., firms engaged in abnormally high levels of real activities manipulation are associated with subsequent lower cost of debt.

  4. Earnings Management and Participation in Accounting Standard-Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenigsgruber, R.; Palan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent economic and political science research suggests that the way public policy is set, and in particular the participation of those affected by it, impacts upon the outcome of the policy. Accounting standard setting has long offered such a possibility to participate via the due process approach

  5. The practice and earnings of preventive medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salive, M E

    1992-01-01

    A shortage of preventive medicine (PM) physicians exists in the United States. Researchers know little about these physicians' earnings and practice characteristics. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) mailed a survey to all self-identified PM physicians on the American Medical Association (AMA) Physician Masterfile. A total of 3,771 (54%) responded; respondents' sex and region of residence were typical for PM physicians in general, with a slight excess of older physicians and those reporting board certification. A total of 2,664 (71%) were working full time, with median earnings of $85,000 (mean $90,000). Among full-time physicians, relatively higher earnings were associated with the following characteristics: male sex; age 45 to 64 years; major source of income from clinical, business, or industrial sources, rather than governmental or academic; and PM board certification. Full-time PM physicians earned much less than office-based private practitioners in several primary care specialties in 1989. The gap in earnings between PM specialists in government positions and those in the private sector is also substantial. Both disparities may require creative solutions.

  6. Gestão dos corpos nas mídias contemporâneas: os universitários em pauta = Managing bodies in contemporary media: university students under discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Roberto Rafael Dias da

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo examina os modos pelos quais nas mídias contemporâneas faz-se possível visibilizar estratégias de gestão dos corpos dos sujeitos universitários. Toma-se como ponto de partida uma pesquisa que analisou o Caderno Vestibular/ ZH, suplemento publicado semanalmente pelo jornal Zero Hora (RS endereçado aos sujeitos em preparação para o ingresso na universidade. Teoricamente a pesquisa aproxima-se dos estudos do filósofo francês Michel Foucault, sobretudo aqueles centrados no conceito de governamentalidade. Analiticamente apontamos que, sob a grade do neoliberalismo americano, os sujeitos universitários são interpelados a administrar seus corpos, tornando-os produtivos para o sucesso em sua vida pessoal e profissional, fazendo com que o eixo dessa gestão opere mais próximo do controle e da regulação do que da disciplina. Enfim, apontamos que a construção de um universitário de sucesso passa pela gestão de seu corpo, um corpo regulado e controlado para competir livre e individualmente nos fluxos neoliberais do mercado de trabalho

  7. Proteínas: redefiniendo algunos conceptos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Calderon Vélez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento sobre las estructuras primarias, secundarias y terciarias de las proteínas crece cada día; la terminología y su adecuado uso, incluso para los conocedores, pueden resultar confusos. Se propone en esta comunicación una forma sencilla y práctica de abordar el tema.

  8. Danwei Profitability and Earnings Inequality in Urban China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has debated the relative importance of such factors as human capital, political capital and region in determining workers’ earnings in reform-era urban China. This article argues that a main agent of social stratification in contemporary China continues to be the danwei, the work unit. Using data from a 1999 survey we conducted in three large Chinese cities, Wuhan, Shanghai and Xi’an, we assess the extent to which workers’ earnings (including regular wages, bonuses and subsidies) depend on the profitability of their danwei. Results show that the financial situation of the danwei is one of the most important determinants of earnings in today’s urban China. Furthermore, the importance of danwei profitability does not vary by city or by employment sector. PMID:20445771

  9. Earnings, Uncertainty, and the Self-Employment Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Maire, Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    2007-01-01

    -employed can retain earnings and thereby transfer income across tax-years. Secondly, expected income level and income variance are important determinants in choice of occupation. Thirdly, men put more emphasis on expected earnings level, while women appears more risk averse, which contribute to explain why......This paper investigates the relationship between self-employment choice, expected earnings, and uncertainty. Several interesting results emerge from our analysis on Danish longitudinal register data: Firstly, self-employed (taxable) personal income bunch at kink points in the tax system since self...... fewer women are self-employed. Finally, our results suggest that non-western immigrants are marginalized into self-employment. Occupational choice, self-employment, wage-di¤erentials, income uncertainty, risk aversion, overcon…dence, self-selection, gender di¤erences.  ...

  10. The Effects of Tax Avoidance, Accrual Earnings Management, Real Earnings Management, and Capital Intensity on the Cost of Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Adhi Prasetya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of PROPER Rating, Industrial Type, Profitability, Leverage and Age of Company on Carbon Emission Disclosure. Measurement of carbon emissions disclosure uses Carbon Emission Disclosure Checklist (CED. The population of this study is non-financial companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2013 - 2016 as many as 406 companies. The technique used in sampling is purposive sampling and selected 32 companies as sample and 126 units of analysis. The analytical tool used to test the hypothesis is descriptive statistical analysis and multiple linear regression analysis processed through IBM SPSS 21 program. The research results show that the PROPER rating and the type of industry have positive effect on carbon emission disclosure. While profitability, leverage and age of the company have no effect on carbon emission disclosure. The conclusions of this study are the PROPER rating and the type of industry proven to influence the company’s decision making to disclose carbon emissions. While the profitability, leverage, and firm age cannot affect the company’s decision to disclose carbon emissions.

  11. The Dynamics of Gender Earnings Differentials: Evidence from Establishment Data

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Erling; Pekkala Kerr, Sari; Olivetti, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We use a unique match between the 2000 Decennial Census of the United States and the Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics (LEHD) data to analyze how much of the increase in the gender earnings gap over the lifecycle comes from shifts in the sorting of men and women across high- and low-pay establishments and how much is due to differential earnings growth within establishments. We find that for the college educated the increase is substantial and, for the most part, due to differential ea...

  12. Banking system reform, earnings quality and credit allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuli Zhu; Lianjun Li; Yunkui Xue

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates credit allocation before and after the 2003 banking system reform in China. We find that relationships between earnings quality and new short-term loans, long-term loans and total loans in listed companies changed significantly after the banking system reform, especially in stateowned listed companies. Further investigation shows that due to the influence of rent-seeking, banks have eased the earnings requirements of non-stateowned listed companies. These findings enhance our understanding of the economic consequences of the banking system reform and of credit discrimination under the new regime.

  13. Banking system reform, earnings quality and credit allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Zhu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates credit allocation before and after the 2003 banking system reform in China. We find that relationships between earnings quality and new short-term loans, long-term loans and total loans in listed companies changed significantly after the banking system reform, especially in state-owned listed companies. Further investigation shows that due to the influence of rent-seeking, banks have eased the earnings requirements of non-state-owned listed companies. These findings enhance our understanding of the economic consequences of the banking system reform and of credit discrimination under the new regime.

  14. Earnings among young and mature Danish university graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    wages among private sector employees. This applies to both genders, but the differences are stronger among male employees. The analyses of long-term wages reveal a more homogeneous pattern. Mature graduates earn less in all the years investigated. The wage differences are greatest among male graduates...... for a longer period of time and to control for more labour market-relevant variables than any previous study of graduation age and earnings. The results show that graduation age has either a slightly positive or an insignificant impact on starting wages within the public sector or a negative impact on starting...... employed in private enterprises, and the gap increases throughout their careers....

  15. IMPORTANCE OF EARNED VALUE METHOD (EVA IN THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGARITA JANESKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The economics of the projects is an important process in the project management. Effective control of projects is based on appropriate methods for monitoring, and the entire project, the timetable, cost, quality and risk. Unlike accounting aspects in project management are looking for information that allow insight into the status and trends of financial progress of the project. Such information provide a method of earned value. It is a key component for assessing the actual performance of the project. The method of earned value is a better indicator of the progress of the project in comparison to the classical method of comparing planned and actual costs. This method shows the profit in relation to actual costs at a specific time point. This method is the basis for calculating the index of the project performance. In this sense, MS Project provides many opportunities for quality control and monitoring of the realization of the projects. In this study will be described the architecture of this method, outlined the benefits of the application of this method, and the basic criteria that should satisfy project management to be able to apply it.

  16. A SMART NAS Toolkit for Optimality Metrics Overlay, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed is a plug-and-play module for NASA's proposed SMART NAS (Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the NAS) system that...

  17. The College Payoff: Education, Occupations, Lifetime Earnings. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Cheah, Ban

    2011-01-01

    Education and earnings interact in complex and often unexpected ways--but there are rules to the game. "The College Payoff," a new paper from the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, uses in-depth data analysis to identify, illuminate and elucidate those rules. This executive summary provides a glimpse of the education and…

  18. A Price Earnings Index for the Danish Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Price-earnings ratios are part of the toolkit that is used for assessing the valuation ofindividual firms on the stock market as well as the entire market itself. This paperpresents consistent P/E series for the liquid Danish shares adjusted for share buybacks.The results show that over the period...

  19. Can "Some College" Help Reduce Future Earnings Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Daniel P.; Moulton, Jeremy G.; Bono-Lunn, Dillan; Chrisco, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the policy debate over "college for all" versus "college for some" in the United States and analyzes the relationship between "some college" (as a formal education attainment category) and earnings. Our evidence confirms--using data from the American Community Survey (ACS), the Panel Study on…

  20. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of... through a work order. A homebuyer shall receive a copy of all such work orders for his home. (i... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA...

  1. Rural Earnings Holding Steady in the Early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate an overall decline in the rural-urban pay gap during the early 1990s (due to declining urban wages, not rising rural wages). In 1993, the earnings of 30 percent of rural full-time workers were below the poverty level. Compares low-income workers by gender, age group, education, and race/ethnicity. (LP)

  2. Gender and Racial Gaps in Earnings among Recent College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate graduates from 1993 (B&B 93/97/03), I explore factors that contribute to the gender and racial gap in earnings among recent college graduate. Results indicate that college major remains the most significant factor in accounting for the gender gap in pay. Female graduates are still left…

  3. Labor Market Institutions and the Dispersion of Wage Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Checchi, D.; Atkinson, A.B.; Bourguignon, F.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the contribution of the distribution of individual wages and earnings to that of household incomes we find two separate literatures that should be brought together, and bring “new institutions” into play. Growing female employment, rising dual-earnership and part-time employment

  4. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  5. Within- and Cross-Firm Mobility and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander Karl

    It is widely accepted that promotions within firms and mobility across firms lead to significant earnings progression. Existing research generally examined cross-firm mobility separately from hierarchical advancement. Yet, as our descriptive evidence from Danish panel data shows, how the two type...... growth of promotions (either within or across firms) and subsequent mobility at a higher hierarchy level....

  6. 26 CFR 1.312-6 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exclude from earnings and profits that portion of any premium which is unearned under the provisions of section 832(b)(4) and which is segregated accordingly in the unearned premium reserve. (b) Among the items... items includible in gross income under section 61 or corresponding provisions of prior revenue acts...

  7. Evaluation of Building Projects Using Earned Value Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates building construction projects using the Earned Value Analysis technique, the Experimental Approach, and Value Concept Analysis. The aim was to compare the cost incurred for an identified amount of work done on a project with the cost budgeted for the same work. The results were used to calculate ...

  8. Job Search Methods: Consequences for Gender-based Earnings Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Matt L.; Torres, Lisa

    2001-01-01

    Data from adults in Atlanta, Boston, and Los Angeles (n=1,942) who searched for work using formal (ads, agencies) or informal (networks) methods indicated that type of method used did not contribute to the gender gap in earnings. Results do not support formal job search as a way to reduce gender inequality. (Contains 55 references.) (SK)

  9. Panel Estimates of Male-Female Earnings Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Kak; Polachek, Solomon W.

    1994-01-01

    Application of single and simultaneous equation fixed-effects and random-effects shows that earnings appreciation with experience and depreciation with labor market interruptions are comparable for men and women. Adjusting for heterogeneity reduces the wage gap to 20%; adjusting for endogeneity reduces it nearly to zero. (SK)

  10. Estimating the Effect of Personality on Male-Female Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mueller; E.J.S. Plug (Erik)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper uses the Five-Factor Model of personality structure as an organizing framework to explore the effects of personality on earnings. Using data from a longitudinal survey of American high school graduates, we find that extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism

  11. PENGARUH PENGUNGKAPAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TERHADAP EARNING RESPONSE COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Mitha Dwi Restuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh negatif pengungkapan Corporate Sosial Responsibility (CSR disclosure terhadap Earning Response Coefficient (ERC. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis regresi berganda.Sampel yang digunakan adalah sebanyak 150 perusahaan yang terdaftar pada Bursa Efek Indonesia pada tahun 2010. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility tidak berpengaruh terhadap Earning Response Coefficient (ERC. Hal ini dapat dikatakan bahwa investor belum memperhatikan informasi-informasi sosial yang diungkapkan dalam laporan tahunan perusahaan sebagai informasi yang dapat mempengaruhi investor dalam melakukan keputusan investasi. Investor masih mengganggap informasi laba lebih bermanfaat dalam menilai perusahaan dan dianggap lebih mampu memberikan informasi untuk mendapatkan return saham yang diharapkan oleh investor dibandingkan dengan informasi sosial yang diungkapkan oleh perusahaan.The purpose of this study is to determine the negative effect of Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure (CSR disclosure of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The samples were 150 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010. Based on the research, the result was the disclosures of Corporate Social Responsibility did not influence Earning Response Coefficient (ECR. It can be said that investors did not pay attention to social information that was disclosed in the company’s annual report as information that could affect investors in making investment decisions. Investor did not consider sosial information; they only consider profit information to assess the company value and their investment return

  12. Audit firm rotation, audit firm tenure and earnings conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.T.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Vasileiou, K.Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate around the possibility of mandating audit firm rotation. Specifically, it examines conservatism as an attribute of earnings quality, which has not attracted particular attention in the auditor rotation research. Applying regression analyses on a sample,

  13. Evaluation of Earning Performance of Female Owned Leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tools for data analyses were descriptive statistics, income statement and an econometric model involving Ordinary Least Square regression analyses. The earning performance evaluation indicated that the enterprises have performed creditably considering the value of the gross margin analysis which is high and gross ...

  14. When does the tone of earnings press releases matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudt, Kris; Thewissen, James; Torsin, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    The tone of a firm's financial disclosure is increasingly used as a variable in panel data regressions to predict future performance and explain investors’ reaction at earnings announcement. We investigate when tone is informative, and argue that the informativeness of tone increases with the

  15. Mental Illness and Labour Market Outcomes: Employment and Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of severe mental illness on the capacity to hold a job and to earn an income. We find that the employment rate is reduced with about 1/3 during the development of the disease. Hospital admission seems to stabilize employment for all diagnoses. The employment rate...

  16. A risk augmented mincer earnings equation? Taking stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.

    2009-01-01

    We survey the literature on the Risk Augmented Mincer equation that seeks to estimate the compensation for uncertainty in the future wage to be earned after completing an education. There is wide empirical support for the predicted positive effect of wage variance and the negative effect of wage

  17. A risk augmented Mincer earnings equation? Taking stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.

    2011-01-01

    We survey the literature on the Risk Augmented Mincer equation that seeks to estimate the compensation for uncertainty in the future wage to be earned after completing an education. There is wide empirical support for the predicted positive effect of wage variance and the negative effect of wage

  18. Within- and cross-firm mobility and earnings growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander

    , we show that cross-firm moves at the non-executive level provide sizeable short-run gains (similar to the effect of a promotion), consistent with the existing literature. These gains, however, appear modest when compared with the persistent impact on earnings growth of promotions (either within...... or across firms) and subsequent mobility at a higher hierarchy level....

  19. Helping Working Families: The Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Saul D.; Seidman, Laurence S.

    The impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on working families was analyzed. The analysis established that the EITC is, on balance, a highly effective program that meets its primary objectives well. The following benefits of the EITC were identified: (1) it reduced the poverty rate in 1999 by an estimated 1.5 percentage points; (2) it is…

  20. How Working Time Reduction Affects Employment and Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    December 1, 1996 Portugal introduced a new law on working hours which gradually reduced the standard workweek from 44 hours to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory working hours reduction affected employment and earnings of workers involved. We find for workers who were affected by the new law that

  1. Notas sobre o fantasma nas toxicomanias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Firmo de Oliveira Cruz

    Full Text Available O presente artigo foi apresentado na Jornada Clínica da Associação Psicanalítica de Porto Alegre - "A direção da cura nas toxicomanias: o sujeito em questão em outubro de 2003. Através da discussão de um caso clínico, busca evidenciar a importância da relação existente entre a fantasmática do sujeito e a escolha do objeto nas toxicomanias. Aborda ainda a toxicomania como sintoma da contemporaneidade, bem como traços da estética que a compõe.

  2. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai Wong

    2016-11-01

    Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  3. ANALISIS VARIABEL YANG MEMPENGARUHI EARNINGS PER SHARE PADA INDUSTRI FOOD AND BAVERAGES YANG GO PUBLIC DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTEJO - -

    2012-05-01

    the significantly influencing independent variables net sales (X2 and current ratio (X3 showed negative influence on earnings per share. Negative correlation was found between net sales (X2 and earnings per share and was due to the increase of operating expenses and the number of outstanding stock each year. The increasing number of outstanding stock and net sales (X2 which was not sustained by the efficiency of operating expenses, will decrease the earnings per share. On the other hand, the negative correlation between the current ratio (X3 and earnings per share was due to the increase of current asset components, namely, cash, account receivables, and inventory. This indicates over investment in current assets, which in turn, deteriorates the operating efficiency of the firms. Based on this research findings the firm management needs to focus more on factors proven to influence the earnings per share in making their strive to improve the corporate performance as indicated by their earnings per share. Keyword: earning per share.

  4. DETERMINANTS OF RETAINED EARNINGS IN PROFITABLE STEEL COMPANIES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF STEEL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sohaib Masood

    2018-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the important determinants of retained earnings in profitable steel companies in steel sector of India and which have impact on the retention of earnings of steel companies under study. Multiple linear regression is used to identify the determinants of retained earnings for a period of sixteen years. Also the importance of retained earnings as a source of finance for steel sector companies is also studied in the paper.

  5. Power Scaling of Petroleum Field Sizes and Movie Box Office Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, J. A.; Barton, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    The size-cumulative frequency distribution of petroleum fields has long been shown to be power scaling, Mandelbrot, 1963, and Barton and Scholz, 1995. The scaling exponents for petroleum field volumes range from 0.8 to 1.08 worldwide and are used to assess the size and number of undiscovered fields. The size-cumulative frequency distribution of movie box office earnings also exhibits a power scaling distribution for domestic, overseas, and worldwide gross box office earnings for the top 668 earning movies released between 1939 and 2016 (http://www.boxofficemojo.com/alltime/). Box office earnings were reported in the dollars-of-the-day and were converted to 2015 U.S. dollars using the U.S. consumer price index (CPI) for domestic and overseas earnings. Because overseas earnings are not reported by country and there is no single inflation index appropriate for all overseas countries. Adjusting the box office earnings using the CPI index has two effects on the power functions fit. The first is that the scaling exponent has a narrow range (2.3 - 2.5) between the three data sets; and second, the scatter of the data points fit by the power function is reduced. The scaling exponents for the adjusted value are; 2.3 for domestic box office earnings, 2.5 for overseas box office earnings, and 2.5 worldwide box office earnings. The smaller the scaling exponent the greater the proportion of all earnings is contributed by a smaller proportion of all the movies: where E = P (a-2)/(a-1) where E is the percentage of earnings, P is the percentage of all movies in the data set. The scaling exponents for box office earnings (2.3 - 2.5) means that approximately 20% of the top earning movies contribute 70-55% of all the earnings for domestic, worldwide earnings respectively.

  6. Do Survey Data Estimate Earnings Inequality Correctly? Measurement Errors among Black and White Male Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…

  7. Annual earnings announcements and market reaction: The case of a small capital market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønroth, Helle Langhoff; Møller, Peder Fredslund; Thinggaard, Frank

    suggest that only a model based on reported IBES-estimates of earnings per share shortly before earnings release is descriptive of the market´s expectations. Some of these findings contradict the results in the only published 17 year old Danish event study on annual earnings announcements...

  8. 18 CFR 367.4390 - Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. 367.4390 Section 367.4390 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4390 Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. (a...

  9. 18 CFR 367.2161 - Account 216.1, Unappropriated undistributed subsidiary earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., either debit or credit, of undistributed retained earnings of subsidiary companies since their... account, this account must be debited and account 216, Unappropriated retained earnings (§ 367.2160..., Unappropriated undistributed subsidiary earnings. 367.2161 Section 367.2161 Conservation of Power and Water...

  10. Can Technical Analysis Signals Detect Price Reactions Around Earnings Announcement?: Evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dedhy Sulistiawan; Jogiyanto Hartono

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether technical analysis signals can detect price reactions before and after earnings announcement dates in Indonesian stock market. Earnings announcements produce reactions, both before and after the announcements. Informed investors may use private information before earnings announcements (Christophe, Ferri and Angel, 2004; Porter, 1992). Using technical analysis signals, this study expects that retail investors (uninformed investors) can detect preannouncements react...

  11. A Study on the Relationship of Earnings and Cash Flows: Evidence of Finance Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is investigating the quality of annual accounting earnings in banking firms that have been listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE and it evaluates the most important information of accounting that is earnings and cash flows. The study also intends to investigate the relationship between earnings and cash flows regarding their relationship with the expected return of stocks and the extent of informing in the analysis of the inevitable return of stocks. The analyses of data during 6 years revealed that the earnings in comparison to the cash flows are very important as they have positive effects on the stock. Moreover, in the case of the relations of earnings and earnings changes with the expected return of stocks and the relation of cash flows and cash flow changes with the expected return of stock, it was found that there is only a meaningful relationship between earning changes and the expected return of stock in banking groups. However, there is no meaningful relationship between earning and cash flows with the expected return of stock. The result was that the informational content test didn’t support the value relation of earning and cash flows. Furthermore, the classifying of information through banking group indicated that the changes of earning was in the first rank and next were earning, the changes of cash flow and cash flows.Keywords: Earnings; Cash flows; expected return; Value relevance; Banking risks

  12. 75 FR 11998 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee will be held Tuesday, April 20, 2010 from 8 a.m. to...

  13. 76 FR 22171 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  14. 76 FR 32024 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  15. 76 FR 10944 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Tuesday...

  16. 75 FR 33894 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  17. 76 FR 45006 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, September 26, 2011, at 3 p.m...

  18. 76 FR 2197 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  19. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, October 24, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  20. 75 FR 7540 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  1. 76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  2. 75 FR 18955 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  3. 76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, November 28, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  4. 76 FR 6188 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, March 28, 2011, at 2 p.m., Eastern...

  5. 75 FR 25316 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  6. Lipoproteínas: metabolismo y lipoproteínas aterogénicas

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Carvajal

    2014-01-01

    Los lípidos viajan en sangre en diferentes partículas conteniendo lípidos y proteínas llamadas lipoproteínas. Hay cuatro clases de lipoproteínas en sangre: quilomicrones, VLDL, LDL y HDL. Los quilomicrones transportan triglicéridos (TAG) a tejidos vitales (corazón, musculo esquelético y tejido adiposo). El hígado secreta VLDL que redistribuye TAG al tejido adiposo, corazón y músculo esquelético. LDL transporta colesterol hacia las células y HDL remueve colesterol de las células de vuelta al h...

  7. A pedagogia nas malhas de discursos legais

    OpenAIRE

    Jociane Rosa de Macedo Costa

    2002-01-01

    Esta dissertação se ocupa de discursos da legislação educacional brasileira e documentos correlatos de uma formação particular (em que aconteceram mudanças significativas na sociedade e na cultura)  a pedagogia. Seu objetivo é mostrar como esses discursos, ao prescreverem sobre a formação da pedagoga, produzem uma pedagogia que se constitui como prática de governo. Trata-se de uma pedagogia específica, fabricada nas malhas dos discursos legais e colocada a serviço da nação para a produção de...

  8. Earnings announcement lag and non-mandatory disclosure impact on the cost of debt: Hong Kong empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achraf Guidara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the association between voluntary disclosure, earnings announcement lag and the cost of debt in Hong Kong. The research sample consists of 20 listed companies in the Hong Kong Stock exchange over the period spanning from 2008 to 2011. A disclosure checklist is used to measure the extent of voluntary disclosure in companies ‘annual reports. Earnings announcement lag is proxied by the difference between the end of fiscal year and the publication date of financial statements. Results of this study confirm that voluntary disclosure and earnings announcements lag reduce the cost of debt in Hong Kong. These findings suggest that voluntary disclosures play an essential role in reducing cost of debt in Hong Kong context, and managers tend to disclose in early manner to reduce the information asymmetry between their firm and creditors. These findings may have policy implications for managers since they demonstrate that the extent of voluntary and timely disclosures affect the cost of debt.

  9. The Combined Effects of Financial Derivatives and Discretionary Accruals on the Value Relevance of Earnings and the Book Value of Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Murwaningsari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand (1 the association between the use of discretionary accruals and financial derivatives, taking into consideration the implementation of revised PSAK 55 (1999, which was adopted from SFAS 133; (2 the combined effects of derivatives and discretionary accruals on the value relevance of earnings and equity. The analysis used panel data regressions and the Wald test over the period from 2001-2008. The results showed a positive or complementary association between derivatives and discretionary accruals. The positive association implied that managers tended to intensify the use of discretionary accruals to offset a higher use of derivatives. Price and return models demonstrated negative significant effects of derivatives on the value relevance of earnings. The return model showed negative significant effects of discretionary accruals on the value relevance of earnings but negative effects on the value relevance of equity with the price model.

  10. Macroeconomic effects of zero corporate income tax on retained earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Jaan Masso; Jaanika Meriküll

    2011-01-01

    International tax competition had led to a lowering of corporate tax rates worldwide. Estonia was the first country to reduce the tax rate on retained earnings to zero, while distributed profits remained taxed at the pre-reform level. This paper seeks to analyse the effects of this unique tax reform implemented in year 2000. We apply a neoclassical exogenous growth general equilibrium model with an extension for endogenous corporate finance. Our findings indicate that the reform had a strong ...

  11. Earnings announcements and the variability of stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Eilifsen, Aasmund; Knivsflå, Kjell Henry; Sættem, Frode

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the dissemination process of firm-specific annual earnings information in the Norwegian capital market. We find a significant reduction in stock price volatility in the post-announcement period relative to the pre-announcement period for companies traded on the Oslo Stock Exchange in the period 1990-1995. Potential explanations for this phenomenon are tested by relating the observed return volatility to changes in the volatility of the underlying business, the spe...

  12. Re-examining the earnings assimilatins of immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, Taryn Ann

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the earnings assimilation of immigrants have traditionally focused exclusively on immigrants in employment. However, given evidence of immigrants' difficulties in entering and remaining in the labor market, restricting the population to those in employment may entail a selection bias. In addition, the primary variable of interest in such studies is often the duration of residence or the years since migration (YSM), which is interpreted as a proxy for potential labor market experien...

  13. Social Interaction and Market Reaction to Earnings News

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiguang

    2017-01-01

    This study documents strong effects of social interaction on investors’ attention and interpretations of earnings news. I estimate the firm-level investor social network and find that higher connectedness increases the announcement price reaction, reduces post-announcement drift, and decreases the long-run impact of the news on return volatility. I also find that social interaction triggers persistent disagreement-driven volume during and after the announcement. The evidence combined highligh...

  14. Public-private sector earnings differentials in a transition economy

    OpenAIRE

    Laušev, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse how economic transition affected earnings differentials in Eastern European economies. In particular, as the public sector was the sole employer in the pre-transition period, the analysis of public sector pay setting is crucial to understanding how privatisation affected the labour market during the transition.\\ud \\ud The central idea of the first essay is to develop a theoretical model that explains the pay setting behaviour of the employer in the public ...

  15. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  16. ANALISIS PENGARUH PERUBAHAN EARNINGS DAN RISIKO PASAR TERHADAP STRUKTUR MODAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endi Sarwoko

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji perbedaan rata-rata struktur modal antar industri, menguji pengaruh perubahan earnings perusahaan terhadap struktur modal, dan menguji pengaruh risiko pasar dengan struktur modal perusahaan. Struktur modal dalam penelitian ini diproksikan dengan debt to equity ratio dan debt to total assets. Data diperoleh dari Pojok Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ Universitas Brawijaya, sampel sebanyak 40 perusahaan yang diambil secara Purposive dengan kriteria perusahaan-perusahaan tersebut aktif mencatatkan laporan keuangannya di BEJ dan aktif melakukan perdagangan saham selama 6 tahun terakhir. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh terbalik antara perubahan earnings perusahaan terhadap D/E tetapi perubahan earnings ternyata tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap D/A. Risiko pasar tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap debt to equity, hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa ketika akan melakukan pembelian saham investor tidak mempertimbangkan risiko pasar. Sedangkan berdasarkan pengaruh terhadap D/A diperoleh hasil risiko pasar berpengaruh signifikan terhadap debt to total assets,  manajemen perusahaan sangat memperhatikan dampak risiko pasar dalam menentukan kebijakan struktur modal perusahaan, karena dalam memberikan pinjaman kreditur biasanya sangat mempertimbangkan aset yang dimiliki perusahaan didanai dari mana, hutang atau modal sendiri.

  17. Why do very unattractive workers earn so much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Hu, Shihao; Larere, Adrien

    2018-05-01

    Kanazawa and Still (2018) showed that very unattractive workers earned more than unattractive workers, sometimes more than average-looking or attractive workers, because they had higher levels of intelligence and education, but they did not explain why very unattractive workers had higher intelligence and education. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to expect that some intelligent men may prefer to marry very unattractive women. The analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) shows that very unattractive women were significantly more likely to be married at Age 29 than unattractive or average-looking women, and their spouses or partners earned significantly more than those of unattractive or average-looking women. If intelligent men have historically preferred to marry very unattractive women generation after generation, then, because both general intelligence and physical attractiveness are highly heritable, this can explain why very unattractive workers are more intelligent and achieve higher education, thereby earning more. It can also explain why the positive correlation between intelligence and physical attractiveness is not larger despite assortative mating of intelligent men of higher status and physically attractive women over many generations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost of education and earning potential for non-physician anesthesia providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Philip; Stevens, Bradley; Collins, Shawn; Hewer, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Potential non-physician anesthesia students gauge many different aspects of a graduate program prior to applying, but cost of education and earning potential are typically high priorities for students. Our analysis evaluated the cost of tuition for all certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) and anesthesiologist assistant (AA) programs in the United States, as well as earning potential for both professions. We collected educational cost data from school websites and salary data from the Medical Group Management Association's Physician Compensation and Production Survey: 2012 Report in order to compare the two groups. We found that the median cost of public CRNA programs is $40,195 and the median cost of private programs is $60,941, with an overall median of $51,720. Mean compensation for CRNAs in 2011 was $156,642. The median cost of public AA programs is $68,210 compared with $77,155 for private AA education, and an overall median cost of $76,037. Average compensation for AAs in 2011 was $123,328. Considering these factors, nurse anesthesia school is a better choice for candidates who already possess a nursing license; however, for those prospective students who are not nurses, AA school may be a more economical choice, depending on the type and location of practice desired.

  19. O controle de projetos através dos conceitos de Desempenho Real (Earned Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Osorio Balarine

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Partindo dos conceitos de Administração de Projetos, este artigo objetiva mostrar a importância de um tipo especial de controle, auxiliar ao monitoramento de custos e tempos, visando alcançar os melhores resultados com projetos. E sugerida uma técnica de controle denominada Desempenho Real (Earned Value. Com isso, a totalidade do projeto pode ser constantemente controlado em seu progresso e desempenho, através da determinação de recursos necessários à conclusão dos trabalhos, mediante acompanhamento de seus custos e prazos.Starting from Project Management concepts, this paper aims to show a special kind of control method to aid costs and time monitoring to get better project results. It is suggested a control technique based on Earned Value. That is, the overall project can be constantly controlled in progress and performance through determination of resources required to complete the work, both in total and over time.

  20. A necessidade da informação gerencial nas IES públicas da Europa: breve abordagem pela realidade de Portugal = The need of managing information in European public universities: a brief approach to the Portuguese reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pereira Monteiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a importância da informação gerencial por Instituições de Ensino Superior Públicas europeias com ênfase no contexto de Portugal. O cenário de crise financeira pela qual passa o setor público de Portugal nos últimos anos é notório, incidindo em cortes salariais e também na redução do número de oferta de vagas no ensino superior público constituído de universidades e institutos politécnicos. Portanto, é de grande relevância discutir como a contabilidade de custos por meio de informações gerenciais pode apoiar a gestão das Instituições de Ensino Superior (IES. Realizou-se uma ampla pesquisa bibliográfica que permitiu descrever quais as principais funcionalidades da informação de custos como apoiadora do processo de decisão em IES. As vantagens informacionais encontradas remetem essencialmente ao aumento da eficiência e eficácia governamental por meio de planejamento mais adequado, construção de indicadores de desempenho, alternativas para a redução de custos, possibilidade de comparações e aumento da transparência para o controle social.The aim of this study is to analyze the importance of managing information in High Education Institutions - Public High Education Institutions, focusing on the Portuguese context. The scenery of financial crisis that crosses over the Portuguese public sector over the past few years is eye-catching. Salary cuts and the decrease on the number of vacancies in public high education institutions has been a major concern. Therefore, it is of high importance to analyze to what extend the cost accountancy by the means of managing information can support the management of high education institutions. It was taken a bibliographic research which allowed depicting the main functions of the cost information as a support to the decision making process in the High Education Institutions. The explanatory advantages which were found in this study lead us

  1. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Automation Impacts of ROA's in the NAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the impact of Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) operations on current and planned Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation systems in the En Route, Terminal, and Traffic Flow Management domains. The operational aspects of ROA flight, while similar, are not entirely identical to their manned counterparts and may not have been considered within the time-horizons of the automation tools. This analysis was performed to determine if flight characteristics of ROAs would be compatible with current and future NAS automation tools. Improvements to existing systems / processes are recommended that would give Air Traffic Controllers an indication that a particular aircraft is an ROA and modifications to IFR flight plan processing algorithms and / or designation of airspace where an ROA will be operating for long periods of time.

  2. A interfuncionalidade entre marketing e gestão de ciência e tecnologia nas empresas The relationship between marketing and science and technology management in the companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar José dos Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de estudarem vários temas em comum, ainda há pouco intercâmbio acadêmico entre as áreas de marketing e gestão de ciência e tecnologia (C&T. Este artigo discute alguns conceitos que marketing e C&T têm em comum, procurando evidenciar que, apesar de trilharem caminhos diferentes, a pauta de investigação de ambas as áreas é semelhante e complementar. O trabalho desenvolveu-se a partir de pesquisa bibliográfica sobre três temas acerca dos quais o potencial de integração é mais gritante: inovação, aprendizagem organizacional e capacidades. Concluiu-se que os significados dos três temas e os problemas abordados são os mesmos em ambas as disciplinas. Entretanto, elas raramente colhem contribuições mútuas. Uma aproximação maior poderia consolidar teorias mais consistentes para a análise dos problemas relacionados à competitividade das organizações, via relacionamento com o mercado, sustentando a posterior criação de modelos práticos de gerenciamento.Although Marketing and Science & Technology Management share a common set of themes, there are still few academic exchanges between those areas. This paper discusses some concepts shared by Marketing and Science and Technology, and search to stress that their research agenda is similar or complimentary, no matter they follow different tracks. The study is based upon the literature review about three themes that reveal the greatest potential for integration: innovation, organizational learning and capabilities. The paper concludes that the meaning of the three themes and the problems they aim to discuss are the same in both disciplines. Nevertheless, rarely they gather mutual contributions. A closer approximation could consolidate more consistent theories for the analysis of the problems related to organizational competition through market relationship, hence supporting the creation of practical management models.

  3. The Sources of Life Chances: Does Education, Class Category, Occupation, or Short-Term Earnings Predict 20-Year Long-Term Earnings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangHwan Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In sociological studies of economic stratification and intergenerational mobility, occupation has long been presumed to reflect lifetime earnings better than do short-term earnings. However, few studies have actually tested this critical assumption. In this study, we investigate the cross-sectional determinants of 20-year accumulated earnings using data that match respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal earnings records based on administrative tax information from 1990 to 2009. Fit statistics of regression models are estimated to assess the predictive power of various proxy variables, including occupation, education, and short-term earnings, on cumulative earnings over the 20-year time period. Contrary to the popular assumption in sociology, our results find that cross-sectional earnings have greater predictive power on long-term earnings than occupation-based class classifications, including three-digit detailed occupations for both men and women. The model based on educational attainment, including field of study, has slightly better fit than models based on one-digit occupation or the Erikson, Goldthorpe, and Portocarero class scheme. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for the sociology of stratification and intergenerational mobility.

  4. Gestão Democrática: Abertura para a Acessibilidade do Sujeito de Identidade Surda Múltipla e Multifacetada nas Instituições de Ensino. Democratic Management: Opening accessibility for subject of deaf identity multiple and multi-faceted in the regular education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Sheila Batista Maia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo refletimos sobre Gestão Democrática, Projeto Político Pedagógico e Currículo na interface das representações linguísticas e sócio-antropológicas dos Sujeitos de Identidades Surdas Múltiplas e Multifacetadas no processo de inclusão. Para isto foi feito um levantamento bibliográfico com autores que referendam as temáticas: coordenação pedagógica, educação e surdez - na perspectiva das identidades culturais na pós-modernidade -, Lei 10.436/2002 e do Decreto 5626/2005. Assim, as implementações apontadas fundamentam-se nas idiossincrasias destes sujeitos: língua materna - Língua de Sinais -, historicidade, cultura, identidade, pedagogia surda, e Língua Portuguesa como segunda língua.In this article we reflect on Democratic Management, Political Pedagogical Project and Curriculum at the interface representations and socio-anthropological Subjects’ Identity Deaf multiple and multifaceted process of inclusion. To this was done a literature with authors who endorse the following themes: education supervision, education and deafness - from the perspective of cultural identities in post-modernity, of Decree Law 10436/2002 and 5626/2005. Thus, the implementations identified based upon the idiosyncrasies of these subjects: native language - sign language - history, culture, identity, pedagogy deaf, and Portuguese as a second language.

  5. Liderança nas organizações educativas: a direcção por valores El liderazgo en las organizaciones educativas: la dirección por valores Leadership in school organisations: management by values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ribeiro Trigo

    2008-12-01

    in some geographical contexts. Even though we assume in this article that schools have got some specificities in relation to other organizations, we also recognize that the studies in the education field cannot remain immune to the contributions of other areas. Due to this reason we refer here to the model of Management by Values as a proposal that by breaking away from the more technical-instrumental branches of traditional theories of management, could contribute to a shared reflection with the leadership of educational organisations, specially taking into account the conceptualisation of leadership as a dialogue on values.

  6. Estado e controle nas prisões

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Analía Soria

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo analisa o problema da produção do controle e da ordem em prisões brasileiras, utilizando as perspectivas histórica e sociológica, e levanta a hipóteses de que, no Brasil, convivem duas modalidades de construção da ordem e do controle nas prisões. Uma delas, minoritária, baseia-se na prerrogativa do Estado na gestão do dia a dia prisional. A outra é relativa à negociação da pacificação do presídio entre o Estado e as lideranças dos presos. Embora, no primeiro caso, a prerrogativa d...

  7. Trends in the earnings gender gap among dentists, physicians, and lawyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Le, Thanh An; Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Vujicic, Marko

    2017-04-01

    The authors examined the factors associated with sex differences in earnings for 3 professional occupations. The authors used a multivariate Blinder-Oaxaca method to decompose the differences in mean earnings across sex. Although mean differences in earnings between men and women narrowed over time, there remained large, unaccountable earnings differences between men and women among all professions after multivariate adjustments. For dentists, the unexplained difference in earnings for women was approximately constant at 62% to 66%. For physicians, the unexplained difference in earnings for women ranged from 52% to 57%. For lawyers, the unexplained difference in earnings for women was the smallest of the 3 professions but also exhibited the most growth, increasing from 34% in 1990 to 45% in 2010. The reduction in the earnings gap is driven largely by a general convergence between men and women in some, but not all, observable characteristics over time. Nevertheless, large unexplained gender gaps in earnings remain for all 3 professions. Policy makers must use care in efforts to alleviate earnings differences for men and women because measures could make matters worse without a clear understanding of the nature of the factors driving the differences. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Doing the Same and Earning Less: Male and Female Physicians in a New Medical Specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Hoff

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents findings from a national survey of physicians working in the emerging career of hospital medicine. It finds that female hospitalists earn significantly less annually than male hospitalists, despite similar work schedules and commitments; that these similarities in work and differences in pay remain even for male and female hospitalists who are married and have children; and that female hospitalists maintain positive feelings toward their work careers despite assuming multiple work and nonwork roles simultaneously. The results present a unique picture of female physicians career experiences in toto. They have implications for how health care organizations and managers should think about the contemporary female physician (e.g., her career development needs and workplace challenges; for female physicians need to gain greater equity vis-à-vis men within the profession; and for the kinds of questions researchers should raise around physician gender in their work.

  9. How Federal Government Policies Have Helped Women Earn College Degrees?

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Deondra

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have long recognized that higher education brings knowledge and skills that translate into economic gains and enhanced political engagement, but little attention has been paid to the shifting impact of U.S. policies on college attendance by men and women. Once a male bastion, American higher education has become much more welcoming to women since the mid twentieth century. Starting in 1981, women earned the majority of bachelor’s degrees, and by 2003 U.S. colleges enrolled 1.3 women ...

  10. Entrepreneur's Choice of Tax Base: Earned or Capital Income?

    OpenAIRE

    Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja

    2002-01-01

    The determination of the entrepreneur’s tax burden in the dual income tax system is studied. The dual system taxes income from capital at a flat rate, but earned income at progressive rates. The media view claims the entrepreneur to be able to take his pay as favourably taxed income from capital. It is shown not to be supported by the recent data nor by deductive analysis in case of start-ups when (i) proper opportunity costs of the outside employment option and (ii) the financial capital tie...

  11. Relative changes in earned income five years after diagnosis with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, Bryan; Panton, Ulrik Haagen; Willaing, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    $ 924 (3.03%) among women. The effect was generally largest in the youngest age-group, in lower earners and among men. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate that a diagnosis of diabetes has a significant impact on earnings. Age and earnings at the time of diagnosis appear to play a moderating role.......,090 people with diabetes were included in the study and matched to 91,090 controls in the general population. The analysis revealed highly significant loss of earnings for people with diabetes when compared with people without diabetes, with an overall relative loss of US $ 3694 (8.01%) among men and US......OBJECTIVE: With previous studies indicating that diabetes affects employment status and lifetime earnings, the aim of this study was to determine the impact on earnings in the immediate period after diagnosis. Recognising that earnings and employment status are dynamic over the life course, we...

  12. A Study on the Determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient in an Emerging Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Mashayekhi; Zeynab Lotfi Aghel

    2016-01-01

    The determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC), including firm size, earnings growth, and earnings persistence are studied in this research. These determinants are supposed to be moderator variables that affect ERC and Return Response Coefficient. The research sample contains 82 Iranian listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) from 2001 to 2012. Gathered data have been processed by EVIEWS Software. Results show a significant positive relation between firm size and ERC, and als...

  13. A Study on the Relationship of Earnings and Cash Flows: Evidence of Finance Sector in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Salehi; Mirsohrab Seyedghorbani

    2013-01-01

    The present study is investigating the quality of annual accounting earnings in banking firms that have been listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) and it evaluates the most important information of accounting that is earnings and cash flows. The study also intends to investigate the relationship between earnings and cash flows regarding their relationship with the expected return of stocks and the extent of informing in the analysis of the inevitable return of stocks. The analyses of data dur...

  14. The Male-Female Wage Gap: Lifetime Earnings Losses. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Heidi; Whittaker, Julie

    Currently, the median full-time woman worker earns 74.4 percent of the annual earnings of the median man. Over their lifetime, young women stand to lose a great deal of money due to differences in the wages for women and men. Estimates are that the average 25-year-old woman who works full time year round for 40 years will earn $523,000 less than…

  15. Regulatory perspective on NAS recommendations for Yucca Mountain standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocoum, S.J.; Nesbit, S.P.; Duguid, J.A.; Lugo, M.A.; Krishna, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a regulatory perspective from the viewpoint of the potential licensee, the US Department of Energy (DOE), on the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on Yucca Mountain standards published in August 1995. The DOE agrees with some aspects of the NAS report; however, the DOE has serious concerns with the ability to implement some of the recommendations in a reasonable manner

  16. SUSTENTABILIDADE NAS CONSTRUÇÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Siqueira Manhães

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O processo da área da construção civil é bastante heterogêneo, contemplando diferentes âmbitos de organização produtiva e de formas de comercialização de seus produtos finais, as construções. Nas construções, a complexidade e a indispensabilidade de planejamento e gerenciamento são agravadas pela crescente busca do mercado por maior qualidade em seu desenvolvimento e melhor desempenho do produto final. Isso pode não direcionar a comunicação entre os agentes envolvidos e racionalizar a construção e a edificação, mas também mostrar alternativas inteligentes e sustentáveis que respondam à necessidade de minimização dos impactos ambientais. A discussão que envolve os conceitos de construções inteligentes e sustentáveis, apesar de ser vista no meio acadêmico, parece ainda não encerrada e engloba os diferentes níveis de organização do indivíduo e dasociedade. O presente estudo tem como objetivo discutir o uso desses conceitos no processo construtivo e em seu resultado final, com a finalidade de identificar possíveis relações entre os mesmos e as suas contribuições no contexto da sustentabilidade da construção civil. Observou-se que as inovações tecnológicas dispostas nas várias etapas do processo (construção até o produto final, geraram soluções sustentáveis que deixam sua contribuição para amenizar os impactos no meio ambiente. O trabalho contribui para uma reflexão sobre conceitos de sustentabilidade dentro de uma visão mais integral para a arquitetura, abordando o processo e o produto da produção da arquitetura.

  17. When Serious Project Management is a Critical Business Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.; Gibby, L.; Chambers, C.; Joines, J.; Egger, R.

    2000-01-01

    When serious project management is a critical business requirement, project managers need to integrate cost, schedule and technical scope of work across the project, and apply earned value management (EVM).

  18. Timeliness of earnings reported by Romanian listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Carp

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the quality of financial information, by assessing the timeliness of earnings, using information specific to non-financial companies listed on the regulated section of Bucharest Stock Exchange. The study also seeks to assess the symmetry of actions for the timely recognition of potential gains and losses (components of the economic income and, if there is an asymmetry, to identify the sense of the temporary gap. The phenomenon is analysed in conjunction with a number of control factors such as the Romanian Accounting Standards (RAS, the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, the degree of indebtedness or the entities’ field of activity. Quantitative analysis performed through econometric models consecrated in the field, such as Basu (1997 and Ball and Shivakumar (2005, reveals that the companies included in the study provide financial information that meets the qualitatively criterion assessed, respectively earnings timeliness. Deepening the analysis has made it possible to identify a timely recognition both for unrealised gains and potential losses, as a result of tests carried out on the whole sample, an advance in what concerns the inclusion of economic lose in the accounting income compared to the recognition of economic gains. The presence of disjunctive factors in the analysis generated a number of particular results. In the case of normally indebted companies that apply the IFRS, a timely recognition of economic gains and losses was noted, without the gap specific to conservatism.

  19. Stratified patterns of divorce: Earnings, education, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaplan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite evidence that divorce has become more prevalent among weaker socioeconomic groups, knowledge about the stratification aspects of divorce in Israel is lacking. Moreover, although scholarly debate recognizes the importance of stratificational positions with respect to divorce, less attention has been given to the interactions between them. Objective: Our aim is to examine the relationship between social inequality and divorce, focusing on how household income, education, employment stability, relative earnings, and the intersection between them affect the risk of divorce in Israel. Methods: The data is derived from combined census files for 1995-2008, annual administrative employment records from the National Insurance Institute and the Tax Authority, and data from the Civil Registry of Divorce. We used a series of discrete-time event-history analysis models for marital dissolution. Results: Couples in lower socioeconomic positions had a higher risk of divorce in Israel. Higher education in general, and homogamy in terms of higher education (both spouses have degrees in particular, decreased the risk of divorce. The wife's relative earnings had a differential effect on the likelihood of divorce, depending on household income: a wife who outearned her husband increased the log odds of divorce more in the upper tertiles than in the lower tertile. Conclusions: Our study shows that divorce indeed has a stratified pattern and that weaker socioeconomic groups experience the highest levels of divorce. Gender inequality within couples intersects with the household's economic and educational resources.

  20. Model construction of “earning money by taking photos”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingmei

    2018-03-01

    In the era of information, with the increasingly developed network, “to earn money by taking photos” is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The user downloads the APP, registers as a member of the APP, and then takes a task that needs to take photographs from the APP and earns the reward of the task on the APP. The article uses the task data and membership information data of an already completed project, including the member’s location and reputation value. On the basis of reasonable assumption, the data was processed with the MATLAB, SPSS and Excel software. This article mainly studied problems of the function relationship between the task performance, task position (GPS latitude and GPS longitude) and task price of users, analyzed the project’s task pricing rules and the reasons why the task is not completed, and applied multivariate regression function and GeoQ software to analyze the data, studied the task pricing rules, applied the chart method to solve the complex data, clear and easy to understand, and also reality simulation is applied to analyze why the tasks are not completed. Also, compared with the previous program, a new task pricing program is designed for the project to obtain the confidence level by means of the SPSS software, to estimate the reasonable range of the task pricing, predict and design a new pricing program on the reasonable price range.

  1. Earning and caring: demographic change and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2002-12-01

    activities, we contrast theoretical orientations that see advantages to a division of labour or complementary roles, in comparison to orientations that see less risk and greater companionship in a collaborative model based on sharing paid and unpaid work, or co-providing and co-parenting. It is important to look both inside and outside of families, or at the changing gendered links between earning and caring, to understand change both in families and in the work world. It is proposed that equal opportunity by gender has advanced further in the public sphere associated with education and work, than in the private family sphere associated with everyday life. Time-use data indicate that, on average, men carry their weight in terms of total productive time (paid plus unpaid work, but that women make much more of the accommodations between family and work. Fertility is likely to be lowest in societies that offer women equal opportunity in the public sphere but where families remain traditional in terms of the division of work. Policies are discussed that would reduce the dependency between spouses, and encourage a greater common ground between men and women in earning and caring.

  2. Global health worker salary estimates: an econometric analysis of global earnings data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serje, Juliana; Bertram, Melanie Y; Brindley, Callum; Lauer, Jeremy A

    2018-01-01

    Human resources are consistently cited as a leading contributor to health care costs; however the availability of internationally comparable data on health worker earnings for all countries is a challenge for estimating the costs of health care services. This paper describes an econometric model using cross sectional earnings data from the International Labour Organization (ILO) that the World Health Organizations (WHO)-Choosing Interventions that are Cost-effective programme (CHOICE) has used to prepare estimates of health worker earnings (in 2010 USD) for all WHO member states. The ILO data contained 324 observations of earnings data across 4 skill levels for 193 countries. Using this data, along with the assumption that data were missing not at random, we used a Heckman two stage selection model to estimate earning data for each of the 4 skill levels for all WHO member states. It was possible to develop a prediction model for health worker earnings for all countries for which GDP data was available. Health worker earnings vary both within country due to skill level, as well as across countries. As a multiple of GDP per capita, earnings show a negative correlation with GDP-that is lower income countries pay their health workers relatively more than higher income countries. Limited data on health worker earnings is a limiting factor in estimating the costs of global health programmes. It is hoped that these estimates will support robust health care intervention costings and projections of resources needs over the Sustainable Development Goal period.

  3. Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Miriam; Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde; Melkevik, Ole; Reneflot, Anne; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution. A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (≥30 years) in young adulthood. We used linear regression with fixed-effects models comparing either students within schools or siblings within families. Unconditional quantile regressions were used to explore differentials across the earnings distribution. Mental health problems in adolescence reduce average earnings in adulthood, and associations are robust to control for observed family background and school fixed effects. For some, but not all mental health problems, associations are also robust in sibling fixed-effects models, where all stable family factors are controlled. Further, we found much larger earnings loss below the 25th centile. Adolescent mental health problems reduce adult earnings, especially among individuals in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Preventing mental health problems in adolescence may increase future earnings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. The links between implementing ISA 540 and mitigating the practice of smoothing reported net earnings using write-offs of accounts receivable and inventory by reporting entities in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krystian Piosik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of the links between implementing ISA 540 and mitigating the practice of smoothing reported net earnings using write-offs of accounts receivable and inventory by reporting entities in Poland. The research question stems from the previous analysis carried out by the author in which evidence was provided that reporting entities in Poland in the period 2000–2010 effectively used write-offs of accounts receivable and inventory in order to mitigate fluctuations of reported net earnings. This paper provides evidence that before implementing ISA 540 reporting entities used write-offs of receivables and inventory for income smoothing in effective manner, however in the period after implementing the standard (2009–2014 no link was observed between the write-offs and reduced fluctuations of reported net earnings. The research has been carried out using Wilcoxon signed-rank test used to check equality of medians of mean deviations of net earnings before write-offs of receivables and inventory and mean deviations of net earnings after write-offs. For the period before implementing ISA 540 there are grounds to reject the hypothesis of equality of medians of mean deviations of net earnings, however in the post-adoption period there is no justification to reject the hypothesis of equality of medians. The research provides evidence of positive impact of ISA 540 mitigating the processes of accounting earnings management. The indicated regularity does not apply to banks, because within this group of companies we have not observed the use of write-offs of loan receivables in order to reduce the variability of net earnings before implementing ISA 540 and in the period following the implementation of the standard.

  5. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS): Transitioning Methadone Treated Infants From An Inpatient to an Outpatient Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Carl H.; Backes, Carl R.; Gardner, Debra; Nankervis, Craig A.; Giannone, Peter J.; Cordero, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Each year in the US approximately 50,000 neonates receive inpatient pharmacotherapy for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of a traditional inpatient only approach with a combined inpatient and outpatient methadone treatment program. Design/Methods Retrospective review (2007-9). Infants were born to mothers maintained on methadone or buprenorphine in an antenatal substance abuse program. All infants received methadone for NAS treatment as inpatient. Methadone weaning for the traditional group (75 pts) was inpatient while the combined group (46 pts) was outpatient. Results Infants in the traditional and combined groups were similar in demographics, obstetrical risk factors, birth weight, GA and the incidence of prematurity (34 & 31%). Hospital stay was shorter in the combined than in the traditional group (13 vs 25d; p < 0.01). Although the duration of treatment was longer for infants in the combined group (37 vs 21d, p<0.01), the cumulative methadone dose was similar (3.6 vs 3.1mg/kg, p 0.42). Follow-up: Information was available for 80% of infants in the traditional and 100% of infants in the combined group. All infants in the combined group were seen ≤ 72 hours from hospital discharge. Breast feeding was more common among infants in the combined group (24 vs. 8% p<0.05). Following discharge there were no differences between the two groups in hospital readmissions for NAS. Prematurity (<37w GA) was the only predictor for hospital readmission for NAS in both groups (p 0.02, OR 5). Average hospital cost for each infant in the combined group was $13,817 less than in the traditional group. Conclusions A combined inpatient and outpatient methadone treatment in the management of NAS decreases hospital stay and substantially reduces cost. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the potential long term benefits of the combined approach on infants and their families. PMID:21852772

  6. How have people responded to changes in the retirement earnings test in 2000?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae G; Manchester, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This article describes responses to removing the retirement earnings test in 2000 for persons at the full retirement age or older. We examine annual earnings and retirement benefit claims from Social Security administrative data that cover the 4 years before and after the change. Three findings emerge from the study. First, the effect on earnings of removing the earnings test is uneven across people with different earnings levels. We find little effect on earnings at lower levels, but the effect on earnings in the mid to upper levels (50th to 80th percentiles) is large and significant. Such a finding indicates that the removal most affects people with earnings levels above the earnings test threshold. The largest increases in earnings are found at the 70th percentile for persons who have attained ages 65-69 and at the 60th percentile for those turning 65. Second, there is no clear evidence of the effect of the test's removal on the overall rate of labor force participation. A small rise in work participation among individuals aged 65-69 may be at least partially attributable to the trend already under way. Increases in work participation that do occur are mostly attributable to retaining older workers rather than inducing older workers back into the workforce. The effect appears to increase over time, suggesting that the removal has long-lasting effects on work participation. Third, the removal of the earnings test accelerated applications for benefits by 2 to 5 percentage points among individuals aged 65-69 and by 3 to 7 percentage points among those reaching age 65.

  7. UAS-NAS Integrated Human in the Loop: Test Environment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil; Jovic, Srba

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research was broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of the Test Infrastructure theme was to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the execution of integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project developed an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment incorporating live, virtual, and constructive elements capable of validating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project planned to conduct three integrated events: a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and two Flight Test series that integrated key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of

  8. Estado e controle nas prisões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Soria Batista

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o problema da produção do controle e da ordem em prisões brasileiras, utilizando as perspectivas histórica e sociológica, e levanta a hipóteses de que, no Brasil, convivem duas modalidades de construção da ordem e do controle nas prisões. Uma delas, minoritária, baseia-se na prerrogativa do Estado na gestão do dia a dia prisional. A outra é relativa à negociação da pacificação do presídio entre o Estado e as lideranças dos presos. Embora, no primeiro caso, a prerrogativa do Estado possa ser vinculada às condições institucionais adequadas e, no segundo (negociação entre o estado e as lideranças dos presos às condições precárias dos presídios, como superlotação, número reduzido de agentes penitenciários, entre outros, a análise apontou que ambas as modalidades traduzem formas de relacionamentos e interações sociais historicamente produzidas entre o Estado e a sociedade, que remetem à fundação da República, recriadas através do habitus dos atores sociais, não se restringindo exclusivamente ao espaço social das prisões.

  9. A dimensão político-democrática nas teorias de desenvolvimento sustentável e suas implicações para a gestão local Political-democratic dimension within sustainable development theories and its implications for local management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Frey

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa diversas concepções de desenvolvimento sustentável, com ênfase nas dimensões do modelo político-administrativo, do papel do Estado e do potencial democrático inerente às abordagens propostas. São analisadas primeiro aquelas concepções que apostam no mercado como força reguladora do desenvolvimento (abordagem econômico-liberal de mercado. Segundo, as abordagens que consideram o Estado e suas instituições de regulação e de planejamento como instrumentos indispensáveis para garantir a prevalência do bem comum no processo de desenvolvimento (abordagem ecológico-tecnocrata de planejamento. Finalmente, as concepções que salientam a necessidade de uma ampla mobilização política e um maior envolvimento da própria população e das organizações da sociedade civil na busca de um modo sustentável de desenvolvimento (abordagem política de participação democrática. Ao final do trabalho, são discutidas as implicações dessas abordagens para a gestão local e sugeridos alguns elementos essenciais na busca de um modelo democratizante de gestão do desenvolvimento sustentável das cidades.The article analyses several concepts of sustainable development, focusing on the following dimensions: the political-administrative model, the role of the State, and the democratic potential of these approaches. First, the paper analyses those approaches that consider the market as the fundamental regulative force of development (market approach of economic liberalism. Second, it tackles approaches that consider the State and its regulatory and planning institutions indispensable instruments to guarantee the prevalence of the common good in developing processes (ecological-technocratic planning approach. Finally, it examines conceptions that highlight the necessity of an extended political mobilisation and an enhanced involvement of the population and civil society organisations in the search for a sustainable mode of

  10. Managerial ability and earnings quality: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Salehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditor independence is associated with the independence of the internal/external auditor from various parties who may have some financial interest in the business being audited. Many countries have set up different rules forcing firms to change their auditors every few years. This helps business retain healthy business. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of change in auditing system on 90 selected firms from Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2011. Using a regression model developed earlier by Demerjian et al. (2012a [Demerjian, P. R., Lev, B., Lewis, M. F., & McVay, S. E. (2012a. Managerial ability and earnings quality. The Accounting Review, 88(2, 463-498.], the study determines a positive impact of change in auditor system on business development.

  11. A Comparison of Danish and International Findings on Intergenerational Earnings Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Azhar, Hussain; D. Munk, Martin

    a comparison with analyses on a Danish register data set. The earnings mobility between fathers/mothers and their sons/daughters is investigated, and shows that the father-son earnings persistence effect is found to be smaller in Denmark, Finland and Sweden than in the United States, but higher than in Norway....

  12. Some effects of overall rate of earning reinforcers on run lengths and visit durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonall, James S

    2006-07-01

    In a concurrent schedule, responding at each alternative is controlled by a pair of schedules that arrange reinforcers for staying at that alternative and reinforcers for switching to the other alternative. Each pair of schedules operates only while at the associated alternative. When only one pair of stay and switch schedules is presented, the rates of earning reinforcers for staying divided by the rates of earning reinforcers for switching controls the mean number responses in a visit and the mean duration of visits. The purpose of the present experiment was to see whether the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers changed the way that run length and visit duration were affected by the ratio of the rates of stay to switch reinforcers. Rats were exposed to pairs of stay and switch schedules that varied both the ratio of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers and the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers. Run lengths and visit durations were joint functions of the ratio of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers and the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers. These results shows that the effect of the ratio of the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers results from processes operating at the alternative, rather than from processes operating at both alternatives.

  13. Is Economics a Good Major for Future Lawyers? Evidence from Earnings Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports descriptive data on earnings differences for practicing lawyers by undergraduate major with a focus on economics majors. Some majors do much better than others. Economics majors tend to do very well in both median and mean earnings. Electrical engineering, accounting, finance, and some other majors also do relatively well. This…

  14. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-2 - Computation of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-2 Computation of net earnings from self-employment. (a) General rule. In general, the gross income and... ascertaining his net earnings from self-employment, are to be determined by reference to the provisions of law...

  15. 26 CFR 1.857-7 - Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a real estate investment... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-7 Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust. (a) Any real estate investment trust whether or not such trust...

  16. The impact of mothers' earnings on health inputs and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Naci; Raschke, Christian; Unel, Bulent

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of mothers' earnings on birth weight and gestational age of infants in the U.S. It also analyzes the impact of earnings on mothers' consumption of prenatal medical care, and their propensity to smoke and drink during pregnancy. The paper uses census division-year-specific skill-biased technology shocks as an instrument for mothers' earnings and employs a two-sample instrumental variables strategy. About 14 million records of births between 1989 and 2004 are used from the Natality Detail files along with the CPS Annual Demographic Files from the same period. The results reveal that an increase in weekly earnings prompts an increase in prenatal care of low-skill mothers (those who have at most a high school degree) who are not likely to be on Medicaid, and that earnings have a small positive impact on birth weight and gestational age of the newborns of these mothers. Specifically, if a mother's earnings double, this produces a weight gain of the newborn by about 100g and an increase in gestational age by 0.7 weeks. An increase in earnings does not influence the health of newborns of high-skill mothers (those with at least some college education). Variations in earnings have no impact on birth weight for mothers who are likely to be on Medicaid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 26 CFR 1.857-11 - Non-REIT earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-REIT earnings and profits. 1.857-11 Section 1.857-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-11 Non-REIT earnings and profits...

  18. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  19. 20 CFR 416.1112 - Earned income we do not count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1112 Earned income we do not count. (a) General... receive it. (3) If you are under age 22 and a student who is regularly attending school as described in... not blind) and under age 65 or you are disabled (but not blind) and received SSI as a disabled...

  20. Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Antidiscrimination Policies on Earnings by Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawitter, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the 2000 U.S. Census data to assess the impact of antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation on earnings for gays and lesbians. Using a multilevel model allows estimation of the effects of state and local policies on earnings and of variation in the effects of sexual orientation across local labor markets. The results…

  1. A Hierarchical Linear Model for Estimating Gender-Based Earnings Differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfield, Yitchak; Semyonov, Moshe; Addi, Audrey

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of gender earnings inequality in data from 116,431 Jewish workers were compared using a hierarchical linear model (HLM) and ordinary least squares model. The HLM allows estimation of the extent to which earnings inequality depends on occupational characteristics. (SK)

  2. Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates. American Community Survey Reports. ACS-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Tiffany; Kominski, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between education and earnings is a long-analyzed topic of study. Generally, there is a strong belief that achievement of higher levels of education is a well established path to better jobs and better earnings. This report provides one view of the economic value of educational attainment by producing an estimate of the amount of…

  3. Factors Influencing the Earnings Expectations among Macedonian Students: A Comparative Perspective with the EU Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Andonova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the earnings expectations of Macedonian students and the main factors that shape their expectations. Previous research has shown that earnings expectation is a major determinant that influences a decision on schooling (Williams and Gordon, 1981; Betts, 1996; Wolter and Zbinden, 2001. Given that the main pathway to developing individual human capital is schooling, learning about factors that affect individual’s decision on whether to acquire more education can contribute towards better educational policy. We employ similar empirical approach as Brunello et al. (2001, 2004. We use available information to regress: i expected future earnings right after university graduation and ii expected future earnings 10 years after graduation, on a set of variables: characteristics of the individual, socio-economic background, field of study, year of study, academic performance, sources of information for future earnings, etc. Our findings show that expected earnings are significantly correlated with the education of the father, year of study, sources of information on earnings in the labor market, gender, ethnicity, having a regular job during studies, perceived employability, field of study, and the country of future employment. In other words, Macedonian students form their earnings expectations in a similar vein as their European counterparts.

  4. 26 CFR 1.312-15 - Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.312-15 Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits. (a) Depreciation for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1972—(1) In general...

  5. 25 CFR 115.713 - When does money in a trust account start earning interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does money in a trust account start earning interest? 115.713 Section 115.713 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL... and Interests § 115.713 When does money in a trust account start earning interest? Funds must remain...

  6. 25 CFR 115.710 - Does money in a trust account earn interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does money in a trust account earn interest? 115.710 Section 115.710 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST... Interests § 115.710 Does money in a trust account earn interest? Yes, all money deposited in a trust account...

  7. 75 FR 47349 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, September 22, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time...

  8. 75 FR 62632 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, November 24, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  9. 75 FR 39333 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, August 25, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  10. 76 FR 37199 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, August 22, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  11. 75 FR 55406 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, October 27, 2010, at 1:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  12. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION... Tax Credit Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, February 24, 2010, at 1 p...

  13. Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

  14. Economics of Education and Work Life Demand in Terms of Earnings and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Belle Selene; Liitiäinen, Elia

    2014-01-01

    This article uses data from a major international survey to construct earnings functions in terms of learning outcomes and variables related to working life in different European countries. In order to complement the extended earnings regression model, the authors have used partial correlation analysis and the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to…

  15. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(2)-1 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.381(c)(2)-1 Section 1.381(c)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(2)-1 Earnings and profits. (a) In...

  16. Business Administration and Computer Science Degrees: Earnings, Job Security, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kamlesh; Uhlig, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of business administration vs. computer science degrees in terms of earnings, job security, and job satisfaction. The paper focuses on earnings potential five years and ten years after the completion of business administration and computer science degrees. Moreover, the paper presents the income changes with…

  17. Does Human Capital Investment Impact the Earning Mobility of the Near Poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    This secondary analysis of the earning mobility of the near poor examined the impact of human capital investment on the earning mobility of the near poor between 2005 and 2009. The theory framing this study is Human Capital Theory (Shultz, 1961). Other demographic and socioeconomic variables were included in this study to further explore factors…

  18. Income Smoothing and Earnings Informativeness : A matter of institutional characteristics or accounting standards?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tudor (Alexandra)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive Summary This study investigates the level of income smoothing and its impact on the informativeness of earnings. The main contribution of this research is that as well IFRS as investor protection are considered to examine the association between income smoothing and earnings

  19. A influência da orientação à geração de valor ao acionista nas práticas de gestão de pessoas no ambiente da produção Influence of shareholder value on people management practices in the production environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marx

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura ampliar os conhecimentos a respeito da influência do enfoque na geração do valor aos acionistas sobre as práticas de gestão de pessoas, com ênfase no ambiente da produção. Inicialmente, o trabalho resgata as origens e os fundamentos da concepção financeira e da concepção da geração de valor ao acionista das empresas, em que o principal foco é a valorização do preço das ações. Em seguida, é analisada a interface que estas concepções possuem com as práticas de gestão de pessoas, explorando o caráter bidirecional desta interface, uma vez que a função recursos humanos não só é influenciada pelas diretrizes das empresas, mas também é tida como uma das principais formas para ajudar a difundi-las, tendo em vista seu papel de agente de mudança de comportamento nas empresas. Neste sentido, são aprofundados três principais elementos que compõem, segundo a literatura, esta interface: a remuneração variável, a gestão de desempenho e a autonomia no trabalho. Por fim, é apresentado um estudo de casos múltiplos que busca verificar como a concepção financeira das empresas vem influenciando, de fato, estas práticas relacionadas à gestão de pessoas no nível da produção de organizações que atuam no Brasil, assim como o quanto estas práticas têm contribuído para a difusão da mentalidade de geração de valor ao acionista. O resultado deste estudo indica que, no plano conceitual, a influência da orientação à geração de valor ao acionista sobre as práticas de gestão de pessoas é nítida, mas que, na prática, ainda é pouco efetivada, apesar de mudanças já estarem ocorrendo nesta direção.This paper aims to add to the body of knowledge about the influence of the shareholder value on people management practices, with emphasis on the production environment. The paper begins with an overview of the origins and fundaments of finance and value generation concepts for company

  20. Is the gap more than gender? A longitudinal analysis of gender, gender role orientation, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap.

  1. The Quality of Accounting Earnings and Change in Political Power Map: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harymawan Iman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the earnings quality of politically connected firms listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006-2010. This study compare two definition (Soeharto Dependency Index (SDI and Politically Exposed Person (PEP of political connections to capture the effect of the changes of political power map on the earnings quality of politically connected firms in Indonesia. The finding shows that the quality of accounting earnings of politically connected firms which were formerly closely related to President Soeharto in 1998 are not significantly different to other firms. Furthermore, when this study employ politically exposed person as a proxy of political connections, the findings shows that connected firms have significantly lower quality accounting earnings. Consistent with prior findings, this study shows that change in political power map in Indonesia affect the level of earnings quality of politically connected firms.

  2. UAS Integration in the NAS Project: Integrated Test and Evaluation (IT&E) Flight Test 3. Revision E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  3. The Earnings/Price Risk Factor in Capital Asset Pricing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Falcão Noda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article integrates the ideas from two major lines of research on cost of equity and asset pricing: multi-factor models and ex ante accounting models. The earnings/price ratio is used as a proxy for the ex ante cost of equity, in order to explain realized returns of Brazilian companies within the period from 1995 to 2013. The initial finding was that stocks with high (low earnings/price ratios have higher (lower risk-adjusted realized returns, already controlled by the capital asset pricing model's beta. The results show that selecting stocks based on high earnings/price ratios has led to significantly higher risk-adjusted returns in the Brazilian market, with average abnormal returns close to 1.3% per month. We design asset pricing models including an earnings/price risk factor, i.e. high earnings minus low earnings, based on the Fama and French three-factor model. We conclude that such a risk factor is significant to explain returns on portfolios, even when controlled by size and market/book ratios. Models including the high earnings minus low earnings risk factor were better to explain stock returns in Brazil when compared to the capital asset pricing model and to the Fama and French three-factor model, having the lowest number of significant intercepts. These findings may be due to the impact of historically high inflation rates, which reduce the information content of book values, thus making the models based on earnings/price ratios better than those based on market/book ratios. Such results are different from those obtained in more developed markets and the superiority of the earnings/price ratio for asset pricing may also exist in other emerging markets.

  4. Selection, Language Heritage, and the Earnings Trajectories of Black Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Tod G.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean surpass the earnings of U.S.-born blacks approximately one decade after arriving in the United States. Using data from the 1980–2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005–2007 American Community Surveys on U.S.-born black and non-Hispanic white men as well as black immigrant men from all the major sending regions of the world, I evaluate whether selective migration and language heritage of immigrants’ birth countries account for the documented earnings crossover. I validate the earnings pattern of black immigrants documented in previous studies, but I also find that the earnings of most arrival cohorts of immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean, after residing in the United States for more than 20 years, are projected to converge with or slightly overtake those of U.S.-born black internal migrants. The findings also show three arrival cohorts of black immigrants from English-speaking African countries are projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born black internal migrants. No arrival cohort of black immigrants is projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Birth-region analysis shows that black immigrants from English-speaking countries experience more rapid earnings growth than immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. The arrival-cohort and birth-region variation in earnings documented in this study suggest that selective migration and language heritage of black immigrants’ birth countries are important determinants of their initial earnings and earnings trajectories in the United States. PMID:24854004

  5. ZNJPrice/Earnings Ratio Model through Dividend Yield and Required Yield Above Expected Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Price/earnings ratio is the most popular and most widespread evaluation model used to assess relative capital asset value on financial markets. In functional terms, company earnings in the very long term can be described with high significance. Empirically, it is visible from long-term statistics that the demanded (required yield on capital markets has certain regularity. Thus, investors first require a yield above the stable inflation rate and then a dividend yield and a capital increase caused by the growth of earnings that influence the price, with the assumption that the P/E ratio is stable. By combining the Gordon model for current dividend value, the model of market capitalization of earnings (price/earnings ratio and bearing in mind the influence of the general price levels on company earnings, it is possible to adjust the price/earnings ratio by deriving a function of the required yield on capital markets measured by a market index through dividend yield and inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The S&P 500 index for example, has in the last 100 years grown by exactly the inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The comparison of two series of price/earnings ratios, a modelled one and an average 7-year ratio, shows a notable correlation in the movement of two series of variables, with a three year deviation. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that three years of the expected inflation level, dividend yield and profit growth rate of the market index are discounted in the current market prices. The conclusion is that, at the present time, the relationship between the adjusted average price/earnings ratio and its effect on the market index on one hand and the modelled price/earnings ratio on the other can clearly show the expected dynamics and course in the following period.

  6. Sustainable agricultural practices for Mediterranean olive grove. Effect of soil management on soil properties Uso sostenible de suelos de olivar. Efecto del manejo del suelo en sus propiedades Uso sustentável de solos de olival. Influência das técnicas de maneio nas suas propriedades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga María Nieto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The olive is one of the most important crops grown in the Mediterranean region, both in terms of total surface area and its socioeconomic and environmental impact. In the present work, the main soil parameters of olive groves under different management systems are compared to an uncultivated area. Soil samples were collected and analysed from native vegetation (NV and olive groves under three different soil management systems: conventional tillage (T, no-tillage bare soil (NT and cover crop (CC. The  groves (T, NT, and CC increased the calcium carbonate content in the uppermost part of the soil profile with respect to NV. The lowest calcium carbonate concentrations were recorded in the top few centimetres of NV soil, with concentrations increasing with depth, while in the cultivated soils, no depth-related variations were found. The results showed an accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC in the shallowest soil layer resulting in a high stratification value in the NV; however, this diminished in the cultivated soil and particularly in the tilled plots. The plots under these types of soil management also presented the lowest SOC, nitrogen, potassium and C/N values. CC was the soil management system that showed the best soil properties. Our results indicate that using cover crops and eliminating tillage practices significantly improve soil quality in Mediterranean olive groves.

    El olivo es uno de los cultivos más importantes en la región mediterránea, tanto por la extensión que ocupa como por su impacto económico, social y medioambiental. En este trabajo se comparan los principales parámetros del suelo en un olivar bajo distintos manejos del suelo con un área natural donde no se ha implantado el cultivo. En concreto, se recogieron y analizaron muestras de suelo bajo vegetación nativa (NV, suelo de olivar labrado (T, parcelas en no laboreo con suelo desnudo (NT y parcelas con cubierta vegetal espontánea (CC. El cultivo (T, NT

  7. The Effect of Cash Dividend, Retained Earnings, and Stock Price of Manufacturing Company Listed In Indonesia Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of cash dividends per share, retained earnings per share, earnings per share, and leverage on the stock price of manufacture industry in Indonesia from 2008-2012. Research used secondary data in which the source was obtained indirectly through an intermediary medium or data processed from literatures and reports associated with this research. Independent variables in this study (x) are cash dividends per share, retained earnings per share, earnings per ...

  8. Earnings Inequality and the Intersectionality of Gender and Ethnicity in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Tanzanian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Juliet U. Elu; Linda Loubert

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates quantile earnings functions with data from the 2004 Tanzanian Household Worker Survey to determine if ethnicity and gender--being female--matters per se and across the distribution of earnings. We find that in the Tanzanian manufacturing sector gender intersects with ethnicity to condition earnings and the return to schooling across the distribution of earnings. This suggests that in Sub-Saharan Africa--at least in Tanzania--labor market policies aimed at eradicating gend...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1248-2 - Earnings and profits attributable to a block of stock in simple cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gains and Losses § 1.1248-2 Earnings and profits attributable to a block of stock in simple cases. (a... United States shall not be excluded under this subdivision from earnings and profits accumulated for a... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Earnings and profits attributable to a block of...

  10. 26 CFR 1.611-4 - Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and profits for dividend purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and....611-4 Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and profits for dividend purposes. For rules with respect to computation of earnings and profits where depletion is a factor in the case of corporations...

  11. 26 CFR 1.956-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... earnings invested in United States property by A Corporation attributable to the stock acquired by M... foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property. 1.956-1 Section 1.956-1... foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property. (a) In general. Section 956...

  12. 26 CFR 1.312-7 - Effect on earnings and profits of gain or loss realized after February 28, 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in determining invested capital; and (2) The computation of earnings and profits of the corporation... stock in the hands of Corporation R for purposes of computing earnings and profits, however, will be... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect on earnings and profits of gain or loss...

  13. Gender Segregation in Fields of Study at Community Colleges and Implications for Future Earnings. Fact Sheet #C395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughari, Layla; Gunn-Wright, Rhiana; Gault, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary education yields myriad benefits, including increased earnings potential, higher lifetime wages, and access to quality jobs. But postsecondary degrees are not all equal in the benefits they bring to students, and women tend to obtain degrees in fields with lower earnings. Women with associate degrees earn approximately 75 percent of…

  14. Does Money Matter: Earnings Patterns Among a National Sample of the US State Governmental Public Health Agency Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Leider, Jonathon P; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Earnings have been shown to be a critical point in workforce recruitment and retention. However, little is known about how much governmental public health staff are paid across the United States. To characterize earnings among state health agency central office employees. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of state health agency central office employees in late 2014. The sampling approach was stratified by 5 (paired HHS) regions. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to correctly calculate variance estimates, given the complex sampling design. Descriptive and bivariate statistical comparisons were conducted. A linear regression model was used to examine correlates of earnings among full-time employees. A total of 9300 permanently employed, full-time state health agency central office staff who reported earnings information. Earnings are the main outcomes examined in this article. Central office staff earn between $55,000 and $65,000 on average annually. Ascending supervisory status, educational attainment, and tenure are all associated with greater earnings. Those employed in clinical and laboratory positions and public health science positions earn more than their colleagues in administrative positions. Disparities exist between men and women, with men earning more, all else being equal (P earnings levels, including disparities in earnings that persist after accounting for education and experience. Data from the survey can inform strategies to address earnings issues and help reduce disparities.

  15. The Dark Side of Valuation: Firms with No Earnings, No History and No Comparables

    OpenAIRE

    Aswath Damodaran

    1999-01-01

    In traditional valuation models, we begin by forecasting earnings and cash flows and discount these cash flows back at an appropriate discount rate to arrive at the value of a firm or asset. This task is simpler when valuing firms with positive earnings, a long history of performance and a large number of comparable firms. In this paper, we look at valuation when one or more of these conditions does not hold. We begin by looking ways of dealing with firms with negative earnings, and note that...

  16. Does stock price synchronicity effect information content of reported earnings? Evidence from the MENA region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Farooq

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the effect of stock price synchronicity on the value relevance of reported earnings in the MENA region during the period between 2009 and 2013. Our results show that the information content of reported earnings increases with increase in stock price synchronicity. We document higher impact of earnings on returns for firms with higher stock price synchronicity. We argue that firms with high synchronicity have better information environment. As a result, these firms disclose information that is of high quality. We also show that information conveyed through stock price synchronicity is more important than information conveyed through traditional governance mechanisms

  17. PENGARUH ADOPSI PSAK NO.24 TERHADAP EARNINGS RESPONSE COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilha Refyal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of PSAK No.24(Revisi 2004 adoption on earningsresponse coefficient (ERC. This study focuses discussion on the differences of ERC between theperiod before to the period after the adoption, the influence of changes in the post-employmentbenefits account (due to revision to the ERC, and the influence of the difference in time ofadoption to the ERC. This study is divided into two tests, which are panel data regression testingand Multiple Cross-section Regression testing. ERC in the period after the adoption of the PSAK24 revision is greater than the period before the adoption of PSAK 24 revision. By usingmanufacturing companies during that adoped PSAK 24 during 2004 or 2005, the research findthat changes in post-employment benefits liability have a significant positive effect on ERC. Thecompanies that adopt the standard earlier (early adopter have a greater ERC compare to thecompanies that adopt at the end of the mandatory time (late adopter The study also supportsprevious research on factors affecting the ERC, which are the capital structure and size. Keywords:Earnings Response Coefficient, Revision PSAK 24, Post-employment Benefits Liability,Adoption Timing.

  18. Functional Requirements Document for HALE UAS Operations in the NAS: Step 1. Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Functional Requirements Document (FRD) is to compile the functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 Vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the national airspace system (NAS)" for Step 1. These functional requirements could support the development of a minimum set of policies, procedures and standards by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and various standards organizations. It is envisioned that this comprehensive body of work will enable the FAA to establish and approve regulations to govern safe operation of UAS in the NAS on a routine or daily "file and fly" basis. The approach used to derive the functional requirements found within this FRD was to decompose the operational requirements and objectives identified within the Access 5 Concept of Operations (CONOPS) into the functions needed to routinely and safely operate a HALE UAS in the NAS. As a result, four major functional areas evolved to enable routine and safe UAS operations for an on-demand basis in the NAS. These four major functions are: Aviate, Navigate, Communicate, and Avoid Hazards. All of the functional requirements within this document can be directly traceable to one of these four major functions. Some functions, however, are traceable to several, or even all, of these four major functions. These cross-cutting functional requirements support the "Command / Control: function as well as the "Manage Contingencies" function. The requirements associated to these high-level functions and all of their supporting low-level functions are addressed in subsequent sections of this document.

  19. Evaluation of the influence of management fads in adoption of management tools in supermarket chains of Santa Catarina Evaluación de la influencia de los modismos gerenciales en la adopción de herramientas de gestión en las redes de supermercados de Santa Catarina Avaliação da influência dos modismos gerenciais na adoção de ferramentas de gestão nas redes de supermercados de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Filardi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The systematic challenge for the conquest and retention of customers has produced a literary market of management gurus and quacks who have won generous space in bookstores to sell magic formulas in an attempt to transform business management into an exact science. This study investigated the largest supermarket chains in Santa Catarina to determine criteria that led managers to choose the management tools adopted and whether fads influence this choice. Research was conducted using a multi-case study with data collected by semi-structured interviews and documentary analysis. The sample was based upon data provided by the"Associação Catarinense de Supermercados (ACATS", Santa Catarina Association of Supermarkets from which the ten largest supermarket chains of Santa Catarina were selected. Results show that their management models are tailored to immediate needs, without planning and that the chains are family-run, conservative and reactive. There is a strong coalition among them and tools of management adopted by most of them revealed a homogeneous origin as well as similar reasons for adopting them, indicating a strong influence of business fadsLa busca constante por la conquista y retención del cliente originó un mercado literario de curanderos y gurús de la gestión, que adquirieron generosos espacios en las librerías vendiendo fórmulas mágicas en la tentativa de transformar la gestión de negocios en ciencia exacta. Este estudio investigó la situación de las mayores redes de supermercados de Santa Catarina, teniendo como objetivo verificar qué criterios llevaron a sus gestores a elegir las herramientas de gestión adoptadas y si hay influencia del modismo en esa preferencia. La investigación fue conducida a través de un estudio múltiple y contó, como instrumentos de colecta de datos, con entrevistas semiestructuradas y análisis de documentos. La muestra fue delimitada basándose en los datos proporcionados por la Asociaci

  20. Gestão de Frotas na construção civil: inovação, proposta de valor e impactos nas relações cliente-empresa = Fleet management in the civil construction sector: innovation, value proposition and impacts on customer-company relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Soares do Nascimento

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Empresas têm buscado soluções inovadoras que venham a agregar valor e que possam contribuir com o seu desenvolvimento. Neste cenário, uma empresa do setor de construção civil desenvolveu o serviço Gestão de Frotas, que oferece aos clientes ferramentas novas e atualizadas com um custo mensal fixo, funcionando como uma locação, porém com diferenciais significativos que o distingue dos demais. O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar a criação do serviço Gestão de Frotas e sua respectiva proposta de valor, bem como os impactos de sua implementação nas relações com o cliente e os benefícios gerados para a empresa. Empregou-se como metodologia o estudo de caso único. Os dados foram levantados junto aos principais departamentos da empresa e a análise baseou-se em relatórios internos e entrevistas não estruturadas. O levantamento dos pontos críticos junto ao segmento da construção civil, destacando-se a falta de preocupação com o parque de ferramentas, bem como o desconhecimento dos custos reais envolvidos na aquisição e manutenção do mesmo, levou a empresa a identificar que o pagamento pelo uso e não pela propriedade da ferramenta seria mais eficiente para os clientes. A criação do serviço e sua proposta de valor se basearam na oferta de serviços e não na venda de produtos. O serviço estreitou e fortaleceu o relacionamento com os clientes e proporcionou à empresa ganhos em lucratividade, “market share” e mix de produtos, aumentando a credibilidade da marca no mercado nacional. = Companies have been looking for innovative solutions that will add value and contribute to its development. In this scenario, a company of the civil construction sector developed the Fleet Management service, which offers customers new and updated tools with a fixed monthly cost, operating as a lease, but with significant characteristics that distinguish it from others. The objective of this work was to analyze the creation of the Fleet