WorldWideScience

Sample records for early years oral

  1. Oral history of Florence Downs; the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, J; Mahon, M M

    2001-01-01

    Florence Downs is a well-recognized nursing leader, educator, editor, and scholar who helped shape nursing as an intellectual discipline, and wrote extensively about the importance of links between research and practice. Through the use of oral history data garnered over 15 hours of interviews, we constructed a narrative that describes some of Downs' formative experiences. Oral history is used to place the "stories" of an individual into a social and cultural context, in this case, the development of the profession of nursing. From the interviews, several strands emerged that defined Downs' extended career, including the importance of developing a community of scholars both in and outside of nursing, the dangers of parochialism, and the necessity of a perspective on life that melded a keen sense of humor. Factors that affected Downs' style and choice, especially her mother, and her educational experiences, were revealed. From the interviews we gained a sense of how Downs constructed her conceptual universe of nursing, as well as the language and political effectiveness to overcome barriers confronting the intellectual growth of nursing mounted by other nursing leaders as well as traditional academic disciplines.

  2. The role of yearly chest radiography in the early detection of lung cancer following oral cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, L. J.; van Vierzen, P. B.; Brouns, J. J.; Bruaset, I.; Manni, J. J.; Verbeek, A. L.; Ruys, J. H.; van Daal, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 213 patients with oral cancer, we investigated the incidence and prognosis of lung malignancies in patients offered a yearly chest radiography in the follow-up. Three conclusions can be drawn. (1) Metastatic or primary lung cancer was diagnosed in 22 (10.3%) patients. The 2-year

  3. Gathering the forgotten voices: an oral history of the CFHT's early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laychak, Mary Beth; Bryson, Liz

    2011-06-01

    They came to the Big Island from as far away as Murrumbeena, Australia, and as near by as Hilo, Hawaii. They were progeny of Scottish coal miners, French physicists, Chicago truck drivers, Japanese samurai and Big Island cane workers. Together, these men and women would build and commission one of the most dynamic and productive 3.6 meter telescopes in the world that remains in the forefront of science and technology. The CFHT oral history DVD preserves the stories of the first decade and a half of the observatory.

  4. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Julie Langham Grilly, February 3, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Julie Langham Grilly was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) being the widow of Dr. Wright Langham, an investigator of principal interest of the committee. Her extensive experience with research at LANL was also of interest to the committee. Following a brief biographical sketch, Ms. Grilly relates her early postwar experience and her knowledge of Wright Langham's involvement in animal research at Los Alamos, radiolanthanum tests on monkeys, Eniwetok tissue examinations, research on tritium uptake in humans, plutonium injections, tritium injections, EDTA, and etc. In addition to illuminating her former husband as a researcher and as an individual, she also relates her remembrances of Louis Hempelman, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and many others

  5. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Julie Langham Grilly, February 3, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Julie Langham Grilly was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) being the widow of Dr. Wright Langham, an investigator of principal interest of the committee. Her extensive experience with research at LANL was also of interest to the committee. Following a brief biographical sketch, Ms. Grilly relates her early postwar experience and her knowledge of Wright Langham`s involvement in animal research at Los Alamos, radiolanthanum tests on monkeys, Eniwetok tissue examinations, research on tritium uptake in humans, plutonium injections, tritium injections, EDTA, and etc. In addition to illuminating her former husband as a researcher and as an individual, she also relates her remembrances of Louis Hempelman, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and many others.

  6. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biophysicist Robert Edmund Rowland, Ph.D., January 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provides a transcript of an oral interview with Dr. Robert Edmund Rowland by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research on January 27, 1995. Dr. Rowland was involved with the study of radium in the human body since 1950 and relates his knowledge of over 40 years of study of radium in the human body including dial painters, inmates of Elgin State Hospital, and other treated therapeutically with radium

  7. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Biochemist Waldo E. Cohn, Ph.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, the Department of Energy began an oral history project as part of the Openess initiative on the documentation of the human radiation experiments. This paper presents the oral history of Waldo E Cohn, Ph.D., a Biochemist who worked for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Manhattan Project

  8. Three-year follow-up of sentinel node-negative patients with early oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebbesen, Lars; Bilde, Anders; Therkildsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    2009, 53 consecutive SNB-negative patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) T1 to T2 were accrued. Follow-up was done continuously with the most recent examination in October 2011. The location of the sentinel lymph nodes was determined using dynamic and planar lymphoscintigraphy...

  9. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. George Voelz, M.D., November 29, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Dr. George Voelz was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). This oral history covers Dr. Voelz`s research on Manhattan Engineering District plutonium workers, the acute and long term effects of radiation, his inhalation studies, and his activities at the 1961 INL reactor accident (SL-1 Reactor). After a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Voelz his remembrances on tissue studies of plutonium workers, the plutonium injection studies of 1945-1946, the controlled environmental radioiodine tests of 1963-1968, and tracer studies with human volunteers at Los Alamos. Dr. Voelz states his opinions concerning misconceptions about the Los Alamos Human Radiation Experiments.

  10. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. George Voelz, M.D., November 29, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    Dr. George Voelz was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). This oral history covers Dr. Voelz's research on Manhattan Engineering District plutonium workers, the acute and long term effects of radiation, his inhalation studies, and his activities at the 1961 INL reactor accident (SL-1 Reactor). After a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Voelz his remembrances on tissue studies of plutonium workers, the plutonium injection studies of 1945-1946, the controlled environmental radioiodine tests of 1963-1968, and tracer studies with human volunteers at Los Alamos. Dr. Voelz states his opinions concerning misconceptions about the Los Alamos Human Radiation Experiments

  11. Correlation and comparative analysis of discriminative validity of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Izabella Barbosa; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-03-10

    The perceptions of parents and children regarding oral health are useful to oral public health and clinical practice in pediatric dentistry. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the total and item scores of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) (parental version and child's self-reports) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Subsequently, the discriminative validity of these assessment tools regarding dental caries was compared. One hundred twenty-one children randomly selected in the city of Diamantina (Brazil) were submitted to oral examinations. Parents answered the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (parental version) and children answered the SOHO-5c (child's self-reports). Statistical analysis involved the Mann-Whitney test as well as the calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficients. A significant correlation was found between the SOHO-5p and ECOHIS (r = 0.85), whereas no significant correlations were found between the SOHO-5c and SOHO-5p (r = 0.00) or between the SOHO-5c and ECOHIS (r = -0.41). Significant differences in the impact on quality of life were found between children with severe decay and no severe decay (caries free, with initial or established caries) both the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (p ≤ 0.05), whereas no difference was found in SOHO-5c (p > 0.05). The ECOHIS and SOHO-5p were correlated with each other. The accounts of the children differed from their parents' reports and were not capable of discriminating dental caries in advanced stages of progression.

  12. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of pathologist Clarence Lushbaugh, M.D., conducted October 5, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report provides a transcript of an interview with Dr. Clarance Lushbaugh by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Lushbaugh was chosen for this interview because of his research involving experimental use of irradiation with human beings at Los Alamos and at the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Science (ORINS). After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Lushbaugh and his assistant Mrs. Ann Swipe defend their use of total body irradiation using the LETBI (Low Exposure Total Body Irradiation) and the LETBI (Medium Energy Total Body Irradiator). Dr. Lushbaugh also discusses his earlier experiments involving use of nitrogen mustards in chemotherapy application, his early interest in the LD50 for man, his early impressions of low-level spray radiation as introduced by Heubline, anedotal information for his duties a pathologist for Los Alamos, and his developing interest in establishing safer radiation limits for human exposure

  13. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biochemist John Randolph Totter, Ph.D., January 23, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document is a transcript of an interview of Dr. John Randolph Tottler by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Tottler was selected for this interview because of his career with the Atomic Energy Commission Division of Biology and Medicine (DBM), particularly as its director from 1967 to 1972. After a short biographical sketch Dr. Tottler discusses his remembrances on a wide range topics including nucleic acid and leukemia research at Oak Ridge, AEC biochemistry training in South America, DBM's research focus on radiation effects, early leadership of DBM, relations with the US Public Health Service, controversies on low-level radiation, iodine from fallout, on John Gofman, and Project Plowshare, funding for AEC Research Programs and for international research, testicular irradiation of prisoners in Washington State and Oregon, Plutonium injections, ethics of government radiation research, and opinions of public misperceptions about radiation and cancer

  14. Early Oral Language and Later Reading Development in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Evidence from a Nine-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally-representative, longitudinal data on a cohort of Spanish-speaking English language learners in the U.S., this study investigated the extent to which early oral language proficiency in Spanish and English predicts later levels and rates of growth in English reading. Latent growth models indicated that both Spanish and English…

  15. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  16. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  17. Early intensive rehabilitation after oral cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bschorer, Maximilian; Schneider, Daniel; Hennig, Matthias; Frank, Bernd; Schön, Gerhard; Heiland, Max; Bschorer, Reinhard

    2018-06-01

    The treatment of oral cancer requires an effective rehabilitation strategy such as an early intensive rehabilitation (EIR) program. The medical records and data of 41 patients who participated in an EIR program and 20 control group patients were analyzed. These patients all underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor followed by microsurgical reconstruction using free flaps. The length of stay (LOS) at the acute care hospital was compared between the two groups. Four indexes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the EIR program. EIR patients stayed an average of 11.6 fewer days at the acute care hospital. All indexes showed significant improvements (p < 0.001). The Barthel Index (BI) and the Early Intensive Rehabilitation Barthel Index (EIR-BI) improved by 36.0 and 103.6 points, respectively. At discharge, the Bogenhausener Dysphagia Score (BODS) had improved to a score of 11.0 compared to the 13.9 at admission. EIR patients had a Work Ability Index (WAI) score of 25.7. Length of stay at the acute care hospital can be reduced using early intensive rehabilitation if patients are transferred to an intensive rehabilitation clinic early. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  19. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of health physicist Karl Z. Morgan, Ph.D., conducted January 7, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provided a transcript of an interview of Dr. Karl. Z. Morgan by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Morgan was selected for this interview because of his research for the Manhattan Project at the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago and his work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The oral history covers Dr. Morgan's work as a pioneer in the field of Health Physics, his research at ORNL and his work since he retired from ORNL

  20. Challenges of Early Detection of Oral Cancer: Raising Awareness as a First Step to Successful Campaigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Eva; Koller, Michael; Wiltfang, Jörg; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Möller, Björn; Hertrampf, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, ~13 000 people are found to have oral and pharyngeal cancer every year. Awareness and knowledge about this cancer remain insufficient, particularly amongst elderly people. A campaign for early detection was launched in Northern Germany in April 2012. The first step of the campaign was to increase awareness about oral cancer. Prior to a…

  1. Early pharmaceutical profiling to predict oral drug absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Christel A S; Holm, René; Jørgensen, Søren Astrup

    2014-01-01

    Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary of the pharmac......Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary...... and state-of-the art methodologies to study API properties impacting on oral absorption are reviewed. Assays performed during early development, i.e. physicochemical characterization, dissolution profiles under physiological conditions, permeability assays and the impact of excipients on these properties...

  2. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of cell biologist Don Francis Petersen, Ph.D., conducted November 29, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Don Francis Petersen by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Petersen was selected for this interview because of his long research career at Los Alamos and his knowledge of the Atomic Energy Commission's biomedical program. Dr. Petersen did not personally conduct research on human subjects. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Petersen discusses his remembrances of the early use of radionuclides as biological tracers, aspects of nuclear weapons testing in the 1940's and 1950's including fallout studies, the means by which research projects were approved, use of humans in the whole-body counter, and the Health Division Biomedical responsibilities

  3. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of cell biologist Don Francis Petersen, Ph.D., conducted November 29, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Don Francis Petersen by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Petersen was selected for this interview because of his long research career at Los Alamos and his knowledge of the Atomic Energy Commission`s biomedical program. Dr. Petersen did not personally conduct research on human subjects. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Petersen discusses his remembrances of the early use of radionuclides as biological tracers, aspects of nuclear weapons testing in the 1940`s and 1950`s including fallout studies, the means by which research projects were approved, use of humans in the whole-body counter, and the Health Division Biomedical responsibilities.

  4. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of radiologist Hymer L. Friedell, M.D., Ph.D., conducted January 28, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.; Melamed, E.

    1995-07-01

    NThis report is a transcript of an interview with Hymer L. Friedell by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Friedell was selected for this interview because of his participation in the early stages of the medical use of radioisotopes, his important role in the Manhattan Engineer District Medical Division, and his distinguished medical career and his involvement in the distribution of isotopes and the approval for their use in humans. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Friedell discusses his remembrances on a wide range of subjects. Topics discussed include pre-war radiation therapy, information provided to patients, the Army Medical Corps and the Manhattan Project, his work at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, inspection visits of Manhattan Project facilities and proposed sites, Plutonium injection studies, and actions of the AEC Isotope Distribution Committee

  5. Primary Surgery vs Radiotherapy for Early Stage Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark A; Graboyes, Evan M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Neskey, David M; Kaczmar, John M; Schopper, Heather K; Sharma, Anand K; Morgan, Patrick F; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2018-04-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to determine the effect of primary surgery vs radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). In addition, this study attempts to identify factors associated with receiving primary RT. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013). Subjects and Methods Reviewing the NCDB from 2004 to 2013, patients with early stage I to II OCSCC were identified. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, Cox regression analysis, and propensity score matching were used to examine differences in OS between primary surgery and primary RT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with primary RT. Results Of the 20,779 patients included in the study, 95.4% (19,823 patients) underwent primary surgery and 4.6% (956 patients) underwent primary RT. After adjusting for covariates, primary RT was associated with an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.22). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with primary RT included age ≥70 years, black race, Medicaid or Medicare insurance, no insurance, oral cavity subsite other than tongue, clinical stage II disease, low-volume treatment facilities, and earlier treatment year. Conclusion Primary RT for early stage OCSCC is associated with increased mortality. Approximately 5% of patients receive primary RT; however, this percentage is decreasing. Patients at highest risk for receiving primary RT include those who are elderly, black, with public insurance, and treated at low-volume facilities.

  6. Waldorf Schools: Seventy-Six Years of Early Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navascues, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes the history, curriculum, and methodology of elementary school foreign-language (FL) learning within Waldorf schools, using information from Waldorf FL teachers, class observations, and research readings. Waldorf students study two FLs. An oral/choral method is used in the early years. Reading, writing, and formal grammar are introduced…

  7. Early oral feeding after pancreatoduodenectomy enhances recovery without increasing morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Arja; Wennink, Roos A W; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Tseng, Dorine S J; Steenhagen, Elles; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a change in the routine feeding strategy applied after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) from nasojejunal tube (NJT) feeding to early oral feeding improved clinical outcomes. Methods An observational cohort study was performed in 102 consecutive patients undergoing PD. In period 1 (n = 51, historical controls), the routine postoperative feeding strategy was NJT feeding. This was changed to a protocol of early oral feeding with on-demand NJT feeding in period 2 (n = 51, consecutive prospective cohort). The primary outcome was time to resumption of adequate oral intake. Results The baseline characteristics of study subjects in both periods were comparable. In period 1, 98% (n = 50) of patients received NJT feeding, whereas in period 2, 53% (n = 27) of patients did so [for delayed gastric empting (DGE) (n = 20) or preoperative malnutrition (n = 7)]. The time to resumption of adequate oral intake significantly decreased from 12 days in period 1 to 9 days in period 2 (P = 0.015), and the length of hospital stay shortened from 18 days in period 1 to 13 days in period 2 (P = 0.015). Overall, there were no differences in the incidences of complications of Clavien–Dindo Grade III or higher, DGE, pancreatic fistula, postoperative haemorrhage and mortality between the two periods. Conclusions The introduction of an early oral feeding strategy after PD reduced the time to resumption of adequate oral intake and length of hospital stay without negatively impacting postoperative morbidity. PMID:24308458

  8. Chronological shifts and changing causes of death after radiotherapy for early-stage oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Rina; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Harata, Naoki; Yuasa-Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Hayashi, Keiji

    2014-02-01

    Following recent improvements in the curability of oral cancer, chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death after treatment have been observed. We conducted a review of the post-treatment causes of death following radiotherapy for oral cancers. The medical records of 966 patients with early-stage (stage I and II) oral cancer treated at our institute between 1980 and 2001 were reviewed, and the chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death after radiotherapy were assessed. Of the 966 patients enrolled in this study, 365 have died to date. Two hundred and eleven patients died of their primary malignancy; 193 of these deaths occurred within 5 years of treatment for the primary oral cancer. The second most frequent cause of death was second primary cancer (n = 90). Twenty-three patients with head and neck cancers and 18 patients with esophageal cancers died within 10 years of radiotherapy, and six patients with lung cancers died after more than 10 years. Within the first 5 years following treatment, the major cause of death was the primary oral cancer. After 5-10 years, a second primary cancer, such as head and neck cancer or esophageal cancer, became the leading cause of death. Over a 10-year period, the proportion of deaths from a second primary cancer in the lung was significant. We have demonstrated that there are chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death following treatment for early-stage oral cancer.

  9. Detection of oral early cancerous lesion by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography: mice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Tzu-Han; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer worldwide, especially in a male adult. The median age of death in oral cancer was 55 years, 10-20 years earlier than other cancers. Presently, oral cancer is often found in late stage, because the lesion is often flat in early stage and is difficult to diagnose under traditional white light imaging. The only definitive method for determining cancer is an invasive biopsy and then using histology examination. How to detect precancerous lesions or early malignant lesions is an important issue for improving prognosis of oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new optical tool for diagnosing early malignant lesions in the skin or gastrointestinal tract recently. Here we report a new method for detecting precancerous or early malignant oral lesions by using swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with center-wavelength 1310 nm, bandwidth 110 nm and 100 kHz swept rate. We used all single-mode fiber design to detect the change of birefringence information in the epithelium structure. This system has an advantage that enables measurement of backscattered intensity and birefringence simultaneously with only one A-scan per transverse location. In preliminary result, we computed the slope of the every A-scan signal in tissue part using a linear-curve fitting in backscattered intensity and birefringence on the enface. In this research, we used an oral cancer mice model for observing the change of structure and birefringence properties in different stages of oral cancer mice. We presented the parametric enface imaging that can detect the early oral malignant lesions.

  10. Early versus delayed oral feeding after uncomplicated cesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the safety of early versus delayed oral feeding after uncomplicated cesarean section (CS) under spinal anesthesia. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled trial that enrolled 152 women who had uncomplicated CS under spinal anesthesia between January 2014 and ...

  11. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading.

  12. Oral squamocellular carcinoma with early diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier de SouzaI, Leandro; Albuquerque de Brito, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The squamocellular carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm commonest in the buccal cavity. The more frequently involved anatomical sites are the lower lip, the tongue's lateral edges and the mouth floor. Its etiology is multifactor although it is closely related to smoking and alcoholism. Clinical picture is generally characterized by the presence of different types of white, erythematous, between erythematous and white plaques, ulcers with raised edges and exophytic masses. Treatment includes surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or both. In present paper the case of a man aged 70 presenting with buccal squamous carcinoma describing the clinical, and the histopathologic findings and its corresponding treatment. The early and appropriate diagnosis allowed the cure of this case. (author)

  13. Techniques for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras-Torras, Clàudia

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The diagnosis of early oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is of paramount clinical importance given the mortality rate of late stage disease. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the current situation and progress in this area. Material and Methods A search in Cochrane and PubMed (January 2006 to December 2013) has been used with the key words “squamous cell carcinoma”, “early diagnosis” “oral cavity”, “Potentially Malignant Disorders” y “premalignant lesions”. The inclusion criteria were the use of techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD, 7 years aged articles and publications written in English, French or Spanish. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies in other languages. Results Out of the 89 studies obtained initially from the search 60 articles were selected to be included in the systematic review: 1 metaanalysis, 17 systematic reviews, 35 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 1 consensus and 1 semi-structured interviews. Conclusions The best diagnostic technique is that which we have sufficient experience and training. Definitely tissue biopsy and histopathological examination should remain the gold standard for oral cancer diagnose. In this systematic review it has not been found sufficient scientific evidence on the majority of proposed techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC, therefore more extensive and exhaustive studies are needed. Key words: Squamous cell carcinoma, early diagnosis, oral cavity, potentially malignant disorders, premalignant lesions. PMID:25662554

  14. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  15. Prevalence of oral manifestations in soft tissues during early childhood in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Ramos Lima PADOVANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of soft tissue oral manifestations in children during early childhood, according to age group, gender, and site in the oral cavity, and at correlating these oral manifestations with systemic alterations. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 586 children from 0 to 3 years of age (12.4 ± 11.8 months, 316 (53.9% male and 270 (46.1% female, in the city of Mauá, SP, Brazil. Examination was performed by a single examiner (Kappa Index = 0.90 according to World Health Organization criteria (WHO, 1997.The prevalence of oral manifestations in the soft tissues of children during early childhood was 34.8%. The age group showing statistical significance was 0-1 months old (56.4%. Epstein’s pearls were significantly present (43.2% in 0-1-month-old babies, and gingivitis in 12-24-month-olds (15.9%. The palate was the most affected region (16.7%. Infectious alterations were the most prevalent systemic alteration (20%. An association was observed between the presence of systemic alterations and the occurrence of oral manifestations. The prevalence of oral manifestations was 34.8%, regardless of gender, and was manifested mostly in 0-1-month-old babies. The palate was the most prevalent region, and the majority of oral manifestations were associated with systemic alterations.

  16. Screening for Oral Cavity Cancer: A 1-year Experience of a Regional Hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, T H; Yuan, C H; Chen, R F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the risk factors affecting precancerous lesions, and cancer of oral cavity, and to assess efficacy of visual screening for oral mucosal lesions. The medical records of patients older than 30 years of age with history of habitual cigarette smoking or betel quid chewing that received screening for oral mucosal lesions between January 2012 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' age, gender, risk factors, screening findings, and histopathology results of biopsy were included for further analysis. A total of 1341 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 1080 males and 261 females ranging from 30 to 96 years of age, with a mean age of 53.9±13.6 years. After screening, 226 (16.9%) were found to be positive of oral lesions. Among these 226 patients, 69 (30.5%) underwent biopsy under local anesthesia, and the histopathology showed malignancy in 13 (5.8%). All of the confirmed malignant cases were squamous cell carcinoma. Among them, 12 received further staging examination and one was lost to follow-up resulting in unknown stage. The early stage oral cavity cancer (stage I and II) accounted for 84.6% (11/13). The detection rate of early stage oral cavity cancer in our study was reasonable. Therefore, visual screening for oral cavity cancer is recommended for patients with habitual cigarette smoking or betel quid chewing.

  17. Early Years Students' Relationships with Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…

  18. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17...... unselected patients (median age 69 years) undergoing colonic resection. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received combined epidural and general anaesthesia during operations and after operation were given continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.25%, 4 ml hour and morphine 0.2 mg hour, for 96 hours and oral paracetamol 4 g...... weight loss. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a combined approach of optimal pain relief with balanced analgesia, enforced early mobilisation, and oral feeding, may reduce the length of convalescence and hospital stay after colonic operations....

  19. Ras oncogenes in oral cancer: the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan; Tsuchida, Nobuo

    2012-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of head and neck is associated with high morbidity and mortality in both Western and Asian countries. Several risk factors for the development of oral cancer are very well established, including tobacco chewing, betel quid, smoking, alcohol drinking and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Apart from these risk factors, many genetic factors such as oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and regulatory genes are identified to involve in oral carcinogenesis with these risk factors dependent and independent manner. Ras is one of the most frequently genetically deregulated oncogene in oral cancer. In this review, we analyze the past 22years of literature on genetic alterations such as mutations and amplifications of the isoforms of the ras oncogene in oral cancer. Further, we addressed the isoform-specific role of the ras in oral carcinogenesis. We also discussed how targeting the Akt and MEK, downstream effectors of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, respectively, would probably pave the possible molecular therapeutic target for the ras driven tumorigenesis in oral cancer. Analysis of these ras isoforms may critically enlighten specific role of a particular ras isoform in oral carcinogenesis, enhance prognosis and pave the way for isoform-specific molecular targeted therapy in OSCC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Problem Solving in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…

  1. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  2. Oral and neck examination for early detection of oral cancer--a practical guide.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacCarthy, Denise

    2011-08-01

    Cancer of the head and neck region presents a challenge since, unlike other areas of the body, the boundaries are not always easy to delineate. The functional morbidity associated with head and neck cancer and its treatment are considerable. Head and neck cancer is described as cancer of the lip, mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx (unspecified), salivary gland, hypopharynx, larynx and other. Oral cancer refers to cancers of the lip, tongue, gingivae, floor of the mouth, palate (hard and soft), maxilla, vestibule and retromolar area up to the anterior pillar of the fauces (tonsil). When patients present with oral cancer, over 60% of them have regional (lymph node) and sometimes distant (metastatic) spread. The overall five-year survival rates for oral cancer average at between 50 and 80%, depending on the stage of the disease, varying from 86% for stage I to 12-16% for stage IV. The incidence of \\'field cancerisation\\'\\/unstable oral epithelium is high (17%), and even after successful treatment our patients need to be monitored for dental care and further disease. Unlike other areas in the body, the oral epithelium is readily accessible for examination and even self-examination. Dentists and dental hygienists are effective clinicians in the examination of the oral cavity for mouth cancer. An oral and neck examination must be part of every dental examination. An examination protocol is suggested here, which is similar to, but more detailed than, the standardised oral examination method recommended by the World Health Organisation, and consistent with those protocols followed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

  3. Efficacy of oral health promotion in primary care practice during early childhood: creating positive changes in parent's oral health beliefs and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheus, Deborah J

    2014-06-01

    Nurse practitioners frequently provide care to children suffering from poor oral health. Creative approaches to impacting dental disease are needed due to the current lack of traditional dental providers. This study investigated the effects of oral health promotion provided by primary care providers on parental oral health beliefs and behaviors. Participants receiving standard oral care during two well child visits and two additional enhanced oral health visits (n=44) were compared to participants receiving standard oral care during two well child visits alone (n=40). Results revealed changes in parent's perception of the importance of oral care for their children's primary teeth compared to general healthcare needs (pbrushing their children's teeth (pbrushing their teeth (pbrushing (pimportant study shows that oral health programs in primary care can produce changes that can improve oral health outcomes. Parents and children exposed to oral health programs during their frequent well child care visits in the first years of life may help decrease the rate of early childhood caries and improve their quality of life.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on oral hygiene among 12 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To assess oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices among 12 years old pupils in Lunacy, Zambia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted involving 12 years old children from seven randomly selected urban and peri urban primary schools in Luanshya. A close ended self ...

  5. Developing Leadership for Early Childhood Professionals through Oral Inquiry: Strengthening Equity through Making Particulars Visible in Dilemmas of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Julie Marie; Kroll, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Developing leadership among early childhood professionals has become increasingly important as investing in children's early years has been championed as a public and private national and international priority. Two case studies present how oral inquiry and specifically, the Prospect Center's Descriptive Review of a Professional Dilemma of…

  6. Early and late oral features of chronic graft-versus-host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Oliveira Ferrari Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic graft-versus-host disease is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and the mouth is one of the affected sites. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral features of this disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study that enrolled patients submitted to transplantation. Oral evaluations used the National Institutes of Health criteria, salivary flow rates, and the range of mouth opening. Pain and xerostomia were evaluated through a visual analogue scale. Patients were divided into two groups based on the transplantation time (up to one year and more than one year. Results: Of the 57 evaluated recipients, 44 had chronic graft-versus-host disease: ten (22.72% in the group with less than one year after transplantation, and 34 (77.27% in the group with more than one year after transplantation. Lichenoid/hyperkeratotic plaques, erythematous lesions, xerostomia, and hyposalivation were the most commonly reported oral features. Lichenoid/hyperkeratotic plaques were significantly more common in patients within the first year after the transplant. The labial mucosa was affected more in the first year. No significant changes occurred in the frequency of xerostomia, hyposalivation, and reduced mouth opening regarding time after transplantation. Conclusion: Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease lesions were identified early in the course of the disease. The changes observed in salivary gland function and in the range of mouth opening were not correlated with the time after transplantation.

  7. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17...... unselected patients (median age 69 years) undergoing colonic resection. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received combined epidural and general anaesthesia during operations and after operation were given continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.25%, 4 ml hour and morphine 0.2 mg hour, for 96 hours and oral paracetamol 4 g....../daily. No patient had a nasogastric tube, and oral feeding with normal food and protein enriched solutions (1000 Kcal (4180 KJ/day) was instituted 24 hours postoperatively together with intensive mobilisation. RESULTS: Median visual analogue pain scores were zero at rest and minimal during coughing and mobilisation...

  8. Knowledge of pediatricians and the importance of interdisciplinarity in attention to oral health in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Tupinambá Emmi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of pediatricians on the integrality of attention to oral health in early childhood. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample consisting of 70 doctors, working in public and private services, in the city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. Data were collected using a questionnaire with approaches on: the professional profile; the knowledge of oral health of children; the use of fluoride; and self-perception on knowledge of oral health. A descriptive analysis of the data was performed, and the association between variables was verified with the Chi-square test, with p = 0.05. The average age of respondents was 41 years. Most professionals were females (88.57% and featured more than 20 years of professional experience (38.57%. In general, most pediatricians answered satisfactorily the questions related to knowledge of children's oral health. However, when questioned about the knowledge of the use of fluoride, most professionals (92.86% presented outdated knowledge that could result in inappropriate conduct. It was concluded that most pediatricians have knowledge of oral health promotion, although some concepts and conducts should be updated, especially the importance of fluorides in the control of tooth decay.

  9. SAFETY OF EARLY ORAL FEEDING AFTER TRANSHIATAL ESOPHAGECTOMY : PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A PROSPECTIVE TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral feeding is the best means of nutrition in surgical patients. There arc many reports on early oral feeding after lower gastrointestinal {(il operations but data regarding upper Gl procedures is rather scant. This limited study rocuses 011 early removal of nasogastric tube and start of oral diet after transhiatal csophagcctomy. We prospectively evaluated 13 consecutive patients (8 males. 5 females with esophageal cancer who had undergone rranshiatal csophngcctomy from March 100 I to September :lOrn. Nasogustric tube was removed on post-op day 1 and clear liquids started on day 3. Diet was advanced to son regular in tile next 5 days if the patients tolerated it. Mean age of patients was 63 years."nMenu body weight and serum albumin level were 57.9 kg and 3.73 gr/dl., respectively. Tumor pathology was squamous cell carcinoma in 11 cases and adenocarcinoma in I. Location oftumor was at the lower third of the esophagus in 11 cases and middle third in one. All patients ill the study group tolerated tile protocol well. Only one patient had nausea after oral intake, without vomiting. We had one neck wound infection and OIlC pulmonary infection. There was no anastomotic leakage or fistula. A group of I( esophageal cancer patients undergoing trnnshiuta! csophagcctomy in the same period ""'('I'C used as the control group. One anastomotic leakage occurred in control group. We had no significant complication. Early nasogastric tube removal and oral feeding seems to be safe in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing transhiatal csophagcctcmy.

  10. Oral piercings among first-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventä, Irja; Lakoma, Ani; Haahtela, Sauli; Peltola, Jaakko; Ylipaavalniemi, Pekka; Turtola, Lauri

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine oral piercings among first-year university students. First-year university students in 2002 were invited to a dental examination (n = 234; 49 men and 185 women). Students with piercings formed the study group and the rest served as controls. The methods included decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF) index, stimulated salivary flow rates, panoramic tomograms, and questionnaires including the Depression Inventory of Beck. Fisher's 2-sided exact test was used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of oral piercings was 3.4%. In the DMF indices, no statistically significant differences existed between the groups. Increased salivary flow rates were noted among students with piercings (63% vs 26%, P piercings is essential.

  11. Malignant oral tumors in iran: ten-year analysis on patient and tumor characteristics of 1042 patients in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeran, Katayoun; Murtomaa, Heikki; Safavi, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Vehkalahti, Miira; Teronen, Olli

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzed characteristics of oral cancer patients from Tehran, Iran, and their tumors. Data came from the patient records of 30 major hospitals in Tehran. Patients (n = 1042), diagnosed with invasive oral cancer in 1993-2003, were classified by primary tumor site according to ICD-10 (C00-C10). Data were analyzed separately for lip, oral cavity and salivary gland tumors. Statistical evaluation included chi and t-test. Of all cases, 59% were male. Age for all cases ranged from 6-103 years, mean age was 58.8 years (SD 16; median 62); 89% were older than 40. Tumor site breakdown was 65% oral cavity, 21% major salivary glands and 14% lip. A clear gender difference (P dominated in oral cavity cancers and men in lip cancers. The most common cancer site was the tongue (32%), accounting for 50% of the oral cavity cancers. Histologically, 88% of all oral cavity and lip cancers were squamous cell carcinomas, 10% of those were in age /= age 65. At the time of diagnosis, 59% of oral cavity cancers and 29% of lip cancers were at stage III or IV (P < 0.001). The results emphasize an urgent need for a national program focusing on early detection of oral cancers, including educational information addressed to oral health professionals.

  12. Comprehensive Oral Health Care to Reduce the Incidence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (s-ECC) in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yan; Guo, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Shu Guo

    2016-03-01

    To explore the effectiveness of comprehensive oral health care to reduce the caries incidence for children with severe early childhood caries (s-ECC) in an urban area in China. A total of 357 children aged 3 to 4 years old and diagnosed with s-ECC were recruited in this randomised controlled, single-blinded clinical trial for 1 year. Children of two different kindergarten classes were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into a test group (205 children) and a control group (152 children). The test group received comprehensive oral health care, which included: oral health examination, oral health education, topical fluoride application and dental treatment, and the children in the control group only received the oral health examination. The evaluation of the oral health questionnaire for parents was also performed. An evaluation was carried out at the time of recruitment and 1 year later to explore the effectiveness of the comprehensive oral health care model. The differences in decayed teeth (dt), decayed tooth surfaces (ds), filled teeth (ft), filled tooth surfaces (fs) and the ratio of ft /(dt + ft) between the two groups were statistically significant (P comprehensive oral health care program reduces and prevents caries amongst children with s-ECC.

  13. [Oral hygiene customs in 6-12 year old schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, César Tadeo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Veras-Hernández, Miriam; De la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To characterize utilization of oral hygiene devices and customs in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a cross-sectional study in 1,404 schoolchildren (6- 12 year olds) from 14 public schools in Pachuca, Hidalgo, México, using a questionnaire for sociodemographic variables and 1) Tooth brushing frequency (customs were 85.5% tooth brushing, 90.9% toothpaste, 19.4% flossing, and 28.2% mouthwash. Only 11.8% of participants reported utilization in all 4 categories. We observed differences (p < 0.05) across sexes only in the use of toothpaste, as women used it more often. Differences across age were observed (p < 0.05) for tooth brushing (younger children brushed more often) and flossing (older children flossed more often). CONCLUSIONS. Tooth brushing was the oral hygiene practice more often performed in this sample, with other frequencies being relatively low. There were differences by age and sex across some variables.

  14. Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Piyusha S; Pujar, Pallavi; Subbareddy, V V

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above) were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group). There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene methods individually and in combination. The children were then reassessed for oral malodor 2 h later. The results were analyzed and compared. Both individual oral hygiene measure or in combination of tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing; all were effective in reducing oral malodor. Significant reduction (P oral malodor was seen when all three oral hygiene measures performed together. Oral malodor was significantly reduced after performing oral hygiene measures individually, but reduced more when used in combination.

  15. Parenting style and oral health practices in early childhood caries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabawala, Suhel; Suprabha, Baranya S; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Arathi; Shah, Nachiket

    2017-03-01

    There is a need to carry out controlled investigations regarding risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). To study the type of parenting style and oral health practices as risk factors among children with ECC in an Indian preschool population. Two hundred and eleven children with ECC and equal number of controls participated in this case-control study. A questionnaire was answered by parents regarding oral health practices such as oral hygiene methods, feeding habits, daily sugar intake, and dental attendance pattern along with socioeconomic and demographic status. The parenting style was determined using Parenting Styles Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ) index. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk factors associated with ECC were higher birth order, lower socioeconomic status, non-use of fluoridated toothpaste, breast/bottle feeding for more than one year, presence of formula milk or milk with sugar in the feeding bottle while falling asleep, higher sweet scores in the diet chart, and visiting dentist only when a problem was perceived. Majority of parents of children with and without ECC had authoritative parenting style. Improper oral health practices are the risk factors for ECC. The association of parenting style with ECC could not be confirmed. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Immigrant Caregivers of Young Children: Oral Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Early Childhood Caries Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations.

  17. Angular cheilitis and oral pigmentation as early detection of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS is an inherited autosomal dominant disease determined by a mutation localized at 19p13.3 characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps in association with mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation. The manifestation of PJS may first be encountered by a dentist during routine examination due to the presence of pigmented spots in the oral cavity. Purpose: To prevent a high risk of PJS, the dentist must establish its oral manifestation through early detection. Case: A 14-year-old male patient attended complaining of a week-long pain at the corners of the lips. An extra-oral exam revealed fissure lesions, redness, white crust and pain. The patient had experienced bleeding in his bowel movements, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting since childhood. A number of black, painless, macular lesions, some 1-3 mm in diameter, were present on the upper lips, lower lips, fingers and palms. Case management: The patient was referred for a complete blood count check. The results obtained confirmed him to be suffering from severe anemia and he was, therefore, referred to an internist for treatment for PJS. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the early detection of PJS is crucial in order that the patient receives prompt treatment.

  18. Oral mucosal lesions in children from 0 to 12 years old: ten years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorana, Alessandra; Bardellini, Elena; Flocchini, Pierangela; Amadori, Francesca; Conti, Giulio; Campus, Guglielmo

    2010-07-01

    The exact prevalence of oral lesions in childhood is not well known. We sought to define the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in a large group of children. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using clinical charts from January 1997 to December 2007. Data collected included age, gender, and pathologic diagnosis. In total, 10,128 children (0-12 years old) were enrolled. Clinical diagnostic criteria proposed by the World Health Organization were followed. The frequency of children presenting oral mucosal lesions was 28.9%, and no differences related to gender were observed. The most frequent lesions recorded were oral candidiasis (28.4%), geographic tongue and other tongue lesions (18.5%), traumatic lesions (17.8%), recurrent aphthous ulcerations (14.8%), herpes simplex virus type 1 infections (9.3%), and erythema multiforme (0.9%). Children suffering from chronic diseases had a higher frequency of oral lesions compared with healthy children (chi-square: P children are relatively common, and several oral disorders are associated with underlying medical conditions. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dental Provider Attitudes Are a Barrier to Expanded Oral Health Care for Children ≤3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Clark MPH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the perspectives of general dentists regarding oral health care for children ≤3 years. Methods. Mailed survey of 444 general dentists in Michigan. Results. Although most dentists were aware of recommendations for early dental visits, only 36% recommended their own patients begin dental visits by 1 year of age. Only 37% dentists felt that screening for oral health problems can be done by medical providers, whereas 34% agreed administration of fluoride varnish by medical providers would be effective in preventing dental problems in young children. Conclusions. Dentists’ failure to recommend 1-year dental visits is due neither to lack of awareness nor to capacity problems. The limited enthusiasm for involving children’s medical providers in oral health promotion signals attitudinal barriers that must be overcome to improve children’s oral health. Primary care providers should identify and refer to dentists in their community who are willing to see young children.

  20. Student Interviews Fifty Years Later: An Oral History

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    The Regional History Project at UC Santa Cruz has rich collections of interviews with generations of narrators, ranging across the administration, faculty, and staff. In the early years of the campus, founding director Elizabeth Spedding Calciano conducted two rounds of interviews focused on the student experience at what was then the newest campus of the University of California. Those interviews, conducted in 1967 and 1969 as the campus was still adding a new college every year, give a wind...

  1. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, D; Nardone, M; Melone, P; Cardelli, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2015-01-01

    The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%-90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before "sexual puberty". The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer.

  2. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakullukcu, Baris; van Oudenaarde, Kim; Copper, Marcel P.; Klop, W. M. C.; van Veen, Robert; Wildeman, Maarten; Bing Tan, I.

    2011-01-01

    The indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis-T2) to

  3. Validation of a French language version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronneau Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An English language oral health-related negative impact scale for 0–5 year old infants (the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale [ECOHIS] has recently been developed and validated. The overall aim of our study was to validate a French version of the ECOHIS. The objectives were to investigate the scale's: i internal consistency; ii test-retest reliability; iii convergent validity; and iv discriminant validity. Methods Data were collected from two separate samples. Firstly, from 398 parents of children aged 12 months, recruited to a community-based intervention study, and secondly from 94 parents of 0–5 year-old children attending a hospital dental clinic. In a sub-sample of 101 of the community-based group, the scale was distributed a second time two weeks after initial evaluation. Internal consistency was evaluated through generation of Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability through intra-class-correlation coefficients (ICC, convergent validity through comparing scale total scores with a global evaluation of oral health and discriminant validity through investigation of differences in total scale scores between the community- and clinic-based samples. Results Cronbach's alpha for both the child and family impact sections was 0.79, and for the whole scale was 0.82. The ICC was 0.95. Mean ECOHIS scores for parents rating their child's oral health as "relatively poor", "good" and "very good" were 10.8, 3.4 and 2.7 respectively. In the community- and clinic-based samples, the mean ECOHIS scores were 3.7 and 4.9 respectively. Conclusion These results suggest this French language version of the ECOHIS is valid.

  4. A randomised controlled trial of early initiation of oral feeding after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A randomised controlled trial of early initiation of oral feeding after Caesarean ... The outcome measures were rate of ileus symptoms, post operative presence of ... more rapid recovery and expressed their interest in earlier hospital discharge.

  5. Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyusha S Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group. There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene methods individually and in combination. The children were then reassessed for oral malodor 2 h later. The results were analyzed and compared. Results: Both individual oral hygiene measure or in combination of tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing; all were effective in reducing oral malodor. Significant reduction (P < 0.05 in oral malodor was seen when all three oral hygiene measures performed together. Conclusion: Oral malodor was significantly reduced after performing oral hygiene measures individually, but reduced more when used in combination.

  6. Evaluation of an oral telomerase activator for early age-related macular degeneration - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dow CT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coad Thomas Dow,1,2 Calvin B Harley3 1McPherson Eye Research Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA; 2Chippewa Valley Eye Clinic, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, WI, USA; 3Independent Telomere Biology Consultant, Murphys, CA, USA Purpose: Telomere attrition and corresponding cellular senescence of the retinal pigment epithelium contribute to the changes of age-related macular degeneration. Activation of the enzyme telomerase can add telomeric DNA to retinal pigment epithelium chromosomal ends and has been proposed as a treatment for age-related macular degeneration. We report the use of a small molecule, oral telomerase activator (TA-65 in early macular degeneration. This study, focusing on early macular degeneration, provides a model for the use of TAs in age-related disease.Method: Thirty-eight (38 patients were randomly assigned to a 1-year, double-blinded, placebo-controlled interventional study with arms for oral TA-65 or placebo. Macular functions via micro-perimetry were the primary measured outcomes.Results: The macular function in the arm receiving the TA-65 showed significant improvement relative to the placebo control. The improvement was manifest at 6 months and was maintained at 1 year: macular threshold sensitivity (measured as average dB [logarithmic decibel scale of light attenuation] improved 0.97 dB compared to placebo (P-value 0.02 and percent reduced thresholds lessened 8.2% compared to the placebo arm (P-value 0.04. Conclusion: The oral TA significantly improved the macular function of treatment subjects compared to controls. Although this study was a pilot and a larger study is being planned, it is noteworthy in that it is, to our knowledge, the first randomized placebo-controlled study of a TA supplement. Keywords: drusen, macular degeneration, micro-perimetry, senescence, telomerase activation, telomere

  7. Brachytherapy for early oral tongue cancer. Low dose rate to high dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Inoue, Takehiro; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Inoue, Toshihiko; Furukawa, Souhei; Kakimoto, Naoya

    2003-01-01

    To examine the compatibility of low dose rate (LDR) with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, we reviewed 399 patients with early oral tongue cancer (T1-2N0M0) treated solely by brachytherapy at Osaka University Hospital between 1967 and 1999. For patients in the LDR group (n=341), the treatment sources consisted of Ir-192 pin for 227 patients (1973-1996; irradiated dose, 61-85 Gy; median, 70 Gy), Ra-226 needle for 113 patients (1967-1986; 55-93 Gy; median, 70 Gy). Ra-226 and Ir-192 were combined for one patient. Ir-192 HDR (microSelectron-HDR) was used for 58 patients in the HDR group (1991-present; 48-60 Gy; median, 60 Gy). LDR implantations were performed via oral and HDR via a submental/submandibular approach. The dose rates at the reference point for the LDR group were 0.30 to 0.8 Gy/h, and for the HDR group 1.0 to 3.4 Gy/min. The patients in the HDR group received a total dose of 48-60 Gy (8-10 fractions) during one week. Two fractions were administered per day (at least a 6-h interval). The 3- and 5-year local control rates for patients in the LDR group were 85% and 80%, respectively, and those in the HDR group were both 84%. HDR brachytherapy showed the same lymph-node control rate as did LDR brachytherapy (67% at 5 years). HDR brachytherapy achieved the same locoregional result as did LDR brachytherapy. A converting factor of 0.86 is applicable for HDR in the treatment of early oral tongue cancer. (author)

  8. Inequality in oral health related to early and later life social conditions: a study of elderly in Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcan, Ferda; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-02-10

    A life course perspective recognizes influences of socially patterned exposures on oral health across the life span. This study assessed the influence of early and later life social conditions on tooth loss and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) of people aged 65 and 70 years. Whether social inequalities in oral health changed after the usual age of retirement was also examined. In accordance with "the latent effect life course model", it was hypothesized that adverse early-life social conditions increase the risk of subsequent tooth loss and impaired OIDP, independent of later-life social conditions. Data were obtained from two cohorts studies conducted in Sweden and Norway. The 2007 and 2012 waves of the surveys were used for the present study. Early-life social conditions were measured in terms of gender, education and country of birth, and later-life social conditions were assessed by working status, marital status and size of social network. Logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to analyse the data. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was used to adjust estimates for missing responses and loss to follow-up. Early-life social conditions contributed to tooth loss and OIDP in each survey year and both countries independent of later-life social conditions. Lower education correlated positively with tooth loss, but did not influence OIDP. Foreign country of birth correlated positively with oral impacts in Sweden only. Later-life social conditions were the strongest predictors of tooth loss and OIDP across survey years and countries. GEE revealed significant interactions between social network and survey year, and between marital status and survey year on tooth loss. The results confirmed the latent effect life course model in that early and later life social conditions had independent effects on tooth loss and OIDP among the elderly in Norway and Sweden. Between age 65 and 70, inequalities in tooth loss related to marital

  9. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions from birth to two years | Yilmaz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A total of 299 infants from newborn to two years of ... dermatological disease in infants, which affects the oral feeding of the infants. Routine examination of the oral mucosa should be a part of the pediatric examination.

  10. Usefulness and safety of early against delayed oral intake after appendectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, I.A.; Taj, R.U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness and safety of early versus late oral intake after appendectomy. Study Design: Randomized clinical trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Multan from August 2008 to February 2009. Material and Methods: One hundred patients with uncomplicated acute appendicitis, undergoing appendectomy under general anesthesia were included in the study and randomly divided into two equal groups. Early oral intake group (group A) was allowed fluids, when patients were out of effects of general anesthesia. Delayed fed (group B) was started oral fluids, on appearance of normal bowel sounds or passage of flatus. Low residue solid diet was started, after tolerance of oral fluids, in both groups. Results: Early oral intake resulted in start of solid diet earlier by average 9 hours; these patients had normal bowel sounds, and passed flatus, earlier, after 4 hours and 5 hours as compared to late feeding group. Six (12%) patients had mild ileus in early fed group whereas 4(8%) patients in delayed fed group had mild ileus. Thirty eight (76%) early fed patients were very satisfied, as compared to 29 (58%) delayed fed patients. The hospital stay was prolonged by 2 days in delayed fed group. Conclusion: Early oral feeding implemented after appendectomy is safe and effective, with a shortened hospital stay as the primary benefit in patients after appendectomy. (author)

  11. Early oral feeding after elective abdominal surgery--what are the issues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thue; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This review analyzes the literature and the historical concerns (restrictions, traditions, nasogastric tube) and pathophysiologic factors (postoperative ileus, risk of anastomotic dehiscence, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite) invoked for not instituting early oral feeding after major abdomin...... surgical programs in abdominal surgery provide a rational basis for future studies to investigate and facilitate enforced oral feeding after major abdominal procedures.......This review analyzes the literature and the historical concerns (restrictions, traditions, nasogastric tube) and pathophysiologic factors (postoperative ileus, risk of anastomotic dehiscence, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite) invoked for not instituting early oral feeding after major abdominal...... procedures. It appears that several factors may promote postoperative oral feeding such as thoracic epidural analgesia, multimodal anti-emetic treatment, opioid-sparing analgesia, selective peripheral opioid antagonists, and enforced oral nutrition. Recent data from multimodal fast-track rehabilitation...

  12. An exploratory study of parental knowledge of early childhood oral health care in Southland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Leonard; Densie, Ian; Morgan, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The primary objective was to clearly assess the oral health care knowledge of Southland parents. The secondary objective was to identify whether inequalities exist between parents with different ethnicity, education or income. An exploratory study based on a simple online/ paper questionnaire. Participants were recruited through Southland early childcare centres. Researchers contacted 115 centres, 66 agreed to participate and 58 returned questionnaires. Questionnaires were distributed to each centre to be completed by the parents. The questionnaire was able to be completed online or as a paper copy. Centres were supplied with dental brochures, which were distributed after the questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were collated and the responses analysed. Six hundred and seventy questionnaires were returned, 213 online and 457 paper copies. The typical participant was a mother (93.9%), age 34 years (median), a non-smoker (86.3%), non-Maori (87.1%), with a university degree (33.9%) and an annual household income between $60,001 and $100,000 (36.5%). Twenty of the 47 questions were selected to reflect parental knowledge. Overall, 65.1% of the respondents answered all 20 questions correctly. Differences in knowledge were identified between mothers and other participants (65.4% vs. 59.4%), smokers and non-smokers (61.3% vs. 65.7%), Maori and non-Maori (61.6% vs. 65.6%) and education level (Primary 58.0% vs. Degree 68.7%) (P knowledge in early childhood oral health care. Participants who identified as non-mothers (fathers, step-fathers, legal care givers or other), smokers, Maori or low education displayed significantly less knowledge. Further education and oral health care promotion may be needed to improve this disparity.

  13. Evaluating Two Oral Health Video Interventions with Early Head Start Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn B. Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor oral health in early childhood can have long-term consequences, and parents often are unaware of the importance of preventive measures for infants and toddlers. Children in rural, low-income families suffer disproportionately from the effects of poor oral health. Participants were 91 parents of infants and toddlers enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS living in rural Hawai'i, USA. In this quasi-experimental design, EHS home visitors were assigned to use either a didactic or family-centered video with parents they served. Home visitors reviewed short segments of the assigned videos with parents over an eight-week period. Both groups showed significant prepost gains on knowledge and attitudes/behaviors relating to early oral health as well as self-reported changes in family oral health routines at a six-week followup. Controlling for pretest levels, parents in the family-centered video group showed larger changes in attitudes/behaviors at posttest and a higher number of positive changes in family oral health routines at followup. Results suggest that family-centered educational videos are a promising method for providing anticipatory guidance to parents regarding early childhood oral health. Furthermore, establishing partnerships between dental care, early childhood education, and maternal health systems offers a model that broadens potential reach with minimal cost.

  14. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  15. Challenges of Early Years Leadership Preparation: A Comparison between Early and Experienced Early Years Practitioners in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    Leadership has been under-researched in the Early Years (EY) sector of primary schools in England, especially in leading change for professional development. The aim of this paper is to theorise what the leadership culture for EY practitioners looks like, and how Initial Teacher Training providers and schools are preparing practitioners for…

  16. Decline in oral perception from 20 to 70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, R

    1977-12-01

    120 adults were given a task to determine whether performance on an oral perception task declines with increasing chronological age. Subjects in their 70's performed significantly worse than those in their 60's and younger. This loss of oral perceptual skills is considered relevant to the remediation and training of older individuals with difficulties in speech articulation.

  17. Early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Annelise; Jarden, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and to investigate the factors that influence these effects. PubMed, Cinahl, and PsycInfo were searched for studies concerning patients...... diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancers and treated with primary surgery and which followed the treatment trajectory from time of diagnosis to 10 years after surgery; these studies reported the quantitative assessments and qualitative experiences of the patient's physical and psychosocial well...... in this review was 3386; of these, 1996 were treated by surgery alone and 1390 with combined surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The studies showed that because of the nature of their disease, patients are negatively affected by the different types of surgical treatment for oral...

  18. Oral health of early head start children: a qualitative study of staff, parents, and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi, Mahyar; Zeldin, Leslie P; Rozier, R Gary

    2009-02-01

    We explored the oral health knowledge, attitudes, and activities of Early Head Start (EHS) staff members, parents, and pregnant women, along with their suggestions related to future oral health educational interventions targeting EHS children. Nine focus groups were conducted with EHS staff, parents, and pregnant women. Audiotapes of sessions were transcribed and entered into ATLAS.ti 5.0 for coding and analysis. Attitudes about the importance of children's oral health among parents and pregnant women were mixed. Staff members voiced responsibility for children's oral health but frustration in their inability to communicate effectively with parents. Parents in turn perceived staff criticism regarding how they cared for their children's oral health. Gaps were noted in the oral health activities of EHS programs. Participants expressed confusion regarding the application of Head Start oral health performance standards to EHS. The need for culturally sensitive, hands-on oral health education was highlighted. Tailored, theory-based interventions are needed to improve communication between EHS staff and families. Clear policies on the application of Head Start oral health performance standards to EHS are warranted. Educational activities should address the needs and suggestions of EHS participants.

  19. Oral health activities of early head start teachers directed toward children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary; Zeldin, Leslie P; Preisser, John S

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined Early Head Start (EHS) teachers' oral health program activities and their association with teacher and program characteristics. Self-completed questionnaires were distributed to the staff in all EHS programs in North Carolina. Variables for dental health activities for parents (four items) and children (four items) were constructed as the sum of responses to a 0-4 Likert-type scale (never to very frequently). Ordinary least squares regression models examined the association between teachers' oral health program activities and modifiable teacher (oral health knowledge, values, self-efficacy, dental health training, perceived barriers to dental activities) and program (director and health coordinator knowledge and perceived barriers to dental activities) characteristics. Teachers in the parent (n=260) and child (n=231) analyses were a subset of the 485 staff respondents (98 percent response rate). Teachers engaged in child oral health activities (range = 0-16; mean = 9.0) more frequently than parent activities (range = 0-16; mean = 6.9). Teachers' oral health values, perceived oral health self-efficacy, dental training, and director and health coordinator knowledge were positively associated with oral health activities (P oral health activity in EHS programs is less than optimal. Several characteristics of EHS staff were identified that can be targeted with education interventions. Evidence for effectiveness of EHS interventions needs to be strengthened, but results of this survey provide encouraging findings about the potential effects of teacher training on their oral health practices.

  20. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  1. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  2. Early-Years Absenteeism Seen as Critical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    While efforts to reduce chronic absenteeism typically focus on adolescents, experts say that the early grades are the place to start. Statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing…

  3. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, R; Reddy-Kantharaj, Y-B; Rakesh, N; Janardhan-Reddy, S; Sahu, S

    2016-07-01

    Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct tool in early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD.

  4. Evaluation of an oral health education session for Early Head Start home visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, Kevin; Okunseri, Christopher; Flanagan, Diane; Simpson, Pippa; Cao, Yumei; Willis, Earnestine

    2016-06-01

    Home visiting programs promote the education and health of Early Head Start (EHS) children and pregnant women. However, EHS's oral health component is unevenly implemented. We conducted an educational intervention to improve oral health knowledge and motivational interviewing techniques among Wisconsin EHS home visitors. A questionnaire assessing oral health-related knowledge and confidence was administered to home visitors before and after an educational session. Changes between pre/post-responses were analyzed with McNemar's test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. After the intervention there were increases in both knowledge and confidence related to oral health communication. Knowledge increases were observed in such topics as fluoridation, dental caries, and caregivers' role in assisting and supervising children's tooth brushing. A brief educational intervention was associated with increased home visitor knowledge and confidence in communicating oral health messages to EHS caregivers and pregnant women. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Neha; Om, Hari

    2015-01-01

    In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural...

  6. The Malay version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (Malay-ECOHIS)--assessing validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Azlina N; Yusof, Zamros Y M; Esa, Rashidah

    2015-11-25

    The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is used to assess oral impacts on the quality of life of preschool aged children and their families. The objective of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the ECOHIS into Malay and assess its psychometric properties. The cross-cultural adaptation of ECOHIS into Malay comprised of translating the ECOHIS into the Malay language (Malay-ECOHIS) by experts followed by face validation of the Malay-ECOHIS by a group of mothers. The Malay-ECOHIS was back translated into English and this was compared with the original ECOHIS. Minor changes were made to the Malay-ECOHIS before it was finalised. The Malay-ECOHIS' psychometric properties were assessed in terms of construct, convergent and discriminant validity as well as internal and test-retest reliability based on two separate studies involving 127 parents of 4-6 year old preschool children followed by oral examinations of 860 preschool children from 25 kindergartens from two districts in Selangor state, Malaysia. Non-parametric statistics were used to assess the relationships between the Malay-ECOHIS and the subjective and clinical outcome measures. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.83 and the weighted Kappa was 0.95 (intraclass correlation = 0.94). The Malay-ECOHIS demonstrated significant associations with different subjective and normative measures, i.e. levels of oral health satisfaction, perceived oral health status, perceived oral health need, toothache experience, pattern of dental attendance, and caries status of preschool children. These significant associations supported its construct, convergent and discriminant validity as well as internal and test-retest reliability. This study showed that the Malay-ECOHIS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the negative impacts of oral disorders/conditions on the quality of life of 4-6 year old preschool children and their families in Malaysia.

  7. Influences of early English language teaching on oral fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, Stephana; Smit, Nienke; Lowie, Wander

    2017-01-01

    Elementary-level foreign language education is currently receiving a lot of attention in the literature on second language learning, and has emerged as an important educational policy issue. The present study aims to contribute to this discussion by focusing on the fluency benefits gained from early

  8. Influences of Early English Language Teaching on Oral Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Stephana; Smit, Nienke; Lowie, Wander

    2017-01-01

    Elementary-level foreign language education is currently receiving a lot of attention in the literature on second language learning, and has emerged as an important educational policy issue. The present study aims to contribute to this discussion by focusing on the fluency benefits gained from early foreign language teaching. The participants were…

  9. The relationship between oral and written narratives: A three-year longitudinal study of narrative cohesion, coherence, and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between oral language and the writing process at early acquisition stages and the ways the former can enhance or limit the latter has not been researched extensively. The predictive relationship between kindergarten oral narrative competence and the first- and second-grade written narrative competence was explored in a 3-year longitudinal study. Among the first and second graders, the relationship between orthographic competence and narrative competence in written productions was also analysed. One hundred and nine Italian children participated in this study. Kindergarteners produced an oral narrative, whereas the first and second graders produced a written narrative. The oral and written narratives were analysed in terms of cohesion, coherence, and structure. The first-grade orthographic competence was assessed via a dictation task. Multiple linear regression and mediational analyses were performed. Kindergarten oral narrative competence affected the first- and second-grade written narrative competence via a mediational effect of orthographic competence. The results suggest the importance of practicing oral narrative competence in kindergarten and first grade and the value of composition quality independent of orthographic text accuracy. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Early Years Education and the Value for Money Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Barr, Verity

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended as a contribution to the debate on the role of human capital in determining value for money in early years education. The article explores how the idea that early years education offers value for money has become folklore amongst policymakers and more widely. However, drawing on both interview data and existing literature…

  11. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural network (PNN/GRNN for early detection and prevention of oral malignancy. The model is built using the oral cancer database which has 35 attributes and 1025 records. All the attributes pertaining to clinical symptoms and history are considered to classify malignant and non-malignant cases. Subsequently, the model attempts to predict particular type of cancer, its stage and extent with the help of attributes pertaining to symptoms, gross examination and investigations. Also, the model envisages anticipating the survivability of a patient on the basis of treatment and follow-up details. Finally, the performance of the PNN/GRNN model is compared with that of other classification models. The classification accuracy of PNN/GRNN model is 80% and hence is better for early detection and prevention of the oral cancer.

  12. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Om, Hari

    2015-01-01

    In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural network (PNN/GRNN) for early detection and prevention of oral malignancy. The model is built using the oral cancer database which has 35 attributes and 1025 records. All the attributes pertaining to clinical symptoms and history are considered to classify malignant and non-malignant cases. Subsequently, the model attempts to predict particular type of cancer, its stage and extent with the help of attributes pertaining to symptoms, gross examination and investigations. Also, the model envisages anticipating the survivability of a patient on the basis of treatment and follow-up details. Finally, the performance of the PNN/GRNN model is compared with that of other classification models. The classification accuracy of PNN/GRNN model is 80% and hence is better for early detection and prevention of the oral cancer.

  13. Oral language supports early literacy: a pilot cluster randomized trial in disadvantaged schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Connell, Judy; Dalheim, Brenda; McCusker, Hugh J; Munro, John K

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the impact of teacher professional development aimed at improving the capacity of primary teachers in disadvantaged schools to strengthen children's expressive and receptive oral language skills and early literacy success in the first 2 years of school. Fourteen low-SES schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to a research (n = 8) or control arm (n = 6), resulting in an initial sample of 1254 students, (n = 602 in research arm and n = 652 in control arm). The intervention comprised 6 days of teacher and principal professional development (delivered by language and literacy experts), school-based continuing contact with the research team and completion by one staff member of each research school of a postgraduate unit on early language and literacy. Schools in the control arm received standard teaching according to state auspiced curriculum guidelines. Full data were available on 979 students at follow-up (time 2). Students in the research arm performed significantly better on Test of Language Development: Primary (Fourth Edition) sub-tests (p ≤ .002) and the Reading Progress Test (F = 10.4(1); p = .001) than students in the control arm at time 2. Narrative scores were not significantly different at time 2, although students in research schools showed greater gains. Findings provide "proof of concept" for this approach, and are discussed with respect to implications for teacher professional development and pre-service education concerning the psycholinguistic competencies that underpin the transition to literacy.

  14. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single Oral Pathology service during an 8-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIRES, Fábio Ramôa; RAMOS, Amanda Barreto; de OLIVEIRA, Jade Bittencourt Coutinho; TAVARES, Amanda Serra; da LUZ, Priscilla Silva Ribeiro; dos SANTOS, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is mostly derived from North American, European and East Asian populations. Objective The aim of this study was to report the demographic and clinicopathological features from OSCC diagnosed in an Oral Pathology service in southeastern Brazil in an 8-year period. Material and Methods All OSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed, including histological analysis of all hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and review of all demographic and clinical information from the laboratory records. Results A total of 346 OSCC was retrieved and males represented 67% of the sample. Mean age of the patients was 62.3 years-old and females were affected a decade older than males (pOral Pathology laboratory in southeastern Brazil and have highlighted several differences in clinicopathological features when comparing male and female OSCC-affected patients. PMID:24212993

  15. Description of oral motoric disorders in 2-4 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossa Ayu Sabilah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral motor disorders, such as speech and swallowing disorders, often occur in children. Generally parents complain that children refuse to eat hard food, drooling excess, and unable to speak clearly. Oral motor disturbance can occur due to the unavailability of maturation of oral motor structure. This study was aimed to determine the description of oral motor disturbance in children aged 2-4 years in some Integrated Health Service (Posyandu in Bandung. Methods: Descriptive research with cross sectional design. The study was conducted on 100 parents who came to six posyandu in Bandung by using questionnaires through guided interviews by researchers. Samples were taken using multistage random sampling technique. The results will be presented in tabular form and assessed using Arikunto standard criteria. Results: The results showed a low percentage in oral motor disturbances. Indicators of oral motor disturbance in children aged 2 - 4 years included in either category. As for children who have oral motor disorders exhibit various manifestations. Conclusion: The description of oral motor disorders in children aged 2 - 4 years in Posyandu in Bandung was shown by various manifestations. Based on the number of populations taken, oral motor disorders in children aged 2-4 years included into either category.

  16. Oral health and oral health behaviour among 11-13-year-olds in Bhopal, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.B.; Petersen, P.E.; Bhambal, A.

    2003-01-01

    ) and urban areas (n = 277). In urban slum areas convenience sampling was applied (n = 141). The data were collected through clinical examinations by means of WHO standard method, and a sub-sample completed a self-administered questionnaire on oral health behaviour, knowledge, and attitude. RESULTS....... Mean number of sextants with CPI score 0 was 3.5 among children in urban areas and 0.6 for children in slum areas. Seventy-five per cent of the children reported toothbrushing once a day, 31% used a plastic toothbrush and the general level of knowledge on oral health was low. Intake of sugary food...

  17. Social relations as determinants of oral health among persons over the age of 80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2003-01-01

    % CI: 1.2-7.2). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that social relations are related to the oral health status of old-old individuals. From a psychosocial perspective, our findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the background of oral health status in older adults.......OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether social relations during a 7-year follow-up influence oral health among generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 years. METHOD: The present investigation is based on a subsample of 129 dentate community-dwelling individuals from The Kungsholmen...... Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS), which included data from interviews and oral examinations. Social relations were measured in terms of marital status, living alone, frequency of contacts, number of confidants, and satisfaction with social contacts and with the frequency of contacts. Oral health...

  18. A randomized controlled trial evaluating early versus traditional oral feeding after colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of early oral feeding after colorectal operations. METHODS: A total of 199 patients underwent colorectal surgery and were randomly assigned to early feeding (n = 99 or a regular diet (n = 100. Patients’ characteristics, diagnoses, surgical procedures, comorbidity, bowel movements, defecation, nasogastric tube reinsertion, time of tolerance of solid diet, complications, and length of hospitalization were assessed. RESULTS: The two groups were similar in terms of gender, age, diagnosis, surgical procedures, and comorbidity. In the early feeding group, 85.9% of patients tolerated the early feeding schedule. Bowel movements (1.7±0.89 vs. 3.27±1.3, defecation (3.4±0.77 vs. 4.38±1.18 and time of tolerance of solid diet (2.48±0.85 vs. 4.77±1.81 were significantly earlier in the early feeding group. There was no change between the groups in terms of nasogastric tube reinsertion, overall complication or anastomotic leakage. Hospitalization (5.55±2.35 vs. 9.0±6.5 was shorter in the early feeding group. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that early oral feeding after elective colorectal surgery was not only well tolerated by patients but also affected the postoperative outcomes positively. Early postoperative feeding is safe and leads to the early recovery of gastrointestinal functions.

  19. Pokemon proto-oncogene in oral cancer: potential role in the early phase of tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, D; Lo Muzio, L; Morganti, S; Pozzi, V; Di Ruscio, G; Rocchetti, R; Rubini, C; Santarelli, A; Emanuelli, M

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents about 90% of all oral neoplasms with a poor clinical prognosis. To improve survival of OSCC patients, it is fundamental to understand the basic molecular mechanisms characterizing oral carcinogenesis. Dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes seems to play a central role in tumorigenesis, including malignant transformation of the oral cavity. We analyzed the expression levels of the pro-oncogenic transcription factor Pokemon through real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in tumor, and normal oral tissue samples obtained from 22 patients with OSCC. The relationship between tumor characteristics and the level of Pokemon intratumor expression was also analyzed. Pokemon was significantly downregulated in OSCC. In particular, both mRNA and protein levels (tumor vs normal tissue) inversely correlated with histological grading, suggesting its potential role as a prognostic factor for OSCC. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation was found between Pokemon protein expression levels (OSCC vs normal oral mucosa) and tumor size, supporting the hypothesis that Pokemon could play an important role in the early phase of tumor expansion. This work shows that reduced expression of Pokemon is a peculiar feature of OSCC. Additional studies may establish the effective role of Pokemon in oral tumorigenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Characteristics of children under 6 years of age treated for early childhood caries in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nadia; Barnes, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective survey highlighted the characteristics of children less than six years of age presenting with early childhood caries (ECC) who had two or more teeth extracted under intravenous sedation at the Tygerberg Oral Health Centre in Cape Town, South Africa. This survey was carried out in order to plan a community-appropriate intervention strategy. Records of 140 patients kept by the pediatric Dentistry Division met the inclusion criteria and were included in this survey. Most of the patients originate from economically disadvantaged areas. Diet, feeding and oral hygiene habits were shown to be the most significant factors that contributed to the development of ECC in these patients. All the children were either breast- or bottle-fed past one year of age. 93.6% of the children went to sleep with the bottle or while on the breast and 90% of them were fed on demand during the night. On average, breastfeeding was stopped at 9 months of age compared to bottle-feeding that, on average, was stopped at a much later mean age of 23 months. Where oral hygiene practices were concerned, 52.6% of children brushed their own teeth without supervision. Frequency of brushing varied between subjects. The results of this study have demonstrated that there is a need for culturally appropriate education campaigns to inform parents (especially those in disadvantaged communities) about the importance of oral health and the prevention of oral disease.

  1. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient.

  2. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent

  3. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, Peter; Raheb, Joseph; Miller, Margaret

    2013-03-20

    Severe untreated dental decay affects a child's growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children's eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6-12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child-parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; "lift the lip". The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG.Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent proportions and means. Multivariate

  4. Between Authorship and Oral Transmission: Negotiating the Attribution of Authorial, Oral and Collective Style Markers in Early Modern Playtexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Buhl Petersen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of playtexts in early modern England falls between two categories of artistic provenance: textual production in quill and print and oral transmission of the text committed to paper. Both categories are rightly speaking processes, and may be repeated several times over within the lifespan of a play. The former is the domain of authors, scribes and printers, the latter the responsibility of actors using their memories to verbally transmit the play in performance. An early modern playtext may thus be (cowritten, probably performed and potentially printed, and possibly rewritten, reperformed and reprinted in almost any given combination. It is only to be expected that a number of stylistic ‘complications’ will ensue. The question remains how to determine which stylistic markers characterise which creative domain. This paper returns to the cross-roads between authorship attribution and the quantification of other (oral, collective style markers in an attempt to offer discussion and a better overview of appropriate methodologies for determining which features may feasibly be attributed to which source(s.

  5. Student Acceptance and Application of Peer Assessment in a Final Year Genetics Undergraduate Oral Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, Heather; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students benefit from observation of each other's oral presentations through both exposure to content and observation of presentation style. In order to increase the engagement and reflection of final year students in an oral presentation task, a peer assessment component was introduced using a rubric that emphasised scientific…

  6. Comparing medical and dental providers of oral health services on early dental caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary; Preisser, John S; Stearns, Sally C; Weinberger, Morris; Lee, Jessica Y

    2014-07-01

    Most state Medicaid programs reimburse nondental primary care providers (PCPs) for providing preventive oral health services to young children. We examined the association between who (PCP, dentist, or both) provides these services to Medicaid enrollees before age 3 years and oral health at age 5 years. We linked North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999-2006) to oral health surveillance data (2005-2006). Regression models estimated oral health status (number of decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and untreated disease (proportion of untreated decayed teeth), with adjustment for relevant characteristics and by using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to address confounding. We analyzed data for 5235 children with 2 or more oral health visits from a PCP, dentist, or both. Children with multiple PCP or dentist visits had a similar number of overall mean decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth in kindergarten, whereas children with only PCP visits had a higher proportion of untreated decayed teeth. The setting and provider type did not influence the effectiveness of preventive oral health services on children's overall oral health. However, children having only PCP visits may encounter barriers to obtaining dental treatment.

  7. Submandibular Gland Involvement in Early Stage Oral Cavity Carcinomas: Can the Gland be left behind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, A.; Khan, M.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of submandibular gland involvement in early oral cavity tumors. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Data of 110 oral cavity tumors operated over 2008 - 2011 was retrieved from ENT OPD, tumor registry in AFIP and from Head and Neck Oncology Forum Registry. Cases of oral cavity tumors that had undergone elective neck dissections were retrospectively studied for invasion of the submandibular gland, TNM Staging, perineural, perivascular, lymphovascular invasion, site specific frequency of oral cavity tumors and frequency of lymph node metastasis. Results: Tumors of tongue were the most common constituting 42%, squamous cell carcinoma was the histological diagnosis in 90% cases. Sixty eight (61.8%) cases were node negative. Selective neck dissection was done in 55.5% of the cases. Submandibular gland was involved in 2 cases (1.8%). Conclusion: Submandibular gland metastasis from early oral cavity tumors is rare; any neoplastic involvement of the gland usually occurs via direct spread. (author)

  8. Diversity Considerations for Promoting Early Childhood Oral Health: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Prowse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Several groups in Manitoba, Canada, experience early childhood caries (ECC, including Aboriginal, immigrant, and refugee children and those from select rural regions. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the views of parents and caregivers from four cultural groups on early childhood oral health and ECC. Methods. A qualitative descriptive study design using focus groups recruited parents and caregivers from four cultural groups. Discussions were documented, audio-recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed for content based on themes. Results. Parents and caregivers identified several potential barriers to good oral health practice, including child’s temperament, finances, and inability to control sugar intake. Both religion and genetics were found to influence perceptions of oral health. Misconceptions regarding breastfeeding and bottle use were present. One-on-one discussions, parental networks, and using laypeople from similar backgrounds were suggested methods to promote oral health. The immigrant and refugee participants placed emphasis on the use of visuals for those with language barriers while Hutterite participants suggested a health-education approach. Conclusions. These pilot study findings provide initial insight into the oral health-related knowledge and beliefs of these groups. This will help to inform planning of ECC prevention and research strategies, which can be tailored to specific populations.

  9. Does oral health matter in people's daily life? Oral health-related quality of life in adults 35-47 years of age in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, K E; Wang, N J; Ohrn, K

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral health on aspects of daily life measured by the Dental Impact Profile (DIP) in 35- to 47-year-old individuals in Norway, and to study associations between reported effects and demographic variables, subjectively assessed oral health, general health, oral health behaviour and clinical oral health. A stratified randomized sample of 249 individuals received a questionnaire regarding demographic questions, dental visits, oral hygiene behaviour, self-rated oral health and general health and satisfaction with oral health. The DIP measured the effects of oral health on daily life. Teeth present and caries experience were registered by clinical examination. Bi- and multivariate analyses and factor analysis were used. Items most frequently reported to be positively or negatively influenced by oral health were chewing and biting, eating, smiling and laughing, feeling comfortable and appearance. Only 1% reported no effects of oral health. Individuals with fewer than two decayed teeth, individuals who rated their oral health as good or practised good oral health habits reported more positive effects than others on oral quality of life (P ≤ 0.05). When the variables were included in multivariate analysis, none was statistically significant. The subscales of the DIP were somewhat different from the originally suggested subscales. This study showed that most adults reported oral health to be important for masticatory functions and confirmed that oral health also had impacts on other aspects of life. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori from the oral cavity of Mexican asymptomatic children under 5 years of age through PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Muñoz, Leonardo Josué; González-Díaz, César Antonio; Muñoz-Escobar, Aide; Tovar-Ayona, Brisna Joana; Aguilar-Anguiano, Luz María; Vargas-Olmos, Rebeca; Sánchez-Monroy, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    H. pylori infection is acquired early in life, but symptoms occur mainly in adults. The mode of transmission remains unclear, but several studies have demonstrated that the microorganism may be transmitted orally. H. pylori has been detected in the oral cavity of children, and some authors have studied infection prevalence due to the importance of the bacteria in gastric and extragastric pathology. In México, little is known about H. pylori prevalence in the oral cavity of asymptomatic children, so the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of H. pylori in asymptomatic children and evaluate factors associated with the infection. We studied 162 asymptomatic children of 3.025±1.474 years of age from a kindergarten in México City. Oral swabs, rotating around to cheeks inside of oral cavity were obtained to determine H. pylori, using the polymerase chain reaction for 16S rRNA and glmM genes. We detected a 13% prevalence of H. pylori infection by PCR, and the results were confirmed by sequencing and showed a >97% identity with H. pylori. We observed increased infection with age. No association between H. pylori infection and variables such as sex, family history of gastric diseases, crowding or pets in the home were found. H. pylori infection in the oral cavity is frequent among asymptomatic children in México, which represents a risk of infection for other family members and for other children in educational facilities. Early diagnosis is essential for control of the infection and for the development of preventive strategies in childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Over-expression of 14-3-3zeta is an early event in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, Ajay; Bahadur, Sudhir; Duggal, Ritu; Gupta, Siddhartha D; Ralhan, Ranju

    2007-01-01

    The functional and clinical significance of 14-3-3 proteins in human cancers remain largely undetermined. Earlier, we have reported differential expression of 14-3-3ζ mRNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by differential display. The clinical relevance of 14-3-3ζ protein in oral tumorigenesis was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin embedded sections of oral pre-malignant lesions (OPLs), OSCCs and histologically normal oral tissues and corroborated by Western Blotting. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were carried out to determine its association with NFκB, β-catenin and Bcl-2. Intense immunostaining of 14-3-3ζ protein was observed in 61/89 (69%) OPLs and 95/120 (79%) OSCCs. Immunohistochemistry showed significant increase in expression of 14-3-3ζ protein from normal mucosa to OPLs to OSCCs (p trend < 0.001). Significant increase in expression of 14-3-3ζ protein was observed as early as in hyperplasia (p = 0.009), with further elevation in moderate and severe dysplasia, that was sustained in OSCCs. These findings were validated by Western blotting. Using Co-immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated that 14-3-3ζ protein binds to NFκB, β-catenin and Bcl-2, suggesting its involvement in cellular signaling, leading to proliferation of oral cancer cells. Our findings suggest that over-expression of 14-3-3ζ is an early event in oral tumorigenesis and may have an important role in its development and progression. Thus, 14-3-3ζ may serve as an important molecular target for designing novel therapy for oral cancer

  12. Comparison of multi-modal early oral nutrition for the tolerance of oral nutrition with conventional care after major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Lin, Yue-Ying; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan

    2017-02-10

    Early oral nutrition (EON) has been shown to improve recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay and mortality after abdominal surgery; however, early oral nutrition often fails during the first week after surgery. Here, a multi-modal early oral nutrition program is introduced to promote recovery of gastrointestinal function and tolerance of oral nutrition. Consecutive patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomized to the multimodal EON group or a group receiving conventional care. The primary endpoint was the time of first defecation. The secondary endpoints were outcomes and the cost-effectiveness ratio in treating infectious complications. The rate of infectious-free patients was regarded as the index of effectiveness. One hundred seven patients were randomly assigned to groups. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the success rate of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery in the multimodal EON group was 44 (83.0%) versus 31 (57.4%) in the conventional care group (P = 0.004). Time to first defecation, time to flatus, recovery time of bowel sounds, and prolonged postoperative ileus were all less in the multimodal EON group (P oral nutrition group (P oral nutrition program was an effective way to improve tolerance of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery, decrease the length of stay and improve cost-effectiveness after abdominal surgery. Registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-14004395 . Registered 15 March 2014.

  13. Early oral-motor management on feeding performance in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Abnormal brain sonography [odds ratio (OR: 2.222, p = 0.047 and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC (OR: 2.857, p = 0.017 did affect the first trial in the study group. Early intervention of oral-motor management in very-low-birth-weight premature infants improved feeding performance and neonatal outcome in terms of shorter hospital days. Abnormal brain image and NEC could interfere with the success rate of initial challenge of transitioning from tube to oral feeding in the study group.

  14. Dyslexia in the Early Years: A Handbook for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that early identification and intervention is crucial and can in fact minimise, and may even prevent, the challenges of dyslexia from becoming too detrimental at later stages of education. This book offers both research insights and practical guidance for teachers working in Early Years settings on how to create resource…

  15. Evaluation of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale in an Australian preschool child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, P; Klobas, E

    2015-09-01

    Early childhood caries has significant impacts on children and their families. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is an instrument for capturing the complex dimensions of preschool children's oral health. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument among Australian preschool children. Parents/children dyads (n = 286) participating in a treatment trial on early childhood caries completed the scale at baseline, and 33 parents repeated the questionnaire 2-3 weeks later. The validity and reliability of the ECOHIS was determined using tests for convergent and discriminant validity, internal reliability of the instrument and test-retest reliability. Scale impacts were strongly correlated with global oral health ratings (Spearman's correlations; r = 0.51, total score; r = 0.43, child impact; and r = 0.49, family impact; p child and the family domains, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 0.92, 0.89 and 0.78 for the total, child and family domains, respectively. The scale demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability for assessing the impact of early childhood caries among Australian preschool children. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Results of a survey of the treatment policy for early stage tongue and oral floor cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Kohji; Kataura, Akikatsu; Hareyama, Masato

    1998-01-01

    To realize the treatment policy for early stage oral cancer, a survey of 102 institutes in Japan was performed by questionnaire. A majority of the otolaryngologists preferred surgery for the treatment of T1N0 and T2N0 cases of oral cancer. The preferred method of treatment for the T1N0 cases was simple tumor resection and that for the T2N0 cases was extended tumor resection with plastic surgery, elective neck dissection and combined radio-and/or chemotherapy. A majority of the radiologists preferred brachytherapy for T1N0 and non-invasive T2N0 cases. For invasive cases of T2N0 oral cancer, radiologists preferred either surgical treatment or the combination of brachytherapy and external irradiation. (author)

  17. Early initiation of new oral anticoagulants in acute stroke and TIA patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibazaki, Kensaku; Kimura, Kazumi; Aoki, Junya; Saji, Naoki; Sakai, Kenichiro

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether early initiation of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) for acute stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) are safe. Between March 2011 and September 2012, stroke or TIA patients with NVAF who started NOAC within 2 weeks were enrolled retrospectively. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), hemorrhagic transformation (HT) on T2*-weighted MRI, recurrence of stroke or TIA, systemic embolism and any bleeding complications after initiation of NOAC were evaluated. 41 patients (25 males; mean age 76.2 years) started NOAC; of which, 39 (95%) patients had stroke, and 2 (5%) had TIA. The median (interquartile range) interval from onset to treatment with NOAC was 2 (1-6) days. Symptomatic ICH was not observed. HT on initial T2* and new HT on follow-up T2* were 5 (12%) and 11 (31%), but it was asymptomatic. Of 5 patients who had HT on the initial T2*, enlargement of hemorrhage on follow-up T2* (hemorrhagic infarction (HI) Type 1→HI Type 2) was observed in 1 patient, but it was asymptomatic. None of the patients had recurrent stroke or TIA, systemic embolism, and any bleeding complications. The NOAC may be safe in acute stroke or TIA patients with NVAF. A large, prospective study is needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment outcome with low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy in early-stage oral tongue cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalavat Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Although radical radiotherapy is known to be equally effective for early-stage oral tongue cancers (T1-2 N0 with the added advantage of organ and function preservation, surgery remains the preferred treatment. We present outcome of patients treated with brachytherapy (BT either radical or boost. Materials and Methods : Fifty-seven patients (T1/T2 31/26 were studied. Seventeen patients (30% were treated with radical BT (50-67 Gy while 40 (70% with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT + BT (36-56 Gy + 15-38 Gy]. Low-dose-rate (LDR BT was delivered with 192 Ir wires, using plastic bead technique with varied dose rates (< 60 cGy/h in 29 patients, 60-90 cGy/h in 17, and> 90 cGy/h in 11. Results : The overall local control (LCR was achieved in 59.7% (34/57 patients. LCR for T1 and T2 was 67.8% and 50%, respectively. A total of 23 patients had failures [local: 20 (T1: 8; T2: 12 patients, node: 5 (T1:2; T2: 3, and local + nodal: 3]. Overall 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival (OAS were 51% and 67%, respectively and those for T1 and T2 was 64.5/77.4% and 38.5/54% respectively (P = 0.002. All 16 patients were salvaged. Median survival after salvage treatment was 13.5 months (6-100 months. Soft tissue necrosis was observed in 12.3% (7/57 and osteoradionecrosis in two patients. Conclusion : BT, as an integral part of radical radiation therapy in early-stage tongue cancers, appears to be an effective alternative treatment modality with preservation of the organ and function without jeopardizing the outcome.

  19. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene. © 2012 APJPH.

  20. Feasibility of a Clinical Pathway with Early Oral Intake and Discharge for Laparoscopic Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M; Tomii, C; Inokuchi, M; Otsuki, S; Kojima, K

    2017-12-01

    Although some studies have reported the safety of early oral intake after gastrectomy, it still remains controversial. This study focused on the feasibility of a clinical pathway with early oral intake and discharge setting for exclusively laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. A clinical pathway was applied to 403 patients until December 2014. In the protocol, patients are allowed to take a sip of water and a soft diet on the first and second days after the operation, respectively, and the discharge day is set as the fifth to seventh day after the operation. Clinicopathological variables were prospectively collected, and risk factors for discharge variances were analyzed. The completion rate of the clinical pathway was 76.9%. There were five re-admissions (1.2%). The overall morbidity rate was 18% ( n = 72), and major complications (Clavien-Dindo IIIa or greater) occurred in 13 patients (3%). Complications were the causes for discharge variances in 68 cases (73%), while the attending surgeons' judgment was the cause in 25 cases (27%). On multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio = 2.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.38-3.60, p = 0.001) and operative time (odds ratio = 2.38, 95% confidence interval = 1.45-3.98, p = 0.001) were independent risk factors for discharge variances. A high completion rate of a clinical pathway with early oral intake and discharge setting for laparoscopic distal gastrectomy was achievable with an acceptably low re-admission rate. Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy is recommended as a first step for a clinical pathway with an early oral intake and discharge protocol.

  1. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    OpenAIRE

    Arrow, Peter; Raheb, Joseph; Miller, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child?s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of prot...

  2. What Good’s a Text? Textuality, Orality, and Mathematical Astronomy in Early Imperial China

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Daniel Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Article submitted to Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences; International audience; This paper examines a 226 ce debate on li 曆 mathematical astronomy at the Cao-Wei (226–265) court as a case study in the role of orality and person-to-person exchange in the transmission of astronomical knowledge in early imperial China. The li- and mathematics-related manuscripts to have come down to us from the early imperial period often suffer from textual corruption, the form that this corrupti...

  3. Early Years Swimming: A Way of Supporting School Transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…

  4. Practitioner Perspectives: Children's Use of Technology in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Susie

    2014-01-01

    This research, a collaboration between Pearson and the National Literacy Trust, was designed to explore the use of technology by children in the early years. In 2013 Pearson and the National Literacy Trust invited practitioners who work with three to five-year-olds to take part in an online survey to explore how they support children's language…

  5. Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Iranian children and adolescents: a 12-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, S; Taheri, J B; Toossi, P; Azimi, S; Kawosi Nezhad, Sh

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of oral lichen planus in patients younger than 18 years, referred to a dermatology centre in Iran during 2002-2014. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory, immune-mediated disease that could affect the oral mucosa and is a pre-cancerous condition. The disease usually develops in middle age with female predominance and is rare in children. In this retrospective study, cases with definitive histopathologic diagnosis of lichen planus, over a 12-year period from 2002 to 2014 from a dermatologic hospital archive were evaluated. The prevalence of both cutaneous and oral lichen planus, the male:female ratio and site of involvement were calculated using SPSS version 21. Thirty-six of 564 patients younger than 18 years old diagnosed with lichen planus. Two females (0.4%) had oral lichen planus. One patient had erosive, and one had bullous, oral lichen planus. Oral lichen planus had a very low frequency in Iranian population younger than 18 years old, identifying these patients is recommended for long-term follow-up.

  6. Building multilingual learning environments in early years education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dodman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the early language development of children with particular reference to the importance of personal multilingualism and the reasons why this should be promoted in early years education. It is argued that such an objective is best achieved by building multilingual learning environments at the level of nursery and infant schools. The characteristics of such environments are described and ways of evaluating projects designed to build them are presented.

  7. Phase III trial of high and low dose rate interstitial radiotherapy for early oral tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Teshima, Teruki; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Fuchihata, Hajime; Furukawa, Souhei

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Oral tongue carcinomas are highly curable with radiotherapy. In the past, patients with tongue carcinoma have usually been treated with low dose rate (LDR) interstitial radiation. This Phase III study was designed to compare the treatment results obtained with LDR with those obtained with high dose rate (HDR) interstitial radiotherapy for tongue carcinoma. Methods and Materials: The criteria for patient selection for the Phase III study were: (a) presence of a T1T2N0 tumor that could be treated with single-plane implantation, (b) localization of tumor at the lateral tongue border, (c) tumor thickness of 10 mm or less, (d) performance status between O and 3, and (e) absence of any severe concurrent disease. From April 1992 through December 1993, 15 patients in the LDR group (70 Gy/4 to 9 days) and 14 patients in the HDR group (60 Gy/10 fractions/6 days) were accrued. The time interval between two fractions of the HDR brachytherapy was more than 6 h. Results: Local recurrence occurred in two patients treated with LDR brachytherapy but in none of the patients treated with HDR. One- and 2-year local control rates for patients in the LDR group were both 86%, compared with 100% in the HDR group (p = 0.157). There were four patients with nodal metastasis in the LDR group and three in the HDR group. Local recurrence occurred in two of the four patients with nodal metastases in the LDR group. One- and 2-year nodal control rates for patients in the LDR group are were 85%, compared with 79% in the HDR group. Conclusion: HDR fractionated interstitial brachytherapy can be an alternative to traditional LDR brachytherapy for early tongue cancer and eliminate the radiation exposure for medical staffs

  8. Meeting the oral health needs of 12-year-olds in China: human resources for oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An appropriate level of human resources for oral health [HROH] is required to meet the oral health needs of population, and enable maximum improvement in health outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the required HROH to meet the oral health needs of the World Health Organization [WHO] reference group of 12-year-olds in China and consider the implications for education, practice, policy and HROH nationally. Methods We estimated the need of HROH to meet the needs of 12-year-olds based on secondary analysis of the epidemiological and questionnaire data from the 3rd Chinese National Oral Health Survey, including caries experience and periodontal factors (calculus, dentally-related behaviour (frequency of toothbrushing and sugar intake, and social factors (parental education. Children’s risk for dental caries was classified in four levels from low (level 1 to high (level 4. We built maximum and minimum intervention models of dental care for each risk level, informed by contemporary evidence-based practice. The needs-led HROH model we used in the present study incorporated need for treatment and risk-based prevention using timings verified by experts in China. These findings were used to estimate HROH for the survey sample, extrapolated to 12-year-olds nationally and the total population, taking account of urban and rural coverage, based on different levels of clinical commitment (60-90%. Results We found that between 40,139 and 51,906 dental professionals were required to deliver care for 12-year-olds nationally based on 80% clinical commitment. We demonstrated that the majority of need for HROH was in the rural population (72.5%. Over 93% of HROH time was dedicated to prevention within the model. Extrapolating the results to the total population, the estimate for HROH nationally was 3.16–4.09 million to achieve national coverage; however, current HROH are only able to serve an estimated 5% of the population with

  9. Meeting the oral health needs of 12-year-olds in China: human resources for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Zheng, Shuguo; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2017-06-20

    An appropriate level of human resources for oral health [HROH] is required to meet the oral health needs of population, and enable maximum improvement in health outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the required HROH to meet the oral health needs of the World Health Organization [WHO] reference group of 12-year-olds in China and consider the implications for education, practice, policy and HROH nationally. We estimated the need of HROH to meet the needs of 12-year-olds based on secondary analysis of the epidemiological and questionnaire data from the 3rd Chinese National Oral Health Survey, including caries experience and periodontal factors (calculus), dentally-related behaviour (frequency of toothbrushing and sugar intake), and social factors (parental education). Children's risk for dental caries was classified in four levels from low (level 1) to high (level 4). We built maximum and minimum intervention models of dental care for each risk level, informed by contemporary evidence-based practice. The needs-led HROH model we used in the present study incorporated need for treatment and risk-based prevention using timings verified by experts in China. These findings were used to estimate HROH for the survey sample, extrapolated to 12-year-olds nationally and the total population, taking account of urban and rural coverage, based on different levels of clinical commitment (60-90%). We found that between 40,139 and 51,906 dental professionals were required to deliver care for 12-year-olds nationally based on 80% clinical commitment. We demonstrated that the majority of need for HROH was in the rural population (72.5%). Over 93% of HROH time was dedicated to prevention within the model. Extrapolating the results to the total population, the estimate for HROH nationally was 3.16-4.09 million to achieve national coverage; however, current HROH are only able to serve an estimated 5% of the population with minimum intervention based on a HROH spending 90% of

  10. Changing oral health status of 6- and 12-year-old schoolchildren in Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, C.M.; Petersen, P.E.; André, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the actual oral health status of Portuguese schoolchildren aged 6 and 12 years according to gender and urbanisation, to highlight the trend over time in dental caries prevalence of children, to assess the dental care habits and the provision of preventive services to children......, and to analyse the effect of dental care habits on caries experience. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Clinical examinations of oral health status were carried out in 1999 according to WHO criteria and included dental caries, enamel lesions, oral hygiene status (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Structured...... questionnaires for interviewing children on dental care habits and participation in preventive programmes at school were used. The study comprised 799 6 year olds and 800 12 year olds. RESULTS: In 1999, the prevalence proportion rates of dental caries were 46.9% in 6 year olds and 52.9% in 12 year olds. Dental...

  11. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Oral Communicative Competence and Peer Rejection: An Explorative Study in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van der Veen, Chiel; van Oers, Bert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between oral communicative competence and peer rejection in early childhood education. It was hypothesized that children with poorer oral communicative competence would be rejected by their peers more frequently and that the strength of this relationship would differ for boys and…

  12. Facial growth and oral function in a case of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis during an 8-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiborg, S; Bakke, M; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    The present report is a detailed analysis of facial growth and oral function in a girl with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis of the temporomandibular joints. She was followed from 9 to 17 years of age prior to and after orthognathic surgery. Facial growth was assessed by facial photographs, dental...... on these observations it is suggested that the conventional treatment strategy with postponement of orthodontic or orthognathic surgical treatment until cessation of growth is abandoned and that early treatment should be undertaken to maintain occlusal stability throughout the growth period....

  13. Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee R

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

  14. Effectiveness of a Danish early year preschool program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Holm, Anders; Bremberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of studies indicate that early year preschool programs lead to positive long-term effects. Systematic quality improvement of early year preschool may enhance these outcomes. The ASP Program was built on this principle. In this program preschool staff are supported...... in their efforts to critically reflect on current practices and to change these. A randomized controlled study was carried out in Denmark from September 2006 to May 2008. The study encompassed 2323 children in 59 preschools in two municipalities. Children were assessed using the Strength and Difficulties...

  15. Aberrant proteins featured in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers: an indication of early oral premalignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie, Kala; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged chewing of betel quid is known to cause oral diseases, including cancer. The present study was performed to screen for aberrant proteins in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers compared to nonchewers. Saliva of female subjects (n = 10) who had been chewing betel quid for more than 20 years and nonbetel quid chewers (n = 10) of the same gender and range of age was analyzed by gel-based proteomics. Increased structural microheterogeneity of saliva haptoglobin beta chains indicated by shifts of focused spots similar to that earlier reported in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and their relatively higher abundance compared to nonbetel quid chewers, were detected in saliva protein profiles of all chewers. In addition, the majority of the betel quid chewers also showed significant higher abundance of hemopexin, alpha-1B glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, complement C3, and transthyretin. These proteins had previously been associated with several different cancers. Our data demonstrated different forms of protein aberration in the saliva of betel quid chewers, which may be indicative of early oral precancerous conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joos Ulrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. Methods 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p Conclusion HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy.

  17. Oral health status and treatment needs of asthmatic children aged 6 – 12 Years in Lucknow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthma is a growing public health problem affecting over 300 million people worldwide. Asthmatic children have an altered immune response and a high tendency to mouth breathing especially during an episode of rhinitis or an attack thus predisposing them to serious oral health problems. Aim: This study aims to assess oral health status of asthmatic children aged 6–12. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 450 asthmatic children aged 6–12 years in Lucknow, asthmatic children were chosen from pediatric department of major hospitals. Gingival index (GI, oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S, and dentition status and treatment need of World Health Organization oral health survey pro forma (1997 were used to assess oral health status. ANOVA, Chi-square test, and descriptive statistics were carried out. SPSS 16 was used for the data analysis. Results: Mean dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT was 2.98 ± 1.52 and 3.05 ± 1.60, mean GI score was 1.55 ± 0.52 and 1.53 ± 0.42 and mean OHI-S was 2.59 ± 0.68 and 2.48 ± 0.77 among the male and female asthmatic children. Conclusion: Female asthmatic children had higher mean DMFT score, but lower mean GI score and oral hygiene score than male children in comparison and also they had a compromised oral hygiene status.

  18. Ambulatory oral surgery: 1-year experience with 11 680 patients from Zagreb district, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokić, Dražen; Macan, Darko; Perić, Berislav; Tadić, Marinka; Biočić, Josip; Đanić, Petar; Brajdić, Davor

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine the types and frequencies of oral surgery diagnoses and ambulatory oral surgical treatments during one year period at the Department of Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical data on 11 680 ambulatory patients, treated between January 1 and of December 31, 2011 were retrieved from the hospital database using a specific protocol. The obtained data were subsequently analyzed in order to assess the frequency of diagnoses and differences in sex and age. Results The most common ambulatory procedure was tooth extraction (37.67%) and the most common procedure in ambulatory operating room was alveolectomy (57.25%). The test of proportions showed that significantly more extractions (P Zagreb than in patients residing in rural areas. Conclusion The data from this study may be useful for planning of ambulatory oral surgery services, budgeting, and sustaining quality improvement, enhancing oral surgical curricula, training and education of primary health care doctors and oral surgery specialists, and promoting patients’ awareness of the importance of oral health. PMID:23444246

  19. Ambulatory oral surgery: 1-year experience with 11680 patients from Zagreb district, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokić, Dražen; Macan, Darko; Perić, Berislav; Tadić, Marinka; Biočić, Josip; Đanić, Petar; Brajdić, Davor

    2013-02-01

    To examine the types and frequencies of oral surgery diagnoses and ambulatory oral surgical treatments during one year period at the Department of Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia. Sociodemographic and clinical data on 11680 ambulatory patients, treated between January 1 and of December 31, 2011 were retrieved from the hospital database using a specific protocol. The obtained data were subsequently analyzed in order to assess the frequency of diagnoses and differences in sex and age. The most common ambulatory procedure was tooth extraction (37.67%) and the most common procedure in ambulatory operating room was alveolectomy (57.25%). The test of proportions showed that significantly more extractions (PZagreb than in patients residing in rural areas. The data from this study may be useful for planning of ambulatory oral surgery services, budgeting, and sustaining quality improvement, enhancing oral surgical curricula, training and education of primary health care doctors and oral surgery specialists, and promoting patients' awareness of the importance of oral health.

  20. Second and third year oral health and dental student perceptions of future professional work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A S; Anderson, V R; Foster Page, L A

    2013-11-01

    To explore and compare the ways dental and oral health students characterise their future professional work (FPW) at the end of their second and third professional years. Questionnaires were given to a cohort group of 48 dental students and 31 oral health students at the end of their second and third professional years at the University of Otago. Students' characterisations of their FPW were identified using an inductive approach, and the emphasis on each characterisation was confirmed using a 'weighted' table. Dental student response rates were 92% (in 2010) and 85% (in 2011); and oral health student response rates were 100% (in 2011) and 97% (in 2011). Students characterised their FPW in ten broad ways: in reference to treatment-related concerns, patient-related concerns, oral health promotion, oral health education, disease prevention and monitoring, communication, teamwork, maintaining an ideal clinical environment, maintaining a sense of self and improving quality of life. In both years, dental students emphasised treatment-related concerns as central to their FPW and dealing with patient-related concerns as a primary source of difficulty. Oral health students emphasised oral health promotion, oral health education, disease prevention and monitoring and restorative tasks as central to their FPW and dealing with patient-related concerns as a primary source of difficulty. Students' broad perceptions of their FPW changed little as they progressed through their programmes; however, their responses suggested the need for greater attention within their programmes to patient management and teamwork. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zohre Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.

  2. Early Oral Feeding After Surgery for Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shoar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor nutritional status following abdominal surgeries for esophageal and gastric cancers remains a major challenge in postoperative care. Our study aimed to investigate the efficacy of starting early oral feeding (EOF in patients undergoing surgical resection of upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods: A total of 180 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of esophageal or gastric malignancies undergoing elective surgical resection between January 2008 and February 2011 were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Seventy-two patients were assigned to the EOF group, and 108 patients received late oral feeding (LOF. Postoperative endpoints were compared between the two groups. Results: Nasogastric tubes were removed from patients on average 3.3±1.6 days after the surgery in the EOF group and 5.2±2.5 days in the LOF group (p 0.050. Conclusions: EOF is safe following esophageal and gastric cancer surgery and results in faster recovery and hospital discharge.

  3. Child oral health-related quality of life and early childhood caries: a non-inferiority randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, P; Klobas, E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare changes in child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL) after treatment for early childhood caries (ECC) using two alternative treatment approaches. A randomized control trial with random allocation of parent/child dyads with ECC to test (minimum intervention) or control (standard care). Participating parents completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) at baseline and follow-up. Changes in ECOHIS scores and extent of COHRQoL impacts between and within groups were tested using the chi-squared statistic for groups, Wilcoxon's rank-sum test, and matched-pairs signed-rank test. Two hundred and fifty-four children were randomized (test = 127; control = 127). At baseline, mean ECOHIS score 11.1, sd 8.2; mean age = 3.8 years, sd 0.90; mean dmft = 4.9, sd 4.0; and 59% male. After a mean interval of 11.4 months, 210 children were followed-up and returned a completed questionnaire (test = 111; control = 99). There was no significant difference in COHRQoL changes between test and control. For all the children combined, there were significantly fewer impacts at follow-up in the child and family domains and the total ECOHIS, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p test and control in the extent of the improvement. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  5. Network contact changes in early and later postseparation years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhell, E.L.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; van Tilburg, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    This study explains changes in contact frequency in relationships of the preseparation personal network in the early and later years after partners separate. The explanation includes general and separation-related characteristics of the network relationship and the individual. Personal interviews

  6. Strengthening Parents and Families during the Early Childhood Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    This book provides early childhood educators with perspectives and tools that will enable them to strengthen parents and families during the child's earliest year of development. The 25 chapters are divided into 6 parts or themes. Part one focuses on understanding families as learners from an ecological and empathetic perspective, with the premise…

  7. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  8. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  9. A multi-wavelength (u.v. to visible) laser system for early detection of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Leszczyński, M.; Slight, T. J.; Meredith, W.; Schemmann, M.; Moseley, H.; Woods, J. A.; Valentine, R.; Kalra, S.; Mossey, P.; Theaker, E.; Macluskey, M.; Mimnagh, G.; Mimnagh, W.

    2015-03-01

    A multi-wavelength (360nm - 440nm), real-time Photonic Cancer Detector (PCD) optical system based on GaN semiconductor laser technology is outlined. A proof of concept using blue laser technology for early detection of cancer has already been tested and proven for esophageal cancer. This concept is expanded to consider a wider range of wavelengths and the PCD will initially be used for early diagnosis of oral cancers. The PCD creates an image of the oral cavity (broad field white light detection) and maps within the oral cavity any suspicious lesions with high sensitivity using a narrow field tunable detector.

  10. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillies, Thomas; Werkmeister, Richard; Diest, Paul J van; Brandt, Burkhard; Joos, Ulrich; Buerger, Horst

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p < 0.01) and a significantly increased disease free period (p = 0.01) independent from nodal status and tumour size. In primary node negative T1/T2 SCC of the oral floor, absence of HIF-1α expression specified a subgroup of high-risk patients (p < 0.05). HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy

  11. High-throughput screening of saliva for early detection of oral cancer: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, I; Mark, L; Bona, A; Maasz, G; Sandor, B; Gelencser, G; Turi, Z; Gallyas, F

    2012-04-01

    The success of tumour therapy depends considerably on early diagnosis. Therefore, we aimed to develop a widely available, cheap, non-invasive, high-throughput method suitable for screening high-risk populations, at least, for early signs of malignant transformation in the oral cavity. First, in order to identify suitable tumour marker candidates, we compared the protein patterns of five selected saliva samples obtained from healthy controls and tumour patients after electrophoretic separation, excised the bands that were consistently up-regulated in the tumour patients only, and performed matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of the proteins in these bands after in-gel tryptic digestion. From the panel of proteins identified, we chose annexin 1 and peroxiredoxin 2 for further studies based on their presence in the saliva of all five oral cancer patients only. Then, we performed a homology search of protein databases using the primary sequence of each in silico tryptic fragment peptide of these two proteins as bait, and selected a unique peptide for each. Finally, we performed targeted MALDI-TOF MS peptide analysis in a blinded fashion on all samples obtained from 20 healthy controls and 22 tumour patients for the presence of these peptides. We found both peptides present in the saliva samples of all cancer patients only. Even though these tumour markers should be validated in a wider population, our results indicate that targeted MALDI-TOF MS analysis of unique peptides of putative saliva protein tumour biomarkers could be the method of choice for cost-efficient, high-throughput screening for the early detection of oral cancer.

  12. Effect of early nutrition support on postoperative rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-An Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of early nutrition support on the postoperative nutrition metabolism and rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer. Methods: A total of 80 patients with oral cancer who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2013 to January, 2015 were included in the study, and divided into the observation group (early nutrition support and control group (routine treatments with 40 cases in each group. The postoperative basic nutrition requirement amount in the observation group was calculated according to HarrisNenedict formula. The appropriate pharmaceutics and nutritional pathway were selected. The patients in the control group were given routine diets after operation. The levels of ALB, PAB, TRF, TCL, IgM, IgG, and IgA before and after operation in the two groups were compared. The body mass and wound healing in the two groups were recorded and compared. Results: The body mass and serum TRF level after operation in the observation group were slightly reduced, but were not significantly different from those before operation (P>0.05. The serum ALB, PAB, and TLC levels after operation in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with before operation (P0.05, but the above indicators were significantly elevated after operation (P<0.05. The peripheral blood IgM, IgG, and IgA levels 1 week after operation in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05. The stage I healing rate of the surgical wound in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: The early nutrition support can effectively enhance the postoperative nutrition status and immunological function in patients with oral cancer, and is beneficial for the postoperative rehabilitation.

  13. Prevalence of oral cancer patients at the Pathology Anatomy Department RSUD Tasikmalaya year 2002-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murnisari Dardjan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignancy was included which happened in the oral cavity. Oral cavity cancer is statistically fever than other parts of a body but can to be dead. The incidence of malignancy was increased in the last 50 years throughout the world. The purpose of this research is to get distribution data about oral malignancy cases frequency at Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah/RSUD Tasikmalaya. Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Tasikmalaya is a Referal Hospital from East Priangan region, West Java Indonesia. This is retrospective descriptive research. Samples were taken from Histopathologic form data patient at RSUD Tasikmalaya from January 2002-December 2007. The result of this study indicated that 15 cases oral malignancy cases from all samples 2943 histopathology specimen in the period. The most malignancy cases of carcinoma were squamous cell carcinoma (98%. Tongue became the most area in this cases which was 46.66%. Oral malignancy were common in men 54%. The group of ages 60-70% became the majority namely 40%. The conclusion of the research indicated that carcinoma cell squamous were became the greatest part of oral malignancy types.

  14. Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota in children with severe early childhood dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries.

  15. Evaluation of Oral and Dental Health among 12 Year-Old Students in Jolfa, East Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safooreh Esmaeilzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Twelve year-old is selected as the global indicator of age group to compare and monitor oral diseases at the international level. The aim of this study was to assess the state of oral health in the 12 year-old students to determine their needs and design oral health prevention programs in Jolfa. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was done on 146 students, with 12 years of age that were selected on a multistage cluster sampling method through the seven health centers which provided health services to schools in 2014 academic year in Jolfa city. Data were collected through interview and dental clinical examination using World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form for Children, 2013 questionnaire that consists of two parts: 1 demographic information and 2 the mouth status, including: dentition status, periodontal status, dental erosion, dental trauma, oral mucosa. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software and applying descriptive statistics (Mean and Frequency, chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results: The mean of DMFT in the studied population was 4.30 ± 2.93 with 4.38 ± 2.26 for the boys and 4.21 ± 3.60 for the girls. According to the results, 92.5% of the students had at least one decayed tooth and 85.6% of those surveyed had at least one of the first permanent molar. Also, a significant association was observed between male gender and  tooth decay (P value Conclusion: The results of this study showed poor oral health status in the students of Jolfa and needs to serious attention to community-based health programs in education and implementation of preventive dentistry.

  16. The Relationship between Oral and Written Narratives: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study of Narrative Cohesion, Coherence, and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between oral language and the writing process at early acquisition stages and the ways the former can enhance or limit the latter has not been researched extensively. Aims: The predictive relationship between kindergarten oral narrative competence and the first- and second-grade written narrative competence was…

  17. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  19. Saudi EFL Preparatory Year Students' Perception about Corrective Feedback in Oral Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaysony, Maha

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the attitudes of Saudi EFL students towards corrective feedback (henceforth CF) on classroom oral errors. The subjects were 3200 (1223 male and 1977 female) students enrolled in an intensive English language programme in the preparatory year at the University of Ha'il. A questionnaire was the main instrument. This…

  20. Oral nutritional support of older (65 years+) medical and surgical patients after discharge from hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Holst, Mette; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of oral nutritional support compared to placebo or usual care in improving clinical outcome in older (65 years+) medical and surgical patients after discharge from hospital. Outcome goals were: re-admissions, survival, nutritional and functional status, quality of life...

  1. Oral ulcer as primary manifestation of HIV infection in an 80-year-old man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Lene Ugilt Pagter; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz

    2014-01-01

    Oral lesions such as candidiasis, Kaposi's sarcoma, hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex infection, and ulcerative periodontitis are associated with HIV infection and may be the primary presentation in persons with undiagnosed HIV. We report a clinical case in which an 80-year-old man presented...

  2. The Prevalence of Oral Habits Among 4 to 15 year Old School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences ... Study Design: This is cross-sectional study of 928 children, 431 males and 497 females aged 4 to 15 years from both rural and urban areas of Lagos State in Nigeria ... Of these, digit sucking was the most frequently occurring, seen in 50% of the children with oral habits.

  3. A novel intravital multi-harmonic generation microscope for early diagnosis of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chih-Feng; Shih, Ting-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed human cancers and leading causes of cancer death all over the world, but the prognosis and overall survival rate are still poor because of delay in diagnosis and lack of early intervention. The failure of early diagnosis is due to insufficiency of proper diagnostic and screening tools and most patients are reluctant to undergo biopsy. Optical virtual biopsy techniques, for imaging cells and tissues at microscopic details capable of differentiating benign from malignant lesions non-invasively, are thus highly desirable. A novel multi-harmonic generation microscope, excited by a 1260 nm Cr:forsterite laser, with second and third harmonic signals demonstrating collagen fiber distribution and cell morphology in a sub-micron resolution, was developed for clinical use. To achieve invivo observation inside the human oral cavity, a small objective probe with a suction capability was carefully designed for patients' comfort and stability. By remotely changing its focus point, the same objective can image the mucosa surface with a low magnification, illuminated by side light-emitting diodes, with a charge-coupled device (CCD) for site location selection before the harmonic generation biopsy was applied. Furthermore, the slow galvanometer mirror and the fast resonant mirror provide a 30 fps frame rate for high-speed real-time observation and the z-motor of this system is triggered at the same rate to provide fast 3D scanning, again ensuring patients' comfort. Focusing on the special cytological and morphological changes of the oral epithelial cells, our preliminary result disclosed excellent consistency with traditional histopathology studies.

  4. The early childhood oral health program: a qualitative study of the perceptions of child and family health nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Maxine; Ajwani, Shilpi; Johnson, Maree; Nash, Linda; Patterson, Tiffany; George, Ajesh

    2016-05-16

    Early childhood caries affects nearly half the population of Australian children aged 5 years and has the potential to negatively impact their growth and development. To address this issue, an Early Childhood Oral Health (ECOH) program, facilitated by Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs), commenced in 2007 in New South Wales, Australia. This study builds on the previous evaluation of the program. It aims to explore the perceptions of CFHNs regarding the implementation of the ECOH program in South Western Sydney and the challenges and barriers related to its sustainability. A descriptive qualitative design was used in this study. Two focus groups were conducted with 22 CFHNs who were sampled from two Community Health Centres in South Western Sydney, Australia. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Most CFHNs acknowledged the importance of early childhood oral health promotion and were providing education, oral assessments and referrals during child health checks. Many stressed the need for collaboration with other health professionals to help broaden the scope of the program. Some barriers to implementing the program included confusion regarding the correct referral process, limited feedback from dental services and the lack of oral health awareness among parents. The study findings suggest that the ECOH program is being sustained and effectively implemented into practice by CFHNs. Improvement in the referral and feedback process as well as enhancing parental knowledge of the importance of infant and child oral health could further strengthen the effectiveness of the program. Expanding oral health education opportunities into general practice is advocated, while regular on-line training for CFHNs is preferred. Future research should include strategies to reduce non-attendances, and an assessment of the impact on the prevalence of childhood caries of the ECOH program.

  5. Early inflammatory changes in radiation-induced oral mucositis. Effect of pentoxifylline in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Sylvia; Bozsaky, Eva; Roitinger, Eva; Schwarz, Karoline [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Applied and Translational Radiobiology, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Schmidt, Margret [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Applied and Translational Radiobiology, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Early inflammation is a major factor of mucosal reactions to radiotherapy. Pentoxifylline administration resulted in a significant amelioration of radiation-induced oral mucositis in the mouse tongue model. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the immunomodulatory properties of the drug. The present study hence focuses on the manifestation of early inflammatory changes in mouse tongue during daily fractionated irradiation and their potential modulation by pentoxifylline. Daily fractionated irradiation with 5 fractions of 3 Gy/week (days 0-4, 7-11) was given to the snouts of mice. Groups of 3 animals per day were euthanized every second day between day 0 and 14. Pentoxifylline (15 mg/kg, s. c.) was administered daily from day 5 to the day before sacrifice. The expression of the inflammatory proteins TNFα, NF-κB, and IL-1β were analysed. Fractionated irradiation increased the expression of all inflammatory markers. Pentoxifylline significantly reduced the expression of TNFα and IL-1β, but not NF-κB. Early inflammation, as indicated by the expression of the inflammatory markers TNFα, NF-κB, and IL-1β, is an essential component of early radiogenic oral mucositis. Pentoxifylline differentially modulated the expression of different inflammatory markers. The mucoprotective effect of pentoxifylline does not appear to be based on modulation of NF-κB-associated inflammation. (orig.) [German] Fruehe entzuendliche Veraenderungen sind ein bedeutender Faktor waehrend der Strahlenreaktion der Schleimhaut. Die Behandlung mit Pentoxifyllin erzielte eine signifikante Minderung strahleninduzierter oraler Mukositis im Mauszungenmodel. Die zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen sind potenziell auf die immunomodulatorischen Eigenschaften des Wirkstoffs zurueckzufuehren. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen fokussieren daher auf die Manifestation frueher entzuendlicher Veraenderungen in der Mauszunge waehrend taeglich fraktionierter Bestrahlung und deren potenzieller Modifikation

  6. Oral hygiene, periodontal status and treatment needs among 12-year-old students, Castro, Chile, 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Wauters

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the level of oral hygiene, periodontal status and treatment needs, indicating if there are differences between men and women, in 12-year-old students from Castro, Los Lagos region, during March and April of 2014. A cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 242 12-year-old students from municipal and subsidized private schools in Castro were selected through a stratified random sample representative of each school. Students were evaluated by a calibrated examiner to determine the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN. Data were transferred to a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and statistically analyzed to calculate the amount and percentage of the variables. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparison between genders. From the total, 59.5% of the students have regular hygiene. Also, 86.4% of the assessed adolescents have gingivitis and 13.6% of them have periodontitis. The periodontal treatment need indicates that 58% of the students require oral hygiene instructions and scaling. No statistically significant differences were found for gender. There is a higher prevalence of periodontal diseases associated with regular oral hygiene than the regional and national reference in 12-year-old adolescents in Castro. Then, it is necessary to teach and promote specific public health strategies based on epidemiological data

  7. Learning from Children: Learning from Caroline Pratt (1867-1954). Early Progressives in Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    This review of Caroline Pratt's life and work in early years education includes an account of how a six-year-old boy taught a woman in her thirties what she needed to know in order to open a school--in 1914--that continues to this day, a school that was, in the founder's own words, fitted to the child and not the other way around. It finds a clear…

  8. Correlation of serum biomarkers (TSA & LSA) and epithelial dysplasia in early diagnosis of oral precancer and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Hemant; Kumar, C Anand

    Oral cancer is currently the most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths, which is usually preceded by oral pre-cancerous lesions and conditions. Altered glycosylation of glycoconjugates, such as sialic acid, fucose, etc. are amongst the important molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. The purpose of our study was to evaluate usefulness of serum Total Sialic Acid (TSA) and serum Lipid-Bound Sialic Acid (LSA) as markers of oral precancerous lesions and histopathologically correlating them with grades of epithelial dysplasia. Blood samples were collected from 50 patients with oral precancer (Leukoplakia & OSMF), 25 patients with untreated oral cancer and 25 healthy subjects. Serum sialic acid (total and lipid bound) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. Tissue samples from all the patients were evaluated for dysplasia. Serum levels of total and lipid bound sialic acid were significantly elevated in patients with oral precancer and cancer when compared with healthy subjects. Analysis of variance test documented that there is progressive rise in serum levels of sialic acid with the degree of dysplastic changes in oral precancer patients. We observed positive correlation between serum levels of the markers and the extent of malignant disease (TNM Clinical staging) as well as histopathological grades. The results suggested that serum levels of TSA and LSA progressively increases with grades of dysplasia in precancerous groups and cancer group, when compared with healthy controls. These glycoconjugates, especially LSA has the clinical utility in indicating a premalignant change.

  9. Early Tracking or Finally Leaving? Determinants of Early Study Success in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…

  10. Common risk indicators for oral diseases and obesity in 12-year-olds: a South Pacific cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie; Pichot, Hélène; Rouchon, Bernard; Pereira, Bruno; Hennequin, Martine

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing need to prevent obesity and oral diseases in adolescents worldwide, few studies have investigated the link existing between these conditions and their common risk factors. This study aims to evaluate the oral health and weight status of New Caledonian Children (aged 6,9,12 years) and to identify, amongst 12-year-olds, risk indicators that may characterize the groups of children affected by oral diseases, obesity or both diseases. Methods This survey evaluated...

  11. Dissociated incretin response to oral glucose at 1 year after restrictive vs. malabsorptive bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldstrand, M; Ahrén, B; Näslund, E

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Compare the response to oral glucose of the two incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) at 1 year after restrictive vs. malabsorptive bariatric surgery. METHODS: Vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG, n = 7) or jejunoileal bypass...... (JIB, n = 5) was performed in 12 women, aged 26-39 years, with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) 46.6 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2)]. After 1 year, 75 g glucose was administered and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, GIP and GLP-1 were determined regularly during the following 2 h. RESULTS: At 1 year after...

  12. Evaluation oral hygiene index in the 12-years-old students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Shirzai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease and dental caries are one of the most important factors of tooth loss and the most common oral health problem, therefore the present study was performed to assess oral hygiene index in the 12-years-old students in Zahedan city.Material and Method: In this descriptive-analytical study, Zahedan city (2009 was divided based on socio-economical situation in to two areas and 10 school (boys & girls school from each area, and 47 students from each school, were selected randomly. Oral hygiene status of 942 12-years-old male and female students was assessed with OHI-S index. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version-15 (t-test and chi-square. Results: The mean OHI-S was 1.43±0.72 and 44.7% persons had well OHI-S, 50.3% had medium OHI-S and 5% had poor OHI-S. The mean OHI-S was 1.42 in boys and 1.44 in girls. Correlation between OHI-S with father occupation (p=0.03 and sequences of tooth brushing (p=0.001 was significant. Conclusion: Oral hygiene status of studied students was in the middle and people who brushes their teeth more time, had higher OHI-S indices

  13. Early changes in plasma glucagon and growth hormone response to oral glucose in experimental hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F; Moghetti, P; Castello, R; Negri, C; Bonora, E; Muggeo, M

    1996-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying deterioration of glucose tolerance associated with hyperthyroidism are not completely understood. Increases in glucagon and growth hormone (GH) secretion have been previously found in hyperthyroid subjects, and could play a crucial role in this phenomenon. However, studies have not yet established the time sequence of changes in plasma glucose on the one hand and glucagon and GH on the other. To assess the early effects of thyroid hormone excess on glucose tolerance and plasma concentrations of the main glucoregulatory hormones, 12 nondiabetic euthyroid subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after triiodothyronine ([T3] 120 micrograms/d) was administered for 10 days. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and GH were determined at fasting and after the glucose load. T3 administration caused a marked increase in serum T3 (8.8 +/- 0.6 v 2.0 +/- 0.1 nmol/L), with clinical and biochemical signs of thyrotoxicosis. During the treatment, plasma glucose significantly increased both at fasting and after the glucose load (basal, 5.3 +/- 0.1 v 4.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, P hormone excess rapidly impairs glucose tolerance. Altered secretion of GH is an early event in thyrotoxicosis accompanying the onset of hyperglycemia, whereas plasma glucagon is appropriately suppressed by the increased plasma glucose levels. Thus, GH but not glucagon may contribute to the early hyperglycemic effect of thyrotoxicosis.

  14. Nanodiamond modified copolymer scaffolds affects tumour progression of early neoplastic oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Salwa; Mustafa, Kamal; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Osdal, Tereza; Hamza, Amani O; Sun, Yang; Parajuli, Himalaya; Waag, Thilo; Nickel, Joachim; Johannessen, Anne Christine; McCormack, Emmet; Costea, Daniela Elena

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tumorigenic potential of functionalising poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds. The copolymer scaffolds were functionalised with nanodiamonds (nDP) or with nDP and physisorbed BMP-2 (nDP-PHY) to enhance osteoinductivity. Culturing early neoplastic dysplastic keratinocytes (DOK(Luc)) on nDP modified scaffolds reduced significantly their subsequent sphere formation ability and decreased significantly the cells' proliferation in the supra-basal layers of in vitro 3D oral neoplastic mucosa (3D-OT) when compared to DOK(Luc) previously cultured on nDP-PHY scaffolds. Using an in vivo non-invasive environmentally-induced oral carcinogenesis model, nDP scaffolds were observed to reduce bioluminescence intensity of tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAF). nDP modification was also found to promote differentiation of DOK(Luc) both in vitro in 3D-OT and in vivo in xenografts formed by DOK(Luc) alone. The nDP-PHY scaffold had the highest number of invasive tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + CAF outside the scaffold area compared to the nDP and control scaffolds. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results presented here demonstrate that nDP modified copolymer scaffolds are able to decrease the tumorigenic potential of DOK(Luc), while confirming concerns for the therapeutic use of BMP-2 for reconstruction of bone defects in oral cancer patients due to its tumour promoting capabilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Building Self-Esteem in the Early Years

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Jenny Lukito

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the practical ways of building self-esteem in the early years. It describes the concepts of self-esteem and characteristics of children with high self-esteem and those with low self-esteem. The practical ways of building self-esteem are discussed under the five essential components of self-esteem pointed out by Reasoner and Dusa (1991), which include sense of security, identity, belonging, purpose, and personal competence.Key words: self-esteem, sense of security, sense ...

  16. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters…

  17. A Review of Salivary Biomarker: A Tool for Early Oral Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Saxena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most common epithelial malignancies with significant morbidity and mortality. Recent observations indicate that the clinical and histological appearance of oral mucosa may not truly depict the damage occurring at the genetic level. This phenotypic and genotypic disparity may account in part for the failure to establish effective screening and surveillance protocols, based on the traditional clinical and microscopic examination. The tumor markers are playing an increasingly important role in cancer detection and management. These laboratory-based tests are potentially useful in screening for early malignancy, aiding in cancer diagnosis, determining prognosis, surveillance following curative surgery for cancer, up-front predicting drug response or resistance, and monitoring therapy in advanced disease. A systematic review of the literature was performed based on the English titles listed in the PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane, Science Direct, ISI web Science, and SciELO databases using the keywords. Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed. This article may help to identify the potential biomarkers for screening and the molecular pathology analysis in the high-risk patients with the OSCC.

  18. Oral Health Status Related to Social Behaviors among 6 - 11 Year Old Schoolchildren in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulëjeta Ferizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current oral health status among schoolchildren in Kosovo aged 6-11 years. Material and methods: A study included 5679 schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years, from different towns of Kosovo. Dental health status was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT index, for deciduous and permanent dentition. The observed children have answered a number of questions about their oral hygiene, eating habits, and dental visits. The analysis included frequencies and means. The differences between means were tested using the student t-test (p<0.05. The factors associated with dental caries were tested using the Spearman’s rank. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of schoolchildren aged 6-11 years was 4.36 ± 3.763 and 1.20 ± 1.488, respectively. Sealant placements were found among 90 schoolchildren, amounting to 1.58%. From 8 years of age, 50% of children brush their teeth twice a day. Confectionery consumption among the observed children has increased. Forty percent of them eat sweets at least once a day, and majority of them visit their dentists only when necessary. A significant correlation between consumption of confectionery, oral hygiene, dental visits and the prevalence of caries was confirmed. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that there is a high prevalence of caries among 6-11 year old schoolchildren, thus pointing to a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care as well as utilizing preventive measures and regular dental visits.

  19. Asthma-associated oral and dental health repercussions in children aged 6 to 12 years

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    Juana Angélica Ramos-Ríos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma, which is characterized by mouth breathing and by the use of drugs for its treatment, affects between 1 and 30% of children and adolescents. There are only few studies reporting its impact on the oral cavity. Objectives: To find out the most common asthma-associated repercussions in 6 to 12-year-old children. Methods: Cross-sectional, comparative, analytical study carried out in 2 primary schools from Coclique, Veracruz, Mexico, in 6 to 12-year-old children. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire for parents was used. Results: In a population of 409 children, a prevalence of asthma of 6.84% (n = 28 was found, which was higher in males (15, 54%; boys aged 6, 7 and 11 years and girls aged 8, 9 and 10 years were most affected. Risk factors for oral manifestations were acidic pH (OR = 170, caries (OR = 4.29, anterior open bite (OR = 66.78, gingivitis (OR = 9.75, atypical swallowing (OR = 15.70 and high-arched palate (OR = 45.60. Conclusion: Children with chronic conditions such as asthma require an oral and dental preventive program as part of their interdisciplinary care.

  20. Validations of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS Validação da versão brasileira do Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS

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    Paulo Antônio Martins-Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS. A total of 247 children aged 2 to 5 years and their parents/guardians participated in this study. A clinical oral examination was performed and the parents/guardians completed the ECOHIS questionnaire. Within a period of four-weeks, 20% of the participants repeated the ECOHIS questionnaire. Construct validity was determined using Spearman's rank correlation. Discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were also evaluated. The children were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (with dental caries and group 2 (caries-free. Children with caries showed higher mean ECOHIS scores than the caries-free children. The child impact section (p O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS. Duzentas e quarenta e sete crianças de 2 a 5 anos e seus pais/cuidadores foram convidados a participar. Foi realizado exame clínico bucal e os pais completaram o ECOHIS. Após quatro semanas, 20% dos participantes responderam ao ECOHIS pela segunda vez. A validade de construto foi determinada através da correlação de Spearman. A validade discriminante, consistência interna e confiabilidade teste-reteste foram avaliadas. As crianças foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo 1 (com cárie e grupo 2 (sem cárie. As crianças com cárie tinham maiores escores médios do ECOHIS do que as crianças sem cárie. Os domínios impacto na criança (p < 0,01, impacto na família (p < 0,01 e escores totais ECOHIS (p < 0,01 foram significativamente correlacionados com dentes cariados. Coeficientes alfa de Cronbach demonstraram consistência interna satisfatória. A versão brasileira do ECOHIS é apropriada para a avaliação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal em crianças pré-escolares de pais cuja língua prim

  1. The most-cited articles in dental, oral, and maxillofacial traumatology during 64 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Sarraf Shirazi, Alireza; Andersson, Lars

    2015-10-01

    Citation analysis helps to identify the research trends within a research field and helps to identify the most frequently occurring parameters. The aim of this study was to identify the 100 most-cited articles in the field of dental, oral, and maxillofacial traumatology over the past 64 years. A comprehensive list of the most-cited articles in dental, oral, and maxillofacial trauma was compiled using 'All Databases' section of the ISI Web of Knowledge. Related articles were considered to be those articles in which part or all of the experiment or study was related to dental and/or oral and maxillofacial trauma. In case reports, if a part of a treatment plan was related to the topic, that article was considered to be relevant. The characteristics analyzed included number of citations, authors, journals, institution, country of origin, publication year, article type, study material, and topic. The number of citations for each article ranged from 69 to 229. The journal Dental Traumatology was the most represented, followed by the journal Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Of the 100 articles, 83% were original articles, 15% were review articles, and 2% were case report/case series. Therapy and prognosis-related topics were the most common topics. Most articles came from institutions in the United States, followed by the Scandinavian countries. University Hospital of Copenhagen was the source of the highest number (34) of the most-cited articles; the same author wrote or co-wrote 22 of the 100 most-cited articles. The list of most-cited articles in the field of dental, oral, and maxillofacial traumatology gives a good scientometric picture of trauma research in the world. A large number of the most-cited articles are mainly from the field of dental traumatology and originate from a few research teams. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The early years of Bruno Maximovich Pontecorvo at Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, R.

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of September 1950, while on a short vacation in Italy with his family, Bruno Pontecorvo suddenly disappeared. Nobody knew of him until 4 March 1955, when he gave a press conference in Moscow at the Academy of Sciences where he explained the motivations that had led him to decide to live in Russia. He arrived in Moscow in September 1950 and at the end of October of the same year he moved in Dubna and started his research work at the Institute of Nuclear Problems where, at the time, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world was in operation. A historical reconstruction of the early years of his scientific activity is done through the pages of his first logbook. This “laboratory notebook”, dated November 1, 1950, contains unpublished notes, ideas and considerations that Bruno wrote by hand, mostly in English, at the beginning of his work in Russia.

  3. An oral health intervention for people with serious mental illness (Three Shires Early Intervention Dental Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hannah F; Adams, Clive E; Clifton, Andrew; Simpson, Jayne; Tosh, Graeme; Liddle, Peter F; Callaghan, Patrick; Yang, Min; Guo, Boliang; Furtado, Vivek

    2013-05-29

    Oral health is an important part of general physical health and is essential for self-esteem, self-confidence and overall quality of life. There is a well-established link between mental illness and poor oral health. Oral health problems are not generally well recognized by mental health professionals and many patients experience barriers to treatment. This is the protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised trial that has been designed to fit within standard care. Dental awareness training for care co-ordinators plus a dental checklist for service users in addition to standard care will be compared with standard care alone for people with mental illness. The checklist consists of questions about service users' current oral health routine and condition. Ten Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) teams in Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire will be cluster randomised (five to intervention and five to standard care) in blocks accounting for location and size of caseload. The oral health of the service users will be monitored for one year after randomisation. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63382258.

  4. Profile of usage of a reference diagnostic service on oral pathology: a 10-year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira e Silva, Karla Rachel; Siqueira, Ana Luísa Lara; Caldeira, Patrícia Carlos; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; de Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira

    2014-12-20

    Despite the professional and academic relevance of the Brazilian oral pathology diagnostic laboratories, no information about their usage profile is available in the English literature. The objective of the present study is to report data about the histopathological and immunohistochemical exams performed in a Brazilian regional reference laboratory of oral pathology, as well as its main users. Information about all histopathological exams performed between 2002 and 2012 was retrieved from the files of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Service of the School of Dentistry of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Data collected included: 1) requestor of exam; 2) diagnosis classification; and 3) immunohistochemical tests. Descriptive statistical analyses were done. 13,522 histopathological exams were performed, mean 1,229/year. The Public Health System of the city of Belo Horizonte was the main requestor of exams (77.13%), followed by private professionals (19.26%), and other cities (2.03%). Most lesions were considered benign (12,599/ 93.17%), with 854 malignant lesions (6.32%). 469 immunohistochemical tests were performed; 324 (69.08%) were from benign diagnosis, and 145 (30.92%) from malignant diagnosis. The most used antibodies were against S100, vimentin, smooth muscle actin, actin muscle specific HHF-35, and pan-cytokeratin AE1/AE3. Public Health System is the major user of the diagnostic service on oral pathology in our institution. Most diagnoses were of benign lesions, although many malignant lesions were detected. Immunohistochemistry was particularly important in solving challenging cases.

  5. SURVIVAL RATES IN ORAL CANCER PATIENTS – A 10-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Tonchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and presents a serious health problem in countries with higher alcohol consumption and smoking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the survival rates of patients with oral cancer diagnosed at a single center in Bulgaria. The clinical records of patients with oral cancer admitted to the Clinic of Maxillofacial surgery, University Hospital “St. George”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, from 2004 till 2013 were reviewed. Additional information about follow-up was obtained from the Regional Complex Oncological Centre (RCOC. Data about patient and tumor characteristics – age, sex, site of cancer, stage, degree of differentiation and survival rates were analyzed. The overall 5-year survival rate was 36% while the disease-specific survival rate was 45%. The highest chance for survival was for upper lip (66% while the lowest was for retromolar trigone (0%. Overall survival rate depended also on the stage and grade of differentiation of the tumor. The study confirmed that oral cancer remains serious problem in terms of risk factors, delayed diagnosis, and overall survival rates.

  6. Nutritional status and oral status of the elderly with dementia: a 2-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadamori, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Syouji; Fujihara, Isao; Abekura, Hitoshi; Hamada, Taizo; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2012-06-01

    To determine the relationship between denture wearing and nutritional status in the elderly with dementia. There could be a correlation between nutrition, oral health, dietary habits, patients' satisfaction, and their socio-economic status in the elderly, and the relationship between compromised oral status and nutritional status in the elderly with dementia. A 2-year follow-up study of 63 elderly Japanese women with and without dentures from a nursing home was undertaken to investigate their oral, physical and mental, and nutritional status. Each item for 2006 and 2008 in this study showed no significant difference between 2006 and 2008, except the calories/day. The elderly with dementia without complete dentures during the 2 years of the study only significantly decreased the mean of the calories/day. The calories/day of the elderly with dementia without dentures decreased after 2 years. Denture wearing for the elderly with dementia could be necessary to maintain a satisfactory intake of calories. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Gender trends in authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery literature: A 30-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenke, Emeka; Seemann, Rudolf; Vairaktaris, Elefterios; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Rohde, Maximilian; Stelzle, Florian; Knipfer, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the gender distribution of first and senior authorships in important oral and maxillofacial journals over the 30-year period from 1980 to 2010. Articles published in three representative oral and maxillofacial surgery journals were selected. The years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 were chosen as representative points in time for article selection. Original research, case reports, technical notes, and reviews were included in the analysis. Case reports and technical notes were pooled in one group. For each article, the gender of the first author as well as that of the senior author was determined, based on the inspection of their first name. The type of article was determined and the country of origin of the article was documented. A total 1412 articles were subjected to the data analysis. A significant increase in female authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery could be identified over the chosen 30-year period. However, the number of publications by male authors was still significantly higher at all points of time, exceeding those of female authors by at least 3.8 fold in 2010. As there is a trend towards feminization of medicine and dentistry, the results of the present study may serve as the basis for further analysis of the current situation, and the identification of necessary actions to accelerate the closure of the gender gap in publishing in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  9. Retrospective evaluation of paediatric oral biopsies over a 10-year period in Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S S; Kontham, U R; Kontham, R K; Chowdhery, A

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective study reviewed the paediatric oral biopsies received over 10 years at a teaching hospital and dental college in India. It is important that paediatric dentists know the diagnostic tendencies of oral pathological conditions in children, and possess updated information for their diagnosis and treatment. Biopsies of patients 17 years of age or younger were selected. Computerised data regarding age, gender, anatomic location, and histopathological diagnosis was retrieved and classified into nine categories. Of a total 2959 oral biopsies, 359 cases (12.1%) were in the paediatric population with a slight male predominance. Salivary gland pathology (21.4%) was most frequently observed followed by dental pathology, maxillofacial tumours and maxillofacial cysts. More than a third of cases (35.9%) were found to occur in the mandible. Five cases of malignancies were found, two of which were salivary gland tumours. The majority of lesions identified were of a benign nature necessitating minimal intervention; however, it is important to recognise that malignant lesions can occur in children. Any swelling, especially related to the salivary glands, must be investigated immediately, so as to prevent mortality and reduce morbidity. Diverse classifications used by previous authors make comparison of data challenging.

  10. The early years of molecular biology: personal recollections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Robin

    2003-05-01

    The early years of molecular biology were characterized by a strong interaction between theory and experiment. This included the elucidation of the structure of DNA itself; genetic fine structure, recombination and repair; DNA replication; template-directed protein synthesis; the universality of the triplet genetic code, and the co-linearity of the DNA sequence of structural genes and the sequence of amino acids in proteins. The principle of co-linearity was later modified when split genes were discovered. It is suggested that accurate splicing of gene transcripts might also be template directed. In 1958 Crick proposed a 'central dogma' of molecular biology stating that information could not be transmitted from proteins to DNA. Nevertheless, proteins can chemically modify DNA, and this is now known to have strong effects on gene expression.

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity; An unselected material from a 5-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeloev, B.; Kirkegaard, J.; Hansen, H.S. (Copenhagen Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Head and Neck Oncology Copenhagen Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Otolaryngology)

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Finsen Institute in cooperation with the ENT-surgical departments between 1978 and 1982. The primary treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 74%, surgery alone in 4%, and a combination of radiotherapy and surgery in 15% of the patients. 2% received other treatment (cryotherapy), 5% did not complete the planned radiotherapy, and 1% were not treated at all. Of 203 patients with tumour remnant or first recurrence, 45% were operated, 2% received radiotherapy, and 2% combined treatment. This treatment strategy made 38% of the patients free of disease in the follow-up period (3 1/2 to 8 years) or until the patients died from other causes. Fifty-nine percent of the patients died from their oral carcinomas. Tumour size (T), lymph node status (N), and tumour stage were as expected important prognostic factors. (orig.).

  12. Social position, social ties and adult's oral health: 13 year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettore, Mario Vianna; Faerstein, Eduardo; Baker, Sarah Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This study explored different pathways by which social position and social ties influence adult's oral health over a 13-year period. A cohort investigation (Pro-Saúde Study) was conducted of non-faculty civil servants at a university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (N=1613). Baseline data collected in 1999 included age, social position, social ties, and access to dental care. Psychological factors and smoking were assessed in 2001, whereas tooth loss and self-rated oral health (SROH) were collected in 2012. A hypothesised model exploring different direct and indirect pathways was developed and tested using structural equation modelling. The model was a good fit to the data and accounted for 40% and 27% of the variance in tooth loss and SROH, respectively. A greater social position was linked to more social ties (β=0.31), health insurance (β=0.48), low psychological distress (β=0.07), less smoking (β=-0.21), more regular dental visiting (β=0.30), less tooth loss (β=-0.44) and better SROH (β=-0.25) over time. Social position (β=0.0005) and social ties (β=-0.0015) were linked indirectly with psychological distress, smoking and tooth loss. Social position was linked indirectly with social ties, psychological distress and SROH (β=-0.0071). Poor social position and weak social ties were important predictors for tooth loss and poor SROH in adults over the 13-year period. Direct and indirect pathways via psychological factors and smoking on the aforementioned relationships were identified, suggesting different areas of intervention to promote adults' oral health. Adult's oral health is influenced by social conditions through direct and indirect pathways, including via psychological factors and smoking. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in 260 patients aged 80 years or more

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortholan, Cecile; Lusinchi, Antoine; Italiano, Antoine; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Auperin, Anne; Poissonnet, Gilles; Bozec, Alexandre; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Temam, Stephane; Benezery, Karen; Thariat, Juliette; Tao Yungan; Janot, Francois; Mamelle, Gerard; Vallicioni, Jacques; Follana, Philippe; Peyrade, Frederic; Sudaka, Anne; Bourhis, Jean; Dassonville, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We report the experience of two French cancer centers in the treatment of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients aged ≥80 years. Materials and methods: Two hundred and sixty patients aged ≥80 years with a primary oral cavity SCC were included in this retrospective analysis. Results: Sex ratio was near to 1. Tobacco or alcohol intoxication was the main risk factor for 66% of men and 16% of women and leukoplakia, lichen planus, or oral traumatism for 55% of women and 11% of men (p < 0.0001). Two hundred patients received a loco-regional (LR) treatment with a curative intent (surgery and/or radiotherapy), 29 with a palliative intent and 31 did not receive a LR treatment. Curative treatments were initially planned to be adapted to age in 118 patients (59%). The median disease-specific survival (DSS) was 29 months. In multivariate analysis, the independent prognostic factors for DSS were stage (HR = 0.42 [0.24-0.72]), age (HR = 0.43 [0.24-0.75]) and performance status (HR = 0.50 [0.27-0.95]). The median overall survival (OS) was 14 months. In multivariate analysis, the independent prognostic factors for OS were age (HR = 0.52 [0.35-0.79]), stage (HR = 0.56 [0.38-0.84]), tumor differentiation (HR = 0.60 [0.33-0.93]) and performance status (HR = 0.6 [0.37-0.97]). In patients treated with a curative intent, treatment adapted to age was not associated with a decreased overall survival or disease-specific survival as compared with the standard treatment. However, prophylactic lymph node treatment in stages I-II tumors decreased the rate of nodal recurrence from 38% to 6% (p = 0.01). Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for prospective evaluation of standard and adapted schedules in elderly patients with oral cavity cancer.

  14. Prosthetic rehabilitation in a four-year-old child with severe early childhood caries: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisotto, Thaís Manzano; de Souza-E-Silva, Cintia Maria; Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe the oral rehabilitation of a 4-year-old girl presenting early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is highly prevalent in developing countries and its severity increases with age. This disease implies serious consequences for the development of the stomatognathic system and for the child's quality of life. As young children are usually anxious about dental treatment, their level of co-operation is limited, leading to a challenging situation. A 4-year-old girl was brought by her mother for dental treatment with the complaint of pain. The clinical examination revealed extensive carious coronary destructions. After preventive and curative measures, the oral rehabilitation was performed; it included the use of stainless steel crowns, resin filled celluloid crowns with previous cementation of glass post pins when necessary, an amalgam restoration, orthodontic treatment, and a partial removable prosthesis. The child has been monitored in the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at 4-monthly intervals. The oral rehabilitation was able to reestablish the oral health in the primary arches mutilated by early childhood caries. This is important for the establishment of an adequate mixed and permanent dentition, for proper facial and maxillary growth, and to the child's psychological and social development. The full management, including preventive, psychological, and curative measures of a young child with severe ECC was found successful after 8 months of follow up. This result can encourage the clinicians to seek a cost-effective technique such as stainless steel crowns, resin filled celluloid crowns, and partial removable prosthesis to reestablish the oral functions and improve the child's psycho-social development.

  15. Src Family Kinases Mediate Betel Quid-Induced Oral Cancer Cell Motility and Could Be a Biomarker for Early Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Yi-Fu Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ-chewing oral cancer is a prevalent disease in many countries of Southeast Asia. Yet, the precise disease mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BQ extract-induced cell motility in three oral cancer cells (Ca9-22, SAS, and SCC9 presumably involves the Src family kinases (SFKs. Besides, BQ extract can markedly induce cell migration of wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs but not MEFs lacking three SFK members, namely, Src, Yes, and Fyn, indicating the requirement of SFKs for BQ-induced cell motility. Betel quid extract can also elevate cellular SFK activities because phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 at the catalytic domain is increased, which in turn promotes phosphorylation of an in vitro substrate, enolase. Furthermore, we identified that areca nut, a major component of BQ, is the key factor accounting for BQ-induced cell migration and invasion through SFKs-mediated signaling pathways. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, particularly in BQ-chewing cases, the activity of SFKs was significantly higher in tumor-adjacent mucosa than that in solid tumor areas (P < .01. These results suggest a possible role of SFKs in tumor-host interface and thus in early tumor invasion in vivo. Consistent with this is the observation that activation of SFKs is colocalized with invasive tumor fronts in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Together, we conclude that SFKs may represent a potential biomarker of invasion and therapeutic target in BQ-induced oral cancer.

  16. Benefits of dental implants installed during ablative tumour surgery in oral cancer patients : a prospective 5-year clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, Anke; Schoen, Pieter J.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Vissink, Arjan; Reintsema, Harry

    Objective This prospective study assessed treatment outcome and patient satisfaction of oral cancer patients with a mandibular overdenture on implants up to 5 years after treatment. Materials and methods At baseline, 50 consecutive edentulous oral cancer patients, in whom prosthetic problems were

  17. Overdentures on primary mandibular implants in patients with oral cancer : a follow-up study over 14 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, Anke; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Vissink, Arjan; Reintsema, Harry

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess oral functioning, patients' satisfaction, condition of pen-implant tissues, and survival of implants up to 14 years after their insertion in patients with oral cancer who had had mandibular overdentures placed over primary implants. Endosseous dental implants were inserted

  18. Overdentures on primary mandibular implants in patients with oral cancer : a follow-up study over 14 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, Anke; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Vissink, Arjan; Reintsema, Harry

    We aimed to assess oral functioning, patients' satisfaction, condition of pen-implant tissues, and survival of implants up to 14 years after their insertion in patients with oral cancer who had had mandibular overdentures placed over primary implants. Endosseous dental implants were inserted

  19. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  20. Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoogstraten, I M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Von Blomberg, B M

    1991-01-01

    From animal studies we know that oral administration of T-dependent antigens before sensitization effectively induces systemic immune unresponsiveness. Such 'oral tolerance' is persistent, dose-dependent, antigen-specific and presumably T suppressor cell-mediated. Oral tolerance induction could b...

  1. Child oral health in migrant families: A cross-sectional study of caries in 1-4 year old children from migrant backgrounds residing in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, L; de Silva, A M; Christian, B; Gold, L; Gussy, M; Moore, L; Calache, H; Young, D; Riggs, E; Tadic, M; Watt, R; Gondal, I; Waters, E

    2016-06-01

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is the most common, preventable disease of childhood. It can affect children's health and wellbeing and children from migrant families may be at greater risk of developing ECC. To describe ECC in children from migrant families, and explore possible influences. Cross-sectional analysis of caries data collected as baseline data for an oral health promotion study. The analysis sample included 630 1-4 year-old children clustered within 481 Iraqi, Lebanese and Pakistani families in Melbourne, Australia. Child participants received a community-based visual dental examination. Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographics, ethnicity, and oral health knowledge, behaviour and attitudes. Child caries experience. Bivariate associations between oral health behaviours and ethnicity were tested for significance using chi-square. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations with ECC, adjusting for demographic variables and accounting for clustering by family. Overall, 34% of children in the sample experienced caries (both non-cavitated and cavitated). For all caries lesions, parent' length of residence in Australia, consumption of sweet drinks and parental education remained as independent predictors of child caries experience. Adding sugar to drinks was an additional risk factor for cavitation. Ethnicity was associated with some individual oral health behaviours suggesting cultural influences on health, however the relationship was not independent of other predictors. Culturally competent oral health promotion interventions should aim to support migrant families with young children, and focus on reducing sweet drink consumption.

  2. Mouth self-examination to improve oral cancer awareness and early detection in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Kalavathy Jayapal; Anandkrishnan, Nitin; Suresh, Amritha; Iyer, Subramania K; Ramaiyer, Sundaram Karimassery; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Oral cancer is a potentially preventable disease due to its association with well-known risk factors and easy detectability. There is a significant deficiency in the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors among the public. Raising public awareness could effectively contribute to achieving a significant reduction in the incidence of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mouth self-examination (MSE) in improving the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors as well as test its feasibility as an oral cancer-screening tool. The study was carried out in a high-risk population of 57,704 from India, of which, 34,766 individuals who have met the eligibility criteria formed the study population. MSE brochures and trained health workers were employed for the purpose of health education and cancer screening. The present study compared their efficacy to detect oral lesions. Subjects with suspicious lesions were referred to the trained oral cancer specialist for confirmation. A questionnaire to assess the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors was developed and validated. SPSS (v.11.0) was used for data analysis. The program identified 216 cases of potentially malignant lesions as well as three cases of oral cancer. The findings of MSE and health workers showed 72% concordance, while that of health workers and oral cancer specialist showed 100% concordance. MSE had a low sensitivity of 18%, while the specificity was 99.9%. Though the technique identified high-risk lesions such as red patches (66.7%) and non-healing ulcers (42.9%), the detection rate of white patches was low (12.7%). Overall awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors after introduction of MSE program was over 80%; but the compliance to seek treatment was poor (32%). Mouth self-examination may be used as an effective tool to improve the awareness of oral cancer and for the early detection of lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral health status and change in handgrip strength over a 5-year period in 80-year-old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Piia; Rantanen, Taina; Keskinen, Marja; Meurman, Jukka H

    2004-09-01

    The number of remaining teeth may indicate the extent of life-long exposure to inflammation, a known risk factor for muscle loss and consequent disability. The aim was to study dental health status as a risk factor for muscle strength loss in very old people. Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study over a 5-year follow-up. Research laboratory. One hundred and ninety-three 80-year-old people participated in the baseline examinations. Five years later, 79 survivors were retested. Number of remaining teeth, presence of periodontitis and handgrip strength. At baseline, grip strength of men correlated positively with number of teeth but not with the presence of periodontitis. In women, the cross-sectional associations were not statistically significant. In the prospective analyses, the presence of periodontitis at baseline showed a clear association with a steeper decline in handgrip over the 5-year follow-up in both sexes. The values adjusted for gender, height, weight, number of chronic conditions and physical activity were -28.3% (SE 5.7) among those with periodontitis vs. -11.9% (SE 3.1, p = 0.015) among those with healthy gingiva. No association between the number of teeth at baseline and change in grip strength over 5 years was observed. The presence of oral inflammation may lead to loss in muscle strength increasing the risk of disability. Therefore, good dental care throughout the life span may decrease risk of disability in old age.

  4. Oral treatment with enrofloxacin early in life promotes Th2-mediated immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzępa, Anna; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Kowalczyk, Paulina; Woźniak, Dorota; Motyl, Sylwia; Szczepanik, Marian

    2016-02-01

    Th2 lymphocytes play a crucial role in the development of allergy. These pathologies are caused by coordinated production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 that regulate the activity of eosinophils, basophils and B cells. According to the 'hygiene hypothesis', the reduced exposure to microorganisms favors allergy occurrence. The advances in medicine in the field of infection therapy promoted an increasing application of antibiotics which, apart from eliminating pathogens, also partially eliminate the microbiota. Epicutaneous (EC) immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by OVA challenge was used to study the influence of partial gut flora depletion by oral treatment with enrofloxacin on type-2 immune response. Current work describes the influence of enrofloxacin application on anti-OVA antibody production and cytokine synthesis in young and adult mice. Immune response in adult mice is less sensitive to modification of natural gut flora. We observed that enrofloxacin treatment of adult mice leads to significant decrease of anti-OVA IgG2a production while synthesis of anti-OVA IgE was not changed. The production of type-1 (IFN-γ), type-2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) and Th17-associated (IL-17A) cytokines was inhibited. On the other hand, treatment of young mice with enrofloxacin significantly upregulates the production of anti-OVA IgE and inhibits the secretion of anti-OVA IgG2a antibodies. Additionally, treatment with enrofloxacin early in life prior to OVA immunization results in increased production of type-2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokines. Our results clearly indicate that the immune system is more vulnerable to decreased bacterial exposure early in life that may promote development of allergy. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Awareness, Attitude and Oral Hygiene Practices of 5 and 12 year old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A questionnaire asking about oral health care, their oral hygiene practices, reasons for tooth cleaning, causes of tooth decay, sources of their information and frequency of dental visit was administered to them followed by intra-oral examination to assess the level of oral cleanliness using the Plaque Index (which is ...

  6. ANGIOPLASTIA DE RESCATE EN MUJER DE 33 AÑOS CON ANTICONCEPCIÓN ORAL Y CORONARIOPATÍA DILATADA / Rescue angioplasty in a 33-year old woman with oral contraception and dilated coronariopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco L Moreno-Martínez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Coronary angioplasty is recognized nowadays as the first-choice therapeutic strategy for acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation. Atherosclerotic disease is still the main cause ofthis sickness; however, other disturbances, such is dilated coronariopathy, may favor this coronary event. Although some authors raise that atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary dilation, it is uncommon that this lipid disorder promotes consequences early in life. We present the case of a 33-year-old female (oral contraceptive user - etinor who had not any apparent coronary risk factor but suffered from inferior acute myocardial infarction. The thrombolysis failed, and fortunately we could perform the angioplasty. Intracoronary thrombosis with distal embolism occurred, that waswhy we administered streptokinase. Possible mechanisms that involve oral contraceptives and dilated coronariopathy are discussed, and angiographic images are shown.

  7. Socioeconomic disadvantage and oral-health-related hospital admissions: a 10-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this Western Australian population study was to assess the relationship of socioeconomic disadvantage and: 1) trends in hospitalisations for oral-health-related conditions over 10 years; 2) insurance status, costs and length of stay in hospital; and 3) specific conditions (principal diagnosis) patients were admitted for. Hospitalisation data (of oral-health-related conditions) were obtained for every episode of discharge from all hospitals in Western Australia for the financial years 1999-2000 to 2008-2009. Area based measures (using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage) was used to determine relationships between socioeconomic status and other variables. The most disadvantaged in the population are being hospitalised at significantly higher rates than other groups, stay in hospital for longer, and at higher costs. This trend remained over a period of 10 years. Those least disadvantaged have the second highest rates of hospitalisation, but the likelihood of being admitted for different procedures differ between these two extremes. The importance of socioeconomic determinants of health are evident when analysing these hospitalisations. Recognition that lifestyle choices are severely restricted among the most marginalised and disadvantaged groups in the population can no longer be ignored in attempts to reduce health inequalities.

  8. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single‐Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary A.; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H.; Reitberg, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age‐based doses of 100‐400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz/F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz/F than CLo, an increase in terminal exponential half‐life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation‐related changes in CLo and Vz/F. PMID:26632082

  9. Ten-year clinico-statistical study of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shinjiro; Kawabe, Ryoichi; Chikumaru, Hiroshi; Saito, Tomokatsu; Hirota, Makoto; Miyake, Tetsumi; Omura, Susumu; Fujita, Kiyohide

    2003-01-01

    This clinico-statistical study includes 232 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma that underwent radical treatment in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Hospital, during the decade from 1991 to 2000. Surgery was principally adopted as the first line for treatment in 199 cases, and radiotherapy in 33 cases. The 5-year overall survival rate was 73.4%. The results according to stage were as follows: stage I, 87.5%; Stage II, 77.9%; Stage III, 63.5%; and Stage IV A, 44.7%. The primary sites were classified as follows: upper gingiva, 85.2%; tongue, 73.7%; floor of mouth, 68.9%; lower gingiva, 66.3%; buccal mucosa, 63.9%; and hard palate, 50%. For tongue cancer, the 5-year overall survival rates by stage were: Stage I, 90.8%; Stage II, 82.1%; Stage III, 40.3%; and Stage IV A, 45.7%. Statistical significance was seen between cases of Stages I and II and those of Stages III and IV A stage. For lower gingival cancer, the 5-year overall survival rates by stage were: Stage I, 90.8%; Stage II, 82.1%; Stage III, 40.3%; and Stage IV A, 45.7%. Even in Stage I lower gingival cancers had unfavorable clinical outcomes. Preventive neck dissections were performed on 52 N 0 neck patients, but clinically negative nodes however showed metastasis in 14 patients (26.9%). (author)

  10. Oral Health Status Among 6- and 12-year-old Jordanian Schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajab, Lamis Darwish; Petersen, Poul Erik; Baqain, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    of caries and the need for dental care. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out which included 2496 children aged 6 years and 2560 children aged 12 years selected by stratified cluster sampling. Children were examined in schools and data comprised information about...... caries and gingival health status. WHO methodology and criteria were applied. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information about oral hygiene, dental visits, consumption of sugars and parents' level of education. Results: The caries prevalence rates were 76.4% in 6-year-olds and 45.5% in 12...... and fewer filled teeth than did children of the upper socioeconomic group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that social class was the most important independent variable for caries. The results from 2005 were compared with similar data collected in the capital, Amman, in 1993. For all social classes...

  11. Making the best of the early years: the Tambellup way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kim D; Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beerenfels, Susan; Rowell, Anne-Marie C

    2010-01-01

    Tambellup is a small rural town in the Great Southern region of Western Australia (WA), approximately 300 km south-east of state capital Perth. Tambellup has a much higher Aboriginal population than the national average and achieved very positive results for year one children in 2007 regional Australian Early Development Index testing. In 2009 the Great Southern GP Network (which has a facilitating role in providing early intervention strategies to families with young children at risk of disadvantage) requested that public health staff at Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA undertake an exploratory study to discover the factors protective of children's development in Tambellup. This article describes the subsequent research and its findings. This 2009 qualitative study interviewed both adult members of the local Aboriginal community (Noongar people; n = 23), and non-Aboriginal leaders from a cross-section of organisations, services and the community (n = 14) to determine what made growing up in Tambellup a positive experience. Aboriginal participants were introduced to the researchers by a local cultural consultant. Non-Aboriginal participants were initially sourced from a list provided by the GSGPN and extended by asking those listed to identify other appropriate contacts. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with Aboriginal participants and telephone interviews were undertaken with non-Aboriginal participants. All interviews were conducted using a standard schedule of questions as a guide, supplemented by clarifying and broadening questions from research team members. Data were analysed in a multi-stage process of collation, extraction of common themes and verification of themes with study participants and other stakeholders. Findings were presented to local Aboriginal leaders at a community meeting and a final report was prepared and circulated to community members. There was substantial evidence of widespread trust and positive relationships in this close

  12. Combined oral contraceptives' influence on weight, body composition, height, and bone mineral density in girls younger than 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warholm, Lina; Petersen, Kresten R; Ravn, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years.......Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years....

  13. Promoting Oral Health in 6-12 Year-Old Students: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Hazavehei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The group of 6-12 year-old students are the main target of oral health programs due to the high prevalence of dental caries and the formation of permanent teeth during this age and the lifestyle-shaping nature of the period. Schools provide the easiest and most effective means of accessing this group. The present study was conducted to examine the impact of school-based interventions on improved oral health in 6-12 year-old students. Materials and Methods: The present systematic review searched for its English and Persian keywords in databases such as the Scopus, Proquest, Science Direct, Pubmed, Springer, Biomed Central, Google Scholar, IranMedex and SID and examined studies published between January 2004 and September 2014 about educational interventions aiming to prevent oral diseases and promote associated health behaviors in students. Results: The 17 studies selected for examination were divided into two categories: first, assessing an education based on self-care behaviors and preventive services second, assessing an education based on self-care behaviors only. Those interventions that were consistent in nature, involved the parents and the school personnel, used behavior change models, used a combination of several training methods, used practical experiences and provided preventive services were more effective in promoting knowledge and health behaviors and reducing dental caries and plaque in this group of children. Conclusion: Providing consistent community-based education, using a combination of several organized educational programs, following up on the children's progress, using behavior change theories and models and providing prevention services are the most effective measures for achieving the desired goals.

  14. The oral rehabilitation and 5 years follow up of a patient with prepubertal periodontitis- one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelal Seyfioglu Polat

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethiologic, pathogenetic and host factors definition and classifications ofperiodontal diseases are done in many studies till nowadays. To regard these studiesprepubertal periodontitis is defined as early onset periodontitis.In our study it is aimed to present the treatment results of of apatient who isdiagnosed with prepubertal periodontitis, treated and followed up for five years.

  15. Oral health status and oral health behaviors of 12-year-old urban and rural school children in Udupi, Karnataka, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Singh Thakur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the oral health status and oral health behavior among 12-year-old urban and rural school children and to evaluate the relative effect of sociobehavioral risk factors on caries experience. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which included urban and rural subgroups of 12-year-old school children. The final study population covered two groups: 12 years rural (n = 261 and urban school children (n = 264. Data were collected and compared using Chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the importance of variables associated with dental caries. Results: Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were observed between rural and urban school children for the use of oral hygiene aids, frequency of tooth brushing, and dental services utilization. Dental caries level was significantly higher (P < 0.03 for rural children. Decayed teeth (DT component constituted majority of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (FT in both population. 55.6% of the rural school children required treatment compared to 42.4% of urban school children. Mean Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified values, mean DT, and FT were statistically significant for urban and rural school children. Logistic regression analysis showed that government or private school, dental care utilization, socioeconomic status, and malocclusion status were significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusion: Poor oral health and high treatment needs of children belonging to low socioeconomic background is an alarming situation. Strengthening of oral health care in the rural and underprivileged section should be priority of the policymakers.

  16. Clinical-epidemiological profile of oral allergy syndrome in the population aged 6 to 18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amyra Ali Azamar-Jácome

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral allergy syndrome (OAS or pollen-fruit syndrome is a type of food allergy. Its characteristics and associated allergens vary according to the studied population. There are few studies in Mexico about this topic, none in children. Objective: To describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of OAS among children in Mexico. Methods: A descriptive, observational, transversal and prospective study was conducted. We included every patient from 6 to 18 years old with diagnostic suspicion of OAS, in which complete clinical history, skin test to food and pollens, and oral food challenge were performed. Results: We found a prevalence of 5.3% (29 patients: 55% were males. Average age was 10 ± 3 years, and average number of food implicated were 6.8 ± 4.1. Apple, peach and banana, were the most frequent food associated, and sensitization to oak and European privet, the more prevalent pollens found in OAS. Conclusion: OAS is a common type of food allergy, transient and mild in nature. In more than 90% of the cases is associated with allergic rhinitis and sensitization to pollens. In our population, profilins may be involved in its pathogenesis. However, more studies are required to prove this.

  17. Implant-supported Oral Rehabilitation in Child with Ectodermal Dysplasia - 4-year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezária Triches, Thaisa; Ximenes, Marcos; Oliveira de Souza, João Gustavo; Rodrigues Lopes Pereira Neto, Armando; Cardoso, Antônio Carlos; Bolan, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an anomaly determined by genetic factors that alter ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, nails, glands, and teeth. Children affected by this condition require extensive, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary treatment. An 8-year-old female patient visited the Dentistry Clinic of the Federal University of Santa Catarina with the chief complaint of multiple missing teeth. The mother reported that the patient had ED. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed the congenital absence of several primary and permanent teeth and tooth germs. Subsequent oral rehabilitation comprised the application of a maxillary denture and mandibular implant-supported fixed prosthesis. The child was also supplied with a wig for further enhancement of esthetics aimed at improving her emotional wellbeing. Psychological follow-up and speech therapy were also provided. After 4 years of follow-up, implant-supported oral rehabilitation has proved to be a satisfactory treatment option, allowing restoration of masticatory, phonetic, and esthetic function, as well as an improvement in the patient's self-esteem and social wellbeing.

  18. Prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma cases for ten years in Qazvin province (2003-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Keshani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human cancers comprise a large group of diseases that despite modern methods of diagnosis and advanced treatment techniques its mortality rate is high. Considering the role of environmental and cultural factors in the prevalence of oral cancer, epidemiological studies have a great importance. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in the province of Qazvin in a period of ten years. Methods: In this descriptive - analytical study, the documents of 88 patients with OSCC that were recorded by the Qazvin Cancer Registry Center during 2003-13, were used. Demographic data including age, sex and location of lesions were extracted from patient records. Data analysis were performed using chi-square, t-test and fisher exact test. Findings: Among the 88 patients, the average age was 64.3±17.7. The male to female ratio was 1 to 1.37 and the most involved area was tongue with 39 cases (63.9%, and the lowest was upper lip with 1 case (1.6%. The most of the patients were in the age between 70-80 years old. Conclusions: Pattern of OSCC in this study was similar to the other studies but the number of females and the mean age of patient had increased. Also, the mean age of patients was increased in eight decades and the most involved area tongue was reported.

  19. Early productive vocabulary predicts academic achievement 10 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip

    2016-01-01

    comprehension, can be predicted from an early vocabulary measure as early as 16 months with effect sizes (in proportion of variance accounted for) comparable to one year’s mean growth in reading scores. The findings confirm in a relatively large population based study that late talkers are at risk for later...

  20. Supporting Child Participation in the Early Years of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Marion

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to conversations around child participation within early childhood settings in Australia. Ethnographic approach was used for this study to explore child participatory workshops in Early Childhood Centers. The center in which this study took place was chosen as one of the sites of analysis for a broader PhD research…

  1. Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, K; de Boisblanc, B P; Karam, G; Nelson, S; Haponik, E; Summer, W

    1998-08-01

    Our objective was to compare therapeutic outcome and analyse cost-benefit of a 'conventional' (7-day course of i.v. antibiotic therapy) vs. an abbreviated (2-day i.v. antibiotic course followed by 'switch' to oral antibiotics) therapy for in-patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We used a multicenter prospective, randomized, parallel group with a 28 day follow-up, at the University-based teaching hospitals: The Medical Center of Louisiana in New Orleans, LA and hospitals listed in the acknowledgement. Ninety-five patients were randomized to receive either a 'conventional' course of intravenous antibiotic therapy with cefamandole 1 g i.v. every 6 h for 7 days (n = 37), or an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy with cefamandole (1 g i.v. every 6 h for 2 days) followed by oral therapy with cefaclor (500 mg every 8 h for 5 days). No difference was found in the clinical courses, cure rates, survival or the resolution of the chest radiograph abnormalities among the two groups. The mean duration of therapy (6.88 days for the conventional group compared to 7-30 days for the early oral therapy group) and the frequencies of overall symptomatic improvement (97% vs. 95%, respectively) were similar in both groups. Patients who received early oral therapy had shorter hospital stays (7.3 vs. 9.71 days, P = 0.01), and a lower total cost of care ($2953 vs. $5002, P < 0.05). It was concluded that early transition to an oral antibiotic after an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy in CAP is substantially less expensive and has comparable efficacy to conventional intravenous therapy. Altering physicians' customary management of hospitalized patients with CAP can reduce costs with no appreciable additional risk of adverse patient outcome.

  2. The strength of two indicators of social position on oral health among persons over the age of 80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to analyze how two dimensions of social position, education and social class, are associated with oral health among generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 years. METHODS: The present investigation is based on a sample of 157...... community-dwelling individuals from The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) and included data from interviews and oral examinations. Social position was measured by education and social class. Oral health was measured by active coronal caries, active root caries, edentulism and use of dental...... of being edentulous. Further, persons with elementary/ medium education tended to forego regular dental services more than persons with high education. CONCLUSION: The study identified social inequalities in oral health even in a population of independently living, generally healthy very old Swedes...

  3. VETEM -- a very early time electromagnetic system -- year 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, L.; Pfeifer, M.C.; Labson, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    In electrically conductive conditions common in environmental characterization studies the minimum depth of investigation for traditional electromagnetic (EM) sounding techniques is roughly 5 meters, while ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems often investigate no more than the top meter or so when clay minerals are present in the soil. Bridging this gap is essential to the characterization of buried waste, contaminant plumes, and other environmental and hydrogeological targets located in the shallow subsurface. The Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) system is designed to ascertain the conductivity and dielectric properties of the shallow subsurface in conductive terrain. Hence, the one-dimensional (1-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling algorithms, developed in the first year of the project, contain the full solution to the EM problem including both displacement and conduction currents. The VETEM system fills a gap between EM and GPR, but all three methods are necessary to successfully image the shallow subsurface. To achieve the goal of fully 3-D subsurface imaging, the VETEM project is hosting the Electromagnetic Integrated Demonstration (EMID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Cold Test Pit (INEL's CTP). Over a dozen EM systems will acquire data over the same survey area for interpretation in conjunction with the VETEM team. The prototype time-domain instrument employs a magnetic dipole transmitter and receiver and operates from 10 nano-second to a micro-second. The USGS high frequency sounder (HFS), which served as the VETEM proof-of-concept, uses the same antenna geometry as the time-domain instrument and acquires data from 30 kHz to 30 MHz. The first VETEM survey was recently conducted at the INEL's CTP as a part of the EMID. The electromagnetic migration technique is being investigated for interpretation of the VETEM data

  4. Dental caries and oral health behavior in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Moradabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Kabasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. It is important to organize community-oriented oral health promotion programs, so that information on oral health status and oral health behavior can be obtained. Aim: To investigate the caries experienced and oral health behavior in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Moradabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Five hundred and twelve schoolchildren (256 private and 256 government 12 year old schoolchildren were selected through multistage random sampling procedure. Dental caries was recorded using Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT/Decayed, Missing, Filled Surface (DMFS index. Data on oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavioral practices were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Results: The mean DMFT/DMFS among private schoolchildren (1.90 ± 1.46/3.24 ± 3.18 was significantly higher than the government schoolchildren (1.54 ± 1.34/2.22 ± 2.42. The survey found that 26.95% of the private and 19.53% of the government schoolchildren brushed their teeth regularly (twice a day with toothbrush and toothpaste. The study participants also reported having hidden sugar at least once a day: Sweets (34.77% of the private schoolchildren and 25% of the government schoolchildren and tea/coffee with sugar (61.33% of the private schoolchildren and 54.29% of the government schoolchildren. Dental visits of both private and government schoolchildren were poor. Conclusion: The difference in oral health behavior among the private and government schoolchildren may have influenced the DMFT/DMFS values and provided knowledge about the disease experience. In addition to preventing oral disease and promoting oral health, the local health authorities should give priority to school-based community-oriented oral healthcare services.

  5. Conservative neck dissection in oral cancer patients: A 5 years retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mahadzir Wan Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ablative oral cancer surgery was studied, with reference to recurrence and nodal metastasis,  survival probability and prognostic indicators and to determine if ethnicity influences the survival of patients. Patients who underwent major ablative surgery of the head and neck region with neck dissection were identified and assessed. Those with stage I-IV oral and oropharyngeal malignancies necessitating resection with or without radiotherapy from 2004 to 2009 were included in this study. All individuals had a pre-operative assessment and post operative assessment. Survival distributions were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Eighty seven patients (males: 38%; females: 62% were included in this study, with an age range of 21-85 years. Some 78% underwent neck dissections while 63% had surgery and radiotherapy. Nodal and primary site recurrence was 5.7% and 20.5%. The median survival time was 57 months. One year Overall Survival (OS rate was 72.7% and three year overall survival rate 61.5%. The log-rank test showed a significant difference of survival between Malay and Chinese patients (Bonferroni correction p=0.033. Recurrence-Free Survival (RFS analysis revealed that 25% of the patients have reached the event of recurrence at 46 months. The three year survival rate was 76.1%. In the RFS analysis, the log-rank test showed a significant difference in the event of recurrence and nodal metastasis (p<0.001. Conservative neck effectively controls neck metastases. Ethnicity influence  survival.

  6. Beta Testing an Oral Health Edutainment Card Game Among 12-13-Year-Old Children in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikiran, Arkalgud Govindraju; Vadavi, Deepti; Shruti, Tulika

    2017-12-01

    Card games are easy, cost effective, culturally acceptable, as well as sustainable and require minimal infrastructure over other edutainment approaches in achieving health and oral health promotion goals. Therefore, we wanted to conceptualize, develop, and beta test an innovative oral health edutainment card game for preadolescent children in Bangalore, India. An innovative oral health card game, titled "32 warriors" was conceptualized and developed to incorporate age appropriate, medically accurate oral health information. The card game aimed at empowering children to take appropriate care of their oral health. The card game was beta tested on 45 children, aged between 12 and 13 years. Using prepost design, a 32-itemed, closed-ended questionnaire assessed children's oral health knowledge, attitude, and feedback on the game. Change in mean scores for knowledge and attitude was assessed using "Wilcoxon Sign Rank test" at P game and learned new things about oral health. The card game is appealing to children and improves their oral health knowledge and attitude as evidenced by beta test results. We need to further explore the demand, feasibility, and cost effectiveness of introducing this game in formal settings (school based)/informal settings (family and other social settings).

  7. Late (> 5 years) regional lymph node metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), proven by p53 mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummer, J. Alain; Van Es, Robert J. J.; Hoekstra, J.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A late (>5 years) neck nodal metastasis of oral cancer, poses a problem to the clinician: is it a late metastasis or a metastasis of a (unknown) second primary tumour? Methods: A 50-year-old male was seen with a contralateral lymph node metastasis, 51/2 years after treatment of a pT2N1M0

  8. Physical and chemical stability of proflavine contrast agent solutions for early detection of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawedia, Jitesh D; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Myers, Alan L; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Kramer, Mark A; Gillenwater, Ann M; Culotta, Kirk S

    2016-02-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate solution is a fluorescence contrast agent to visualize cell nuclei using high-resolution optical imaging devices such as the high-resolution microendoscope. These devices provide real-time imaging to distinguish between normal versus neoplastic tissue. These images could be helpful for early screening of oral cancer and its precursors and to determine accurate margins of malignant tissue for ablative surgery. Extemporaneous preparation of proflavine solution for these diagnostic procedures requires preparation in batches and long-term storage to improve compounding efficiency in the pharmacy. However, there is a paucity of long-term stability data for proflavine contrast solutions. The physical and chemical stability of 0.01% (10 mg/100 ml) proflavine hemisulfate solutions prepared in sterile water was determined following storage at refrigeration (4-8℃) and room temperature (23℃). Concentrations of proflavine were measured at predetermined time points up to 12 months using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Proflavine solutions stored under refrigeration were physically and chemically stable for at least 12 months with concentrations ranging from 95% to 105% compared to initial concentration. However, in solutions stored at room temperature increased turbidity and particulates were observed in some of the tested vials at 9 months and 12 months with peak particle count reaching 17-fold increase compared to baseline. Solutions stored at room temperature were chemically stable up to six months (94-105%). Proflavine solutions at concentration of 0.01% were chemically and physically stable for at least 12 months under refrigeration. The solution was chemically stable for six months when stored at room temperature. We recommend long-term storage of proflavine solutions under refrigeration prior to diagnostic procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. A 10-year analysis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma profile in patients from public health centers in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Cosetti OLIVEIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics and predictive factors of poor prognosis in patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in Uruguay. Medical records of patients with the diagnosis of primary OSCC treated between 2000 and 2010 in Uruguayan public hospitals were selected. Data on demographic characteristics, risk factors, clinical features, treatment, and outcome were collected. Associations of independent variables with outcomes were assessed using Pearson chi-squared and Fisher's tests. Of 200 patients with OSCC, 79.4% were men (3.8:1 male:female ratio, with a mean age of 60.75 ± 11.26 years. Tobacco and alcohol consumption were reported by 85.3% and 63.5% of patients, respectively. The most commonly affected location was the tongue (42.5%, with lesions exhibiting ulcerous aspects in 87.9% of cases and pain at the time of diagnosis in 70.4% of cases. One hundred sixty-one (82.1% patients had advanced-stage (III/IV OSCC. Surgery was the most common treatment option, and the overall 5-year survival rate was 58.5%. Univariate analysis showed that the predictors of poor prognosis were clinical aspect, size, regional metastasis, clinical stage, and treatment. In Uruguay, OSCC is diagnosed late, which is associated with a low survival rate. Educational and preventive measures and investment to improve early diagnosis should be undertaken.

  10. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: a five-year national case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Edström, Birgitte; Kreiner, Svend

    2002-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism; Oral contraceptives; Pulmonary embolism; Third-generation; Second-generation; Pill Scare......Venous thromboembolism; Oral contraceptives; Pulmonary embolism; Third-generation; Second-generation; Pill Scare...

  11. Socioeconomic status affects oral and manual exploration across the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Melissa W; Bailey, Lillian S; Jenne, Helen K; Stanger, Sarah B; Tacke, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Oral and manual exploration are part of the foundation of problem solving and cognition in infancy. How these develop in an at-risk population, infants in poverty, is unknown. The current study tested exploratory behaviors longitudinally at 6, 9, and 12 months in infants from high- and low-socioeconomic (SES) families. Oral exploration consisted of passive and active mouthing and looks after active mouthing. Manual exploration consisted of frequency of fingering, rotating, and transferring the object. High-SES infants replicated the trajectory previously reported in the literature, showing a decrease in mouthing and fingering and an increase in rotating and transferring (e.g., Palmer, 1989). In contrast, low-SES infants showed no change in any of the manual exploratory behaviors over the first year, thus demonstrating reduced overall levels of exploration as well as a different developmental trajectory. Results are discussed in terms of attention, potential physiological mechanisms, and implications for later problem solving. © 2013 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. Association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with subjective oral health status and oral functions in Korean adults aged 35 years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Han-Na; Lee, Jung-Ha; Kim, Se-Yeon; Jun, Eun-Joo; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2017-06-23

    Oral health greatly affects well-being throughout the different stages of life from childhood to late adulthood. Loss of teeth due to poor oral health hinders mastication, leading to poor nutrition absorption, and affects pronunciation and aesthetics, leading to interpersonal difficulties. As social activities become limited, a sense of isolation and loneliness, stress, and depression grows while happiness decreases. This study aimed to examine the association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with oral health status and oral functions in a large nationwide sample of Korean adults aged 35 years or more. The sample comprised 15,716 adults, selected using a rolling survey sampling method and data were extracted from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2010-2012). Participants were interviewed about their self-evaluation of health including oral health status and mental health, such as stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Data from 11,347 adults were finally selected after excluding participants with missing answers. The dependent variables were stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. The independent variables were gender, age, household income, education, smoking, drinking, oral health perception, chewing, and speaking. Complex samples logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Participants met the criteria for stress (25.4%), depression (13.0%), and suicidal ideation (13.9%). Subjective oral health status was not significantly associated with stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. However, the presence of very uncomfortable chewing problems was significantly associated with stress (OR = 2.294, 95% CI = 1.41, 3.72), depression (OR = 3.232, 95% CI = 1.97, 5.31), and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.727, 95% CI = 1.58, 4.72). The presence of very uncomfortable speaking problems was significantly associated with stress (OR

  13. Oral health status among 12 and 15 year old children from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio‑economic background. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between ...

  14. The results of CO2 laser surgery in patients with oral leukoplakia : a 25 year follow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hem, PS; Nauta, JM; van der Wal, JE; Roodenburg, JLN

    Oral leukoplakia, is an important premalignant Lesion of the oral mucosa. We treat this Lesion prophylactically with CO2 laser evaporation. In the period from 1976 to 2001, a group of 200 patients with 282 oral leukoplakias were treated by CO2 laser evaporation. In a follow up period of 1-219 months

  15. Common risk indicators for oral diseases and obesity in 12-year-olds: a South Pacific cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie; Pichot, Hélène; Rouchon, Bernard; Pereira, Bruno; Hennequin, Martine

    2018-01-08

    Despite the increasing need to prevent obesity and oral diseases in adolescents worldwide, few studies have investigated the link existing between these conditions and their common risk factors. This study aims to evaluate the oral health and weight status of New Caledonian Children (aged 6,9,12 years) and to identify, amongst 12-year-olds, risk indicators that may characterize the groups of children affected by oral diseases, obesity or both diseases. This survey evaluated in 2011-2012 the oral health and stature-weight status and related risk indicators in a national representative sample of 6, 9 and 12 years-old children in New Caledonia. Dental status, chewing efficiency, height, weight and waist circumference were clinically recorded at school. The body mass index (BMI) and the waist to height ratio (WtHR) were calculated. For BMI the WHO Cut-offs were used. Twelve years-old participants responded to a questionnaire concerning socio-demographic and behavioural variables. For statistical analysis, the Clinical Oral and Global Health Index (COGHI) was developed and used. Twelve years-old children were categorised into four groups; Oral Diseases (ODG), Obesity (OG), Obesity and Oral Diseases (ODOG) and a Healthy Group (HG). A multivariate analysis was conducted using mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression models. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was greatly increasing from 6 years (respectively 10.8% [8.8;13.3] and 7.8% [6.0;9.9]) to 12 years (respectively 22.2% [19.9;24.7] and 20.5% [18.2;22.9]) and one third of the 12-yr-olds had an excess of abdominal adiposity. At age 12, 36.6% of the children were healthy (HG), 27.3% had oral diseases (ODG), 19.7% were obese (OG) and 16.5% had both conditions (ODOG). Geographical location, ethnicity, tooth-brushing frequency and masticatory disability were significant risk factors for the OG, ODOG and ODG groups. Ethnicity and masticatory impairment were common risk indicators for the association of oral

  16. FDI-Unilever Brush Day & Night partnership: 12 years of improving behaviour for better oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Kathryn; Aymerich, Marie-Anne; Horn, Virginie

    2018-05-01

    Twelve years ago, FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care began a partnership to raise awareness of oral health globally. This aim reflects FDI's mission to "lead the world to optimal oral health", and one of the goals set by the Unilever Sustainable Living Plan "to improve health and well-being for more than 1 billion" by 2020. This partnership has developed a series of public health programmes to improve the brushing habits of targeted populations through health promotion and educational campaigns worldwide. Building on the success of the first two phases of the partnership, the third phase (Phase III), named Brush Day & Night, aimed to educate children in brushing twice-daily with fluoride toothpaste via a 21 Day school programme. This article reports the main outcomes of the past 12 years of this partnership, in particular the key outreach and figures of Phase III evaluation. School programmes were implemented in 10 countries, where local teams collected data from children aged between 2 and 12 years to monitor their oral health behaviours using specific indicators. In addition to the school programme, the World Oral Health Day was used as a vehicle to convey oral health awareness to influential governing bodies and the public. As a result, over 4 million people were directly reached by the programme in 2016. © 2018 FDI World Dental Federation.

  17. Darier′s disease - Oral, general and histopathological features in a 7 year old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi Dharman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Darier′s disease, also known as keratosis follicularis, is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, manifesting clinically as hyperkeratotic, firm papule that predominates in the seborrheic areas and flexures with accompanying nail abnormalities. Heat, sweating, sunlight, and stress are exacerbating factors of the lesion. The oral lesions are asymptomatic and comprise multiple white papules in the buccal mucosa and hard palate, giving a cobblestone appearance, and it is characterized histologically by loss of desmosomal adhesion and abnormal keratinization resulting in mucocutaneous abnormalities. Pruritus, recurrent infections, and malodor can decrease the quality of life. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy with clinical and histological features of Darier′s disease.

  18. A review of therapeutic results in oral cancer patients 70 years or older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizutani, Kiminari; Kikuchi, Yuko; Koseki, Yonoshin

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-four patients aged 70 years or older were treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity between 1980 and 1990 at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Twenty-six patients received primary external irradiation with relatively low dose (30 Gy) combined with peplomycin. According to the T category, the 5-year survival rate was 49% for T1 and T2 and 35% for T3 and T4. Based on the treatment modality, the 5-year survival rate was 59% for radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy plus surgical treatment, 43% for radiotherapy plus chemotherapy, and 38% for radiotherapy alone. The combined use of peplomycin with external irradiation (30 Gy) was found very effective as an initial trial for patients aged 70 years or older in view of survival time. Therefore, a small dose (30 Gy) of external irradiation combined with peplomycin would also be significantly useful for patients who refuse surgery or have inoperable carcinoma. (J.P.N.)

  19. Early Oral Ovalbumin Exposure during Maternal Milk Feeding Prevents Spontaneous Allergic Sensitization in Allergy-Prone Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaweyah El-Merhibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data to support the practice of delaying the introduction of allergenic foods into the infant diet to prevent allergy development. This study investigated immune response development after early oral egg antigen (Ovalbumin; OVA exposure in a rat pup model. Brown Norway (BN rat pups were randomly allocated into groups: dam reared (DR, DR pups challenged daily (days 4–13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAc, DR pups challenged intermittently (on day 4, 10, 12, and 13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAi, formula-fed pups (FF, and FF pups challenged daily with oral OVA (FF + OVA. Immune parameters assessed included OVA-specific serum IgE, IgG1, and IgA. Ileal and splenic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1, mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad 2/4/7, and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 were determined. Ileum was stained for TGF-β1 and Smad4. Results. Feeding OVA daily to DR pups maintained systemic and local gut antibody and immunoregulatory marker mRNA responses. Systemic TGF-β1 was lower in DR + OVAi pups compared to DR and DR + OVAc pups. Feeding OVA to FF pups resulted in significantly greater OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and lower IgA and TGF-β1 and Smad expression compared to DR pups. Conclusions. Early daily OVA exposure in the presence of maternal milk maintains immune markers associated with a regulated immune response, preventing early allergic sensitization.

  20. Communication outcomes for groups of children using cochlear implants enrolled in auditory-verbal, aural-oral, and bilingual-bicultural early intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettman, Shani; Wall, Elizabeth; Constantinescu, Gabriella; Dowell, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The relative impact of early intervention approach on speech perception and language skills was examined in these 3 well-matched groups of children using cochlear implants. Eight children from an auditory verbal intervention program were identified. From a pediatric database, researchers blind to the outcome data, identified 23 children from auditory oral programs and 8 children from bilingual-bicultural programs with the same inclusion criteria and equivalent demographic factors. All child participants were male, had congenital profound hearing loss (pure tone average >80 dBHL), no additional disabilities, were within the normal IQ range, were monolingual English speakers, had no unusual findings on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, and received hearing aids and cochlear implants at a similar age and before 4 years of age. Open-set speech perception (consonant-nucleus-consonant [CNC] words and Bamford-Kowal-Bench [BKB] sentences) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) were administered. The mean age at cochlear implant was 1.7 years (range, 0.8-3.9; SD, 0.7), mean test age was 5.4 years (range, 2.5-10.1; SD, 1.7), and mean device experience was 3.7 years (range, 0.7-7.9; SD, 1.8). Results indicate mean CNC scores of 60%, 43%, and 24% and BKB scores of 77%, 77%, and 56% for the auditory-verbal (AV), aural-oral (AO), and bilingual-bicultural (BB) groups, respectively. The mean PPVT delay was 13, 19, and 26 months for AV, AO, and BB groups, respectively. Despite equivalent child demographic characteristics at the outset of this study, by 3 years postimplant, there were significant differences in AV, AO, and BB groups. Results support consistent emphasis on oral/aural input to achieve optimum spoken communication outcomes for children using cochlear implants.

  1. Amplification and protein overexpression of cyclin D1: Predictor of occult nodal metastasis in early oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlag, Rob; Boeve, Koos; Witjes, Max J H; Koole, Ronald; Peeters, Ton L M; Schuuring, Ed; Willems, Stefan M; van Es, Robert J J

    2017-02-01

    Accurate nodal staging is pivotal for treatment planning in early (stage I-II) oral cancer. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack sensitivity to detect occult nodal metastases. Chromosomal region 11q13, including genes CCND1, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), and CTTN, is often amplified in oral cancer with nodal metastases. However, evidence in predicting occult nodal metastases is limited. In 158 patients with early tongue and floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinomas, both CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1, FADD, and cortactin protein expression were correlated with occult nodal metastases. CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression correlated with occult nodal metastases. Cyclin D1 expression was validated in an independent multicenter cohort, confirming the correlation with occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Cyclin D1 is a predictive biomarker for occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Prospective research on biopsy material should confirm these results before implementing its use in routine clinical practice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 326-333, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Sustaining Care: Cultivating Mindful Practice in Early Years Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…

  3. Music in the Early Years: Pathways into the Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Two assumptions that underlie much research in early childhood music education are that music is a social endeavor and musical participation is beneficial to children's overall social development. As members of cultural and social groups, young children engage with music in a multitude of ways and with different companions. This article examines…

  4. The early years of string theory: The dual resonance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1987-10-01

    This paper reviews the past quantum mechanical history of the dual resonance model which is an early string theory. The content of this paper is listed as follows: historical review, the Veneziano amplitude, the operator formalism, the ghost story, and the string story

  5. iPads: Improving Numeracy Learning in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peta

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mobile technologies is now an emergency theme in educational research, yet the playing of these edutainment applications and their impact on early childhood learning needs to be fully explored. This study highlights current research and explores how iPads improve student learning. It also examines how the introduction of iPads,…

  6. High incidence of oral corticosteroids prescriptions in children with asthma in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabkhazaeli, A.; Vijverberg, S.J.H.; Van Der Ent, C. Kors; Raaijmakers, J.A.M.; van der Zee, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe asthma exacerbations are often treated with short courses of oral corticosteroids (OCS). This study assessed the incidence of OCS being prescribed in asthmatic children of various age groups and calculated their chances of receiving subsequent OCS prescriptions. METHODS:

  7. Factor structure of a conceptual model of oral health tested among 65-year olds in Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven

    2010-04-01

    No studies have tested oral health-related quality of life models in dentate older adults across different populations. To test the factor structure of oral health outcomes within Gilbert's conceptual model among 65-year olds in Sweden and Norway. It was hypothesized that responses to 14 observed indicators could be explained by three correlated factors, symptom status, functional limitations and oral disadvantages, that each observed oral health indicator would associate more strongly with the factor it is supposed to measure than with competing factors and that the proposed 3-factor structure would possess satisfactory cross-national stability with 65-year olds in Norway and Sweden. In 2007, 6078 Swedish- and 4062 Norwegian adults borne in 1942 completed mailed questionnaires including oral symptoms, functional limitations and the eight item Oral Impacts on Daily Performances inventory. Model generation analysis was restricted to the Norwegian study group and the model achieved was tested without modifications in Swedish 65-year olds. A modified 3-factor solution with cross-loadings, improved the fit to the data compared with a 2-factor- and the initially proposed 3-factor model among the Norwegian [comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.97] and Swedish (CFI = 0.98) participants. All factor loadings for the modified 3-factor model were in the expected direction and were statistically significant at CR > 1. Multiple group confirmatory factor analyses, with Norwegian and Swedish data simultaneously revealed acceptable fit for the unconstrained model (CFI = 0.97), whereas unconstrained and constrained models were statistically significant different in nested model comparison. Within construct validity of Gilbert's model was supported with Norwegian and Swedish 65-year olds, indicating that the 14-item questionnaire reflected three constructs; symptom status, functional limitation and oral disadvantage. Measurement invariance was confirmed at the level of factor structure

  8. [Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Tommaso; Küffer, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the skin, skin appendages and mucous membranes, which frequently affects the oral mucosa. Its aetiology still remains unknown, and currently accepted pathogenesis is that of an autoimmune cell-mediated disease. To the contrary of skin lichen planus, oral lichen planus is a long-term chronic disease with dynamic evolution, in which progressive and profound changes of the clinical and histopathological aspects occur over time and under the influence of various exogenous factors. By convention, in the history of the oral lichen planus four successive stages can be distinguished without well-defined boundaries between them. These stages can be defined as an initial phase; a long intermediate phase with alternating periods of activity and quiescence, which has a gradually increasing risk of malignant transformation; a late stage which activity is traditionally diminished; and a post-lichen cicatricial stage with an absent or negligible and undetectable activity, often undiagnosed because clinically unrecognized; in this stage, the lesion does not respond to usual treatments, but retains the same risk of malignant transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. A case of tardive ulcer of the oral mucosa that appeared 17 years after irrdiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Kazuma; Nishida, Mitsuo; Chen, Lianq-Horng; Iizuka, Tadahiko

    1993-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman was referred to us on July 11, 1990 with complaints of dysphagia and a painful ulcer in the right retromolar and tonsillar areas. She had a previous history of surgery for tonsillar cancer (squamous cell carcinoma), followed by postoperative 60 Co external irradiation to the lateral region of the neck with 50.8 Gy and implantation of Rn-seeds about 17 years before. The postoperative course had been uneventful without recurrence or metastasis. Oral findings showed a large ulcer of 30 mm in diameter surrounded by submucosal tumor-like protrusion in the right retromolar and tonsillar areas. The ulcer including the surrounding tissue was extirpated because conservative treatment had been ineffective. But histological examination revealed nonspecific ulcer surrounded by fibrous granulation tissue with atypical fibroblasts and hyalinization of arterioles. Based on the patient's clinical findings, previous medical history and histological examination, the lesion was diagnosed as a postradiation ulcer that appeared 17 years after irradiation. (author)

  10. Showing up Matters: Newark Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter; Rice, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 180-day school year, any student who misses 18 days or more per year--or about two days per month--is considered chronically absent. An alarming 4,328 Newark students in grades kindergarten through 3rd grade were chronically absent during the 2013-14 school year. When young students miss too much school, they will likely struggle…

  11. Risk indicators of oral health status among young adults aged 18 years analyzed by negative binomial regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Xia; Wong, May Chun Mei; Lo, Edward Chin Man; McGrath, Colman

    2013-08-19

    Limited information on oral health status for young adults aged 18 year-olds is known, and no available data exists in Hong Kong. The aims of this study were to investigate the oral health status and its risk indicators among young adults in Hong Kong using negative binomial regression. A survey was conducted in a representative sample of Hong Kong young adults aged 18 years. Clinical examinations were taken to assess oral health status using DMFT index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to WHO criteria. Negative binomial regressions for DMFT score and the number of sextants with healthy gums were performed to identify the risk indicators of oral health status. A total of 324 young adults were examined. Prevalence of dental caries experience among the subjects was 59% and the overall mean DMFT score was 1.4. Most subjects (95%) had a score of 2 as their highest CPI score. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that subjects who had a dental visit within 3 years had significantly higher DMFT scores (IRR = 1.68, p < 0.001). Subjects who brushed their teeth more frequently (IRR = 1.93, p < 0.001) and those with better dental knowledge (IRR = 1.09, p = 0.002) had significantly more sextants with healthy gums. Dental caries experience of the young adults aged 18 years in Hong Kong was not high but their periodontal condition was unsatisfactory. Their oral health status was related to their dental visit behavior, oral hygiene habit, and oral health knowledge.

  12. Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhor, K.; Shetty, V.; Garcha, V.; Nimbulkar, G. C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. Materials and Methods: A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12–17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A (n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B (n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t-test. Results: The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. Conclusion: OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille. PMID:27891313

  13. Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12-17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhor, K; Shetty, V; Garcha, V; Nimbulkar, G C

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12-17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12-17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A ( n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B ( n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t -test. The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille.

  14. Influence of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life in the elderly: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Kaori; Matsuda, Ken-Ich; Ikebe, Kazunori; Murai, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Minoru; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Thomson, William Murray

    2014-06-01

    Xerostomia and tooth loss are major oral health problems in the elderly. The aim of this longitudinal study was to characterize the influence of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among elderly Japanese people. A total of 99 community-dwelling, independently living individuals aged 60 years and older were interviewed and underwent dental examination at baseline and at a 5-year follow-up. The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 and the Xerostomia Inventory were used to assess OHRQoL and xerostomia severity, respectively. Participants whose xerostomia worsened over the 5-year period had a significantly poorer follow-up OHRQoL. Linear regression models showed that tooth loss and worsening xerostomia were significant predictors of poorer follow-up OHRQoL. Tooth loss and worsening xerostomia result in poorer OHRQoL among older Japanese people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 15 years of research on Oral-Facial-Digital syndromes: from 1 to 16 causal genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruel, Ange-Line; Franco, Brunella; Duffourd, Yannis; Thevenon, Julien; Jego, Laurence; Lopez, Estelle; Deleuze, Jean-François; Doummar, Diane; Giles, Rachel H.; Johnson, Colin A.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Chevrier, Véronique; Burglen, Lydie; Morleo, Manuela; Desguerres, Isabelle; Pierquin, Geneviève; Doray, Bérénice; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Reversade, Bruno; Steichen-Gersdorf, Elisabeth; Baumann, Clarisse; Panigrahi, Inusha; Fargeot-Espaliat, Anne; Dieux, Anne; David, Albert; Goldenberg, Alice; Bongers, Ernie; Gaillard, Dominique; Argente, Jesús; Aral, Bernard; Gigot, Nadège; St-Onge, Judith; Birnbaum, Daniel; Phadke, Shubha R.; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Eguether, Thibaut; Pazour, Gregory J.; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Lee, Jaclyn S.; Pasquier, Laurent; Loget, Philippe; Saunier, Sophie; Mégarbané, André; Rosnet, Olivier; Leroux, Michel R.; Wallingford, John B.; Blacque, Oliver E.; Nachury, Maxence V.; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Faivre, Laurence; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel

    2017-01-01

    Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) gather rare genetic disorders characterized by facial, oral and digital abnormalities associated with a wide range of additional features (polycystic kidney disease, cerebral malformations and several others) to delineate a growing list of OFD subtypes. The most frequent, OFD type I, is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the OFD1 gene encoding a centrosomal protein. The wide clinical heterogeneity of OFDS suggests the involvement of other ciliary genes. For 15 years, we have aimed to identify the molecular bases of OFDS. This effort has been greatly helped by the recent development of whole exome sequencing (WES). Here, we present all our published and unpublished results for WES in 24 OFDS cases. We identified causal variants in five new genes (C2CD3, TMEM107, INTU, KIAA0753, IFT57) and related the clinical spectrum of four genes in other ciliopathies (C5orf42, TMEM138, TMEM231, WDPCP) to OFDS. Mutations were also detected in two genes previously implicated in OFDS. Functional studies revealed the involvement of centriole elongation, transition zone and intraflagellar transport defects in OFDS, thus characterizing three ciliary protein modules: the complex KIAA0753-FOPNL-OFD1, a regulator of centriole elongation; the MKS module, a major component of the transition zone; and the CPLANE complex necessary for IFT-A assembly. OFDS now appear to be a distinct subgroup of ciliopathies with wide heterogeneity, which makes the initial classification obsolete. A clinical classification restricted to the three frequent/well-delineated subtypes could be proposed, and for patients who do not fit one of these 3 main subtypes, a further classification could be based on the genotype. PMID:28289185

  16. Can Early Years Professionals Determine Which Preschoolers Have Comprehension Delays? A Comparison of Two Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Emily; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension delays in pre-schoolers are predictive of difficulties in a range of developmental domains. In England, early years practitioners are required to assess the language comprehension of 2-year-olds in their care. Many use a format based on the Early Years Foundation Stage Unique Child Communication Sheet (EYFS:UCCS) in which…

  17. Emergency contraception with a copper IUD or oral levonorgestrel: an observational study of 1-year pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turok, David K; Jacobson, Janet C; Dermish, Amna I; Simonsen, Sara E; Gurtcheff, Shawn; McFadden, Molly; Murphy, Patricia A

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the 1-year pregnancy rates for emergency contraception (EC) users who selected the copper T380 intrauterine device (IUD) or oral levonorgestrel (LNG) for EC. This prospective study followed women for 1 year after choosing either the copper T380 IUD or oral LNG for EC. The study was powered to detect a 6% difference in pregnancy rates within the year after presenting for EC. Of the 542 women who presented for EC, agreed to participate in the trial and met the inclusion criteria, 215 (40%) chose the copper IUD and 327 (60%) chose oral LNG. In the IUD group, 127 (59%) were nulligravid. IUD insertion failed in 42 women (19%). The 1-year follow-up rate was 443/542 (82%); 64% of IUD users contacted at 1 year still had their IUDs in place. The 1-year cumulative pregnancy rate in women choosing the IUD was 6.5% vs. 12.2% in those choosing oral LNG [hazard ratio (HR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29-0.97, p=.041]. By type of EC method actually received, corresponding values were 5.2% for copper IUD users vs. 12.3% for oral LNG users (HR 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.85, p=.017). A multivariable logistic regression model controlling for demographic variables demonstrates that women who chose the IUD for EC had fewer pregnancies in the following year than those who chose oral LNG (HR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.26-0.96, p=.037). One year after presenting for EC, women choosing the copper IUD for EC were half as likely to have a pregnancy compared to those choosing oral LNG. Compared to EC users who choose oral levonorgestrel, those who select the copper IUD have lower rates of pregnancy in the next year. Greater use of the copper IUD for EC may lower rates of unintended pregnancy in high-risk women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, J; Hietanen, J

    2012-01-01

    as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral......In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must...... medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide...

  19. Prediction of lymphatic metastasis based on gene expression profile analysis after brachytherapy for early-stage oral tongue carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Mogushi, Kaoru; Miura, Masahiko; Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Noda, Shuhei; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The management of lymphatic metastasis of early-stage oral tongue carcinoma patients is crucial for its prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of lymphatic metastasis after brachytherapy (BRT) for early-stage tongue carcinoma based on gene expression profiling. Patients and methods: Pre-therapeutic biopsies from 39 patients with T1 or T2 tongue cancer were analyzed for gene expression signatures using Codelink Uniset Human 20K Bioarray. All patients were treated with low dose-rate BRT for their primary lesions and underwent strict follow-up under a wait-and-see policy for cervical lymphatic metastasis. Candidate genes were selected for predicting lymph-node status in the reference group by the permutation test. Predictive accuracy was further evaluated by the prediction strength (PS) scoring system using an independent validation group. Results: We selected a set of 19 genes whose expression differed significantly between classes with or without lymphatic metastasis in the reference group. The lymph-node status in the validation group was predicted by the PS scoring system with an accuracy of 76%. Conclusions: Gene expression profiling using 19 genes in primary tumor tissues may allow prediction of lymphatic metastasis after BRT for early-stage oral tongue carcinoma

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma from oral lichen planus: a case report of a lesion with 28 years of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Wanessa da Silva; Bottezini, Ezequiel Gregolin; Linden, Maria Salete; Rinaldi, Isadora; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; de Carli, João Paulo; Trentin, Micheline; Dos Santos, Pâmela Letícia

    2017-12-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common mucocutaneous disease with autoimmune etiology. Considering its malignancy potential, it is important to define the correct diagnosis, treatment, and clinical follow-up for patients with LP so that the disease is not diagnosed late, thus hindering the chances of curing the disease. This study aims to describe a clinical case of oral squamous cell carcinoma, potentially originated from LP. The patient is undergoing clinical and histopathological follow-up. A 64-year-old Caucasian male patient presented with a proliferative verrucous lesion on the tongue and sought treatment at the School of Dentistry, University of Passo Fundo (UPF), Passo Fundo, Brazil. He claimed the lesion had been present since 1988, and had been initially diagnoses as "oral lichen planus." The physical exam presented three diagnostic hypotheses: plaque-like oral LP, verrucous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. After incisional biopsy and histopathological analysis, squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed, probably originating from oral LP. The case study shows that malignancy from oral LP is possible, which justifies periodic clinical and histopathological follow-up, as well as the elimination of risk factors for carcinoma in patients with oral LP.

  1. The added value of SPECT-CT for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes in early stage oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toom, Inne J. den; Bree, Remco de; Schie, Annelies van; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Weert, Stijn van; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Bloemena, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    To assess the role of single-photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT-CT) for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with early stage (T1-T2) oral cancer and a clinically negative neck (cN0). In addition to planar lymphoscintigraphy, SPECT-CT was performed in 66 consecutive patients with early stage oral cancer and a clinically negative neck. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar images was retrospectively analyzed for the number of additional SLNs, more precise localization of SLNs, and importance of anatomical information by a team consisting of a nuclear physician, surgeon, and investigator. Identification rate for both imaging modalities combined was 98% (65/66). SPECT-CT identified 15 additional SLNs in 14 patients (22%). In 2/15 (13%) of these additional SLNs, the only metastasis was found, resulting in an upstaging rate of 3% (2/65). In 20% of the patients with at least one positive SLN, the only positive SLN was detected due to the addition of SPECT-CT. SPECT-CT was considered to add important anatomical information in two patients (3%). In 5/65 (8%) of the patients initially scored SLNs on planar lymphoscintigrams were scored as non-SLNs when SPECT-CT was added. There were four false-negative SLN biopsy procedures in this cohort. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar lymphoscintigraphy is recommended for the identification of more (positive) SLNs and better topographical orientation for surgery in sentinel lymph node biopsy for early stage oral cancer. (orig.)

  2. The added value of SPECT-CT for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes in early stage oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toom, Inne J. den; Bree, Remco de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UMC Utrecht Cancer Center, University Medical Center, Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schie, Annelies van; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Weert, Stijn van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Karagozoglu, K.H. [VU University Medical Center/Academic Centre for Dentistry (ACTA) Amsterdam, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bloemena, Elisabeth [VU University Medical Center/Academic Centre for Dentistry (ACTA) Amsterdam, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    To assess the role of single-photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT-CT) for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with early stage (T1-T2) oral cancer and a clinically negative neck (cN0). In addition to planar lymphoscintigraphy, SPECT-CT was performed in 66 consecutive patients with early stage oral cancer and a clinically negative neck. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar images was retrospectively analyzed for the number of additional SLNs, more precise localization of SLNs, and importance of anatomical information by a team consisting of a nuclear physician, surgeon, and investigator. Identification rate for both imaging modalities combined was 98% (65/66). SPECT-CT identified 15 additional SLNs in 14 patients (22%). In 2/15 (13%) of these additional SLNs, the only metastasis was found, resulting in an upstaging rate of 3% (2/65). In 20% of the patients with at least one positive SLN, the only positive SLN was detected due to the addition of SPECT-CT. SPECT-CT was considered to add important anatomical information in two patients (3%). In 5/65 (8%) of the patients initially scored SLNs on planar lymphoscintigrams were scored as non-SLNs when SPECT-CT was added. There were four false-negative SLN biopsy procedures in this cohort. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar lymphoscintigraphy is recommended for the identification of more (positive) SLNs and better topographical orientation for surgery in sentinel lymph node biopsy for early stage oral cancer. (orig.)

  3. Oral health status of 12-year-old Nigerian children | Agbelusi | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oral hygiene status (OHIS) of the students was generally fair. The girls had better oral hygiene and lower prevalence of gingivitis and calculus than the boys. The difference was however not significant (p>0.05). The treatment needs of the students revealed that 72.7% required periodontal treatment, 34.6% required ...

  4. [Dissertation 25 years after date 39. Oral self-care by dentate elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluter, W.J.; Baat, C. de

    2015-01-01

    In 1989, the dissertation 'Oral self-care for dentate elderly' was published. Among other things, the effect of an information leaflet on oral self-care was investigated in a randomised, controlled trial. The outcome of the entire intervention was positive. Subsequent to this dissertation no

  5. Factors determining access to oral health services among children aged less than 12 years in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azañedo, Diego; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Casas-Bendezú, Mixsi; Gutiérrez, César; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Cortés, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding problems of access to oral health services requires knowledge of factors that determine access. This study aimed to evaluate factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar - ENDES). Children's access to oral health services within the previous 6 months was used as the dependent variable (i.e. Yes/No), and the Andersen and col model was used to select independent variables. Predisposing (e.g., language spoken by  tutor or guardian, wealth level, caregivers' educational level, area of residence, natural region of residence, age, and sex) and enabling factors (e.g. type of health insurance) were considered. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariate analysis was performed using generalized linear models (Poisson family). Results: Of all the children, 51% were males, 56% were aged oral health services among children aged oral health services.

  6. Excision of oral leukoplakias by CO*L2 laser on an out-patient basis: a useful procedure for prevention and early detection of oral carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiesa, F.; Sala, L.; Costa, L.

    1986-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have shown that oral cancer develops among individuals with a prior diagnosis of an oral premalignant lesion. Canceration chance in these patients is 17%, with the greatest rate occuring in the second year of observation. Based on this data, since 1981, 92 leukoplakias have been treated by out-patient laser surgery at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milano. The therapeutic technique was laser excision to obtain a specimen for histology. Two groups were distinguished according to the diagnostic procedure. Thirtythree lesions (December 1981 to December 1982) were operated on without preliminary histologic examination, on the basis of a simple clinical diagnosis. Since January 1983 all leukoplakias have been biopsied in a systematic way and those negative for cancer treated with laser. Histology of the specimen showed 5 squamous cell carcinomas (15%) in the group of patients who did not undergo preoperative biopsy. Postoperative histology showed malignancy in 6 of 59 (10.2%) cases in spite of negative preoperative biopsies. Speckledand erosive leukoplakias had the highest canceration rate. Three of 11 patients with cancer were treated by knife excision or interstitial needle implantation because of margins in tumoral tissue or because they were unvaluable for injury by heat. Results have been satisfactory, only 2 of 54 followed leukoplakias and none of cancers recurred during a 2 year follow-up

  7. Oral Ketamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Ketamine: A Four-years Experience in ... Key words: Oral Ketamine, Premedication and Oncology. .... form of a letter published in 19835. .... Acta. Anaesthesiol Scandinavica, 1998; 42: 750-758. 4. Murray P. Substitution of another opioid ...

  8. The Stockholm Studio EMS during its Early Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2008-01-01

    so called abstract electronic music to political performance-related text-sound pieces. So far there has been very little academic writing about this. Going into the conflict and the very heterogeneous material, questions appear which I believe haven’t been raised properly in earlier writings...... was even before its opening very famous, but also difficult to work. The Sound Workshop was available to the artists 24 hours a day and much easier to handle, and therefore most pieces were produced here. In the early 1970s a conflict emerged between the composers and the studio director Knut Wiggen....... In his eager and idealistic search for “the music of the future” he believed in continuing the earlier experiments within musique concrète and elektronische Musik through research into sound and sound perception. Most of the composers, mainly from the Swedish “Text Sound” milieu, wanted to produce pieces...

  9. Early Home Activities and Oral Language Skills in Middle Childhood: A Quantile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, James; Rush, Robert; King, Tom; Westrupp, Elizabeth; Reilly, Sheena

    2018-01-01

    Oral language development is a key outcome of elementary school, and it is important to identify factors that predict it most effectively. Commonly researchers use ordinary least squares regression with conclusions restricted to average performance conditional on relevant covariates. Quantile regression offers a more sophisticated alternative.…

  10. Autoantibodies to folate receptor alpha during early pregnancy and risk of oral clefts in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether IgG and IgM autoantibodies to folate receptor alpha (FRalpha) in pregnant women are associated with an increased risk of oral cleft-affected offspring. A case-control study nested in the prospective Danish National Birth Cohort (100,418 pregnan...

  11. A novel Multiple-Marker Method for the Early Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ries

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Melanoma associated antigens-A (MAGE-A expression is highly specific to cancer cells. Thus, they can be the most suitable targets for the diagnosis of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of multiple MAGE-A expression analysis for the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC.

  12. Knowledge and behaviour of parents in relation to the oral and dental health of children aged 4-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElKarmi, R; Shore, E; O'Connell, A

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate baseline knowledge and behaviour of parents with regard to the oral and dental health of their young children. Following ethical approval, six urban and rural schools were identified. Questionnaires were distributed to the parents of pupils (children aged 4-6 years). The questionnaire included several questions evaluating parental knowledge and behaviour of oral and dental health issues in their children. Each question was assigned a score of either 0 or 1 being inconsistent or consistent with current paediatric guidelines giving a maximum score of 6 for knowledge and 7 for behaviour. Chi-square analysis was used to analyse associations among variables. Parental knowledge varied widely among parents and across questions; however, 70.2 % of parents had scores greater than 3 (range 0-6). The majority of parents (65.8 %) also had scores greater than 3 (range 0-7) for behaviour. Deficiencies were noted in oral hygiene practices; very few parents brushed their child's teeth and were not aware of the recommended age of the first dental visit at 1 year (Age 1 visit). Parents without free medical care demonstrated high levels of knowledge (P parents thought that the information available to them on the oral health of their young children was insufficient. Parents appeared to have limited knowledge regarding the dental and oral health of their young children. This study indicates a need for improved education for parents, particularly in toothbrushing behaviour and use of toothpaste. Education strategies tailored to the Irish population should be explored.

  13. Rapid prototyping modelling in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A two year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, Anni; Stoor, Patricia; Mesimäki, Karri; Kontio, Risto K

    2015-12-01

    The use of rapid prototyping (RP) models in medicine to construct bony models is increasing. The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively the indication for the use of RP models in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2009-2010. Also, the used computed tomography (CT) examination - multislice CT (MSCT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) - method was evaluated. In total 114 RP models were fabricated for 102 patients. The mean age of the patients at the time of the production of the model was 50.4 years. The indications for the modelling included malignant lesions (29%), secondary reconstruction (25%), prosthodontic treatment (22%), orthognathic surgery or asymmetry (13%), benign lesions (8%), and TMJ disorders (4%). MSCT examination was used in 92 and CBCT examination in 22 cases. Most of the models (75%) were conventional hard tissue models. Models with colored tumour or other structure(s) of interest were ordered in 24%. Two out of the 114 models were soft tissue models. The main benefit of the models was in treatment planning and in connection with the production of pre-bent plates or custom made implants. The RP models both facilitate and improve treatment planning and intraoperative efficiency. Rapid prototyping, radiology, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography.

  14. Early Years Learning, Play Pedagogy and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirrup, Julie; Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Despite 50 years and more of "progressive education" in the United Kingdom, classed patterns of educational success and failure stubbornly prevail. So how, where and when does it all go wrong for the many children who continue to fail or underachieve? Drawing on the work of Basil Bernstein, this article centres processes within early…

  15. Ten Years of a National Oral Health Policy in Brazil: Innovation, Boldness, and Numerous Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucca, G A; Gabriel, M; de Araujo, M E; de Almeida, F C S

    2015-10-01

    Brazil is the only country in the world to propose a universal health care system with the aim of guaranteeing delivery of all levels of health care, free of charge, to a population of over 200 million inhabitants by means of a unified health system ("Sistema Único de Saúde" [SUS]). The national policy of oral health, also known as Smiling Brazil ("Brasil Sorridente"), was implemented in 2004. Oral health was designated as 1 of the 4 priority areas of the SUS, transforming oral health care in Brazil, with the objective that the SUS achieve the integrality of care envisaged at its creation. The aim of this article is to share part of this experience in order to prompt reflection about the inclusion of oral health care in other health care systems around the world. The most significant results of Smiling Brazil can be seen in 3 areas: (1) oral health epidemiological indicators, (2) financial investment and professional development, and (3) the building of an oral health care network throughout the 10 y of the policy. The "Discovery!" article presented here portrays 10 y of evolution; however, it is important to point out that this is a process undergoing construction and that the oral health care network needs to be further expanded, refined, and solidified so that over time and through changes in the political parties in power, Smiling Brazil prevails as a perennial policy and not merely an action by a single government. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  16. Early-Years Swimming: Creating Opportunities for Adding Mathematical Capital to Under 5s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on survey data from over 2000 parents, this paper explores the possibility of early-years swimming to add mathematical capital to young children. Using developmental milestones as the basis, it was found that parents reported significantly earlier achievement on many of these milestones. Such data suggest that the early years swim…

  17. Disrupting Communities of Practice? How "Reluctant" Practitioners View Early Years Workforce Reform in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payler, Jane K.; Locke, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the views of early years practitioners in England from settings that were identified as "reluctant to engage" with one of the government's key policies, the introduction of Early Years Professional Status (EYPS), to drive forwards workforce reform. Focus groups, interviews and a survey were undertaken in 2009 with…

  18. Reversing the Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study--A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, Isabel

    2001-01-01

    Presents concerns over the "Early Years Study" (McCain & Mustard). Focuses on diversity issues related to the readiness measure used, parenting styles, and the importance of first language development. Questions the report's definition of "developmentally-attuned." Concludes by expressing hope that the Early Years Study…

  19. Science of Materials: A Case Study of Intentional Teaching in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Barratt-Pugh, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Australia's Early Years Learning Framework and leading international researchers argue for more intentional and purposeful teaching of science in the early years. This case study of exemplary practice illustrates intentional teaching of science materials which opened-up learning opportunities in literacy and number. Student-led hands-on…

  20. Effects of integrated dental care on oral treatment needs in residents of nursing homes older than 70 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Paul; Cune, Marco; van der Bilt, Andries; Abbink, Jan; de Putter, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine effects of integrated dental care in older nursing home residents. Methods: In three nursing homes offering integrated dental care, we studied the oral treatment need of 355 residents older than 70 years. To determine effects of integrated care, we discriminated between short-stay

  1. Elevated S100A9 expression in tumor stroma functions as an early recurrence marker for early-stage oral cancer patients through increased tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment and interleukin-6 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yi-Wen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Liu, Chiang-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Zih; Wang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Kung-Chao; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Chang, Mei-Zhu; Lin, Siao-Han; Wu, Li-Wha

    2015-09-29

    S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein with two EF-hands and frequently deregulated in several cancer types, however, with no clear role in oral cancer. In this report, the expression of S100A9 in cancer and adjacent tissues from 79 early-stage oral cancer patients was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Although S100A9 protein was present in both tumor and stromal cells, only the early-stage oral cancer patients with high stromal expression had reduced recurrence-free survival. High stromal S100A9 expression was also significantly associated with non-well differentiation and recurrence. In addition to increasing cell migration and invasion, ectopic S100A9 expression in tumor cells promoted xenograft tumorigenesis as well as the dominant expression of myeloid cell markers and pro-inflammatory IL-6. The expression of S100A9 in one stromal component, monocytes, stimulated the aggressiveness of co-cultured oral cancer cells. We also detected the elevation of serum S100A9 levels in early-stage oral cancer patients of a separate cohort of 73 oral cancer patients. The release of S100A9 protein into extracellular milieu enhanced tumor cell invasion, transendothelial monocyte migration and angiogenic activity. S100A9-mediated release of IL-6 requires the crosstalk of tumor cells with monocytes through the activation of NF-κB and STAT-3. Early-stage oral cancer patients with both high S100A9 expression and high CD68+ immune infiltrates in stroma had shortest recurrence-free survival, suggesting the use of both S100A9 and CD68 as poor prognostic markers for oral cancer. Together, both intracellular and extracellular S100A9 exerts a tumor-promoting action through the activation of oral cancer cells and their associated stroma in oral carcinogenesis.

  2. Evaluation of oral and dental health of 6-12 year-old students in Kermanshah city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nokhostin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral and dental health are among the most important aspects of individual health. Thus, it is necessary to determine community’s oral health status. Various epidemiological studies are required at different levels to assess the efficacy of preventive, oral and dental health control programs in a society. Complications such as nutritional adverse effects, periodontal diseases and adverse psychological effects of dental caries and etc. could be prevented by in-time diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to assess DMF, dmf index and periodontal status in 6-12 year-old students in Kermanshah City in 2009. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were collected through interview and dental clinical examination using disposable dental explorer, dental mirror, periodontal probe, a flash light and a marker. Data were entered into a questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and oral and dental health status of subjects (WHO oral health assessments form. A total of 1050 students aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated for their oral health status in Kermanshah City. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14 software. T-test and chi square test were also used for analysis. Results: A total of 50% of boys and 52% of girls were susceptible to dent facial problems due to caries, extraction, premature loss of deciduous teeth, and congenital or acquired maxillofacial problems following conditions like mouth breathing due to adenoid and etc. Overall, 18.3% of 6 year old students were caries free. Among middle school students, DMFT was 1.65±1.82 and 3.88±2.72 among female and male 12 year old students, respectively. In general, 19.8% of elementary and 16.8% of 12 year old students had clinically healthy gingiva 21.6% of 6 to 12 year old students did not brush their teeth. A significant correlation was found between the frequency of tooth brushing per day and mean dmft, mean DMFT and gingival health (P<0

  3. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan - Result of recent two years -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland

  4. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge and practices of oral health care in final year undergraduate nursing students: A cross-sectional study

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    Suryakant C Deogade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing personnel plays a crucial role in promoting health and preventing information dissemination in the community. Aim: to assess and evaluate the oral health knowledge and practices of final year nursing students of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh (India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five nursing colleges of Jabalpur. A total of 172 students participated in the survey, which were given a questionnaire that comprised 26 questions. The questionnaire were evaluated under four parts such as information on dental and oral health, oral hygiene practices, attitude toward dentist and dentistry, and interest to improve knowledge, after which the data were analyzed to compare the statistical significance among the variables. Results: 84.3% of the participants knew how many teeth we have in our mouth. Many of them were not aware of proper brushing method. However, they revealed an adequate knowledge toward the identification of disease and its relation to general health. They also showed knowledge regarding the effect of diet on oral health, but 83.1% of them were confused with the identification of tooth decay. Approximately 51.7% of participants were unsure about the number of visits a person should make to a dentist. Conclusion: Nursing undergraduates have adequate knowledge on the basic oral structure and identifying oral diseases. However, they are little puzzled with the brushing method, number of visits a person should make to a dentist. They were not updated with the specialties in dentistry. Many of them showed interest toward camps and clinical postings to enhance their knowledge toward oral health care.

  6. Oral health and nutrition for children under five years of age: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... Paediatric Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for South Africa: Oral health and nutrition for children under five ... obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease and dental caries. ... research has examined the association between key.

  7. Oral Midodrine Hydrochloride for Prevention of Orthostatic Hypotension during Early Mobilization after Hip Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Mehlsen, Jesper; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per

    2015-01-01

    or older and scheduled for total hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia to either 5 mg midodrine hydrochloride or placebo orally 1 h before mobilization at 6 and 24 h postoperatively. The primary outcome was the prevalence of OH (decrease in systolic or diastolic arterial pressures of > 20 or 10 mm.......36 to 1.10; P = 0.095), whereas OI was present in 15 (25.0%; 15 to 38%) versus 22 (37.3%; 25 to 51%) patients, relative risk 0.68 (0.39 to 1.18; P = 0.165). At 24 h, OI and OH prevalence did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Preemptive use of oral 5 mg midodrine did not significantly reduce...

  8. Social geography of developmental health in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzman, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    What happens to children in their earliest years is critical for their development throughout the life course. The years from zero to school age are foundational for brain and biological development. Attachment and face recognition; impulse control and regulation of physical aggression; executive function in the prefrontal cortex and focused attention; fine and gross motor functions and coordination; receptive and expressive language; and understandings of quantitative concepts are all established during this time and become embedded in the architecture and function of the brain (Doherty 1997; Kolb 2009; McCain and Mustard 1999). Brain and biological development are in turn expressed through three broad domains of development of the whole child: physical, social-emotional and language-cognitive, which together are the basis of "developmental health" (Keating and Hertzman 1999). Developmental health influences many aspects of well-being, including obesity and stunting, mental health, heart disease, competence in literacy and numeracy, criminality and economic participation throughout life (Irwin et al. 2007). Accordingly, developmental health is the central concern of this article.

  9. The incidence of oral dryness in people over 65 years living in Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska-Pikiewicz Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva plays an important part in naturally maintaining oral homeostasis. Dry mouth or 'xerostomia', is a serious problem connected with decreased saliva secretion which considerably limits the quality of life in elderly people. The aim of the study was the assessment of the subjective oral dryness in the oral mucosa in people over 65 living in Lublin, Poland. The study was conducted among 240 people aged 65 to 96. The patients were placed into two groups: I - 117 residents of nursing homes, II - 123 people living with their families. Assessment of the subjective oral dryness taking into account the place of residence, sex and drug administration was performed based on a questionnaire survey. In the group of nursing homes residents, 32.48% of the surveyed experienced subjective oral dryness, while among the seniors living with their families, 33.33% reported this kind of discomfort. The conducted analysis revealed that oral dryness was more common amongst women than men, and it can be very often a side-effect of administered medicine drugs.

  10. Use of direct oral anticoagulants in the first year after market entry of edoxaban: A Danish nationwide drug utilization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottegård, Anton; Grove, Erik L; Hellfritzsch, Maja

    2018-02-01

    To describe the early uptake of edoxaban; the fourth direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) to enter the market. Using the Danish nationwide health registries, we identified new users of edoxaban (n = 609) from June 6 (day of marketing) through June 2017. For comparison, we also identified new users of dabigatran (n = 2211), rivaroxaban (n = 19 227), and apixaban (n = 14 736). Users were described regarding indication of use, previous anticoagulant experience, comorbidity, and co-medication. The rate of edoxaban initiation increased to 2.0 per 100 000 person months in June 2017, compared with 6.3, 37.5, and 27.0 for dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. Atrial fibrillation was the most common registered indication for edoxaban (67%) as well as the other DOACs (41-55%). Overall, users of edoxaban were comparable to users of other DOACs (median age 75 vs 72-76 years and 57% vs 53-59% males), except for a generally lower concomitant use of other drugs. Noticeably, 95% of edoxaban users had previously received anticoagulant treatment compared with 31% to 43% for new users of other DOACs, with 77% switching directly from another anticoagulant treatment to edoxaban (45% directly from VKA and 32% directly from DOACs). While the use of edoxaban is still limited compared with other DOACs, it is increasing. The majority of edoxaban users switch to edoxaban from other anticoagulant treatments. Continued monitoring of the utilization of DOACs, including effectiveness and safety, is considered essential to the safe and rational use of these drugs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Prevalence of early childhood caries in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Rohtak City, Haryana

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    Mamta Ghanghas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC is a significant dental public health problem that affects infants and preschool children all over the world, and there is scarcity of epidemiological data regarding ECC in Rohtak city. Aim: This study aims to assess the prevalence of ECC among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Rohtak city, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 489 preschool children aged 3–5 years in Rohtak city, Haryana. Children were randomly selected from preschools of Rohtak. Caries experience was recorded using “deft” index, and questionnaire comprising sociodemographic details and oral hygiene practices was also used. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Chi-square tests were used for the comparison of proportions. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence of ECC was found to be 32% with mean deft 1.08 ± 2.27. No significant association of dental caries was found with sociodemographic factors such as gender, parental education, parental occupation, socioeconomic status, number of children, birth order, type of family, and oral hygiene practices. Conclusion: As burden of dental caries is high, treatment of dental caries would impose a great financial burden; hence, effective preventive strategies should be developed and implemented.

  12. Attachment change processes in the early years of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, J; Karney, B R; Bradbury, T N

    1999-05-01

    The authors examined 4 models of attachment change: a contextual model, a social-cognitive model, an individual-difference model, and a diathesis-stress model. Models were examined in a sample of newlyweds over the first 2 years of marriage, using growth curve analyses. Reciprocal processes, whereby attachment representations and interpersonal life circumstances affect one another over time, also were studied. On average, newlyweds became more secure over time. However, there was significant within-subject variability on attachment change that was predicted by intra- and interpersonal factors. Attachment representations changed in response to contextual, social-cognitive, and individual-difference factors. Reciprocal processes between attachment representations and marital variables emerged, suggesting that these factors influence one another in an ongoing way.

  13. Dental caries and oral health practice among 12 year old school children from low socio-economic status background in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula.

  14. Epidemiological survey of mucus extravasation phenomenon at an oral pathology referral center during a 43 year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thâmara Manoela Marinho Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Mucoceles are common benign pseudocystic lesions of the oral cavity; their main etiological factors are trauma and ductal obstruction. Two histological patterns are found: mucus retention phenomenon (MRP and mucus extravasation phenomenon (MEP. Mucus extravasation phenomenon is the more common histological subtype and it mainly affects the lower lip. The knowledge of its main clinical features and management is important to assist health professionals in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relative frequency and distribution of oral mucoceles in an oral pathology reference center. METHODS: Cross-sectional historical study that analyzed all cases pathologically diagnosed as mucus extravasation phenomenon by the department of anatomic pathology of an oral pathology referral center from June of 1970 to May of 2014, considering the clinical characteristics of the lesion and those relating to the patient. SPSS v. 20.0 software for Windows was used for descriptive analysis. RESULTS: During 43 years, 719 cases of mucus extravasation phenomenon (54.7% men and 45.3% women were registered, with the lower lip as the most commonly affected site (n = 484; 67.3%. The average age of patients was 20.8 years (SD ± 14.4 with a peak occurrence in the second decade of life. Most professionals had oral mucocele/ranula (n = 606; 84.3% as the initial clinical impression. CONCLUSION: Mucus extravasation phenomenon is a lesion that primarily affects young patients, affecting mainly the lower lip, and is commonly found in oral diagnostic services.

  15. Oral myiasis

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    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  16. Choral singing in the early years of elementary school

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    Pavlović Biljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses choral singing as a form of extracurricular activity and teaching in elementary school. It considers the historical development of choral singing in order to highlight the continuity of its existence and importance in society and reviews the importance of choral singing in musical and overall upbringing and education of elementary school students. Authors analyze the curricula of grades I to IV in order to determine how much attention is given to choral singing. Didactic and methodological issues related to the formation of the choir in elementary school are reviewed, together with methodical approach for working with early grades choir, proper selection of the musical compositions and the role of teachers. Listed is the recommended choral literature to supplement the current curricula. Special attention was given to literature containing the Kosovo-Metohija folk songs, suitable for choral arrangement. Performing of these songs in a choral arrangement will contribute to stimulating the interest of students towards musical folklore of Kosovo and Metohija, and therefore its preservation and fostering. It is highlighted that singing in the choir contributes to the development of hearing, voice, harmonic feeling, a sense of rhythm, melody and group play. By mastering different compositions, students become familiar with valuable achievements of artist, spiritual and folk music. The significant meaning and importance of this kind of work is reflected in the possibilities of achieving the tasks of socio-moral education. Choral singing develops a sense of collective responsibility, conscious discipline, perseverance, endurance, helps establish a sense of understanding, mutual respect and tolerance, friendship and a sense of teamwork. Singing in the choir develops aesthetic attitude and taste in music. Students are trained to perceive and to value the true qualities of beauty, grace, harmony and authenticity in music. The value of

  17. Evaluation of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life to Assess Dental Treatment in Preschool Children with Early Childhood Caries: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollú, Ana Lúcia; da Costa, Maria da Encarnação Perez Requejo; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa

    The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children with Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was used to assess the outcome of dental treatment. Children (3.56±1.31years) affected by ECC were selected. Anamnesis, clinical and radiographic exams were performed. Data about sociodemographic aspects, OHRQoL and dmf-t index were collected. The Brazilian version of Early Childhood Oral health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS) was applied in two time intervals: before and after 30 days of treatment. B-ECOHIS scores and effect size (ES) were used to evaluate the OHRQoL of preschool children. The Student's-t test was used for comparison between the B-ECOHIS averages, considering the following aspects: gender, age, socioeconomic status, severity of caries and type of treatment. The mean dmf-t was 6.25±4.20 and no differences between boys (6.00±4.32) and girls (6.83±4.35) (p=0,942) were found. Pain and psychological problems among children and parents feeling upset and guilty were the most frequently reported impacts at baseline. There was a greater impact on girls (17.67±8.68) than on boys (13.30±10.53) (pchildren younger than 4 years (16.71±9.96) (pchildren showed a large effect size for these subjects (ES=1.19) and their families (ES=1.00). Dental treatment resulted in significant improvement of the preschool children's OHRQoL.

  18. Perinatal characteristics among early (10–14 years old and late (15–19 years old pregnant adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves João

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in adolescents is a worldwide health problem and has been mostly common in poor populations. It is not clear if socioeconomic or biological factors are the main determinants of perinatal adverse outcomes in pregnant adolescents. Adolescents under 15 years old may present a high growth rate which may contribute to impair fetal growth. Our aim is to compare perinatal characteristics among early (aged 10 to 14 years and late (aged 15 to 19 years pregnant adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Pernambuco State 2009, obtained from DATASUS/SISNAC, a Brazilian Government, open-access public health database. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between early (aged 10–14 years and late (aged 15–19 years pregnant adolescents. Family income was compared between early and late pregnant adolescents using a sample of 412 subjects evaluated at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP during 2011. Statistical comparisons were made using the chi-square test was used with a significant level of 0.05; bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed. This project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Review Board. Results Data from 31,209 pregnant adolescents were analyzed. 29,733 (95.2% were aged 15 to 19 years and 1,476 (4.7% were aged 10 to 14 years. There were significant differences with respect to marital status, education level and number of prenatal visits of mothers aged 10 to 14 years compared to 15 to 19 years. Of importance, early adolescents had a greater rate of neonates born premature and with low birth weight. Prematurity and low birth weight remained statistically significant after multivariate analysis. Conclusions Early aged adolescents may have an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight. These findings highlight the potential role of biological factors in newborn outcomes in pregnant adolescents.

  19. Oral Effects and Early Implant Survival Results After Imatinib Discontinuation Therapy for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Douglas R; Yassin, Alaa

    2017-08-01

    Little is known regarding the success, failure, or complication rates of advanced implant procedures in patients after discontinuation therapy of long-term medications for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). This case report presents initial results of a case involving implant placement in the mandible and maxilla as well as reduction of palatal oral pigmentation in a patient discontinuing long-term tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for CML. A 57-year-old male was referred to the Department of Periodontics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, for an assessment of edentulous areas (tooth sites #3 and #14) and failing tooth #19. Previous medical treatment included oral administration (>10 years) of TKI for the treatment of CML. Systemic complications arising from long-term TKI therapy were treated with discontinuation of this medication. Concurrently, after multispecialty dental and medical consultation, extraction of tooth #19 with immediate implant placement and bilateral sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement were successfully performed during three separate surgical appointments. Additionally, marked reduction of oral palatal pigmentation was observed during the surgical and restorative phases after TKI discontinuation. Patients with a history of long-term TKIs for CML are at risk for developing complications that result in discontinuation of therapy. Long-term benefits of therapy may allow these patients to enjoy remission with an extended and improved quality of life. Patients undergoing discontinuation therapy may seek dental care. Therefore, dental providers need to understand these systemic interactions and, with multispecialty consultation, may help effectively treat these individuals.

  20. The early years. Keys to child nutrition and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsson, L.

    2005-01-01

    Four of the eight Millennium Development Goals highlight the importance of adequate nutrition for human health and development. The IAEA is assisting Member States in their efforts to achieve these goals by providing technical support for strategies to combat undernutrition. In particular, the IAEA contributes technical expertise in the use of stable isotope techniques in the development and evaluation of nutrition interventions. Stable isotope techniques have been used as research tools in nutrition for many years. However, the application of stable isotope techniques in programme development and evaluation is a relatively new approach, where the IAEA has a unique opportunity to contribute. As only stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are used, the techniques can be applied in the most vulnerable population groups, i.e., infants and children. The use of stable isotope techniques adds value by increasing the sensitivity and specificity of measurements as compared to conventional techniques. This brief overview highlights selected activities in infant nutrition where stable isotope techniques have been used. They include projects to measure human milk intake in breast-fed infants, lean body mass (muscle mass) in lactating mothers, and bioavailability of iron in infants and young children

  1. Effectiveness of structured comprehensive paediatric oral health education for parents of children less than two years of age in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strippel, H

    2010-06-01

    To examine the effectiveness of expanding and improving oral health education in a clinical setting. Controlled prospective intervention study. Structured comprehensive oral health education (SC-OHE) supported by written information. was performed by 36 clinicians in all of the 30 specialist paediatric practices in the city and the administrative district of Kassel, central Germany. Parents of all children attending the practices for health examinations. SC-OHE was tested in two intervention groups (IG), one with a mean child age of seven months and another with a mean child age of 24 months. The SC-OHE content was adapted to the respective age groups. Control group (CG) subjects were recruited in a similar region in northern Germany and received conventional oral health education only. This consisted of comparable topics but was less comprehensive than SC-OHE. The two IGs comprised 2,170 children; the two age-matched CGs 2,040. Parental knowledge, attitudes and behaviour relevant to decreasing the risk of early childhood caries (ECC) development. The outcomes were measured by questionnaires sent to the parents. The response rate was 88%. On average, control group paediatricians provided 2.1 information items at each child examination whereas the intervention group provided 3.8 items. Parental knowledge increased by 23%. Self-efficacy and attitudes remained unchanged. 41% of 7-month-olds in the CG received baby bottles with cariogenic content during daytime as opposed to 32% in the IG (p parents were less likely to add sugar to puréed baby food of the 7-month-olds. In 24-month-old children, the frequent consumption of cariogenic beverages in the daytime decreased slightly (CG 66%, IG 61%, p parental oral health knowledge. SC-OHE provided by clinicians alone will not be capable of influencing crucial oral health behaviours in such a way that prevents ECC.

  2. Bottled water, spas, and early years of water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.

  3. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...... experimental research is required to ascertain the extent that: a) the educational achievement of young people with early-onset conduct problems can be improved; and b) the extent to which any such improvements translate into reductions in subsequent antisocial behviour....

  4. Synthesis and Early Development of Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir: An Oral Antipoxvirus Nucleoside Phosphonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Y. Hostetler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (HDP-CDV is a novel ether lipid conjugate of (S-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonoylmethoxypropyl-cytosine (CDV which exhibits a remarkable increase in antiviral activity against orthopoxviruses compared with CDV. In contrast to CDV, HDP-CDV is orally active and lacks the nephrotoxicity of CDV itself. Increased oral bioavailability and increased cellular uptake is facilitated by the lipid portion of the molecule which is responsible for the improved activity profile. The lipid portion of HDP-CDV is cleaved in the cell, releasing CDV which is converted to CDV diphosphate, the active metabolite. HDP-CDV is a highly effective agent against a variety of orthopoxvirus infections in animal models of disease including vaccinia, cowpox, rabbitpox and ectromelia. Its activity was recently demonstrated in a case of human disseminated vaccinia infection after it was added to a multiple drug regimen. In addition to the activity against orthopoxviruses, HDP-CDV (CMX001 is active against all double stranded DNA viruses including CMV, HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV, adenovirus, BK virus, orf, JC, and papilloma viruses, and is under clinical evaluation as a treatment for human infections with these agents.

  5. First Year University Students' Use of Formulaic Sequences in Oral and Written Descriptions (El uso de secuencias formulaicas de estudiantes de primer año en descripciones orales y escritas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Burgos, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The present article investigates the use of first year university students' formulaic sequences in written and oral texts in an English as a foreign language context. The corpus of the study consists of eight descriptive texts--four written and four oral--which were composed of four students of English Pedagogy at a university in Santiago, Chile.…

  6. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…

  7. Reframing Leadership as a Participative Pedagogy: The Working Theories of Early Years Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Janet; Clark, Rory McDowall

    2013-01-01

    Traditional notions of leadership are at odds with the pedagogy and ethos of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), prompting increasing international concern to develop new understandings which are better suited and create greater leadership capacity. The introduction of the Early Years Professional (EYP) in England, as a leader of practice…

  8. Language at preschool in Europe: Early years professionals in the spotlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M.C.; Kuiken, F.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades early years education throughout Europe has experienced many changes due to higher numbers of children attending centres for early childhood education and care (ECEC), a growing linguistic and cultural diversity in society and a shift from care to education with the focus

  9. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  10. A retrospective study of children and adolescents oral and maxillofacial lesions over a 20-year period in Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molook Torabi-Parizi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oral and maxillofacial lesions vary in different geographic regions based on their clinical features. Until now, few investigations have studied these lesions in children and adolescents in Iran. The aim of this research was to study the clinicopathological manifestations of biopsied oral and maxillofacial lesions among children and adolescents in the south of Iran. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, all the cases referred to the Department of Pathology, Kerman faculty of Dentistry, and two treatment centers of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran during 1996-2015 were included. All demographic information including age, gender, anatomic location and histopathologic diagnosis of the oral and maxillofacial biopsies in patients under 18 years was extracted from patients’ chart fields. SPSS was used for the data analysis. RESULTS: Of 3196 oral and maxillofacial lesions, 326 cases (10.2% occurred in the age group under 18 years. The most common group was inflammatory/reactive lesions (36.8%. The most common lesions were pyogenic granuloma (9.20%, peripheral giant cell granuloma (8.89%, and dentigerous cyst (8.28%. Gingiva was the main involved area and the female to male ratio was 1.1 to 1. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that almost 10.2% of oral and maxillofacial lesions occurred in children and adolescents. The majority of lesions were benign, and malignant lesions were rarely observed in the sample. The most prevalent biopsied lesions were inflammatory/reactive lesions. Unlike other studies, lower rates of mucocele were observed in this study. These findings can improve patient’s management among dentists and surgeons.

  11. Effects of short-course oral corticosteroid therapy in early dengue infection in Vietnamese patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Dong T H; Ngoc, Tran V; Tien, Nguyen T H; Kieu, Nguyen T T; Thuy, Truong T T; Thanh, Lai T C; Tam, Cao T; Truong, Nguyen T; Dung, Nguyen T; Qui, Phan T; Hien, Tran T; Farrar, Jeremy J; Simmons, Cameron P; Wolbers, Marcel; Wills, Bridget A

    2012-11-01

    Patients with dengue can experience a variety of serious complications including hypovolemic shock, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding. These problems occur as plasma viremia is resolving and are thought to be immunologically mediated. Early corticosteroid therapy may prevent the development of such complications but could also prolong viral clearance. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded trial of low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) or high-dose (2 mg/kg) oral prednisolone therapy for 3 days in Vietnamese patients aged 5-20 years admitted with dengue and fever for ≤72 hours, aiming to assess potential harms from steroid use during the viremic phase. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using linear trend tests with a range of clinical and virological endpoints specified in advance. In addition to recognized complications of dengue, we focused on the are under the curve for serial plasma viremia measurements and the number of days after enrollment to negative viremia and dengue nonstructural protein 1 status. Between August 2009 and January 2011, 225 participants were randomized to 1 of the 3 treatment arms. Baseline characteristics were similar across the groups. All patients recovered fully and adverse events were infrequent. Aside from a trend toward hyperglycemia in the steroid recipients, we found no association between treatment allocation and any of the predefined clinical, hematological, or virological endpoints. Use of oral prednisolone during the early acute phase of dengue infection was not associated with prolongation of viremia or other adverse effects. Although not powered to assess efficacy, we found no reduction in the development of shock or other recognized complications of dengue virus infection in this study.

  12. Sentinel node localisation using pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe in early oral cavity cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Akhtar, S.; Junaid, M.; Dhari, T.; Zaman, M.U.; Hussain, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the diagnostic value of sentinel lymph node localisation using pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy and intra-operative gamma probe radio localisation in Pakistani patients suffering from early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Methods: The prospective case series was conducted between September 2007 and April 2010 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It comprised patients with T1 and T2 oral cavity cancer with clinically and radiologically negative neck. Pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy was performed one day before surgery and intra-operative gamma probe was used to detect sentinel node. Final histo-pathological evaluation was taken as the gold standard. Results: The study comprised 42 patients: 32(76%) males and 10(24%) females. The primary tumour site was buccal mucosa in 25 (60%) patients, and tongue in 17 (40%). Sentinel lymph node was detected in 38 (90%) patients. On final histopathological identification, 7 (17%) patients had cancer in the neck nodes. In all patients with metastasis, sentinel lymph node technique correctly identified the involved neck level. None of the patients revealed metastasis in non-sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusion:Evidence suggested the use of sentinel node biopsy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (author)

  13. Self- and Peer Assessments of Oral Presentations by First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryadoust, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Forty science students received training for 12 weeks on delivering effective presentations and using a tertiary-level English oral presentation scale comprising three subscales (Verbal Communication, Nonverbal Communication, and Content and Organization) measured by 18 items. For their final project, each student was given 10 to 12 min to present…

  14. Dental caries and oral health practices among 12 year old children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental caries is a common disease in children which causes pain with resultant effect on various physiological and social functions. The main objective of the study was to determine the association between dental caries and oral health knowledge and practice among children in Nairobi West and Mathira West ...

  15. One Year Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 Succinate in Dogs. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-18

    coccidia in their fecal samples will only be treated if they concurrently exhibit diarrhea. All dogs will have been vaccinated against canine distemper...Fine Granular TRANS = Transitional CG = Course Granular NA = Not Applicable HY = Hyaline TP = Triple Phosphate GR = Granular QNS = Quantity Not...infectious canine hepatitis, leptospirosis, parainfluenza, parvo, oral papilloma, and rabies by the animal supplier. In addition, the animal supplier

  16. Radial forearm flap : eight years experience with oral and oropharyngeal reconstructions - donor and acceptor site morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Vermey, A; Robinson, PH; Lichtendahl, DHE; Roodenburg, JLN

    The success rate of 56 free radial forearm flaps used between 1987 and 1995 in the University Hospital Groningen, The Netherlands for oral and oropharyngeal reconstructions in cancer patients, was evaluated. There were 36 men and 20 women. The most prevalent neoplasm was squamous cell carcinoma

  17. Comparison of "Nil by Mouth" Versus Early Oral Intake in Three Different Diet Regimens Following Esophagectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberhard, Kristine Elisabeth; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rolff, Hans Christian

    2017-01-01

    : regimen 1, nil by mouth until postoperative day (POD) 7 followed by a normal diet; regimen 2, oral intake of clear fluids from POD 1 followed by a normal diet; regimen 3, nil by mouth until POD 7 followed by a slow increase to a blended diet. The outcome endpoints were: (1) anastomotic leakage, (2......) complications [severity and number described using the Dindo-Clavien Classification and Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI)] and (3) length of stay. A multivariate logistic regression model was obtained for CCI and anastomotic leakage using Wald's stepwise selection. RESULTS: CCI was significantly lower...... analyses revealed that high American Society of Anesthesiologist score was a predicting factor for both CCI and anastomotic leakage. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that nil by mouth until postoperative day 7 followed by a slow increase to a blended diet after esophagectomy results in less severe...

  18. Stimuli-disassembling gold nanoclusters for diagnosis of early stage oral cancer by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Ingato, Dominique; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping; Kwon, Young Jik

    2018-01-01

    A key design consideration in developing contrast agents is obtaining distinct, multiple signal changes in diseased tissue. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been developed as contrast agents due to their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This study aims to demonstrate that stimuli-responsive plasmonic Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) can be used as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting early-stage cancer. Au NPs were clustered via acid-cleavable linkers to synthesize Au NCs that disassemble under mildly acidic conditions into individual Au NPs, simultaneously diminishing SPR effect (quantified by scattering intensity) and increasing Brownian motion (quantified by Doppler variance). The acid-triggered morphological and accompanying optico-physical property changes of the acid-disassembling Au NCs were confirmed by TEM, DLS, UV/Vis, and OCT. Stimuli-responsive Au NCs were applied in a hamster check pouch model carrying early-stage squamous carcinoma tissue. The tissue was visualized by OCT imaging, which showed reduced scattering intensity and increased Doppler variance in the dysplastic tissue. This study demonstrates the promise of diagnosing early-stage cancer using molecularly programmable, inorganic nanomaterial-based contrast agents that are capable of generating multiple, stimuli-triggered diagnostic signals in early-stage cancer.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  20. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Merril Eisenbud, January 26, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    Merril Eisenbud was interviewed on January 26, 1995 by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Following a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Eisenbud relates his remembrances as the AEC's first industrial hygienist, the setting up of AEC's Health and Safety Laboratory, monitoring radioactive fallout, and use or exposure of humans to radiation

  1. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of John W. Healy, November 28, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This document provides a transcript of an interview with John W. Healy concerning his recollections of measuring radioactive effluents at Hanford. Included are comments concerning the 'Green Run', other radioiodine releases, and a release of radioruthenium

  2. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-01-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy

  3. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  4. The prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma in different sites of oral cavity at our Rural Health Care Centre in Loni, Maharashtra – a retrospective 10-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Anuj; Saluja, Harish; Bawane, Shilpa; Sachdeva, Shivani

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India and is quickly becoming a global health priority. More than 90% of oral and oropharyngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to document its incidence depending upon the involvement of different sites of oral cavity, and its variation with age and gender. Material and methods Histopathologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma cases were collected from the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery RDC, PIMS. The cases were systematically grouped under three headings: anatomical sub-site of oral cavity, age group, and gender, which were analysed to calculate the prevalence of oral cancer. The study was undertaken after obtaining approval from the institutional Ethical Committee board. Results Among the different sites of oral cavity, the highest incidence (31.47%) of oral squamous cell carcinoma was seen for buccal mucosa in our study. The most affected age group (39.50%) were patients above 50 years old, predominantly involving males. Conclusions The population in this study were mostly from remote areas, among which a high rate of occurrence of oral cancer was encountered because the people were of low socio-economic class, had a casual attitude towards their health, high rate of tobacco consumption, and limited health care facilities. This study provides valuable data of the prevalence of oral cancer among the rural population. PMID:28947890

  5. The prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma in different sites of oral cavity at our Rural Health Care Centre in Loni, Maharashtra – a retrospective 10-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Tandon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India and is quickly becoming a global health priority. More than 90% of oral and oropharyngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to document its incidence depending upon the involvement of different sites of oral cavity, and its variation with age and gender. Material and methods : Histopathologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma cases were collected from the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery RDC, PIMS. The cases were systematically grouped under three headings: anatomical sub-site of oral cavity, age group, and gender, which were analysed to calculate the prevalence of oral cancer. The study was undertaken after obtaining approval from the institutional Ethical Committee board. Results : Among the different sites of oral cavity, the highest incidence (31.47% of oral squamous cell carcinoma was seen for buccal mucosa in our study. The most affected age group (39.50% were patients above 50 years old, predominantly involving males. Conclusions : The population in this study were mostly from remote areas, among which a high rate of occurrence of oral cancer was encountered because the people were of low socio-economic class, had a casual attitude towards their health, high rate of tobacco consumption, and limited health care facilities. This study provides valuable data of the prevalence of oral cancer among the rural population.

  6. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  7. Thirty years of evolution of oral health behaviours and dental caries in urban and rural areas in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszynska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. 34 years ago, children living in rural areas had almost 2 more teeth affected by decay than those living in cities. Environmental differences are being reduced along with Poland’s civilization development. The aim of the study is to assess the extent to which the differences in the intensity of caries and oral health behaviours between the urban rural environment have been reduced have been reduced in the past 3 decades. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. The data from 9 national surveys of 14,338 children aged 12 years and 5,425 adults aged 35–44 who lived in the city and in the countryside were analysed. Mean number of decayed (D, missing (M and filled (F teeth (DMFT was determined during the examination, as well as oral health behaviours. [b]Results[/b]. During the past 3 decades, in the statistical 12-year-old Polish child, tooth decay has been reduced from 7.3 to 3.6 teeth, and the environmental difference between the town and village children is now almost 5 times smaller. A similar trend is observed in children’s dental behaviours. Improving the oral health status and levelling of the environmental differences in the population aged 35–44 is much slower than in children. [b]Conclusions[/b]. In the last three decades, the level of tooth decay has been reduced by half, but it is still 3 times higher than in other European countries. Environmental differences have been reduced particularly in children. Both the oral health status and urban/rural environment differences in the intensity of tooth decay may be regarded as one of the many measures of Poland’s social and civilization development. However, the analysed process is not monotonic; instead, it has some turning points.

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Persian Version of Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaneh Asgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Indicators of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in children are widely adopted to evaluate the effects of oral problems. Recently, the scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5 was developed based on the children’s self-reports. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the questionnaire in a sample of Iranian children.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 children from four areas of Isfahan selected via non-random purposive sampling. After forward-backward translation of the questionnaire, content and face validity evaluation, a pilot test was carried out. Children forms were completed by interview, while parents forms were self-administered. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in 30 subjects. Construct validity, internal consistency and descriptive quality of life score were assessed with SPSS 18. The child-parent agreement was measured with correlation test and paired t-test (α=0.05.Results: The mean (±standard deviation quality of life scores in children and parents were 2.3±3 and 1.3±1.9, respectively. The most prevalent impacts were difficulty sleeping and eating. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.82 and 0.67 for the child and parent versions, respectively. Significant correlation of the scores with the oral health rating, pain history and perceived need for treatment confirmed its construct validity (r: 0.4-0.6, P<0.05. The hypothesis of the agreement was not supported (P>0.05.Conclusions: Based on the findings, the Persian version of SOHO-5 has acceptable reliability and validity for use in the pediatric population of Iran while there were some conflicts by parents.Keywords: Quality of Life; Oral Health; Child; Surveys and Questionnaires

  9. Early-life sensitization to hen's egg predicts asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis at 14 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben

    2017-01-01

    to groups of and to individual allergens and asthma and RC at 6 and 14 years compared to a reference group with no sensitization. RESULTS: Both transient and persistent early-life sensitization to cow's milk or hen's egg proteins were associated with asthma (aOR 3.99(1.41-11.32) and 5.95(1.78-19.92)) and RC...... (aOR 2.94(1.19-7.28) and 6.18(1.86-20.53)) at 14 years, this association being driven mainly by sensitization to hen's egg. Transient early-life sensitization to HDM had increased risk of asthma (aOR 3.80(1.17-12.41)) at 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Early transient and persistent IgE sensitization to hen......'s egg was associated with asthma and RC at 14 years. Furthermore, sensitization to HDM was associated with asthma at 14 years. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. Rapid prototyping modelling in oral and maxillofacial surgery: a two year retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Suomalainen, Anni; Stoor, Patricia; Mesimäki, Karri; Kontio, Risto K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of rapid prototyping (RP) models in medicine to construct bony models is increasing. Material and Methods The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively the indication for the use of RP models in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2009-2010. Also, the used computed tomography (CT) examination ? multislice CT (MSCT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) - method was evaluated. Results In total 114 RP models were fabricated for 102 patients. ...

  11. Early preventive exercises versus usual care does not seem to reduce trismus in patients treated with radiotherapy for cancer in the oral cavity or oropharynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdal, Nina; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose. In head and neck cancer patients undergoing curative radiotherapy, we investigated the benefi ts and harms of an early exercise regime on trismus. Material and methods. Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy were centrally randomised to exercises 5 – 6 times ...... outcomes. Conclusions. In patients with cancer in the oral cavity or oropharynx, early supervised exercises combined with selfcare treatment focusing on mobility exercises to reduce...

  12. Oral health-related quality of life among 12-year-olds in Northern Norway and North-West Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koposova, Natalia; Eriksen, Harald M; Widstrãm, Eeva; Eisemann, Martin; Opravin, Alexander; Koposov, Roman

    2012-12-01

    To assess self-perceived oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in 12-year-olds living in two areas in the Barents region: North-West Russia (Arkhangelsk) and Northern Norway (Tromsø). Sampling was performed according to a stratified cluster design and consisted of 590 Russian and 264 Norwegian 12-year-olds and their parents. After written consent from their parents, 514 Russian (87% attendance) and 124 Norwegian (47% attendance) children entered the study. The study included clinical examination (children) and questionnaires (children and parents). Dental caries and the aesthetic dental appearance were recorded under field conditions. Self-reports on background variables and oral health-related quality of life questions (CPQ11-14) were completed in classroom settings by children and at home by parents. OHRQoL was found to vary depending on country of origin, with higher scores of CPQ11-14 domains among 12-year-olds from Russia. OHRQoL was found to be associated with dental caries, with higher scores among 12-year olds with caries. Inferior emotional and social well-being were established as having the strongest association with quality of life. Dental caries showed an independent effect on OHRQoL scores, but this effect disappeared when controlling for background variables, with country of origin, family economy, parental education and aesthetic appearance as the most influential (R²=0.14). Norwegian 12-year-olds had better oral health and OHRQoL than their Russian counterparts. The impact of dental caries on OHRQoL was weak and aesthetic dental appearance and socio-economic determinants were found to be more important, probably reflecting the great differences in the standards of living between Northern Norway and North-West Russia.

  13. A comparative analysis of oral and maxillofacial pathology over a 16-year period, in the north of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luís S; Albuquerque, Rui; Paiva, António; de la Peña-Moral, Jesús; Amaral, José B; Lopes, Carlos A

    2017-02-01

    To determine the frequency and spectrum of oral and maxillofacial lesions biopsied in a hospital population in the northern region of Portugal. We conducted descriptive analyses of pathology reports from biopsies of oral and maxillofacial lesions performed between 1990 and 2006, in Oporto Hospital Center. Information on gender and age of patient, location of the lesions and the histopathological diagnosis were analysed. The analyses revealed that 1,520 (47.7%) patients were male and 1,666 (52.3%) were female. They had a mean age ± standard deviation of 47.8 ± 18.6 years. The site most frequently biopsied was the labial mucosa (17.5%). A non-neoplastic diagnosis was established in 2,162 (63.3%) cases, potentially malignant disorders in 163 (5.1%) and neoplasms in 886 (27.6%) (403 benign and 483 malignant). The most commonly reported diagnosis was fibroepithelial polyp (n = 186; 15.9%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n = 158; 13.6%). SCC was the lesion most commonly found in male patients (n = 279; 18.4%) whilst fibroepithelial polyp was the lesion most commonly found in female patients (n = 268; 16.1%). The most common lesion in patients 0-17 years of age was a follicular cyst (n = 25; 12.8%), whereas in patients 18-64 years of age it was a fibroepithelial polyp (n = 299; 13%). SCC was the most common type of lesion found in patients ≥ 65 years of age (n = 160; 24.6%). This large sample provides useful information about the incidence and distribution of oral biopsies over a period of 16 years, allowing valuable comparison with other countries. Non-neoplastic lesions were the types of lesion most commonly reported, with fibroepithelial polyp being most frequent. SCC was the second most common diagnosis. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  14. Oral cancer: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanuthai, K; Rojanawatsirivej, S; Thosaporn, W; Kintarak, S; Subarnbhesaj, A; Darling, M; Kryshtalskyj, E; Chiang, C-P; Shin, H-I; Choi, S-Y; Lee, S-S; Aminishakib, P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as between Asian and non-Asian oral cancer patients.

  15. Maternal self-report of oral health in six-year-old Pacific children from South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Janis E; Gao, Wanzhen; Sundborn, Gerhard; Cartwright, Susan

    2011-02-01

    To examine maternal and socio-demographic factors associated with oral health practices and experiences in six-year-old Pacific children. The longitudinal Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study is following a cohort of Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand in 2000. At approximately six years postpartum maternal reports (n = 1001) on child oral health practices and experiences of fillings and extractions were gathered. Forty-five per cent of mothers reported that their child had experienced fillings or extractions. After adjusting for confounding factors, we found that Tongan children were almost twice as likely to have their teeth filled or extracted than Samoan children (OR, 1.93; 95%, 1.34-2.77). Differences between Samoan children and children of other ethnic groups were not significant. Children of mothers who had secondary qualifications were significantly less likely to have their teeth filled or extracted compared to children of mothers who had postsecondary qualifications (OR, 0.634; 95%, 0.44-0.90). Prolonged duration of breastfeeding was associated with an increased likelihood of filling or extraction experience. In terms of maternal oral hygiene, maternal tooth brushing frequency of less that once a day was significantly associated with increased odds of fillings and/or extractions in their children (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.02-1.79). Children who were sometimes supervised for tooth brushing were significantly more likely to have fillings or extractions than children who were not provided supervision. These findings highlight the role of cultural factors and maternal hygiene in child oral health outcomes and suggest that health promotion efforts should encompass the whole family and embrace a culturally appropriate approach. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. The Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge Year Two Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The human brain develops rapidly in the first five years of life. High-quality early learning experiences can have a profound and lasting positive effect on young children during these years, setting the stage for success in kindergarten and beyond. This is especially true for young children with high needs who are from low-income families; who…

  17. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  18. Contributions of Early Work-Based Learning: A Case Study of First Year Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Thang, Siew Ming

    2009-01-01

    Generally work-based learning opportunities are only offered to students in their penultimate year of undergraduate study. Little is known about the benefits and shortcomings of such experiential learning for students in the early stages of their undergraduate education. This is a mixed method study investigating first year undergraduate pharmacy…

  19. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  20. Language Development in the Early School Years: The Importance of Close Relationships with Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental links between closeness in teacher-child relationships and children's receptive language ability from the end of the preschool years into the early elementary years, while controlling for changes in peer interaction quality and child behavioral functioning. The sample included children and their…

  1. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  2. The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack

    2006-01-01

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s. (review)

  3. The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2006-07-07

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s. (review)

  4. REVIEW: The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack

    2006-07-01

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.

  5. The early years of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): an anthology of selected reminiscences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Ronald Jack

    2006-07-07

    The origin of SPECT can be found in pioneering experiments on emission tomography performed approximately 50 years ago. This historical review consists of a compilation of first person recollections from nine trailblazing scientists who shaped the early years of SPECT instrumentation during the 1960s and 1970s.

  6. Language development in the early school years: The importance of close relationships with teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; Koomen, H.M.Y.; Harrison, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental links between closeness in teacher-child relationships and children’s receptive language ability from the end of the preschool years into the early elementary years, while controlling for changes in peer interaction quality and child behavioral

  7. Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults: From oral hypoglycemic agents to early insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resham R Poudel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of phenotypic type 2 diabetics have islet autoantibodies and are referred to as having latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA, and they land on early sulfonylurea failure and require insulin. Diagnosing LADA has treatment implications because of high risk of progression to insulin dependency. But often there is delay in insulin therapy, as there are no recommendations for islet antibody testing in adult-onset diabetes currently. LADA clinical risk score can identify adults at high risk who may benefit from antibody testing. The optimal treatment of LADA is not established. Early insulin therapy helps to achieve good metabolic control and better long-term outcomes by preserving b-cells and endogenous C-peptide secretion. Sulfonylureas are better avoided as they exhaust b-cells; glitazones and exenatide have favorable outcomes, whereas metformin needs to be used with caution. Understanding LADA will also bring new windows in managing type 1 diabetes. Information acquisition was done by reviewing the medical literature published since 1987, with particular attention to the natural history, genetic factors, and treatment of LADA.

  8. Early prediction of oral calcium and vitamin D requirements in post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhahri, Saleh F; Mubasher, Mohamed; Al-Muhawas, Fida; Alessa, Mohammed; Terkawi, Rayan S; Terkawi, Abdullah S

    2014-09-01

    To optimize and individualize post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia management. A multicenter prospective cohort study. Two tertiary care hospitals. parathyroid hormone (PTH) was measured preoperatively, then at 1 and 6 hours after surgery. The required doses of calcium and vitamin D were defined as those maintaining the patients asymptomatic and their cCa ≥ 2 mmol/L. They were used as an endpoint in a generalized linear mixed effect model (GLIMMEX) aiming to identify the best predictors of these optimal required doses. Models were evaluated by goodness of fit and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. One hundred and sixty-eight patients were analyzed; 85.1% were female, 49.3% had BMI > 30, and 64% had vitamin D deficiency. Post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia was found in 25.6%, of whom 18 (41.9%) were symptomatic and received intravenous calcium. First hour percentage of drop in PTH correlated positively with the severity of hypocalcemia (P hypocalcemia by assisting in the early identification of those who are not at risk of hypocalcaemia and by guiding early effective management of those at risk. This may reduce complications and medical cost. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx in patients aged 18-45 years: A case-control study to evaluate the risk factors with emphasis on stress, diet, oral hygiene, and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx is reported in young adults. However, there is a paucity regarding etiology and risk factors. To evaluate the exposure potential carcinogenic factors among a sample aged 45 years and younger, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Eighty-five case samples aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were compared with 85 controls who had never had cancer, matched for age and sex. This study was conducted by questionnaire-based interviews. Questionnaire contained items about exposure to the following risk factors: Caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, dental trauma, dental visit, stress, family history of cancer, environmental exposure to potential carcinogens, diet, body mass index (BMI), habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, betel quid/pan, or supari. Odds ratios (ORs) of oral and pharyngeal cancer and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Poral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid for 11-20 years. An increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was seen in cases who had poor oral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid.

  10. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Body Mass Index in the Early Years in Relation to Motor Coordination at the Age of 5–7 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Laukkanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and body mass index (BMI are consistently associated with motor coordination (MC in children. However, we know very little how BMI in early childhood associates with MC later in childhood. This study investigated associations between BMI in early childhood and BMI, PA, and MC in middle childhood. Children aged 5 to 7 years (n = 64, 32 girls were measured for MC using Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK and for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA using triaxial accelerometers. Prevailing body weight and height were measured, and information on weight and height in early years was based on parental report of child health care report cards. Age-adjusted BMIz scores were calculated on the basis of international growth curve references. Associations and the explained variability of MC were investigated by Pearson correlations and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Age and MVPA were found to be significantly associated with MC at middle childhood, in general. BMIz at middle childhood and at ages 4 and 5 years inversely explained 12% (p < 0.05, 6% (p > 0.05, and 7% (p > 0.05 of the variation in MC in girls after adjusting for covariates, respectively. In boys, BMIz scores did not show any trend of association with MC. This study suggests sex-specific mechanisms in the interplay between BMI and motor development in childhood.

  12. Early Years Educators' Perceptions of Professional Development in England: An Exploratory Study of Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Ewan

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the perceptions of professional development held by a selection of early years educators who have experience of working in statutory and private early years settings in the north of England. The research participants (n = 20) reflected on their experiences of professional development in early years. The research process is…

  13. Early induction of cytokines/cytokine receptors and Cox2, and activation of NF-κB in 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced murine oral cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu-Ching [Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ho, Heng-Chien; Lee, Miau-Rong [Department of Biochemistry, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Lai, Kuang-Chi [Department of Surgery, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Yunlin 651, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Chung-Min; Lin, Yueh-Min [Department of Pathology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Ho, Tin-Yun [School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Hsiang, Chien-Yun, E-mail: cyhsiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Microbiology, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Chung, Jing-Gung, E-mail: jgchung@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genes induced early in murine oral carcinogenesis. Murine tongue tumors induced by the carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO), and paired non-tumor tissues were subjected to microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering of upregulated genes in the tumor tissues revealed an association of induced genes with inflammation. Cytokines/cytokine receptors induced early were subsequently identified, clearly indicating their involvement in oral carcinogenesis. Hierarchical clustering also showed that cytokine-mediated inflammation was possibly linked with Mapk6. Cox2 exhibited the greatest extent (9–18 fold) of induction in the microarray data, and its early induction was observed in a 2 h painting experiment by RT-PCR. MetaCore analysis showed that overexpressed Cox2 may interact with p53 and transcriptionally inhibit expression of several downstream genes. A painting experiment in transgenic mice also demonstrated that NF-κB activates early independently of Cox2 induction. MetaCore analysis revealed the most striking metabolic alterations in tumor tissues, especially in lipid metabolism resulting from the reduction of Pparα and Rxrg. Reduced expression of Mapk12 was noted, and MetaCore analysis established its relationship with decreased efficiency of Pparα phosphorylation. In conclusion, in addition to cytokines/cytokine receptors, the early induction of Cox2 and NF-κB activation is involved in murine oral carcinogenesis.

  14. Early induction of cytokines/cytokine receptors and Cox2, and activation of NF-κB in 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced murine oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Ho, Heng-Chien; Lee, Miau-Rong; Lai, Kuang-Chi; Yeh, Chung-Min; Lin, Yueh-Min; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genes induced early in murine oral carcinogenesis. Murine tongue tumors induced by the carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO), and paired non-tumor tissues were subjected to microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering of upregulated genes in the tumor tissues revealed an association of induced genes with inflammation. Cytokines/cytokine receptors induced early were subsequently identified, clearly indicating their involvement in oral carcinogenesis. Hierarchical clustering also showed that cytokine-mediated inflammation was possibly linked with Mapk6. Cox2 exhibited the greatest extent (9–18 fold) of induction in the microarray data, and its early induction was observed in a 2 h painting experiment by RT-PCR. MetaCore analysis showed that overexpressed Cox2 may interact with p53 and transcriptionally inhibit expression of several downstream genes. A painting experiment in transgenic mice also demonstrated that NF-κB activates early independently of Cox2 induction. MetaCore analysis revealed the most striking metabolic alterations in tumor tissues, especially in lipid metabolism resulting from the reduction of Pparα and Rxrg. Reduced expression of Mapk12 was noted, and MetaCore analysis established its relationship with decreased efficiency of Pparα phosphorylation. In conclusion, in addition to cytokines/cytokine receptors, the early induction of Cox2 and NF-κB activation is involved in murine oral carcinogenesis.

  15. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy to prevent early post thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and evaluation of postoperative parathyroid hormone levels to detect hypocalcemia: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arer, Ilker Murat; Kus, Murat; Akkapulu, Nezih; Aytac, Huseyin Ozgur; Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative hypocalcemia is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. Postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement is one of the methods to detect or prevent postoperative hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation is another method to prevent early postoperative hypocalcemia. The aim of this study is to detect the accurate timing of PTH and evaluate efficacy of routine oral calcium supplementation for postoperative hypocalcemia. A total of 106 patients were performed total thyroidectomy. Rotuine oral calcium supplementation was given to group 1 and no treatment to group 2 according to randomization. Serum calcium and PTH level of patients in group 2 at postoperative 6, 12 and 24 h and patients in both groups at postoperative day 7 were evaluated. Patients were compared according to age, sex, operation findings, serum calcium and PTH levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia. Half of the patients (50%) were in group 1. Most of the patients were female (83%). The most common etiology of thyroid disease was multinodular goiter (64.1%). Oral calcium supplementation was given to 18 (33.9%) patients in group 2. Symptomatic hypocalcemia for group 1 and 2 was found to be 1.9 and 33.9% respectively (p hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy can prevent early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia with advantages of being cost effective and safe. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Specific oral desensitization in children with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Evolution in one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Montserrat; Giner, Ma Teresa; Vázquez, Marta; Lozano, Jaime; Domínguez, Olga; Piquer, Mónica; Días, Marcia; Jiménez, Rosa; Martín, Ma Anunciación; Alsina, Laia; Plaza, Ana Ma

    2012-09-01

    Cow's milk allergy is the most frequent childhood food allergy. Children older than 5 who have not become tolerant have less probabilities of natural tolerance. Specific oral desensitization methods are being investigated in reference centres. The aims of our study were to assess the efficacy of our guideline of specific oral desensitization to cow's milk in children and to know its suitability for anaphylactic children. Both clinical and specific IgE outcomes were evaluated. Eighty-seven children aged 5 to 16 years with a history of cow's milk allergy were included. Prior to desensitization, skin prick test, specific IgE to cow's milk proteins and a double-blind placebo control food challenge were performed in all. Of the 87 patients, 21 had a negative challenge; they were considered tolerant, and they were told to follow a free diet. Of the positive, 44 were anaphylactic and 22 non-anaphylactic. All of them were included. In non-anaphylactic patients, 6 achieved partial and 16 maximum desensitization after 23.1 weeks. In the anaphylactic group, 7 achieved partial and 35 maximum desensitization after 26.4 weeks. Cow's milk-specific IgE levels and casein-specific IgE levels were significantly lower in the tolerant patients at baseline. One year after desensitization, the medium specific cow's milk levels and casein IgE levels had dropped significantly. Our guideline for specific oral desensitization to cow's milk is efficacious even in patients with anaphylactic reactions to cow's milk and represents a significant life change. Immunological changes in 1 year show a drop in cow's milk protein-specific IgE.

  17. Combined determination of circulating miR-196a and miR-196b levels produces high sensitivity and specificity for early detection of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ya-Ching; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Huang, Yu-Chen; Huang, Chi-Che; Chen, Wen-Ho; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Bing-Shen; Chen, Yin-Ju; Li, Hsiao-Fang; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the oncogenic microRNA family members miR-196a and miR-196b can be circulating biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer. To determine the stability of circulating miRNA, the blood sample was aliquot and stored at different temperature conditions for analysis. To assess the diagnostic efficacy, we determined the levels of miR-196s in plasma samples, including 53 from healthy individuals, 16 from pre-cancer patients, and 90 from oral cancer patients. In general, circulating miRNA was very stable when storing plasma samples at -20°C or below. In clinical study, both circulating miR-196a and miR-196b were substantially up-regulated in patients with oral pre-cancer lesions (5.9- and 14.8-fold, respectively; P oral cancer patients (9.3- and 17.0-fold, respectively; P cancer patients (AUC = 0.764 or 0.840, miR-196a or miR-196b, respectively), and between normal and cancer patients (AUC = 0.864 or 0.960, miR-196a or miR-196b, respectively). The combined determination of miR-196a and miR-196b levels produces excellent sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of patients with oral pre-cancer (AUC = 0.845) or oral cancer (AUC = 0.963), as well as in the prediction of potential malignancy (AUC = 0.950, sensitivity = 91%, specificity = 85%). Combined determination of circulating miR-196a and miR-196b levels may serve as panel plasma biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early low volume oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: a prospective feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaudis, H; Pupelis, G; Zeiza, K; Boka, V

    2012-01-01

    Experience with administration of synbiotics (prebiotics/probiotics) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has demonstrated immunomodulatory capacity. The aim of this trial was evaluation of the feasibility and perspective of early clinical application of oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplements in patients with SAP. 90 SAP patients were enrolled during the period from 2005-2008. Patients were stratified according to the feeding mode. CONTROL (n = 32) group received standard whole protein feeding formula. SYNBIO (n = 30) and FIBRE groups (n = 28) received early (within first 24-48 hours) synbiotic or prebiotic supplements. Oral administration of synbiotics or prebiotics was commenced when patients were able to sip water. Daily provided average volume and calories of synbiotic/prebiotic blends were smaller compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.001. Oral administration of synbiotic/prebiotic supplements was associated with lower infection rate (pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis) compared to the CONTROL, (p = 0.03; p = 0.001), lower rate of surgical interventions, p = 0.005, shorter ICU (p = 0.05) and hospital stay (p = 0.03). Synbiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut resulted in reduced mortality rate compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.02. Early low volume oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut seems to be a potentially valuable complement to the routine treatment protocol of SAP.

  19. Water swallow screening test for patients after surgery for head and neck cancer: early identification of dysphagia, aspiration and limitations of oral intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Christiane; Lange, Benjamin P; Eberle, Silvia; Zaretsky, Yevgen; Sader, Robert; Stöver, Timo; Wagenblast, Jens

    2013-09-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are at high risk for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) following surgical therapy. Early identification of OD can improve outcomes and reduce economic burden. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a water screening test using increasing volumes postsurgically for patients with HNC (N=80) regarding the early identification of OD in general, and whether there is a need for further instrumental diagnostics to investigate the presence of aspiration as well as to determine the limitations of oral intake as defined by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. OD in general was identified in 65%, with aspiration in 49%, silent aspiration in 21% and limitations of oral intake in 56%. Despite a good sensitivity, for aspiration of 100% and for limitations of oral intake of 97.8%, the presented water screening test did not satisfactorily predict either of these reference criteria due to its low positive likelihood ratio (aspiration=2.6; limitations of oral intake=3.1). However, it is an accurate tool for the early identification of OD in general, with a sensitivity of 96.2% and a positive likelihood ratio of 5.4 in patients after surgery for HNC.

  20. Oral Cancer Knowledge and Diagnostic Ability Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Abu Tarboush, N; Baqain, Z; Ismail, F; Hawamdeh, S; Sawair, F

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence the diagnostic ability of dental students with regards to oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. Dental students at different levels of study were directly interviewed to examine their oral cancer knowledge and diagnostic ability using a validated and pre-tested survey instrument containing validated clinical images of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge, and a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Knowledge scores ranged from 0 to 27 (mean 10.1 ± 6.0); mean knowledge scores increased with year of study; 5th year students had the highest mean knowledge score (19.1 ± 4.0), while 1st year students had the lowest (5.6 ± 3.5). Diagnostic ability scores increased with year of study and ranged from 0 to 88.5 % (mean 41.8 % ± 15.6). The ability to recognize suspicious oral lesions was significantly correlated with knowledge about oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (r = 0.28; P oral cancer education curricula; increasing students' contact with patients who have oral lesions including oral cancer will help to improve their future diagnostic ability and early detection practices.

  1. Carcinoma escamocelular bucal diagnosticado precozmente Oral squamocellular carcinoma with early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Napier de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma escamocelular es la neoplasia maligna más común en la cavidad bucal. Los sitios anatómicos más frecuentemente afectados son el labio inferior, los bordes laterales de lengua y el suelo de la boca. Su etiología es multifactorial, aunque está íntimamente relacionada con factores ambientales como el tabaquismo y el alcoholismo. El cuadro clínico se caracteriza generalmente por la presencia de placas blancas, placas eritematosas, placas entre eritematosas y blancas, úlceras de bordes levantados y masas exofíticas. El tratamiento consiste en la extirpación quirúrgica, la radioterapia, quimioterapia o ambos tratamientos. Este artículo presenta un caso de carcinoma escamocelular bucal en un paciente del sexo masculino, de 70 años de edad. En el mismo se describen los hallazgos clínicos, histopatológicos y el tratamiento correspondiente del caso. El diagnóstico precoz y correcto posibilitó la cura en este caso.The squamocellular carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm commonest in the buccal cavity. The more frequently involved anatomical sites are the lower lip, the tongue's lateral edges and the mouth floor. Its etiology is multifactor although it is closely related to smoking and alcoholism. Clinical picture is generally characterized by the presence of different types of white, erythematous, between erythematous and white plaques, ulcers with raised edges and exophytic masses. Treatment includes surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or both. In present paper the case of a man aged 70 presenting with buccal squamous carcinoma describing the clinical, and the histopathologic findings and its corresponding treatment. The early and appropriate diagnosis allowed the cure of this case.

  2. Age-wise and gender-wise prevalence of oral habits in 7–16-year-old school children of Mewar ethnicity, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vishnoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aimed to check the age- and gender-wise prevalence of oral habits in the children of 7–16-year-old Indian children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 1029 (661 males and 368 females children of age 7–16 years was done to record the presence or absence of the oral habits with the aid of the anamnestic questionnaire. The recorded oral habits were tongue thrusting, thumb or digit sucking, mouth breathing, bruxism, lip biting or lip sucking, and nail biting. The collected data were subjected to Pearson's Chi-square statistical analysis to know the overall difference in the prevalence rate of different oral habits and to evaluate the gender- and age-wise difference in the prevalence of oral habits. Results: Oral habits were present in 594 participants (57.73%. The highest prevalence rate was registered for tongue thrusting habit (28.8%, which was followed by nail biting (201/19.5% and thumb sucking (128/12.4%, mouth breathing (109/10.6%, lip biting (85/8.3%, and bruxism (29/2.8%. The male participants showed a greater prevalence rate for the oral habits than the female participants (58.55% vs. 56.25%. There was a significant difference in the age-wise prevalence of oral habits with older children showing greater prevalence of oral habits than the younger ones. Conclusion: The prevalence of oral habits in the current group of children is high. It warrants the need for the community-based educational preventive and interceptive programs to spread the awareness regarding the deleterious effects of these oral habits.

  3. In vivo effect of single oral dose of artemether against early juvenile stages of Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beshbishi, Samar N; Taman, Amira; El-Malky, Mohamed; Azab, Manar S; El-Hawary, Amira K; El-Tantawy, Dina A

    2013-10-01

    The current treatment and control of schistosomiasis, rely on a single drug, praziquantel, although, it has minor activity against juvenile stages of the parasite. Studies have shown that artemether (ART) exhibits effects against juveniles of Schistosoma mansoni Liberian and Puerto Rican strains, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma haematobium. Aiming to assess the in vivo activity of single oral dose of ART against early juvenile stages of S. mansoni Egyptian strain, this study was established. Mice were treated with ART (400 mg/kg) at two time points evenly spaced over the period of larval development (7 and 21 days post-infection; pi), and a third treatment point (day 49 pi) was included to elucidate when susceptibility decreases. Administration of ART on day 7 pi reduced the total worm burden by 85.94%. The greatest reductions were seen when treatment was given on day 21 pi, with total and female worm burden reductions of 91.52% and 90.57%, respectively, and cessation of oviposition. Similar dose given on day 49 pi reduced total worm burden by 55.17% and female worm burden by 66.51%. Moreover, it induced significant reduction in the tissue egg load and significant alterations in the oogram pattern with decreased immature eggs and increased dead eggs. Antipathological activities were evident in significant reductions in granulomata count and diameter. In conclusion, ART exhibits major in vivo schistosomicidal effects against the early larval migratory stages of S. mansoni Egyptian strain, mainly the 21-day old schistosomula, hence preventing disease progression and morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  5. Adaptation and validation of Child Oral Impact on Daily Performance index in 11- 14-year-old Chilean school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Vera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The health condition of a population is often rated through clinical indicators. However, the psychological and social impact of diseases on quality of life has been noticed of late. Objective: to adapt, in cultural terms, the Child- Oral Impact on Daily Performance (C-OIDP questionnaire in its self- administered form and evaluate its psychometric properties among Chilean teenagers aged 11-14 from the city of Licantén, Chile, in 2013. Methodology: A cross-sectional study on scales validation. Face validity was determined by experts opinion, criterion validity by correlation with measures of self-rated health and dental treatment needs, internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha, and temporal stability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for test- retest within a 10-day window. The sample consisted of 203 students aged 11 to 14 years from the urban sector of Licantén city. Results: Five experts determined proper face validity of the C-OIDP scale. Regarding criterion validity, statistically significance association (p<0.05 were found, positive for treatment need and negative for oral health satisfaction. Internal consistency scale showed an alpha=0.719, all items showed correlations of 0.32 to 0.54 with the rest of the scale. The temporal stability gave an ICC=0.82. . Conclusion: the cultural adaptation of the self-administered C-OIDP questionnaire for Chilean students aged 11 to 14 years showed adequate psychometric properties, so it is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the oral health impact on quality of life in this population.

  6. Early Predictors of Ten-Year Course in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Svein; Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2016-01-01

    , five, and ten years (N=186 at ten years). Time in psychosis was defined as time with scores ≥4 on any of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale items P1, P3, P5, P6, and G9. Evaluations were retrospective, based on clinical interviews and all available clinical information. During the first two years......, patients were also evaluated by their clinicians at least biweekly. Baseline and early-course predictors of long-term course were identified with linear mixed-model analyses. RESULTS: Four variables provided significant, additive predictions of longer time in psychosis during the ten-year follow...

  7. Learning How to Do Up Buttons: Professionalism, Teacher Identity and Bureaucratic Subjectivities in Early Years Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupala, Branislav; Kascak, Ondrej; Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Early years education in Europe and elsewhere around the world is currently in the spotlight due to political and economical changes and subsequent promises of effective investment into its provision. In this article we analyse everyday preschool practices in Slovakia in terms of tensions between policies, the teachers workforce and the concept of…

  8. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  9. An Ecological Perspective on Early Years Workforce Competences in Italian ECEC Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Laura; Rania, Nadia; Tassara, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Based on an ecological perspective on competence, this study analyzed the attitudes, skills, and knowledge of practitioners in educational services for 0-6-years-old children in Italy, examining competence profiles in the Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) workforce. Our study considered three areas of competence, which previously have…

  10. Narrative Making and Remaking in the Early Years: Prelude to the Personal Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peggy J.; Chen, Eva Chian-Hui; Olivarez, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Although very young children are unable to formulate a personal narrative of the life course, their everyday lives are steeped in narratives. Drawing on ethnographic studies in diverse sociocultural worlds, we argue that the early years of life form a vital preamble to the personal narrative. In this phase of life, the universal predisposition to…

  11. Defining smallness for gestational age in the early years of the Danish Medical Birth Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Rogvi, Rasmus; Mathiasen, Rene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    , but due to variable data quality, data is most often used only from 1981 onwards, and birth registers in other countries may have similar problems for the early years. We wanted to examine whether the data can be used for identification of children born SGA and used in future research....

  12. Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science: 25 Years of Early College STEM Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayler, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The University of North Texas's Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science began admitting students to its 2-year early college entrance science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) program in the fall of 1988. This program provided accelerated entry for top students in Texas in the areas of mathematics and science. Approximately 200…

  13. Children under Five and Digital Technologies: Implications for Early Years Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to investigate the types of digital technologies children under the age of five are using at home and assess the possible implications for early years pedagogy. The research, carried out between 2010 and 2012, was based in four European countries: England, Greece, Malta and Luxemburg. A mixed methods approach was employed to…

  14. The Role of Computer Technology in Supporting Children's Learning in Jordanian Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhawaldeh, Mustafa; Hyassat, Mizyed; Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The current research investigated early years teachers' perspectives regarding the role of computer technology in supporting children's learning in Jordanian kindergartens. Thirty semistructured interviews were conducted with preschool teachers. The sample of kindergartens in this study was purposefully selected from the targeted population of…

  15. A Healthy Start: Promoting Mental Health and Well-Being in the Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefai, Carmel; Camilleri, Liberato

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems in children represent a significant international health concern, with up to one in five children using mental health services during the course of any given year. Identifying the processes of what prevents social, emotional and behaviour difficulties (SEBD) and promotes healthy development from an early age can make a…

  16. Geometry in Early Years: Sowing Seeds for a Mathematical Definition of Squares and Rectangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini Bussi, Maria G.; Baccaglini-Frank, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In early years schooling it is becoming common to propose activities that involve moving along paths, or programming robots to do so. In order to promote continuity towards the introduction of geometry in primary school, we developed a long-term teaching experiment (with 15 sessions) carried out over 4 months in a first grade classroom in northern…

  17. Investigating Key Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Robert; Sloat, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates key psychometric properties of the French Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment measure designed to systematically assess kindergarten children across five social and academic developmental domains: awareness of self and environment, social skills and behaviour, cognitive abilities, language and communication, and…

  18. How Silent Is the "Silent Period" for Young Bilinguals in Early Years Settings in England?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Rose

    2013-01-01

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…

  19. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  20. Power and Identity in Immigrant Parents' Involvement in Early Years Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…

  1. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  2. "Intensive Mothering" in the Early Years: The Cultivation and Consolidation of (Physical) Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirrup, Julie; Duncombe, Rebecca; Sandford, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Growing pressure on parents to equip their children with the skills required for future success, coupled with an increased focus on providing quality learning experiences in the early years, has contributed to an upsurge in the enrolment of young children in formal (often privatised) activities. Moreover, in response to growing societal concerns…

  3. Antibiogram pattern of oral microflora in periodontic children of age group 6 to 12 years: a clinicomicrobiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fysal, N; Jose, Santhosh; Kulshrestha, Reena; Arora, Dimple; Hafiz, Ka Abdul; Vasudevan, Sanjay

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to see the diversity of oral microflora and its antibiotic sensitivity test in children of age group 6 to 12 years was carried. Total 50 patients of age group 6 to 12 years were analyzed for their oral microflora and then checked for the antibiotic susceptibility test. The samples that were collected were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Once dispersed samples were taken and Gram staining was done, also they were spread on to a number of freshly prepared agar plates and incubated to allow cells to form microbial colony. The result showed microflora common in all types, Gram-positive facultative anaerobic rods and cocci. In normal children Gram-positive facultative anaerobic and fermenting cocci were predominant where as in children with caries growth of microbiota that were Gram-negative and positive, capnophilic, motile and anaerobic rods and cocci belonging to members of genera S. mutans and A. actinomycetemcomitans was seen. By the present study it has been concluded that the number of bacteria determined by microscopic counts was twice as high in caries patients as in healthy sites, and also recommended that amoxicillin, ampicillin and amikacin are the most effective antibacterial drugs for the treatment of dental caries.

  4. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine : guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragelund, C.; Reibel, J.; Hietanen, J.; Hadler-Olsen, E.; Johannessen, A. C.; Kenrad, B.; Nylander, K.; Puranen, M.; Salo, T.; Syrjanen, S.; Soland, T. M.; van der Waal, I.; van der Wal, J. E.; Warfvinge, G.

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must

  5. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine: guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragelund, C.; Reibel, J.; Hietanen, J.; Hadler-Olsen, E.; Johannessen, A.C.; Kenrad, B.; Nylander, K.; Puranen, M.; Salo, T.; Syrjänen, S.; Søland, T.M.; van der Waal, I.; van der Wal, J.E.; Warfvinge, G.

    2012-01-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must

  6. The prophylactic effect of neck irradiation combined with intra-oral electron beam irradiation for early tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamori, Jiro; Kamata, Rikisaburo; Sanuki, Eiichi

    1993-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1988, 102 patients with Stage T1-2N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were treated with uneven fractional irradiation therapy (intra-oral electron beam irradiation with and without prophylactic ipsilateral upper neck irradiation at the Dept. of Radiology, Nihon University School of Medicine. Of 102 primary lesions, 89 cases were controlled with this therapy. In this study, these 89 cases were investigated in order to analyze the prophylactic effect of upper neck irradiation. Of the 89 patients, 42 received only intra-oral electron beam irradiation, while the remaining 47 received a combination of intra-oral electron beam irradiation and prophylactic irradiation to the ipsilateral upper neck. Twenty three of the 89 (25.8%) developed metastasis to the neck after the radiotherapy. A breakdown of these 23 cases reveals that 3/21 (14.3%) received 40-50 Gy to the neck, 9/26 (34.6%) received 20-40 Gy to the neck, and 11/42 (26.2%) received no irradiation to the neck (p<0.05 between first and second groups, and between first and third groups). The neck metastasis was classified into one of three categories based on the region in which it first appeared (ipsilateral upper neck, ipsilateral lower neck or contralateral neck). The first metastasis was seen in the ipsilateral upper neck, in the ipsilateral lower neck and in the contralateral neck in 17, 4 and 2 patients, respectively. In 1/19 who had received 40-50 Gy, in 5/21 who had received 20-40 Gy and in 11/42 who had not received neck irradiation the first metastasis appeared in the ipsilateral upper neck. The five year survival rate was 94%, 75% and 85% in the patients receiving 40-50 Gy, 20-40 Gy and no neck irradiation, respectively. These results suggest that prophylactic irradiation of 40-50 Gy to the ipsilateral upper neck might decrease the incidence of neck metastasis and slightly prolong survival time. (author)

  7. Learning and teaching natural science in the early years: A case study of three different contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela James

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently many children in early childhood education cannot be accommodated in provincial department schools. Consequently, different non-governmental institutions offer Grade R programmes in an attempt to support the DBE. Pre-primary schools that traditionally took responsibility for early childhood education also offer Grade R education. The recent policy decision to include Grade R in the primary school is an innovation, which is still in its infancy. It is against this background that the national South African Curriculum (NCS has to be implemented. This paper focuses on the teaching of natural science in Grade R and attempts to determine if the teaching and learning of natural science has different outcomes in the different contexts described above. An oral questionnaire was administered to capture children’s understanding of natural science phenomena, while interviews provided data with regard to teachers’ understanding of natural science in the foundation phase. The results show that there are differences in children’s understanding of natural phenomena in the different contexts and these differences are related to teachers’ understanding of the curriculum, as well as their views of the nature of science.

  8. Five years of specialised early intervention versus two years of specialised early intervention followed by three years of standard treatment for patients with a first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    assessment. Randomisation was centralised and computerised with concealed randomisation sequence carried out at an external site. SETTING: Participants were recruited from six OPUS teams in Denmark between 2009 and 2012. OPUS teams provide SEI treatment to all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum...... of three core elements-modified assertive community treatment, family involvement, and social skill training-with a patient-case manager ratio of no more than 12:1. For participants randomised to five years of OPUS treatment, the treatment was largely unchanged. Participants randomised to the control group......, alogia, and affective blunting). Secondary outcomes were remission of both negative and psychotic symptoms, psychotic symptoms, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, compliance with medical treatment, adherence with treatment, client satisfaction, days in hospital care, and labour market affiliation...

  9. Comparative clinical study testing the effectiveness of school based oral health education using experiential learning or traditional lecturing in 10 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulou, Matina V; Kavvadia, Katerina; Taoufik, Konstantina; Oulis, Constantine J

    2015-04-28

    School based oral health education through traditional lecturing has been found successful only in improving oral health knowledge, while has low effectiveness in oral hygiene and gingival health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of experiential learning (EL) oral health education to traditional lecturing (TL), on enhancing oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior as well as oral hygiene, gingival health and caries of 10-year-old children. Eighty-four children were recruited for the EL and 100 for the TL group from 3 locations in Greece. Data regarding oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior were collected via questionnaires. Data regarding dental plaque, gingivitis and caries were collected by clinical examination. The evaluation using questionnaires and clinical examination was assessed at baseline and 6 and 18 months afterwards. Two calibrated pediatric dentists examined the students using a periodontal probe and artificial light. Modified hygiene index (HI) was used for dental plaque recording, the simplified gingival index (GI-S) was used for gingivitis and DMFT, based on BASCD criteria, for dental caries. Based on a dedicated manual, the teacher applied in the classroom the oral health educational program using EL. EL group had statistically significant better hygiene than the TL at 6 months (p 0.05) and attitude (p > 0.05) at 6 months in comparison to baseline. EL program was found more successful than TL in oral hygiene improvement. Both oral health education programs improved the oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of children. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02320162).

  10. Development of early communication skills in the first two years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuker, Karin T; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2013-02-01

    The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer: five year observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Caroline; Cornelius, Victoria; Love, Sharon; Graham, Jill; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer in the five years after diagnosis. Design Observational cohort study. Setting NHS breast clinic, London. Participants 222 women with early breast cancer: 170 (77%) provided complete interview data up to either five years after diagnosis or recurrence. Main outcome measures Prevalence of clinically important depression and anxiety (structured psychiatric interview with standardised diagnostic criteria) and clinical and patient risk factors, including stressful life experiences (Bedford College life events and difficulties schedule). Results Nearly 50% of the women with early breast cancer had depression, anxiety, or both in the year after diagnosis, 25% in the second, third, and fourth years, and 15% in the fifth year. Point prevalence was 33% at diagnosis, falling to 15% after one year. 45% of those with recurrence experienced depression, anxiety, or both within three months of the diagnosis. Previous psychological treatment predicted depression, anxiety, or both in the period around diagnosis (one month before diagnosis to four months after diagnosis). Longer term depression and anxiety, were associated with previous psychological treatment, lack of an intimate confiding relationship, younger age, and severely stressful non-cancer life experiences. Clinical factors were not associated with depression and anxiety, at any time. Lack of intimate confiding support also predicted more protracted episodes of depression and anxiety. Conclusion Increased levels of depression, anxiety, or both in the first year after a diagnosis of early breast cancer highlight the need for dedicated service provision during this time. Psychological interventions for women with breast cancer who remain disease free should take account of the broader social context in which the cancer occurs, with a focus on improving social support. PMID:15695497

  12. The Oral Microbiome of Children: Development, Disease, and Implications Beyond Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andres; Nelson, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    In the era of applied meta-omics and personalized medicine, the oral microbiome is a valuable asset. From biomarker discovery to being a powerful source of therapeutic targets and to presenting an opportunity for developing non-invasive approaches to health care, it has become clear that oral microbes may hold the answer for understanding disease, even beyond the oral cavity. Although our understanding of oral microbiome diversity has come a long way in the past 50 years, there are still many areas that need to be fine-tuned for better risk assessment and diagnosis, especially in early developmental stages of human life. Here, we discuss the factors that impact development of the oral microbiome and explore oral markers of disease, with a focus on the early oral cavity. Our ultimate goal is to put different experimental and methodological views into perspective for better assessment of early oral and systemic disease at an early age and discuss how oral microbiomes-at the community level-could provide improved assessment in individuals and populations at risk.

  13. Disease activity decrease is associated with improvement in work productivity over 1 year in early axial spondyloarthritis (SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Fongen, Camilla; Landewé, Robert; Ramonda, Roberta; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris A.

    2017-01-01

    To assess if a change in disease activity is associated with a change in work productivity loss (WPL) over 1 year in early axial SpA (axSpA) patients. Baseline and 1 year data of axSpA patients in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort were analysed. Linear regression models were built explaining

  14. The oral health knowledge and oral hygiene practices among primary school children age 5-17 years in a rural area of Uasin Gishu district, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okemwa, K A; Gatongi, P M; Rotich, J K

    2010-06-01

    To determine the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene practices among school children in the study region This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among primary school going children in Kapsaret Educational division, Uasin-Gishu District, Kenya. A researcher administered questionnaire was used to determine the oral health knowledge and practices in a random sample of 401 students in the period March to June 2002. 92% of the students claimed they brushed their teeth. About 48% brushed at least twice daily. More students (59.1%) reported using the chewing stick compared to those using commercial toothbrushes (p = 0.000).Female students brushed more frequently than their male counterparts (p = 0.000, chi2 = 24.65). 39.9% of the students knew the cause of tooth decay, 48.2% could state at least one method of prevention, while 16.5% knew the importance of teeth. Use of toothpaste was reported by 38.9% of the students. Less than half of the students knew the causes of tooth decay and how to prevent it. Only about half of the students brushed their teeth twice daily with the chewing stick being more frequently used. There is need to increase the oral health knowledge through well Planned school based oral health education programmes in the primary schools. This would hopefully lead to improvement on the oral hygiene practices.

  15. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. LaRowe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childcare and education (ECE is a prime setting for obesity prevention and the establishment of healthy behaviors. The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the efficacy of the Active Early guide, which includes evidenced-based approaches, provider resources, and training, to improve physical activity opportunities through structured (i.e. teacher-led activity and environmental changes thereby increasing physical activity among children, ages 2–5 years, in the ECE setting. Methods Twenty ECE programs in Wisconsin, 7 family and 13 group, were included. An 80-page guide, Active Early, was developed by experts and statewide partners in the fields of ECE, public health, and physical activity and was revised by ECE providers prior to implementation. Over 12 months, ECE programs received on-site training and technical assistance to implement the strategies and resources provided in the Active Early guide. Main outcome measures included observed minutes of teacher-led physical activity, physical activity environment measured by the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO instrument, and child physical activity levels via accelerometry. All measures were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months and were analyzed for changes over time. Results Observed teacher-led physical activity significantly increased from 30.9 ± 22.7 min at baseline to 82.3 ± 41.3 min at 12 months. The change in percent time children spent in sedentary activity decreased significantly after 12 months (−4.4 ± 14.2 % time, −29.2 ± 2.6 min, p < 0.02. Additionally, as teacher led-activity increased, percent time children were sedentary decreased (r = −0.37, p < 0.05 and percent time spent in light physical activity increased (r = 0.35, p < 0.05. Among all ECE programs, the physical activity environment improved significantly as indicated by multiple sub-scales of

  16. Brain structure and cognition 3 years after the end of an early menopausal hormone therapy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Kejal; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G; Zuk, Samantha M; Lowe, Val J; Fields, Julie A; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Senjem, Matthew L; Settell, Megan L; Gleason, Carey E; Shuster, Lynne T; Bailey, Kent R; Dowling, N Maritza; Asthana, Sanjay; Jack, Clifford R; Rocca, Walter A; Miller, Virginia M

    2018-04-17

    The effects of 2 frequently used formulations of menopausal hormone therapy (mHT) on brain structure and cognition were investigated 3 years after the end of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in recently menopausal women with good cardiovascular health. Participants (aged 42-56 years; 5-36 months past menopause) were randomized to one of the following: 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogen (oCEE); 50 μg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol (tE2); or placebo pills and patch for 4 years. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to mHT groups for 12 days each month. MRIs were performed at baseline, at the end of 4 years of mHT, and 3 years after the end of mHT (n = 75). A subset of participants also underwent Pittsburgh compound B-PET (n = 68). Ventricular volumes increased more in the oCEE group compared to placebo during the 4 years of mHT, but the increase in ventricular volumes was not different from placebo 3 years after the discontinuation of mHT. Increase in white matter hyperintensity volume was similar in the oCEE and tE2 groups, but it was statistically significantly greater than placebo only in the oCEE group. The longitudinal decline in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes was less in the tE2 group compared to placebo, which correlated with lower cortical Pittsburgh compound B uptake. Rates of global cognitive change in mHT groups were not different from placebo. The effects of oCEE on global brain structure during mHT subside after oCEE discontinuation but white matter hyperintensities continue to increase. The relative preservation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortical volume in the tE2 group over 7 years indicates that mHT may have long-term effects on the brain. This study provides Class III evidence that the rates of change in global brain volumes and cognitive function in recently menopausal women receiving mHT (tE2 or oCEE) were not significantly different from women receiving placebo, as measured 3 years after exposure to mHT. Copyright © 2018 The

  17. Radiotherapy of early tongue cancer in patients less than 40 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Koizumi, Masahiko; Inoue, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Hideya; Imai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Hiroya; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Eiichi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Inoue, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of treatment for early mobile tongue cancer in patients less than 40 years. Methods and Materials: Between January 1967 and September 1992, 70 patients less than 40 years old (young age group) with early tongue cancer (T1-2N0M0) were treated with low-dose-rate (LDR) interstitial radiotherapy at the Osaka University Hospital (OUH). All patients had a minimum 2-year follow-up (median: 13 years). External radiotherapy (median: 30 Gy) was combined in 25 cases. The treatment results were compared with those for two older age groups (middle age: 40-64 years old; old age: 65 years old or more). Results: The 5-year probability of cause-specific survival (CSS) rate for the young age group was 80%, which was not significantly different from the two older groups: 81% for middle age and 71% for old age. However, male patients of young age showed significantly worse rates than those of middle and old age (p = 0.02). The 5-year local control rate for the young age group was 78%. It was not significantly different from the two older groups: 81% for middle age and 70% for old age. The incidence of regional lymph node metastasis was 32% for T1, 48% for T2, 56% for males, and 24% for females. The regional failure rate of young males was significantly higher than those of the two older groups: 32% for middle and 22% for old age (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The overall treatment results for patients with early tongue cancer less than 40 years old were not worse than those of older age groups. However, male gender was a risk factor for lymph node metastasis and CSS

  18. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Agbaje, Hakeem Olatunde; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji; Oziegbe, Elizabeth Obhioneh; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Oshomoji, Olusegun Victor

    2016-01-01

    Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child's socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression. The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2) years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80), mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30) while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73). Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58-2.81) but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34-1.01) insignificantly. Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking.

  19. Symptoms to pollen and fruits early in life and allergic disease at 4 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, X-M; Neuman, A; Ostblom, E; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, L; Almqvist, C; van Hage, M; Wickman, M

    2008-11-01

    The predictive value of reported early symptoms to pollen or fruits on later allergic disease is unclear. Our aim is to evaluate if symptoms to pollen and/or to fruits early in life are associated with allergic disease and sensitization to pollen at 4 years. The study included 3619 children from the Barn (Children), Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology project (BAMSE) birth cohort. Reported symptoms of wheeze, sneeze or rash to birch, grass or weed, symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, rash, facial edema, sneeze, or wheeze) to fruits including tree-nuts at 1 or 2 years of age, and definitions of asthma, rhinitis and eczema at 4 years were derived from questionnaire data. Sensitization to pollen allergens was defined as allergen-specific IgE-antibodies to any pollen (birch/timothy/mugwort) > or =0.35 kU(A)/l. At 1 or 2 years of age, 6% of the children were reported to have pollen-related symptoms, 6% had symptoms to fruits, and 1.4% to both pollen and fruits. Children with symptoms to both pollen and fruits at 1 or 2 years of age had an increased risk for sensitization to any pollen allergen at age 4 (OR(adj) = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.1-9.2). This group of children also had a substantially elevated risk for developing any allergic disease (asthma, rhinitis, or eczema) at 4 years irrespective of sensitization to pollen (OR(adj) = 8.6, 95% CI = 4.5-16.4). The prevalence of reported symptoms to pollen and fruits is very low in early childhood. However, children with early symptoms to both pollen and fruits appear to have a markedly elevated risk for allergic disease.

  20. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among 15-year-old Danish adolescents during 1995-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Kaushik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scandinavian welfare states, despite having better population oral health than less egalitarian societies, are characterized by ubiquitous social gradients and large relative socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. However, trends in these inequalities among Scandinavian children a...

  1. A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Nara, Asha; Kumari, Parveen Reddy; Halemani, Praveen Kumar Nugadoni; Buddiga, Vinutna; Mythri, Sarpangala

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 children aged between 6 to 20 years were included in this study from a residential school for visually impaired children. These children were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was given oral hygiene instructions by audio recor...

  2. Translation and validation of the instrument for the oral health-related quality of life assessment in 3 to 5 years old children in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Hadžipašić Nazdrajić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During 2007. in the U.S. was developed the questionnaire for caregivers with 13 items for assessing the oral health-related quality of life in children 3-5 years of age, The Early Childhood Oral Health ImpactScale, The ECOHIS. The aim of this study was to perform the fi rst part of the adaptation process for this instrument in Bosnia-Herzegovina: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and the comprehensibility testing.Methods: ECOHIS was translated from English into the one of the languages in Bosnia-Herzegovina using a standardized forward-backward translation method. Two licensed, professional English-language translators, one dentist and one pediatrician, participated in the development of the preliminary BH-ECOHIS version. All translators were native Bosnian speakers. After translation and adaptation of ECOHIS to Bosnia and Herzegovina setting, pilot-research was performed in order to check the comprehensibility of the questionnaire.Results: The original and the back-translated version were the same. Because not all children in Bosnia-Herzegovina attend preschool, school or daycare, we replaced the question number fi ve from the originalEnglish version “missed preschool, daycare or school“ with “had difficulties in everyday activities”. Translated and culturally adapted version of the ECOHIS was applied in a form of an interview (N=16. Parents/caregivershad no diffi culties to understand the questionnaire.Conclusions: BH-ECOHIS showed excellent comprehensibility. Next step in the validation process should be the testing of its measurement characteristic.

  3. Oculocutaneous albinism and the oral manifestation in a 14-year-old boy - A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Albinism consists of a group of genetically inherited autosomal recessive conditions which are typically characterized by a congenital reduction or absence in melanin pigment biosynthesis which gives the natural color in the skin, iris of the eyes, and hair. A person with albinism may have one or many of the following symptoms: absence of color in the hair, skin, or iris of the eye, lighter than normal skin and hair, patchy, missing skin color, crossed eyes (strabismus, light sensitivity (photophobia, rapid eye movements (nystagmus, vision problems, or functional blindness, severe gingivitis, oral mucosal ulceration, and periodontal disease. A dentist can play a significant role in successfully treating albino patients if he/she has basic knowledge of the symptoms of albinism. We present a case report of a 14-year-old child suffering from oculocutaneous albinism who was reported to the Department of Periodontology, Himachal Pradesh Government Dental College and Hospital, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, with a chief complaint of bleeding gums and oral malodor.

  4. Oral hygiene KAP assessment and DMFT scoring among children aged 11-12 years in an urban school of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakani, Farhan; Basaria, Nadia; Katpar, Shahjahan

    2011-04-01

    To assess the oral hygiene knowledge, attitude and practices among school children and evaluate their DMFT (Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth) scores. Cross-sectional study. A private school of Karachi from March to April 2008. Convenient sample comprising 300 students of grade 6 within the age group of 11-12 years was selected. A knowledge, attitude and practices survey questionnaire based on quantitative indicators was filled by the students. Clinical examination was done for DMFT. Data analysis was done by using SPSS version 11. Associations were assessed using chi-square test and a p-value of importance of a dentist's role in maintaining their dental health. Only a few students (11.3%) had familiarity with dental floss. A statistically significant association was found between frequency of brushing and children's knowledge of the problems related to irregular tooth brushing (p < 0.001). The attitude of school children towards dental health and dental service utilization is determined by certain social and cultural factors. The mean DMFT of 1.27 showed that there must have been some poor oral practices that are contributing towards a higher mean.

  5. Comparison of coronary angiography and early oral dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.; Hicks, R.R.; Myers, G.H.; McCarthy, J.J.; Perry, J.R.; Adams, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated 50 consecutive patients who received thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction using thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography in combination with oral dipyridamole to assess the frequency of residual myocardial ischemia. Thallium studies were performed early after myocardial infarction at a mean of 4.6 days. The time from the onset of chest pain to the administration of thrombolytic therapy was 2.6 hours (range 0.5 to 5.5). Q wave myocardial infarction was evident in 46 patients; four patients had a non-Q wave infarction (anterior infarction in 31 patients and inferior infarction in 19 patients). The serum mean peak creatinine kinase was 1503 IU/L (range 127 to 6500). Coronary angiography was performed in all patients at a mean of 3.1 days (range 2 to 10) and revealed the infarct-related vessel to be patent in 36 patients (72%). The ejection fraction was 48% (range 26% to 67%). After dipyridamole administration, 13 patients (26%) developed angina that was easily reversed with the administration of intravenous aminophylline. Systolic blood pressure decreased from 122 to 115 mm Hg (p less than 0.05) and the heart rate increased from 76 to 85 beats/min (p less than 0.05). None of the patients had significant hypotension, arrhythmias, or evidence of infarct extension. Perfusion abnormalities were present on the initial thallium images in 48 patients. Redistribution suggestive of ischemia was present in 36 patients (72%). Ischemia confined to the vascular distribution of the infarct vessel was evident in 22 patients. Seven patients had ischemia in the infarct zone as well as in a remote myocardial segment. Thus 29 patients (58%) had ischemia in the distribution of the infarct vessel. Ischemia in the infarct zone was evident in 19 of 36 patients with open infarct vessels and in 10 of 14 patients with occluded infarct vessels

  6. Oral health and the impact of socio-behavioural factors in a cross sectional survey of 12-year old school children in Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Nanna; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent decades low-income countries experienced an increasing trend in dental caries among children, particularly recorded in 12-year olds, which is the principal WHO indicator age group for children. This increases the risks of negative affects on children's life. Some data exist...... on the oral health status of children in low-income countries of Southeast Asia. However, information on how oral health is associated with socio-behavioural factors is almost not available. The aims of this study were to: assess the level of oral health of Lao 12-year-olds in urban and semi-urban settings...... was found for children with good or average perception of own oral health. High risk for gingival bleeding was seen in semi-urban children and boys. CONCLUSION: Although the caries level is low it causes considerable negative impact on daily life. School based health promotion should be implemented...

  7. Maternal self-report of oral health in 4-year-old Pacific children from South Auckland, New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Durward, Callum; Cartwright, Susan; Paterson, Janis

    2007-01-01

    To report on the oral health risk in a disadvantaged group of 4-year-old Pacific children and their mothers living in South Auckland, New Zealand. The Pacific Islands Families study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. Maternal self-report of mother and child's oral health practices and child's filling and extraction experience was undertaken at interview approximately 4 years postpartum. Overall, 1,048 mothers of children were interviewed. Children's reported oral health practices were generally poor, with 47 percent brushing Culturally appropriate and targeted strategies aimed at these modifiable practices need to be widely promoted so that the oral health burden carried by Pacific children can be reduced.

  8. A Prospective Longitudinal Study on Implant Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Controlled HIV-Positive Patients with 1-Year Follow-Up: The Role of CD4+ Level, Smoking Habits, and Oral Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlone, Enrico F; Capparé, Paolo; Tecco, Simona; Polizzi, Elisabetta; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    A recent study showed that implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in well-controlled HIV patients gave slightly worse results than in an healthy population, and failures were all linked to infection. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the success of implant-prosthetic treatment and systemic CD4+ level, smoking habits, and oral hygiene. This mono-centric study included HIV patients with a stable disease and good oral hygiene requiring implant rehabilitation. Each patient received at least one dental implant. Prosthesis were delivered after 90 days in the upper jaw and 60 days in the lower jaw. Primary outcome measures were prosthetic failures, implant failures, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, and biological complications (peri-implantitis, pus, pain, paresthesia). The possible association with CD4 count, smoking habits, and oral hygiene was analyzed. Sixty-eight patients received 194 implants, and 66 patients (190 implants) were followed for 1 year. No significant associations were found between CD4+ count, oral hygiene-associated variables, and any of the outcome measures. If compared with nonsmoking/light smoking patients, patients who smoked >10 cigarettes/day suffered a statistically significant greater number of implant failures (p ≤ .005), presented a comparatively higher number of peri-implantitis (p 10 cigarettes/day) demonstrated an increased risk of early implant failure, peri-implantitis, episodes of pus, and self-reported pain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Early years neurosurgical training in the era of the European Working Time Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Watkins, Laurence D; Kitchen, Neil D; Sethi, Huma

    2013-10-01

    The past decade has seen significant changes to the face of neurosurgical training in the United Kingdom, driven in part by an increasing focus on patient safety and the introduction of Modernising Medical Careers and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Recent reforms to neurosurgical training over the past few years have resulted in creation of an 8-year 'run-through' training programme. In this programme, early years (ST1 and ST2) trainees often lack dedicated time for elective theatre lists and outpatient clinics. Further, any time spent in theatre and clinics is often with different teams. Here we describe a training model for early years trainees at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, who are given the responsibilities traditionally associated with a more senior trainee including dedicated weekly theatre and clinic time under the supervision of a single consultant, in addition to out of hours experience. The advantages and considerations for implementing this model are discussed, including the benefit of guidance under a single consultant in the early stages of training, along with key educational concepts necessary for understanding its utility. We feel that this is an effective model for junior neurosurgical training in the EWTD era, expediting the trainee's development of key technical and non-technical skills, with potentially significant rewards for patient, trainee and trainer. National implementation of this model should be considered.

  10. [Frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral epithelial dysplasia in oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Hernández, Marcela; Martínez, Benjamín; Adorno, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer in Chile corresponds approximately to 1.6% of all cancer cases. There are few studies about oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Chilean population. To determine the frequency of hyperkeratosis, mild, moderate and severe oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in a registry of the Oral Pathology Reference Institute of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, in a ten years period. Review of clinical records and pathological plates of 389 patients, obtained between 1990 and 2009. Cases were selected according to their pathological diagnosis, including hyperkeratosis, oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Forty four percent of cases were squamous cell carcinoma, followed by hyperkeratosis in 37% and mild epithelial dysplasia in 11%. Squamous cell carcinoma was more common in men aged over 50 years. Most of the potentially malignant disorders presented clinically as leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were clinically recognized as cancer. In this study, men aged over 50 years are the highest risk group for oral cancer. Early diagnosis is deficient since most of these lesions were diagnosed when squamous cell carcinoma became invasive. Leukoplakia diagnosis is mostly associated with hyperkeratosis and epithelial dysplasia, therefore biopsy of these lesions is mandatory to improve early diagnosis.

  11. An early and enduring advanced technology originating 71,000 years ago in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle S; Marean, Curtis W; Jacobs, Zenobia; Schoville, Benjamin J; Oestmo, Simen; Fisher, Erich C; Bernatchez, Jocelyn; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Matthews, Thalassa

    2012-11-22

    There is consensus that the modern human lineage appeared in Africa before 100,000 years ago. But there is debate as to when cultural and cognitive characteristics typical of modern humans first appeared, and the role that these had in the expansion of modern humans out of Africa. Scientists rely on symbolically specific proxies, such as artistic expression, to document the origins of complex cognition. Advanced technologies with elaborate chains of production are also proxies, as these often demand high-fidelity transmission and thus language. Some argue that advanced technologies in Africa appear and disappear and thus do not indicate complex cognition exclusive to early modern humans in Africa. The origins of composite tools and advanced projectile weapons figure prominently in modern human evolution research, and the latter have been argued to have been in the exclusive possession of modern humans. Here we describe a previously unrecognized advanced stone tool technology from Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 on the south coast of South Africa, originating approximately 71,000 years ago. This technology is dominated by the production of small bladelets (microliths) primarily from heat-treated stone. There is agreement that microlithic technology was used to create composite tool components as part of advanced projectile weapons. Microliths were common worldwide by the mid-Holocene epoch, but have a patchy pattern of first appearance that is rarely earlier than 40,000 years ago, and were thought to appear briefly between 65,000 and 60,000 years ago in South Africa and then disappear. Our research extends this record to ~71,000 years, shows that microlithic technology originated early in South Africa, evolved over a vast time span (~11,000 years), and was typically coupled to complex heat treatment that persisted for nearly 100,000 years. Advanced technologies in Africa were early and enduring; a small sample of excavated sites in Africa is the best explanation for any

  12. Oral rehabilitation with an implant-supported mesostructure on a microvascularized mandibular graft: A 12-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Mendes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increased survival of the population, treatment of oral cavity tumour patients is increasingly common. In this context, oral rehabilitation construction methods have been developed to contribute to improving the patient's quality of life. Developments in the areas of oral implantology and rehabilitation, along with microvascularized grafts, have increased the possibility of rehabilitating patients undergoing hemimandibulectomy with more effective and lasting treatment. This article aims to demonstrate an aesthetic and functional oral rehabilitation method, both in terms of the oral cavity and the lower face, in a young patient submitted to a left lateral hemimandibulectomy, using a mesostructure fixed onto implants.

  13. Equality in adults' oral health in Norway. Cohort and cross-sectional results over 33 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, Dorthe; Schuller, Annemarie A

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess social inequality in dental clinical parameters from 1973 to 2006. METHODS: Samples from two birth-cohorts born between 1929-1938 and 1959-1960, respectively, and 35-44-year-olds were drawn in 1973, 1983, 1994 and in 2006 in the county of Nord-Trøndelag in Norway. Standard

  14. A one-year oral toxicity study of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, J.; Hentz, K.; Schmitt, D.; Tran, N.; Jonker, D.; Junker, K.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) was examined in Wistar rats fed diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5% SSL for one year, equivalent to mean daily intakes of 558, 1115, and 2214. mg/kg/day in males and 670, 1339, and 2641. mg/kg/day in females, respectively. SSL was well tolerated at

  15. "Run-through" training at specialist training year 1 and uncoupled core surgical training for oral and maxillofacial surgery in the United Kingdom: a snapshot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Collyer, J; Dhariwal, D

    2018-05-01

    Training in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) in the UK has undergone considerable changes during the last 10years, and "core" surgical training has replaced "basic" surgical training. In 2014 a pilot "run-through" training programme from specialist training year one (ST1)-ST7 was introduced to facilitate early entry into the speciality. Run-through training guarantees that a trainee, after a single competitive selection process and satisfactory progress, will be given training that covers the entire curriculum of the speciality, whereas uncoupled training requires a second stage of competitive recruitment after the first one (for OMFS only) or two years of "core" training to progress to higher specialty training. The first two years of run-through training (ST1-ST2) are the same as for core surgical training. Dual-qualified maxillofacial aspirants and those in their second degree course are curious to know whether they should go for the uncoupled core surgical training or the run-through programme in OMFS. The General Medical Council (GMC) has now agreed that run-through training can be rolled out nationally in OMFS. To assess the two pathways we used an online questionnaire to gain feedback about the experience from all OMFS ST3 and run-through trainees (ST3/ST4) in 2016-2017. We identified and contacted 21 trainees, and 17 responded, including seven run-through trainees. Eleven, including five of the run-through trainees, recommended the run-through training programme in OMFS. Six of the seven run-through trainees had studied dentistry first. The overall mean quality of training was rated as 5.5 on a scale 0-10 by the 17 respondents. This survey gives valuable feedback from the current higher surgical trainees in OMFS, which will be useful to the GMC, Health Education England, OMFS Specialist Advisory Committee, and those seeking to enter higher surgical training in OMFS. Copyright © 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published

  16. Major bleeding complications in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants: One-year observational study in a Paris Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, L; Konan, M; Hij, A; Goldwirt, L; Peyrony, O; Fieux, F; Faure, P; Madelaine, I; Villiers, S; Farge-Bancel, D; Frère, C

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DAOC) are indicated for the treatment of venous thromboembolism and the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Given their advantages and friendly use for patient, the prescription of long term DOAC therapy has rapidly increased both as first line treatment while initiating anticoagulation and as a substitute to vitamins K antagonist (VKA) in poorly controlled patients. However, DOAC therapy can also be associated with significant bleeding complications, and in the absence of specific antidote at disposal, treatment of serious hemorrhagic complications under DOAC remains complex. We report and discuss herein five cases of major hemorrhagic complications under DOAC, which were reported to the pharmacological surveillance department over one year at Saint-Louis University Hospital (Paris, France). We further discuss the need for careful assessment of the risk/benefit ratio at time of starting DOAC therapy in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral Rehabilitation of a Severe Periodontally Involved Patient with Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: A 15-Year Follow-Up Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megarbane, Jean-Marie; Freiha, Cécile; Mokbel, Nadim

    Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) refers to a group of chronic autoimmune subepithelial diseases distinguished by erosive lesions of the mucous membranes and skin. Its treatment consists of inhibition of the inflammatory reaction by means of corticosteroids and symptomatic medication. This is a report of a patient suffering from a combination of MMP and severe generalized chronic periodontitis. The patient has been treated with oral corticosteroids, initial phase therapy, extraction with immediate implant placement, and periodontal surgery where the prognosis was questionable. The case has been followed up for 15 years. Periodontal therapy with immediate implant placement was determined to be a viable modality to achieve a total rehabilitation of a case suffering from MMP combined with severe generalized chronic periodontitis.

  18. Recovery from Dysphagia Symptoms after Oral Endotracheal Intubation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Survivors. A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Martin B; Huang, Minxuan; Shanholtz, Carl; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Needham, Dale M

    2017-03-01

    Nearly 60% of patients who are intubated in intensive care units (ICUs) experience dysphagia after extubation, and approximately 50% of them aspirate. Little is known about dysphagia recovery time after patients are discharged from the hospital. To determine factors associated with recovery from dysphagia symptoms after hospital discharge for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors who received oral intubation with mechanical ventilation. This is a prospective, 5-year longitudinal cohort study involving 13 ICUs at four teaching hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland. The Sydney Swallowing Questionnaire (SSQ), a 17-item visual analog scale (range, 0-1,700), was used to quantify patient-perceived dysphagia symptoms at hospital discharge, and at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after ARDS. An SSQ score greater than or equal to 200 was used to indicate clinically important dysphagia symptoms at the time of hospital discharge. Recovery was defined as an SSQ score less than 200, with a decrease from hospital discharge greater than or equal to 119, the reliable change index for SSQ score. Fine and Gray proportional subdistribution hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate patient and ICU variables associated with time to recovery accounting for the competing risk of death. Thirty-seven (32%) of 115 patients had an SSQ score greater than or equal to 200 at hospital discharge; 3 died before recovery. All 34 remaining survivors recovered from dysphagia symptoms by 5-year follow-up, 7 (23%) after 6 months. ICU length of stay was independently associated with time to recovery, with a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.96 (0.93-1.00) per day. One-third of orally intubated ARDS survivors have dysphagia symptoms that persist beyond hospital discharge. Patients with a longer ICU length of stay have slower recovery from dysphagia symptoms and should be carefully considered for swallowing assessment to help prevent complications related to dysphagia.

  19. 50 years of synchrotrons. Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN. - The CERN synchrotrons. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.; Brianti, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the first report, 'Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN', John Lawson gives an extended account of the material presented at the John Adams lecture, and at the same time a revised and shortened version of RAL report 97-011, which contains fuller archival references and notes. During the period covered by this report there was extensive work in Russia, where the principle of phase stability had been discovered in 1944 by Veksler. Unfortunately, all experimental work was kept secret until Veksler's talk at the first 'Atoms for Peace' conference at Geneva in August 1955. In the second lecture, 'The CERN Synchrotrons', Giorgio Brianti outlines the history of alternating-gradient synchrotrons from 1953/54 until today. In preparing this lecture he was confronted with a vast amount of material, while the time at his disposal was not even one minute per year, implying a time compression factor close to one million. Therefore, he had to exercise drastic choices, which led him to concentrate on CERN hadron synchrotrons and colliders and leave aside the Large Electron-Positron storage ring (LEP). Indeed, LEP was the subject of the John Adams Memorial Lecture in 1990, and it may be treated again in the future in connection with its energy upgrade. Even with these severe limitations, it was impossible to do justice to the number and variety of events and to the ingenuity of the people who have carved the history of CERN and of particle physics on the magnets, radiofrequency cavities, vacuum etc., and on the record performance of our machines. (orig./WL)

  20. Understanding discontinuation of oral adjuvant endocrine therapy by women with hormone receptor-positive invasive breast cancer nearly 4 years from diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin J; Fradkin, Pamela; Schwarz, Max; Davis, Susan R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of discontinuation of oral adjuvant endocrine therapy (OAET) in women nearly 4 years from the diagnosis of their first episode of invasive breast cancer and the reasons for such discontinuation. We used a large, prospective cohort study of women who had been diagnosed with their first episode of invasive breast cancer between 2004 and 2006, recruited through a state-based cancer registry. All participants completed an enrollment questionnaire (EQ) within 12 months of diagnosis and annual follow-up questionnaires (FQs) thereafter. The data in this report were obtained from the EQ and the first three FQs. A total of 1,370 women with hormone receptor-positive disease completed the EQ. At the completion of the third FQ nearly 4 years from diagnosis, 1,193 women remained in the study. Use of OAET peaked by 2 years postdiagnosis. At nearly 4 years from diagnosis, 18% of the 1,193 women remaining in the study were not taking OAET. Of these women, just more than half had ceased therapy mainly owing to a range of adverse effects, predominantly estrogen deficiency symptoms, but the remainder (8% of women remaining in the study) had never used OAET. Our study confirms that early discontinuation of OAET due to estrogen deficiency symptoms remains an important issue despite calls for strategies to address this problem. The number of women potentially suitable for OAET but not receiving it was almost as great as the number of those who have discontinued therapy.

  1. Prospective, randomised, controlled study evaluating early modification of oral microbiota following admission to the intensive care unit and oral hygiene with chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Gavrilko, Oleg; Almeida, Saulo de; Sumi, Eigi Ricardo; Alberto, Thiago; Rocha, Jaime Luis; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the most commonly used oral hygiene product for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). The change in dental plaque (DP) microbiota following CHX use in patients under MV has not been described previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pathogenic bacteria associated with VAP and the coverage of DP within the oral cavity in patients administered CHX. This was a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind study in patients (n=16) under MV who were mouth-rinsed with either CHX or placebo. Microbiology samples were collected from the oral mucosa (OM) and DP after admission to the ICU and on Days 3, 5, 7 and 10. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of CHX were determined. Upon admission, the occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, was reported. The CHX group had a lower incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared with the placebo group for the OM (RR=0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.98; P=0.011). There was high agreement between the culture results of OM and DP (κ=0.825). VAP developed in six patients. The species identified following tracheal aspiration of VAP patients were similar to those found in the OM for four cases. The strains showed low MICs and MBCs for CHX (<0.039mg/mL). Although DP is rapidly colonised by MDR bacteria, use of 2% CHX reduced the incidence of S. aureus colonisation. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypomethylated Fgf3 is a potential biomarker for early detection of oral cancer in mice treated with the tobacco carcinogen dibenzo[def,p]chrysene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Wan Sun

    Full Text Available Genetic and epigenetic alterations observed at end stage OSCC formation could be considered as a consequence of cancer development and thus changes in normal or premalignant tissues which had been exposed to oral carcinogens such as Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBP may better serve as predictive biomarkers of disease development. Many types of DNA damage can induce epigenetic changes which can occur early and in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore we used ERRBS to generate genome-scale, single-base resolution DNA methylomes from histologically normal oral tissues of mice treated with DBP under experimental conditions known to induce maximum DNA damage which is essential for the development of OSCC induced by DBP in mice. After genome-wide correction, 30 and 48 differentially methylated sites (DMS were identified between vehicle control and DBP treated mice using 25% and 10% differences in methylation, respectively. RT-PCR was further performed to examine the expressions of nine selected genes. Among them, Fgf3, a gene frequently amplified in head and neck cancer, showed most prominent and significant gene expression change (2.4× increases, despite the hypomethylation of Fgf3 was identified at >10kb upstream of transcription start site. No difference was observed in protein expression between normal oral tissues treated with DBP or vehicle as examined by immunohistochemistry. Collectively, our results indicate that Fgf3 hypomethylation and gene overexpression, but not protein expression, occurred in the early stage of oral carcinogenesis induced by DBP. Thus, Fgf3 hypomethylation may serve as a potential biomarker for early detection of OSCC.

  3. Teacher Development: A Comparative Study of Early Childhood Teachers in Their First Year of Teaching 1988-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Margaret; Ebbeck, M. A.

    A study of graduates of the de Lissa Institute of Early Childhood Studies and the School of Early Childhood Studies (SECS) at the University of Melbourne in Australia identified changes in the professional attitudes of teachers during their first year of teaching. Early childhood teachers working in junior primary schools, preschool kindergartens,…

  4. Eliglustat, an investigational oral therapy for Gaucher disease type 1: Phase 2 trial results after 4 years of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, Elena; Watman, Nora; Dragosky, Marta; Pastores, Gregory M; Arreguin, Elsa Avila; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Zimran, Ari; Angell, Jennifer; Ross, Leorah; Puga, Ana Cristina; Peterschmitt, Judith M

    2014-12-01

    Eliglustat is an investigational, oral substrate reduction therapy for Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1). Nineteen treatment-naïve patients have now completed 4years of an open-label study (NCT00358150). Mean hemoglobin level and platelet count increased by 2.3±1.5g/dL (baseline: 11.3±1.5g/dL) and 95% (baseline: 68,700±21,200/mm(3)), respectively. Mean spleen and liver volumes (multiples of normal, MN) decreased by 63% (baseline: 17.3±9.5 MN) and 28% (baseline: 1.7±0.4 MN), respectively. Median chitotriosidase and CCL-18 each decreased by 82%; plasma glucosylceramide and GM3 normalized. Mean bone mineral density T-score for the lumbar spine increased by 0.8 (60%) (baseline: -1.6±1.1). Femur dark marrow, a reflection of Gaucher cell infiltration into bone marrow, was reduced or stable in 17/18 patients. There were no bone crises. Most adverse events were mild and unrelated to treatment. These results extend the safety and efficacy of eliglustat reported at 1 and 2 years to 4 years. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Associated oral lesions in human immunodefeciency virus infected children of age 1 to 14 years in anti retroviral therapy centers in Tamil Nadu

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    R Krishna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of oral lesions status in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected children of age 1 to 14 years in Anti Retro viral therapy (ART centres in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A of total 326 HIV infected children, age 1 to 14 years of which 174 male children and 152 female children were examined for Oral lesions in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalai University in association with the ART centers in Villupuram, Vellore and HIV Homes in Thiruvannamalai, Trichy and Salem in Tamil Nadu towns. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows (version 11 code: 3000135939012345. Result: Of the total 326 children, 201 (61.65% had oral lesions. (68 [20.86%] with Oral Candidiasis [OC], 54 [16.56%] with Angular Cheilitis, 27 [8.28%] with Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis [NUG], 25 [7.66%] with Necrotizing Ulcerative Periodontitis [NUP], 18 [5.53%] with Linear Gingival Erythema [LGE] and 9 [2.76%] with Apthous Ulcer. Conclusion Among the oral lesions in HIV infected children, OC 20.86% was the predominant oral lesion followed by Angular Chelitis 16.56%, NUG 8.28%, NUP 7.66%, LGE5.53% and Apthous Ulcer 2.76%.

  6. Early versus late tracheostomy in pediatric intensive care unit: does it matter? A 6-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, Alessandro; Picconi, Enzo; Piastra, Marco; Genovese, Orazio; Biasucci, Daniele G; Conti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the clinical data of children who underwent tracheostomy during their stay in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), in order to describe the relationship between the timing of tracheostomy, the length of PICU stay and the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This is a retrospective cohort study that collects all patients undergoing tracheostomy during their PICU stay over a six-year period. Data collection included PICU length of stay, days of intubation, days of mechanical ventilation, primary indication for tracheostomy, information about VAP and decannulations. The early tracheostomy group was defined as patients who had ten or fewer days of continuous ventilation, whereas the late tracheostomy group had more than ten days of continuous ventilation. A significant decrease in the rate of VAP incidence was noticed in the early tracheostomy group vs. late group (P=0.004, OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.18-0.85). No differences were observed about decannulation, need of long-term ventilation and death rate. Significant decreases of days of mechanical ventilation and PICU stay were found in subgroup of patients who underwent early tracheostomy and were decannulated within 18 months. No standard timing for tracheostomy placement has been established in the pediatric population. Early tracheostomy can shorten the days of ventilation and hospitalization in PICU and reduce the incidence of VAP, but further studies are needed to identify patient categories in which it can be of benefit.

  7. Oral Language Competence and the Transition to School: Socio-Economic and Behavioural Factors That Influence Academic and Social Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Oral language competence (skill in everyday talking and listening) is critical in the early years of school in two key respects: it underpins the transition to literacy in the early years, and is the means by which children form and maintain interpersonal relationships in the school setting. In this paper, the role of oral language competence with…

  8. Integrating Preclinical and Clinical Oral Diagnosis and Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodus, Nelson L.; Brand, John W.

    1988-01-01

    A program providing second-year dental students with early experience in direct patient contact in an oral diagnosis/oral radiology clinic was well received by both students and faculty and was found to develop desirable skills and qualities in the students participating. (MSE)

  9. Synthesis of Colloidal Quantum Dots Coated with Mercaptosuccinic Acid for Early Detection and Therapeutics of Oral Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocelin, G.; Arivarasan, A.; Ganesan, M.; Prasad, N. Rajendra; Sasikala, G.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are gaining widespread recognition for its luminescence behavior and unique photo physical properties as a bio-marker and inorganic fluorophore. In spite of such rampant advantages, its application is clinically hampered depending on the surface coating decreasing its luminescence efficiency. The present study reports preparation of CdTe QDs capped with biologically active thiol based material, mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) for diagnosis of oral cancer (KB) cells by acting as a fluorophore marking targeted tumor cells and at the same time exhibiting certain cytotoxic effects. Synthesized MSA coated CdTe QDs is spherical in shape with an average particle size of 3-5nm. In vitro, the rapid uptake of MSA CdTe QDs in oral cancer cell lines were assessed through fluorescence microscopy. Further, this study evaluates the therapeutic efficiency of MSA CdTe QDs in human oral cancer cell lines using MTT analysis. MSA CdTe QDs exhibit significant cytotoxicity in oral cancer cells in a dose dependent manner with low IC50 when compared with other raw CdTe QDs. MSA CdTe QDs were also treated with human lymphocytes (normal cells) to assess and compare the toxicity profile of QDs in normal and oral tumors. The results of our present study strengthen our hypothesis of using MSA CdTe QDs as detector for tracking and fluorescence imaging of oral cancer cells and exhibiting sufficient cytotoxicity in them.

  10. An exploratory study on cultural variations in oral health attitudes, behaviour and values of freshman (first-year) dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, M; Wright, F A C; Declerck, D; Freire, M C M; Hu, D Y; Honkala, E; Lévy, G; Kalwitzki, M; Polychronopoulou, A; Yip, H K; Kinirons, M J; Eli, I; Petti, S; Komabayashi, T; Kim, K J; Razak, A A A; Srisilapanan, P; Kwan, S Y L

    2005-08-01

    To identify similarities and differences in oral health attitudes, behaviour and values among freshman dental students. Cross-cultural survey of dental students. 18 cultural areas. 904 first-year dental students completed the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioural Inventory (HU-DBI) translated into their own languages. Individual areas were clustered by similarity in responses to the questions. The first group displayed an 'occidental-culture orientation' with the exception of Brazil (Cluster 1 comprised: Australia, United Kingdom, Ireland, Belgium and Brazil, Cluster 2: Germany, Italy, Finland and France). The second group displayed an 'oriental-cultural orientation' with the exception of Greece and Israel (Cluster 3 comprised: China and Indonesia, and Cluster 4: Japan, Korea, Israel, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand and Greece). Australia and United Kingdom were the countries that were most alike. Ireland was the 'neighbour' to these countries. Greece and Malaysia had similar patterns of oral health behaviour although geographic conditions are very different. Although it was considered that in Hong Kong, occidental nations have affected the development of education, it remained in the oriental-culture group. Comparison with the data from the occidentals indicates that a higher percentage of the orientals put off going to the dentist until they have toothache (p < 0.001). Only a small proportion of the occidentals (8%) reported a perception of inevitability in having false teeth, whereas 33% of the orientals held this fatalistic belief (p = 0.001). Grouping the countries into key cultural orientations and international clusters yielded plausible results, using the HU-DBI.

  11. Oral health status of two 12-year-old socially disadvantaged groups in South India: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhinav; Sequiera, Peter; Acharya, Shashidhar; Bhat, Maghashyam

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare and assess the oral health status of 12-year-old children from two socially disadvantaged groups in the Udupi district of South India. A total of 327 children were examined in Ashrama schools, and 340 children were randomly selected for comparison from other government schools. Modified WHO proforma was used for clinical examination. Oral hygiene practices, dental fluorosis, periodontal status, dentition status and dentofacial anomalies were assessed and compared. Chi square test was used for comparison between categorical variables and Mann-Whitney test for comparison between two groups for quantitative variables. P u 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Dental fluorosis was detected in 22.9% children from Ashrama schools, whereas in the comparison group 14.4% children had dental fluorosis (P u 0.001). Mean Decayed teeth and DMFT value in Ashrama school children were 1.15 ± 1.62, and 1.15 ± 1.62, respectively. In the comparison group, the corresponding values were 0.46 ± 0.98 and 0.48 ± 1.04, respectively (P u 0.001). The mean number of sextants in the Ashrama school children with Community Periodontal Index score 2 was 2.00 ± 1.53, whereas in the comparison group it was 1.31 ± 1.53 (P u 0.001). No significant differences were noted between two groups with respect to Dental Aesthetic Index scores. The present study revealed higher levels of dental caries experience, untreated dental disease and social disadvantage of the children attending Ashrama schools, providing evidence for the need to address the health inequalities of these children.

  12. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy and problem behavior in 5-year-old offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostenbroek, Maurits H W; Kersten, Remco H J; Tros, Benjamin; Kunst, Anton E; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence, though not consistent, that offspring born to mothers with subtle decreases in thyroid function early in their pregnancies may be at risk of cognitive impairments and attention problems. However, other types of problem behavior have not been addressed thus far. We tested whether maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy is associated with several types of problem behavior in offspring at age 5-6 years. This was a longitudinal study that included the data of 2000 mother-child pairs from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. At a median gestational age of 12.9 (interquartile range: 11.9-14.1) weeks, maternal blood was sampled for assessment of free T4 and TSH. Overall problem behavior, hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, emotional problems, peer relationship problems and prosocial behavior were measured at age 5-6 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which was filled out by both parents and teachers. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia behavior. Our results partially confirm previous observations, showing that early disruptions in the maternal thyroid hormone supply may be associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring. Our study adds that there is no evidence for an effect on other types of problem behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Initiation to scientific literacy in early years of elementary school: contributions of a didactic sequence

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    Juliana Pinto Viecheneski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research professional, which was developed in the context of the early years of elementary school, from the application of a didactic sequence, with a view to initiation of scientific literacy of students in the literacy process of language. The methodological approach was qualitative, interpretative nature. The subjects were the students of 1st year 1st Cycle of Basic Education in a public school in Ponta Grossa - PR. The data were collected through observation, application of diagnostic testing, audio recordings, photographs, written records, illustrations and posttest. The theory History Cultural Development made the analysis of pedagogical actions and reflections on them. The main results indicate that the activities of the instructional sequence, contributed to the progressive advancement of the students' knowledge in relation to the area of science and basic scientific literacy, and also contributed to make learning the language more contextualized and interdisciplinary. It is noted that this work requires a teacher to assume the role of mediator between the scientific and the children, as well as requires the understanding that, as the subject entered the technological means, students in the early years have a right to access scientific culture. In this perspective, respecting the level of development of the children, the teacher can provide challenges and mediations necessary for the gradual construction of scientific knowledge, the first years of elementary school.

  14. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

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    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  15. Three year outcomes in an early intervention service for psychosis in a multicultural and multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Shah, Samir; Ramkisson, Roshelle; Persaud, Albert; Murphy, Suzanne; Zaman, Rashid

    2008-12-01

    Concern has been expressed that it may be difficult to provide certain interventions to some ethnic groups in an Early Intervention Service for Psychosis, and that as a consequence, three-year outcomes for the different Ethnic Groups may be different in different groups. To test whether there are differences between the three year outcomes of different ethnic groups represented in the patient population of an Early Intervention service for Psychosis. The three-year outcomes for the first group of 62 Patients to receive three years treatment in the Early Intervention Service in Luton, Bedfordshire were examined. This group well represented the ethnic mix of the population of Luton. It does not appear that there are major differences between the three-year outcomes of any one of the three groups studied. However the South Asian Patients appear to present earlier, with shorter DUPs, seemed more likely to marry, live with their families, and seem more likely to return to higher education after a first psychotic episode of psychosis compared to the Caucasians. Afro-Carribeans and South Asians were more likely to be unemployed, but many South Asians were employed, as were Caucasians. The fewest persons employed were in the Afro-Caribbean group. While slightly more South Asians and Afro-Carribeans were admitted compulsorily under the mental health act over the three years, 60% of each of the two non-white groups were never admitted compulsorily. This is different from the reported national trends of the Mental Health act being used excessively with the Afro-Caribbean population. No previous study has looked at the outcomes of Early Intervention Services for First Psychotic Episodes according to the Ethnic Origin of the Clients. The better outcomes seen with South Asians are probably due to cultural factors among the South Asians born in this country, rather than to issues related to the Psychotic Illness itself. These findings are important in planning services in areas

  16. Early-Years Teachers' Professional Upgrading in Science: a Long-Term Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, Maria

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present a professional development/upgrading programme in science for early-years teachers and investigate its impact on the teachers' competencies in relation to their knowledge and teaching of science. The basic idea of the programme was to motivate the teachers by making them members of an action research group aimed at developing and implementing curriculum activities to which they would contribute and thus meaningfully engaging them in their own learning. The programme used a `collaborative partnership' model for the development of the activities. In this model, the collaborative notion is defined as an act of `shared creation': partners share a goal and members bring their expertise to the partnership. Within this context, the partners were a researcher in science education with a background in physics, who also served as a facilitator, and six in-service early-years teachers with a background in early-years pedagogy and developmental sciences, who had many years of experience (classroom experts). These teachers participated in the programme as co-designers, but were involved to a significantly lesser degree than the researcher. The programme procedures comprised group work and individual teachers' class work. Data sources included teachers' essays, field-notes, lesson recordings and group-work records. Data were qualitatively analysed. The main results indicate improvement of teachers' `transformed' knowledge of the subject matter, development/improvement of knowledge of instructional strategies, including factors related to quality of implementation of the activities, knowledge of the pupils and improvement of the teachers' efficacy.

  17. Oral Ondansetron in Management of Dehydrating Diarrhea with Vomiting in Children Aged 3 Months to 5 Years: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danewa, Arun Singh; Shah, Dheeraj; Batra, Prerna; Bhattacharya, Swapan Kumar; Gupta, Piyush

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the role of oral ondansetron in facilitating successful rehydration of under-5-year-old children suffering from acute diarrhea with vomiting and some dehydration. Children (n = 170) aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea with vomiting and some dehydration were enrolled in this double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The participants were randomized to receive either single dose of oral ondansetron (n = 85) or placebo (n = 85) in addition to standard management of dehydration according to World Health Organization guidelines. Failure of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), administration of unscheduled intravenous fluids, and amount of oral rehydration solution intake in 4 hours were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcome measures included duration of dehydration correction, number of vomiting episodes, adverse effects, and caregiver satisfaction. Failure of ORT was significantly less in children receiving ondansetron compared with those receiving placebo (31% vs 62%; P children in the ondansetron group received intravenous fluids compared with those in the placebo group, but it was not statistically significant (P = .074; relative risk 0.56, 95% CI 0.30-1.07). The oral rehydration solution consumption was significantly more in the ondansetron group (645 mL vs 554 mL; mean difference 91 mL; 95% CI: 35-148 mL). Patients in the ondansetron group also showed faster rehydration, lesser number of vomiting episodes, and better caregiver satisfaction. A single oral dose of ondansetron, given before starting ORT to children <5 years of age with acute diarrhea and vomiting results in better oral rehydration. Clinical Trial Registry of India: CTRI-2011/07/001916. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The early diagnostic value of oral acetazolamide load combined with SPECT rCBF imaging in patients with transient ischemia attack in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xintong; Zheng Zhiping; Qiao Suixian; Tang Anwu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In order to assess the diagnostic value of acetazolamide (ACZ) combined with rCBF-SPECT imaging in patients with transient ischemia attack (TIA). Methods: SPECT imaging was performed before and after oral ACZ with visual and semiquantitative analysis of the images. Blood gas analysis was done before and after ACZ administration either. Results: After ACZ loading, in normal group, 99 Tc m -ECD was distributed symmetrically on correspondent parts of the brain and rCBF was generally increased. The blood pH was decreased and blood PCO 2 was increased, respectively in TIA group, the positive rate of hypoperfusion foci on SPECT images were increased from 5/6 to 6/6 in symptomatic patients and from 60% to 92% in asymptomatic patients. The total positive rate was 93%. Conclusion: Oral ACZ before SPECT imaging is a simple, reliable way for early diagnosis in patients with TIA

  19. Influences on Turkish Early Childhood Teachers' Science Teaching Practices and the Science Content Covered in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgan, Refika

    2015-01-01

    The first rationale of the study was not only to determine the topics taught in Turkish early childhood settings but also to define the frequency and time allocation for teaching science (n?=?382). In the second phase, through semi-structured interview questions, the aim was to gain detailed information about Turkish early childhood teachers'…

  20. Oral cancer: A multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Darling, Mark; Kryshtalskyj, Eugene; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Sang-shin; Shakib, Pouyan-Amini

    2018-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Material and Methods Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as

  1. Good-quality diet in the early years may have a positive effect on academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Foster, Jonathan K; Hickling, Siobhan; Jacques, Angela; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between early diet and academic performance during childhood. Participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 2287). Frequency of consumption of food and beverages was collected at the one-, two- and three-year follow-ups, using a 24-hour food recall. Diet scores were developed from the number of eating occasions. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) data from grades five (age 10) and seven (age 12) were linked to the Raine study using The Western Australian Data Linkage System. The association between diet scores and WALNA scores was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. A higher (i.e. better quality) diet score at one year of age was associated with significantly higher scores in mathematics, reading, writing and spelling at both grades five and seven. Associations were observed between a higher diet score at two years and academic scores for mathematics, writing and spelling at grade seven. Higher dairy consumption at ages one, two and three, and higher fruit consumption at age one were associated with higher academic scores at all ages. Quality of early diet may be a predictor for later academic achievement. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Early age exposure to moisture damage and systemic inflammation at the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, A M; Tischer, C; Kirjavainen, P V; Roponen, M; Hyvärinen, A; Illi, S; Mustonen, K; Pfefferle, P I; Renz, H; Remes, S; Schaub, B; von Mutius, E; Pekkanen, J

    2018-05-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to indoor moisture damage and mold may be associated with subclinical inflammation. Our aim was to determine whether early age exposure to moisture damage or mold is prospectively associated with subclinical systemic inflammation or with immune responsiveness in later childhood. Home inspections were performed in children's homes in the first year of life. At age 6 years, subclinical systemic inflammation was measured by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood leukocytes and immune responsiveness by ex vivo production of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in whole blood cultures without stimulation or after 24 hours stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin (PI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or peptidoglycan (PPG) in 251-270 children. Moisture damage in child's main living areas in infancy was not significantly associated with elevated levels of CRP or leukocytes at 6 years. In contrast, there was some suggestion for an effect on immune responsiveness, as moisture damage with visible mold was positively associated with LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α and minor moisture damage was inversely associated with PI-stimulated IL-1β. While early life exposure to mold damage may have some influence on later immune responsiveness, it does not seem to increase subclinical systemic inflammation in later life. © 2018 National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Oral health-related quality of life and nutritional status of institutionalized elderly population aged 60 years and above in Mysore City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Reddy, Chavva Venkata Konda; Siddhana, Sunitha; Manjunath, Maurya; Rudraswamy, Sushma; Sulavai, Sibyl

    2013-06-01

    To assess whether oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is associated with nutritional status in the institutionalised elderly population of Mysore. Malnutrition in the elderly has an evident impact on their general health and quality of life. Analysis of data of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and their association with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) results improves our understanding of the complex relationship between oral health and malnutrition. The study was conducted among the institutionalised elderly population in Mysore city, Karnataka. Data on socio-demographic, oral health status were gathered. OHRQoL was evaluated using GOHAI, and malnutrition risk using MNA. Out of 141 elderly, 41.1% were men and 58.9% were women with mean age of 72.2 ±7.5 years. Mean GOHAI score was 47.03 ± 9.2, with 69.5% had low perception of oral health. Mean MNA score was 9.91 ± 2.4, 15.6% were malnourished, 52.5% were at risk of malnutrition and 31.9% were adequately nourished. A strong association was found between the mean GOHAI and MNA scores.  Oral health-related quality of life was associated with nutritional deficit, and it requires a greater integration between dentistry and nutrition in the health promotion of older adults. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The development of executive function and language skills in the early school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2016-02-01

    The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated whether these skills independently predict children's attention/behaviour skills. Data are presented from 243 children at four time points. Children were selected for being at risk of reading difficulties either because of a family history of dyslexia (FR; N = 90) or because of concerns regarding their language development (LI; N = 79) or as typically developing controls (TD; N = 74). The children completed tasks to assess their executive function and language skills at ages 4, 5 and 6 years. At 6 (T4) and 7 years (T5) parents and teachers rated the children's attention/behaviour skills. There was a strong concurrent relationship between language and EF at each assessment. Longitudinal analyses indicated a considerable degree of stability in children's language and EF skills: the influence of language on later EF skills (and vice versa) was weak and not significant in the current sample. Children's EF, but not language, skills at T3 predicted attention/behaviour ratings at T4/T5. There is a strong concurrent association between language and EF skills during the preschool and early school years, when children with language impairment show persistent EF deficits. Latent variables measuring language and EF show high longitudinal stability with little evidence of significant or strong reciprocal influences between these constructs. EF, but not language, skills predict later ratings of children's attention and behaviour. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Pathological analysis of the Candida albicans-infected tongue tissues of a murine oral candidiasis model in the early infection stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masashi; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Miyasaka, Takahiro; Abe, Shigeru; Satoh, Tazuko

    2013-04-01

    The early pathological process of Candida infection and immunological responses in tongues of the mice with experimental oral candidiasis was analysed. CD-1 mice, pretreated by prednisolone were orally inoculated with Candida albicans. Symptoms were monitored by measuring the area of white tongue coating and number of viable Candida cells in oral cavity. The histopathological analysis was carried by PAS-stain and immunofluorescent staining. IL-4, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α in recovered from the homogenates of the tongues were measured by ELISA. The fungus invaded the tongue surface of the mice and white patches developed within 24h after inoculation. Histopathological examination indicated the presence of local acute inflammation in superficial tissues of tongues covered by mycelium of C. albicans. Pathological exacerbation was observed from 24 to 48 h after the inoculation and from then the symptoms of oral candidiasis appeared to move into the recovery phase. Inflammatory cells mainly consisting of neutrophils was accumulated and located under the lesions covered by Candida-hyphae. An increase in IL-12p70 and IFN-γ in tongue homogenates was observed at 48 h after inoculation. The worst condition in the pathological process in experimental oral candidiasis was found 48 h after C. albicans inoculation. When the surface of the Candida-inoculated tongues was covered with Candida-hyphae, a dense accumulation of neutrophils was observed under the lesions and homogenates of the tongues contained increased levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ. These suggested that local pathological condition of Candida-infected tongues may be affected by neutrophils accumulation and increased levels of some cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Liquen plano en el Programa de Detección Precoz del Cáncer Bucal Lichen planus in the Program for the Early Detection of Oral Cancer

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    Pedro A. Ducasse Olivera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El liquen plano es una enfermedad dermatológica de origen desconocido que se manifiesta en la mucosa bucal. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo con los pacientes pesquisados mediante el Programa de Detección Precoz del Cáncer Bucal en el municipio especial Isla de la Juventud, con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento epidemiológico de esta entidad, distribución según sexo, raza y zona bucal mas afectada, así como establecer la relación entre la aparición de las lesiones en piel y mucosas. Según los resultados, se determinó que el liquen plano oral es más común en hombres de la tercera y sexta décadas, principalmente en mestizos y blancos, la zona más afectada fue el carrillo (42.9 % y las lesiones cutáneas aparecieron solo en 2 casos (9.5 %.Lichen planus is a dermatological disease of unknown origin that manifests itself in the oral mucosa, reason for which we decided to conduct a study on it as part of the Program for the Early Detection of Oral Cancer in the Isle of Youth special municipality with the patients screened in this program aimed at determining the epidemiological behavior of this entity, distribution by sex, race, the most affected oral zone, and the relation between the appearance of injuries in the skin and mucosas. According to the results, it was concluded that the oral lichen planus is more comon in men at the third and sixth decades of life, in mestizoes and white individuals, and that the cheek was the most affected area. The cutaneous lesions appeared only in 2 of the 21 affected cases.

  7. Oral Antibiotics for Community acquired Pneumonia with Chest indrawing in Children Aged Below Five Years: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Randev, Shivani; Kabra, Sushil K

    2016-06-08

    To determine the efficacy of oral antibiotics in under-five children with pneumonia and chest indrawing. We included controlled clinical trials (randomized or quasi randomized) that compared the efficacy of oral antibiotics versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of community acquired pneumonia with chest indrawing (severe pneumonia as defined by the World Health Organizations guidelines) in children below 60 months of age. Data were extracted and managed using RevMan software. Main outcome variables were: treatment failure rate, relapse rate, death rate, need for hospitalization, and severe adverse effects. We identified four randomized controlled trials involving 4400 children who were diagnosed to have severe pneumonia but were feeding well and not hypoxic. Baseline characteristics of children in the two treatment arms (oral and parenteral antibiotics) were similar. In two studies, oral antibiotics were administered on an ambulatory basis, while in two, oral antibiotics were used in hospitalized children. Failure rate in children receiving oral antibiotics was 13% (288/2208) while that in children receiving parenteral antibiotics was 13.8% (302/2183) (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.78, 1.11). Failure rates were not affected by the type of oral antibiotic, or presence of wheeze. Relapse rates, hospitalization or serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. Children with tachypnea with chest indrawing without signs and symptoms of very severe pneumonia may be treated with oral antibiotics.

  8. The Image and Politics of Coca-Cola: From the Early Years to the Present

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Othman, Dalia

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the history of Coca-Cola from its early years to the present and discusses how the Company perpetuated the various images it sought for Coke through brilliant leadership, marketing, and the manipulation of events, and how it was able to develop and use its political connections to overcome government-created obstacles and cultural resistance to its products both within and without the United States. The paper will discuss the history of Coca-Cola’s inter...

  9. The female dragons awake: women, sport and society in the early years of the new China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J

    2001-01-01

    This article, based on archival records, published documents, interviews with elite sportswomen and three regional case studies, deals with the radical social, economic, cultural and political changes in the early years of the Communist China, the consequent changes in women's lives and the eventual extraordinary impact on elite women's sport. It analyses the complicated relations between the communist system, gender ideology, sports policy, international politics and elite women's sport. With the establishment of a variety of sports institutions, systems and structures women in increasing numbers took part in competitive sport and produced even increasingly remarkable achievements.

  10. CpG location and methylation level are crucial factors for the early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma in brushing samples using bisulfite sequencing of a 13-gene panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Luca; Gissi, Davide; Tarsitano, Achille; Asioli, Sofia; Gabusi, Andrea; Marchetti, Claudio; Montebugnoli, Lucio; Foschini, Maria Pia

    2017-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and is commonly preceded by oral premalignant lesions. The mortality rates have remained unchanged (50% within 5 years after diagnosis), and it is related to tobacco smoking and alcohol intake. Novel molecular markers for early diagnosis are urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of methylation level in a set of 18 genes by bisulfite next-generation sequencing. With minimally invasive oral brushing, 28 consecutive OSCC, one squamous cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features, six high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL), 30 normal contralateral mucosa from the same patients, and 65 healthy donors were evaluated for DNA methylation analyzing 18 target genes by quantitative bisulfite next-generation sequencing. We further evaluated an independent cohort (validation dataset) made of 20 normal donors, one oral fibroma, 14 oral lichen planus (OLP), three proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL), and two OSCC. Comparing OSCC with normal healthy donors and contralateral mucosa in 355 CpGs, we identified the following epigenetically altered genes: ZAP70 , ITGA4 , KIF1A , PARP15 , EPHX3 , NTM , LRRTM1 , FLI1 , MIR193 , LINC00599 , PAX1 , and MIR137HG showing hypermethylation and MIR296 , TERT , and GP1BB showing hypomethylation . The behavior of ZAP70 , GP1BB , H19 , EPHX3 , and MIR193 fluctuated among different interrogated CpGs. The gap between normal and OSCC samples remained mostly the same (Kruskal-Wallis P values < 0.05), but the absolute values changed conspicuously. ROC curve analysis identified the most informative CpGs, and we correctly stratified OSCC and HGSIL from normal donors using a multiclass linear discriminant analysis in a 13-gene panel (AUC 0.981). Only the OSCC with sarcomatoid features was negative. Three contralateral mucosa were positive, a sign of a possible field cancerization. Among imprinted genes, only MIR296

  11. Oral language and narrative skills in children with specific language impairment with and without literacy delay: a three-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Boons, Tinne; Ghesquière, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared the development of oral language and more specifically narrative skills (storytelling and story retelling) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay. Therefore, 18 children with SLI and 18 matched controls with normal literacy were followed from the last year of kindergarten (mean age=5 years 5 months) until the beginning of grade 3 (mean age=8 years 1 month). Oral language tests measuring vocabulary, morphology, sentence and text comprehension and narrative skills were administered yearly. Based on first and third grade reading and spelling achievement, both groups were divided into a group with and a group without literacy problems. Results showed that the children with SLI and literacy delay had persistent oral language problems across all assessed language domains. The children with SLI and normal literacy skills scored also persistently low on vocabulary, morphology and story retelling skills. Only on listening comprehension and storytelling, they evolved towards the level of the control group. In conclusion, oral language skills in children with SLI and normal literacy skills remained in general poor, despite their intact literacy development during the first years of literacy instruction. Only for listening comprehension and storytelling, they improved, probably as a result of more print exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Longitudinal changes over 2 years in parotid glands of patients treated with preoperative 30-Gy irradiation for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomitaka, Etsushi; Murakami, Ryuji; Teshima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in parotid volumes and saliva production over 2 years after 30 Gy irradiation. We retrospectively evaluated 15 assessable patients treated for advanced oral cancer. Eligibility criteria were a pathologic diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, preoperative radiation therapy with a total dose of 30 Gy delivered in 15 fractions, and the availability of longitudinal data of morphological assessments by computed tomography and functional assessments with the Saxon test spanning 2 years after radiation therapy. In the Saxon test, saliva production was measured by weighing a folded sterile gauze pad before and after chewing; the low-normal value is 2 g/2 min. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was used to determine the longitudinal changes. The normalized ipsilateral parotid volumes 2 weeks and 6-, 12- and 24 months after radiation therapy were found to be 72.5, 63.7, 66.9 and 78.1%, respectively; the normalized contralateral volumes were 69.8, 64.6, 72.2 and 82.0%, respectively. The bilateral parotid volumes were significantly decreased after radiation therapy (P<0.01). The nadir appeared at 6 months post-radiation therapy and the volumes substantially recuperated 24 months after radiation therapy (P<0.01). Mean saliva production before radiation therapy was 3.7 g; the longitudinal changes after radiation therapy were 31.3, 38.0, 43.3 and 69.6%, respectively. Substantial recuperation of saliva production was observed 24 months after radiation therapy (P=0.01). Although parotid volumes and saliva production were decreased after 30 Gy irradiation, we observed the recuperation of morphological and functional changes in the parotid glands 2 years after radiation therapy. (author)

  13. Clinical findings and risk factors to oral squamous cell carcinoma in young patients: A 12-year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hellen-Bandeira-de-Pontes; dos Santos, Thayana-Karla-Guerra; Paz, Alexandre-Rolim; Cavalcanti, Yuri-Wanderley; Nonaka, Cassiano-Francisco-Weege; Godoy, Gustavo-Pina; Alves, Pollianna-Muniz

    2016-03-01

    In recent years have been observed an increased incidence of OSCC in young individuals. Based on this, the aim this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of all cases of OSCC in younger patients, diagnosed in two oncology referral hospitals, at the northeast region of Brazil within a 12-year period. Data regarding general characteristics of patients (age, gender and tobacco and/or alcohol habits) and information about the lesions (tumor location, size, regional lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and clinical stage) were submitted to descriptive and inferential analysis. Statistical analysis included Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests (Phabits and tumor location. Although prevalence is low, stimulus to prevention and to early diagnosis should be addressed to young individuals exposed to risk factors.

  14. A Critical Examination of Education Reforms Implemented in the Early Years of the Turkish Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Yılmaz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of fundamental reforms in different spheres of Turkey’s institutions were swiftly implemented in a top-down manner in the early years of the Turkish Republic under Atatürk’s leadership. The purpose of this article is to critically examine the alphabet and language reforms put into practice in the years between the 1920s and 1930s. Since an analysis of socio-cultural and socio-political context is fundamental to understanding any reform initiatives, the article examines the alphabet and language reforms within the larger social, cultural, and political context within which they were carried out. In order to evaluate these reforms from a broader perspective, the article also scrutinizes the assumptions, beliefs, ideologies, and goals of those politicians or reformers who implemented them.

  15. A Grounded Theory of Mothering in the Early Years for Women Recovering From Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellus, Lenora

    2017-08-01

    Women in recovery from addiction experience significant sociostructural barriers to reestablishing self, family, and home after having a baby. The aim of this grounded theory study was to describe pathways that women and their families followed and how transitions were experienced in the early years after receiving services through an integrated community-based maternity program. Eighteen women completed questionnaires and participated in a series of semistructured interviews over 2 years. The overall process women experienced was that of holding it together, which women did by restoring their sense of self during recovery, becoming a strong center for their family, and creating a sense of home no matter what the circumstances. Key elements supporting women in their transition to recovery and parenthood included longer term health, social, and recovery programs and services that addressed determinants of health (in particular, gender, housing, and income), and receiving support provided from strengths-based perspectives.

  16. Arterial stiffness in 10-year-old children: current and early determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Mølgaard, Christian; Larsen, Dorthe; Martyn, Christopher; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2005-12-01

    It has been suggested that CVD has its origins in early life. An impairment of fetal growth and early postnatal nutrition may have programming effects on cardiovascular physiology. In addition, traditional risk factors for CVD may initiate the atherosclerotic process during childhood. We explored the effect of fat intake, physical activity and lipid profile in childhood, and birth weight, growth during infancy and breast-feeding on arterial stiffness in a cohort study of ninety-three 10-year-old children followed during infancy and re-examined at the age of 10 years. Arterial stiffness in two arterial segments (aorto-radial and aorto-femoral) was measured as pulse wave velocity. Arterial stiffness was inversely associated with physical activity (a regression coefficient in cm/s (95 % CI) of -6.8 (-11.2, -2.4) and -3.9 (-6.9, -0.8) per h of high physical activity/d in the aorto-radial and aorto-femoral segments, respectively). Arterial stiffness was also positively associated with dietary fat energy percentage (3.1 (95 % CI 0.9, 5.2) and 1.8 (95 % CI 0.2, 3.2) per fat energy percentage in the aorto-radial and aorto-femoral segments, respectively) but was not related to body composition, insulin resistance or lipid profile. Arterial stiffness was also positively associated with duration of breast-feeding for the aorto-femoral segment only (2.1 (95 % CI 0.4, 3.7) per month) but was not associated with growth in early life. In conclusion, patterns of physical activity and diet, and history of breast-feeding in infancy, have an influence on the stiffness of the large arteries in children. The long-term effects of this are unknown.

  17. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  18. The cross-lagged relationship between father absence and child problem behaviour in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E; Narayanan, M K; Midouhas, E

    2015-11-01

    Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross-lagged relationship between father absence (non-residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2-4). The sample was 15,293 families in which both biological parents were co-resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut-offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut-off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross-lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The cross‐lagged relationship between father absence and child problem behaviour in the early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M. K.; Midouhas, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross‐lagged relationship between father absence (non‐residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. Methods We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2–4). The sample was 15 293 families in which both biological parents were co‐resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut‐offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Results Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut‐off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross‐lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Conclusions Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. PMID:25708874

  20. Investigating teacher and student effects of the Incredible Years Classroom Management Program in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Desiree W; Rabiner, David L; Kuhn, Laura; Pan, Yi; Sabet, Raha Forooz

    2018-04-01

    The present paper reports on the results of a cluster randomized trial of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY-TCM) and its effects on early elementary teachers' management strategies, classroom climate, and students' emotion regulation, attention, and academic competence. IY-TCM was implemented in 11 rural and semi-rural schools with K-2 teachers and a diverse student sample. Outcomes were compared for 45 teachers who participated in five full day training workshops and brief classroom consultation and 46 control teachers; these 91 teachers had a total of 1192 students. A high level of teacher satisfaction was found and specific aspects of the training considered most valuable for early elementary teachers were identified. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated a statistically significant intervention effect on Positive Climate in the classroom (d=0.45) that did not sustain into the next school year. No main effects on student outcomes were observed, although a priori moderator analyses indicated that students with elevated social-behavioral difficulties benefitted with regard to prosocial behavior (d=0.54) and inattention (d=-0.34). Results highlight potential benefits and limitations of a universal teacher training program for elementary students, and suggest strategies for future delivery of the IY-TCM program and areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Language Skill in Child Psychopathology: Implications for Intervention in the Early Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Karen; O'Kearney, Richard; Reese, Elaine; Fortune, Clare-Ann

    2016-12-01

    In this narrative review, we suggest that children's language skill should be targeted in clinical interventions for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties in the preschool years. We propose that language skill predicts childhood emotional and behavioral problems and this relationship may be mediated by children's self-regulation and emotion understanding skills. In the first sections, we review recent high-quality longitudinal studies which together demonstrate that that children's early language skill predicts: (1) emotional and behavioral problems, and this relationship is stronger than the reverse pattern; (2) self-regulation skill; this pattern may be stronger than the reverse pattern but moderated by child age. Findings also suggest that self-regulation skill mediates the relation between early language skill and children's emotional and behavioral problems. There is insufficient evidence regarding the mediating role of emotion understanding. In subsequent sections, we review evidence demonstrating that: (1) particular kinds of developmentally targeted parent-child conversations play a vital role in the development of language skill, and (2) some current clinical interventions, directly or indirectly, have a beneficial impact on children's vocabulary and narrative skills, but most approaches are ad hoc. Targeting language via parent-child conversation has the potential to improve the outcomes of current clinical interventions in the preschool years.

  2. Early clinical outcomes as a function of use of newer oral P2Yinhibitors versus clopidogrel in the EUROMAX trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Kurt; Ducrocq, Gregory; Hamm, Christian W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether different oral P2Y12inhibitors might affect rates of acute stent thrombosis and 30-day outcomes after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Methods: The European Ambulance Acute Coronary Syndrome Angiography (EUROMAX) randomised trial compared prehospi...

  3. Early implant placement for a patient with ectodermal dysplasia: Thirteen years of clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Lisa A; Larsen, Peter E; Saponaro, Paola C; L'Homme-Langlois, Emilie

    2017-11-29

    Patients with ectodermal dysplasia have abnormalities of 2 or more structures that originate from the ectoderm. The oral manifestations often include the congenital absence of teeth and malformed teeth. This clinical report describes the interdisciplinary care from childhood through the definitive dental rehabilitation completed at skeletal maturation to replace the missing teeth in a patient with ectodermal dysplasia. Treatment began at 9 years of age with an implant-assisted mandibular overdenture to improve function and replace the missing mandibular teeth. Orthodontic treatment for the consolidation of space, composite resin restorations, and interim removable dental prostheses were provided to improve esthetics and replace the missing maxillary teeth. Skeletal growth was monitored, and orthognathic surgery was performed at the cessation of growth. The definitive rehabilitation consisted of a mandibular fixed dental prosthesis supported by dental implants and a maxillary removable dental prosthesis to restore the patient to esthetics and function. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  5. Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity and sedentary behavior habits are established during early childhood, yet only recently has objectively measured data been available on children aged 5 years and younger. This study presents data on the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of Canadian children aged 3–5 years. Methods Data were collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey between 2009 and 2011. A nationally-representative sample (n = 459) of children aged 3–5 years wore Actical accelerometers during their waking hours for 7 consecutive days. Data were collected in 60-sec epochs and respondents with ≥4 valid days were retained for analysis. Parents reported their child’s physical activity and screen time habits in a questionnaire. Results Eighty-four percent of 3–4 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 180 minutes of total physical activity every day while 18% met the screen time target of physical activity guideline of 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while 81% met the screen time target of physical activity and 66 minutes of MVPA while 5 year old children accumulated an average of 342 min/d of total physical activity and 68 minutes of MVPA. Children were sedentary for approximately half of their waking hours and spent an average of 2 hours per day in front of screens. Only 15% of 3–4 year olds and 5% of 5 year olds are meeting both the physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines. Conclusions Promoting physical activity while reducing sedentary behavior is important at all stages of life. The findings of the present study indicate that there remains significant room for improvement in these behaviors among young Canadian children. PMID:23642258

  6. Overweight among Four-Year-Old Children in Relation to Early Growth Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Thorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs established by IOTF. BMI values expressed as BMI standard deviation score (BMISDS were used for analysis. Results. At the 4-year check-up, the BMISDS and the proportion of children with overweight (including the obese were significantly higher in the district with lower socio-economic status. High BMI at birth and low socio-economic status of the population in the CHC-district were shown to be independent determinants for overweight and BMISDS at four years of age. Conclusions. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms and how intervention programs should be designed in order to prevent the development of overweight and obesity in children.

  7. All that's mine I carry with me. Early life disease and adult health in Sweden during 250 years

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study early life risk exposures in relation to adult health and mortality in Sweden during 250 years. A number of causal mechanisms by which exposure to diseases and stressful economic and social conditions early in life may lead to increased morbidity and mortality later in life are discussed (paper I). The early life exposures investigated are the foetal origins (nutrition) and the inflammation hypotheses. Longitudinal demographic and socioeconomic data for indi...

  8. Oral Health Status among 12- and 15-Year-Old Children from Government and Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhabogi, J R; Shekar, Cbr; Hameed, Ia; Ramana, Iv; Sandhu, G

    2014-09-01

    The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio-economic background. The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between children from government and private schools in Andhra Pradesh, India. A combination of cluster and stratified random sampling was employed to select the study participants. Oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience was assessed and compared among 12- and 15-year-old children from three government and private schools each. The examination was carried out by three trained and calibrated investigators using a mouth mirror and explorer under natural daylight. A total of 604 children (331 government and 273 private) were examined in the study. The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) was higher among government school children (2.9 [1.1]) compared private school children (0.6 [0.4]). The mean gingival score and mean decayed missing filled teeth were also higher among government school children compared with private school children. A significantly higher number of children in the government schools had poor oral hygiene status, moderate to severe gingivitis and caries experience. The prevalence of oral diseases was relatively less among children from private schools in comparison with those from government schools. Hence, the children from government schools should be given the priority compared with private school children in any school dental health programs planned on a statewide basis.

  9. Radiotherapy in early-stage Dupuytren's contracture. Long-term results after 13 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, Nicolas; Ott, Oliver J.; Sauer, Rolf; Fietkau, Rainer; Adamietz, Boris; Keilholz, Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: In early-stage Dupuytren's contracture, radiotherapy is applied to prevent disease progression. Long-term outcome and late toxicity of the treatment were evaluated in a retrospective analysis. Patients and Methods: Between 12/1982 and 02/2006, 135 patients (208 hands) were irradiated with orthovoltage (120 kV; 20 mA; 4-mm Al filter), in two courses with five daily fractions of 3.0 Gy to a total dose of 30 Gy; separated by a 6- to 8-week interval. The extent of disease was described according to a modified classification of Tubiana et al. Long-term outcome was analyzed at last follow-up between 02/2008 and 05/2008 with a median follow-up of 13 years (range, 2-25 years). Late treatment toxicity and objective reduction of symptoms as change in stage and numbers of nodules and cords were evaluated and used as evidence to assess treatment response. Results: According to the individual stages, 123 cases (59%) remained stable, 20 (10%) improved, and 65 (31%) progressed. In stage N 87% and in stage N/I 70% remained stable or even regressed. In more advanced stages, the rate of disease progression increased to 62% (stage I) or 86% (stage II). 66% of the patients showed a long-term relief of symptoms (i.e., burning sensations, itching and scratching, pressure and tension). Radiotherapy did not increase the complication rate after surgery in case of disease progression and only minor late toxicity (skin atrophy, dry desquamation) could be observed in 32% of the patients. There was no evidence for a second malignancy induced by radiotherapy. Conclusion: After a mean follow-up of 13 years radiotherapy is effective in prevention of disease progression and improves patients' symptoms in early-stage Dupuytren's contracture (stage N, N/I). In case of disease progression after radiotherapy, a ''salvage'' operation is still feasible. (orig.)

  10. Proatherogenic Lipid Profile in Early Childhood: Association with Weight Status at 4 Years and Parental Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Rodríguez-Dehli, Cristina; Valvi, Damaskini; Vrijheid, Martine; Tardón, Adonina

    2017-08-01

    To determine lipid profiles in early childhood and evaluate their association with weight status at 4 years of age. Additionally, we evaluated whether the risk of overweight or having an altered lipid profile was associated with parental weight status. Five hundred eighty two mothers and their 4-year-old children from 2 Spanish population-based cohorts were studied. Weight status in children at 4 years of age was classified as overweight or obese using the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined in children and lipid ratios were calculated. A proatherogenic lipid profile was defined as having the 3 lipid ratios in the third tertile. A total of 12.9% of children were overweight and 6.4% were obese. Weight status at 4 years of age was related to maternal prepregnancy body mass index, paternal body mass index, gestational diabetes, and birth weight, but not with other sociodemographic characteristics of the mother. We found no association with gestational age, sex of the child, or breastfeeding. The risk of overweight/obesity was increased 4.17-fold if mothers were overweight/obese (95% CI 1.76-9.88) and 5.1-fold (95% CI 2.50-10.40) if both parents were overweight/obese. There were 133 children (22.8%) with a proatherogenic lipid profile. The risk of a proatherogenic lipid profile was increased 2.44-fold (95% CI 1.54-3.86) if they were overweight/obese at 4 years of age and 2-fold if the father was overweight/obese (95% CI 1.22-3.35). Four-year-old overweight/obese children have higher lipid risk profiles. Offspring of overweight/obese parents have an increased risk for obesity and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Life Characteristics Associated with Appetite-Related Eating Behaviors in 7-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Gabriela; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    To assess early life characteristics associated with appetite-related eating behaviors in 7-year-old children. The participants are children from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Data on sociodemographics, health, and lifestyles and anthropometrics were collected at birth, and 4- and 7-year-old evaluations. A Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was completed by mothers (n = 3562 children) with children aged 7 years old. A 2-factor solution was identified: factor 1-appetite restraint and factor 2-appetite disinhibition. Associations were estimated through generalized linear models adjusted for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI) before birth, family structure, number of siblings, and child's sex (β regression coefficients and 95% CIs). Higher appetite restraint at 7 years old was associated with higher maternal age and educational level, families with both parents (1- vs 2-parent: β = -0.074, 95% CI -0.140, -0.007) and no siblings (≥2 vs 0: β = -0.152, 95% CI -0.224, -0.081), and more sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old. It was also associated with lower child and maternal BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. In contrast, higher appetite disinhibition was associated with lower maternal educational background, having a 1-parent family, more sedentary behaviors (≥120 vs <120 min/d of media: β = 0.055, 95% CI 0.018, 0.093), and higher BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. Higher maternal age and education, and a family with both parents at 4 years old seem to influence higher appetite restraint, but less appetite disinhibition at 7 years old. More sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old were associated with higher appetite restraint and appetite disinhibition scores later in childhood. These results can be useful for the development of prevention guidelines and educational strategies aimed at improving healthy eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence, intensity and extent of Oral Impacts on Daily Performances associated with self-perceived malocclusion in 11-12-year-old children

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    Flores-Mir Carlos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence, intensity and extent of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances associated with self-perceived malocclusion among Peruvian schoolchildren. Methods Eight hundred and five children aged 11 to 12 years attending 4 of 7 randomly selected schools linked to a Health Centre in Lima, Peru, participated in the study. The Spanish (PeruChild-OIDP was used to assess the prevalence, intensity and extent of oral impacts on 8 daily performances (eating, speaking, teeth cleaning, sleeping, smiling, studying, emotion and social contact. Self-perceived malocclusion included complaints about position of teeth, spacing of teeth and deformity of mouth or face. The prevalence of oral impacts was compared by covariables using the Chi-square test, whereas the intensity and extent of oral impacts were compared by covariables through the Mann-Whitney test. Results Only 15.5% of children reported impacts associated with self-perceived malocclusion during the last 3 months. Of them, 18.4% reported impacts of severe or very severe intensity and 76.0% reported impacts on only one daily performance. Psychosocial activities such as smiling, emotion and social contact were the most frequently and severely impacted everyday activities. Conclusion Impacts of self-perceived malocclusion primarily affected psychological and social everyday activities. These findings provide further evidence to support the importance of psychological and social components of oral health on children's lives.

  13. (Re)Affirming Identities: Implementing a Play-Based Approach to Learning in the Early Years of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Andrea; Paatsch, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Learning through play has traditionally been a central tenet in early childhood education, however, in recent times primary schools have begun to consider the benefits of introducing a play-based approach into early years classrooms to support young children's learning, especially in the areas of language and literacy. This study focuses on the…

  14. A "Politics against Social Submission": Of Early Years Teachers' Accessibility and Work with Children in Québec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Kredl, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the claim that teachers' subjective experiences can lead to social change through the perspective of the early years teacher in Quebec. Fourteen early childhood teachers participated in memory writing and individual interviews. Data were inductively coded and analysed in terms of the teachers' subjective experiences of:…

  15. Using Computers in Early Years Education: What Are the Effects on Children's Development? Some Suggestions Concerning Beneficial Computer Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Technology in education is considered in empirical and theoretical literature as both beneficial and harmful to children's development. In the field of the early years settings there is a dilemma whether or not early childhood teachers should use technology as a teaching and learning resource. This paper has a pedagogical focus, discussing the…

  16. Motor Development Skills of 1- to 4-Year-Old Iranian Children with Early Treated Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sajedi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To gauge the gross and fine motor development of early treated phenylketonuria (ETPKU in children in the age range of 1–4 years. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted in PKU clinics (reference clinics for PKU follow-up, Tehran, Iran. Seventy children with ETPKU were selected as the case group for the study. ETPKU children were those with early and continuous treatment with a phenylalaninerestricted diet (the mean of blood phenylalanine level during the recent 6 months was 2–6 mg/dL or 120–360 mmol/L. Also, 100 healthy and normal children matched with the ETPKU group for age were randomly selected from 4 kindergartens in four parts of Tehran as a control group. The measurements consisted of a demographic questionnaire, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2, and pediatrician assessment. Motor quotients were determined by PDMS-2 and then compared in both groups by two independent samples t-test. Results: The mean ages in case and control group were 28.5 (±11.6 and 29.7 (±11.3 months, respectively. Comparison of the mean fine, gross, and total developmental motor quotients (DMQs showed statistically significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05. The fine and total DMQs of ETPKU children were also correlated with age. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the phenylalanine level and fine (P<0.001 and total (P=0.001 DMQs. Conclusion: It seems that ETPKU Iranian children, regardless of following a phenylalanine-restricted diet or not, have lower motor development. It is recommended to plan programs for early detection and intervention of developmental delays in these children.

  17. Motor development skills of 1- to 4-year-old Iranian children with early treated phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazi, Sepideh; Rohani, Farzaneh; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Setoodeh, Arya

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To gauge the gross and fine motor development of early treated phenylketonuria (ETPKU) in children in the age range of 1-4 years. Methods : A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted in PKU clinics (reference clinics for PKU follow-up), Tehran, Iran. Seventy children with ETPKU were selected as the case group for the study. ETPKU children were those with early and continuous treatment with a phenylalanine-restricted diet (the mean of blood phenylalanine level during the recent 6 months was 2-6 mg/dL or 120-360 μmol/L). Also, 100 healthy and normal children matched with the ETPKU group for age were randomly selected from 4 kindergartens in four parts of Tehran as a control group. The measurements consisted of a demographic questionnaire, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2), and pediatrician assessment. Motor quotients were determined by PDMS-2 and then compared in both groups by two independent samples t-test. Results : The mean ages in case and control group were 28.5 (± 11.6) and 29.7 (± 11.3) months, respectively. Comparison of the mean fine, gross, and total developmental motor quotients (DMQs) showed statistically significant differences between the two groups (p fine and total DMQs of ETPKU children were also correlated with age. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the phenylalanine level and fine (p motor development. It is recommended to plan programs for early detection and intervention of developmental delays in these children.

  18. High and specialty-related musculoskeletal disorders afflict dental professionals even since early training years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianru YI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine how early musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs develop in dental professionals and to explore the potential differences among distinct dental specialties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 271 dental postgraduates majoring in five dental specialties were recruited, i.e., orthodontics, prosthodontics, endodontics, periodontics and alveolar surgery. 254 age-matched non-dental postgraduates served as the control. The standardized Nordic questionnaire on MSDs and a self-report questionnaire regarding correlative factors (only for dental postgraduates were answered through emails. Reliability of responses was assessed applying test-retest method. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient of participants' answers ranged from 0.89 to 0.96. Dental postgraduates had significantly higher prevalence of MSDs than the control group, especially at neck, upper back and lower back. In all dental specialties included, high prevalence of MSDs was reported at neck (47.5%-69.8%, shoulders (50.8%-65.1%, lower back (27.1%-51.2% and upper back (25.6%-46.5%, with lower prevalence at elbows (5.1%-18.6%, hips (3.4%-16.3% and ankles (5.1%-11.6%. Periodontics students reported the worst MSDs in most body regions except wrists and knees, which were more prevalent for prosthodontic and alveolar surgery students, respectively. Furthermore, year of clinical work, clinical hours per week and desk hours per week were found as risk factors for MSDs, whereas physical exercise and rest between patients as protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: High and specialty-related MSDs afflict dental professionals even since very early stage of careers. Prevention aimed at the specialty-related characteristics and the risk/protective factors revealed in this study should be introduced to dental personnel as early as possible.

  19. Use of corticosteroids in early pregnancy is not associated with risk of oral clefts and other congenital malformations in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay Bjørn, Anne-Mette; Ehrenstein, Vera; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager

    2012-01-01

    Corticosteroids are commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases. There is conflicting evidence regarding the association of corticosteroid use in pregnancy and congenital malformations in offspring. We conducted a prevalence study of 83,043 primiparous women who gave birth to a live-born singleton...... in northern Denmark, in 1999-2009. Through medical registries, we identified prescriptions for corticosteroids, congenital malformations, and covariates. Furthermore, we summarized the literature on this topic. Overall, 1449 women (1.7%) used inhaled or oral corticosteroids from 30 days before conception...... throughout the first trimester. Oral cleft in the offspring was recorded for 1 of the users (0.08%) and 145 of the nonusers (0.2%), prevalence odds ratio (OR) 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07-3.34]. The prevalence OR for congenital malformations overall was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.79-1.32). According...

  20. Early medical skull surgery for treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis 5,000 years ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Petrone

    Full Text Available Here we describe the findings of a unique example of the early techniques adopted in neurosurgery around 5000 years ago, consisting in a double well healed skull trephination associated with a post-cranial traumatic event occurring intra vitam to a young male from the Early Chalcolithic cemetery of Pontecagnano (South Italy, ca. 4,900 - 4,500 cal BP. Morphological, X-ray and 3D-CT scan skull-cap evaluation revealed that the main orifice was produced by scraping, obtained by clockwise rotary motion of a right-handed surgeon facing the patient, while the partial trephination was carried out by using a stone point as a drilling tool. In both cases, bone regrowth is indicative of the individual's prolonged postoperative survival and his near-complete recovery. The right femur shows a poorly healed mid-shaft fracture presumably induced by a high energy injury, and a resulting chronic osteomyelitis, affecting both femurs by hematogenous spread of the infection. Our observations on the visual and radiological features of skull and femur lesions, along with evidence on the timing of experimental bone regrowth vs. healing of lower limb fractures associated to long-term bone infections now suggest that this young man underwent a double skull trephination in order to alleviate his extremely painful condition induced by chronic osteomyelitis, which is thought to have been the cause of death.

  1. Sociophysiology 25 years ago: early perspectives of an emerging discipline now part of social neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchas, Patricia R; Barchas, Jack D

    2011-08-01

    Sociophysiology was a term used early in the history of sociology and then again 25 years ago to describe interactions between the "social" and the "biological" worlds. Social scientists had largely viewed biology and the brain as a "black box" that was not an active aspect of their work or theories. A landmark, unpublished conference in 1986 brought together social scientists and biologists dedicated to the idea that bringing sociological conceptualizations and approaches together with those of physiology might create new ways to understand human behavior. The umbrella question for sociophysiology was dual: how do social processes impact the physiology of the organism, and how does that altered physiology affect future social behavior? This paper summarizes that conference with the goal of providing a glimpse into the early history of social neuroscience and to demonstrate the variety of individuals and interests that were present at the emergence of this new field. The late Patricia R. Barchas organized and chaired the conference. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. A retrospective study on clinical and radiological outcomes of oral implants in patients followed up for a minimum of 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Kisch, Jenö; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2018-04-01

    Very long-term follow-up of oral implants is seldom reported in the literature. To assess oral implant failure rates and marginal bone loss (MBL) of patients followed up for a minimum of 20 years. Implants placed in patients followed up for 20+ years were included. Descriptive statistics, survival analyses, generalized estimating equations were performed. Three-hundred implants were randomly selected for MBL. 1,045 implants (227 patients) were included. Implant location, irradiation, and bruxism affected the implant survival rate. Thirty-five percent of the failures occurred within the first year after implantation, and another 26.8% in the second/third year. There was a cumulative survival rate of 87.8% after 36 years of follow-up. In the last radiological follow up, 35 implants (11.7%) had bone gain, and 35 implants (11.7%) presented at least 3 mm of MBL. Twenty-six out of 86 failed implants with available radiograms presented severe MBL in the last radiological register before implant failure. Most of the implant failures occurred at the first few years after implantation, regardless of a very long follow up. MBL can be insignificant in long-term observations, but it may, nevertheless, be the cause of secondary failure of oral implants in some cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha in early-stage and in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maisa; Teixeira, Sarah R; Azevedo, Monarko N; Fraga, Ailton C; Gontijo, Antônio Pm; Vêncio, Eneida F

    2017-04-01

    To investigate hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression in distinct oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies and correlate with clinicopathological data. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 93 cases of OSCC. Clinical and histopathological data were reviewed from medical records. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha status was distinct according to tumor location, subtype and topography affect. In superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas, most tumor cells overexpressed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha, whereas hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha was restricted to the intratumoral region in conventional squamous cell carcinomas. All basaloid squamous cell carcinomas exhibited downregulation of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha. Interestingly, metastatic lymph nodes (91.7%, p = 0.001) and the intratumoral regions of corresponding primary tumors (58.3%, p = 0.142) showed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha-positive tumor cells. Overall survival was poor in patients with metastatic lymph nodes. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha has distinct expression patterns in different oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies, suggesting that low oxygen tension promotes the growth pattern of superficial and conventional squamous cell carcinoma, but not basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Indeed, a hypoxic environment may facilitate regional metastasis, making it a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker in primary tumors.

  4. Factors determining access to oral health services among children aged less than 12 years in Peru [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Azañedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding problems of access to oral health services requires knowledge of factors that determine access. This study aimed to evaluate factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged <12 years in Peru between 2014 and 2015. Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis of 71,614 Peruvian children aged <12 years and their caregivers. Data were obtained from the Survey on Demography and Family Health 2014-2015 (Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar - ENDES. Children’s access to oral health services within the previous 6 months was used as the dependent variable (i.e. Yes/No, and the Andersen and col model was used to select independent variables. Predisposing (e.g., language spoken by  tutor or guardian, wealth level, caregivers’ educational level, area of residence, natural region of residence, age, and sex and enabling factors (e.g. type of health insurance were considered. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariate analysis was performed using generalized linear models (Poisson family. Results: Of all the children, 51% were males, 56% were aged <5 years, and 62.6% lived in urban areas. The most common type of health insurance was Integral Health Insurance (57.8%, and most respondents were in the first quintile of wealth (31.6%. Regarding caregivers, the most common educational level was high school (43.02% and the most frequently spoken language was Spanish (88.4%. Univariate analysis revealed that all variables, except sex and primary educational level, were statistically significant. After adjustment, sex, area of residence, and language were insignificant, whereas the remaining variables were statistically significant. Conclusions: Wealth index, caregivers’ education level, natural region of residence, age, and type of health insurance are factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged <12 years in Peru. These factors should be considered when

  5. Body composition during early infancy and developmental progression from 1 to 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Admassu, Bitiya

    2018-01-01

    aimed to examine the relation between fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) tissues at birth and their accretion during early infancy, and later developmental progression. In a birth cohort from Ethiopia, 455 children who have BC measurement at birth and 416 who have standardised rate of BC growth during...... variables was examined using linear-mixed regression model. The finding revealed that FFM at birth was positively associated with global developmental progression from 1 to 5 years (β=1·75; 95 % CI 0·11, 3·39) and from 4 to 5 years (β=1·34; 95 % CI 0·23, 2·44) in the adjusted model. Furthermore, the rate...... of postnatal FFM tissue accretion was positively associated with development at 1 year of age (β=0·50; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·99). Neither fetal nor postnatal FM showed a significant association. In conclusion, fetal, rather than postnatal, FFM tissue accretion was associated with developmental progression...

  6. An early colonisation pathway into northwest Australia 70-60,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kasih; Inglis, Josha; Clarkson, Chris; Faith, J. Tyler; Shulmeister, James; Harris, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Colonisation of Sahul 70-60 thousand years ago (kya) represents the first great maritime migration undertaken by anatomically modern humans in one of the final phases of the Out of Africa dispersal. Visual connectivity network analyses, agent-based simulations and ocean current modelling reveal that modern humans could follow numerous northern and southern migration pathways into Sahul. Our results support a southern route out of Africa through South Asia with entry into ISEA through the Banda Arc, culminating in an early colonisation of Sahul on the northwest shelf. Our results show multiple colonisation events through other entry points were also probable, and raise interesting possibilities for complex regional migration and population histories.

  7. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  8. Long term functioning in early onset psychosis: Two years prospective follow-up study

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    Taha Ghada RA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There were few studies on the outcome of schizophrenia in developing countries. Whether the outcome is similar to or different from developed world is still a point for research. The main aim of the current study was to know if patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from start of the illness or not. Other aims included investigation of possible predictors and associated factors with remission and outcome. Method The study prospectively investigated a group of 56 patients with onset of psychosis during childhood or adolescence. Diagnosis made according to DSM-IV criteria and included; schizophrenia, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified and acute psychosis. Severity of psychosis was measured by PANSS. Measures of the outcome included; remission criteria of Andreasen et al 2005, the children's global assessment scale and educational level. Results Analysis of data was done for only 37 patients. Thirty patients diagnosed as schizophrenia and 7 with Psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. Mean duration of follow up was 38.4 +/- 16.9 months. At the end of the study, 6 patients (16.2% had one episode, 23(62.1% had multiple episodes and 8 (21.6% continuous course. Nineteen patients (51.4% achieved full remission, and only 11(29.7% achieved their average educational level for their age. Twenty seven percent of the sample had good outcome and 24.3% had poor outcome. Factors associated with non remission and poor outcome included gradual onset, low IQ, poor premorbid adjustment, negative symptoms at onset of the illness and poor adherence to drugs. Moreover, there was tendency of negative symptoms at illness start to predict poor outcome. Conclusion Some patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from the start of the illness. Although remission is a difficult target in childhood psychosis, it is still achievable.

  9. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

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    Zask Avigdor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: ‘Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools’. Methods Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1, five (T2 and eight years (T3 for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0 was used. Results Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560. Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73. Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002, but intervention boys did not (p = .591. At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801. Conclusion Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  10. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zask, Avigdor; Barnett, Lisa M; Rose, Lauren; Brooks, Lyndon O; Molyneux, Maxine; Hughes, Denise; Adams, Jillian; Salmon, Jo

    2012-10-22

    Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick) is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: 'Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools'. Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1), five (T2) and eight years (T3) for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide) and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no) and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0) was used. Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560). Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73). Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002), but intervention boys did not (p = .591). At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801). Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  11. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  12. Efficacy and safety of oral ketamine for the relief of intractable chronic pain: A retrospective 5-year study of 51 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, F; Coutaux, A; Bellanger, A; Magneux, C; Bourgeois, P; Mion, G

    2015-08-01

    This work summarizes the efficiency, failures and adverse effects of oral administration of ketamine at home for intractable pain. This 5-year retrospective study involved testing ketamine by intravenous in-hospital administration, then a conversion to an oral route, or oral treatment directly administered at home. The daily intravenous dose was increased by steps of 0.5 mg/kg to attain an effective daily dose of 1.5-3.0 mg/kg. Pain was evaluated on a numeric scale from 0 to 10, and evidence of adverse effects was collected every day. The effective daily dose was delivered orally (three to four intakes). If effective, ketamine was continued for 3 months. Short infusions or direct oral treatment began with a 0.5-mg/kg dose, then the daily ketamine dose was increased in 15- to 20-mg increments. Among 55 cases (51 patients, neuropathic pain 60%), the mean effective oral dose was 2 mg/kg. Ketamine was effective in 24 patients (44%, mean pain reduction 67 ± 17%), partially effective in 20% (mean pain reduction 30 ± 11%), with a mean opioid sparing of 63 ± 32%, and failure in 22%. Half of the patients experienced adverse effects, but only eight had to stop treatment. For patients with opioid therapy, failure of ketamine was less frequent (7% vs. 36%; p Pain was reduced or abolished in two-thirds of patients under ketamine therapy; ketamine was effective for patients taking opioids and resulted in few adverse effects. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  13. Incidence of reactive hyperplastic lesions in the oral cavity: a 10 year retrospective study in Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Kamile Leonardi; Longo, Lunardo; Grando, Liliane Janete; Rivero, Elena Riet Correa

    2018-04-17

    Reactive hyperplastic lesions develop in response to a chronic injury simulating an exuberant tissue repair response. They represent some of the most common oral lesions including inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, oral pyogenic granuloma, giant cell fibroma, peripheral ossifying fibroma, and peripheral giant cell lesions. The incidence of those lesions was investigated in an oral pathology service, and the clinical characteristics, associated etiological factors, concordance between the clinical and histopathological diagnostic was determined. A total of 2400 patient records were screened from 2006 to 2016. Clinical features were recorded from biopsy reports and patients' files. A total of 534 cases of reactive hyperplastic lesions were retrieved and retrospectively studied, representing 22.25% of all diagnoses. The most frequent lesion was inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (72.09%), followed by oral pyogenic granuloma (11.79%), giant cell fibroma (7.30%), peripheral ossifying fibroma (5.24%), and peripheral giant cell lesions (3.55%). Females were predominantly affected (74.19%), the gingiva and alveolar ridge were the predominant anatomical site (32.89%), and chronic traumatism was presented as the main etiological factor. The age widely ranges from the 1st decade of life to the 7th. Clinically, the reactive hyperplastic lesions consisted of small lesions (0.5-2cm) and shared a strong likeness in color to the oral mucosa. The concordance between the clinical and histopathological diagnostic was high (82.5%). Reactive hyperplastic lesions had a high incidence among oral pathologies. The understanding of their clinical features helps to achieve a clearer clinical and etiological diagnosis, and the knowledge of factors related to their development. This may contribute to adequate treatment and positive prognosis. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of texts produced by students of the early years: guidelines for a possible diagnosis

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    Terezinha da Conceição Costa-Hübes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of students’ texts requires from the teacher scientific knowledge about language which provides him subsidies for the diagnosis of the writings. Thus, this paper aims to present some reflections on the possibilities of using a diagnostic table, designed with the purpose of guiding the teacher – when assessing the student’s text – in the identification of the mastered and non-mastered aspects in writing. The designing of the table is the result of studies carried out by a study group on Portuguese language, consisting of teachers of the early years and supported by the theories of speech genres (BAKHTIN, 2003 and text genres (BRONCKART, 2003, the concept of text as a teaching unit (GERALDI, 1984 and, more specifically, the discussions on practices of linguistic analysis (GERALDI, 1984 and 1997. In order to test the use of the table, we will take texts of the genre ‘note’ produced by students of the 3rd year of elementary school, considering genre, text and spelling aspects.

  15. Psychopathological factors that can influence academic achievement in early adolescence: a three-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2014-12-30

    This three-phase prospective study investigated psychosocial factors predicting or associated with academic achievement. An initial sample of 1,514 school-age children was assessed with screening tools for emotional problems (Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders; Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version; Children's Depression Inventory). The following year, 562 subjects (risk group/without risk group) were re-assessed and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. Two years later, 242 subjects were followed, and their parents informed about their academic achievement. Results showed that early depression (phase 1 B = -.130, p = .001; phase 1 + phase 2 B = -.187, p anxiety symptoms (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -1.721, p = .018), and ADHD were predictors of lower academic achievement (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -3.415, p = .005). However, some anxiety symptoms can improve academic achievement (Social phobia B = .216, p = .018; Generalized anxiety B = .313, p academic achievement. We can conclude that in the transition period to adolescence, school-health professionals and teachers need to consider the emotional issues of students to avoid unwanted academic outcomes.

  16. [Ten years of early complex geriatric rehabilitation therapy in the DRG system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, G; Breuninger, K; Gronemeyer, S; van den Heuvel, D; Lübke, N; Lüttje, D; Wittrich, A; Wolff, J

    2014-01-01

    Geriatric medicine, as a specialized form of treatment for the elderly, is gaining in importance due to demographic changes. Especially important for geriatric medicine is combining acute care with the need to maintain functionality and participation. This includes prevention of dependency on structured care or chronic disability and handicap by means of rehabilitation. Ten years ago, the German DRG system tried to incorporate procedures (e.g., "early rehabilitation in geriatric medicine") in the hospital reimbursement system. OPS 8-550.x, defined by structural quality, days of treatment, and number of therapeutic interventions, triggers 17 different geriatric DRGs, covering most of the fields of medicine. OPS 8-550.x had been revised continuously to give a clear structure to quality aspects of geriatric procedures. However, OPS 8-550.x is based on proven need of in-hospital treatment. In the last 10 years, no such definition has been produced taking aspects of the German hospital system into account as well as aspects of transparency and benefit in everyday work. The German DRG system covers just basic reimbursement aspects of geriatric medicine quite well; however, a practicable and patient-oriented definition of "hospital necessity" is still lacking, but is absolutely essential for proper compensation. A further problem concerning geriatric medicine reimbursement in the DRG system is due to the different structures of providing geriatric in-hospital care throughout Germany.

  17. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in patients over 59 years: early recovery and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivonen, Marja Kaarina; Juuti, Anne; Jaser, Nabil; Mustonen, Harri

    2011-08-01

    Bariatric surgery has shown to be safe for patients over 60 years with good results especially considering resolving of comorbidities. Sleeve gastrectomy is considered to be safer than gastric bypass (GBP) and more effective than gastric banding with less adverse symptoms. Weight loss may be more modest than after GBP, but the effect on vitamins may also be milder. Since 2007, we collected prospectively 12-month follow-up data from 55 sleeve gastrectomy patients of whom 12 were over 59 years of age. Vitamin and calcium supplements were used postoperatively. The recovery from the operation was recorded during hospital stay, at 1- and 12-month follow-up visits using a standard protocol including laboratory tests. The results between patients over and under 59 years were compared. The preoperative weight and weight loss were comparable between the groups. Operation time was shorter and hospital stay was longer for older patients, p = ns. There was no operative mortality. Early major complications were seen more often in the older age group, 42% vs 9% (p = 0.02), but late complications were more common in younger patients, 17% vs 44%, p = ns. Early complications were mostly bleedings, which did not lengthen the hospital stay, neither were re-operations nor endoscopic procedures needed. Excess weight loss and resolving of comorbidities after 12 months was comparable between the groups. However, vitamin deficiencies and hypoalbuminemia were more common in the older age group, 42% and 23% for vitamins and 44% and 29% for proteins, p = ns. The older patients had more adverse effects related to surgery, 25% vs 9%, and younger had more adverse psychiatric effects, p = ns. Sleeve gastrectomy is effective and safe for older bariatric patients. Weight loss is comparable to younger patients and enough to resolve the comorbidities in most of the patients. With standardized nutritional supplementation, the older patients had more often vitamin deficiencies and

  18. An Early Years Toolbox for Assessing Early Executive Function, Language, Self-Regulation, and Social Development: Validity, Reliability, and Preliminary Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J; Melhuish, Edward

    2017-06-01

    Several methods of assessing executive function (EF), self-regulation, language development, and social development in young children have been developed over previous decades. Yet new technologies make available methods of assessment not previously considered. In resolving conceptual and pragmatic limitations of existing tools, the Early Years Toolbox (EYT) offers substantial advantages for early assessment of language, EF, self-regulation, and social development. In the current study, results of our large-scale administration of this toolbox to 1,764 preschool and early primary school students indicated very good reliability, convergent validity with existing measures, and developmental sensitivity. Results were also suggestive of better capture of children's emerging abilities relative to comparison measures. Preliminary norms are presented, showing a clear developmental trajectory across half-year age groups. The accessibility of the EYT, as well as its advantages over existing measures, offers considerably enhanced opportunities for objective measurement of young children's abilities to enable research and educational applications.

  19. Maximum mouth opening and trismus in 143 patients treated for oral cancer: a 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzels, Jan-Willem G H; Merkx, Matthias A W; de Haan, Anton F J; Koole, Ron; Speksnijder, Caroline M

    2014-12-01

    Patients with oral cancer can develop restricted mouth opening (trismus) because of the oncologic treatment. Maximum mouth opening (MMO) was measured in 143 patients shortly before treatment and 0, 6, and 12 months posttreatment, and the results were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. In every patient, MMO decreased after treatment. The patients who underwent surgery, recovered partially by 6 and 12 months after treatment, whereas the patients who received both surgery and radiotherapy or primary radiotherapy did not recover. Tumor location, tumor size, and alcohol consumption had independent effects on MMO. Having trismus (MMO oral cancer treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Impact of a Comprehensive Early Clinical Exposure Program for Preclinical Year Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Govindarajan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the impact of an early clinical exposure program designed to provide a wide variety (cognitive, affective and psychomotor of learning experiences for the preclinical year students. Method: One hundred and fifty preclinical students were posted in small groups to selected departments – Transfusion medicine, Catheterization lab, Simulation lab, Radiology, Neurology, Nephrology, Respiratory medicine and General surgery. Each student had atleast ten hours  of clinical exposure under this program. The program was evaluated through a series of pre and post-test questionnaires, which were designed based on the learning objectives of each session. Students who wished to participate in the program evaluation gave informed consent, took up the pre / post test and were also asked to give their written open comments about the program. Results: There was a significant increase in the post-test scores (ranging from 9.14±2.67 to 36.65±6.62 when compared to the pre-test scores (ranging from 7.94±2.31 to 28.69±6.11 for all the sessions (p value <0.001, n=144. Analysis of the open feedback showed that the program had significant impact on the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. “Application of basic sciences in clinical practice”, “motivation to learn”, “got familiar with various specialties”, “insight about what the patient undergoes” were the themes identified from the open comments. Conclusion: The innovative use of early clinical exposure program to teach/learn clinical skills like phlebotomy and Basic Life Support had been well appreciated by the students. The present design involving a variety of learning experiences has been successful in introducing the various dimensions of medical profession like scientific, ethical, interpersonal, professional and social to the new entrants in addition to enhancing their motivation to learn. Keywords: Attitude, Learning, Simulation lab, Medical education, Curriculum