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Sample records for early ultrastructural lesions

  1. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  2. Ultra-Structural Changes of the Early Childhood Caries Starting Phases of Development

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    Kokoceva-Ivanovska Olga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent 20 years, besides dramatic reduction of caries in many countries where complex programme of prevention is carried out, prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC has expressed continual growth trend. The aim of our research was to determine precisely ultra-structural changes in the enamel substance at the initial lesion of the ECC (white spot lesion, as initial change of great importance for its preventive aspect. Therefore, we directed our experiment to evaluate ultra-structural changes of the teeth enamel in primary teeth with circular caries in its opening stages of development: initial caries lesion and superficial form.

  3. Early studies of placental ultrastructure by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was first applied to study placental ultrastructure in the 1950's. We review those early studies and mention the scientists that employed or encouraged the use of TEM. FINDINGS: Among the pioneers Edward W. Dempsey was a key figure who attracted...... many other scientists to Washington University in St. Louis. Work on human placental ultrastructure was initiated at Cambridge and Kyoto whilst domestic animals were initially studied by Björkman in Stockholm and electron micrographs of bat placenta were published by Wimsatt of Cornell University....... CONCLUSIONS: Prior to the introduction of better fixation techniques, TEM images were of modest technical quality. Nevertheless they gave important insights into placental ultrastructure, particularly the nature of the maternal-fetal interface....

  4. Ultrastructural lesions in the myocardium and kidneys of rabbits in experimental acute Amorimia exotropica poisoning

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    Mauro P. Soares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Amorimia exotropica is an important plant associated with sudden death in cattle in Southern Brazil. In order to understand the mechanisms by which A. exotropica causes acute lesions in the heart and kidney of intoxicated animals, an experiment was conducted to determine the histopathology and ultrastructure of myocardial and renal lesions of intoxicated rabbits. After receiving 18g/kg of dried plant, six rabbits died suddenly. At necropsy, the liver was swollen and no other macroscopic lesions were observed. Histologically, centrolobular and midzonal hepatocytes were vacuolated. These vacuoles were strong PAS stained positive, suggesting that they corresponded to glycogen accumulations. In some regions of the ventricular septum and ventricles were found vacuoles of different sizes and the kidneys of two rabbits showed vacuolar degeneration on distal convoluted tubules. Ultrastructurally, the myocardium had cardiomyocytes swelling with separation of myofibrils bundles and rupture and disorganization of the sarcomeres. The mitochondria displayed swelling, disorganization, disruption of the mitochondrial cristae, and electron-dense matrix. Some mitochondria exhibited eccentric projections of their membranes with disruption of both outer and inner membranes. The sarcoplasmic reticulum had no alterations, whereas the T-tubule system was occasionally dilated and ruptured. The kidneys had mitochondrial swelling with disorganization and disruption of the mitochondrial cristae. The vacuoles result from the swelling of the endoplasmatic reticulum and usually were located between two basolateral infoldings and mitochondria, occurring preferentially around the nucleus. The myocytes and T system damages induced by A. exotropica result in acute heart failure and death. Furthermore, this mechanism of cardiotoxicity may be common to all plant containing monofluoroacetate.

  5. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the current evidence base of detecting and monitoring early carious lesions in children and adolescents and a rationale proposed to ensure that such lesions are identified and appropriately managed. METHODS: The systematic literature search identified initially a review by Gomez an...

  6. Behavioural and ultrastructural activity relationship as early warning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is hypothesised that the behavioural responses from exposure of Poecilia reticulata to tolerable concentration of larvicides is unconnected to the ultrastructural alterations found in the exposed fish species. Heterogeneous sexes of fish consisting of 18 females (gravid and non-gravid), and 9 males, in three replicates, were ...

  7. Pathology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Gadir, A Fattah A; Theander, Thor G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas the clinical manifestations and treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) have been adequately described before, the pathology received little attention, particularly the African form of PKDL which shows some clinical differences from the disease in India...... leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes....

  8. Macroscopic, histologic, and ultrastructural lesions associated with avian keratin disorder in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, C.; Armién, A. G.; Blake, J.E.; Handel, C.M.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    An epizootic of beak abnormalities (avian keratin disorder) was recently detected among wild birds in Alaska. Here we describe the gross, histologic, and ultrastructural features of the disease in 30 affected adult black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Grossly, there was elongation of the rhamphotheca, with varying degrees of lateral deviation, crossing, and gapping between the upper and lower beak. Not uncommonly, the claws were overgrown, and there was alopecia, scaling, and crusting of the skin. The most prominent histopathologic features in the beak included epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and core-like intrusions of necrotic debris. In affected birds, particularly those with moderate to severe beak overgrowth, there was remodeling of premaxillary and mandibular bones and various dermal lesions. Lesions analogous to those found in beaks were present in affected claws, indicating that this disorder may target both of these similar tissues. Mild to moderate hyperkeratosis occurred in other keratinized tissues, including skin, feather follicles, and, occasionally, sinus epithelium, but typically only in the presence of microbes. We did not find consistent evidence of a bacterial, fungal, or viral etiology for the beak lesions. The changes observed in affected birds did not correspond with any known avian diseases, suggesting a potentially novel hyperkeratotic disorder in wild birds.

  9. Ultrastructural observation of Charcot-Leyden crystals in mechlorethamine-treated cutaneous lesions of histiocytosis X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitakis, J; Schmitt, D; Euvrard, S; Thivolet, J

    1986-03-01

    We were recently able to observe, by electron microscopy, Charcot-Leyden crystals in the cutaneous lesions of histiocytosis X (Letterer-Siwe disease) that had been treated by local applications of mechlorethamine. The occurrence of Charcot-Leyden crystals in skin lesions is infrequent; so far, these structures have been observed only in cases of facial (Lever's) eosinophilic granuloma and in incontinentia pigmenti. Although Charcot-Leyden crystals can at times be formed spontaneously in tissue lesions, the possibility that their formation was favored by the local action of mechlorethamine is considered.

  10. Ultrastructural Complexity of Nuclear Components During Early Apoptotic Phases in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Castelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractal morphometry was used to investigate the ultrastructural features of the plasma membrane, perinuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin in SK‐BR‐3 human breast cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Cells were incubated with 1 μM calcimycin (A23187 for 24 h. Cells in the early stage of apoptosis had fractal dimension (FD values indicating that their plasma membranes were less rough (lower FD than those of control cells, while their perinuclear membranes were unaffected. Changes of the chromatin texture within the entire nucleus and in selected nuclear domains were more pronounced in treated cells. This confirms that the morphological reorganization imputable to a loss of structural complexity (reduced FD occurs in the early stage of apoptosis, is accompanied by the inhibition of distinct enzymatic events and precedes the onset of conventional cellular markers, which can only be detected during the active phases of the apoptotic process.

  11. Ab interno trabeculectomy: ultrastructural evidence and early tissue response in a human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Ettore; Ortolani, Fulvia; Petrelli, Lucia; Contin, Magali; Pognuz, Derri Roman; Marchini, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2007-10-01

    To report the results of ultrastructural analysis of the postoperative effects of ab interno trabeculectomy in a human eye. Department of Ophthalmology, Palmanova Hospital, Palmanova, Udine, Italy. A 60-year-old woman with cataract and glaucoma had enucleation for a choroidal melanoma 10 days after ab interno trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification. A second ab interno trabeculectomy was performed after enucleation to evaluate the outcomes of the previous trabeculectomy. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed on samples excised from areas (1) not subjected to a procedure (control samples), (2) that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, and (3) that had ab interno trabeculectomy immediately after enucleation. Control samples showed normal trabecular features. Semithin sections of all ab interno trabeculectomy samples showed full-thickness removal of trabeculum segments, with Schlemm's canal lumen opening into the anterior chamber and apparent preservation of the adjacent structures. On ultrathin sections of samples that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, the endothelium lining the outer wall of Schlemm's canal and other angle components showed intact ultrastructural features. In trabecular beams that were not removed, the extracellular matrix appeared to have maintained its fine texture and was free of activated fibroblasts or leucocyte infiltrates. Observations confirm that ab interno trabeculectomy causes direct communication between Schlemm's canal lumen and the anterior chamber in vivo and immediately after enucleation during the early postoperative period. The absence of an evident inflammatory reaction in the examined case should be considered with caution because of possible tumor-induced immune suppression.

  12. Bone lesions in early syphilis detected by bone scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K; Hvid-Jacobsen, K; Lindewald, H; Sørensen, P S; Weismann, K

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of early syphilis with multiple bone lesions which all resolved after treatment with penicillin. We discuss why bone lesions may be more prevalent than generally believed and why 99m-Tc-MDP-bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than radiography in detecting syphilitic periostitis. Images PMID:6234967

  13. Low Cost Technology for Screening Early Cancerous Lesions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Technology for Screening Early Cancerous Lesions of Oral Cavity in Rural Settings. ... of 1329 tobacco users were motivated to come forward for oral examination ... Keywords: Low cost technology, Oral cancer, Pre‑cancer detection, ...

  14. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a 10- to 20-fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4 mm × 4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12-48 hours exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths >500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two-dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion contrast in the visible does not accurately reflect the

  15. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: Variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a ten to twenty fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Materials and Methods Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12–48 hr exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Results Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion

  16. Ultrasonography-guided mammotome biopsy of breast lesions : early experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Yun, Ji Young; Yoon, CHil Suk; Gong, Gyung Yub; Ahn, Sei Hyun [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    To report some early experiences of ultrasonography-guided mammotome biopsy for solid breast lesions. Sixty seven solid breast lesions in 59 patients aged 25-77 (mean, 44.5) years were biopsied under ultrasound-guidance using an 11 gauge mammotome. The size and depth of the lesions, diagnostic accuracy achieved, complications, and merits and demerits of the device were evaluated. The lesions ranged in size from 0.5 to 8 (mean, 1.6)cm, and at their center the mean depth was 1.4cm. for every lesion at least seven biopsies were performed, and the mean weight of extracted tissue was 0.44gm. The lesions were located mainly at the at 12o'clock area and upper inner quadrant of the left breast(n=10 for each area); they were also found in other regions for both breasts, including subareloar areas. The histopathologic diagnosis was malignant in 26 lesions and benign in 39, and in one case, atypical ductal hyperplasia was diagnosed. One lesion contained no tumor cells. Twenty-four malignant lesions were surgically excised, and in 21 invasive ductal/lobular carcinomas and one ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (91.7%) the initial and subsequent diagnosis correlated. One lesion diagnosed as DCIS and one whose invasiveness could not be initially determined were confirmed as invasive ductal carcinomas (8.3%). Follow-up ultrasonography involved six benign lesion and showed that five of these had become smaller. The complications noted were severe pain in three patients and a moderate amount of bleeding in two, but in all cases good control was achieved by interrupting the procedure or applying compression. The merits of the mammotome biopsy compared with the conventional core biopsy technique are higher diagnostic accuracy due to the larger amount of tissue extracted by suction and the large caliber of the needle, multiple biopsies achieved by one needle insertion, and less possibility of server complications such as pneumothorax. Dry-tapping was a demerit of the device. Very

  17. Early events of citrus greening (Huanglongbing) disease development at the ultrastructural level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Achor, Diann S

    2010-09-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The causal agent of HLB in Florida is thought to be 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Understanding of the early events in HLB infection is critical for the development of effective measures to control the disease. In this work, we conducted cytopathological studies by following the development of the disease in citrus trees graft inoculated with 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-containing material under greenhouse conditions to examine the correlation between ultrastructural changes and symptom production, with the main objective of characterizing the early events of infection. Based on our observations, one of the first degenerative changes induced upon invasion of the pathogen appears to be swelling of middle lamella between cell walls surrounding sieve elements. This anatomical aberration was often observed in samples from newly growing flushes in inoculated sweet orange and grapefruit trees at the early "presymptomatic" stage of HLB infection. Development of symptoms and their progression correlated with an increasing degree of microscopic aberrations. Remarkably, the ability to observe the bacterium in the infected tissue also correlated with the degree of the disease progression. Large numbers of bacterial cells were found in phloem sieve tubes in tissue samples from presymptomatic young flushes. In contrast, we did not observe the bacteria in highly symptomatic leaf samples, suggesting a possibility that, at more advanced stages of the disease, a major proportion of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is present in a nonviable state. We trust that observations reported here advance our understanding of how 'Ca. L. asiaticus' causes disease. Furthermore, they may be an important aid in answering a question: when and where within an infected tree the tissue serves as a better inoculum source for acquisition and transmission of the bacterium by its psyllid vector.

  18. Serum Amyloid A Facilitates Early Lesion Development in Ldlr-/- Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishack, Paulette A; Bhanvadia, Clarissa V; Lukens, John; Sontag, Timothy J; De Beer, Maria C; Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A

    2015-07-17

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder, and several studies have demonstrated a positive association between plasma serum amyloid A (SAA) levels and cardiovascular disease risk. The aim of the study was to examine whether SAA has a role in atherogenesis, the underlying basis of most cardiovascular disease. Mice globally deficient in acute-phase isoforms Saa1 and Saa2 (Saa(-/-)) were crossed to Ldlr(-/-) mice (Saa(-/-)Ldlr(-/-)). Saa(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice demonstrated a 31% reduction in lesional area in the ascending aorta but not in the aortic root or innominate artery after consuming a high-fat, high-cholesterol Western-type diet for 6 weeks. The lesions were predominantly macrophage foam cells. The phenotype was lost in more mature lesions in mice fed a Western-type diet for 12 weeks, suggesting that SAA is involved in early lesion development. The decreased atherosclerosis in the Saa(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice occurred despite increased levels of blood monocytes and was independent of plasma lipid levels. SAA is produced predominantly by hepatocytes and macrophages. To determine which source of SAA may have a dominant role in lesion development, bone marrow transplantation was performed. Ldlr(-/-) mice that received bone marrow from Saa(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice had slightly reduced ascending aorta atherosclerosis compared with Saa(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice receiving bone marrow from Ldlr(-/-) mice, indicating that the expression of SAA by macrophages may have an important influence on atherogenesis. The results indicate that SAA produced by macrophages promotes early lesion formation in the ascending aorta. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Ultrastructure of stomatal development in early-divergent angiosperms reveals contrasting patterning and pre-patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudall, Paula J.; Knowles, Emma V. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Angiosperm stomata consistently possess a pair of guard cells, but differ between taxa in the patterning and developmental origin of neighbour cells. Developmental studies of phylogenetically pivotal taxa are essential as comparative yardsticks for understanding the evolution of stomatal development. Methods We present a novel ultrastructural study of developing stomata in leaves of Amborella (Amborellales), Nymphaea and Cabomba (Nymphaeales), and Austrobaileya and Schisandra (Austrobaileyales), representing the three earliest-divergent lineages of extant angiosperms (the ANITA-grade). Key Results Alternative developmental pathways occur in early-divergent angiosperms, resulting partly from differences in pre-patterning and partly from the presence or absence of highly polarized (asymmetric) mitoses in the stomatal cell lineage. Amplifying divisions are absent from ANITA-grade taxa, indicating that ostensible similarities with the stomatal patterning of Arabidopsis are superficial. In Amborella, ‘squared’ pre-patterning occurs in intercostal regions, with groups of four protodermal cells typically arranged in a rectangle; most guard-mother cells are formed by asymmetric division of a precursor cell (the mesoperigenous condition) and are typically triangular or trapezoidal. In contrast, water-lily stomata are always perigenous (lacking asymmetric divisions). Austrobaileya has occasional ‘giant’ stomata. Conclusions Similar mature stomatal phenotypes can result from contrasting morphogenetic factors, although the results suggest that paracytic stomata are invariably the product of at least one asymmetric division. Loss of asymmetric divisions in stomatal development could be a significant factor in land plant evolution, with implications for the diversity of key structural and physiological pathways. PMID:23969762

  20. Occurrence and ultrastructural characterization of "nuage" during oogenesis and early spermatogenesis of Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Teleostei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Abdalla

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence and ultrastructurally characterized electrondense nuclear material (nuage released from the nucleus during oogenesis and early spermatogenesis of Piaractus mesopotamicus, a fish from Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil having a seasonal reproductive cycle. The female germ cells presented two instances of nuclear material extrusion: in the oogonia and in the oocyte in the perinucleolar phase. In males, material with similar morphology and behavior occurred in the spematogonia. In all cases, this material was associated to mitochondria. The possible function of this material is discussed.

  1. Ultrastructural study of polyspermy during early embryo development in pigs, observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, P; Wang, Z; Yang, Z; Tan, J; Qin, P

    2001-02-01

    Polyspermy is generally considered a pathological phenomenon in mammals. Incidence of polyspermy in porcine eggs in vivo is extremely high (30-40%) compared with other species, and polyspermy rate in the in vitro fertilized eggs in pigs can reach 65%. It is still unknown whether polyspermy to a certain degree is a physiological condition in pigs, and whether porcine eggs have any capability with which to remove the accessory sperm in the cytoplasm. The objectives in the present study are to observe the ultrastructural changes of accessory sperm during early embryonic development in pigs. A total of 58 normal, early embryos at one-, two, three-, and four-cell and morular stages were collected from gilts and were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface ultrastructure showed that sperm fusion with the zona pellucida was a continuous process during one-, two-, three-, and four-cell and morular stages, as observed by the SEM. Accessory sperm were present in the cytoplasm of cleaved embryos. The sperm heads in the cytoplasm of cleaved embryos did not decondense. TEM revealed the presence of a condensed sperm head within a lysosome (or phagolysosome) in a three-cell embryo. These observations suggest that polyspermy may be a physiological condition in pigs and that early embryos may develop to term if accessory sperm do not interrupt the embryo genome. Furthermore, lysosome activity could be another physiological mechanism for removing accessory sperm in the cytoplasm of fertilized eggs and cleaved embryos after fertilization in pigs.

  2. Ultrastructural analysis of early toxic effects produced by bee venom phospholipase A2 and melittin in Sertoli cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilinca, Mariana; Florea, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the testicular toxicity of two molecules derived from bee venom (BV): phospholipase A2 (PlA2) and melittin (Mlt). Ultrastructural effects of purified BV PlA2 and Mlt were assessed consecutive to repeated dose (30 days) and acute toxicity studies. For the subchronic treatment, PlA2 and Mlt were injected in daily doses equivalent to those released by a bee sting (105 μg PlA2/kg/day and 350 μg Mlt/kg/day), while in the acute treatment their doses corresponded to those released by 100 bee stings (9.3 mg PlA2/kg and 31 mg Mlt/kg). Both PlA2 and Mlt affected the Leydig cells and the cells in seminiferous tubules, the Sertoli cells first of all. PlA2 injection resulted in detachment of the Sertoli cells from the surrounding cells, and extracellular vacuolations, cytoplasmic vacuolations in their basal region and in branches as well, detachment of spermatids, residual bodies and sometimes even spermatocytes into the lumen, changes that had a higher magnitude after the acute treatment. Mlt injection induced similar ultrastructural alterations, but more severe, including degeneration of cellular organelles and cellular necrosis, resulting into rarefaction of the seminiferous epithelium; the ultrastructural changes had a higher magnitude after the 30 repeated dose treatment. We concluded that either of the two molecules tested here, PlA2 and Mlt, were Sertoli cells toxicants at the used doses, and they participated both in the BV testicular toxicity. We consider the observed changes as part of a preceding mechanism of the more severe alterations produced by the BV. It also remains possible that these early unspecific changes reported here could represent the response of the SCs not only to the components of bee venom, but to molecules of other venoms as well. The Sertoli cells were the primary target of PlA2 and Mlt in the spermatogenic epithelium, and their alteration led to further degenerative changes of the germ cells. Since

  3. Early nifurtimox-induced biochemical and ultrastructural alterations in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, L C; Montalto de Mecca, M; Fanelli, S L; Rodriguez de Castro, C; Diaz, E G; Castro, J A

    2007-10-01

    Nifurtimox (Nfx) and Benznidazole (Bz) are being used for the treatment of the acute phase of Chagas' disease. Recently, they were also considered for use in the indeterminate phase. Both the nitroheterocyclic drugs have serious toxic side effects. The mechanism of Nfx toxicity is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during nitroreduction. Potential effects on cardiac function have not been established yet, despite the well-known cardiopathy often produced by the disease itself. We describe experiments testing some acute effects of Nfx on the male Sprague Dawley rat heart. Nifurtimox was present in the heart at 1, 3 and 6 h after intragastric (i.g) treatment. In vitro studies on Nfx microsomal and cytosolic nitroreductase activities showed that only the microsomal fraction had the ability to nitroreduce it. Cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 reductase would be involved in the process as suggested by their response to specific inhibitors. Nifurtimox increased the cardiac protein carbonyl content at 1 and 3 h and decreased the protein sulfhydryl content at 3 h. In addition, 24 h after treatment ultrastructural alterations such as marked cytoplasmic vacuolization, separation and loss of myofibrils and mitochondrial swelling were observed. Results suggest that Nfx administration might aggravate pre-existing adverse cardiac conditions. Human & Experimental Toxicology (2007) 26, 781 -788.

  4. Ultrastructural morphogenesis of a virus associated with lymphocystis-like lesions in parore Girella tricuspidata (Kyphosidae: Perciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, P M; Wakefield, St J; Mackereth, G; Morrison, R

    2016-09-26

    The morphogenesis of large icosahedral viruses associated with lymphocystis-like lesions in the skin of parore Girella tricuspidata is described. The electron-lucent perinuclear viromatrix comprised putative DNA with open capsids at the periphery, very large arrays of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), much of it with a reticulated appearance (rsER) or occurring as rows of vesicles. Lysosomes, degenerating mitochondria and virions in various stages of assembly, and paracrystalline arrays were also present. Long electron-dense inclusions (EDIs) with 15 nm repeating units split terminally and curled to form tubular structures internalising the 15 nm repeating structures. These tubular structures appeared to form the virion capsids. Large parallel arrays of sER sometimes alternated with aligned arrays of crinkled cisternae along which passed a uniformly wide (20 nm) thread-like structure. Strings of small vesicles near open capsids may also have been involved in formation of an inner lipid layer. Granules with a fine fibrillar appearance also occurred in the viromatrix, and from the presence of a halo around mature virions it appeared that the fibrils may form a layer around the capsid. The general features of virogenesis of large icosahedral dsDNA viruses, the large amount of ER, particularly rsER and the EDIs, are features of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses, rather than features of 1 genus or family.

  5. Targeting Premalignant Lesions - Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions - Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention PRINCIPAL...Mar 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Premalignant Lesions - Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and...12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Breast cancer

  6. Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions : Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention...2015 – 31 Mar 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0032 Targeting Premalignant Lesions : Implications for Early Breast...carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to identify peptides that specifically recognize premalignant lesions in the mammary tissue. To achieve this goal, we

  7. Ichthyosis, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, impaired neutrophil chemotaxis, growth retardation, and metaphyseal dysplasia (Shwachman syndrome). : Report of a case with extensive skin lesions (clinical, histological, and ultrastructural findings)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Goeteyn (M.); A.P. Oranje (Arnold); V.D. Vuzevski (Vojislav); R. de Groot (Ronald); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe Shwachman syndrome comprises exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, growth retardation, and bone marrow hypoplasia resulting in neutropenia. Clinical, morphological, and ultrastructural studies, as well as hair analysis, were performed in a patient with Shwachman's syndrome and severe

  8. Ultrastructure of the early stages of Colletotrichum acutatum infection of strawberry tissues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arroyo, Francisco T; Moreno, Javier; Garcia-Herdugo, Gregorio; Santos, Berta D.l; Barrau, Carmen; Porras, Maria; Blanco, Cesar; Romero, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The early stages of the infection of attached leaves and petioles of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. 'Camarosa') by Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy...

  9. Journal Club: MRI reveals acute inflammation in cortical lesions during early MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Emily M; Schleicher, Wolfgang E; Smith, Elana J; Sweet, David R; Gaudet, Andrew D

    2018-02-20

    Early multiple sclerosis is characterized by immune-associated demyelination of CNS axons. In a recent Neurology® article, Maranzano et al. evaluated MRI scans of patients with early multiple sclerosis to study the evolution of leukocortical lesions. Their novel data suggest that acute inflammation after blood-brain barrier leakage may contribute to gray matter cortical lesions in early multiple sclerosis. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Clinical monitoring of early caries lesions using cross polarization optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Pelzner, Roger B.

    New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization and to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anti-caries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role, since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10-μm. It is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces. In this paper we present early results from two clinical studies underway to measure the effect of fluoride intervention on early lesions. CP-OCT was used to monitor early lesions on enamel and root surfaces before and after intervention with fluoride varnish. The lesion depth and internal structure were resolved for all the lesions examined and some lesions had well defined surface zones of lower reflectivity that may be indicative of arrested lesions. Changes were also noted in the structure of some of the lesions after fluoride intervention.

  11. Early ultrastructural events of skeletal muscle damage following cardiotoxin-induced injury and glycerol-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Mohamed A A; Warita, Katsuhiko; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the early changes of skeletal muscle damage in response to injuries induced by cardiotoxin (CTX) and glycerol by using both light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Normal, non-dystrophic, adult male mice were used in this study. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were injected either with CTX or glycerol. Samples were collected at intervals starting from 1h up to 4days after injury. Injured muscles were subjected to both histological and ultrastructural analyses. CTX-induced injury caused mitochondrial accumulation and swelling followed by lysis, while glycerol-induced injury caused accumulation of vesicles with focal disruption of the basal lamina, indicating that the injuries have different mechanisms of damage to myofibers. Moreover, inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and macrophages, were recruited earlier and in larger numbers after CTX-induced injury than after glycerol-induced injury. On the other hand, satellite cells (SCs) activation started at 6h after both injuries, as indicated by an increase in both the length and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio. However, there were significantly longer SCs with a higher cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio in the CTX-injured muscles than in the glycerol-injured muscles at day 4. In conclusion, our results demonstrated a difference between CTX and glycerol in their damage to myofibers; CTX damages myofiber mitochondria, while glycerol damages the myofiber cell membrane and alters osmosis. In addition, CTX-induced injury caused earlier and more extensive inflammatory infiltration than did glycerol-induced injury. This study is the first study to shed light on the early events following skeletal muscle injury induced by CTX and glycerol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan L M Björkegren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80% and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-Apob (100/100 Mttp (flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  13. ULTRASTRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS INDUCED BY DIRECT ACTION OF CU2+ UPON EARLY CHICK EMBRYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Checiu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratological testing of sulphonate phtalocyanine (an alimentary blue dye synthetized by the Center of Chemisty, Timisoara, shown a strong malformative effect of this compound upon early chick embryo (48 hours of incubation, (Sandor, Checiu, Prelipceanu, 1985. Dye administration on day 2 of incubation (44-48 hours revealed a high rate of embryo mortality and abnormal modification of caudal segment or even a total absence of caudal tail bud. Living embryos until day 7 of incubation showed a normal development of the anterior body part (head and trunk in contrast with posterior body part which presented an abnormal position of posterior limbs, tail and trunk aplasia. The dye with the some name produced in Germany did not show (in the some experimental conditions a malformative effect. The only difference between the two dyes was the presence of Cu2+ in our compound. It is well known that chemicals and physics factors (X rayes, insuline, hypoxy, D-Actinomycine, sucrose, etc. are noxious, inducing malformations of caudal segment (tail bud, urogenital and anorectal abnormalities associated with cardiac, facial and SNC malformations (Landauer 1953, Shepard 1973. Abnormalities of esophagus, urogenital and anorectal region associated with those of caudal axial skeleton and posterior limb buds are involved in caudal dysplasia syndrome (Duhamel 1961 cited by Roux and Martinet 1962. This syndrome is frequent (1:1000 in children of diabetic mothers (Warkany 1971. Experimental works on mice suggested implication of genetic factors in pathogenesis of this syndrome (Frye et all.1964 cited by Warkany 1971. Previous investigations (Checiu et all. 1966 revealed a caudal malformative syndrome in chick embryos induced by Cu2+. It is well known capacity of some heavy metal ions to affect the formation and desintegration reaction of free radicals. The aim of this paper is to present a morphological study of caudal malformative syndrome (Checiu et all. 1999 and an

  14. Ichthyosis, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, impaired neutrophil chemotaxis, growth retardation, and metaphyseal dysplasia (Shwachman syndrome). Report of a case with extensive skin lesions (clinical, histological, and ultrastructural findings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeteyn, M; Oranje, A P; Vuzevski, V D; de Groot, R; van Suijlekom-Smit, L W

    1991-02-01

    The Shwachman syndrome comprises exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, growth retardation, and bone marrow hypoplasia resulting in neutropenia. Clinical, morphological, and ultrastructural studies, as well as hair analysis, were performed in a patient with Shwachman's syndrome and severe ichthyosis. Clinical findings were lamellar ichthyosiform desquamation on the extremities. The hair was scanty and short on the scalp, in the eyelashes, and in the eyebrows. The nails were hyperkeratotic. Morphologic findings were slight, regular acanthosis and severe diffuse hyperkeratosis with variable parakeratosis. The granular layer was thickened. The papillary dermis showed very slight perivascular lymphocyte infiltration. The most prominent ultrastructural finding was the presence of solitary or multiple droplets of varying size in the cytoplasm of the keratinocytes. Hair analysis revealed no abnormalities; the cystine concentration in hair specimens was normal.

  15. Predicting Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesion Location and Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, Emily; Hernandez, Ana; Stavinoha, Peter L.; Huang, Rong; Kernie, Steven G.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brain lesions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are heterogeneous, rendering outcome prognostication difficult. The aim of this study is to investigate whether early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lesion location and lesion volume within discrete brain anatomical zones can accurately predict long-term neurological outcome in children post-TBI. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI hyperintense lesions in 63 children obtained 6.2±5.6 days postinjury were correlated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended-Pediatrics (GOS-E Peds) score at 13.5±8.6 months. FLAIR lesion volume was expressed as hyperintensity lesion volume index (HLVI)=(hyperintensity lesion volume / whole brain volume)×100 measured within three brain zones: zone A (cortical structures); zone B (basal ganglia, corpus callosum, internal capsule, and thalamus); and zone C (brainstem). HLVI-total and HLVI-zone C predicted good and poor outcome groups (pCompared to patients with lesions in zone A alone or in zones A and B, patients with lesions in all three zones had a significantly higher odds ratio (4.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–16.0) for developing an unfavorable outcome. PMID:25808802

  16. Early new diffusion-weighted imaging lesions appear more often in stroke patients with a multiple territory lesion pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braemswig, Tim Bastian; Usnich, Tatiana; Albach, Fredrik N; Brunecker, Peter; Grittner, Ulrike; Scheitz, Jan F; Fiebach, Jochen B; Nolte, Christian H

    2013-08-01

    New diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions are common in patients with acute ischemic stroke. They are associated with an initial nonsingle lesion pattern. Previous studies have not analyzed this association in detail. We differentiated nonsingle lesions in 1 vascular supply territory only (scattered lesion pattern) from nonsingle lesions in ≥2 vascular supply territory (multiple territory lesion -pattern). Patients with an acute ischemic stroke underwent 3 MRI (3T) examinations: on admission, on the following day, and 4 to 7 days after symptom onset. First, DWI lesions were delineated manually by raters blinded to clinical details. Second, DWI images were coregistered and analyzed visually for new hyperintensities. The initial lesion pattern was categorized as single, scattered, or multiple territory. Of 340 patients enrolled, 43% had a single lesion pattern, 40% had a scattered lesion pattern, and 17% had a multiple territory lesion pattern. In multivariable analysis, the categorical variable lesion pattern was independently associated with new DWI lesions (odds ratio multiple territory lesion pattern, 3.64 [95% confidence interval, 1.75-7.58]; odds ratio scattered lesion pattern, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.56]). Patients with multiple territory lesion pattern had significantly more often diabetes mellitus, and their new lesions were more often located remotely from the initial area of hypoperfusion compared with patients with scattered lesion pattern. Lesion pattern on initial image is an independent risk factor for new DWI lesions. The risk for new DWI lesions is highest in patients with multiple territory lesion pattern.

  17. Histology and surface ultrastructure during early healing after gingival augmentation with a three-dimensional collagen matrix: A report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Festila, Dana; Surlin, Petra; Kasaj, Adrian; Baderca, Flavia; Boariu, Marius; Jentsch, Holger; Locovei, Cosmin; Calenic, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present case series is to describe the histology and surface ultrastructure of augmented keratinized gingival mucosa in humans during the early healing phase after surgical placement of a xenogeneic collagen matrix. Six patients underwent surgical augmentation of keratinized tissue by placement of a three-dimensional (3D) xenogeneic collagen matrix. Full-depth mucosal biopsies including original attached gingiva, augmented gingiva, and the separation zone were performed at baseline and at postoperative days 7 and 14. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson-trichrome, picrosirius red, and Papanicolaou's trichrome. Low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (SEM) surface analysis was correlated with histology. The separation zone was clearly visible upon histologic and SEM examination at 7 days. The portions of augmented mucosa consisted of well-structured, immature gingival tissue with characteristics of per secundam healing underlying a completely detached amorphous collagenous membrane-like structure of approximately 100 μm thick. At 14 days, histologic and ultrastructural examinations showed an almost complete maturation process. There were no detectable remnants of the collagen matrix within the newly formed tissues at either time point. Within their limits the results suggest that the 3D collagen matrix appears to play an indirect role during the early phase of wound healing by protecting the newly formed underlying tissue and guiding the epithelialization process.

  18. Early loss of oligodendrocytes in human and experimental neuromyelitis optica lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzos, Claudia; Winkler, Anne; Metz, Imke; Kayser, Dieter M; Thal, Dietmar R; Wegner, Christiane; Brück, Wolfgang; Nessler, Stefan; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Stadelmann, Christine

    2014-04-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic, mostly relapsing inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS characterized by serum anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies in the majority of patients. Anti-AQP4 antibodies derived from NMO patients target and deplete astrocytes in experimental models when co-injected with complement. However, the time course and mechanisms of oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination and the fate of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) have not been examined in detail. Also, no studies regarding astrocyte repopulation of experimental NMO lesions have been reported. We utilized two rat models using either systemic transfer or focal intracerebral injection of recombinant human anti-AQP4 antibodies to generate NMO-like lesions. Time-course experiments were performed to examine oligodendroglial and astroglial damage and repair. In addition, oligodendrocyte pathology was studied in early human NMO lesions. Apart from early complement-mediated astrocyte destruction, we observed a prominent, very early loss of oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) as well as a delayed loss of myelin. Astrocyte repopulation of focal NMO lesions was already substantial after 1 week. Olig2-positive OPCs reappeared before NogoA-positive, mature oligodendrocytes. Thus, using two experimental models that closely mimic the human disease, our study demonstrates that oligodendrocyte and OPC loss is an extremely early feature in the formation of human and experimental NMO lesions and leads to subsequent, delayed demyelination, highlighting an important difference in the pathogenesis of MS and NMO.

  19. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M’hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S.; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans. PMID:26079768

  20. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma - precursor lesions and early diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Antonio Barros; Fagundes, Renato Borges

    2012-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) carries a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis. Early detection is highly desirable, since surgical and endoscopic resection offers the only possible cure for esophageal cancer. Population screening should be undertaken in high risk areas, and in low or moderate risk areas for people with risk factors (alcoholics, smokers, mate drinkers, history of head and neck cancer, achalasia and lye stricture of the esophagus). Esophageal balloon cytology is an easy and inexpensive sampling technique, but the current methods are insufficient for primary screening due to sampling errors. Conventional endoscopy with biopsy remains the standard procedure for the identification of pre-malignant and early malignant changes in esophageal mucosa and endoscopic detection. It may be enhanced by several techniques such as dye and optic chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy, and optical-based spectroscopic and imaging modalities. Since more than 80% of SCCE deaths occur in developing countries, where expensive techniques such as narrow band imaging (NBI) and autofluorescence imaging are unavailable, the most cost-effective tool for targeting biopsies may be Lugol dye chromoendoscopy, since it is easy, accurate, inexpensive and available worldwide. In ideal conditions, or in developed countries, is it reasonable to think that optimal detection will require a combination of techniques, such as the combination of Lugol’s chromoendoscopy and NBI to identify esophageal areas that require further characterization by a high resolution technique. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness will determine whether these modalities will become part of standard endoscopy practice. PMID:22267978

  1. Early Onset Ultrastructural and Functional Defects in RPE and Photoreceptors of a Stargardt-Like Macular Dystrophy (STGD3) Transgenic Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuny, Sharee; Cho, Woo Jung; Dimopoulos, Ioannis S; Sauvé, Yves

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the interplay between photoreceptors expressing mutant ELOVL4 (responsible for Stargardt-like disease, STGD3) and RPE in the initial stages of retinal degeneration. Using electron microscopy and electroretinogram (ERG), we assessed RPE and photoreceptor ultrastructure and function in transgenic ELOVL4 (TG1-2 line; TG) and wild-type (WT) littermates. Experiments were done at P30, 1 month before photoreceptor loss in TG and at P90, a time point with approximately 30% rod loss. To further elucidate the mechanism underlying our ultrastructural and functional results, we undertook Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of key proteins involved in phagocytosis of outer segments by RPE cells. Firstly, we showed that in TG mouse photoreceptors, endogenous ELOVL4 protein is not mislocalized in the presence of the mutated ELOVL4 protein. Secondly, we found evidence of RPE toxicity at P30, preceding any photoreceptor loss. Pathology in RPE cells was exacerbated at P90. Furthermore, higher proportions of phagosomes remained at the apical side of RPE cells. Subretinal lysosomal deposits were immunopositive for phagocytic proteins. Ultrastructural analysis of photoreceptor (rod) outer segments showed disrupted surface morphology consisting of disc spacing irregularities. Finally, rods and RPE exhibited signs of dysfunction as measured by the ERG a-wave leading edge (P30) and c-wave (P90), respectively. The presence of human mutant ELOVL4 in transgenic mouse photoreceptors leads to early outer segment disc pathology and RPE cytotoxicity. Defective processing of these abnormal discs by RPE cells ultimately may be responsible for outer segment truncation, photoreceptor death, and vision loss.

  2. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  3. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnisch, J; Ekstrand, K R; Pretty, I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) encourages prevention and arrest of active dental caries. Therefore, the present guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment...... is an essential aspect of preventive dentistry. Therefore, the EAPD encourages oral health care providers and caregivers to implement preventive practices that can arrest early caries and improve individual and public dental health....

  4. Early-Stage White Matter Lesions Detected by Multispectral MRI Segmentation Predict Progressive Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokinen, H.; Goncalves, N.; Vigario, R.; Lipsanen, J.; Fazekas, F.; Schmidt, R.; Barkhof, F.; Madureira, S.; Verdelho, A.; Inzitari, D.; Pantoni, L.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    2015-01-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model-based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in

  5. Fujinon intelligent color enhancement for the diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Xia; Shen, Lei; Yu, Hong Gang; Luo, He Sheng; Yu, Jie Ping

    2014-08-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumor in recent years, and the key for improving the survival rate is early diagnosis and treatment. Computed virtual chromoendoscopy with the Fujinon intelligent color enhancement (FICE) system was reported to improve visualization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in gastroscopy and colonoscopy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of FICE in the diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions. Two hundred fifty-seven patients with suspicious lesions of the esophagus were examined successively by FICE, magnifying FICE, Lugol chromoendoscopy, and magnifying Lugol chromoendoscopy in the hospital. The lesions and the intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL, microvessels at the surface of esophageal carcinoma) were observed and compared with the pathologic diagnosis that was regarded as the golden standard. The positive rates of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were 92.6% and 88.9% as examined by FICE and Lugol chromoendoscopy (p>0.05), and 96.3% and 92.6% as examined by magnifying FICE and magnifying Lugol chromoendoscopy (p>0.05), respectively. The magnifying FICE could observe the IPCL of the esophagus clearly. Early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia were mainly type IV and type V. Low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and esophagitis were type II and type III, and normal esophagus was type I; however, the observation of the IPCL by magnifying Lugol chromoendoscopy was not clear. Fujinon intelligent color enhancement and magnifying FICE are complements to Lugol chromoendoscopy and magnifying Lugol chromoendoscopy in the diagnosis of early esophageal lesions.

  6. Enamel remineralization: controlling the caries disease or treating early caries lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis currently given to new technologies for enamel remineralization suggests that the changes in the understanding of the dental caries disease, which occurred in the last century, were either not yet adopted or were forgotten. Just like in the past, when the disease was "treated" by restoring cavities, there is presently a misunderstanding on the concept of incipient lesion remineralization. The aim of this paper was to review some concepts about caries, the natural phenomenon of enamel remineralization and the effect of fluoride (F on it, and also to discuss the clinical relevance of remineralizing products recently launched in the marketplace aiming to "treat early caries lesions".

  7. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF THE NEURONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To study ultrastructural changes in the neuronal component of the detrusor muscle during the spinal shock phase and following early electric neurostimulation in an animal model. Material and Methods 12 dogs were decentralized at the levels from S1 to S3, while three animals were provided as normal controls.

  9. Early-stage white matter lesions detected by multispectral MRI segmentation predict progressive cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eJokinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available White matter lesions (WML are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model-based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in normal-appearing brain tissue. This study investigated how the different stages of WML, from a pre-visible stage to fully developed lesions, predict future cognitive decline. MRI scans of 78 subjects, aged 65-84 years, from the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS study were analyzed using a self-supervised multispectral segmentation algorithm to identify tissue types and partial WML volumes. Each lesion voxel was classified as having a small (33%, intermediate (66%, or high (100% proportion of lesion tissue. The subjects were evaluated with detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and at three annual follow-up visits. We found that voxels with small partial WML predicted lower executive function compound scores at baseline, and steeper decline of executive scores in follow-up, independently of the demographics and the conventionally estimated hyperintensity volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. The intermediate and fully developed lesions were related to impairments in multiple cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, memory and global cognitive function. In conclusion, early-stage partial WML, still too faint to be clearly detectable on conventional MRI, already predict executive dysfunction and progressive cognitive decline regardless of the conventionally evaluated WML load. These findings advance early recognition of small vessel disease and incipient vascular cognitive impairment.

  10. Neuroaxonal regeneration is more pronounced in early multiple sclerosis than in traumatic brain injury lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Lucas; Merkler, Doron; König, Fatima B; Brück, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The extent of irreversible neuroaxonal damage is the key determinant of permanent disability in traumatic and inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS). Structural damage is nevertheless in part compensated by neuroplastic events. However, it is unknown whether the same kinetics and mechanisms of neuroaxonal de- and regeneration take place in inflammatory and traumatic conditions. We analyzed neuroaxonal degeneration and plasticity in early multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroaxonal degeneration identified by the presence of SMI31+ chromatolytic neurons and SMI32+ axonal profiles were characteristic features of leukocortical TBI lesions. Axonal transport disturbances as determined by amyloid precursor protein (APP)+ spheroids were present in both TBI and MS lesions to a similar degree. Neurons expressing growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) and synaptophysin (Syn) were found under both pathological conditions. However, axonal swellings immunopositive for GAP43 and Syn clearly prevailed in subcortical MS lesions, suggesting a higher regenerative potential in MS. In this context, GAP43+/APP+ axonal spheroid ratios correlated with macrophage infiltration in TBI and MS lesions, supporting the idea that phagocyte activation might promote neuroplastic events. Furthermore, axonal GAP43+ and Syn+ swellings correlated with prolonged survival after TBI, indicating a sustained regenerative response. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  11. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of early DNA damage response proteins on complex DNA lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Tobias

    Full Text Available The response of cells to ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB is determined by the activation of multiple pathways aimed at repairing the injury and maintaining genomic integrity. Densely ionizing radiation induces complex damage consisting of different types of DNA lesions in close proximity that are difficult to repair and may promote carcinogenesis. Little is known about the dynamic behavior of repair proteins on complex lesions. In this study we use live-cell imaging for the spatio-temporal characterization of early protein interactions at damage sites of increasing complexity. Beamline microscopy was used to image living cells expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins during and immediately after charged particle irradiation to reveal protein accumulation at damaged sites in real time. Information on the mobility and binding rates of the recruited proteins was obtained from fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP. Recruitment of the DNA damage sensor protein NBS1 accelerates with increasing lesion density and saturates at very high damage levels. FRAP measurements revealed two different binding modalities of NBS1 to damage sites and a direct impact of lesion complexity on the binding. Faster recruitment with increasing lesion complexity was also observed for the mediator MDC1, but mobility was limited at very high damage densities due to nuclear-wide binding. We constructed a minimal computer model of the initial response to DSB based on known protein interactions only. By fitting all measured data using the same set of parameters, we can reproduce the experimentally characterized steps of the DNA damage response over a wide range of damage densities. The model suggests that the influence of increasing lesion density accelerating NBS1 recruitment is only dependent on the different binding modes of NBS1, directly to DSB and to the surrounding chromatin via MDC1. This elucidates an impact of damage clustering on

  13. Spatiotemporal dynamics of early DNA damage response proteins on complex DNA lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Frank; Löb, Daniel; Lengert, Nicor; Durante, Marco; Drossel, Barbara; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Jakob, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The response of cells to ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is determined by the activation of multiple pathways aimed at repairing the injury and maintaining genomic integrity. Densely ionizing radiation induces complex damage consisting of different types of DNA lesions in close proximity that are difficult to repair and may promote carcinogenesis. Little is known about the dynamic behavior of repair proteins on complex lesions. In this study we use live-cell imaging for the spatio-temporal characterization of early protein interactions at damage sites of increasing complexity. Beamline microscopy was used to image living cells expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins during and immediately after charged particle irradiation to reveal protein accumulation at damaged sites in real time. Information on the mobility and binding rates of the recruited proteins was obtained from fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Recruitment of the DNA damage sensor protein NBS1 accelerates with increasing lesion density and saturates at very high damage levels. FRAP measurements revealed two different binding modalities of NBS1 to damage sites and a direct impact of lesion complexity on the binding. Faster recruitment with increasing lesion complexity was also observed for the mediator MDC1, but mobility was limited at very high damage densities due to nuclear-wide binding. We constructed a minimal computer model of the initial response to DSB based on known protein interactions only. By fitting all measured data using the same set of parameters, we can reproduce the experimentally characterized steps of the DNA damage response over a wide range of damage densities. The model suggests that the influence of increasing lesion density accelerating NBS1 recruitment is only dependent on the different binding modes of NBS1, directly to DSB and to the surrounding chromatin via MDC1. This elucidates an impact of damage clustering on repair without the

  14. Characterization of Mouse Models of Early Pancreatic Lesions Induced by Alcohol and Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiping; Chheda, Chintan; Ouhaddi, Yassine; Benhaddou, Hajar; Bourhim, Mouloud; Grippo, Paul J; Principe, Daniel R; Mascariñas, Emman; DeCant, Brian; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Pandol, Stephen J; Edderkaoui, Mouad

    2015-08-01

    We describe the first mouse model of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions induced by alcohol in the presence and absence of chronic pancreatitis. Pdx1-Cre;LSL-K-ras mice were exposed to Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet for 6 weeks with cerulein injections. The PanIN lesions and markers of fibrosis, inflammation, histone deacetylation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cancer stemness were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western. Exposure of Pdx1-Cre;LSL-K-ras mice to an alcohol diet significantly stimulated fibrosis and slightly but not significantly increased the level of PanIN lesions associated with an increase in tumor-promoting M2 macrophages. Importantly, the alcohol diet did not increase activation of stellate cells. Alcohol diet and cerulein injections resulted in synergistic and additive effects on PanIN lesion and M2 macrophage phenotype induction, respectively. Cerulein pancreatitis caused stellate cell activation, EMT, and cancer stemness in the pancreas. Pancreatitis caused histone deacetylation, which was promoted by the alcohol diet. Pancreatitis increased EMT and cancer stemness markers, which were not further affected by the alcohol diet. The results suggest that alcohol has independent effects on promotion of PDAC associated with fibrosis formed through a stellate cell-independent mechanism and that it further promotes early PDAC and M2 macrophage induction in the context of chronic pancreatitis.

  15. Characterization of mouse models of early pancreatic lesions induced by alcohol and chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiping; Chheda, Chintan; Ouhaddi, Yassine; Benhaddou, Hajar; Bourhim, Mouloud; Grippo, Paul J.; Principe, Daniel R.; Mascariñas, Emman; DeCant, Brian; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Pandol, Stephen J.; Edderkaoui, Mouad

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe the first mouse model of pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions induced by alcohol in the presence and absence of chronic pancreatitis. Methods Pdx1-Cre; LSL-Kras (KC) mice were exposed to Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet for 6 weeks with cerulein injections. PanIN lesions and markers of fibrosis, inflammation, histone de-acetylation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cancer stemness were measured by immuno-histochemistry and Western. Results Exposure of KC mice to an alcohol diet significantly stimulated fibrosis and slightly, but not significantly, increased the level of PanIN lesions associated with an increase in tumor-promoting M2-macrophages. Importantly, the alcohol diet did not increase activation of stellate cells. Alcohol diet and cerulein injections resulted in synergistic and additive effects on PanIN lesion and M2-Macrophage phenotype induction, respectively. Cerulein-pancreatitis caused stellate cell activation, EMT, and cancer stemness in the pancreas. Pancreatitis caused histone deacetylation which was promoted by the alcohol diet. Pancreatitis increased EMT and cancer stemness markers which not further affected by the alcohol diet. Conclusion The results suggest that alcohol has independent effects on promotion of PDAC associated with fibrosis formed through a stellate cell-independent mechanism and that it further promotes early PDAC and M2 macrophage induction in the context of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:26166469

  16. Remineralization of early enamel lesions using casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium Phosphate: An ex-vivo study

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    Ruchi Vashisht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at qualitatively evaluating the remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate on artificial early enamel lesions in an ex-vivo scenario by observing the treated tooth surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: This randomized study was conducted on 10 subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment with premolar extraction as part of their treatment. Artificial white lesions were created with the application of 37% phosphoric acid for 20 mins. Teeth were then divided into two groups: one experimental and the other control. Customised orthodontic band with a window was luted with intermediate restorative material in the experimental group whereas in the control group, band without a window was luted. The casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (GC TOOTH MOUSSE paste was then applied on the window region of the experimental group for 3 mins thrice daily after meals for 14 days, whereas no paste was applied in the control group. After 14 days, teeth were extracted and viewed under an SEM. Results: The study groups showed remineralization of the lesions as compared with the control group in most of the samples. Conclusion: Casein phophopeptide could significantly remineralize the artificial enamel lesions in vivo.

  17. Early events of secretory granule formation in the rat parotid acinar cell under the influence of isoproterenol. An ultrastructural and lectin cytochemical study

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    F D’Amico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The events involved in the maturation process of acinar secretory granules of rat parotid gland were investigated ultrastructurally and cytochemically by using a battery of four lectins [Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I, Glycine max agglutinin (SBA, Arachys hypogaea agglutinin (PNA]. In order to facilitate the study, parotid glands were chronically stimulated with isoproterenol to induce secretion. Specimens were embedded in the Lowicryl K4M resin. The trans-Golgi network (TGN derived secretory granules, which we refer to as immature secretory granules, were found to be intermediate structures in the biogenesis process of the secretory granules in the rat parotid acinar cell. These early structures do not seem to be the immediate precursor of the mature secretory granules: in fact, a subsequent interaction process between these early immature granule forms and TGN elements seems to occur, leading, finally, to the mature granules. These findings could explain the origin of the polymorphic subpopulations of the secretory granules in the normal acinar cells of the rat parotid gland. The lectin staining patterns were characteristic of each lectin. Immature and mature secretory gran- ules were labelled with WGA, SBA, PNA, and lightly with UEA-I. Cis and intermediate cisternae of the Golgi apparatus were labelled with WGA, and trans cisternae with WGA and SBA.

  18. Relationship between lesion patterns of single small infarct and early neurological deterioration in the perforating territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X-J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between lesion patterns of single small infarct (SSI) in perforating territory of the vertebral-basilar artery and early neurological deterioration (end)/short-term functional outcome. 126 patients with acute SSI in the perforating territory of the vertebral-basilar artery, admitted within 24 h after symptom onset, were recruited between August 2010 and May 2013. The patients were divided into proximal SSI and distal SSI according to the relationship between their lesion location and their parent artery. Early neurological deterioration (END) was defined as an increase in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥ 2 within 3 days after admission. Functional outcome at 30 days after onset was assessed using the modified Rankin Score (mRS) and dichotomized as good (0-2), and poor (≥ 3). Out of 126 patients, proximal SSI was found in 70 (55.56%) patients and distal SSI in 56 (44.44%) patients. After standard treatment, 36 (28.57%) patients experienced END within 3 days after admission, and 19 (15.70%) patients had a poor outcome at 30 days. Univariate analysis revealed that lesion size, baseline NIHSS score, parent artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and asymptomatic cerebral arterial atherosclerosis were significantly associated with END (with either pterritory of the vertebral-basilar artery was closely related to the presence of END, and the END independently predicted the subsequent poor outcome at 30 days after onset.

  19. Morel-LAvallee lesion initially diagnosed as quadriceps contusion: ultrasound, MRI, and importance of early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicholas A; Johnson, Jeremiah J; Anderson, Shane B

    2015-05-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesions (MLL) are rare, closed degloving injuries caused by trauma that delivers a shearing force to the soft tissue most commonly of the hip. If not treated in the acute and subacute setting these lesions are often complicated by re-accumulation of fluid, infection, or chronic pain. We present a unique case of a recurrent, massive medial knee/thigh MLL in which proper treatment was delayed due to initial diagnosis of a quadriceps contusion. We describe the ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings of this patient and based on a review of recent literature propose that the initial management should have included early drainage/debridement, which likely could have prevented recurrence and significantly shortened the clinical course.

  20. Morel-Lavallee Lesion Initially Diagnosed as Quadriceps Contusion: Ultrasound, MRI, and Importance of Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss, Nicholas A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morel-Lavallee lesions (MLL are rare, closed degloving injuries caused by trauma that delivers a shearing force to the soft tissue most commonly of the hip. If not treated in the acute and subacute setting these lesions are often complicated by re- accumulation of fluid, infection, or chronic pain. We present a unique case of a recurrent, massive medial knee/thigh MLL in which proper treatment was delayed due to initial diagnosis of a quadriceps contusion. We describe the ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings of this patient and based on a review of recent literature propose that the initial management should have included early drainage/debridement, which likely could have prevented recurrence and significantly shortened the clinical course. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:438–441.

  1. Characterisation of early mucosal and neuronal lesions following Shigella flexneri infection in human colon.

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    Emmanuel Coron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shigella, an enteroinvasive bacteria induces a major inflammatory response responsible for acute rectocolitis in humans. However, early effect of Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri infection upon the human mucosa and its microenvironement, in particular the enteric nervous system, remains currently unknown. Therefore, in this study, we sought to characterize ex vivo the early events of shigellosis in a model of human colonic explants. In particular, we aimed at identifying factors produced by S. flexneri and responsible for the lesions of the barrier. We also aimed at determining the putative lesions of the enteric nervous system induced by S. flexneri. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first showed that, following 3 h of infection, the invasive but not the non-invasive strain of S. flexneri induced significant desquamation of the intestinal epithelial barrier and a reduction of epithelial height. These changes were significantly reduced following infection with SepA deficient S. flexneri strains. Secondly, S. flexneri induced rapid neuronal morphological alterations suggestive of cell death in enteric submucosal neurones. These alterations were associated with a significant increase in the proportion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive (IR neurons but not in total VIP levels. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 blocked neuronal morphological changes induced by S. flexneri, but not the increase in the proportion of VIP-IR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This human explant model can be used to gain better insight into the early pathogenic events following S. flexneri infection and the mechanisms involved.

  2. Spatial distribution of early red lesions is a risk factor for development of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Giovanni; Assheton, Phil; Calivá, Francesco; Chudzik, Piotr; Al-Diri, Bashir; Hunter, Andrew; Bek, Toke

    2017-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterised by morphological lesions related to disturbances in retinal blood flow. It has previously been shown that the early development of retinal lesions temporal to the fovea may predict the development of treatment-requiring diabetic maculopathy. The aim of this study was to map accurately the area where lesions could predict progression to vision-threatening retinopathy. The predictive value of the location of the earliest red lesions representing haemorrhages and/or microaneurysms was studied by comparing their occurrence in a group of individuals later developing vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy with that in a group matched with respect to diabetes type, age, sex and age of onset of diabetes mellitus who did not develop vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy during a similar observation period. The probability of progression to vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy was higher in a circular area temporal to the fovea, and the occurrence of the first lesions in this area was predictive of the development of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. The calculated peak value showed that the risk of progression was 39.5% higher than the average. There was no significant difference in the early distribution of lesions in participants later developing diabetic maculopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The location of early red lesions in diabetic retinopathy is predictive of whether or not individuals will later develop vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. This evidence should be incorporated into risk models used to recommend control intervals in screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy.

  3. Effects of catecholaminergic nerve lesion on endometrial development during early pregnancy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yulan; Liu, Guanhui; Wang, Zixu; Li, Jing; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2016-04-01

    Maternal stress is common during pregnancy and the postnatal period. This stress typically activates the sympathetic nervous system which releases catecholamines. This study explored the influence of sympathectomy by using neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on embryo implantation, and investigated the influence mechanism of sympathectomy on reconstruction of endometrial structure during early pregnancy. In the 6-OHDA-treated mice, uterine glands in the endometrium developed poorly, and the gland epithelia were arranged irregularly during early pregnancy. Furthermore, vacuoles, karyopykosis and plasmarrhexis appeared in some gland epithelia. The percentage of uterine glands and the density of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positivity were dramatically decreased, and Fas ligand (FasL) expression was decreased in cells from pregnancy days 5-9 (E5-9) in the treated group. Antioxidant enzyme activity levels in uteri were lower but the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were higher in the 6-OHDA mice than those in the control mice at E5-9. Similarly, the number of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) positive cells was significantly increased during early pregnancy following treatment with 6-OHDA. Our results have indicated that peripheral catecholaminergic nerve lesions induced by 6-OHDA cause adverse pregnancy outcomes through disruption of endometrial gland development, which increases oxidative stress and iNOS expression in the endometrium. Thus, catecholaminergic nerves might favourably influence blastocyst implantation, foetal survival and development during early pregnancy by oxidative state regulation and endometrial gland reconstruction.

  4. Early Hemodynamic Disorders and Their Association with the Development of Acute Pulmonary Lesion in Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Early changes in the parameters of central hemodynamics and pulmonary extravascular fluid were studied in patients who had sustained a severe concomitant injury in combination with acute massive blood loss. Early postoperative monitoring of these parameters by a «Pulsion Picco Plus» invasive monitoring apparatus was ascertained to verify the early stages on non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, to assess a risk for acute lung lesion and acute respiratory distress syndrome in the phase of reperfusion lesions, and to perform an adequate correction of therapy.

  5. Early Results with the Use of Heparin-bonded Stent Graft to Rescue Failed Angioplasty of Chronic Femoropopliteal Occlusive Lesions: TASC D Lesions Have a Poor Outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhan, Ganesh, E-mail: gkuhan@nhs.net; Abisi, Said; Braithwaite, Bruce D.; MacSweeney, Shane T. R. [Nottingham University Hospitals, Vascular and Endovascular Unit, Queens Medical Centre (United Kingdom); Whitaker, Simon C.; Habib, Said B. [Nottingham University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Queen' s Medical Centre (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate early patency rate of the heparin-bonded stent grafts in atherosclerotic long femoropopliteal occlusive disease, and to identify factors that affect outcome. Methods: Heparin-bonded Viabahn stent grafts were placed in 33 limbs in 33 patients during 2009-2010. The stents were deployed to rescue failed conventional balloon angioplasty. Mean age was 69 (range 44-88) years, and 67 % (22 of 33) were men. Most procedures (21 of 33, 64 %) were performed for critical limb ischemia (33 % for rest pain, 30 % tissue loss). Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression analysis were used to identify significant risk factors. Results: The average length of lesions treated was 25 {+-} 10 cm, and they were predominantly TASC (Transatlantic Intersociety Consensus) D (n = 13) and C (n = 17) lesions. The median primary patency was 5.0 months (95 % confidence interval 1.22-8.77). The mean secondary patency was 8.6 months (95 % confidence interval 6.82-10.42). Subsequently, 4 patients underwent bypass surgery and 5 patients underwent major amputation. One patient died. There were 5 in-stent or edge-stent stenoses. Cox multivariate regression analysis identified TASC D lesions to be a significant risk factor for early occlusion (p = 0.035). Conclusion: TASC D lesions of femoropopliteal occlusions have poor patency rates with the use of heparin-bonded stent grafts after failed conventional angioplasty. Alternative options should be considered for these patients.

  6. Alterations of myelin basic protein and ultrastructure in the limbic system at the early stage of trauma-related stress disorder in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingsong; Wang, Zhenggou; Zhu, Peifang; Jiang, Jianxin

    2004-03-01

    The secondary injury and related complications after trauma are still the focus of trauma research. However, whether the remote effects on the central nervous system could be induced by high-energy missile extremity impact remains unclear. Also, the possible biomarker for brain damage in traumatic stress disorder has not been determined. Forty-two healthy adult dogs were divided into three groups: the control group (n = 12), the high-speed trauma group (n = 15), and the low-speed trauma group (n = 15). Bilateral thighs of dogs were wounded with a smoothbore 6.2-mm rifle at a speed of 1,368 m/s (1.03-g steel bullet) for the high-speed trauma group and 625 m/s for the low-speed trauma group. The expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hypothalamus and hippocampus of the limbic system, and temporoparietal cortex was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dot-blot analysis. Also, the ultrastructure of the above areas was observed with light and electron microscopy. Neuronal degeneration and nerve fiber demyelination were seen in the hypothalamus and hippocampus in the high-speed trauma group at 8 hours after impact. The MBP level was markedly increased in the CSF (p damage after high-energy missile extremity impact, indicating that it might be one of the important pathologic bases involved in the development of trauma-related complications. Meanwhile, the MBP level in the CSF may be a sensitive biological indicator for brain damage at the early stage of trauma-related stress disorder.

  7. Nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals for nondestructive repair of early caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Kazuo; Yamagishi, Kazue; Oyane, Ayako

    2005-08-01

    Characterization of synthetic enamel formed by newly developed dental paste for repairing early caries lesions was performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopies and atomic force microscopy, with the chemical composition analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shown that the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals seamlessly grew in the interface between the paste and tooth enamel, and arranged their (0 0 0 1) face parallel to the tooth surface same as enamel apatite. The rapid growth of high crystalline large hydroxyapatite crystals by applying the paste is attributed to the dissociation of calcium phosphate clusters, Ca 9(PO 4) 6, which is the main growth unit of hydroxyapatite when it grows under physiological conditions, to ionic species in the concentrated and low pH phosphate solution.

  8. Early Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Perfusion Weighted Imaging Lesion Volumes Forecast Final Infarct Size in DEFUSE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Hayley M.; Mlynash, Michael; Inoue, Manabu; Tipirneni, Aaryani; Liggins, John; Zaharchuk, Greg; Straka, Matus; Kemp, Stephanie; Bammer, Roland; Lansberg, Maarten G; Albers, Gregory W

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose It is hypothesized that early DWI lesions accurately estimate the size of the irreversibly injured core and thresholded PWI lesions (Tmax > 6 seconds) approximate the volume of critically hypoperfused tissue. With incomplete reperfusion, the union of baseline DWI and post-treatment PWI is hypothesized to predict infarct volume. Methods This is a substudy of DEFUSE 2; all patients with technically adequate MRI scans at three time points were included. Baseline DWI and early follow-up PWI lesion volumes were determined by the RAPID software program. Final infarct volumes were assessed with Day 5 FLAIR and corrected for edema. Reperfusion was defined based on the reduction in PWI lesion volume between baseline and early follow-up MRI. DWI and PWI volumes were correlated with final infarct volumes. Results 73 patients were eligible. 26 patients with >90% reperfusion show a high correlation between early DWI volume and final infarct volume (r = 0.95, p PWI (Tmax >6 sec) volume and final infarct volume (r = 0.86, p = 0.002). Using all 73 patients, the union of baseline DWI and early follow-up PWI is highly correlated with final infarct volume (r = 0.94, p PWI (Tmax > 6 sec) volumes provide a reasonable approximation of final infarct volume following endovascular therapy. PMID:23390119

  9. Early diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-weighted imaging lesion volumes forecast final infarct size in DEFUSE 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Hayley M; Mlynash, Michael; Inoue, Manabu; Tipirneni, Aaryani; Liggins, John; Zaharchuk, Greg; Straka, Matus; Kemp, Stephanie; Bammer, Roland; Lansberg, Maarten G; Albers, Gregory W

    2013-03-01

    It is hypothesized that early diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions accurately estimate the size of the irreversibly injured core and thresholded perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) lesions (time to maximum of tissue residue function [Tmax] >6 seconds) approximate the volume of critically hypoperfused tissue. With incomplete reperfusion, the union of baseline DWI and posttreatment PWI is hypothesized to predict infarct volume. This is a substudy of Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution Study 2 (DEFUSE 2); all patients with technically adequate MRI scans at 3 time points were included. Baseline DWI and early follow-up PWI lesion volumes were determined by the RAPID software program. Final infarct volumes were assessed with 5-day fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and were corrected for edema. Reperfusion was defined on the basis of the reduction in PWI lesion volume between baseline and early follow-up MRI. DWI and PWI volumes were correlated with final infarct volumes. Seventy-three patients were eligible. Twenty-six patients with >90% reperfusion show a high correlation between early DWI volume and final infarct volume (r=0.95; PPWI (Tmax >6 seconds) volume and final infarct volume (r=0.86; P=0.002). Using all 73 patients, the union of baseline DWI and early follow-up PWI is highly correlated with final infarct volume (r=0.94; PPWI (Tmax >6 seconds) volumes provide a reasonable approximation of final infarct volume after endovascular therapy.

  10. Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging: Differentiation between early-enhancing non-tumorous lesions and hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas

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    Goshima, Satoshi, E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Watanabe, Haruo; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Nozomi; Kawada, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Shiratori, Yoshimune [Department of Medical Informatics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Onozuka, Minoru [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka (Japan); Moriyama, Noriyuki [Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tsukiji (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess imaging features that help differentiate early-enhancing non-tumorous (EN) hepatic lesions from hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging. Materials and methods: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study. We reviewed the studies of 158 patients (92 men and 65 women; age range: 29-91; mean age: 65.6 years) with chronic liver damage, who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging at 3T MR scanner. Hypervascular lesions identified during the hepatic artery phase were selected for a study cohort. The location, shape, size (maximum diameter and maximum area), and contrast enhancement signal intensity characteristics of the lesions were evaluated, then compared between the EN and HCC lesions. Results: A total of 65 EN lesions (range: 3-60 mm, mean: 13.6 {+-} 10.6 mm) from 35 patients and 33 HCCs (range: 9-61 mm, mean: 19.3 {+-} 12.6 mm) from 20 patients were identified. Lesions were more frequently round or oval in shape for HCCs (n = 29; 88%) than ENs (n = 26; 40%) (P < 0.01). Unexpectedly, some ENs (n = 12; 18%) showed hypointensity on hepatocyte-phase, and 6 (50%) of them were T2 hyperintense. For lesions smaller than 2 cm (9 ENs and 21 HCCs) on hepatic arterial-phase images, the mean area of hypointensity in hepatocyte-phase (54.2 {+-} 33.1 mm{sup 2}) was significantly smaller than those of the corresponding hyperintensity in hepatic arterial-phase (97.1 {+-} 42.0 mm{sup 2}) for EN lesions (P = 0.019), whereas no significant difference in area was found for HCCs. Conclusion: EN lesions may occasionally present with hypointensity during the hepatocyte-phase; presenting a diagnostic dilemma. In this situation, EN lesions may be differentiated from HCCs when a hypointense area in hepatocyte-phase is smaller than the corresponding hypervascular area in hepatic-arterial phase.

  11. Contrast-agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of neoplastic lesions of the CNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvlin, Mark J.; Rosa, Louis; Rajan, Sunder S.; Francisco, John

    1991-06-01

    Even though the intrinsic soft tissue contrast sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords excellent visualization of anatomic detail, certain pathologic processes may be diagnosed earlier with the administration of a contrast-enhancing agent. At present there is one agent, gadopentetate dimeglumine, GdDTPA, that has received FDA approval for use in the MR scanning of the brain and spine in human patients. This paramagnetic chelate distributes throughout the extracellular fluid space as dictated by capillary permeability so that abnormal vascularity and sites of blood-CNS barrier breakdown are highlighted. Primary neoplastic disease, metastases, meningeal extension, residual and recurrent tumor have been found to be better distinguished in MR images acquired after administration of GdDTPA. Routine administration of GdDTPA for cranial imaging has resulted in the discovery of otherwise occult lesions in approximately 3 of patients. Although the clinical utility and high therapeutic safety index of the first approved magnetic resonance contrast agent, GdDTPA, have been well established, other contrast agents, having different physical, chemical and biological properties, may offer improved sensitivity and bio-specificity. Agents currently being evaluated in vivo include: low osmolal paramagnetic chelates, superparamagnetic particles, metalloporphyrins, liposome encapsulated agents, perfluorocarbons, intravascular macromolecular chelate complexes and labeled monoclonal antibodies. Concurrent with advances in the development of new compounds, innovations in scanning hardware, pulse sequence design and image post-processing are helping to extend the efficacy of contrast media. Additional clinical experience will indicate which contrast agents and which MR techniques can best facilitate the early detection of specific neoplastic lesions.

  12. Thickening and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with cystic white matter lesions in early infantile Krabbe disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beslow, Lauren A.; Boennemann, Carsten G. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Neurology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schwartz, Erin S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Neuroradiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    We present serial MR findings in a child ultimately diagnosed with the early infantile form of Krabbe disease. MR showed typical features of Krabbe disease including cerebellar and brainstem hyperintensity, periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensity, and cerebral atrophy. In addition, the combination of both enlargement and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with unusual cystic lesions adjacent to the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was previously unreported and expands the spectrum of imaging findings in early Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  13. Spinal cord lesion by minor trauma as an early sign of Multiple System Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Tavares Brum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple System Atrophy (MSA is characterized clinically by parkinsonism, cerebellar, autonomic and corticospinal features of variable severity. When the presentation is only parkinsonism, the disease might be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson´s Disease (PD. We present a case of an 80-year-old man with previous diagnosis of PD. One year after diagnosis he had a whiplash cervical trauma due to a tricycle accident caused by a hole in the road. This low-energy trauma caused an unstable C4-C5 cervical fracture with spinal cord injury which required surgical decompression and stabilization. Neurological examination showed marked postural instability, no rest and postural tremor, finger tapping slowed on the right, spastic tetraparesis (ASIA D—predominantly on the left side—, brisk deep tendon reflexes in the upper and lower extremities and bilateral extensor plantar response. He also presented with vertical gaze restriction, mild hypometria in horizontal saccades, moderate dysphagia and dysphonia. As atypical parkinsonism was suspected he underwent an MRI which revealed conjunction of findings suggestive of parkinsonian-type multiple system atrophy (MSA. In our case we hypothesise that the loss of postural reflexes, as an early manifestation of MSA, did not allow the patient to have an effective reaction response to a low-energy trauma, resulting in a more severe injury. With this case report we speculate that the severe spinal lesions caused by minor accidents can be an early sign of postural instability, which may lead to clinical suspicion of neurodegenerative disorder manifested by postural reflexes impairment.

  14. BCAS1 expression defines a population of early myelinating oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Maryam K; van der Meer, Franziska; Sánchez, Paula; Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ludovico; Mandad, Sunit; Jäkel, Sarah; Fornasiero, Eugenio F; Schmitt, Sebastian; Ehrlich, Marc; Starost, Laura; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Sergiou, Christina; Schultz, Verena; Wrzos, Claudia; Brück, Wolfgang; Urlaub, Henning; Dimou, Leda; Stadelmann, Christine; Simons, Mikael

    2017-12-06

    Investigations into brain function and disease depend on the precise classification of neural cell types. Cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage differ greatly in their morphology, but accurate identification has thus far only been possible for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes in humans. We find that breast carcinoma amplified sequence 1 (BCAS1) expression identifies an oligodendroglial subpopulation in the mouse and human brain. These cells are newly formed, myelinating oligodendrocytes that segregate from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes and mark regions of active myelin formation in development and in the adult. We find that BCAS1 + oligodendrocytes are restricted to the fetal and early postnatal human white matter but remain in the cortical gray matter until old age. BCAS1 + oligodendrocytes are reformed after experimental demyelination and found in a proportion of chronic white matter lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) even in a subset of patients with advanced disease. Our work identifies a means to map ongoing myelin formation in health and disease and presents a potential cellular target for remyelination therapies in MS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  15. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  16. Comparison between peroral traction-assisted ESD and traditional ESD treatment for early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Gang Bi; Peng-Zhen Shen; Wen-Xiong Zhou; Shu-Lan Mao

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To explore the differences in the effect of peroral traction-assisted endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and traditional ESD for the treatment of early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions. Methods:112 patients with early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions treated in our hospital between May 2013 and May 2016 were collected and divided into control group and observation group according to the random number table (n=56). Observation group of patients received peroral traction-assisted ESD, and the control group of patients only received traditional ESD. The intraoperative dissected lesion diameter, mean operation time and intraoperative blood loss of two groups of patients were recorded, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum inflammatory factor levels, and RIA was used to detect serum stress hormone levels. Results:Dissected lesion diameter of observation group was greater than that of control group (P<0.05) while mean operation time and intraoperative blood loss were less than those of control group (P<0.05);1 d after operation, serum inflammatory factors interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) levels of observation group were lower than those of control group (P<0.05), and serum stress hormones cortisol (Cor),β-endorphin (β-EP), epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) and angiotensin II (ATII) levels were lower than those of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Peroral traction-assisted ESD can effectively increase the lesion dissection effect and reduce the postoperative inflammatory response and stress response in patients with early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions.

  17. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Gilbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mutans streptococci (MS are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC, and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design: Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6 with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs, white spot lesions (WSLs and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20 from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11, single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4, primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions: Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and

  18. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2014-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3-6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10-20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1-6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the

  19. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric

  20. Insights into the Virulence Traits of Streptococcus mutans in Dentine Carious Lesions of Children with Early Childhood Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Daniela S; Stipp, Rafael N; Neves, Beatriz G; Guedes, Sarah F F; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is an oral bacterium considered to play a major role in the development of dental caries. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. mutans in active and arrested dentine carious lesions of children with early childhood caries and to examine the expression profile of selected S. mutans genes associated with survival and virulence, within the same carious lesions. Dentine samples were collected from 29 active and 16 arrested carious lesions that were diagnosed in preschool children aged 2-5 years. Total RNA was extracted from the dentine samples, and reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed for the quantification of S. mutans and for analyses of the expression of S. mutans genes associated with bacterial survival (atpD, nox, pdhA) and virulence (fabM and aguD). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of S. mutans between active and arrested carious lesions. Expression of the tested genes was detected in both types of carious dentine. The pdhA (p = 0.04) and aguD (p = 0.05) genes were expressed at higher levels in arrested as compared to active lesions. Our findings revealed that S. mutans is part of the viable microbial community in active and arrested dentine carious lesions. The increase in expression of the pdhA and aguD genes in arrested lesions is likely due to the unfavourable environmental conditions for microbial growth, inherent to this type of lesions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Reptilian spermatogenesis: A histological and ultrastructural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin M

    2011-07-01

    Until recently, the histology and ultrastructural events of spermatogenesis in reptiles were relatively unknown. Most of the available morphological information focuses on specific stages of spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis, and/or of the mature spermatozoa. No study to date has provided complete ultrastructural information on the early events of spermatogenesis, proliferation and meiosis in class Reptilia. Furthermore, no comprehensive data set exists that describes the ultrastructure of the entire ontogenic progression of germ cells through the phases of reptilian spermatogenesis (mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis). The purpose of this review is to provide an ultrastructural and histological atlas of spermatogenesis in reptiles. The morphological details provided here are the first of their kind and can hopefully provide histological information on spermatogenesis that can be compared to that already known for anamniotes (fish and amphibians), birds and mammals. The data supplied in this review will provide a basic model that can be utilized for the study of sperm development in other reptiles. The use of such an atlas will hopefully stimulate more interest in collecting histological and ultrastructural data sets on spermatogenesis that may play important roles in future nontraditional phylogenetic analyses and histopathological studies in reptiles.

  2. Neural compensation after early lesions : A clinical view of animal experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2007-01-01

    The widely held view, known as Kennards' principle, that lesions in the human central nervous system in the perinatal period are followed by better compensation than equivalent lesions sustained at a later age is under challenge from results of animal experiments. Experiment in rats have

  3. What Are the Precursor and Early Lesions of Peripheral Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Tsutsui, Akemi; Sasaki, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is divided into distal, perihilar, and intrahepatic CCs (ICCS), and are further subdivided into large bile duct ICC and peripheral ICC. In distal and perihilar CC and large duct ICC, biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm (IPN) have been proposed as precursor lesions. Peripheral ICC, bile duct adenoma (BDA), biliary adenofibroma (BAF), and von Meyenburg complexes (VMCs) are reportedly followed by development of ICCs. Herein, we surveyed these candidate precursor lesions in the background liver of 37 cases of peripheral ICC and controls (perihilar CC, 34 cases; hepatocellular carcinoma, 34 cases and combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma, 25 cases). In the background liver of peripheral ICC, BDA and BAF were not found, but there were not infrequently foci of BDA-like lesions and atypical bile duct lesions involving small bile ducts (32.4% and 10.8%, resp.). VMCs were equally found in peripheral CCs and also control CCs. In conclusion, BDA, BAF, and VMCs are a possible precursor lesion of a minority of peripheral CCs, and BDA-like lesions and atypical bile duct lesions involving small bile ducts may also be related to the development of peripheral ICC. Further pathologic studies on these lesions are warranted for analysis of development of peripheral ICCs. PMID:24860673

  4. What Are the Precursor and Early Lesions of Peripheral Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuni Nakanuma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CC is divided into distal, perihilar, and intrahepatic CCs (ICCS, and are further subdivided into large bile duct ICC and peripheral ICC. In distal and perihilar CC and large duct ICC, biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN and intraductal papillary neoplasm (IPN have been proposed as precursor lesions. Peripheral ICC, bile duct adenoma (BDA, biliary adenofibroma (BAF, and von Meyenburg complexes (VMCs are reportedly followed by development of ICCs. Herein, we surveyed these candidate precursor lesions in the background liver of 37 cases of peripheral ICC and controls (perihilar CC, 34 cases; hepatocellular carcinoma, 34 cases and combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma, 25 cases. In the background liver of peripheral ICC, BDA and BAF were not found, but there were not infrequently foci of BDA-like lesions and atypical bile duct lesions involving small bile ducts (32.4% and 10.8%, resp.. VMCs were equally found in peripheral CCs and also control CCs. In conclusion, BDA, BAF, and VMCs are a possible precursor lesion of a minority of peripheral CCs, and BDA-like lesions and atypical bile duct lesions involving small bile ducts may also be related to the development of peripheral ICC. Further pathologic studies on these lesions are warranted for analysis of development of peripheral ICCs.

  5. Evidence from unilateral lesions of early uncompensable implementation of opposed response-biases in each hemisphere of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Anik; Braun, Claude M J; Daigneault, Sylvie; Delisle, Josée; Farmer, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The intact right hemisphere presents an omissive response-bias and the left hemisphere a commissive response-bias in adults. This research sought to determine whether these hemispherically lateralized response-biases manifest early developmental and uncompensable brain implementation. Sixteen teenager and adult participants with focal left hemisphere lesions and fourteen with focal right hemisphere lesions (all with childhood onset: M=13 year recovery period) and 14 normal control participants were recruited. A computerized multitask high order working memory procedure was designed to generate many errors of omission and of commission. The expected double dissociation of response-bias distortion as a function of lesion side was significantly demonstrated on this task and was significantly frontal-lobe dependent. The hemispheres of the brain have an opposed response bias that is robustly implemented in infancy through adulthood.

  6. Proposal for a magnetic resonance imaging protocol for the detection of epileptogenic lesions at early outpatient stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Jörg; Quesada, Carlos M; Rothe, Lars; Elger, Christian E; Bien, Christian G; Urbach, Horst

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key technology in the presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy. Already at early outpatient stages it can contribute to the identification of patients who are, in the case of pharmacoresistance, good candidates for epilepsy surgery. Yet, "standard head" MRI examinations often fail to displaying therapeutically relevant epileptogenic lesions. The purpose of this study is to identify an epilepsy-specific MRI protocol, which is likewise sensitive for even small epileptogenic lesions and economical enough to be applied outside specialized epilepsy centers. Based on a large European presurgical epilepsy program comprising 2,740 patients we identified the spectrum of common epileptogenic lesions and determine the set of MRI sequences that are required for their reliable detection. Relying on a series of small, therapeutically particularly relevant lesions we determined the required slices thickness, slice angulations, and orientations for an epilepsy-specific MRI protocol. Indispensable for early outpatient epilepsy specific MRI are fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T(2) -weighted, T(1) -weighted, and hemosiderin/calcification-sensitive sequences. Slice thickness for T(2) and FLAIR must not exceed 3 mm. The T(1) image should be acquired in three-dimensional technique at 1 mm isotropic voxels size. For T(2) and FLAIR, at least two slice orientations each must be demanded in hippocampal angulation. We suggest no adaption to a clinical focus hypothesis. The resulting "essential 6" sequence protocol allows the detection of virtually all common epileptogenic lesion entities. The creation of a broadly accepted and abundantly applied MRI protocol for epilepsy outpatients can contribute to improved and earlier identification of potential candidates for epilepsy surgery. Our systematic analysis of MRI requirements for the detection of epileptogenic lesions can serve as basis for protocol negotiations between epileptologists

  7. iROLL: does 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization improve surgical management in early-stage breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, Christina; Kajdi, Georg W.; Schmid, Jan; Buck, Andreas K.; Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Cramer, Andreas; Grossmann, Christoph; Grimminger, Hanns-Joerg [Missionsaerztliches Klinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Malzahn, Uwe [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Biometry, Wuerzburg (Germany); Lamp, Nora [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Pathology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Langen, Heinz-Jakob [Missionsaerztliches Klinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization (iROLL) and to compare iROLL with wire-guided localization (WGL) in patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). WGL (standard procedure) and iROLL in combination with SLNB were performed in 31 women (mean age 65.1 ± 11.2 years) with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillae. Patient comfort in respect of both methods was assessed using a ten point scale. SLNB and iROLL were guided by freehand SPECT (fhSPECT). The results of the novel 3-D image-based method were compared with those of WGL, ultrasound-based lesion localization, and histopathology. iROLL successfully detected the malignant primary and at least one sentinel lymph node in 97 % of patients. In a single patient (3 %), only iROLL, and not WGL, enabled lesion localization. The variability between fhSPECT and ultrasound-based depth localization of breast lesions was low (1.2 ± 1.4 mm). Clear margins were achieved in 81 % of the patients; however, precise prediction of clear histopathological surgical margins was not feasible using iROLL. Patients rated iROLL as less painful than WGL with a pain score 0.8 ± 1.2 points (p < 0.01) lower than the score for iROLL. iROLL is a well-tolerated and feasible technique for localizing early-stage breast cancer in the course of breast-conserving surgery, and is a suitable replacement for WGL. As a single image-based procedure for localization of breast lesions and sentinel nodes, iROLL may improve the entire surgical procedure. However, no advantages of the image-guided procedure were found with regard to prediction of complete tumour resection. (orig.)

  8. Raf-1, a potential therapeutic target, mediates early steps in endometriosis lesion development by endometrial epithelial and stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Elizabeth M; Binkley, Peter A; Ganapathy, Manonmani; Krishnegowda, Naveen K; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Schenken, Robert S; Kirma, Nameer B

    2012-08-01

    Endometriosis is a hormone-sensitive gynecological disorder characterized by the benign growth of endometrial-like tissue in the pelvic cavity. Endometriotic lesions composed of endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and glandular epithelial cells (EEC) are thought to arise from menstrual endometrial tissue reaching the pelvic cavity via retrograde menstruation. The cause of endometriotic lesion formation is still not clear. Recent evidence suggest that cytokines may play a role in the early development of endometriosis lesions. Because cytokines and growth factors signal via the v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Raf-1) kinase pathway, we have examined the role of Raf-1 in early steps of endometriosis lesion formation, specifically attachment of endometrial cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC) and invasion of endometrial cells through PMC (trans-mesothelial invasion). Raf-1 antagonist GW5074 decreased attachment to PMC and trans-mesothelial invasion by primary EEC and ESC. Raf-1 also mediated TGFβ-induced trans-mesothelial invasion by the established, low-invasive EEC line EM42. TGFβ treatment of EEC resulted in Raf-1 phosphorylation at S338 and phosphorylation of ERK, suggesting that TGFβ activates Raf-1 signaling in these cells. GW5074 had little effect on ESC proliferation but inhibited EEC growth significantly under reduced serum conditions. Antagonizing Raf-1 activity and expression via GW5074 and specific Raf-1 small interfering RNA, respectively, did not alter EEC resistance to growth inhibition by TGFβ. Raf-1 inhibition blocked induction of EEC growth by epidermal growth factor. Our data suggest that Raf-1 may mediate pathologic steps involved in early endometriosis lesion formation and may be a mediator of TGFβ and epidermal growth factor actions in endometriosis.

  9. Application of magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy for diagnosis of early gastric cancer and precancerous lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric carcinoma is the second commonest cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Early detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer in the stomach is important for improving the prognosis of gastric cancer. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the value of magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI in the diagnosis of precancerous lesions and early gastric cancer. Methods This study included 122 patients who were diagnosed with early gastric cancer or precancerous gastric lesions by endoscopy. The patients underwent an examination with conventional endoscopy, magnifying NBI, and magnifying chromoendoscopy. Images resolution was evaluated, and the morphology, pit patterns and blood capillary forms of lesions were analyzed. The presence of gastric carcinoma and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia in the biopsy samples was considered as a positive pathological result, which is used to assess accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis. Results For image resolution, magnifying NBI and magnifying chromoendoscopy were significantly superior to magnifying conventional endoscopy in morphology, pit pattern and blood capillary form (P 1, and VI type of gastric pit pattern were detected in 14 cases, 43 cases, and 17 cases in patients with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively. V1 and VI type of gastric pit pattern were detected in 9 cases and 39 cases in patients with early gastric cancer, respectively. The presence of irregular minute vessels and variation in the caliber of vessels was found in 109 cases. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate and false negative rate for diagnosis of early gastric cancer and precancerous gastric lesions were 68.9%, 95.1%, 63.1%, 24.5%, and 32.4% for conventional endoscopy, 93.6%, 92.7%, 94.5%, 5.7%, and 6.9% for magnifying NBI, and 91.3%, 88.6%, 93.2%, 13.2%, and 21.48% for magnifying chromoendoscopy, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates that magnifying NBI is

  10. Cytokine Signatures Associated With Early Onset, Active Lesions and Late Cicatricial Events of Retinochoroidal Commitment in Infants With Congenital Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Machado, Anderson Silva; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Costa, Julia Gatti Ladeia; Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2016-06-15

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a prominent and severe condition of high incidence in Brazil. The current study provides new insights into the immunological events that can be associated with retinochoroiditis in the setting of congenital toxoplasmosis in human infants. Flow cytometry of intracytoplasmic cytokines in leukocyte subsets following in vitro short-term antigenic recall in infants with congenital T. gondii infection. Our data demonstrates that whereas neutrophils and monocytes from T. gondii-infected infants display a combination of proinflammatory and regulatory cytokine profiles, natural killer cells showed a predominantly proinflammatory profile upon in vitro T. gondii stimulation. The proinflammatory response of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, characterized by the production of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 17 in patients with an active retinochoroidal lesion, revealed the presence of IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor α during early and late immunological events. This specific proinflammatory pattern is associated with early events and active retinochoroidal lesion, whereas a robust monocyte-derived interleukin 10-mediated profile is observed in children with cicatricial ocular lesions. These findings support the existence of a progressive immunological environment concomitant with the initial, apical, and cicatricial phases in the process of retinochoroidal lesion formation in infants with congenital toxoplasmosis that may be relevant in the establishment of stage-specific clinical management. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Arrested development: early prefrontal lesions impair the maturation of moral judgement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taber-Thomas, Bradley C; Asp, Erik W; Koenigs, Michael; Sutterer, Matthew; Anderson, Steven W; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we show in a unique sample of neurological patients that focal lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex, acquired during development, result in an abnormally egocentric pattern of moral judgement...

  12. Dietary carnosine prevents early atherosclerotic lesion formation in apolipoprotein E-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, Oleg A; Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P; Sithu, Srinivas D; Agarwal, Abhinav; Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are associated with the accumulation of reactive aldehydes derived from oxidized lipids. Although inhibition of aldehyde metabolism has been shown to exacerbate atherosclerosis and enhance the accumulation of aldehyde-modified proteins in atherosclerotic plaques, no therapeutic interventions have been devised to prevent aldehyde accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions. We examined the efficacy of carnosine, a naturally occurring β-alanyl-histidine dipeptide, in preventing aldehyde toxicity and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. In vitro, carnosine reacted rapidly with lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. Gas chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis showed that carnosine inhibits the formation of free aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and malonaldialdehyde in Cu(2+)-oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Preloading bone marrow-derived macrophages with cell-permeable carnosine analogs reduced 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis. Oral supplementation with octyl-D-carnosine decreased atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic valves of apolipoprotein E-null mice and attenuated the accumulation of protein-acrolein, protein-4-hydroxyhexenal, and protein-4-hydroxynonenal adducts in atherosclerotic lesions, whereas urinary excretion of aldehydes as carnosine conjugates was increased. The results of this study suggest that carnosine inhibits atherogenesis by facilitating aldehyde removal from atherosclerotic lesions. Endogenous levels of carnosine may be important determinants of atherosclerotic lesion formation, and treatment with carnosine or related peptides could be a useful therapy for the prevention or the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  13. Plasma bradykinin and early diabetic nephropathy lesions in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Wheelock

    Full Text Available To examine the association of bradykinin and related peptides with the development of diabetic nephropathy lesions in 243 participants with type 1 diabetes (T1D from the Renin-Angiotensin System Study who, at baseline, were normoalbuminuric, normotensive and had normal or increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR.Plasma concentrations of bradykinin and related peptides were measured at baseline by quantitative mass spectrometry. All participants were randomly assigned at baseline to receive placebo, enalapril or losartan during the 5 years between kidney biopsies. Kidney morphometric data were available from kidney biopsies at baseline and after 5 years. Relationships of peptides with changes in morphometric variables were assessed using multiple linear regression after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, HbA1c, mean arterial pressure, treatment assignment and, for longitudinal analyses, baseline structure.Baseline median albumin excretion rate of study participants was 5.0 μg/min, and mean GFR was 128 mL/min/1.73 m2. After multivariable adjustment, higher plasma concentration of bradykinin (1-8 was associated with greater glomerular volume (partial r = 0.191, P = 0.019 and total filtration surface area (partial r = 0.211, P = 0.010, and higher bradykinin (1-7 and hyp3-bradykinin (1-7 were associated with lower cortical interstitial fractional volume (partial r = -0.189, P = 0.011; partial r = -0.164, P = 0.027 respectively. In longitudinal analyses, higher bradykinin was associated with preservation of surface density of the peripheral glomerular basement membrane (partial r = 0.162, P = 0.013, and for participants randomized to losartan, higher hyp3-bradykinin (1-8 was associated with more limited increase in cortical interstitial fractional volume (partial r = -0.291, P = 0.033.Higher plasma bradykinin and related peptide concentrations measured before clinical onset of diabetic nephropathy in persons with T1D were associated with

  14. Early lesion-specific 18F-FDG PET response to chemotherapy predicts time to lesion progression in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Lotte; Vogelius, Ivan Richter; Fischer, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the lesion-to-lesion variability in FDG-PET response after one cycle of chemotherapy for NSCLC in an individual patient may inform radiation dose redistribution. To test this hypothesis, we investigate if time to lesion-progression in patients...... with multiple lesions is dependent on lesion-specific response to chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 81 patients with 184 lesions referred to curative chemo-radiotherapy for NSCLC 2010-2012. (18)F-FDG PET scans were performed at diagnosis and after one series of chemotherapy. Response of each...

  15. Efficacy of T2*-Weighted Gradient-Echo MRI in Early Diagnosis of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unilateral Thalamic Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Mitaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is an uncommon cause of stroke with diverse etiologies and varied clinical presentations. Because of variability in clinical presentation and neuroimaging, CVT remains a diagnostic challenge. Recently, some studies have highlighted the value of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI (T2*WI in the diagnosis of CVT. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with CVT due to a hypercoagulable state associated with cancer. On the initial T2-weighted image (T2WI, there was a diffuse high-intensity lesion in the right thalamus, extending into the posterior limb of the internal capsule and midbrain. T2*WI showed diminished signal and enlargement of the right basilar vein and the vein of Galen. Even though there is a wide range of differential diagnoses in unilateral thalamic lesions, and a single thalamus lesion is a rare entity of CVT, based on T2*WI findings we could make an early diagnosis and perform treatment. Our case report suggests that T2*WI could detect thrombosed veins and be a useful method of early diagnosis in CVT.

  16. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Philip E; Parkin, Nicola; Dyer, Fiona; Millett, Declan T; Furness, Susan; Germain, Peter

    2013-12-12

    Demineralised white lesions (DWLs) can appear on teeth during fixed brace treatment because of early decay around the brackets that attach the braces to the teeth. Fluoride is effective in reducing decay in susceptible individuals in the general population. Individuals receiving orthodontic treatment may be prescribed various forms of fluoride treatment. This review compares the effects of various forms of fluoride used during orthodontic treatment on the development of DWLs. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of fluoride in reducing the incidence of DWLs on the teeth during orthodontic treatment.The secondary objectives were to examine the effectiveness of different modes of fluoride delivery in reducing the incidence of DWLs, as well as the size of lesions. Participant-assessed outcomes, such as perception of DWLs, and oral health-related quality of life data were to be included, as would reports of adverse effects. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 31 January 2013); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 31 January 2013); and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 31 January 2013). We included trials if they met the following criteria: (1) parallel-group randomised clinical trials comparing the use of a fluoride-containing product versus placebo, no treatment or a different type of fluoride treatment, in which (2) the outcome of enamel demineralisation was assessed at the start and at the end of orthodontic treatment. At least two review authors independently, in duplicate, conducted risk of bias assessments and extracted data. Authors of trials were contacted to obtain missing data or to ask for clarification of aspects of trial methodology. The Cochrane Collaboration's statistical guidelines were followed. For the 2013 update of this review, three changes were made

  17. Salivary peptidome profiling analysis for occurrence of new carious lesions in patients with severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Sun, Xiangyu; Liu, Xiaochen; Huang, Xin; Chen, Feng; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify differences of peptide profiles in stimulated whole saliva among children with and without occurrence of new carious lesions, and to provide a simple way for early diagnosis and prevention of the relapse of severe early childhood caries (s-ECC). Overall, 26 children aged 3-4 years were selected out from all the children in the kindergarten to be involved in the present study, among them 13 were diagnosed as s-ECC and underwent dental treatment, whilst the other 13 were matched by age and sex as control. Stimulated whole saliva samples were collected before treatment, and at 10 days and 4 months after treatment. During follow-up, 7 of the 13 children with s-ECC showed a relapse, and the new carious lesions were then treated. Salivary peptides were detected using the technique of magnetic beads combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Fifteen peptides showed significant differences in the group without occurrence of new carious lesions (CH group). On comparing the CH group and the other group with occurrence of new carious lesions (CR group), no significant differences were observed before treatment, whereas certain peptides showed significant differences at both 10 days and 4 months after treatment. Two peptides (experimental m/z values: 3162.0 Da and 3290.4 Da) exhibited a consistent tendency in cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons among these groups; these may be associated with recurrence of s-ECC. Based on our findings, it is concluded that different saliva peptide peaks can be detected in s-ECC using MALDI-TOF MS combined with magnetic beads. Moreover, 2 specific peptides with m/z values 3162.0 Da and 3290.4 Da could be promising salivary protein biomarkers for diagnosis of recurrence of s-ECC.

  18. Inflammatory and vascular placental lesions are associated with neonatal amplitude integrated EEG recording in early premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Paz-Levy

    .007.Depressed neonatal aEEG patterns are associated with placental lesions consistent with maternal under perfusion, and amniotic fluid infection of fetal type, but not with fetal thrombo-oclusive vascular disease of inflammatory type. Our findings highlight the association between the intrauterine mechanisms leading to preterm parturition and subsequent depressed neonatal cerebral function early after birth, which eventually may put premature infants at risk for abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome.

  19. Early Parenteral Nutrition in Patients with Biliopancreatic Mass Lesions, a Prospective, Randomized Intervention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kr?ger, Janine; Meffert, Peter J.; Vogt, Lena J.; G?rtner, Simone; Steveling, Antje; Kraft, Matthias; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Aghdassi, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with biliopancreatic tumors frequently suffer from weight loss and cachexia. The in-hospital work-up to differentiate between benign and malignant biliopancreatic lesions requires repeated pre-interventional fasting periods that can aggravate this problem. We conducted a randomized intervention study to test whether routine in-hospital peripheral intravenous nutrition on fasting days (1000 ml/24 h, 700 kcal) has a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition. Materia...

  20. ROLE OF NARROW BAND IMAGING SYSTEM IN EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF POTENTIALLY MALIGNANT LESIONS OF ORAL CAVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Laveena P. Mehta; Yessukrishna Prabhakar Shetty; Sharad B. Bhalekar; Dabholkar, Yogesh G.; Velankar, Haritosh K.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are frequently preceded by or associated with leucoplakia, erythroplakia, oral submucous fibrosis or lichen planus. The standard method of revealing PML potentially malignant lesions of oral mucosa or submucosa is usually done via conventional oral examination (COE), direct visualisation and biopsy with the aid of imageenhanced endoscopy along with high-resolution imaging system. In view of the promising results of using Narrow Ban...

  1. Early Parenteral Nutrition in Patients with Biliopancreatic Mass Lesions, a Prospective, Randomized Intervention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Krüger

    Full Text Available Patients with biliopancreatic tumors frequently suffer from weight loss and cachexia. The in-hospital work-up to differentiate between benign and malignant biliopancreatic lesions requires repeated pre-interventional fasting periods that can aggravate this problem. We conducted a randomized intervention study to test whether routine in-hospital peripheral intravenous nutrition on fasting days (1000 ml/24 h, 700 kcal has a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition.168 patients were screened and 100 enrolled in the trial, all undergoing in-hospital work-up for biliopancreatic mass lesions and randomized to either intravenous nutrition or control. Primary endpoint was weight loss at time of hospital discharge; secondary endpoints were parameters determined by bioelectric impedance analysis and quality of life recorded by the EORTC questionnaire.Within three months prior to hospital admission patients had a median self-reported loss of 4.0 kg (25*th: -10.0 kg and 75*th* percentile: 0.0kg of body weight. On a multivariate analysis nutritional intervention increased body weight by 1.7 kg (95% CI: 0.204; 3.210, p = 0.027, particularly in patients with malignant lesions (2.7 kg (95% CI: 0.71; 4.76, p < 0.01.In a hospital setting, patients with suspected biliopancreatic mass lesions stabilized their body weight when receiving parenteral nutrition in fasting periods even when no total parenteral nutrition was required. Analysis showed that this effect was greatest in patients with malignant tumors. Further studies will be necessary to see whether patient outcome is affected as well.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02670265.

  2. ROLE OF NARROW BAND IMAGING SYSTEM IN EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF POTENTIALLY MALIGNANT LESIONS OF ORAL CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveena P. Mehta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC are frequently preceded by or associated with leucoplakia, erythroplakia, oral submucous fibrosis or lichen planus. The standard method of revealing PML potentially malignant lesions of oral mucosa or submucosa is usually done via conventional oral examination (COE, direct visualisation and biopsy with the aid of imageenhanced endoscopy along with high-resolution imaging system. In view of the promising results of using Narrow Band Imaging as a screening aid in cancer screening, a prospective randomised study was performed to evaluate statistically the efficacy of NBIS in diagnosis of potentially malignant lesions in oral cavity using histopathology as gold standard. METHODOLOGY 236 potentially malignant lesions in oral cavity from 195 patients underwent Broadband white light & NBI-endoscopic evaluation according to the Inoue’s classification. The histopathology results were compared with Broadband white light & Narrow Band light evaluation. RESULTS The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and clinical accuracy for the detection of oral potentially malignant disorders or worse by Narrow Band Imaging were 96 %, 83%, 96%, 83% and 93.22 % respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and clinical accuracy with conventional broadband white light oral examination were 72%, 63%, 88%, 36% and 70.33% respectively for the detection of oral potentially malignant disorders. CONCLUSION NBI endoscopy has diagnostic utility as ‘Optical Biopsy’ for superficial squamous neoplasms in the oral cavity and hence can be considered as a screening tool in high risk patients.

  3. [High-risk HPV genotyping PCR testing as a means of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions early screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Cong, Xiao; Bian, Meilu; Shi, Mai; Wang, Xiuhong; Liu, Jun; Liu, Haiyan

    2015-04-01

    To explored high-risk HPV genotyping PCR testing whether as a feasible means for the early screening of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. From January 2013 to June 2014, 15,192 outpatients in China-Japan Friendship Hospital voluntary were tested by high-risk type HPV genotyping PCR. The average age of them were (33±8) years old. High-risk HPV types genotyping PCR tested by fluorescence PCR technology, in which 13 kinds of high-risk HPV subtypes were detected, including HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68. A total of 4,315 cases of them were tested by the liquid-based cytology (LCT), among them with positive of high-risk HPV genotyping tested by PCR (n=2,366) were biopsy under colposcope (648 cases) in those LCT results were positive or LCT negative but HPV16 positive or LCT negative but had the clear clinical symptoms or and non-HPV16 positive but with clear clinical symptoms. (1) Analysis high-risk HPV infection status of 15 192 women. (2) As the pathological diagnosis was the gold standard in the diagnosis of cervical lesions, analysis of the relationship among high-risk HPV infection, virus loads and cervical lesions. (3) To evaluated the value of high-risk HPV genotyping PCR tested method in screening of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. ⑴ Of 15,192 cases tested by high-risk HPV genotyping PCR, 2,366 cases were HPV positive (HPV infection), the overall infection rate was 15.57% (2,366/15,192), in which a single subtype of HPV infection in 1,767 cases, infection rate was 11.63% (1,767/15,192), and multiple subtypes of HPV infection (two and more subtypes HPV infection) in 599 cases, infection rate was 3.94% (599/15,192). The HPV16, 52 and 58 infections were the most common HPV subtypes in 13 subtypes, the infection rate was 3.95% (600/15,192), 2.86% (435/15,192) and 2.67% (406/15,192), respectively. (2) The most relevant subtypes with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and even higher lesion were HPV16, 52 and 58

  4. Lesion-based detection of early chemosensitivity using serial static FDG PET/CT in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buvat, Irene; Necib, Hatem [IMNC UMR 8165 CNRS - Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, Orsay cedex (France); Garcia, Camilo; Wagner, Antoine; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Flamen, Patrick [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Nuclear Medicine Department, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Emonts, Patrick [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Radiology Department, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Hendlisz, Alain [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Digestive Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Medical oncology needs early identification of patients that are not responding to systemic therapy. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) performed before and early during treatment has been proposed for this purpose. However, the best way to assess the change in FDG uptake between two scans has not been identified. We studied cutoff thresholds to identify responding tumours as a function of the method used to measure tumour uptake. The study included 28 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who underwent 2 FDG PET/CT scans (baseline and at day 14 of the first course of polychemotherapy). For 78 tumour lesions, 4 standardized uptake value (SUV) indices were measured: maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) and mean SUV in a region obtained using an isocontour (SUV{sub 40} {sub %}), with each of these SUV normalized either by the patient body weight (BW) or body surface area (BSA). The per cent change and absolute change in tumour uptake between the baseline and the early PET scans were measured based on these four indices. These changes were correlated to the RECIST 1.0-based response using contrast-enhanced CT at baseline and at 6-8 weeks on treatment. The 78 tumours were classified as non-responding (NRL, n = 58) and responding lesions (RL, n = 20). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves characterizing the performance in NRL/RL classification using early FDG PET uptake had areas under the curve between 0.75 and 0.84, without significant difference between the indices. The cutoff threshold in FDG uptake per cent change to get a 95 % sensitivity of RL detection depended on the way uptake was measured: -14 % (specificity of 53 %) and -22 % (specificity of 64 %) for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub 40} {sub %}, respectively. Thresholds expressed as absolute SUV decrease instead of per cent change were less sensitive to the SUV definition: an SUV decline by 1.2 yielded a sensitivity of RL detection of 95 % for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub 40

  5. Early detection and treatment of lame cows. Effect on duration and prevalence of lesion-specific lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, T; Gundelach, Y; Feldmann, M; Hoedemaker, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of specific hoof lesions on the locomotion score (LS) as well as the effect of early detection and treatment on duration and prevalence of lesion-specific lameness. In a dairy herd in Lower Saxony, Germany, with 144 lactating cows, claw trimming was performed by a professional claw trimmer at the beginning and the end of a 41-week trial period. Weekly a veterinarian assessed the LS according to Sprecher et al. (1997) in 99 cows. The front and hind claws of cows with an LS > 1 were examined and treated within 5 days. For individual diagnoses, the duration of lameness was calculated as the number of weeks from first treatment until recovery (LS = 1). In total, 580 examinations and treatments were performed on 94 cows. There were 189 new lameness cases with a total of 290 diagnoses. At the first treatment, 81.0% of the cows displayed an LS of 2. Cows with digital dermatitis (DD), heel horn erosion and white line disease (WLD) more often had an LS > 2 compared to cows with Rusterholz' sole ulcer, interdigital hyperplasia or inadequate claw length/posture (p 2 than cows with several affected legs (p 1 is associated with a decrease in the prevalence of several claw lesions. Therefore, prevalence of severe claw lesions like WLD, which was associated with a long duration of lameness, can be reduced. In contrast, for decreasing prevalence of digital dermatitis more than weekly treatment of every cow with LS > 1 is required. Preventive measures like footbaths or improved hygiene should accompany the individual animal treatment.

  6. Early increase in DcR2 expression and late activation of caspases in the platelet storage lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenchette, S; Moutet, M; Benguella, M; N'Gondara, J P; Guigner, F; Coffe, C; Corcos, L; Bettaieb, A; Solary, E

    2001-10-01

    Platelet transfusion is widely used to prevent bleeding in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. The maximal storage duration of platelet concentrates is usually 5 days, due to the platelet storage lesion that impairs their functions when stored for longer times. Some of the morphological and biochemical changes that characterize this storage lesion are reminiscent of cell death by apoptosis. The present study analyzed whether proteins involved in nucleated cell apoptosis could play a role in the platelet storage lesion. Storage of leukocyte-depleted platelets obtained by apheresis is associated with a late and limited activation of caspases, mainly caspase-3. This event correlates with an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim in the particulate fraction and a slight and late release of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein Diablo/Smac in the cytosol. Platelets do not express the death receptors Fas, DR4 and DR5 on their plasma membrane, while the expression of the decoy receptor DcR2 increases progressively during platelet storage. Addition of low concentrations of the cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide accelerates platelet caspase activation during storage, an effect that is partially prevented by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Altogether, DcR2 expression on the plasma membrane is an early event while caspase activation is a late event during platelet storage. These observations suggest that caspases are unlikely to account for the platelet storage lesion. As a consequence, addition of caspase inhibitors may not improve the quality of platelet concentrates stored in standard conditions.

  7. Strategic lesions in the anterior thalamic radiation and apathy in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torso

    Full Text Available Behavioural disorders and psychological symptoms of Dementia (BPSD are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD, and strongly contribute to increasing patients' disability. Using voxel-lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM, we investigated the impact of white matter lesions (WMLs on the severity of BPSD in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI.Thirty-one a-MCI patients (with a conversion rate to AD of 32% at 2 year follow-up and 26 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination at 3T, including T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery images, and T1-weighted volumes. In the patient group, BPSD was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-12. After quantitative definition of WMLs, their distribution was investigated, without an a priori anatomical hypothesis, against patients' behavioural symptoms. Unbiased regional grey matter volumetrics was also used to assess the contribution of grey matter atrophy to BPSD.Apathy, irritability, depression/dysphoria, anxiety and agitation were shown to be the most common symptoms in the patient sample. Despite a more widespread anatomical distribution, a-MCI patients did not differ from controls in WML volumes. VLSM revealed a strict association between the presence of lesions in the anterior thalamic radiations (ATRs and the severity of apathy. Regional grey matter atrophy did not account for any BPSD.This study indicates that damage to the ATRs is strategic for the occurrence of apathy in patients with a-MCI. Disconnection between the prefrontal cortex and the mediodorsal and anterior thalamic nuclei might represent the pathophysiological substrate for apathy, which is one of the most common psychopathological symptoms observed in dementia.

  8. Strategic lesions in the anterior thalamic radiation and apathy in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torso, Mario; Serra, Laura; Giulietti, Giovanni; Spanò, Barbara; Tuzzi, Elisa; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural disorders and psychological symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and strongly contribute to increasing patients' disability. Using voxel-lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), we investigated the impact of white matter lesions (WMLs) on the severity of BPSD in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Thirty-one a-MCI patients (with a conversion rate to AD of 32% at 2 year follow-up) and 26 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination at 3T, including T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery images, and T1-weighted volumes. In the patient group, BPSD was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-12. After quantitative definition of WMLs, their distribution was investigated, without an a priori anatomical hypothesis, against patients' behavioural symptoms. Unbiased regional grey matter volumetrics was also used to assess the contribution of grey matter atrophy to BPSD. Apathy, irritability, depression/dysphoria, anxiety and agitation were shown to be the most common symptoms in the patient sample. Despite a more widespread anatomical distribution, a-MCI patients did not differ from controls in WML volumes. VLSM revealed a strict association between the presence of lesions in the anterior thalamic radiations (ATRs) and the severity of apathy. Regional grey matter atrophy did not account for any BPSD. This study indicates that damage to the ATRs is strategic for the occurrence of apathy in patients with a-MCI. Disconnection between the prefrontal cortex and the mediodorsal and anterior thalamic nuclei might represent the pathophysiological substrate for apathy, which is one of the most common psychopathological symptoms observed in dementia.

  9. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults: an EAPD policy document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnisch, J; Ekstrand, K R; Pretty, I; Twetman, S; van Loveren, C; Gizani, S; Spyridonos Loizidou, M

    2016-02-01

    The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) encourages prevention and arrest of active dental caries. Therefore, the present guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment and disease management. A search of different databases was conducted using all terms related to the subject. Relevant papers were identified after a review of their titles, abstracts or full texts. Three workshops were held during the corresponding EAPD interim seminar in Brussels in 2015. Several statements were agreed upon and, furthermore, gaps in our knowledge were identified. Following the systematic reviews and outcomes of the seminars, it was concluded that visual and radiographic caries detection should be utilised as a basic diagnostic approach to locate, assess and monitor non-cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. As another important evaluation step, a caries risk assessment should be performed at a child's first dental visit, and reassessments should be performed on a regular basis. It is widely accepted that non-cavitated caries lesions can be managed non-invasively in the majority of cases. The spectrum of measures includes a low cariogenicity tooth-friendly diet, daily and appropriate management of the biofilm, home and within the dental office/surgery usage of fluorides as well as sealing techniques. The detection and management of non-cavitated caries is an essential aspect of preventive dentistry. Therefore, the EAPD encourages oral health care providers and caregivers to implement preventive practices that can arrest early caries and improve individual and public dental health.

  10. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2014-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC...

  11. Proteoglycan depletion and size reduction in lesions of early grade chondromalacia of the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väätäinen, U; Häkkinen, T; Kiviranta, I; Jaroma, H; Inkinen, R; Tammi, M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the content and molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in patellar chondromalacia (CM) and control cartilages as a first step in investigating the role of matrix alterations in the pathogenesis of this disease. METHODS--Chondromalacia tissue from 10 patients was removed with a surgical knife. Using identical techniques, apparently healthy cartilage of the same site was obtained from 10 age matched cadavers (mean age 31 years in both groups). Additional pathological cartilage was collected from 67 patients with grades II-IV CM (classified according to Outerbridge) using a motorised shaver under arthroscopic control. The shaved cartilage chips were collected with a dense net from the irrigation fluid of the shaver. The content of tissue PGs was determined by Safranin O precipitation or uronic acid content, and the molecular size by mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS--The mean PG content of the CM tissue samples with a knife was dramatically reduced, being only 15% of that in controls. The cartilage chips collected from shaving operations of grades II, III, and IV CM showed a decreasing PG content: 9%, 5%, and 1% of controls, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of PGs extracted with guanidium chloride from the shaved tissue samples suggested a significantly reduced size of aggrecans in the mild (grade II) lesions. CONCLUSION--These data show that there is already a dramatic and progressive depletion of PGs in CM grade II lesions. This explains the softening of cartilage, a typical finding in the arthroscopic examination of CM. The PG size reduction observed in grade II implicates proteolytic attack as a factor in the pathogenesis of CM. Images PMID:7492223

  12. BEHAVIORAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF EARLY POSTNATAL CHOLINERGIC LESION IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GASPAR, E; HEERINGA, M; MARKEL, E; LUITEN, PGM; NYAKAS, C

    The effects of early postnatal (PD 8) intracerebroventricular injection of ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) on development of open-field and cognitive behaviors and cholinergic markers in several brain areas were examined in the rat. The cholinotoxin was bilaterally administered in a

  13. Computational Modeling Predicts Interleukin-10 Control of Lesion Sterilization By Balancing Early Host-Immunity-Mediated Antimicrobial Responses With Caseation During Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilfone, Nicholas A.; Ford, Christopher B.; Marino, Simeone; Mattila, Joshua T.; Gideon, Hannah P.; Flynn, JoAnne L.; Kirschner, Denise E.; Linderman, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Although almost a third of the world’s population is infected with the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), our understanding of the functions of many immune factors involved in fighting infection is limited. Determining the role of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) at the level of the granuloma has proven difficult due to lesional heterogeneity and the limitations of animal models. Here we take an in silico approach and, through a series of virtual experiments, we predict several novel roles for IL-10 in TB granulomas: (1) decreased levels of IL-10 lead to increased numbers of sterile lesions, but at the cost of early increased caseation, (2) small increases in early antimicrobial activity cause this increased lesion sterility, (3) IL-10 produced by activated macrophages is a major mediator of early antimicrobial activity and early host-induced caseation and (4) increasing levels of infected macrophage derived IL-10 promotes bacterial persistence by limiting the early antimicrobial response and preventing lesion sterilization. Our findings, currently only accessible using an in silico approach, suggest that IL-10 at the individual granuloma scale is a critical regulator of lesion outcome. These predictions suggest IL-10 related mechanisms that could be used as adjunctive therapies during TB. PMID:25512604

  14. FDG-PET/CT detection of very early breast cancer in women with breast microcalcification lesions found in mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Nan-Jing; Chou, Chen-Pin; Pan, Huay-Ben; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Hu, Chin; Chiu, Yu-Li; Fu, Ting-Ying; Chang, Hong-Tai

    2015-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of positron emission tomography/computed tomography with the glucose analogue 2-[(18) F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET/CT) in Taiwanese women with early breast cancer detected by mammography screening. Dual-time-point imaging of whole-body supine and breast prone scans using FDG-PET/CT were performed sequentially in the pre-operative stage. A total of 11,849 patients underwent screening mammography, of whom 1,209 (10.2%) displayed positive results. After further investigation, 54 patients underwent FDG-PET/CT. Post-operative pathology examinations revealed malignancies in 26 lesions, including invasive breast cancer in 11 cases and non-invasive breast cancer in 15 cases, as well as benign disease in 30 lesions. The FDG-PET/CT findings from the whole-body scans were positive for 9 of 11 invasive breast cancers (81.8%) and 3 of 15 non-invasive cancers (20%), and they were negative for all benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FDG-PET/CT with whole-body supine imaging were 46.2%, 100%, 100% and 68.2%, respectively. Breast prone imaging revealed another patient with ductal carcinoma in situ, increasing the sensitivity to 50%. Importantly, positive PET findings were significantly correlated with tumour histology (P = 0.006), tumour size (P = 0.039) and Ki-67 expression (P = 0.011). FDG-PET/CT with whole-body scanning demonstrated high sensitivity to invasive breast cancer, limited sensitivity to non-invasive breast cancer, and high specificity for breast cancer. FDG-PET/CT might be useful for differentiating tumour invasiveness. However, the good PPV but poor NPV do not allow the physician to discard the biopsy. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  15. Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congming Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether there is a correlation between the concentration of Indian hedgehog (Ihh in synovial fluid (SF and the severity of cartilage damage in the human knee joints, the knee cartilages from patients were classified using the Outer-bridge scoring system and graded using the Modified Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC, western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Furthermore, we detected and compared Ihh protein levels in rat and mice cartilages between normal control and surgery-induced osteoarthritis (OA group by IHC and fluorescence molecular tomography in vivo respectively. Ihh expression was increased 5.2-fold in OA cartilage, 3.1-fold in relative normal OA cartilage, and 1.71-fold in OA SF compared to normal control samples. The concentrations of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples was significantly increased in early-stage OA samples when compared to normal samples (r = 0.556; p < 0.001; however, there were no significant differences between normal samples and late-stage OA samples. Up-regulation of Ihh protein was also an early event in the surgery-induced OA models. Increased Ihh is associated with the severity of OA cartilage damage. Elevated Ihh content in human knee joint synovial fluid correlates with early cartilage lesions.

  16. Clinical correlative study on early detection of oral cancer and precancerous lesions by modified oral brush biopsy and cytology followed by histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swati; Shah, Jigna S; Parikh, Shilpa; Limbdiwala, Piyush; Goel, Sumit

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer accounts for 5% of all malignant tumors and 60% of these lesions are well advanced at the time of diagnosis. The early diagnosis could prevent a large number of deaths due to this disease. This study aims to evaluate and compare the clinical usefulness of exfoliative cytology, modified brush biopsy (without computer assisted analysis), and biopsy in early detection of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Modified oral brush biopsy (using baby toothbrush) and exfoliative cytology was performed on 225 clinically diagnosed oral precancerous lesions (suspected) selected from among 1099 lesions in 877 patients. Scalpel or punch biopsy was performed based on clinic-cytological evidence (test result and/or clinical judgment) on only 117 lesions. All the specimens were analyzed manually in a double-blinded fashion. RESULTS were analyzed using Statistical package for Social Sciences version 12 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and subjected to Fischer exact test. Of 117 lesions that underwent all the three tests, modified oral brush biopsy showed a reasonably higher specificity (68.42%) and sensitivity (81.69%) when compared with specificity (86.48%) and sensitivity (48.57%) of cytology. The results demonstrate that modified oral brush biopsy has higher efficacy than routine cytology and can be used as a potentially practical oral cancer screening tool in resource challenged settings. However, clinical judgment is of prime importance. Immediate biopsy is mandatory in highly suspicious lesions proposed under the diagnostic criteria of "clinically diagnosed carcinoma in situ".

  17. Gross and histological evaluation of early lesions of navicular bone and deep digital flexor tendon in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komosa Marcin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluation of pathological lesions on flexor surface of navicular bone and deep digital flexor tendon in horses graded in standard X-ray examination as 2 (fair. The evaluation was performed on fifteen horses (6-9 years of age. Analysis procedure involved examining navicular bones on X-ray pictures, post-slaughter preparation of navicular bones from the hoof capsule, macroscopic evaluation of fibrocartilage on flexor surface, and analysis of histologic preparations. In horses with navicular bones graded as 2, early pathological changes have already developed, even if such horses were not lame. The pathological changes included fibrillation and disruption of deep digital flexor tendon surface, loss of fibrocartillage in sagittal ridge area of navicular bone, thinning of subchondral bone on its flexor surface, and fibromyxoid changes in chondroid matrix. In terms of clinical relevance, more studies are needed to understand the sequence of changes in a better way.

  18. Early diagnosis of malignant melanoma: Proposal of a working formulation for the management of cutaneous pigmented lesions from the Melanoma Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Satriano, Rocco A; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Bono, Riccardo; Testori, Alessandro; Bosco, Leonardo; Daponte, Antonio; Caracò, Corrado; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Melucci, Maria Teresa; Calignano, Rosario; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Cochran, Alistair J; Castello, Giuseppe

    2003-06-01

    Epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) strongly improves the separation of different types of cutaneous pigmented lesions (CPL) and facilitates the early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM). ELM alone is not 100% accurate in routine diagnosis, and should not be considered the only criterion in the diagnosis of high-risk skin lesions. We have however, demonstrated close agreement between ELM classification criteria and histology in 2,731 cutaneous lesions. In the past five years, our Melanoma Cooperative Group has evaluated 61,000 skin lesions from 30,000 individuals and identified 478 cutaneous melanomas. Most newly diagnosed patients had very early stage melanoma [299 (62%) were Stage I (203 Stage IA and 96 Stage IB), by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) criteria]. We have compared data from the patient histories and clinical evaluations with ELM-based morphological patterns to better characterize skin lesions and minimize interpretative problems. From these comparisons, we propose new guidelines for the management of CPL to provide a standard diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and to foster the early identification of lesions at risk for malignant transformation.

  19. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group.

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy for noninvasive early diagnosis of oral mucosal malignant and potentially malignant lesions

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    Chaturvedi Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report the results of a clinical in vivo study to evaluate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for differential diagnosis of oral mucosal malignant and potentially malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: The study involved 26 healthy volunteers and 144 patients enrolled for routine medical examination of the oral cavity at the outpatient department of the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai. In vivo autofluorescence spectra were recorded using a N 2 laser based portable fluorimeter developed in-house. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to either of the four histopathologic categories: 1 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, 2 oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF, 3 leukoplakia (LP and 4 normal squamous tissue. A multivariate statistical algorithm capable of direct multi-class classification was used to predict pathological designations. Results: With respect to histopathology as the "gold standard", the diagnostic algorithm was found to provide an accuracy of 82, 76, 81 and 85% based on leave-one-patient-out cross-validation in classifying the oral tissue spectra into four different pathology classes - SCC, OSMF, LP, and normal squamous tissue - respectively. When the algorithm was employed for delineating the normal oral tissues from all the abnormal oral tissues including SCC, OSMF and LP put together, a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 100% were obtained. Conclusion: The results suggest that it is possible to objectively classify the oral tissue into different pathology classes based on their in vivo autofluorescence spectra. Thus, the technique can potentially improve oral screening efforts in low resource settings where clinical expertise and resources are limited.

  1. Role of sulfhydryls and early vascular lesions in gastric mucosal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, S

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the recently discovered role of sulfhydryls and early vascular injury in the pathogenesis of acute gastric mucosal injury. In the rat ethanol caused a dose-dependent decrease in nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration in the gastric mucosa within 1-5 min following an intragastric dose. These biochemical changes were accompanied by increased vascular permeability in the glandular stomach as revealed by the measurement of extravasated Evans blue injected i.v. prior to the administration of ethanol. Morphologic evidence of vascular injury was provided by labelling of damaged blood vessels in the stomach following the i.v. administration of colloidal particles in the form of india ink or monastral blue. The functional and structural damage to capillaries and venules in the glandular stomach was also maximal within 1-6 min after 1 ml of 75 or 100% ethanol given orally. Pretreatment with sulfhydryl (SH) containing drugs (e.g., L-cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, cysteamine, dimercaprol) or prostaglandin (PG) F2 beta prevented the ethanol-induced increase in vascular permeability, the labelling of blood vessels with vascular tracers, and the subsequent haemorrhagic erosions. The desquamation of superficial epithelial cells, however, was not markedly modified by either SH or PG compounds. This organoprotective effect of SH and PG drugs was virtually counteracted in adrenalectomized rats that exhibited "vascular fragility". Glucocorticoid treatment restored the response of adrenalectomized animals. Thus, a SH- and glucocorticoid-sensitive early vascular injury seems to be of major significance in the pathogenesis of haemorrhagic gastric erosions and SH-containing compounds represent a new group of cytoprotective or organoprotective agents.

  2. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIVE METHODS FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF OCCLUSAL CARIES LESIONS – in vitro study.

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    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the device DIAGNOcam and the laser fluorescence device DIAGNOdent for early diagnosis of occlusal caries and to compare it with three traditional methods – visual and tactile, dye and radiographic examination. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 60 extracted human teeth. Three clinicians diagnosed independently the presence or absence of early occlusal surface caries with the visible tactile method,DIAGNOcam andDIAGNOdent. Then X-rays were taken and the dentists viewed them separately, without magnification.Fuchsine was applied for 30 sec. and then washed under running water for 20 min. Places where dye was present were registered. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS package of Windows. Results: The results showed high level of correspondence between the authors for all the diagnostic methods. Concerning different methods applied for caries diagnosis there was a correlation between the methods, but it was diverging for the different methods. No correlation between radiographic exam and data obtained with DIAGNOdent and dye staining was observed. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results we may conclude that the least sensitive method for fissure caries diagnosis was the dye staining, followed by the radiographic exam. The results, obtained by DIAGNOdent and DIAGNOcam were very close, but DIAGNOcams’ data was better correlating with the clinical results.DIAGNOcam procedure can be judged as equivalent in the detection of occlusal dentine lesions when compared to clinical results.

  3. Impact of albuminuria on early neurological deterioration and lesion volume expansion in lenticulostriate small infarcts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Toshitaka; Senda, Joe; Fukami, Yuki; Mashita, Shinichi; Kawamura, Takahiko; Sakakibara, Toshimasa; Sobue, Gen

    2014-02-01

    Albuminuria, a marker of chronic kidney disease, is associated with an increased risk of incident stroke and unfavorable long-term outcomes. However, the association of albuminuria with short-term outcomes and change in infarct volume in patients with acute small subcortical infarction remains unknown. We retrospectively reviewed 85 consecutive patients with acute small subcortical infarcts in the lenticulostriate artery territory who were admitted to our stroke center within 24 hours of symptom onset and underwent serial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Albuminuria was determined based on the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio obtained from a first morning spot urine after admission. Infarct volume was measured on axial sections of the initial and follow-up DWI. Early neurological deterioration (END) was defined as an increase of ≥2 points in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score during the first 5 days after admission. Albuminuria (UACR ≥30 mg/g creatinine) was observed in 14 of 18 patients with END (77.8%) and in 25 of 67 patients without END (37.3%), P=0.002. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that albuminuria was associated with END after adjustment for age, low estimated glomerular filtration rate (albuminuria was an independent predictor of increase in infarct volume using multivariate linear regression analysis (β coefficient=0.217; P=0.038). Our findings suggest that albuminuria is associated with END and infarct volume expansion in patients with small subcortical infarcts in the lenticulostriate artery territory.

  4. Obstetric outcomes after conservative treatment for cervical intraepithelial lesions and early invasive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrgiou, Maria; Athanasiou, Antonios; Kalliala, Ilkka E J; Paraskevaidi, Maria; Mitra, Anita; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre Pl; Arbyn, Marc; Bennett, Phillip; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos

    2017-11-02

    The mean age of women undergoing local treatment for pre-invasive cervical disease (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia; CIN) or early cervical cancer (stage IA1) is around their 30s and similar to the age of women having their first child. Local cervical treatment has been correlated to adverse reproductive morbidity in a subsequent pregnancy, however, published studies and meta-analyses have reached contradictory conclusions. To assess the effect of local cervical treatment for CIN and early cervical cancer on obstetric outcomes (after 24 weeks of gestation) and to correlate these to the cone depth and comparison group used. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE (up to June week 4, 2017) and Embase (up to week 26, 2017). In an attempt to identify articles missed by the search or unpublished data, we contacted experts in the field and we handsearched the references of the retrieved articles and conference proceedings. We included all studies reporting on obstetric outcomes (more than 24 weeks of gestation) in women with or without a previous local cervical treatment for any grade of CIN or early cervical cancer (stage IA1). Treatment included both excisional and ablative methods. We excluded studies that had no untreated reference population, reported outcomes in women who had undergone treatment during pregnancy or had a high-risk treated or comparison group, or both DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We classified studies according to the type of treatment and the obstetric endpoint. Studies were classified according to method and obstetric endpoint. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model and inverse variance. Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed with I 2 statistics. We assessed maternal outcomes that included preterm birth (PTB) (spontaneous and threatened), preterm premature rupture of the membranes

  5. Simultaneous integrated boost of biopsy proven, MRI defined dominant intra-prostatic lesions to 95 Gray with IMRT: early results of a phase I NCI study

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    Xu Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility and early toxicity of selective, IMRT-based dose escalation (simultaneous integrated boost to biopsy proven dominant intra-prostatic lesions visible on MRI. Methods Patients with localized prostate cancer and an abnormality within the prostate on endorectal coil MRI were eligible. All patients underwent a MRI-guided transrectal biopsy at the location of the MRI abnormality. Gold fiducial markers were also placed. Several days later patients underwent another MRI scan for fusion with the treatment planning CT scan. This fused MRI scan was used to delineate the region of the biopsy proven intra-prostatic lesion. A 3 mm expansion was performed on the intra-prostatic lesions, defined as a separate volume within the prostate. The lesion + 3 mm and the remainder of the prostate + 7 mm received 94.5/75.6 Gray (Gy respectively in 42 fractions. Daily seed position was verified to be within 3 mm. Results Three patients were treated. Follow-up was 18, 6, and 3 months respectively. Two patients had a single intra-prostatic lesion. One patient had 2 intra-prostatic lesions. All four intra-prostatic lesions, with margin, were successfully targeted and treated to 94.5 Gy. Two patients experienced acute RTOG grade 2 genitourinary (GU toxicity. One had grade 1 gastrointestinal (GI toxicity. All symptoms completely resolved by 3 months. One patient had no acute toxicity. Conclusion These early results demonstrate the feasibility of using IMRT for simultaneous integrated boost to biopsy proven dominant intra-prostatic lesions visible on MRI. The treatment was well tolerated.

  6. Performance of automatic image segmentation algorithms for calculating total lesion glycolysis for early response monitoring in non-small cell lung cancer patients during concomitant chemoradiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, W.; Usmanij, E.A.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Heijden, E.H.F.M. van der; Visser, E.P.; Visvikis, D.; Hatt, M.; Bussink, J.; Geus-Oei, L.F. de

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study evaluated the use of total lesion glycolysis (TLG) determined by different automatic segmentation algorithms, for early response monitoring in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients during concomitant chemoradiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven

  7. Recent Advances in Molecular Imaging of Premalignant Gastrointestinal Lesions and Future Application for Early Detection of Barrett Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang Hyun; Han, Na Young; Kwon, Chang Il; Lee, Hoo Keun; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in optical molecular imaging allow identification of morphologic and biochemical changes in tissues associated with gastrointestinal (GI) premalignant lesions earlier and in real-time. This focused review series introduces high-resolution imaging modalities that are being evaluated preclinically and clinically for the detection of early GI cancers, especially Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Although narrow band imaging, autofluorescence imaging, and chromoendoscopy are currently applied for this purpose in the clinic, further adoptions of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy, high-resolution microendoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and metabolomic imaging, as well as imaging mass spectrometry, will lead to detection at the earliest and will guide predictions of the clinical course in the near future in a manner that is beyond current advancements in optical imaging. In this review article, the readers will be introduced to sufficient information regarding this matter with which to enjoy this new era of high technology and to confront science in the field of molecular medical imaging. PMID:24570878

  8. Changes in concentrations of cortisol and melatonin in plasma, expression of synaptophysin, and ultrastructural properties of pinealocytes in goat kids in situations of stress due to early weaning: the effect of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, E; Franco, A; Garcia, A; Masot, A J

    2010-06-01

    To analyse the changes in some histo-physiological parameters of the pineal gland of goat kids in situations of stress due to early weaning, and the effect of exogenous treatment with melatonin. Twenty-four 6-day-old Verata goat kids were used; 12 suckled their dams throughout the study (non-weaned groups), and the other 12 were removed from their dams and fed a milk replacer (weaned groups). Six goat kids in each group were treated with melatonin, and the other six with double-distilled pyrogen-free water (Day 0). On Days 28-29, blood samples were collected at 0600, 1000, 1400, 1800, 2200, 0200 and 0600 hours, to determine concentrations of cortisol and melatonin in plasma. On Days 29 and 30, six animals per group (three at 1400 and three at 0200 hours, respectively) were subject to euthanasia and the weight of their pineal glands determined. The structural immunocytochemistry, morphometric analysis, ultrastructural analysis and immunotransmission electron microscopy of the pineal glands were established. Concentrations of cortisol in plasma were significantly higher in weaned than in non-weaned goat kids (pmelatonin reduced the concentrations in weaned kids (pmelatonin in plasma showed a similar pattern in the four groups, with peak values at 0200 and troughs at 1400 hours. Mean concentrations of melatonin in plasma in weaned goat kids were significantly lower than those in the other groups (pmelatonin, the weight and volume of the pineal gland, and number of pinealocytes, were significantly lower when compared with those from non-weaned kids (pmelatonin significantly increased these parameters in weaned kids. Taken together, these results indicate that treatment with melatonin in goat kids in situations of stress due to premature weaning could play an important role in the improvement of histo-physiological function of the pineal gland.

  9. [Observation of cells tolerant of tobacco mosaic virus in virus-induced local lesions in Datura stramonium L. leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunov, A V; Lega, S N; Nagorskaia, V P; Lapshina, L A

    2011-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of tobacco mosaic virus-induced local lesions developing in leaves of Datura stramonium plants demonstrated that, in the central area of the lesions, the cell response to viral invasion was not uniform. Most cells exhibited an acute hypersensitive reaction and underwent rapid and complete necrosis. However, some cells, despite considerable virus accumulation and immediate contact with completely collapsed cells, maintained a certain degree of structural integrity. Analysis performed showed that the proportion of collapsed and uncollapsed cells in the lesion centre 3 to 5 days after infection did not change essentially. These data suggest that the absence of hypersensitive response in some cells in the lesion centre is not due to an early stage of infection but is likely caused by cell tolerance of the virus.

  10. Value of Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) Endoscopy in the Early Diagnosis of Laryngeal Cancer and Precancerous Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Chronic Inflammation of Hypopharynx; Hoarseness; Macroscopic Laryngeal Lesions; Histological Confirmation of Dysplasia; Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Carcinoma of Larynx; Invasive Carcinoma of Hypo Pharynx; Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

  11. Early intrauterine embryonic development in Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae), an invasive tapeworm of carp (Cyprinus carpio): an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Mackiewicz, John S; Młocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzisław; Nebesářová, Jana

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine embryonic development in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. Contrary to previous light microscopy findings that reported the release of non-embryonated eggs of K. sinenesis to the external environment, the present study documents various stages of embryonation (ovoviviparity) within the intrauterine eggs of this cestode. At the initial stage of embryonic development, each fertilised oocyte is accompanied by several vitellocytes that become enclosed within the operculate, electrondense shell. Cleavage divisions result in formation of blastomeres (up to about 24 cells) of various sizes. Mitotic divisions and apparent rosette arrangment of the blastomeres, the latter atypical within the Eucestoda, are observed for the first time in the intrauterine eggs of K. sinenesis. The early embryo enclosed within the electrondense shell is surrounded by a thin membraneous layer which in some enlarged regions shows presence of nuclei. Simultaneously to multiplication and differentiation, some of the blastomeres undergo deterioration. A progressive degeneration of the vitellocytes within eggs provides nutritive reserves, including lipids, for the developing embryo. The possible significance of this atypical timing of the intrauterine embryonic development to (1) the ecology of K. sinensis and that of a recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe; and (2) the affiliation of caryophyllideans with other lower cestodes, are discussed.

  12. Remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate crème on artificial early enamel lesions of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Zou, Jing; Yang, Ran; Zhou, Xuedong

    2011-09-01

    Caries in children younger than 72 months is called early childhood caries (ECC). Sixty-six per cent of Chinese children younger than 5 years old have dental decay, and about 97% of them are untreated. This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the remineralization effects of the casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) crème on the artificial early enamel lesions of the primary teeth and to assess its caries-prevention efficiency. Enamel specimens with artificial early lesions were produced and were then randomly divided into Group A: distilled and deionized water, DDW, as negative control; Group B: CPP-ACP crème, test group; Group C: 500 ppm NaF solution, as positive control. The enamel surface microhardness (SMH) was measured before, after demineralization, and 30 days after remineralization. The results were analysed with the SPSS 13.0 software package. The enamel specimens were analysed by the scanning electron microscope. The CPP-ACP crème increased SMH of the eroded enamel significantly more than 500 ppm NaF solution did. The morphology of the enamel was different in each group. The CPP-ACP crème is effective in remineralizing early enamel lesions of the primary teeth, a little more effective than 500 ppm NaF and can be used for the prevention of ECC. 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Ultrastructure of early amelogenesis in wild-type, Amelx(-/-), and Enam(-/-) mice: enamel ribbon initiation on dentin mineral and ribbon orientation by ameloblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles E; Hu, Yuanyuan; Hu, Jan C-C; Simmer, James P

    2016-11-01

    Dental enamel is comprised of highly organized, oriented apatite crystals, but how they form is unclear. We used focused ion beam (FIB) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate early enamel formation in 7-week-old incisors from wild-type, Amelx(-/-), and Enam(-/-) C56BL/6 mice. FIB surface imaging scans thicker samples so that the thin enamel ribbons do not pass as readily out of the plane of section, and generates serial images by a mill and view approach for computerized tomography. We demonstrate that wild-type enamel ribbons initiate on dentin mineral on the sides and tips of mineralized collagen fibers, and extend in clusters from dentin to the ameloblast membrane. The clustering suggested that groups of enamel ribbons were initiated and then extended by finger-like membrane processes as they retracted back into the ameloblast distal membrane. These findings support the conclusions that no organic nucleator is necessary for enamel ribbon initiation (although no ribbons form in the Enam(-/-) mice), and that enamel ribbons elongate along the ameloblast membrane and orient in the direction of its retrograde movement. Tomographic reconstruction videos revealed a complex of ameloblast membrane processes and invaginations associated with intercellular junctions proximal to the mineralization front and also highlighted interproximal extracellular enamel matrix accumulations proximal to the interrod growth sites, which we propose are important for expanding the interrod matrix and extending interrod enamel ribbons. Amelx(-/-) mice produce oriented enamel ribbons, but the ribbons fuse into fan-like structures. The matrix does not expand sufficiently to support formation of the Tomes process or establish rod and interrod organization. Amelogenin does not directly nucleate, shape, or orient enamel ribbons, but separates and supports the enamel ribbons, and expands the enamel matrix to accommodate continued ribbon elongation, retrograde ameloblast movement, and

  14. Ultrastructural analysis of vascular features in cerebral cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, Gamze; Sozen, Berna; Seker, Askin; Kilic, Turker; Gunel, Murat; Demir, Necdet

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of the structure of vascular malformations highlights the pathogenic mechanisms underlying their clinical behavior. One of the vascular malformations is called cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM). However, the ultrastructural features of the vascular malformations are not defined in detail. We aimed to investigate the ultrastructural features of CCMs using transmission (TEM), scanning (SEM) electron microscopy, and also immunohistochemistry methods with antibodies against CCM proteins such as CCM2 and CCM3. CCM tissues (n=6) microsurgically excised from patients for conventional indications. CCM2 and CCM3 were strongly detected in the vascular endothelium. However, there was a very weak immunostaining in stroma. SEM observations revealed that there were ruptures and damages in the luminal endothelium, possibly due to the damage of intercellular junctions. TEM observations also showed a few ruptures and detachments between the endothelium and basal lamina as observed with partially damages and disconnections. The architecture of pericytes showed protrusions and shrinkages. Our results suggest that the thin vessel walls of CCMs were lacking of subendothelial support and intact basal lamina underlying the endothelial cells. This study is so far the first study attempting to show human CCM lesions with SEM. We believe that an understanding of the ultrastructural features of these lesions by light and electron microscopy techniques would help to understand the pathology of these diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Myxosporean plasmodial infection associated with ulcerative lesions in young-of-the-year Atlantic menhaden in a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, and possible links to Kudoa clupeidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimschuessel, R.; Gieseker, C.M.; Driscoll, C.; Baya, A.; Kane, A.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Evans, J.J.; Kent, M.L.; Moran, J.D.W.; Poynton, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    Ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) (Clupeidae), observed along the USA east coast, have been attributed to diverse etiologies including bacterial, fungal and, recently, harmful algal blooms. To understand the early pathogenesis of these lesions, we examined juvenile Atlantic menhaden collected during their seasonal presence in Chesapeake Bay tributaries from April to October 1999 and from March to August 2000. We conducted histopathological examinations of young-of-the-year fish from the Pocomoke River tributary, which has a history of fish mortalities and high lesion prevalence. Kudoa clupeidae (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) spores were present in the muscles of fish collected in both years. Of the fish assessed by histology in April, 5 to 14% were infected, while in May 90 to 96% were infected. Infection rates remained high during the summer. Mature spores were primarily located within myomeres and caused little or no observable pathological changes. Ultrastructure showed spores with capsulogenic cells bearing filamentous projections, and a basal crescentic nucleus with mottled nucleoplasm containing cleaved, condensed chromatin. Also, a highly invasive plasmodial stage of a myxozoan was found in the lesions of juvenile Atlantic menhaden. The plasmodia were observed in fish collected between May and July, with the maximum occurrence in late June 1999 and late May 2000. Plasmodia penetrated and surrounded muscle bundles, causing grossly observable raised lesions in 73% of all fish infected with this invasive stage. Plasmodia were also detected in the visceral organs, branchial arches, and interocular muscles of some fish. Some of the invasive extrasporogonic plasmodial lesions were associated with ulcers and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. The plasmodial stage appeared to slough out of the tissue with subsequent evidence of wound healing. Ultrastructure showed plasmodia with an elaborate irregular surface, divided into distinct ectoplasm and

  16. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  17. Early dynamic imaging in {sup 68}Ga- PSMA-11 PET/CT allows discrimination of urinary bladder activity and prostate cancer lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Warwitz, Boris; Scarpa, Lorenza; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Kendler, Dorota; Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Virgolini, Irene Johanna [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Fritz, Josef [Medical University Innsbruck, Department for Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Urology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2017-05-15

    PET/CT with {sup 68}Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligands has been proven to establish a promising imaging modality in the work-up of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical relapse. Despite a high overall detection rate, the visualisation of local recurrence may be hampered by high physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole body imaging, usually starting 60 min after injection. This study sought to verify whether early dynamic {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 (HBED-CC)PET/CT can differentiate pathologic PC-related tracer uptake from physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder. Eighty consecutive PC patients referred to {sup 68}Ga -PSMA-11 PET/CT were included in this retrospective analysis (biochemical relapse: n = 64; primary staging: n = 8; evaluation of therapy response/restaging: n = 8). In addition to whole-body PET/CT acquisition 60 min post injection early dynamic imaging of the pelvis in the first 8 min after tracer injection was performed. SUV{sub max} of pathologic lesions was calculated and time-activity curves were generated and compared to those of urinary bladder and areas of physiologic tracer uptake. A total of 55 lesions consistent with malignancy on 60 min whole body imaging exhibited also pathologic {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 uptake during early dynamic imaging (prostatic bed/prostate gland: n = 27; lymph nodes: n = 12; bone: n = 16). All pathologic lesions showed tracer uptake within the first 3 min, whereas urinary bladder activity was absent within the first 3 min of dynamic imaging in all patients. Suv{sub max} was significantly higher in PC lesions in the first 6 min compared to urinary bladder accumulation (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of PC patients with biochemical relapse the detection rate of local recurrence could be increased from 20.3 to 29.7%. Early dynamic imaging in {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT reliably enables the differentiation of pathologic tracer uptake in PC lesions from physiologic

  18. Morphological, structural, and functional alterations of the prefrontal cortex and the basolateral amygdala after early lesion of the rat mediodorsal thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Early postnatal damage to the mediodorsal thalamus (MD) produces deficits in cognition and behavior believed to be associated with early prefrontal cortical maldevelopment. We assessed the role of MD afferents during development on the morphological and functional maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Sprague-Dawley rat pups (n = 56) received a bilateral electrolytic lesion of the MD or a MD Sham lesion on postnatal day 4. 7 weeks later, all rats were tested in anxiety-related and cognitive paradigms using the elevated plus maze and novel object recognition tests. Following behavioral testing (P70), rats were killed and the baseline expression of C-Fos protein and the number of GABAergic neurons were evaluated in the PFC and the BLA. The dendritic morphology and spine density in the PFC using Golgi-Cox staining was also evaluated. Adult rats with early postnatal bilateral MD damage exhibited disrupted recognition memory and increased anxiety-like behaviors. The lesion also caused a significant diminution of C-Fos immunolabeling and an increase of the number of GABAergic neurons in the PFC. In the BLA, the number of GABAergic neurons was significantly reduced, associated with an increase in C-Fos immunolabeling. Furthermore, in the PFC the lesion induced a significant reduction in dendritic branching and spine density. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the MD plays a role in the development of the PFC and, therefore, may be a good animal model to investigate cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia.

  19. MR spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI), lesion load and clinical scores in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellmann-Strobl, J.; Paul, F.; Aktas, O.; Zipp, F. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Cecilie Vogt Clinic for Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Stiepani, H.; Bohner, G.; Klingebiel, R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Wuerfel, J. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Cecilie Vogt Clinic for Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Schleswig-Holstein, Institute of Neuroradiology, Campus Luebeck, Kiel (Germany); Warmuth, C. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Wandinger, K.P. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based lesion load assessment with clinical disability in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Seventeen untreated patients (ten women, seven men; mean age 33.0{+-}7.9 years) with the initial diagnosis of RRMS were included for cross-sectional as well as longitudinal (24 months) clinical and MRI-based assessment in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. Conventional MR sequences, MR spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI) were performed at 1.5 T. Lesion number and volume, MRS and MTI measurements for lesions and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) were correlated to clinical scores [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC)] for monitoring disease course after treatment initiation (interferon {beta}-1a). MTI and MRS detected changes [magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR), N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine ratio] in NAWM over time. EDSS and lesional MTR increases correlated throughout the disease course. Average MTR of NAWM raised during the study (p<0.05) and correlated to the MSFC score (r=0.476, p<0.001). At study termination, NAA/creatine ratio of NAWM correlated to the MSFC score (p<0.05). MTI and MRS were useful for initial disease assessment in NAWM. MTI and MRS correlated with clinical scores, indicating potential for monitoring the disease course and gaining new insights into treatment-related effects. (orig.)

  20. Early Development of Right Ventricular Ischemic Lesions in a Novel Large Animal Model of Acute Right Heart Failure in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulate, David; Arthur Ataam, Jennifer; Connolly, Andrew J; Giraldeau, Genevieve; Amsallem, Myriam; Decante, Benoit; Lamrani, Lilia; Fadel, Elie; Dorfmuller, Peter; Perros, Frederic; Haddad, Francois; Mercier, Olaf

    2017-12-01

    Our aim was to develop a model of acute right heart failure (ARHF) in the setting of pulmonary hypertension and to characterize acute right ventricular lesions that develop early after hemodynamic restoration. We used a described piglet model of chronic pulmonary hypertension (cPH) induced by pulmonary artery occlusions. We induced ARHF in animals with cPH (ARHF-cPH group, n = 9) by volume loading and iterative acute pulmonary embolism until hemodynamic compromise followed by dobutamine infusion for hemodynamic restoration before sacrifice for right ventricular tissue evaluation. The median duration of ARHF before sacrifice was 162 (135-189) minutes. Although ventriculoarterial coupling (measured with multibeat pressure-volume loops) and stroke volume decreased after iterative pulmonary embolism and improved with dobutamine, relative pulmonary to systemic pressure increased by 2-fold and remained similarly increased with dobutamine. Circulating high-sensitivity troponin I increased after hemodynamic restoration. We found an increase in right ventricular subendocardial and subepicardial focal ischemic lesions and in expression of autophagy-related protein LC3-II (Western blot) in the ARHF-cPH group compared with the cPH (n = 5) and control (n = 5) groups. We developed and phenotyped a novel large animal model of ARHF on cPH in which right ventricular ischemic lesions were observed early after hemodynamic restoration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrastructural Alterations in the Epidermis of Patients with Tinea Pedis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdagül Canberk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tinea pedis is the most common superficial fungal infection of the foot. Although light microscopic characteristics of tinea pedis have already been described and are well known, electron microscopic data is still lacking. In this study, we aimed to examine the ultrastructural changes in the epidermis of patients diagnosed with tinea pedis.Material and Methods: Biopsies were taken from the lesions between the toes of patients with untreated tinea pedis and from healthy volunteers with no fungal infections. The materials obtained were prepared for electron microscopy and examined by transmission electron microscope.Results: The ultrastructural examination revealed the following changes: (1 Disturbances in the form and organization of keratinocytes; (2 Irregular distribution and interlacing of tonofilament bundles in keratinocytes; (3 Disruption of desmosomes and detachment of adjoining keratinocytes; (4 Excessive widening of intercellular spaces between keratinocytes; (5 Dilatation of intercellular spaces between basal cells; (6 Degranulation of melanocytes in the stratum basale; (7 Migration of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes between keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum; (8 Degradation of basal lamina; (9 Pericapillary edema in the apillary dermis. Conclusion: The ultrastructural findings in tinea pedis are described and related to the clinical symptoms and histopathologic features of the disease.

  2. A review of the ultrastructural features of superficial candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, J A M S

    2011-04-01

    Commensal yeast Candida causes opportunistic infections ranging from superficial lesions to disseminated mycoses in compromised patients. Superficial candidiasis, the commonest form of candidal infections, primarily affects the mucosa and the skin where Candida lives as a commensal. Conversion of candidal commensalism into opportunism at the fungal-epithelial interface is still ill-defined. Nevertheless, fungal virulence mechanisms such as adhesion to epithelia, morphogenesis, production of secretory hydrolytic enzymes, and phenotypic switching are thought to contribute in the process of pathogenesis. On the other hand, host responses in terms of immunity and local epithelial responses are actively involved in resisting the fungal challenge at the advancing front of the infection. Ultrastructural investigations using electron microscopy along with immunohistochemistry, cytochemistry, etc. have helped better viewing of Candida-host interactions. Thus, studies on the ultrastructure of superficial candidiasis have revealed a number of fungal behaviors and associated host responses such as adhesion, morphogenesis (hyphae and appresoria formation), thigmotropism, production and distribution of extracellular enzymes, phagocytosis, and epithelial changes. The purpose of this review is to sum up most of the ultrastructural findings of Candida-host interactions and to delineate the important pathological processes underlying superficial candidiasis.

  3. Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Brain lesions By Mayo Clinic Staff A brain lesion is an abnormality seen on a brain-imaging test, such as ... tomography (CT). On CT or MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don' ...

  4. Microvillous inclusion disease: ultrastructural variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Theodore C; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Manov, Irena; Shaoul, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Microvillous inclusion disease (MVID) is a congenital, usually neonatal, autosomal recessive condition manifested by severe, prolonged secretory diarrhea. Intestinal biopsies reveal extensive microvilli abnormalities, typical inclusions and vesicles mainly of the apical-luminal enterocytes and colonocytes. Although diagnosis can be suspected by special stains of the mucosa (PAS, CD10), the definitive diagnosis, recommended in view of potential intestinal transplantation, requires electron microscopy. In view of the marked variability of ultrastructural changes, extensive illustration is considered valuable for diagnosis. While the pathogenesis is still unknown, a number of images illustrate the suspected "arrested-trafficking" hypothesis of microvillous abnormalities. Others micrographs support the "engulfing" mechanism of inclusion formation. The electron micrographs should help ultrastructural diagnosis in this heterogeneous disease and can confirm diagnosis even in the absence of the typical inclusions.

  5. Is platelet-rich plasma able to enhance the results of arthroscopic microfracture in early osteoarthritis and cartilage lesion over 40 years of age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woo; Son, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Do; Jung, Gu-Hee

    2013-07-01

    Most studies suggested that arthroscopic microfracture is effective method at only less than 40 years of age. Thus, the authors thought that "how can this indication regarding age be extended?," and tried to find a way to use this technique effectively over 40 years of age. The aim of this study was the first to report the results regarding the PRP as an adjunct for arthroscopic microfracture in the early osteoarthritic (OA) knee with cartilage lesion over 40 years of age. 49 patients who underwent arthroscopic microfracture for cartilage lesion sized less than 4 cm(2) with early OA, aged 40-50 years, were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups: a control group with only arthroscopic microfracture (25 patients) and a study group with arthroscopic microfracture and PRP (24 patients). The patients were prospectively evaluated with VAS, IKDC score at preoperative and postoperative 1, 6, 12, and 24 months. And we perform second arthroscopies in 10 patients of each group to identify the extent of cartilage restoration at 4-6 months postoperatively. There were significant improvements in clinical results between preoperative evaluation and postoperative 2 years in both groups (p = 0.017). In the postoperative 2 years, clinical results showed significantly better in the study group than in the control group (p = 0.012). In post-arthroscopic finding, hardness and elasticity degree was better in the study group. The PRP injection with arthroscopic microfracture would be improved the results in early osteoarthritic knee with cartilage lesion in 40-50 years old, and the indication of this technique could be extended to 50 years.

  6. Early dynamic imaging in (68)Ga- PSMA-11 PET/CT allows discrimination of urinary bladder activity and prostate cancer lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Fritz, Josef; Warwitz, Boris; Scarpa, Lorenza; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Kendler, Dorota; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Virgolini, Irene Johanna

    2017-05-01

    PET/CT with (68)Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligands has been proven to establish a promising imaging modality in the work-up of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical relapse. Despite a high overall detection rate, the visualisation of local recurrence may be hampered by high physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole body imaging, usually starting 60 min after injection. This study sought to verify whether early dynamic (68)Ga-PSMA-11 (HBED-CC)PET/CT can differentiate pathologic PC-related tracer uptake from physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder. Eighty consecutive PC patients referred to (68)Ga -PSMA-11 PET/CT were included in this retrospective analysis (biochemical relapse: n = 64; primary staging: n = 8; evaluation of therapy response/restaging: n = 8). In addition to whole-body PET/CT acquisition 60 min post injection early dynamic imaging of the pelvis in the first 8 min after tracer injection was performed. SUVmax of pathologic lesions was calculated and time-activity curves were generated and compared to those of urinary bladder and areas of physiologic tracer uptake. A total of 55 lesions consistent with malignancy on 60 min whole body imaging exhibited also pathologic (68)Ga-PSMA-11 uptake during early dynamic imaging (prostatic bed/prostate gland: n = 27; lymph nodes: n = 12; bone: n = 16). All pathologic lesions showed tracer uptake within the first 3 min, whereas urinary bladder activity was absent within the first 3 min of dynamic imaging in all patients. Suvmax was significantly higher in PC lesions in the first 6 min compared to urinary bladder accumulation (p bladder accumulation. Performance of early dynamic imaging in addition to whole body imaging 60 min after tracer injection might improve the detection rate of local recurrence in PC patients with biochemical relapse referred for (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT.

  7. Ultrastructural and Histopathological Studies of the Digenetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrastructural and Histopathological Studies of the Digenetic Trematode Siphodera Ghanensis (Cryptogonimidae), Parasite of Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1802) from Lekki Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria.

  8. Short communication: Markers of oxidant status and inflammation relative to the development of claw lesions associated with lameness in early lactation cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Gandy, J C; Neuder, L; Brester, J; Sordillo, L M

    2016-07-01

    Lameness is a major health disorder of dairy cattle and evidence suggests that it may be associated with oxidative stress (OS) during the transition period. Some debate exists, however, as to whether OS precedes the development of lameness or if OS occurs as a consequence of lameness. The purpose of this study was to test whether cows showing claw lesions during early lactation had a greater pro-oxidant and inflammatory status throughout the dry period or at the start of the lactation. Blood samples were taken from 30 cows from the same herd at dry off, movement to the close-up pen, and between 3 and 7 d in milk. Sera were analyzed for concentrations of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant potential. Blood samples also were subjected to total and differential white blood cell counts. Animals were monitored through 120 d in milk and grouped ex post into the following health categories: (1) exclusively hoof lesions; (2) other production diseases; or (3) nondiseased. Changes in oxidant status and inflammatory markers were significantly different with respect to metabolic and physiologic adaptations to calving and lactation. No differences in oxidant status, acute phase protein concentrations, or leukocyte populations were observed between the hoof lesions and the nondiseased categories. Thus, any associations between OS and lameness likely occurs closer to the onset of clinical signs or as a consequence of inflammatory responses due to localized tissue injury. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 'Do UC the melanoma?' Recognising the importance of different lesions displaying unevenness or having a history of change for early melanoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagerman, Sarah E; Chen, Lucy; Jaimes, Natalia; Dusza, Stephen W; Halpern, Allan C; Marghoob, Ashfaq

    2014-05-01

    Many melanomas are of a diameter smaller than 6 mm and may lack classical asymmetry, border irregularity and colour variegation (ABCD). The objectives of this article are to characterise the fidelity of melanomas diagnosed in a high-risk clinic to the ABCD and to review potential methods for early clinical detection of melanoma. All cases of primary melanoma diagnosed by one clinician at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center over the past 11 years were evaluated for the presence of the ABCD. The melanomas were analysed for asymmetry of contour, unevenness in distribution of colours and textures, border irregularity, number of colours present and diameter. In all, 236 melanomas were analysed. Of these, asymmetry of contour was present in 65% and 94% demonstrated unevenness in the distribution of colours and textures. The borders were regular in 12% of the melanomas and colour variegation was present in 63%. In total, 28% of the lesions were small, with a diameter less than 6 mm. This study was limited by the subjectivity of clinical lesion analysis. We put forward for your consideration a new mnemonic: 'Do UC (different, uneven, changing) the melanoma?' This mnemonic encompasses differential, analytical and comparative cognition strategies for an enhanced early detection of melanoma. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. Therapy of Venezuelan patients with severe mucocutaneous or early lesions of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with a vaccine containing pasteurized Leishmania promastigotes and bacillus Calmette-Guerin: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Convit

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe mucocutaneous (MCL and diffuse (DCL forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL are infrequent in Venezuela. Chemotherapy produces only transitory remission in DCL, and occasional treatment failures are observed in MCL. We have evaluated therapy with an experimental vaccine in patients with severe leishmaniasis. Four patients with MCL and 3 with early DCL were treated with monthly intradermal injections of a vaccine containing promastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis killed by pasteurization and viable Bacillus Calmette- Guerin. Clinical and immunological responses were evaluated. Integrity of protein constituents in extracts of pasteurized promastigotes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Complete remission of lesions occurred after 5-9 injections in patients with MCL or 7-10 injections in patients with early DCL. DCL patients developed positive skin reactions, average size 18.7 mm. All have been free of active lesions for at least 10 months. Adverse effects of the vaccine were limited to local reactivity to BCG at the injection sites and fever in 2 patients. Extracts of pasteurized and fresh promastigotes did not reveal differences in the integrity of protein components detectable by gel electrophoresis. Immunotherapy with this modified vaccine offers an effective, safe option for the treatment of patients who do not respond to immunotherapy with vaccine containing autoclaved parasites or to chemotherapy .

  11. Therapy of Venezuelan patients with severe mucocutaneous or early lesions of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with a vaccine containing pasteurized Leishmania promastigotes and bacillus Calmette-Guerin: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convit, Jacinto; Ulrich, Marian; Polegre, María Argelia; Avila, Angela; Rodríguez, Noris; Mazzedo, Maria Ilina; Blanco, Belkis

    2004-02-01

    Severe mucocutaneous (MCL) and diffuse (DCL) forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) are infrequent in Venezuela. Chemotherapy produces only transitory remission in DCL, and occasional treatment failures are observed in MCL. We have evaluated therapy with an experimental vaccine in patients with severe leishmaniasis. Four patients with MCL and 3 with early DCL were treated with monthly intradermal injections of a vaccine containing promastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis killed by pasteurization and viable Bacillus Calmette- Guerin. Clinical and immunological responses were evaluated. Integrity of protein constituents in extracts of pasteurized promastigotes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Complete remission of lesions occurred after 5-9 injections in patients with MCL or 7-10 injections in patients with early DCL. DCL patients developed positive skin reactions, average size 18.7 mm. All have been free of active lesions for at least 10 months. Adverse effects of the vaccine were limited to local reactivity to BCG at the injection sites and fever in 2 patients. Extracts of pasteurized and fresh promastigotes did not reveal differences in the integrity of protein components detectable by gel electrophoresis. Immunotherapy with this modified vaccine offers an effective, safe option for the treatment of patients who do not respond to immunotherapy with vaccine containing autoclaved parasites or to chemotherapy.

  12. Predictors of Early Rebleeding after Endoscopic Therapy in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to High-Risk Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Maggio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In an era of increasingly shortened admissions, data regarding predictors of early rebleeding among patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB exhibiting high-risk stigmata (HRS having undergone endoscopic hemostasis are lacking.

  13. Comparison of visual, impedance spectroscopy and laser fluorescence methods in detecting early carious lesions on occlusal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalas Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic management is a very important and integral part of the entire treatment process and has a direct influence on the decision-taking on the choice of the most appropriate form of therapy consistent with current knowledge. Knowledge of the morphology of hard dental tissues lesions has led to the development of quantitative methods for diagnosis and monitoring of dental caries, which enabled the implementation of appropriate treatments aimed at repairing than replacing damaged tissue. The aim of the study was to compare selected diagnostic methods: visual (ICDAS, impedance spectroscopy (CarieScan PRO and laser fluorescence (Diagnodent Pen in detecting caries in grooves on the chewing surfaces of molars and premolars. The obtained results indicated a high concordance of measurements performed with the Diagnodent Pen with the results of visual examination and a lower compliance of visual examination with the results obtained using the CarieScan PRO. A combination of visual and tactile method with tests using advanced technology provides greater opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of carious lesions requiring medical intervention.

  14. Ultrastructural scoring of skin biopsies for diagnosis of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kim-Thanh; Plauchu, Henri; Peyrol, Simone; Roux, Elisabeth; Errazuriz, Elisabeth; Khau Van Kien, Philippe; Arbeille, Brigitte; Gaulier, Alain; Georgescou, Gabriela; Collignon, Patrick; Germain, Dominique P; Gaveau, Marie-Noëlle; Perdu, Jérôme; Laurent, Stéphane; Bruneval, Patrick; Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) results from a mutation in the gene encoding alpha-1, type III pro-collagen (COL3A1) and confers fragility to skin, ligament and vascular tissue. We tested the value of skin biopsy for diagnosis of vEDS through an ultrastructure scoring procedure. Study design was a multicentric, case-control, blinded trial consisting of two phases: phase 1 was to identify an ultra-structure score providing the best discriminative value for vEDS and phase 2 was to replicate this result in a different population. We enrolled 103 patients, 66 cases defined through the revised nosology for Ehlers-Danlos syndromes and 37 control subjects selected from patients referred for other pathologies. Ultrastructure of extracellular matrix was read by three to five experienced pathologists blinded for diagnosis. We used the receiver operating curves and logistic regression analysis for ranking ultrastructure scores. We created a detailed description of lesions observed in vEDS patients with 27 items (coded 0 or 1). In the phase 1 (17 cases and 20 controls), abnormal fibroblast shape, presence of lysosomes in the fibroblast and abnormal basal lamina were found to be independent discriminative items. Addition of these three items (defining an ultrastructure score) had the best diagnosis value (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.96). In the phase 2 (49 cases, 17 controls), ultrastructure score provided odds ratio of 9.76 (95 % CI 2.91-32.78), and AUC of 0.90. The ultrastructure score of skin biopsy has predictive value for the diagnosis of vEDS. Presence of two or more signs (either abnormal fibroblast, presence of lysosomes in the fibroblast or abnormal basal lamina) is very evocative of vEDS.

  15. Ultrastructural basis of acute renal allograft rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.D. Vuzevski (Vojislav)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractAn attempt was made: I. to demonstrate the evolution and the time of onset of the ultrastructural morphological changes in the renal parenchyma and blood vessels, as well as the ultrastructural feature of the interstitial cellular infiltration in acute rejection of kidney allografts; 2.

  16. An original approach in the diagnosis of early breast cancer: use of the same radiopharmaceutical for both non-palpable lesions and sentinel node localisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feggi, L.; Prandini, N. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, S. Anna Hospital, Ferrara (Italy); Basaglia, E.; Soliani, G.; Ascanelli, S.; Bergossi, L.; Carcoforo, P. [Dept. of General Surgery, University of Ferrara (Italy); Corcione, S. [Dept. of Radiology, S. Anna Hospital, Ferrara (Italy); Querzoli, P. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2001-11-01

    We propose the use of a single nanocolloid tracer which is labelled with technetium-99m for simultaneous performance of ROLL and sentinel node indentification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of this approach, which should be easier and more practical than the dual-tracer injection method. We have employed this new technique in 73 patients with non-palpable, cytologically diagnosed breast cancer and non-palpable axillary lymph nodes. In all patients the radiocolloid, in a total volume of 0.3-0.4 cc, was injected under sonographic or stereotactic guidance. Half of the dose was injected intratumourally and half superficially, but very close to the tumour. Because of the slow lymphatic flow in the breast, Nanocoll must be injected some time before surgery in order to enable adequate migration to the axilla. We injected colloid in the afternoon before surgery (16-23 h before the start of the operation, with an average interval of 18 h). An average dose of 130 MBq (range 110-150) was injected in order to have about 10 MBq of radioactivity when surgery commenced. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed after 15-19 h, with an average interval of 17 h. The procedure was always successful in permitting the localisation of occult breast lesions. Lesions were always localised at the first attempt, and were always contained within the surgical margins. Histological examination revealed all 73 resected lesions to be malignant: there were 64 cases of infiltrating carcinoma and nine of intraductal carcinoma. All breast lesions were therefore confirmed to be early breast cancer. We achieved sentinel node localisation in 71 out of 73, either at scintigraphy or with the intraoperative probe; in two patients, radiopharmaceutical migration was absent. Lymphoscintigraphy showed only axillary drainage in 52 cases, only internal mammary chain (IMC) drainage in nine cases, and combined axillary and IMC drainage in eight cases. In two cases, lymphoscintigraphy suggested the

  17. The importance of early arthroscopy in athletes with painful cartilage lesions of the ankle: a prospective study of 61 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyami Masoud

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are common in sports and can sometimes result in a persistent pain condition. Purpose Primarily to evaluate clinical symptoms, signs, diagnostics and outcomes of surgery for symptomatic chondral injuries of the talo crural joint in athletes. Secondly, in applicable cases, to evaluate the accuracy of MRI in detecting these injuries. Type of study: Prospective consecutive series. Methods Over around 4 years we studied 61 consecutive athletes with symptomatic chondral lesions to the talocrural joint causing persistent exertion ankle pain. Results 43% were professional full time athletes and 67% were semi-professional, elite or amateur athletes, main sports being soccer (49% and rugby (14%. The main subjective complaint was exertion ankle pain (93%. Effusion (75% and joint line tenderness on palpation (92% were the most common clinical findings. The duration from injury to arthroscopy for 58/61 cases was 7 months (5.7–7.9. 3/61 cases were referred within 3 weeks from injury. There were in total 75 cartilage lesions. Of these, 52 were located on the Talus dome, 17 on the medial malleolus and 6 on the Tibia plafond. Of the Talus dome injuries 18 were anteromedial, 14 anterolateral, 9 posteromedial, 3 posterolateral and 8 affecting mid talus. 50% were grade 4 lesions, 13.3% grade 3, 16.7% grade 2 and 20% grade 1. MRI had been performed pre operatively in 26/61 (39% and 59% of these had been interpreted as normal. Detection rate of cartilage lesions was only 19%, but subchondral oedema was present in 55%. At clinical follow up average 24 months after surgery (10–48 months, 73% were playing at pre-injury level. The average return to that level of sports after surgery was 16 weeks (3–32 weeks. However 43% still suffered minor symptoms. Conclusion Arthroscopy should be considered early when an athlete presents with exertion ankle pain, effusion and joint line tenderness on palpation after a previous sprain

  18. Assessment of structural lesions in sacroiliac joints enhances diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging in early spondylarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Lambert, Robert G W; Pedersen, Susanne J

    2010-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic utility of T1-weighted and STIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences in early spondylarthritis (SpA) using a standardized approach to the evaluation of sacroiliac (SI) joints, and to test whether systematic calibration of readers directed at recognition of abnormal...

  19. Early transient presence of implanted bone marrow stem cells reduces lesion size after cerebral ischaemia in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keimpema, E.; Fokkens, M. R.; Nagy, Z.; Agoston, V.; Luiten, P. G. M.; Nyakas, C.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Copray, J. C. V. M.

    Aims: Previous studies on the therapeutic time window for intravascular administration of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) after stroke have shown that early intervention (from 3 h after onset) in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model is the most effective approach to reduce ischaemic

  20. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC).

  1. Alterations of ROBO1/DUTT1 and ROBO2 loci in early dysplastic lesions of head and neck: clinical and prognostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Susmita; Ghosh, Amlan; Maiti, Guru Prasad; Alam, Neyaz; Roy, Anup; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2009-03-01

    Deletion of chromosomal 3p12.3 was suggested to be associated with dysplastic lesions of head and neck. This region harbors two candidate tumor suppressors ROBO1/DUTT1, ROBO2 and two non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) located at intron 2 of ROBO1/DUTT1. Aim of this study is to understand the role of these genes in development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. A collection of 72 dysplastic lesions and 116 HNSCC samples and two oral cancer cell lines were analyzed for ROBO1/DUTT1 and ROBO2 deletion and promoter methylation. ROBO1/DUTT1, ROBO2 and two ncRNAs mRNA expression were analyzed by Q-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis of ROBO1/DUTT1 and ROBO2 was performed. Alterations of these genes were correlated with different clinicopathological parameters. High frequency of molecular alterations (deletion/methylation) was seen in ROBO1/DUTT1 than ROBO2. In mild dysplastic lesions both of these genes showed high molecular alterations and remained more or less constant in subsequent stages. Q-PCR analysis showed reduced expression of these genes and the two ncRNAs. In vitro demethylation experiment by 5-aza-dC showed upregulation of ROBO1/DUTT1 and ROBO2 while the expression of the ncRNAs remained unchanged. Immunohistochemical analysis of ROBO1/DUTT1 and ROBO2 showed concordance with their mRNA expression and molecular alterations. Poor patients' outcome was predicted in the cases with alteration of ROBO1/DUTT1 along with tobacco addiction and nodal involvement. Our data suggests (a) ROBO1/DUTT1 and the ncRNAs are transcribed from different promoters, and (b) inactivation of ROBO1/DUTT1 could be used as molecular signature for early detection and prognosis of the head and neck cancer.

  2. The use of clinical guidelines for referral of patients with lesions suspicious for oral cancer may ease early diagnosis and improve education of healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Juan; Corral-Lizana, Cesar; González-Mosquera, Antonio; Cerero, Rocío; Esparza, Germán; Sanz-Cuesta, Teresa; Varela-Centelles, Pablo

    2011-11-01

    Early diagnosis and referral of oral cancer is essential. Successful implementation of clinical guidelines must include current practitioners and students. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of students at oral cancer screening and to assess the effectiveness of clinical referral guidelines. Fifth year dental students were randomly allocated to either control (n=19) or experimental groups (n = 18). Both received the customary training in oral diagnosis. The experimental group underwent a 2 hour workshop where the guidelines for the referral of suspicious lesions were discussed. Three months later, a set of 51 clinical cases including benign, malignant, and precancerous conditions/lesions were used to assess the screening ability of each subject. All 37 students entered the study. Sensitivity (control group) ranged from 16.7% to 66.7%; the experimental group scored from 16.7% to 83.3%. Fifty percent of the experimental students reached sensitivity values ≥ 62.5% (p = 0.01). Diagnostic specificity (control group) spanned from 80% to 93.3% (median = 50%); amongst experimental group it ranged from 82.2% to 97.8% (median = 92.8%); (p = 0.003). Concordance -control group- was X = 82.5 (SD = 3.2), and X = 88.2 (SD = 4.3) for the experimental, (p > 0.001). Cohen's kappa test was poor (K cancers urgently (p = 0.002) and left less unreferred cancers (0.04). This group also referred more precancerous lesions/conditions urgently (p = 0.02). The implementation of a clinical referral guideline at undergraduate level has proved valuable, under experimental conditions, to significantly increase diagnostic abilities of the examiners and thus to improve screening for oral cancer.

  3. SCM-198 attenuates early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits via modulation of the inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Guo, Wei; Wen, Yadan; Xiong, Qinghui; Liu, Hongrui; Wu, Jian; Zou, Yunzeng; Zhu, Yizhun

    2012-09-01

    To investigate SCM-198 (also known as "leonurine"), a compound in Herba leonuri, as well as its effect on the progression of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits and underlying mechanisms. Thirty New Zealand male White rabbits (5 groups, n = 6) were fed either a normal diet or a high-cholesterol diet (1%). The rabbits on the high-cholesterol diet received treatments of low, moderate, and high doses of SCM-198 and placebo concurrently. Eight weeks later, the animals underwent ultrasonographic imaging. They were then sacrificed for further pathological and molecular biological analysis. SCM-198-treated rabbits showed a significant alleviation in the development of atherosclerosis in a dose-dependent manner. The lesions were smaller after the SCM-198 treatments. In addition, the elasticity of the arteries and hemodynamic status improved, accompanied with a decrease in smooth muscle cell migration and, macrophage infiltration, as well as the expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) in the aortas. Marginal changes in the lipid parameters were found in the SCM-198-treated rabbits, with high-density lipid cholesterol (HDL-C) elevation and triglyceride (TG) reduction at the high dose. SCM-198 treatment dose-dependently reduced levels of serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the mRNA levels of VCAM-1, IL-6, TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), iNOS and MMP-9 in the aorta. In addition, SCM-198 also dose-dependently increased the total antioxidant capacities and in parallel decreased the lipid peroxidation levels in the serum and liver. The antioxidant effects of SCM-198 were implicated by the enhanced activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and levels of glutathione (GSH) in the liver, as well as the mRNA levels of CAT, SOD-1 and

  4. Bond Strength of Experimental Low-viscosity Resin Materials to Early Enamel Caries Lesions: Effect of Diluent/Solvent Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tatiany Gabrielle Freire; Sfalcin, Ravana Angelini; de Araújo, Giovana Spagnolo Albamonte; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Brusch; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of different concentrations of monomers and solvents/diluents on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) bond strength of experimental low-viscosity resins (infiltrants) to enamel caries-like lesions (ECLL). Flat enamel blocks obtained from sound human third molars were submitted to ECLL formation and randomly distributed into 9 groups (n = 10): G1: TEG-DMA 100%; G2: TEG-DMA 80%, ethanol 20%; G3; TEG-DMA 80%, HEMA 20%; G4: TEG-DMA 75%, UDMA 25%; G5: TEG-DMA 60%, UDMA 20%, ethanol 20%; G6: TEG-DMA 60%, UDMA 20%, HEMA 20%; G7: TEG-DMA 75%, bis-EMA 25%; G8: TEG-DMA 60%, bis-EMA 20%, ethanol 20%; G9: TEG-DMA 60%, bis-EMA 20%, HEMA 20%. After etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 60 s, experimental infiltrants were actively applied and photocured for 60 s, then stored in 100% humidity (24 h, 37°C). Hourglass-shaped specimens were obtained and the μTBS test performed (MPa). The fracture patterns were assessed by SEM. Data were submitted to two way-ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The highest μTBS value was observed for G4 (TEG-DMA/UDMA, 19.18 MPa) and the lowest for G5 (TEG-DMA/UDMA/ethanol, 9.00 MPa). A significant decrease in μTBS was observed for all groups containing ethanol (G2, G5, and G8). The addition of HEMA did not affect μTBS values. Most groups showed a high frequency of mixed failure between infiltrant and enamel. The addition of bis-EMA or UDMA to TEG-DMA-based infiltrants did not improve bond strength to carious enamel. The ethanol addition negatively affected the bonding strength of infiltrants to enamel caries-like lesions, regardless of the resin matrix composition of the infiltrant.

  5. White matter lesion load is associated with resting state functional MRI activity and amyloid PET but not FDG in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongxia; Yu, Fang; Duong, Timothy Q

    2015-01-01

    To quantify and investigate the interactions between multimodal MRI/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging metrics in elderly patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. Thirteen early AD, 17 MCI patients, and 14 age-matched healthy aging controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database were selected based on availability of data. Default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) were obtained for resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI). White matter lesion load (WMLL) was quantified from MRI T2-weighted FLAIR images. Amyloid deposition with PET [(18)F]-Florbetapir tracer and metabolism of glucose by means of [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) images were quantified using ratio of standard uptake values (rSUV). Whole-brain WMLL and amyloid deposition were significantly higher (P functional activity and PET amyloid load suggest the potential of MRI and PET-based biomarkers for early detection of AD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Tau Pathology and Parietal White Matter Lesions Have Independent but Synergistic Effects on Early Development of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Hertze

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: White matter lesions (WMLs are a common finding in patients with dementia. This study investigates the relationship between WMLs, hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 genotype in prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Baseline levels of tau, P-tau and β-amyloid 1-42 in CSF, the presence of WMLs in the brain, and the APOE genotype were ascertained in 159 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 38 cognitively healthy controls. Results: After 5.7 years, 58 patients had developed AD. In this group, patients with normal levels of CSF P-tau had higher levels of WMLs in the parietal regions than those with pathological P-tau levels (p Conclusions: We suggest that WMLs in parietal lobes and tau pathology likely have independent but synergistic effects on the reduction of the cognitive reserve capacity of the brain. In patients with a more low-grade AD pathology, WMLs in the parietal lobes might increase the risk of developing dementia.

  7. Neonatal mucolipidosis 2. The spontaneous evolution of early bone lesions and the effect of vitamin D treatment. Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzaglia, U.E.; Zatti, G. (Pavia Univ. (Italy). Clinica Ortopedica); Beluffi, G. (Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (Italy). Servizio di Radiodiagnostica); Danesino, C. (Sassari Univ. (Italy). Cattedra di Genetica Umana); Frediani, P.V. (Ospedale dei Bambini Umberto I, Brescia (Italy)); Pagani, G. (Ospedale Santa Anna, Como (Italy). Div. di Patologia Neonatale)

    1989-11-01

    Evolution of the early bone lesions in two children with mucolipidosis 2 was followed from birth. The progression of the bone changes did not differ from healing of rickets. Low levels of 1,25-OH{sub 2}-D3 were found in one child and he was treated with vitamin D; resolution of the rachitic changes was more rapid than in the untreated child. It is suggested that in mucolipidosis 2 bone reacts to two independent factors, one controlling calcium metabolism, the other depending on the primary lysosomal enzyme defect. Since ricket-like features are not present in the other mucolipidoses or mucopolysaccharidoses, the defect of calcium metabolism seems to be related to the specific enzyme defect of mucolipidosis 2. (orig.).

  8. Peroxisome-proliferator activator receptor-gamma activation decreases attachment of endometrial cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells in an in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, S K; Witz, C A; Binkley, P A; Nair, A S; Lebovic, D I

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activation has an effect on the attachment of endometrial cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells in a well-established in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion. The endometrial epithelial cell line EM42 and mesothelial cell line LP9 were used for this study. EM42 cells, LP9 cells or both were treated with the PPAR-gamma agonist ciglitazone (CTZ) at varying concentrations (10, 20 and 40 microM) x 48 h with subsequent co-culture of EM42 and LP9 cells. The rate of EM42 attachment and invasion through LP9 cells was then assessed and compared with control (EM42 and LP9 cells co-cultured without prior treatment with CTZ). Next, attachment of CTZ-treated and untreated EM42 cells to hyaluronic acid (HA), a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) on peritoneal mesothelial cells, were assessed. Although there was no difference in EM42 attachment when LP9 cells alone were treated with CTZ, treatment of EM42 cells with 40 microM CTZ decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 cells by 27% (P CTZ decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 by 37% (P CTZ decreased attachment to HA by 66% (P = 0.056). CTZ did not decrease invasion of EM42 cells through the LP9 monolayer. CTZ may inhibit EM42 cell proliferation. In conclusion, CTZ significantly decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 cells and HA in an in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion.

  9. The development of morphosyntactic ability in atypical populations: The acquisition of tag questions in children with early focal lesions and children with specific-language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Jill; Wulfeck, Beverly; Reilly, Judy

    2004-02-01

    We examined the development of some features of morphosyntactic ability, specifically the acquisition of auxiliaries and use of agreement marking, along with sentence processing capacity. We used a conceptually simple task called the Tags Question Task, which is a method for evaluating a number of language processes in the production of a commonly used, familiar linguistic device. We compared the performance of children with early focal lesions (N=21), children with specific-language impairment (N=24), and typically developing children (N=24) matched in age and nonverbal ability; additional analyses involved comparisons of children matched on performance level. The data converge to support a "delayed" development of language behavior in our clinical groups, as overall patterns of performance and age-related changes on individual tag features and tag questions were strikingly similar in all three groups across a number of methods of comparison. Implications for theories of the development of brain-language relationships as they pertain to early focal brain damage, specific-language impairment, and the language acquisition process in typically developing children are discussed.

  10. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-granules: ultrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-29

    ANP) are present in the four regions of the atrial-auricular complex (two atria and two auricles). ANP-immunoreactivity was detected in all granules from the four regions. Ultrastructurally, atrial myocytes show the presence of very ...

  11. Charcot-Leyden crystals within a periapical lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, G K; Simon, J H

    2000-11-01

    Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of Charcot-Leyden crystals within a periapical lesion, which was assessed histopathologically as consistent with a periapical granuloma that failed to resolve after conventional endodontic treatment. This paper presents the clinical, radiographic, histological, and ultrastructural findings of this case and discusses their potential clinical significance.

  12. On the tube ultrastructure and origin of calcification in sabellids (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinn, O.; ten Hove, H.A.; Mutvei, H.

    2008-01-01

    Tube ultrastructure of Jurassic and Cretaceous Glomerula is very similar to that of Recent Calcisabella, supporting the synonymy of these genera and the early Mesozoic origin of calcification in sabellids. Tube structure of serpulids differs from that of Glomerula; calcareous tubes probably evolved

  13. 48. Can early 24 hours Holter monitoring predict obstructive coronary artery lesions in patients with low risk acute coronary syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Taha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of patients at increased risk of death due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS can add to risk stratification and guide the next step in the management of those patients. Altered HRV has been associated with adverse outcomes in heart disease, but this has not been established in patients with acute chest pain.This study aimed to create a non-invasive, economical and risk-free method in the clinical evaluation and diagnosis of significant CAD among patients with unstable angina.Twenty-four-hour Holter recordings of 100 patients with ACS were initiated within 24 hours of admission at the emergency department; stress ECG was done for all patients while coronary angiography was done only for patients with abnormal stress test. Time domain, frequency domain, and nonlinear HRV were examined.The mean SDNN was statistically significantly lower in patients with abnormal stress test, many time and frequency domain HRV parameters was statistically lower in patients with significant coronary arteries obstruction. HRV measured close to the ACS onset may assist in risk stratification. HRV parameters may provide additional, incremental prognostic information to established assessment guidelines and possible early intervention in those patients.

  14. Lesiones Combinadas Complejas Postraumáticas en Pierna. Tratamiento temprano versus tardío. [Complex combined post-traumatic leg injuries. Early versus delayed treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Allende

    2015-04-01

    En lesiones agudas es recomendable la cobertura utilizando colgajos libres; pero en lesiones crónicas, nuestras indicaciones se han ido modificando, y los colgajos fasciocutaneos rotatorios son actualmente nuestra primera opción de cobertura.

  15. MRI and biomechanics multidimensional data analysis reveals R2 -R1ρ as an early predictor of cartilage lesion progression in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoia, Valentina; Haefeli, Jenny; Morioka, Kazuhito; Teng, Hsiang-Ling; Nardo, Lorenzo; Souza, Richard B; Ferguson, Adam R; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2017-05-04

    To couple quantitative compositional MRI, gait analysis, and machine learning multidimensional data analysis to study osteoarthritis (OA). OA is a multifactorial disorder accompanied by biochemical and morphological changes in the articular cartilage, modulated by skeletal biomechanics and gait. While we can now acquire detailed information about the knee joint structure and function, we are not yet able to leverage the multifactorial factors for diagnosis and disease management of knee OA. We mapped 178 subjects in a multidimensional space integrating: demographic, clinical information, gait kinematics and kinetics, cartilage compositional T1ρ and T2 and R2 -R1ρ (1/T2 -1/T1ρ ) acquired at 3T and whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score morphological grading. Topological data analysis (TDA) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were adopted for data integration, analysis, and hypothesis generation. Regression models were used for hypothesis testing. The results of the TDA showed a network composed of three main patient subpopulations, thus potentially identifying new phenotypes. T2 and T1ρ values (T2 lateral femur P = 1.45*10-8 , T1ρ medial tibia P = 1.05*10-5 ), the presence of femoral cartilage defects (P = 0.0013), lesions in the meniscus body (P = 0.0035), and race (P = 2.44*10-4 ) were key markers in the subpopulation classification. Within one of the subpopulations we observed an association between the composite metric R2 -R1ρ and the longitudinal progression of cartilage lesions. The analysis presented demonstrates some of the complex multitissue biochemical and biomechanical interactions that define joint degeneration and OA using a multidimensional approach, and potentially indicates that R2 -R1ρ may be an imaging biomarker for early OA. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Rib lesions in skeletons from early neolithic sites in Central Germany: on the trail of tuberculosis at the onset of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Maixner, Frank; Ganslmeier, Robert; Friederich, Susanne; Dresely, Veit; Meller, Harald; Zink, Albert; Alt, Kurt W

    2012-11-01

    As an infectious disease, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Paleopathological and paleomicrobiological studies indicate a long standing association of the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its human host. Since the occurrence and the epidemic spread of this pathogen seem to be closely linked to social and biological factors, it is of particular interest to understand better the role of TB during periods of social and nutritional change such as the Neolithic. In this study, 118 individuals from three sites in Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) dating to the Linear Pottery Culture (5400-4800 BC) were examined macroscopically to identify TB related bone lesions. In two individuals, Pott's disease was detected. In addition, periosteal reactions of varying degrees and frequency were observed mainly along the neck of the ribs in 6.5% (2/31) of subadults and 35.1% (20/57) of adults, with one site standing out markedly. Rib lesions, however, are not specific indicators of TB as they can also be caused by other diseases; so additional investigations were undertaken using histology and micro-CT scans to say more about the disease process. Supplementary molecular analyses indicate the presence of pathogens belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in individuals of all sites. Furthermore, we discuss the occurrence and spread of TB during the Neolithic with regard to nutritional aspects and possible risks of infection. The data presented provide important insights into the health status of Early Neolithic populations in Central Germany. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Procedural and early clinical outcomes of patients with de novo coronary bifurcation lesions treated with the novel Nile PAX dedicated bifurcation polymer-free paclitaxel coated stents: Results from the prospective, multicentre, non-randomised BIPAX clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Costa (Ricardo); A.C. Abizaid (Alexandre); A.C. Abizaid (Alexandre); B.G. Del Blanco (Bruno Garcia); J. Berland (Jacques); I. Petrov (Ivo); P. Brenot (Philippe); R.J. van Guens; T. Royer (Thierry); M. Rubino (Maurizio); M. Lesiak (MacIej); J. Fajadet (Jean)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAims: To demonstrate the acute and early outcomes of the novel Nile PAX dedicated polymer-free paclitaxel-coated stents (Minvasys SAS, Gennevilliers, France) in the treatment of de novo coronary bifurcation lesions. Methods and results: The Nile PAX device incorporates a cobalt-chromium

  18. Early outcome of high energy Laser (Excimer) facilitated coronary angioplasty ON hARD and complex calcified and balloOn-resistant coronary lesions: LEONARDO Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Vittorio; Sorropago, Giovanni; Laurenzano, Eugenio [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Golino, Luca, E-mail: lucagolino.jazz@alice.it [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Moriggia-Pelascini Hospital, Gravedona, Como (Italy); Casafina, Alfredo; Schiano, Vittorio [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Gabrielli, Gabriele [University Hospital Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona (Italy); Ettori, Federica; Chizzola, Giuliano [Spedali Civili University Hospital, Brescia (Italy); Bernardi, Guglielmo; Spedicato, Leonardo [University Hospital S. Maria Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Armigliato, Pietro [Istituto Italiano Ricerche Mediche, Verona (Italy); Spampanato, Carmine [Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Naples (Italy); Furegato, Martina [Istituto Italiano Ricerche Mediche, Verona (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Aim: An innovative xenon–chlorine (excimer) pulsed laser catheter (ELCA X80) has been recently used for the treatment of complex coronary lesions, as calcified stenosis, chronic total occlusions and non-compliant plaques. Such complex lesions are difficult to adequately treat with balloon angioplasty and/or intracoronary stenting. The aim of this study was to examine the acute outcome of this approach on a cohort of patients with coronary lesions. Methods and Results: Eighty patients with 100 lesions were enrolled through four centers, and excimer laser coronary angioplasty was performed on 96 lesions (96%). Safety and effectiveness data were compared between patients treated with standard laser therapy and those treated with increased laser therapy. Laser success was obtained in 90 lesions (93.7%), procedural success was reached in 88 lesions (91.7%), and clinical success in was obtained in 87 lesions (90.6%). There was no perforation, major side branch occlusion, spasm, no-reflow phenomenon, dissection nor acute vessel closure. Increased laser parameters were used successfully for 49 resistant lesions without complications. Conclusions: This study suggests that laser-facilitated coronary angioplasty is a simple, safe and effective device for the management of complex coronary lesions. Furthermore, higher laser energy levels delivered by this catheter improved the device performance without increasing complications. - Highlights: • We planned this multicenter study to examine the acute outcome of an innovative xenon–chlorine (excimer) pulsed laser catheter (ELCA X80) for treatment of complex coronary lesions. • We enrolled 80 patients with 100 lesions and performed excimer laser coronary angioplasty in 96 lesions (96%). • Laser success was obtained in 90 lesions (93.7%), procedural success was reached in 88 lesions (91.7%), and clinical success was obtained in 87 lesions (90.6%). • Increased laser parameters were used successfully for 49 resistant

  19. Lesion procedures in psychiatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaun R; Aronson, Joshua P; Sheth, Sameer A; Eskandar, Emad N

    2013-01-01

    Lesion procedures for psychiatric indications have a history that spans more than a century. This review provides a brief history of psychiatric surgery and addresses the most recent literature on lesion surgery for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. Relevant data described in publications from the early 1900 s through the modern era regarding lesion procedures for psychiatric indications, both historical and current use, are reported. The early procedures of Burkhardt, Moniz, and Freeman are reviewed, followed by descriptions of the more refined techniques of Leksell, Knight, Foltz, White, and Kelly. The application of lesion procedures to obsessive-compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and addiction are discussed. Lesioning procedures have informed modern deep brain stimulation targets. Recent lesioning studies demonstrate the efficacy and durability of these procedures in severely disabled patients. Judicious application of these techniques should continue for appropriately selected patients with severe, refractory psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Lesiones laborales

    OpenAIRE

    Plachesi, Pierina

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones laborales se producen por un esfuerzo repetitivo, cuando un exceso de presión se ejerce sobre una parte del cuerpo provocando lesiones óseas, articulares, musculares y daños en los tejidos. Los accidentes laborales también pueden producir una lesión en el organismo y esto sumado a diversos factores es un problema para la reinserción laboral de los trabajadores de la energía eléctrica. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son las lesiones más frecuentes que afectan a los ...

  1. Effects of Maternal Undernutrition on Glomerular Ultrastructure in Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ming Chen

    2009-04-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that glomerular ultrastructure is not affected by maternal undernutrition and suggest that altered glomerular ultrastructure is not a contributory factor to the pathogenesis of hypertension following maternal undernutrition.

  2. Oral lesions in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprotic oral lesions are more common in the lepromatous form of leprosy, indicate a late manifestation, and have a great epidemiological importance as a source of infection. METHODS: Patients with leprosy were examined searching for oral lesions. Biopsies of the left buccal mucosa in all patients, and of oral lesions, were performed and were stained with H&E and Wade. RESULTS: Oral lesions were found in 26 patients, 11 lepromatous leprosy, 14 borderline leprosy, and one tuberculoid leprosy. Clinically 5 patients had enanthem of the anterior pillars, 3 of the uvula and 3 of the palate. Two had palatal infiltration. Viable bacilli were found in two lepromatous patients. Biopsies of the buccal mucosa showed no change or a nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate. Oral clinical alterations were present in 69% of the patients; of these 50% showed histopathological features in an area without any lesion. DISCUSSION: Our clinical and histopathological findings corroborate earlier reports that there is a reduced incidence of oral changes, which is probably due to early treatment. The maintenance of oral infection in this area can also lead to and maintain lepra reactions, while they may also act as possible infection sources. Attention should be given to oral disease in leprosy because detection and treatment of oral lesions can prevent the spread of the disease.

  3. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Bretlau, P

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit is described following vascular perfusion-fixation of live, anesthetized and artificially respirated healthy animals. A new and improved technique of fixation is employed that includes a pressure feedback controlled peristaltic pump and an o......The ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit is described following vascular perfusion-fixation of live, anesthetized and artificially respirated healthy animals. A new and improved technique of fixation is employed that includes a pressure feedback controlled peristaltic pump...

  4. Ultrastructural, autoradiographic and electrophoretic examinations of Chara tomentosa spermiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of a spermatid nucleus changes many times during spermiogenesis. Condensed chromatin forms irregular clusters during phases I-II, a continuous ring adjacent to a nuclear envelope during phases III-V and a network occupying the whole nucleus during phase VI. In advanced spermiogenesis dense chromatin disappears and short randomly positioned fibrils arise, then long parallel ones are found (phase VIII which during phase IX form a lamellar structure. In mature spermatozoids (phase X chromatin becomes extremely condensed. 3H-arginine and 3H-lysine incorporation into spermatids during 2-min incubation is intensive during phases IN, decreases during phases VI, VII and becomes very low during phases VIII-IX. Capillary electrophoresis has shown that during Chara tomentosa spermiogenesis replacement of histones with basic proteins whose mobility is comparable to that of salmon protamines takes place. At the beginning of spermiogenesis core and linker histones are found in spermatids. During early spermiogenesis protamine-like proteins appear and their amount increases in late spermiogenesis when core histones are still present. In mature spermatozoids only protamine-like proteins represented by 3 fractions: 9.1 kDa, 9.6 kDa, 11.2 kDa are found. Disappearance of linker histones following their modification precedes disappearance of core histones. The results indicate that dynamic rearrangement of chromatin ultrastructure and aminoacid incorporation rate during spermiogenesis are reflected in basic nuclear protein changes.

  5. Unilateral lesion of dorsal hippocampus in adult rats impairs contralateral long-term potentiation in vivo and spatial memory in the early postoperative phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Wu, Xiaoyan; Bai, Yanrui; Huang, Yan; He, Wenting; Dong, Zhifang

    2012-05-01

    It is well documented that bilateral hippocampal lesions or unilateral hippocampal lesion at birth causes impairment of contralateral LTP and long-term memory. However, effects of unilateral hippocampal lesion in adults on contralateral in vivo LTP and memory are not clear. We here examined the influence of unilateral electrolytic dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats on contralateral LTP in vivo and spatial memory during different postoperative phases. We found that acute unilateral hippocampal lesion had no effect on contralateral LTP. However, contralateral LTP was impaired at 1 week after lesion, and was restored to the control level at postoperative week 4. Similarly, spatial memory was also impaired at postoperative week 1, and was restored at postoperative week 4. In addition, the rats at postoperative week 1 showed stronger spatial exploratory behavior in a novel open-field environment. The sham operation had no effects on contralateral LTP, spatial memory and exploration at either postoperative week 1 or week 4. These results suggest that unilateral dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats causes transient contralateral LTP impairment and spatial memory deficit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-granules: ultrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANP) are present in the four regions of the atrial-auricular complex (two atria and two auricles). ANP-immunoreactivity was detected in all granules from the four regions. Ultrastructurally, atrial myocytes show the presence of very electron dense ...

  7. Ultrastructure of the innermost surface of differentiating normal and compression wood tracheids as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Sik; Awano, Tatsuya; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji

    2012-06-01

    The ultrastructure of the innermost surface of Cryptomeria japonica differentiating normal wood (NW) and compression wood (CW) was comparatively investigated by field emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM) combined with enzymatic degradation of hemicelluloses. Cellulose microfibril (CMF) bundles were readily observed in NW tracheids in the early stage of secondary cell wall formation, but not in CW tracheids because of the heavy accumulation of amorphous materials composed mainly of galactans and lignin. This result suggests that the ultrastructural deposition of cell wall components in the tracheid cell wall differ between NW and CW from the early stage of secondary cell wall formation. Delignified NW and CW tracheids showed similar structural changes during differentiating stages after xylanase or β-mannanase treatment, whereas they exhibited clear differences in ultrastructure in mature stages. Although thin CMF bundles were exposed in both delignified mature NW and CW tracheids by xylanase treatment, ultrastructural changes following β-mannanase treatment were only observed in CW tracheids. CW tracheids also showed different degradation patterns between xylanase and β-mannanase. CMF bundles showed a smooth surface in delignified mature CW tracheids treated with xylanase, whereas they had an uneven surface in delignified mature CW tracheids treated with β-mannanase, indicating that the uneven surface of CMF bundles was related to xylans. The present results suggest that ultrastructural deposition and organization of lignin and hemicelluloses in CW tracheids may differ from those of NW tracheids.

  8. Eosinophil granule proteins ECP and EPX as markers for a potential early-stage inflammatory lesion in female genital schistosomiasis (FGS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Kildemoes, Anna M. O.; Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genital granulomas induced by Schistosoma haematobium eggs can manifest as different lesion types visible by colposcopy; rubbery papules (RP), homogenous sandy patches (HSP) and grainy sandy patches (GSP). Pronounced tissue eosinophilia is a candidate marker for active S. haematobium ...

  9. Aerodynamics and pollen ultrastructure in Ephedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinder, Kristina; Niklas, Karl J; Rydin, Catarina

    2015-03-01

    • Pollen dispersal is affected by the terminal settling velocity (Ut) of the grains, which is determined by their size, bulk density, and by atmospheric conditions. The likelihood that wind-dispersed pollen is captured by ovulate organs is influenced by the aerodynamic environment created around and by ovulate organs. We investigated pollen ultrastructure and Ut of Ephedra foeminea (purported to be entomophilous), and simulated the capture efficiency of its ovules. Results were compared with those from previously studied anemophilous Ephedra species.• Ut was determined using stroboscopic photography of pollen in free fall. The acceleration field around an "average" ovule was calculated, and inflight behavior of pollen grains was predicted using computer simulations. Pollen morphology and ultrastructure were investigated using SEM and STEM.• Pollen wall ultrastructure was correlated with Ut in Ephedra. The relative proportion and amount of granules in the infratectum determine pollen bulk densities, and (together with overall size) determine Ut and thus dispersal capability. Computer simulations failed to reveal any functional traits favoring anemophilous pollen capture in E. foeminea.• The fast Ut and dense ultrastructure of E. foeminea pollen are consistent with functional traits that distinguish entomophilous species from anemophilous species. In anemophilous Ephedra species, ovulate organs create an aerodynamic microenvironment that directs airborne pollen to the pollination drops. In E. foeminea, no such microenvironment is created. Ephedroid palynomorphs from the Cretaceous share the ultrastructural characteristics of E. foeminea, and at least some may, therefore, have been produced by insect-pollinated plants. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  11. Ultrastructure and phylogenetic significance of the transitory nephridia in Dendrobaena veneta and Tubifex sp. (Annelida: Clitellata)

    OpenAIRE

    Quast, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Developmental stages of Tubificidae, Lumbriculidae and Lumbricidae possess one pair of transitory nephridia that degenerate when the anteriormost segmental nephridia are formed. The early occurence of the organs and their position in the presumptive head area suggest that they are homologous to the head kidneys in the larvae of polychaetes and molluscs. Therefore, it can be expected that ultrastructural data of the transitory nephridia provide information about the phylogenetic position of t...

  12. Cell wall ultrastructure and intracytoplasmic bacteria in hypnocysts of toxic Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Schweikert, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Hypnocysts of toxic Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech collected during a bloom in the North Sea near Scotland (UK) have been investigated ultrastructurally. Details of cell wall morphology and a cell wall covering, not mentioned previously in the literature, are given. The presence of intracellular bacteria has been shown by means of transmission electron microscopy. These bacteria were present in early and mature hypnocysts, but absent in flagellated vegetative cells found in the same re...

  13. Real space flight travel is associated with ultrastructural changes, cytoskeletal disruption and premature senescence of HUVEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitonova, M Y; Muid, S; Froemming, G R A; Yusoff, W N W; Othman, S; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H M

    2012-12-01

    Microgravity, hypergravity, vibration, ionizing radiation and temperature fluctuations are major factors of outer space flight affecting human organs and tissues. There are several reports on the effect of space flight on different human cell types of mesenchymal origin while information regarding changes to vascular endothelial cells is scarce. Ultrastructural and cytophysiological features of macrovascular endothelial cells in outer space flight and their persistence during subsequent culturing were demonstrated in the present investigation. At the end of the space flight, endothelial cells displayed profound changes indicating cytoskeletal lesions and increased cell membrane permeability. Readapted cells of subsequent passages exhibited persisting cytoskeletal changes, decreased metabolism and cell growth indicating cellular senescence.

  14. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  15. Ciliary ultrastructure of polyplacophorans (Mollusca, Amphineura, Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, K; Schander, C

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of a series of papers aiming to investigate the phylogenetic significance of ciliary ultrastructure among molluscs and to test the hypothesis of a relationship between Xenoturbella and the molluscs. The ultrastructure of the ciliary apparatus on the gills of the polyplacophorans Leptochiton asellus and Tonicella rubra was studied. The gill cilia of the two species are similar in shape. The free part of the cilium is long with a slender distal part. There are two ciliary rootlets. One of them is short, broad and placed on the anterior face of the basal body. The other rootlet is conical and has a vertical orientation. Among the mollusca, two ciliary rootlets in the ciliary apparatus of multiciliate ectodermal cells have only been reported from the Chaetodermomorpha and Neomeniomorpha. This character state is likely plesiomorphic for the Mollusca and indicates a basal (nonderived) position of these taxa among the molluscs. No possible synapomorphic character with Xenoturbella bocki was found.

  16. Ultrastructural morphology of a middle ear ceruminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Peter; Handisurya, Alessandra; Steurer, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The ultrastructural morphology of a ceruminous gland adenoma in the middle ear was examined electron microscopically. The epithelial tumor cells displayed apocrine caps, microvilli, cell junctions, secretory granules, vacuoles, lipid droplets and siderosomes, which are the characteristic ultrastructural features of apocrine glands. Concentric membranous bodies of the endoplasmic reticulum, phagocytic activity of the tumor cells, intracytoplasmic lumina, ciliated cells and also spiny collagen in the tumor stroma could be seen. The myoepithelial cells are an important tumor marker in the differential diagnosis between ceruminomas and adenomas of the middle ear. The ectopic origin in the modified apocrine ceruminous glands, the specific localization, the clinical features and the extremely rare occurrence of the ceruminoma makes this tumor a unique neoplastic entity. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  18. Clinical correlative study on early detection of oral cancer and precancerous lesions by modified oral brush biopsy and cytology followed by histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrate that modified oral brush biopsy has higher efficacy than routine cytology and can be used as a potentially practical oral cancer screening tool in resource challenged settings. However, clinical judgment is of prime importance. Immediate biopsy is mandatory in highly suspicious lesions proposed under the diagnostic criteria of "clinically diagnosed carcinoma in situ".

  19. Treatment of internal rotation contracture of the shoulder in obstetric brachial plexus lesions by subscapular tendon lengthening and open reduction: early results and complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, Johannes A.; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J. R.; de Gast, Arthur; Nollet, Frans; Winters, Hay; Wuisman, Paul I. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    In this prospective study of 19 consecutive children, the operative treatment of internal rotation contracture of the shoulder in obstetric brachial plexus lesions by subscapular tendon lengthening and open reduction of the humeral head is evaluated. The average age of the children was 3.7 years and

  20. Risk of progression of early cervical lesions is associated with integration and persistence of HPV-16 and expression of E6, Ki-67, and telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Vega-Peña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL are the earliest lesions of the uterine cervix, the persistence and integration of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV as type 16, which promotes the development of more aggressive lesions. Aim: To select more aggressive lesions with tendency to progress to invasive cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 cytological specimens in liquid base (Liqui-PREP were analyzed: 25 specimens were with no signs of SIL (NSIL and without HPV; 25 NSIL with HPV-16, and 25 with both LSIL and HPV-16. The expression of Ki-67, telomerase, and viral E6 was evaluated by immunocytochemistry; and the detection of viral DNA was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs for genotyping or sequencing of HPV-16. The physical state of HPV-16 was evaluated by in situ hybridization with amplification with tyramide. Results: Of the total group, 58.6% had LSIL associated with persistence and of these 59.3% was associated with integrated state of HPV as intense expression of E6, Ki-67 (P = 0.013, P = 0.055 has except for the expression of telomerase present a non-significant association (P<0.341. Conclusions: Overexpression of E6 and Ki-67 is associated with the integration of HPV-16, favoring viral persistence, and increasing the risk of progression in women with NSIL and LSIL.

  1. Ultrastructure of Mycobacterium marinum granuloma in striped bass Morone saxatilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging epizootic of mycobacteriosis currently threatens striped bass Morone saxatilis populations in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Several species of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum, species resembling M. avium, M. gordonae, M. peregrinum, M. scrofulaceum and M. terrae, and the new species M. shottsii have been isolated from diseased and healthy bass. In this study, we describe the ultrastructure of developing M. marinum granulomas in experimentally infected bass over a period of 45 wk. The primary host response to injected mycobacteria was formation of large macrophage aggregations containing phagocytosed bacilli, M. marinum were always contained within phagosomes. Close association of lysosomes with mycobacterial phagosomes, as well as the presence of electron-opaque material within phagosomes, suggested phagolysosomal fusion. Development of granulomas involved epithelioid transformation of macrophages, followed by appearance of central necrosis. Desmosomes were present between mature epithelioid cells. The necrotic core region of M. marinum granulomas was separated from overlying epithelioid cells by several layers of flattened, electron-opaque spindle-shaped cells. These cells appeared to be formed by compression of epithelioid cells and, aside from a flattened nucleus, did not possess recognizable organelles. Following the development of well-defined, paucibacillary granulomas, secondary disease was observed. Recrudescence was marked by bacterial replication followed by disruption of granuloma architecture, including loss of epithelioid and spindle cell layers. In advanced recrudescent lesions, normal tissue was replaced by macrophages, fibroblasts, and other inflammatory leukocytes. Large numbers of mycobacteria were observed, both intracellular and suspended in cellular debris.

  2. Ultrastructure of oogenesis in imposex females of Babylonia areolata (Caenogastropoda: Buccinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenpo, C.; Suwanjarat, J.; Klepal, W.

    2011-09-01

    During a tributyltin (TBT)-exposure experiment, the ultrastructural features of oogenesis have been examined in TBT-induced imposex females of Babylonia areolata and compared with those of the normal female. The results obtained from such experiment demonstrates that B. areolata exhibits a low to moderate intensity of imposex because all VDSI values are never higher than 3. Ultrastructures of germ cell development including oogonia, pre-vitellogenic, early vitellogenic, late vitellogenic and mature oocytes show that oogenesis in imposex female is similar to that of normal females except for the presence of numerous lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of the oocytes and the follicle cells in imposex females, indicating the degeneration of their oocytes. Vitellogenesis in B. areolata involves both auto- and heterosynthetic processes that resemble those of the basal gastropods and the pulmonates. In addition, the presence of cortical granules and microvilli are unique structures of this species.

  3. Effects of Korean red ginseng extract on the prevention of atopic dermatitis and its mechanism on early lesions in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eujin; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2013-01-09

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been shown to possess various biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of KRG on the prevention of atopic dermatitis (AD) using a mouse model. The effect of KRG in trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB)-treated NC/Nga mice was assessed by measuring ear thickness, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), total serum IgE, histologic changes of lesional skin, mRNA and protein expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, immunohistochemistry for tissue interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17, and interferon (IFN)-γ. KRG significantly reduced ear thickness. Oral administration of KRG significantly prevented the increase in TEWL induced by TNCB. The serum IgE level was significantly lower in the KRG group. Histologically, lymphocyte infiltration was markedly decreased by KRG. CD1a positive (CD1a+) cells were diminished by KRG. Immunohistochemically, KRG significantly suppressed the protein expression of TSLP and TNF-α. The mRNA expression of TSLP in the lesions was significantly reduced by KRG. These results demonstrate that oral administration of KRG may inhibit the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by modifying TSLP, DCs, and at least in part, the Th2 response. KRG may be a potential therapeutic modality for the prevention of AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coronary and systemic arterial physiology and immunohistochemical markers related to early coronary arterial lesions in beagle dogs given the potassium channel opener, ZD6169, or the endothelin receptor antagonist, ZD1611.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw Bowen; Björkman, Jan-Arne; Schofield, Jason

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand Factor [vWF] or fibrinogen) and systemic and coronary arterial physiological parameters in beagle dogs to investigate early arterial lesions induced by the potassium channel opener, ZD6169, or the endothelin receptor antagonist, ZD1611. Dogs given an oral dose of ZD6169 (experiment 1) were terminated 1 day later and showed arterial and myocardial lesions. Minimal arterial lesions exhibited few condensed medial smooth muscle cells only, with others showing segmental medial necrosis occasionally with medial/adventitial acute inflammation. Intercellular immunostaining was seen in ostensibly normal tissue, where no pathology was present in conventionally stained sections. vWF and fibrinogen are valuable tools for detecting disruption of arterial integrity. In experiment 2, 2 dogs were given a single high dose of ZD6169 or ZD1611 and BP/HR monitored by conventional measures or telemetry. Substantially reduced systolic/diastolic BP and increased HR occurred within 10 min of ZD6169 infusion: ZD1611 caused minor BP decrease and HR increase. In experiment 3, both drugs given to anaesthetized dogs induced markedly exaggerated systolic phasic forward and reverse flow in left descending and right coronary arteries. Diastolic coronary artery flows were unaffected with ZD1611 and increased slightly with ZD6169. In both coronary arteries, the ZD1611-induced increase in flows paralleled decreased resistance.

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of abnormal ultrastructural alteration in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The deterioration of subcellular organelles, including the mitochondria, is another major ultrastructural characteristic of AD pathogenesis, in addition to amyloid plaque deposition. However, the three-dimensional (3-D) study of mitochondrial structural alteration in AD remains poorly understood. Therefore, ultrastructural ...

  6. Bone marrow edema on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac joints is associated with development of fatty lesions on MRI over a 1-year interval in patients with early inflammatory low back pain: a 2-year followup study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Onna, Marloes; van Tubergen, Astrid; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Landewé, Robert

    2014-06-01

    To assess whether bone marrow edema (BME) detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac joints (MRI-SIJ) is associated with development of structural changes on both MRI and pelvic radiographs in patients with early inflammatory back pain (IBP). Patients with IBP ≤ 2 years were followed for 2 years with annual MRI-SIJ. MRI were scored for BME and structural changes (erosions and fatty lesions). Pelvic radiographs were graded according to the modified New York (mNY) criteria. With generalized estimated equation analysis, a time trend in the structural change scores was investigated. Sixty-eight patients [38% male; mean (SD) age 34.9 (10.3) yrs] were included. During the 2-year followup, pelvic radiograph grading remained constant. On MRI, the number of erosions per patient increased significantly (mean score 2.5 at baseline and 3.5 at 2-yr followup; p = 0.05). A trend was found for an increase in the number of fatty lesions per patient (mean score 5.4 at baseline and 8.5 at 2-yr followup; p = 0.06). Overall, BME was associated with the development of fatty lesions (right SIJ: OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.06-9.20; left SIJ: OR 22.13, 95% CI 1.27-384.50), preferentially in quadrants showing resolution of BME. In contrast, BME (or the resolution thereof) was not associated with the development of erosions. BME at baseline, especially when it disappears over time, results in the development of fatty lesions, but an association with erosions could not be demonstrated.

  7. Baseline central nervous system magnetic resonance imaging in early detection of trilateral retinoblastoma: pitfalls in the diagnosis of pineal gland lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ioris, Maria Antonietta; Valente, Paola; Randisi, Francesco; Buzzonetti, Luca; Carai, Andrea; Cozza, Raffaele; Del Bufalo, Francesca; Romanzo, Antonino; Angioni, Adriano; Cacchione, Antonella; Bernardi, Bruno; Mastronuzzi, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Trilateral retinoblastoma (TRB) is a rare disease associating bilateral retinoblastoma (RB) with primitive intracranial neuroblastic tumor. To verify the occurrence of TRB in a single-Center case series and point out the clinical relevance of a baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in RB, focusing on pineal gland lesions. Baseline MRI was routinely performed in all cases of RB from 1999. All MRIs were reviewed for this study and the RB database was checked in order to identify patients characteristics, treatments and follow-up. A total of 107 patients with RB were diagnosed between 1999 and 2012. Sixty-two patients had unilateral RB and 45 bilateral RB. MRI revealed the presence of pineal gland lesions in 10 patients (9%); seven were considered pineal benign cysts (6.5%), while in three patients (2.8%), TRB was suspected. All patients with TRB presented hereditary RB. In one patient, the suspected TRB was metachronous and in the other two patients was synchronous. Biopsy was not performed. Cerobrospinal fluid (CSF) was negative in all patients. The MRI modification, before treatment in the first case and later in the second case, confirmed the TRB diagnosis. The third patient died due to progressive Central Nervous System (CNS) disease that clearly confirmed the TRB diagnosis. None of the three patients had received prior chemotherapeutic treatment. TRB represents a rare condition in this series, occurring in three (2.8%) out of all patients with RB. A synchronous presentation with small lesion seems more frequent when a baseline MRI is performed. When a histologically-proven diagnosis is not available, a suspected diagnosis should be considered with caution and only follow-up will confirm the diagnosis. A wait-and-see approach should be considered. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. [Diagnosis and treatment of oral precancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbø, J; Warloe, T; Aamdal, S; Reith, A; Bryne, M

    2001-10-30

    Risk factors for oral carcinomas have been identified, but there are no reliable markers for assessing the clinical outcome in individual patients with oral precancerous lesions. DNA aneuploidy is now recognized as an early and significant event in carcinogenesis. We identified 242 patients with oral red or white patches histologically verified as epithelial dysplasias and measured the nuclear DNA content (DNA ploidy) of the lesions to determine whether DNA ploidy could be used to predict the clinical outcome. Disease-free survival was assessed in relation to DNA ploidy and histological grade. The mean duration of follow-up was approximately eight years. Among 242 patients with verified epithelial dysplasia, a carcinoma developed in 48 (20%). 167 (69%) had diploid lesions, 20 (8%) had tetraploid lesions and 55 (23%) had aneuploid lesions. Of the 167 with diploid lesions, only four (1%) later developed an oral carcinoma. By contrast, 48 of 55 patients with aneuploid lesions (87%) later developed a carcinoma. The DNA content (DNA ploidy) can be used to predict the risk for oral cancer in a wide range of oral precancerous lesions. By contrast, histological grading of the same lesions does not give any prognostic information. The clinical value of an early identification of oral lesions with malignant cell clones is substantiated by the fact that there are methods for early intervention.

  9. Destructive lesions of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybaud, C

    1983-01-01

    The congenital destructive lesions of the brain include focal lesions (porencephaly) and diffuse lesions (micrencephaly, hydranencephaly). According to the time the injury occurred and following the assumption of Yakovlev and Wadworth (1946), they are classified as agenetic porencephalies, either - bilateral (schizencephaly) or unilateral, when the injury occurs early enough in gestation (before 6 months) to disturb the growth of the cerebral mantle: abnormal sulcal pattern and heterotopic gray matter are then observed. They are classified as encephaloclastic when the destruction affects an otherwise normal cerebrum (last trimester). The porencephalies should be differenciated from post natal lesions (multicystic encephalomalacia, focal cavitations). By showing the fluid cavity and the cortical distortion, neuroradiology permits precise diagnosis of the defect itself and the associated cortical disorder, as well as an evaluation when they occurred.

  10. Ultrastructural changes in goat interspecies and intraspecies reconstructed early embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Yong; Gheng, Lizi; Zhang, Meiling

    2008-01-01

    development. The zona pellucida (ZP) in all three types of embryos became thinner and ZP pores in both GC and GG embryos showed an increased rate of development, especially for GC embryos, while in vivo-produced embryos had smooth ZP. The Golgi apparatus (Gi) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) of the two...

  11. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of a Modified Liquid-Based Cytology using OralCDx Brush in early detection of oral potentially malignant lesions and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavarian, Zahra; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Mosannen-Mozafari, Pegah; Pakfetrat, Atessa; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi; Ghafoorian-Maddah, Rasoul

    2010-09-01

    To determine diagnostic value of modified Liquid Based Brush Biopsy technique. 26 oral premalignant and malignant lesions in 25 patients (12 females; 54.23+/-19.77 years and 13 males; 53.77+/-15.43 years) underwent Modified (Liquid Based) Brush Biopsy and scalpel biopsy simultaneously from the same area. There were 16 positive and 10 negative brush biopsy results, with no inadequate readings. Histological findings were compatible with oral leukoplakia (n=5) with dysplasia, Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reaction (n=7) (with or without dysplasia) oral squamous cell carcinoma (n=11),verrucous carcinoma (n=1) and granular cell tumors (n=2). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (LR+) and negative diagnostic likelihood ratio (LR-) were 88.8%, 100%, 100%, 80%, infinity and 0.11 respectively (no false positive results). It is the first attempt to do LBC with a specialized oral brush. Our results show that modified technique is a useful tool for screening of oral premalignant and malignant lesions.

  12. Ultrastructure of human mature oocytes after vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Khalili

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of human assisted reproduction, oocyte cryopreservation has been regarded as an attractive option to capitalize the reproductive potential of surplus oocytes and preserve female fertility. However, for two decades the endeavor to store oocytes has been limited by the not yet optimized methodologies, with the consequence of poor clinical outcome or of uncertain reproducibility. Vitrification has been developed as the promising technology of cryopreservation even if slow freezing remains a suitable choice. Nevertheless, the insufficiency of clinical and correlated multidisciplinary data is still stirring controversy on the impact of this technique on oocyte integrity. Morphological studies may actually provide a great insight in this debate. Phase contrast microscopy and other light microscopy techniques, including cytochemistry, provided substantial morphofunctional data on cryopreserved oocyte, but are unable to unraveling fine structural changes. The ultrastructural damage is one of the most adverse events associated with cryopreservation, as an effect of cryo-protectant toxicity, ice crystal formation and osmotic stress. Surprisingly, transmission electron microscopy has attracted only limited attention in the field of cryopreservation. In this review, the subcellular structure of human mature oocytes following vitrification is discussed at the light of most relevant ultrastructural studies.

  13. Ultrastructure, biology, and phylogenetic relationships of kinorhyncha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Birger; Higgins, Robert P

    2002-07-01

    The article summarizes current knowledge mainly about the (functional) morphology and ultrastructure, but also about the biology, development, and evolution of the Kinorhyncha. The Kinorhyncha are microscopic, bilaterally symmetrical, exclusively free-living, benthic, marine animals and ecologically part of the meiofauna. They occur throughout the world from the intertidal to the deep sea, generally in sediments but sometimes associated with plants or other animals. From adult stages 141 species are known, but 38 species have been described from juvenile stages. The trunk is arranged into 11 segments as evidenced by cuticular plates, sensory spots, setae or spines, nervous system, musculature, and subcuticular glands. The ultrastructure of several organ systems and the postembryonic development are known for very few species. Almost no data are available about the embryology and only a single gene has been sequenced for a single species. The phylogenetic relationships within Kinorhyncha are unresolved. Priapulida, Loricifera, and Kinorhyncha are grouped together as Scalidophora, but arguments are found for every possible sistergroup relationship within this taxon. The recently published Ecdysozoa hypothesis suggests a closer relationship of the Scalidophora, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda.

  14. Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (Mascaro): an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, H; Miller, S J; Dzubow, L M; Murphy, G F

    1992-06-01

    To confirm the eccrine acrosyringeal differentiation of eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) and to elucidate the histogenesis of its angiofibrotic stroma, a case of ESFA from a 45-year-old man was examined by light and electron microscopy. Histologically, the parenchyma featured anastomosing, slender epithelial cords containing small cuboidal cells and occasional duct-like structures. The stroma had increased numbers of mast cells, increased capillaries with swollen endothelial cells, and prominent fibrosis. Ultrastructurally, the following findings were characteristic of ESFA: a) abundant glycogen particles in epithelial cells, b) numerous intracytoplasmic and extracellular spaces lined with microvilli, c) intraepithelial duct formation, consisting of microvilli, vesicles, rod-shaped dense bodies, multivesicular dense bodies, and peripheral network of tonofilaments, and d) large numbers of mast cells, closely associated with fibroblasts, surrounding increased numbers of capillaries containing swollen endothelial cells. These ultrastructural features support the acrosyringeal differentiation of ESFA. We hypothesize that mast cell hyperplasia and degranulation may play an important role in the formation of the angiofibrotic stroma.

  15. The ultrastructural surface morphology of oral cancer cells and keratinocytes after exposure to chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah; Sarsito, A. S.; Wimardhani, Y. S.

    2017-08-01

    Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC) has the same selective cytotoxic effects on oral cancer cells as cisplatin. The cell deaths caused by the anticancer characteristics of chitosan show that apoptosis is not the death pathway of the primary cells involved. The interactions between LMWC and the cells need to be explored. The objective of this study was to compare the ultrastructural morphology of oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC Ca)-922 and noncancer keratinocyte HaCaT cell lines after exposure to LMWC and cisplatin. The cells were treated with LMWC and cisplatin, and their ultrastructural morphology was analyzed using scanning electron micrographs. Features of early apoptosis, seen as the loss of microvilli, were detected in the LMWC-exposed Ca9-22 cells, and there was a material surrounding the cells. In contrast, the LMWC-exposed HaCaT cells showed no changes related to apoptosis. The results were the opposite when cisplatin was used. This study confirms that there are differences in the ultrastructural surface morphology of LMWC-exposed and cisplatin-exposed oral cancer cells and keratinocytes that could be correlated with their biological activity.

  16. Ultrastructural examination of spermiogenesis within the testis of the ground skink, Scincella laterale (Squamata, Sauria, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin M; Mills, Erin M; Sever, David M

    2007-02-01

    Although the events of spermiogenesis are commonly studied in amniotes, the amount of research available for lizards (Sauria) is lacking. Many studies have described the morphological characteristics of mature spermatozoa in lizards, but few detail the ultrastructural changes that occur during spermiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the subcellular events of spermiogenesis within the temperate ground skink (Scincella laterale). The morphological data presented here represent the first complete ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis within the Scincidae clade. Samples of testes from 20 specimens were prepared using standard techniques for transmission electron microscopy. Many of the ultrastructural changes occurring during spermiogenesis within the ground skink are similar to that of other saurians. However, there were a few unique characteristics that to date have not been described during spermiogenesis in other lizards. For example, during early round spermatid development within the ground skink testis, proacrosomal granules begin to form within the acrosomal vesicle before making contact with the apex of the nucleus. Also, a prominent microtubular manchette develops during spermiogenesis; however, the circular component of the manchete is absent in this species of skink. This developmental difference in manchette formation may lead to the more robust and straight mature spermatozoa that are common within the Scincidae family. These anatomical character differences may be valuable nontraditional sources that along with more traditional sources (i.e., mitochondrial DNA) may help elucidate phylogenetic relationships, which are historically considered controversial at best, among species within Scincidae and Sauria.

  17. Talar Dome Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Please enable Javascript in your browser. Talar Dome Lesion What Is a Talar Dome Lesion? The ankle joint is composed of the bottom ... on the specific case. Complications of Talar Dome Lesions Depending on the amount of damage to the ...

  18. Ultrastructure of epidermis of Salamandra salamandra followed throughout ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburg, M R; Lewinson, D

    1977-07-15

    Ventral epidermal ultrastructure of the amphibian urodele Salamandra salamandra is described and followed throughout its life cycle. Tadpoles were divided into five categories on the basis of the organization of their epidermis and the ultrastructure of its cells. In newly hatched tadpoles the epidermis is arranged in two layers and four types of cells were recognized. The number of epidermal layers increases in the metamorphosing tadpole. At this stage the layers become organized in four strata. Metamorphosis involves the disappearance of some cell types and the appearance of others, typical of the adult epidermis. The significance of these ontogenetic changes in epidermal ultrastructure is discussed in respect to aquatic and terrestrial life habits.

  19. Ultrastructure: effects of melanin pigment on target specificity using a pulsed dye laser (577 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, A.K.; Tan, O.T.; Boll, J.; Parrish, J.A.; Murphy, G.F.

    1987-06-01

    It has been shown recently that brief pulses of 577 nm radiation from the tunable dye laser are absorbed selectively by oxyhemoglobin. This absorption is associated with highly specific damage to superficial vascular plexus blood vessels in those with lightly pigmented (type I-II) skin. To determine whether pigmentary differences in the overlying epidermis influence this target specificity, we exposed both type I (fair) and type V (dark) normal human skin to varying radiant exposure doses over 1.5-microsecond pulse durations from the tunable dye laser at a wavelength of 577 nm. Using ultrastructural techniques, we found in type I skin that even clinical subthreshold laser exposures caused reproducible alterations of erythrocytes and adjacent dermal vascular endothelium without comparable damage to the overlying epidermis. In contrast, degenerated epidermal basal cells represented the predominant form of cellular damage after laser exposure of type V skin at comparable doses. We conclude that epidermal melanin and vascular hemoglobin are competing sites for 577 nm laser absorption and damage, and that the target specificity of the 577 nm tunable dye laser is therefore influenced by variations in epidermal pigmentation. This finding is relevant to the clinical application of the tunable dye laser in the ablative treatment of vascular lesions. We also found on ultrastructure that the presence of electron-lucent circular structures of approximately 800 A in diameter were observed only at and above clinical threshold doses in those with type I skin and at the highest dose of 2.75 J/cm2 in type V skin. It has been proposed that these structures might be heat-fixed molds of water vapor. Both this and ultrastructural changes of epidermal basal cells demonstrate mechanisms responsible for alteration of tissue after exposure to 577 nm, which are discussed.

  20. Aging enhances maceration-induced ultrastructural alteration of the epidermis and impairment of skin barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minematsu, Takeo; Yamamoto, Yuko; Nagase, Takashi; Naito, Ayumi; Takehara, Kimie; Iizaka, Shinji; Komagata, Kazunori; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Akase, Tomoko; Oe, Makoto; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Ishizuka, Tadao; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2011-06-01

    Skin maceration is recognized as a risk factor for the development of certain skin lesions. In health care settings, incontinence-associated skin maceration is highly prevalent in the elderly. However, the effect of senescence on maceration has not been fully elucidated. To reveal the enhancement of the maceration-induced ultrastructural alteration and barrier function of the epidermis by aging. Skin maceration was reproduced by exposure to agarose gel in human and rat. The ultrastructural alterations in human and rat tissue were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The skin barrier function was evaluated by noninvasive methods in human, and by the transdermal penetration of small- and large-fluorescent molecules in rat. In order to reveal the effect of aging on the skin maceration, we compared these parameters between young and aged rats. In macerated skin, we observed expansion of the interstices of the stratum corneum, spinosum, and basale of the epidermis; disruption of the intercellular lipid structure in the stratum corneum; a decreased number of cell processes in the stratum spinosum and basale. The transdermal penetration test in the rat using two types of fluorescein indicated that maceration disrupted skin barrier function. Furthermore, senescence-enhanced ultrastructural and functional alterations were revealed in the rodent studies. This study demonstrates that aging enhances skin maceration. Considering that maceration is a risk factor for the skin damage, the development of technology to promote skin barrier recovery after maceration in the elderly is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Change of central cholinergic receptors following lesions of nucleus basalis magnocellularis in rats: search for an imaging index suitable for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Mikako [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu Medical University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192 (Japan); Iida, Yasuhiko [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Nakagawa, Masaki [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kuge, Yugi [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kawashima, Hidekazu [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tominaga, Akiko [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ueda, Masashi [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Magata, Yasuhiro [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu Medical University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192 (Japan); Saji, Hideo [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: hsaji@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-02-15

    Cholinergic system in the central nervous system is involved in the memory function. Thus, because the dysfunction of cholinergic system that project to the cerebral cortex from nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) would be implicated in the memory function deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), evaluating cholinergic function may be useful for the early detection of AD. In this study, because the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in rats is equivalent to nbM in human, we investigated the change in cholinergic receptors in the frontal cortex of rats with unilateral lesion to the NBM to find an appropriate index for the early detection of AD using techniques of nuclear medicine. The right NBM was injected with ibotenic acid. [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET images were obtained 3 days later. Some rats were sacrificed at 1 week, whereas others were subjected to a second [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET at 4 weeks then sacrificed for membrane preparation. The prepared membranes were subjected to radioreceptor assays to measure the density of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Glucose metabolism had decreased on the damaged side compared to the control side at 3 days, but at 4 weeks, there was no difference between the sides. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors had significantly decreased in density compared to the control side at both 1 and 4 weeks. However, muscarinic receptors were not affected. These results suggested that neuronal dysfunction in AD could be diagnosed at an early stage by imaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  2. Ultrastructure and properties of Paecilomyces lilacinus spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.J.; Gunasekera, T.S. [Macquarie Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Sydney (Australia); Williams, K.L. [Proteome Systems Ltd., Sydney (Australia); Nevalainen, K.M.H. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia)

    2002-10-01

    Strains of the filamentous soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus are currently being developed for use as biological control agents against root-knot, cyst, and other plant-parasitic nematodes. The inoculum applied in the field consists mainly of spores. This study was undertaken to examine the size, ultrastructure, and rodlet layers of P. lilacinus spores and the effect of the culture method on structural and functional spore properties. A rodlet layer was identified on aerial spores only. Other differences noted between aerial spores and those produced in submerged culture included the size and appearance of spores and thickness of spore coat layers when examined with transmission electron microscopy. The two spore types differed in UV tolerance, with aerial spores being less sensitive to environmentally relevant UV radiation. Also, viability after drying and storage was better with the aerial spores. Both spore types exhibited similar nematophagous ability. (author)

  3. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Ustilago coicis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-ze; Guan, Pei-gang; Tao, Gang; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Hyde, Kevin David

    2013-04-01

    Ustilago coicis causes serious smut on Coix lacryma-jobi in Dayang Town, Jinyun County, Zhejiang Province of China. In this paper, ultrastructural assessments on fungus-host interactions and teliospore development are presented, and molecular phylogenetic analyses have been done to elucidate the phylogenetic placement of the taxon. Hyphal growth within infected tissues was both intracellular and intercellular and on the surface of fungus-host interaction, and the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane were separated by a sheath comprising two distinct layers between the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane. Ornamentation development of teliospore walls was unique as they appeared to be originated from the exosporium. In addition, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) sequence data showed that U. coicis is closely related to Ustilago trichophora which infects grass species of the genus Echinochloa (Poaceae).

  4. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Ustilago coicis *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-ze; Guan, Pei-gang; Tao, Gang; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Hyde, Kevin David

    2013-01-01

    Ustilago coicis causes serious smut on Coix lacryma-jobi in Dayang Town, Jinyun County, Zhejiang Province of China. In this paper, ultrastructural assessments on fungus-host interactions and teliospore development are presented, and molecular phylogenetic analyses have been done to elucidate the phylogenetic placement of the taxon. Hyphal growth within infected tissues was both intracellular and intercellular and on the surface of fungus-host interaction, and the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane were separated by a sheath comprising two distinct layers between the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane. Ornamentation development of teliospore walls was unique as they appeared to be originated from the exosporium. In addition, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) sequence data showed that U. coicis is closely related to Ustilago trichophora which infects grass species of the genus Echinochloa (Poaceae). PMID:23549851

  5. Glomerular Lesions in Proteinuric Miniature Schnauzer Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrow, E; Lees, G E; Brown, C A; Cianciolo, R E

    2017-05-01

    Miniature Schnauzer dogs are predisposed to idiopathic hypertriglyerceridemia, which increases risk for diseases such as pancreatitis and gallbladder mucocele. Recently, elevated triglyceride concentrations have been associated with proteinuria in this breed, although it is difficult to determine which abnormality is primary. Retrospective review of renal tissue from 27 proteinuric Miniature Schnauzers revealed that 20 dogs had ultrastructural evidence of osmophilic globules consistent with lipid in glomerular tufts. Seven of these dogs had lipid thromboemboli in glomerular capillary loops that distorted their shape and compressed circulating erythrocytes. Triglyceride concentrations were reported in 6 of these 7 dogs, and all were hypertriglyceridemic. In addition, glomerular lipidosis (defined as accumulation of foam cells within peripheral capillary loops) was identified in a single dog. The remaining 12 dogs had smaller amounts of lipid that could only be identified ultrastructurally. Neither signalment data nor clinicopathologic parameters (serum albumin, serum creatinine, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and blood pressure) differed among the various types of lipid lesions. During the time course of this study, all dogs diagnosed with glomerular lipid thromboemboli were Miniature Schnauzers, underscoring the importance of recognizing these clear spaces within capillary loops as lipid.

  6. Ultrastructural changes in porcine mammary tissue during lactogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensinger, R S; Collier, R J; Bazer, F W

    1986-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes occurring in porcine mammary tissue were characterised between Day 90 of pregnancy and Day 4 of lactation. Porcine mammary tissue on Day 90 of pregnancy was composed of alveoli which contained negligible to moderate amounts of secretion. Epithelial cells of these alveoli were relatively undifferentiated. The appearance and distribution of cellular organelles suggested that mammary epithelial differentiation had been initiated by Day 105 of pregnancy in the pig. A further increase in intracellular lipid droplets and granular endoplasmic reticulum suggested that differentiation had progressed by Day 112. On the day of parturition, secretions within the alveolar lumina assumed the appearance of normal milk (as opposed to colostrum) and the epithelia displayed a distinct cellular polarity characteristic of lactating mammary tissue. By Day 4 of lactation, differentiation of epithelial cells appeared to be complete, with dilated cisternae of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and with numerous secretory vesicles. Elongated microvilli were present and numerous cells contained lipid droplets which were being extruded into the lumina. Data from this and previous studies indicate that lactogenesis in the pig occurs in two stages. Stage 1 occurs between Days 90 and 105 of pregnancy, and Stage 2 between Days 112 of pregnancy and early lactation when the predominant feature is active milk secretion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3429308

  7. Elimination of high-risk human papillomavirus type HPV16 infection by 'Praneem' polyherbal tablet in women with early cervical intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shirish; Bharti, Alok C; Hussain, Showket; Mahata, Sutapa; Hedau, Suresh; Kailash, Uma; Kashyap, Veena; Bhambhani, Suresh; Roy, Meera; Batra, Swaraj; Talwar, G P; Das, Bhudev C

    2009-12-01

    'Praneem', a polyherbal formulation developed by us, has successfully completed Phase II efficacy study for treatment of abnormal vaginal discharge due to reproductive tract infections that act as co-factors for HPV persistence. In the present study we evaluated potential anti-HPV activity of Praneem in women infected with high risk HPV type 16. Twenty women molecularly diagnosed positive for HPV16 infection without or with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or inflammation were assigned to receive intra-vaginal, topical application of either Praneem tablet or placebo for 30 days excluding the days of menstrual period and were evaluated for persistence of HPV infection using HPV L1 consensus and HPV type 16-specific PCR as primary outcome. One course of Praneem treatment resulted in elimination of HPV in 6 out of 10 (60%) cases. A repeat treatment of four patients with persisting HPV infection resulted in clearance of HPV in two additional cases resulting in an overall 80% clearance of HPV 16 as against a spontaneous clearance of 10% (1/10) seen in the placebo arm. The elimination of HPV DNA was found to be accompanied by marked improvement in clinical symptoms and cytological abnormalities of Praneem-treated patients. Our results showed for the first time that a 30-day intra-vaginal application of the Praneem can result in elimination of HPV infection from the uterine cervix.

  8. The Effect of Spaceflight on the Ultrastructure of the Cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Gay R.; Martinelli, Giorgio P.

    2003-01-01

    In weightlessness, astronauts and cosmonauts may experience postural illusions as well as motion sickness symptoms known as the space adaptation syndrome. Upon return to Earth, they have irregularities in posture and balance. The adaptation to microgravity and subsequent re-adaptation to Earth occurs over several days. At the cellular level, a process called neuronal plasticity may mediate this adaptation. The term plasticity refers to the flexibility and modifiability in the architecture and functions of the nervous system. In fact, plastic changes are thought to underlie not just behavioral adaptation, but also the more generalized phenomena of learning and memory. The goal of this experiment was to identify some of the structural alterations that occur in the rat brain during the sensory and motor adaptation to microgravity. One brain region where plasticity has been studied extensively is the cerebellar cortex-a structure thought to be critical for motor control, coordination, the timing of movements, and, most relevant to the present experiment, motor learning. Also, there are direct as well as indirect connections between projections from the gravity-sensing otolith organs and several subregions of the cerebellum. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the ultrastructural (the structure within the cell) architecture of rat cerebellar cortex occur during the early period of adaptation to microgravity, as the cerebellum adapts to the absence of the usual gravitational inputs. The results show ultrastructural evidence for neuronal plasticity in the central nervous system of adult rats after 24 hours of spaceflight. Qualitative studies conducted on tissue from the cerebellar cortex (specifically, the nodulus of the cerebellum) indicate that ultrastructural signs of plasticity are present in the cerebellar zones that receive input from the gravity-sensing organs in the inner ear (the otoliths). These changes are not observed in this region in cagematched

  9. Ultrastructural characteristics of the synovial membrane in osteoarthritic temporomandibular joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, LC; Liem, RSB; deBont, LGM

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed the ultrastructural characteristics of the synovial membrane in various stages of osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and developed a classification of this involvement based on these morphologic characteristics. Patients and Methods: Synovial

  10. Some cytological and ultrastructural aspects of male sterility in Impatiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Van Went

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some cytological and ultrastructural aspects of tapetum and sporogenic cells, in both male-fertile and male-sterile Impatiens, were investigated and compared in order to find the cause of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  11. Some cytological and ultrastructural aspects of male sterility in Impatiens

    OpenAIRE

    Went, J.L. van

    2014-01-01

    Some cytological and ultrastructural aspects of tapetum and sporogenic cells, in both male-fertile and male-sterile Impatiens, were investigated and compared in order to find the cause of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  12. [Ultrastructural characteristics of several constituants of limb buds in the embryos of the slowworm (Anguis fragilis L.) and the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-06-09

    Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells of the apical crest, of the mesoblast and of the ventral processes of somites, in the anlage of the anterior limb buds of embryos of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis) are described at early stages of the development. Differences between the two species studied are brought to light.

  13. Dietary cadmium and enteropathy in the Japanese quail: histochemical and ultrastructural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.E.; Fox, M.R.S.

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium was fed to young Japanese quail, at a level of 75 mg. per kg. of diet, from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Cadmium produced gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions in the proximal small intestine of these quail, similar to those occurring in human malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, nontropical sprue, and tropical sprue. The small intestines of the quail were dilated and thin walled. Villi were short and thick and had a dense cellular infiltrate in the lamina propria. The striated border was thin but stained for neutral mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal border. Some villi were covered with stratified epithelial cells. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of goblet were seen, but the mucin stained for weakly acidic mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal cells. At the ultrastructural level, microvilli of both absorptive and goblet cells were markedly shortened, particularly near the tips of the villi. Absorptive cells were atrophic, and there was s diminution of the usual cellular organelles. Granular cisternae were long and tortuous, mitochondria were dense and small, and large lysosome-like bodies and large lipid droplets accumulated in the cytoplasm, but there was a decrease in the normal small, pale and dark lipid droplets. The cellular infiltrate of the lamina propria included groups of plasma cells with dilated cisternae. There were large, irregular, electron-dense bodies in the endothelium of large veins and degeneration of some nerve plexuses in the muscularis propria. 31 references, 21 figures.

  14. Pathological and ultrastructural observations and liver function analysis of Eimeria stiedai-infected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jin; Liu, Chun; Zhu, Shun-Xing; Jiang, Ying-Mei; Wu, Liu-Cheng; Song, Hong-Yan; Shao, Yi-Xiang

    2016-06-15

    To study the pathogenicity of Eimeria stiedai, sporulated oocysts were given orally to coccidian-free two-month-old New Zealand rabbits(1000±20g). After 30days, blood samples from the rabbit hearts were collected for routine blood tests, liver functions and four characteristics of blood coagulation. Additionally, specimens of the liver, bile duct and duodenum were collected to observe the changes in pathology and ultrastructure. E. stiedai severely restricted the growth and development of rabbits. Blood tests showed that glutamine transferase (GGT) and serum cholinesterase (ChE) were significantly different from the non-infected controls. Other extremely significant differences were observed in the biochemical indices of routine blood tests, liver function and four blood coagulation characteristics, indicating that the liver functions were significantly affected. Staining showed that, compared with the negative control group, the liver, bile duct and duodenum contained significant numbers of lesions, and organs and cell structures suffered severe damage in ultrastructure, which greatly affecting bodily functions. E. stiedai-infected rabbits model was successfully established, which might provide a theoretical basis for research on the pathogenesis of rabbit coccidia, and the diagnosis and prevention of coccidiosis in rabbits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. UP-BEAT (Upper Limb Baby Early Action–observation Training): protocol of two parallel randomised controlled trials of action–observation training for typically developing infants and infants with asymmetric brain lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetta, Andrea; Boyd, Roslyn N; Perez, Micah; Ziviani, Jenny; Burzi, Valentina; Slaughter, Virginia; Rose, Stephen; Provan, Kerry; Findlay, Lisa; Fisher, Imogen; Colombini, Francesca; Tealdi, Gessica; Marchi, Viviani; Whittingham, Koa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Infants with asymmetric brain lesions are at high risk of developing congenital hemiplegia. Action–observation training (AOT) has been shown to effectively improve upper limb motor function in adults with chronic stroke. AOT is based on action observation, whereby new motor skills can be learnt by observing motor actions. This process is facilitated by the Mirror Neuron System, which matches observed and performed motor actions. This study aims to determine the efficacy of AOT in: (1) influencing the early development of reaching and grasping of typically developing infants and (2) improving the upper limb activity of infants with asymmetric brain lesions. Methods and analysis This study design comprises two parallel randomised sham-controlled trials (RCTs) in: (1) typically developing infants (cohort I) and (2) infants with asymmetric brain lesions (eg, arterial stroke, venous infarction, intraventricular haemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia; cohort II). Cohort II will be identified through a neonatal ultrasound or neonatal MRI. A sham control will be used for both RCTs, taking into consideration that it would be unethical to give no intervention to an at-risk population. Based on a two-tailed t test of two independent means, with a significance (α) level of 0.05, 80% power, predicted effect size of 0.8 and a 90% retention rate, we require 20 participants in each group (total sample of 40) for cohort I. The sample size for cohort II was based on the assumption that the effect size of the proposed training would be similar to that found by Heathcock et al in preterm born infants (n=26) with a mean effect size of 2.4. Given the high effect size, the calculation returned a sample of only four participants per group, on a two-tailed t test, with a significance (α) level of 0.05 and 80% power. As cohort II will consist of two subgroups of lesion type (ie, arterial stroke and venous infarction), we have quadrupled the sample to include 16

  16. [Pulmonary histological and ultrastructural changes in HIV infection concurrent with tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyuzya, Yu R; Barkhina, T G; Parkhomenko, Yu G; Chernikov, V P

    2015-01-01

    To analyze cellular and subcellular disorders in the lung in the presence of HIV-associated tuberculosis. The investigators made a comprehensive morphological examination of 25 autopsy specimens from patients who had died from HIV-associated tuberculosis. Lung pieces from the foci of caseous necrosis at its boundary and adjacent lung segments and from macroscopically intact perifocal pulmonary segments were microscopically explored. Plain stains and Ziehl-Neelsen histobacterioscopy were used for light microscopy. An immunohistochemical study was conducted using tuberculosis mouse monoclonal antibodies (clone 1.1/3/1, Vector). Seven early autopsy specimens (1-2 hours after statement of biological death) were investigated ultrastructurally. Ultrathin sections were contrasted with Reynolds' lead citrate and looked through a Libra-120 transmission electron microscope (Germany). Semithin sections were stained with toluidine blue. HIV-associated tuberculosis is a disease accompanied by dual aggressive infection. Impaired blood-air barrier integrity gives rise to structural and ultrastructural changes primarily in type I alveolocytes that are responsible for physiological gas exchange and detoxification. Type I alveolocytes have been noted to be in close contact with plasmocytes that are most ultrastructurally preserved and at the same time display the phagocytic and detoxifying functions being redistributed, which is necessary to keep cells viable and which is a characteristic sign of this comorbidity. This redistribution is due to severe damage to macrophages that are unable to ensure complete mycobacterial phagocytosis; thereby the plasma cells partly assume this function, as supported by ultrastructural examination. Severe destruction of granulocyte organelles and partial and complete cell necrosis with its preceding apoptotic changes were established. A study of vessels in the microcirculatory bed has indicated that the ultrastructural changes in the endothelial

  17. Enamel ultrastructure in fossil cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Carolina; Kieser, Jules A; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The transition from terrestrial ancestry to a fully pelagic life profoundly altered the body systems of cetaceans, with extreme morphological changes in the skull and feeding apparatus. The Oligocene Epoch was a crucial time in the evolution of cetaceans when the ancestors of modern whales and dolphins (Neoceti) underwent major diversification, but details of dental structure and evolution are poorly known for the archaeocete-neocete transition. We report the morphology of teeth and ultrastructure of enamel in archaeocetes, and fossil platanistoids and delphinoids, ranging from late Oligocene (Waitaki Valley, New Zealand) to Pliocene (Caldera, Chile). Teeth were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned in cross and longitudinal planes, polished, etched, and coated with gold palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. SEM images showed that in archaeocetes, squalodontids and Prosqualodon (taxa with heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont teeth), the inner enamel was organized in Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB) with an outer layer of radial enamel. This is a common pattern in most large-bodied mammals and it is regarded as a biomechanical adaptation related to food processing and crack resistance. Fossil Otekaikea sp. and delphinoids, which were polydont and homodont, showed a simpler structure, with inner radial and outer prismless enamel. Radial enamel is regarded as more wear-resistant and has been retained in several mammalian taxa in which opposing tooth surfaces slide over each other. These observations suggest that the transition from a heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont dentition in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to homodont and polydont teeth in crownward odontocetes, was also linked to a marked simplification in the enamel Schmelzmuster. These patterns probably reflect functional shifts in food processing from shear-and-mastication in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to pierce-and-grasp occlusion in crownward odontocetes, with

  18. Enamel ultrastructure in fossil cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Loch

    Full Text Available The transition from terrestrial ancestry to a fully pelagic life profoundly altered the body systems of cetaceans, with extreme morphological changes in the skull and feeding apparatus. The Oligocene Epoch was a crucial time in the evolution of cetaceans when the ancestors of modern whales and dolphins (Neoceti underwent major diversification, but details of dental structure and evolution are poorly known for the archaeocete-neocete transition. We report the morphology of teeth and ultrastructure of enamel in archaeocetes, and fossil platanistoids and delphinoids, ranging from late Oligocene (Waitaki Valley, New Zealand to Pliocene (Caldera, Chile. Teeth were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned in cross and longitudinal planes, polished, etched, and coated with gold palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation. SEM images showed that in archaeocetes, squalodontids and Prosqualodon (taxa with heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont teeth, the inner enamel was organized in Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB with an outer layer of radial enamel. This is a common pattern in most large-bodied mammals and it is regarded as a biomechanical adaptation related to food processing and crack resistance. Fossil Otekaikea sp. and delphinoids, which were polydont and homodont, showed a simpler structure, with inner radial and outer prismless enamel. Radial enamel is regarded as more wear-resistant and has been retained in several mammalian taxa in which opposing tooth surfaces slide over each other. These observations suggest that the transition from a heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont dentition in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to homodont and polydont teeth in crownward odontocetes, was also linked to a marked simplification in the enamel Schmelzmuster. These patterns probably reflect functional shifts in food processing from shear-and-mastication in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to pierce-and-grasp occlusion in crownward

  19. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Castellarin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients.

  20. Study for synovial lesions by MRI using gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) in patients with early phase of rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Keiyu (Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonanse imaging (MRI) enhanced with gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) for the detection of the inflamed synovium and for the evaluation of the responce to therapy in rheumatoid arthritis, we studied 49 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) according to the 1987 revised criteria of American Rheumatism Association (ARA), 6 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) complicated by arthritis, 3 patients with osteoarthritis (OA), 2 patients with Sjoegren syndrome, 2 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 10 healthy volunteers as an age matched control. The 49 patients with RA were divided into three groups: (1) early phase of RA, (2) non progressing RA and (3) slowly progressing RA, and the stage classification of plain X-ray film and enhancement pattern of MR imaging were classified into three groups. Synovial enhancement showed a linear, band-like or diffuse pattern. Almost all cases in early phase of RA group and non progressing RA group showed a linear pattern, a band-like pattern or even no enhancement, while slowly progressing group of stage II or higher showed the diffuse pattern of enhancement in all except 2 cases. Moreover, the linear pattern, the band-like pattern or even no contrast enhancement were seen in all except 1 stage I patient, whereas 26 out of 29 patients with stage II or higher change showed diffuse contrast enhancement. Furthermore, a comparison of MR images before and after administration of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in 10 patients showed that the improvement of clinical symptomes correlated fairly well with reduction of contrast enhancement. The present study suggested that MRI of the wrist using Gd-DTPA enhancement may be useful for the diagnosis of RA, the prediction of articular damage, and judgement of the response to therapy. (author).

  1. Tobacco-associated lesions of the oral cavity: Part I. Nonmalignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, S M; Ahing, S I

    2000-05-01

    The excessive use of tobacco products has been associated with various lesions in the oral cavity. Tobacco-associated lesions include tooth stains, abrasions, smoker's melanosis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and other periodontal conditions, burns and keratotic patches, black hairy tongue, nicotinic stomatitis, palatal erosions, leukoplakia, epithelial dysplasia and squamous-cell carcinoma. A routine intraoral examination by a dental health professional can reveal most of these lesions at an early stage, and early intervention may prevent serious sequelae. Thus, detection of tobacco-associated lesions in conjunction with tobacco-use counselling by dental professionals has become the standard of care. The significance and treatment of nonmalignant tobacco-associated lesions are addressed in the first part of this two-part series. Malignant lesions, basic biopsy principles and prevention and intervention strategies are discussed in the subsequent part.

  2. Ultrastructural damage of Loligo vulgaris and Illex coindetii statocysts after low frequency sound exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Solé

    Full Text Available There is a considerable lack of information concerning marine invertebrate sensitivity to sound exposure. However, recent findings on cuttlefish and octopi showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the functionality and physiology of the statocysts, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Owing to a lack of available data on deep diving cephalopod species, we conducted a noise exposure comparative experiment on one Mediterranean squid, Illex coindetii, and on the European squid Loligo vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed similar injuries in the inner structure of the statocysts, as those found in cuttlefish and octopi. In addition to the ultrastructural description of the lesions, we publish here the first images of the crista-cupula system and inner statocyst cavity of I. coindetii.

  3. Stereomicroscopic and ultrastructural characterization of propionitrile-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1978-01-01

    of the villus folds within 4 hours after two injections of propionitrile. This was followed by sloughing of the epithelium, shortening and effacement of the villus folds, and within 24 hours the appearance of discrete ulcers in the mucosa of the proximal duodenum. In most of the rats, two ulcers developed......: the first and larger ulcer was on the antimesenteric side of the duodenum, and the other, a small and more superficial one, was on the opposite wall. Ultrastructural lesions appeared in the absorptive epithelial cells of the proximal duodenum within 5 hours following a single dose of propionitrile....... The cytoplasmic changes of cellular injury were preceded and/or accompanied by beading and loss of microvilli. The initiation of propionitrile-induced alterations at the tip of the villi in the proximal duodenum suggests that the ulcerogenic agent acts from the luminal side of the duodenum and probably originates...

  4. The ultrastructural findings of Charcot-Leyden crystals in stroma of mastocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, L M; Kumakiri, M; Nakagawa, K; Ishida, H; Ishiguro, K; Yanagihara, M; Ueda, K

    1998-07-01

    Charcot-Leyden crystals (CLCs) have been found in many conditions associated with eosinophilia, but their occurrence in skin diseases is very rare. We report ultrastructural observations on the presence of CLCs in the cutaneous lesions of two cases of mastocytoma. Electron microscopy documented CLCs located in phagosomes of morphologically activated macrophages as well as free CLCs in the stromal tissue, close association between CLCs formation and damaged and lysed eosinophils was present. These findings provided evidence that the formation of CLCs in mastocytoma implicated the individual and interrelated biology of mast cells, eosinophils and macrophages. Phagosomes probably acted as the site of CLCs formation. The clinic and pathologic role of CLCs in mastocytoma deserves further investigation.

  5. Acute phenylbutazone intoxication in the mature horse: a morphological, ultrastructural and biochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meschter, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Phenylbutazone (PB) administered to adult horses at a dose of 13.46 mg PB/kg bodyweight produces gastrointestinal ulceration by 24 hours and renal crest necrosis by 48 hours. In the gastrointestinal tract, PB initially causes a microvascular lesion characterized ultrastructurally by swelling, lysis, and necrosis of the microvascular endothelial cells. Damage to the endothelium results in microhemorrhage, stasis, and thrombosis. Necrosis and then sloughing of the surrounding tissue follows. This results in mucosal ulceration. In the kidney, damage to the medullary interstitial cell is initially characterized by intracellular vacuolization and cytoplasmic swelling. Necrosis and infiltration neutrophilic leukocytes of the medullary interstitium then occurs and sloughing of the renal crest follows. The uptake of radiolabeled calcium is increased in the kidney and duodenum indicating that cell damage occurs. In cultured equine aortic endothelial and bovine aortic endothelial cells, Pb causes a dose-dependent decrease in lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  6. Ultrastructural and x-ray microanalytical observations of minocycline-related hyperpigmentation of the skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S.; Murphy, G.F.; Bernhard, J.D.; Mihm, M.C. Jr.; Fitzpatrick, T.B.

    1981-09-01

    In order to elucidate the nature and distribution of the pigment responsible for the circumscribed blue-black cutaneous hyperpigmentation occurring after administration of minocycline hydrochloride, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive electron x-ray microanalysis were performed on lesional skin. Ultrastructural observations demonstrated electron-dense iron-containing particles either incorporated into a variety of siderosomes, within dermal histiocytes, free within the cytoplasm, or, rarely, scattered among dermal collagen fibers. Electron x-ray microanalysis confirmed iron content present within these particles. Although siderosomal inclusions contained occasional melanosome complexes, the degree of deposition of electron-dense iron-containing particles in dermal histiocytes seemed to be primarily responsible for the blue-black discoloration of the skin. The present study is an investigation of the structure and composition of the pigment responsible for minocycline-related cutaneous hyperpigmentation.

  7. Destructive lesions of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybaud, C.

    1983-08-01

    The destructive lesions of the brain include a wide variety of congenital and postnatally acquired lesions, variably designated porencephaly, schizencephaly, multicystic encephalomalacia and micrencephaly. The term ''porencephaly'' has been a source of confusion since it was first coined by Heschl in 1859. At first, ''porencephaly'' was used to describe a defect which extended through the full thickness of the cerebral mantle. The ventricular lumen then communicated with the subarachnoid space through the ''porus''. Later ''porencephaly'' was used indiscriminately to describe any cavity of the brain parenchyma, whatever its etiology, pathogenesis, or time of development. This problem in nomenclature was compounded by inability to determine whether the cavities observed represented ''true'' malformations or acquired encephaloclastic lesions. In 1946, Yakovlev and Wadsworth published two papers entitled ''Schizencephalies; study of the congenital clefts in the cerebral mantle''. In these works, they stressed the peculiar morphology of the congenital porencephalies, and suggested that these lesions were sufficiently distinctive to be isolated from the other defects of the brain. Without addressing the precise origin or developmental course of these lesions, they pointed out that the morphologic changes indicated partial agenesis of the cerebral mantle at an early stage of development.

  8. Ultrastructural and Molecular Characterisation of an Heterosporis-Like Microsporidian in Australian Sea Snakes (Hydrophiinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber K Gillett

    Full Text Available Four sea snakes (two Hydrophis major, one Hydrophis platurus, one Hydrophis elegans were found washed ashore on different beaches in the Sunshine Coast region and Fraser Island in Queensland, Australia between 2007-2013. Each snake had multiple granulomas and locally extensive regions of pallor evident in the hypaxial and intercostal musculature along the body. Lesions in two individuals were also associated with vertebral and rib fractures. Histological examination revealed granulomas scattered throughout skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and fractured bone. These were composed of dense aggregates of microsporidian spores surrounded by a mantle of macrophages. Sequences (ssrRNA were obtained from lesions in three sea snakes and all revealed 99% similarity with Heterosporis anguillarum from the Japanese eel (Anguillarum japonica. However, ultrastructural characteristics of the organism were not consistent with those of previous descriptions. Electron microscopic examination of skeletal muscle revealed large cysts (not xenomas bound by walls of fibrillar material (Heterosporis-like sporophorocyst walls were not detected. The cysts contained numerous mature microsporidian spores arranged in small clusters, sometimes apparently within sporophorous vesicles. The microspores were monomorphic, oval and measured 2.5-3.0 μm by 1.6-1.8 μm. They contained isofilar polar filaments with 11 (infrequently 9-12 coils arranged in two ranks. This is the first published report of a microsporidian infection in hydrophiid sea snakes. This discovery shows microsporidia with molecular affinities to Heterosporis anguillarum but ultrastructural characters most consistent with the genus Pleistophora (but no hitherto described species. Further studies are required to determine whether the microsporidian presented here belongs to the genus Heterosporis, or to a polymorphic species group as suggested by the recognition of a robust Pleistophora

  9. Spermatozoon ultrastructure in two monorchiid digeneans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Quilichini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spermatological characteristics of species from two monorchiid genera, Opisthomonorchis and Paramonorcheides, have been investigated, for the first time, by means of transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural study reveals that the mature spermatozoon of Opisthomonorchis dinema and Paramonorcheides selaris share several characters such as the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9+“1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, granules of glycogen and similar morphologies of the anterior and posterior extremities. The slight differences between the male gamete of O. dinema and P. selaris are the length of the first axoneme and the position of the second mitochondrion. This study also elucidates the general morphology of the spermatozoon in all monorchiid species described so far, which corresponds to a unique spermatozoon type. Other interesting finds concern the spermatological similarities between monorchiid spermatozoa and the mature spermatozoon reported in the apocreadiid Neoapocreadium chabaudi. These similarities allow us to suggest a close phylogenetical relationship between the Monorchiidae and the Apocreadiidae, although more studies are needed, especially in the unexplored taxa.

  10. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Cortese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs. Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton.

  11. Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, E.M.B.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

  12. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Mirko; Goellner, Sarah; Acosta, Eliana Gisela; Neufeldt, Christopher John; Oleksiuk, Olga; Lampe, Marko; Haselmann, Uta; Funaya, Charlotta; Schieber, Nicole; Ronchi, Paolo; Schorb, Martin; Pruunsild, Priit; Schwab, Yannick; Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Ruggieri, Alessia; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2017-02-28

    A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs). Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  14. Crystalline Ultrastructures, Inflammatory Elements, and Neoangiogenesis Are Present in Inconspicuous Aortic Valve Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dorfmüller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity from calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD is increasing. Recent studies suggest early reversible changes involving inflammation and neoangiogenesis. We hypothesized that microcalcifications, chemokines, and growth factors are present in unaffected regions of calcific aortic valves. We studied aortic valves from 4 patients with CAVD and from 1 control, using immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectrography. We revealed clusters of capillary neovessels in calcified (ECC, to a lesser extent in noncalcified (ECN areas. Endothelial cells proved constant expression of SDF-1 in ECC, ECN, and endothelial cells from valvular surface (ECS. Its receptor CXCR4 was expressed in ECC. IL-6 expression correlated with CXCR4 staining and presence of lymphocytes. VEGF was expressed by ECS, its receptor by ECC and ECN. Crystalline ultrastructures were found on the surface of histologically noncalcified areas (HNCAs, spectrography revealed calcium hydroxylapatite. Our results demonstrate that crystalline ultrastructures are present in HNCAs, undergoing neoangiogenesis in an inflammatory context. These alterations could be an early witness of disease and an opening to therapy.

  15. Red and Blue Lights Significantly Affect Photosynthetic Properties and Ultrastructure of Mesophyll Cells in Senescing Grape Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Light quality significantly affects photosynthetic efficiency in plants. The mechanisms for how light quality affects photosynthesis in grape is poorly understood. Therefore, to investigate the effects of different light qualities on chloroplast ultrastructure and photosynthesis efficiency, two grape cultivars ‘Italia’ (slower speed of leaf senescence and ‘Centennial Seedless’ (faster speed of leaf senescence grown under protected and delayed conditions were used. The three treatments, replicated three times, were control (no supplemental lighting, red light and blue light. Chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, and the ratio of Fv/Fm significantly increased in red light relative to the control. The opposite trend was observed in blue light in the early phase of leaf senescence. At later stages, physiological indexes were gradually higher than that of control, resulting in a delay in leaf senescence. Compared to the control, red and blue light both significantly increased the chlorophyll a/b ratio. Electron microscopy showed that blue light caused severe damage to the fine structure of chloroplasts at early stages of leaf senescence, but effects at later stages of leaf senescence became less severe compared to the control. The degradation of chloroplast ultrastructure was apparently delayed in red light throughout the experimental timeframe compared to other treatments. In this experiment, ‘Italia’ showed higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, ratios of Fv/Fm, chlorophyll a/b and better preserved chloroplast ultrastructure relative to ‘Centennial Seedless’, resulting in a slower rate of leaf senescence.

  16. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    of predictors increases the accuracy of lesion activity prediction for both primary coronal and root lesions. Three surrogate methods have been used for evaluating lesion activity (construct validity); all have disadvantages. If construct validity is accepted as a 'gold standard', it is possible to assess......This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R...... in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  17. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave excision - skin; Excision of skin lesions - benign; Skin lesion removal - benign; Cryosurgery - skin, benign; BCC - removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; ...

  18. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000865.htm Skin lesion of blastomycosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A skin lesion of blastomycosis is a symptom of an infection ...

  19. Skin lesion aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003451.htm Skin lesion aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skin lesion aspiration is the withdrawal of fluid from a ...

  20. Ultrastructural hepatocytic alterations induced by silver nanoparticle toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Mansour; Sajti, Laszlo; Melhim, Walid; Jarrar, Bashir M

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely used in nanomedicine and consuming products with potential risk to human health. While considerable work was carried out on the molecular, biochemical, and physiological alterations induced by these particles, little is known of the ultrastructural pathological alterations that might be induced by nanosilver materials. The aim of the present work is to investigate the hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations that might be induced by SNP exposure. Male rats were subjected to a daily single dose (2 mg/kg) of SNPs (15-35 nm diameter) for 21 days. Liver biopsies from all rats under study were processed for transmission electron microscopy examination. The following hepatic ultrastructural alterations were demonstrated: mitochondria swelling and crystolysis, endoplasmic reticulum disruption, cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid droplets accumulation, glycogen depletion, karyopyknosis, apoptosis, sinusoidal dilatation, Kupffer cells activation, and myelin figures formation. The current findings may indicate that SNPs can induce hepatocyte organelles alteration, leading to cellular damage that may affect the function of the liver. These findings might indicate that SNPs potentially trigger heptocyte ultrastructural alterations that may affect the function of the liver with potential risk on human health in relation to numerous applications of these particles. More work is needed to elucidate probable ultrastructural alterations in the vital organs that might result from nanosilver toxicity.

  1. Ultrastructural features of supraspinal muscles in rabbits after long-term transcutaneous lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Majewski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Lateral electrical surface stimulation is one of methods used in the therapy of the progressive form of idiopathic scoliosis (IS in children and youth. However, there are data suggesting that this method may lead to serious adverse side effects, when used for a too long period of time per day. To clarify this issue, the present study was aimed at disclosing possible changes in the ultrastructural appearance of rabbit supraspinal muscles undergoing long-term stimulation (9 h per day, 3 months, an animal model successfully used to mimic the situation in humans. In comparison to the control animals, muscles of "overstimulated" rabbits exhibited clear signs of microscopical lesions, including depletion and disintegration of myofilaments, proliferation, dilatation and, sometimes, swelling of sarcoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria, as well as signs of destruction of the Z line. The above-mentioned abnormalities, especially the signs of degenerative processes associated with the Z line and the observed microlesions strongly suggest that the failure of the long-term LESS therapy of the IS may be attributable to these ultrastructural lesions.

  2. Ultrastructural organization of human corneal nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L J; Pels, L; Vrensen, G F

    1996-03-01

    Although the human cornea is densely innervated, observations of the nerve fiber distribution and ultrastructure are scarce. This study aimed to provide a detailed electron microscopic analysis of nerve fibers in the central and peripheral human cornea. Samples from seven fresh corneas, obtained from the eyes of persons with melanoma, were processed for light and electron microscopic examinations. Both frontal and cross-sections were studied. Furthermore, serial ultrathin sections from the mid-epithelium to the anterior stroma were used. Unmyelinated nerve fiber bundles (as many as 30 nerve fibers and cross-section as large as 20 micrometers) run parallel to the stromal collagen fibers. Nerve fibers contain clear, dense cored and dense vesicles and are ensheathed by thin rims of Schwann cell protrusions and amorphic matrix. Some nerve fibers invaginate the cytoplasm of keratocytes. After passing through Bowman's membrane, bundles of straight fibers (cross-section 0.1 to 0.5 micrometers) and single-beaded nerve fibers, which both lack Schwann cell ensheathment, run parallel in an alternating manner. Beaded nerve fibers, containing many mitochondria and glycogen (cross-section as large as 2 micrometers), turn upward and invaginate both basal and wing cells. Except for the presence of myelinated nerve fibers in the peripheral stroma, no differences in the central cornea were observed. Nerve fibers invaginating epithelial cells and keratocytes suggest that both cell types are directly innervated. The presence of vesicles, mitochondria, and glycogen in stromal and epithelial nerve fibers suggest that classical and peptidergic transmitters, probably of sensory origin, innervate the human cornea. Peptidergic transmitters in nerve fibers may be involved in neuroimmunomodulation of the cornea.

  3. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells in subserosa of human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Hansen, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    vesicles) were prominent. The IC-SS ultrastructure was different from that of FLC in the longitudinal layer, which had no caveolae and fewer intermediate filaments. Peg-and-socket junctions between IC-SS and between IC-SS and muscle cells were present, and IC-SS processes had close, selective appositions...... to muscle cells. Gap junctions were not observed. Small nerve bundles were abundant, but close contacts (......We studied the ultrastructure of interstitial cells in the subserosal/adventitial layer in human colon. An interstitial cell type with an ultrastructure intermediate between fibroblast-like cells (FLC) and interstitial cells of Cajal was identified (IC-SS). IC-SS had thin and flattened branching...

  4. Ultrastructure and mitochondrial numbers in pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Callesen, Henrik; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Prepubertal pig oocytes are associated with lower developmental competence. The aim of this experiment was to conduct an exhaustive survey of oocyte ultrastructure and to use a design-unbiased stereological approach to quantify the numerical density and total number of mitochondria in oocytes...... granules and central localisation of mitochondria, vesicles and lipid droplets. Prepubertal oocytes displayed more variation. The ultrastructure of large pre- and postpubertal oocytes was compatible with higher developmental competence, whereas that of smaller prepubertal oocytes could explain...... with different diameters from pre- and postpubertal pigs. The ultrastructure of smaller prepubertal immature oocytes indicated active cells in close contact with cumulus cells. The postpubertal oocytes were more quiescent cell types. The small prepubertal oocytes had a lower total mitochondrial number...

  5. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, oncocytic variant: Cytological and ultrastructural observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanori Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is only one report on cytological findings of oncocytic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC. In this article, we report a new case with focus on cytological, and ultrastructural findings. A 60-year-old Japanese man was found to have a right renal tumor on medical checkup. In imprint cytological materials, the smears consisted of slightly discohesive clusters and isolated tumor cells with granular green colored cytoplasm on Papanicolaou staining. Nuclei were generally round and centrally located in the cytoplasm, but nuclear irregularity or perinuclear halo was absent. Ultrastructurally, the tumor was full of mitochondria with tubulovesicular cristae. Fluorescence in situ hybridization study using histological material showed multiple chromosomal losses including chromosomes 7, 10, 13, and 17. This finding supports the hypothesis that this variant may ultrastructurally show the nature of chromophobe RCC rather than renal oncocytoma.

  6. Tumefactive demyelinating lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, A.P. [Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Div. of Neuroradiology; Smirniotopoulos, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Div. of Neuroradiology]|[Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Radiological Pathology

    1996-08-01

    We studied 21 cases of pathologically confirmed tumefactive demyelinating lesions and reviewed the spectrum of tumefactive demyelinating lesions in the literature. Radiological features and clinical data were reviewed to characterize the lesions as consistent with a known demyelinating disease, most notably multiple sclerosis. Atypical clinical or radiological features (other than tumefaction) were noted. Most lesions were part of a clinical and/or radiological picture consistent with multiple sclerosis. No case strongly suggestive of variants or related diseases, such as Schilder`s disease or Balo`s concentric sclerosis, were found. There was one case suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Features which help distinguish the lesions from tumour are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D B; Breunig, Thomas M; Le, Charles

    2002-10-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence necessary for the enhanced resolution of the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the imaging of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and for imaging decay under composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of the reflected light intensity in the orthogonal polarization state from the area of simulated caries lesions linearly correlated with the square root of time of demineralization indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  8. Anatomical structure and chloroplasts ultrastructural peculiarity of some hydrophytes leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena M. Nedukha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the anatomical study, chloroplast ultrastructure and pigments content of submerged leaves of Potamogeton perfoliatus, P. pectinatus and Myriophyllum spіcatum at budding-flowering stage with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopic and biochemical methods were realized. The absent of stomata, the presence of undifferentiated mesophyll was shown with anatomical study of hydrophytes leaves. The common and distinctions signs of chloroplast ultrastructure in leaf photosynthesizing parenchyma were revealed in dependent from species. The structural changes of leaf phonotypical plasticity are examined as adaptative device of submerged leaves under influence of altered environment.

  9. Early vascular responses to everolimus-eluting cobalt-chromium stent in the culprit lesions of st-elevation myocardial infarction: results from a multicenter prospective optical coherence tomography study (MECHANISM-AMI 2-week follow-up study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Yoshihiro; Terashita, Daisuke; Otake, Hiromasa; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Fusazaki, Tetsuya; Kuriyama, Nehiro; Suzuki, Takahide; Ito, Yoshiaki; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Shozo; Kataoka, Toru; Morita, Takashi; Otsuka, Yoritaka; Hayashi, Takatoshi; Tanabe, Kengo; Shinke, Toshiro

    2018-01-09

    The use of cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (CoCr-EES) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) reduces the incidence of stent thrombosis compared with bare metal stents, and a substantial difference is apparent in the initial 2 weeks. However, vascular behavior during this early period remains unclear. This was a prospective study (MECHANISM-AMI-2W) to investigate early vascular responses in STEMI patients immediately after CoCr-EES implantation and at 2-week follow-up using frequency domain-optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). The study enrolled 52 patients (age 63.7 ± 11.7 years, male 85.0%), of whom 44 patients were available for complete serial FD-OCT analyses. Both % uncovered struts and % malapposed struts were improved at 2-week follow-up (63 ± 20 vs. 21 ± 14%, p stent (28.8 ± 27.7 vs. 18.1 ± 20.2%, p = 0.0001) and maximal area (0.93 ± 0.84 vs. 0.65 ± 0.63 mm2, p = 0.034). As a result, the average lumen area was significantly larger at 2 weeks (6.49 ± 1.82 vs. 6.71 ± 1.89 mm2, p = 0.048, respectively). The number of dissection flaps was lower (0.86 ± 1.11 vs. 0.52 ± 0.90%, p = 0.024). In conclusion, this study showed early vascular responses to CoCr-EES for STEMI lesions-including a significant reduction of thrombus-that resulted in lumen enlargement, earlier progression of strut coverage, and improvements in strut apposition and dissection. The combination of these factors may therefore be responsible for the safety of CoCr-EES within the initial 2 weeks.

  10. The hepatic mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome: ultrastructural changes in liver biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, H; Hartman, C; Berkowitz, D; Elpeleg, O N; Manov, I; Iancu, T C

    2001-10-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders are an established cause of liver failure in early childhood. In some patients, the levels of mitochondrial DNA are markedly reduced, a condition referred to as mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). We report here on the ultrastructural changes in the livers of 10 infants with the hepatic form of this syndrome. All patients displayed progressive liver failure, neurological abnormalities, hypoglycemia, and lactic acidosis that warranted investigation of respiratory chain disorder in liver tissue, specifically expressing the disease. Decreased activity of respiratory chain complexes containing mtDNA-encoded subunits (complexes I, III, IV) was shown in 5 patients. Mitochondrial DNA depletion was confirmed by Southern blot analysis in the livers of 6 patients. We found hepatocytes filled with mitochondria having aspects of "oncocytic transformation," associated with numerous changes in shape, size, cristae, and matrix. The changes were virtually identical in all specimens. In many hepatocytes, microvesicular steatosis was the salient feature. Additional findings included cholestasis and focal cytoplasmic biliary necrosis (CBN), as well as cytosiderosis in hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells. In some hepatocytes the damage appeared extreme, but fibrosis was identified only in the few patients who died beyond 6 months of age. Although individual ultrastructural findings are not specific, when taken together, they show a diagnostic pattern highly suggestive of a respiratory chain disorder. In the appropriate clinical context, these findings can direct the clinician towards the diagnosis of hepatic MDS.

  11. Morphological and ultrastructural evaluation of the golden retriever muscular dystrophy trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Thais Borges; de Abreu, Dilayla Kelly; Rodrigues, Márcio Nogueira; Brólio, Marina Pandolphi; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease, characterized by atrophy and muscle weakness. The respiratory failure is a common cause of early death in patients with DMD. Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a canine model which has been extensively used for many advances in therapeutics applications. As the patients with DMD, the GRMD frequently died from cardiac and respiratory failure. Observing the respiratory failure in DMD is one of the major causes of mortality we aimed to describe the morphological and ultrastructural data of trachea, lungs (conductive and respiratory portion of the system), and diaphragm muscle using histological and ultrastructural analysis. The diaphragm muscle showed discontinuous fibers architecture, with different diameter; a robust perimysium inflammatory infiltrate and some muscle cells displayed central nuclei. GRMD trachea and lungs presented collagen fibers and in addition, the GRMD lungs showed higher of levels collagen fibers that could limit the alveolar ducts and alveoli distension. Therefore, the most features observed were the collagen areas and fibrosis. We suggested in this study that the collagen remodeling in the trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle may increase fibrosis and affect the trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle function that can be a major cause of respiratory failure that occur in patients with DMD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of normal aging on myelin sheath ultrastructures in the somatic sensorimotor system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Liang, Ping; Fu, Han; Zhang, Jiu-Cong; Chen, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have presented qualitative and quantitative data regarding the morphological changes that occur peripherally in myelin sheaths and nerve fibers of rats during their lifespan. However, studies on ultrastructural features of myelinated fibers (MFs) in the central nervous system (CNS) remain limited. In the present study, morphological analyses of the somatic sensorimotor MFs in rats at time‑points between postnatal day 14 and postnatal month (PNM) 26 were conducted using electron microscopy. Significant alterations in the myelin sheath were observed in the sensorimotor system of aging and aged rats, which became aggravated with age. The ultrastructural pattern of myelin lamellae also exhibited age dependence. The transformation of the myelin intraperiod line from complete to incomplete fusion occurred after PNM 5, leading to an expansion of periodicity in myelin lamellae. These pathological changes in the myelin structure occurred very early and showed a significant correlation with age, indicating that myelin was the part of the CNS with the highest susceptibility to the influence of aging, and may be the main target of aging effects. In addition to the myelin breakdown, continued myelin production and remyelination were observed in the aging sensorimotor system, suggesting the presence of endogenous mechanisms of myelin repair.

  13. Ultrastructure of the posterior corneal stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Bachmann, Bjoern O; Tourtas, Theofilos; Torricelli, Andre A M; Singh, Arun; González, Sheyla; Mei, Hua; Deng, Sophie X; Wilson, Steven E; Kruse, Friedrich E

    2015-04-01

    To reinvestigate the ultrastructure of the posterior stroma of the human cornea and to correlate the findings with the stromal behavior after big-bubble creation. Observational consecutive 3-center case series. Fresh corneoscleral buttons from human donors (n = 19) and organ-cultured corneoscleral buttons (n = 10) obtained after Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Corneal specimens were divided into central (3 mm), mid peripheral (8 mm), and peripheral parts by trephination and processed for transmission electron microscopic and immunohistochemical analyses. A big bubble was created by air injection into the stroma of organ-cultured corneas before fixation. The distance of keratocytes to Descemet's membrane, number of collagen lamellae between keratocytes and Descemet's membrane, diameter and arrangement of collagen fibrils, thickness of stromal lamella created by air injection, and immunopositivity for collagen types III, IV, and VI. Stromal keratocytes were observed at variable distances from Descemet's membrane, increasing from 1.5 to 12 μm (mean, 4.97±2.19 μm) in the central, 3.5 to 14 μm (mean, 8.03±2.47 μm) in the midperipheral, and 4.5 to 18 μm (mean, 9.77±2.90 μm) in the peripheral regions. The differences in mean distances were significant (P collagen lamellae between Descemet's membrane and most posterior keratocytes varied from 2 to 10 and the diameter of collagen fibrils averaged 23.5±1.8 nm and corresponded with that of the remaining stroma. A thin layer (0.5-1.0 μm thick) of randomly arranged, unaligned collagen fibers, which was positive for collagen types III and VI, was observed at the Descemet-stroma interface. The residual stromal sheet separated by air injection in 8 of 10 donor corneas varied in thickness from 4.5 to 27.5 μm, even within individual corneas (≤3-fold), and was composed of 5 to 11 collagen lamellae that revealed keratocytes on their anterior surface and in between. Barring an anchoring zone of interwoven

  14. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and spermatozoon of Leptorhynchoides plagicephalus (Acanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala), a parasite of the sturgeon Acipenser naccarii (Osteichthyes, Acipenseriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foata, Joséphine; Dezfuli, Bahram S; Pinelli, Barbara; Marchand, Bernard

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Leptorhynchoides plagicephalus, an acanthocephalan parasite of the sturgeon Acipenser naccarii, a species which is under the threat of extinction. At the beginning, spermiogenesis in L. plagicephalus is characterized by the presence of a single centriole in the early spermatid. This centriole generates a flagellum with a 9+0 pattern. Another ultrastructural feature observed during the spermiogenesis of L. plagicephalus is the condensation of chromatin to form an "intranuclear wall". The mature spermatozoon of L. plagicephalus presents a reversed anatomy, as observed in other species of the Acanthocephala. The spermatozoon is divided into two parts: an axoneme and a nucleocytoplasmic derivative. The pattern of spermiogenesis and the ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of L. plagicephalus are compared with information available on other acanthocephalan species. The appearance of an "intranuclear wall" observed during the present study represents the first record within the Acanthocephala and is unknown from other animal taxa. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  15. Deletion of Type 3 Adenylyl Cyclase Perturbs the Postnatal Maturation of Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Olfactory Cilium Ultrastructure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Mengdi; Zhu, Ning; Zhou, Yanfen; Storm, Daniel R; Wang, Zhenshan

    2017-01-01

    Type 3 adenylyl cyclase (Adcy3) is localized to the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is an essential component of the olfactory cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. Although the role of this enzyme in odor detection and axonal projection in OSNs was previously characterized, researchers will still have to determine its function in the maturation of postnatal OSNs and olfactory cilium ultrastructure. Previous studies on newborns showed that the anatomic structure of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of Adcy3 knockout mice ( Adcy3 -/- ) is indistinguishable from that of their wild-type littermates ( Adcy3 +/+ ), whereas the architecture and associated composition of MOE are relatively underdeveloped at this early age. The full effects of sensory deprivation on OSNs may not also be exhibited in such age. In the present study, following a comparison of postnatal OSNs in seven-, 30-, and 90-day-old Adcy3 -/- mice and wild-type controls ( Adcy 3 +/+ ), we observed that the absence of Adcy3 leads to cumulative defects in the maturation of OSNs. Upon aging, Adcy3 -/- OSNs exhibited increase in immature cells and reduction in mature cells along with elevated apoptosis levels. The density and ultrastructure of Adcy3 -/- cilia were also disrupted in mice upon aging. Collectively, our results reveal an indispensable role of Adcy3 in postnatal maturation of OSNs and maintenance of olfactory cilium ultrastructure in mice through adulthood.

  16. Spent metal working fluids produced alterations on photosynthetic parameters and cell-ultrastructure of leaves and roots of maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalbo, Lucía; Fernandez-Pascual, Mercedes; García-Seco, Daniel; Gutierrez-Mañero, Francisco Javier; Lucas, Jose Antonio

    2013-09-15

    In this work we assess the capacity of maize (Zea mays) plants to phytoremediate spent metal working fluids (MWFs) and its effects on photosynthesis and ultrastructure of mesophyll and root cells. A corn-esparto fibre system patented by us has been used to phytoremediate MWFs in hydroponic culture. Furthermore, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been used to improve the process. The results show that this system is capable of significantly reducing the chemical oxygen demand, under local legislation limits. However, plant systems are really damaged, mainly its photosynthetic system, as shown by the photosynthetical parameters. Nevertheless, strain inoculated improves these parameters, especially Hill reaction. The ultrastructure of photosynthetic apparatus was also affected. Chloroplast number decreased and becomes degraded in the mesophyll of MWFs treated plants. In some cases even plasmolysis of chloroplast membrane was detected. Early senescence symptoms were detected in root ultrastructural study. Severe cellular damage was observed in the parenchymal root cells of plants grown with MWFs, while vascular bundles cell remained unchanged. It seems that the inoculation minimises the damage originated by the MWFs pollutants, appearing as less degenerative organelles and higher chloroplast number than in non-inoculated ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of Oral Lesions in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minic, I; Pejcic, A; Kostic, M; Krunic, N; Mirkovic, D; Igic, M

    2016-02-09

    Geriatric dentistry refers to dealing with oral diseases including prevention and treatment in old individuals. The aim of this investigation was to examine the types and frequency of oral lesions in the elderly. The study involved 75 elderly persons. The clinical diagnosis was established by correlating the aetiological factor associated with the lesion and by systematic examination of the oral mucosa and classifying those alterations according to the epidemiological guidelines for the diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases. During the clinical examination, the following elements were analysed: features of the lesion, anatomical location, extension, aetiological factors or related factors, dental status, alcohol, tobacco, trauma, use of prosthesis and if such were well adapted. Sixty lesions were diagnosed in 75 patients. These were classified according to clinical, histopathological and microbiological diagnosis and were distributed into 15 different clinical entities. The more prevalent pathologies were inflammatory, reactive and associated with long-term use of prostheses or ill-adapted prostheses, since 67% of the patients with lesions were using prostheses. Of the lesions related to prosthesis use, denture stomatitis was the most common one, representing 20 cases (33.3%). The second most frequent lesion was erythematous candidiasis (10%). The other most frequent lesions in this study were lingua plicata, xerostomia and pseudomembranous candidiasis. Oral and perioral tissues undergo different functional and structural changes with ageing. The role of the dentist and stomatologist includes the management of systemic, nutritional and pharmacological oral manifestations in order to establish an early diagnosis and subsequent accurate treatment.

  18. Characterization of Histopathological and Ultrastructural Changes in Channel Catfish Experimentally Infected with Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Abdelhamed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A highly virulent clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh has been the cause of recent motile Aeromonas septicemia epizootic in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus farms in the Southeastern United States. The pathology of the disease caused by vAh has not been studied well yet. Thus, our aim was to determine histopathological and ultrastructural changes in channel catfish following vAh challenge. To accomplish this, catfish fingerlings were challenged with vAh (strain ML09-119 by bath. Six fish per each time point were collected at 1, 3, 5, 6, 24, and 48 h for light microscopy, and six fish were collected at 48 h for transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The first pathological lesions were detected in the spleen and stomach at 1 h post-challenge (HPC while intestine, gills, kidney, and liver lesions were observed at 24 and 48 HPC. Histopathological examination revealed degenerative changes, necrosis, extensive edema, and inflammation in internal organs. The TEM showed severe tissue destruction with multiple bacterial cells secreting outer membrane vesicles, especially in spleen and gills and far number in the stomach. Degenerated bacterial cells were observed in the intestinal lumen and the phagosomes of phagocytic kidney cells. We identified, for the first time, degranulate eosinophilic granular cells, and dendritic cells like (DC-like cells in the necrotic intestinal epithelium. These findings suggest that vAh rapidly proliferated and spread through the catfish organs following bath challenge.

  19. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates. PMID:27069800

  20. Ultrastructure comparison of the sensory morphology of the first- and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrastructure comparison of the sensory morphology of the first- and third-instar larvae of Parasarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Azza Awad, Salah Abdel-Salam, Refat Abou El-Ela, Abdel-Aal Abdel-Aal, Doaa Mohamed ...

  1. Ultrastructural studies on the epididymal spermatozoa in the rhesus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Ultrastructural studies on the spermatozoa in different regions of the epididymis of the rhesus monkey have shown that the process of sperm maturation is associated with the caudad migration of the cytoplastmic droplet, a reduction in the volume of the cytoplasmic droplet, and an obvious wrinkling of the plasma ...

  2. An ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis and the mature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis and the mature spermatozoon of the ascidian Pyura slolonifera. R. Biseswar* and T. Maslamoney. Department of Zoology, University of Durban-Westville, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4000 Republic of South Africa. Received 22 October 1992; accepted J3 August /993. In Pyura ...

  3. Biological, histological and ultra-structural studies of female mullet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... (1991) indicated that the thecal cells during vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation possess organelles, characteristic of steroid- producing cells. Therefore, this study investigates and clarifies some biological, histological and ultrastructural characters differences of ovaries of M. cephalus from three different.

  4. Ultrastructural description of the corpora allata of Pimpla turionellae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corpora allata, are endocrine glands which produced juvenile hormone. In this study, corpora allata of adult females of Pimpla turionellae were examined ultrastructurally by using the transmission electron microscopy. The gland is surrounded with thick fibrous capsule that penetrates into the gland as a stromatal ...

  5. Histological and ultrastructural study of the gastric wall of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-01-05

    Jan 5, 1989 ... Histological and ultrastructural study of the gastric wall of the freshwater bream,. Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) with reference to 'parietal-like' cells. Heleen L. Coetzee*, Maria M. Nel and J.H. Swanepoel. Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, P.O. Box 524, Johannesburg, 2000 Republic ...

  6. Histologic and ultrastructural observations on the thyroid gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histology and ultrastructure of thyroid gland of White Fulani (Zebu) cattle were examined during the postnatal developmental period to show if variations in morphology exist with age and in relation to tropical climate. Eight prepubertal and ten pubertal cattle of abattoir origin were used to carry out this study.

  7. Ultrastructural changes in peripheral arteries and nerves in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed E. Salem

    2017-01-30

    Jan 30, 2017 ... Ultrastructural changes in peripheral arteries and nerves in diabetic ischemic lower limbs, by electron microscope. Mohamed E. Salem a,*. , Abdel-Azzem A. Ismael b, Amr Salem c, Tarek Salem d a Department of Vascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt b Department of Cell ...

  8. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Montanaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2. All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates.

  9. Ultrastructure of skeletal muscle capillaries under conditions of space mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodina, A V; Pozdnyakov, O M

    2006-06-01

    Capillaries of the rat forepaw skeletal muscles were examined on day 14 of space mission and on days 1 and 14 after landing. Ultrastructural studies revealed apoptosis caused by muscle fiber atrophy and necrobiotic changes eventuating in coagulation or monocellular necrosis of endothelial cells. Formation of capillaries was detected, which can be regarded as an adaptive reaction to injuries caused by space mission factors.

  10. Ultrastructure and elemental analysis of Hypoxis hemerocallidea : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrastructure and elemental analysis of Hypoxis hemerocallidea : A multipurpose medicinal plant. ... EDX-SEM of Hypoxis hemerocallidea leaf revealed that carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and silicon are the major components of the deposits, while other elements such as iron, sulphur, sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, ...

  11. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johs.; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed de...

  12. Crohn's disease: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in colonic myenteric plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johs.; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Horn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), remains unclear. Ultrastructural alterations in ICC in the colonic myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) have been reported previously in UC, but descriptions of ICC...

  13. The reproductive biology and the histological and ultrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology and the histological and ultrastructural characteristics in ovaries of the female gadidae fish Merluccius merluccius from the Egyptian Mediterranean water. ... Ripening period characterized by “migration of the nucleus to the animal pole”. 6. Spawning-spent period characterized by presence of ...

  14. Comparative pollen morphology and ultrastructure of Mentheae subtribe Nepetinae (Lamiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moon, H.-K.; Vinckier, S.; Smets, E.F.; Huysmans, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides new pollen data of 52 representative species belonging to all 12 genera in the currently classification of the subtribe Nepetinae, and considers the possible presence of orbicules for the first time. Pollenmorphology and ultrastructure were investigated with light, scanning

  15. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabkaew L Sukontason

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  16. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Lertthamnongtham, Sirisuda; Boonchu, Noppawan

    2002-07-01

    We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  17. Comparative ultrastructure of the root system in rhizocephalan barnacles (Crustacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresciani, J; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2001-01-01

    Rhizocephalan barnacles are parasites of Crustacea. They lack even the rudiments of an alimentary canal, but infiltrate their hosts with a nutrient-absorbing system of rootlets. We review the ultrastructure of the rootlets using light microscopy, SEM, and TEM in nine species from five families...

  18. Uterine vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management.

  19. Ultrastructural changes of penile cavernous tissue in multiple sclerotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; He, Yanzheng; Jiang, Rui

    2009-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the important risk factors resulting in erectile dysfunction (ED). The ultrastructure of corpus cavernous of the penis have an important role in the mechanism of erection. It is suggested that different medical conditions produce similar degenerative tissue responses. We investigated the ultrastructural changes of penile cavernous tissue and its association with ED in multiple sclerotic rats. After induction of multiple sclerosis in rat, maximum intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP(max)/MAP) in the severity multiple sclerotic rats (group A),moderate multiple sclerotic rats (group C), and age-matched control rat (group B) were observed and compared. The ultrastructure of the penile cavernous tissue was studied by transmission electron microscope. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in penile tissue were examined immunohistochemically. Severity MS (score 3) not only significantly decrease the ICPmax/MAP x 100 and the expression of nNOS, but also might affect the ultrastructure of the penis. The ICP(max)/MAP x 100 in group A was significantly less than in group B and group C at 3 V (5.65 +/- 1.78, 20.49 +/- 5.84, and 12.78 +/- 5.76, respectively) and at 5 V (6.70 +/- 1.39, 23.66 +/- 5.19, and 16.95 +/- 3.31, respectively) stimulation voltage, respectively (P cavernous tissue of group A rats. The function of penile erection is affected by MS, and the ultrastructural pathological changes of the penile cavernous tissue may be one of the important mechanisms of ED caused by severity MS.

  20. Experimental bluetongue virus infection of sheep; effect of vaccination: pathologic, immunofluorescent, and ultrastructural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, C R; Osburn, B I

    1986-06-01

    Ten sheep were inoculated with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 17. Six of the sheep had been vaccinated before challenge exposure, 4 sheep served as nonvaccinated challenge-exposed controls, and 2 additional sheep served as nonvaccinated, nonchallenge-exposed, contact controls. Biopsy specimens (oral labial mucosa and skin) were obtained periodically after challenge exposure. Sheep were killed 8 to 13 days after challenge exposure, and necropsy was done. Vaccination did not seem to affect the nature or severity of the lesions observed. The changes in the mucosa of the cranial portion of the digestive tract included hyperemia, edema, inflammation, petechiae, erosions, ulcers, and surface encrustations. Lesions of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles included hemorrhage, edema, myofiber degeneration, and necrosis. Lesions in cardiac muscles were sometimes widespread, indicating that cardiac failure may have been the major contributor to pulmonary congestion, edema, and eventual death during acute BTV infection. Damage to esophageal musculature resulted in vomiting. Hemorrhage was observed within the base of the pulmonary artery of all challenge-exposed sheep. Using immunofluorescence, bluetongue viral antigens were detected in small blood vessels of the skin, oral labial mucosa, tongue, esophagus, rumen, reticulum, urinary bladder, and pulmonary artery and in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Viral antigens were present in tissues obtained 3 to 11 days after inoculation. Ultrastructurally, changes in small-caliber blood vessels included congestion, hemorrhage, swollen degenerated endothelial cells, and occasional fibrin-platelet thrombi. Tubular structures and virus-like particles were observed within some of these endothelial cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Ultrastructure and morphometry of ovarian follicles in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODÓN S. M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural and morphometric changes in oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells during armadillo follicular growth are described. Primordial, intermediary, early and late primary, secondary, tertiary and preovulatory Graafian follicles were found. From primordial to Graafian follicle, granulosa cells increase in height, become multilayered while fluid-filled spaces arise among them in the tertiary follicle stage. As the follicle expands the oocyte is located eccentrically and grows in size. From primordial to secondary stage organelles develop in number and complexity and many vesicles start arising in the cytoplasm at the secondary stage. From tertiary follicle stage the number of mitochondria decreases. In follicular cells, secreting-related organelles expand, but mitochondrial number decreases according to the follicle expansion. Intercellular junctions between both cell types increase. The morphometrical study shows a biphasic pattern of oocyte and follicle growth. The morphological baseline here provided will be essential for further comprehension of the reproductive biology in armadillos.

  2. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and sperm development in Saccocoelioides godoyi Kohn & Froes, 1986 (Digenea, Haploporidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFD Baptista-Farias

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural observations of spermatogenesis and sperm development of Saccocoelioides godoyi, an intestinal parasite of Leporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794 are described. The irregular-shaped spermatogonia form a peripheral layer, and show a prominent nucleus. Spermatocytes are larger than spermatogonia, and in the early stage present synaptonemal complex. Spermatids show nuclei smaller than the spermatocytes. Spermiogenesis is characterized by outgrowth of the zone of differentiation, presenting basal bodies, separated by an intercentriolar body. At the end of this process, the spermatozoa are released into the residual cytoplasmic mass. The spermatozoa of S. godoyi are elongate, similar to the pattern described for other Digenea, showing nuclei, mitochondria and two axonemes with the 9+1 configuration. The peripheral cortical microtubules on the dorsal and ventral faces are laterally interrupted.

  3. Ultrastructure and morphometry of ovarian follicles in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. CODÓN

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural and morphometric changes in oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells during armadillo follicular growth are described. Primordial, intermediary, early and late primary, secondary, tertiary and preovulatory Graafian follicles were found. From primordial to Graafian follicle, granulosa cells increase in height, become multilayered while fluid-filled spaces arise among them in the tertiary follicle stage. As the follicle expands the oocyte is located eccentrically and grows in size. From primordial to secondary stage organelles develop in number and complexity and many vesicles start arising in the cytoplasm at the secondary stage. From tertiary follicle stage the number of mitochondria decreases. In follicular cells, secreting-related organelles expand, but mitochondrial number decreases according to the follicle expansion. Intercellular junctions between both cell types increase. The morphometrical study shows a biphasic pattern of oocyte and follicle growth. The morphological baseline here provided will be essential for further comprehension of the reproductive biology in armadillos.

  4. Ultrastructure and morphometry of ovarian follicles in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codón, S M; Estecondo, S G; Galíndez, E J; Casanave, E B

    2001-08-01

    Ultrastructural and morphometric changes in oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells during armadillo follicular growth are described. Primordial, intermediary, early and late primary, secondary, tertiary and preovulatory Graafian follicles were found. From primordial to Graafian follicle, granulosa cells increase in height, become multilayered while fluid-filled spaces arise among them in the tertiary follicle stage. As the follicle expands the oocyte is located eccentrically and grows in size. From primordial to secondary stage organelles develop in number and complexity and many vesicles start arising in the cytoplasm at the secondary stage. From tertiary follicle stage the number of mitochondria decreases. In follicular cells, secreting-related organelles expand, but mitochondrial number decreases according to the follicle expansion. Intercellular junctions between both cell types increase. The morphometrical study shows a biphasic pattern of oocyte and follicle growth. The morphological baseline here provided will be essential for further comprehension of the reproductive biology in armadillos.

  5. Ultrastructural studies on the replication of herpes simplex virus in PK and XTC-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampor, F; Szántó, J

    1982-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes showed the following characteristics of restricted replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1) strains MA and HSZP in PK and XTC-2 cells: 1) minimal cytopathic changes in PK cells as compared to more pronounced alterations in XTC-2 cells; 2) formation of single nucleocapsids or their absence in the nuclei of PK cells infected with the HSZP strain; 3) lack of budding and envelopment and absence of reduplication of the nuclear membrane; 4) persistence of partially uncoated virions within the endocytic vacuoles in the cytoplasm of PK cells; and 5) formation of dense inclusion bodies in addition to the presence of defective virions in the cytoplasm of XTC-2 cells and vacuolation of their cytoplasmic membranes. The replication of HSV 1 in PK and XTC-2 cells seemed to be blocked at both early and late stages of virus replication. At low multiplicity of infection, no virus particles were formed.

  6. Ultrastructural study of maturing pollen in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Zając

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural changes in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen, between late microspore stage and mature pollen stage were described. When the generative cell was peeled off from the intine, it was of spherical shape and had all usual organelles with the exception of plastids. The cytoplasm transformation of the vegetative cell included an increase in the number of mitochondria and changes in the accumulation of starch and lipid bodies. The starch plastids were observed at the bicellular and early tricellular pollen stages and next starch was utilized during the maturation procces. The lipid bodies of the vegetative cell form a very regular sheath around the generative cell and then, around the sperm cells. Before anthesis the lipid bodies were dispersed within the whole vegetative cell cytoplasm.

  7. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated sample...... grade on the Rotterdam Progression Scale. RESULTS: WML progression related to deterioration in cognitive functioning. This relationship was less pronounced in subjects with early confluent and confluent lesions. Consequently, studies in which the outcome is cognitive change resulting from treatment...... effects on lesion progression will need between 1809 subjects per treatment arm when using executive tests and up to 18 853 subjects when using the Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale score. Studies having WML progression as the sole outcome will need only 58 or 70 individuals per treatment arm...

  8. Early gonad development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... reproductive characteristics of early zebrafish gonads are scattered. Oogenesis is typically studied in adult ovary. ..... changes of nuclear structure. One of the ultrastructural characteristics of oocytes at ... meiosis. The process is preceded by DNA replication and begins with the pairing and condensation of ...

  9. Ultrastructural aspects of experimental cryptosporidiosis in pigs Aspectos ultraestruturais da criptosporidiose experimental em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.F.R.L. Bracarense

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine ultrastructural changes on the intestinal mucosa and associated lymphoid tissues after an experimental infection with Cryptosporidium sp. Twelve piglets dosed orally with 1×10(6 oocysts were slaughtered on days 3, 6, 9 and 12 after inoculation. The ultrastructural lesions in the intestinal cells were irregular with thickened microvilli, cytoplasmic protrusions and vacuolation, swollen mitochondria, hypertrophic organelles and nuclei. The lymphocytes of the Peyer’s patches occasionally were mitotic with a larger number of lymphoblasts in the inoculated animals.O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar as alterações ultraestruturais da mucosa intestinal e do tecido linfóide associado na inoculação experimental de Cryptosporidium sp. Doze leitões foram inoculados experimentalmente por via oral com 1×10(6 oocistos e sacrificados 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias depois. Ao exame ultraestrutural de células intestinais observou-se espessamento e irregularidade de microvilosidades, citoplasma vacuolizado e com protrusões, edema mitocondrial, hipertrofia de organelas citoplasmáticas e do núcleo. Nas placas de Peyer observou-se ocasionalmente mitose de células linfóides, verificando-se maior número de células blásticas.

  10. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  11. Differential diagnosis of small solid pancreatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph Frank; Sahai, Anand Vasante; D'Onofrio, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at a late stage. Little is known about the incidental finding of early-stage PDAC. The aim of the current study was to determine the etiology of small solid pancreatic lesions (≤15 mm) to optimize clinical managem...

  12. Morel-Lavallee lesion in pediatric trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Jane; Noritake, Alana; Ortiz, Kenneth; Ricca, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesions (MLL) are closed degloving injuries that have been rarely described in the pediatric literature. These internal degloving injuries can have serious complications and long-term morbidity. Early diagnosis and intervention is imperative. We present the case of a 20-month-old with MLL of the thigh.

  13. Effects of Jiawei Shaoyao-Gancao Decoction and Its Drug-Containing Serum on Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Ultrastructure of Human Adenomyosis Foci Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-yan Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Jiawei Shaoyao-Gancao Decoction (JSGD and its drug-containing serum (CDS on the proliferation, apoptosis, and ultrastructure of human adenomyosis foci cells. Methods. Primary cultures of human adenomyosis foci cells were prepared from hard uterine lesions of adenomyosis patients. The cells were treated with JSGD (10 and 20 mg/ml, CDS, and mifepristone (MIF for 24 or 48 h. Cell proliferation was detected using CCK-8 assay, cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry, and the cell ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Results. JSGD and CDS significantly induced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation for 24 h or 48 h, in which the effects of JSGD were in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of CDS for 24 h was higher than that of CDS for 48 h. Moreover, JSGD and CDS treatments induced marked apoptosis in adenomyosis foci cells, characterized by nucleus chromatin, condensation, fragmentation, mitochondria and endoplasmic swelling, and autophagy-lysosome. Conclusions. JSGD and CDS can suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in adenomyosis foci cells, through altering their ultrastructure. The results provided support for JSGD and CDS in the treatment of adenomyosis and gained further insight into the effect of this prescription.

  14. The liver in congenital disorders of glycosylation: ultrastructural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Theodore C; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Manov, Irena; Cherurg, Sigal; Knopf, Carlos; Mandel, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    A new group of genetic diseases characterized by defective glycoprotein biosynthesis was recently described. Transferrin isoelectric focusing enabled identification of several types of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). The authors report on the liver involvement in two siblings with CDG type Ix presenting with failure to thrive and hypertransaminasemia who developed cardiomyopathy. In the initially affected infant, liver biopsy at 13 months of age showed increased periportal cellularity, steatosis, and mild fibrosis. Ultrastructurally, the hepatocytes displayed numerous myelinosomes, mostly with a pericanalicular polarization. No myelinosomes were seen in the bile canaliculi, Kupffer cells, and sinusoidal lining cells. Focal large droplet steatosis was also noticed. These ultrastructural findings represent another diagnostic element in this heterogenic group of conditions. Electron microscopy can contribute to the elucidation of hypertransaminasemia and differentiate some types of CDG from other lysosomal diseases.

  15. Bacillus atrophaeus Outer Spore Coat Assembly and Ultrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Pitesky, M E; Malkin, A J

    2005-11-21

    Our previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies successfully visualized native Bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. We have shown that the outer spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of {approx}11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of {approx}8 nm. We present here further AFM ultrastructural investigations of air-dried and fully hydrated spore surface architecture. In the rodlet layer, planar and point defects, as well as domain boundaries, similar to those described for inorganic and macromolecular crystals, were identified. For several Bacillus species, rodlet structure assembly and architectural variation appear to be a consequence of species-specific nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the formation of the outer spore coat. We propose a unifying mechanism for nucleation and self-assembly of this crystalline layer on the outer spore coat surface.

  16. Ultrastructural localization of 5-methylcytosine on DNA and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, Irene; Biggiogera, Marco

    2017-08-01

    DNA methylation is the major epigenetic modification and it is involved in the negative regulation of gene expression. Its alteration can lead to neoplastic transformation. Several biomolecular approaches are nowadays used to study this modification on DNA, but also on RNA molecules, which are known to play a role in different biological processes. RNA methylation is one of the most common RNA modifications and 5-methylcytosine presence has recently been suggested in mRNA. However, an analysis of nucleic acid methylation at electron microscope is still lacking. Therefore, we visualized DNA methylation status and RNA methylation sites in the interphase nucleus of HeLa cells and rat hepatocytes by ultrastructural immunocytochemistry and cytochemical staining. This approach represents an efficient alternative to study nucleic acid methylation. In particular, this ultrastructural method makes the visualization of this epigenetic modification on a single RNA molecule possible, thus overcoming the technical limitations for a (pre-)mRNA methylation analysis.

  17. Ultrastructural insights into morphology and reproductive mode of Blastocystis hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Siwei; Qiao, Jiying; Wu, Xiaomin; Zhao, Liming; Liu, Yansheng; Fan, Xiaojun

    2012-03-01

    To understand well the morphology and reproductive mode of Blastocystis hominis, with the help of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy the ultrastructural details of B. hominis from fresh diarrheal specimens and cultured strains were observed. In both fecal samples and culture conditions, there were vacuolar and granular forms. In diarrhea, it exists in multivacuolar, avacuolar, and amoeboid forms. In the in vitro culture, vacuolar form could transform to granular form. The most commonly noticed structure on the cell surface was surface coat with diversity in appearance (the funiform, lamellar, filiform, and floccose in different thickness) and distributions. Three modes of reproduction were confirmed, they were binary fission, plasmotomy, and budding. Under the impact of host's response, the ultrastructures of surface coat, nucleus, and mitochondrion-like organelle sometimes changed.

  18. Ultrastructural features of canine neuroaxonal dystrophy in a Papillon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miyuu; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Yamate, Jyoji; Kuwamura, Mitsuru

    2017-12-06

    Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by severe axonal swelling (spheroids) throughout the nervous system. In dogs, NAD has been reported in several breeds and a missense mutation in PLA2G6 gene has recently been identified in the Papillon dog NAD. Here we performed ultrastructural analysis to clarify the detailed ultrastructural features of the Papillon dog NAD. Dystrophic axons consisted of accumulation of filamentous materials, tubulovesicular structures, and swollen edematous mitochondria with degenerated inner membranes were often observed in the central nervous system. At axonal terminals, degeneration of presynaptic membrane was also detected. As reported in Pla2g6 knockout mice, mitochondrial and presynaptic degeneration may be related with the pathogenesis of NAD in Papillon dogs.

  19. Geography, Structure and Evolution of Diffusion and Perfusion Lesions in DEFUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivot, Jean-Marc; Mlynash, Michael; Thijs, Vincent N.; Purushotham, Archana; Kemp, Stephanie; Lansberg, Maarten G.; Wechsler, Lawrence; Gold, Garry E; Bammer, Roland; Marks, Michael P.; Albers, Gregory W.

    2009-01-01

    Background The classical representation of acute ischemic lesions on MRI is a central diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion embedded in a perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) lesion. We investigated spatial relationships between final infarcts and early DWI/PWI lesions before and after intravenous thrombolysis in DEFUSE. Methods Baseline and follow-up DWI and PWI lesions and 30 day FLAIR scans of 32 patients were co-registered. Lesion geography was defined by the proportion of the DWI lesion superimposed by a Tmax>4 seconds PWI lesion; type 1: >50% overlap and type 2: ≤ 50% overlap. Three-dimensional structure was dichotomized into single lesion (1 DWI and 1 PWI lesion) vs. multiple lesions. Lesion reversal was defined by the percentage of the baseline DWI or PWI lesion not superimposed by the early follow-up DWI or PWI lesion. Final infarct prediction was estimated by the proportion of the final infarct superimposed on the union of the DWI and PWI lesions. Results Single lesion structure with type 1 geography was present in only nine patients (28%) at baseline and 4 (12%) on early follow-up. In these patients, PWI and DWI lesions were more likely to correspond with the final infarcts. DWI reversal was greater among patients with type 2 geography at baseline. Patients with multiple lesions and type 2 geography at early follow-up were more likely to have early reperfusion. Conclusion Prior to thrombolytic therapy in the 3–6 hour time window, type 2 geography is predominant and associated with DWI reversal. Following thrombolysis, both type 2 geography and multiple lesion structure are associated with reperfusion. PMID:19679845

  20. Ultrastructural and cytochemical identification of peroxisomes in Balantidium coli, Ciliophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, B

    1997-01-01

    Peroxisomes of the trophozoites of Balantidium coli isolated from pig intestine content were investigated, using ultrastructural and cytochemical techniques. The peroxisomes of B. coli trophozoites from pigs with subclinical balantidiasis are less then 0.8 mm in diameter whereas those from pigs with acute balantidiasis are greater than 0.8 micron in diameter. In all the trophozoites peroxisomes are round, oval or dumb-bell shaped. Catalase as an indicative enzyme was detected by cytochemical techniques in B. coli peroxisomes.

  1. Cellulose Isolation Methodology for NMR Analysis of Cellulose Ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art J. Ragauskas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain accurate information about the ultrastructure of cellulose from native biomass by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy the cellulose component must be isolated due to overlapping resonances from both lignin and hemicellulose. Typically, cellulose isolation has been achieved via holocellulose pulping to remove lignin followed by an acid hydrolysis procedure to remove the hemicellulose components. Using 13C CP/MAS NMR and non-linear line-fitting of the cellulose C4 region, it was observed that the standard acid hydrolysis procedure caused an apparent increase in crystallinity of ~10% or less on the cellulose isolated from Populus holocellulose. We have examined the effect of the cellulose isolation method, particularly the acid treatment time for hemicellulose removal, on cellulose ultrastructural characteristics by studying these effects on cotton, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC and holocellulose pulped Populus. 13C CP/MAS NMR of MCC indicated that holocellulose pulping and acid hydrolysis has little effect on the crystalline ultrastructural components of cellulose. Although any chemical method to isolate cellulose from native biomass will invariably alter substrate characteristics, especially those related to regions accessible to solvents, we found those changes to be minimal and consistent in samples of typical crystallinity and lignin/hemicellulose content. Based on the rate of the hemicellulose removal, as determined by HPLC-carbohydrate analysis and magnitude of cellulose ultrastructural alteration, the most suitable cellulose isolation methodology utilizes a treatment of 2.5 M HCl at 100 °C for a standard residence time between 1.5 and 4 h. However, for the most accurate crystallinity results this residence time should be determined empirically for a particular sample.

  2. Cellulose Isolation Methodology for NMR Analysis of Cellulose Ultrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foston, Marcus B.; Hubbell, Chistopher A.; Ragauskas, Art J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate information about the ultrastructure of cellulose from native biomass by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy the cellulose component must be isolated due to overlapping resonances from both lignin and hemicellulose. Typically, cellulose isolation has been achieved via holocellulose pulping to remove lignin followed by an acid hydrolysis procedure to remove the hemicellulose components. Using 13C CP/MAS NMR and non-linear line-fitting of the cellulose C4 region, it was observed that the standard acid hydrolysis procedure caused an apparent increase in crystallinity of ~10% or less on the cellulose isolated from Populus holocellulose. We have examined the effect of the cellulose isolation method, particularly the acid treatment time for hemicellulose removal, on cellulose ultrastructural characteristics by studying these effects on cotton, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and holocellulose pulped Populus. 13C CP/MAS NMR of MCC indicated that holocellulose pulping and acid hydrolysis has little effect on the crystalline ultrastructural components of cellulose. Although any chemical method to isolate cellulose from native biomass will invariably alter substrate characteristics, especially those related to regions accessible to solvents, we found those changes to be minimal and consistent in samples of typical crystallinity and lignin/hemicellulose content. Based on the rate of the hemicellulose removal, as determined by HPLC-carbohydrate analysis and magnitude of cellulose ultrastructural alteration, the most suitable cellulose isolation methodology utilizes a treatment of 2.5 M HCl at 100 °C for a standard residence time between 1.5 and 4 h. However, for the most accurate crystallinity results this residence time should be determined empirically for a particular sample. PMID:28824119

  3. [Ultrastructural and biochemical characteristics of the ischemic myocardium after reperfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanova, L I; Bardakhch'ian, E A

    1985-02-01

    An experimental study in 19 mongrel dogs with myocardial reperfusion demonstrated the pathogenetic role of microcirculatory disturbances, conducive to cardiomyocyte damage. Electron microscopic and biochemical investigation showed that the accumulation of fluid was mainly due to inflated bound-water fraction, and the development of interstitial and, to a smaller degree, intracellular edema was connected with increased permeability of the histohematic border. Ultrastructural changes were more pronounced in the infarcted and marginal zones, while the intact zone showed adaptive changes only.

  4. Ultrastructural muscle and neuro-muscular junction alterations in polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Babakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural analysis of 7 biopsies from m.palmaris longus and m.deltoideus in patients with confirmed polymyositis revealed alterationand degeneration of muscle fibers and anomalies of neuro-muscular junction (NMJ. The NMJ abnormalities and following denervation ofmuscle fibers in polymyositis start with subsynaptic damages. The occurance of regeneration features in muscle fibers at any stage is characteristic for PM.

  5. Nanoscale Correlated Disorder in Out-of-Equilibrium Myelin Ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, Gaetano; Di Gioacchino, Michael; Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Burghammer, Manfred; Ciasca, Gabriele; Bianconi, Antonio

    2018-01-23

    Ultrastructural fluctuations at nanoscale are fundamental to assess properties and functionalities of advanced out-of-equilibrium materials. We have taken myelin as a model of supramolecular assembly in out-of-equilibrium living matter. Myelin sheath is a simple stable multilamellar structure of high relevance and impact in biomedicine. Although it is known that myelin has a quasi-crystalline ultrastructure, there is no information on its fluctuations at nanoscale in different states due to limitations of the available standard techniques. To overcome these limitations, we have used scanning micro X-ray diffraction, which is a unique non-invasive probe of both reciprocal and real space to visualize statistical fluctuations of myelin order of the sciatic nerve of Xenopus laevis. The results show that the ultrastructure period of the myelin is stabilized by large anticorrelated fluctuations at nanoscale, between hydrophobic and hydrophilic layers. The ratio between the total thickness of hydrophilic and hydrophobic layers defines the conformational parameter, which describes the different states of myelin. Our key result is that myelin in its out-of-equilibrium functional state fluctuates point-to-point between different conformations showing a correlated disorder described by a Levy distribution. As the system approaches the thermodynamic equilibrium in an aged state, the disorder loses its correlation degree and the structural fluctuation distribution changes to Gaussian. In a denatured state at low pH, it changes to a completely disordered stage. Our results aim to clarify the degradation mechanism in biological systems by associating these states with ultrastructural dynamic fluctuations at nanoscale.

  6. Gram stain of skin lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin lesion gram stain ... skin sore. This procedure is called a skin lesion biopsy . Before the biopsy, your provider will numb ... means bacteria have been found in the skin lesion. Further tests are needed to confirm the results. ...

  7. Acute periodontal lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Gonzalez, David; Alonso Álvarez, Bettina; Arriba de la Fuente, Lorenzo; Santa- Cruz Astorqui, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz Alonso, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    This is a review and update on acute conditions affecting the gingival tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases, and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious process not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, muco-cutanenous disorders, and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important since it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodo...

  8. Spermatozoal ultrastructure in three Atlantic solenocerid shrimps (Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Antonio; Scelzo, Marcelo A; Tudge, Christopher C

    2006-03-01

    The spermatozoal ultrastructure in three solenocerid shrimps (Solenocera membranacea, S. africana, and Pleoticus muelleri) from different Atlantic locations was examined with the aim of increasing understanding of the phylogenetic relationships in the Dendrobranchiata. A considerable structural similarity between the sperm of these species and those of penaeid shrimps supports a close affinity between the Penaeidae and Solenoceridae. However, significant differences in the sperm morphology of the previously investigated sicyoniids (namely, a greater complexity of the acrosomal complex) suggest evolutionary separation of the Sicyoniidae from the assemblage Penaeidae-Solenoceridae. Two ultrastructural features distinguish the spermatozoa of the three studied solenocerids from penaeid sperm: 1) separation of the plasma and acrosome membranes at the base of the spike and anterior region of the cap, and 2) asymmetry of the acrosomal cap, which appears to be a synapomorphy of the group. No striking ultrastructural differences were found between the spermatozoa of the closely related species S. membranacea and S. africana, whereas a great number of morphological differences separate the spermatozoa of Pleoticus from those of Solenocera (e.g., shape of the acrosomal cap, structural arrangement of the contents of the whole acrosome vesicle, thickness and distribution of the cytoplasm, and external shape of the spike).

  9. [Ultrastructural changes in various cataractous lenses in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Chen, C

    1996-03-01

    To study the ultrastructural changes of lenses aged 50 days from normal rats and rats with three kinds of cataract. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to investigate the ultrastructural changes of normal lens, selenium, galactosemic and congenital cataracts in the rat. In the normal group, the structure of cell membrane in cortex is not changed obviously, but in the lens nucleus there are slight cellular degeneration, low cytoplasmic density and the destruction of intercellular junctional complexes. In the selenium cataratous lens, in the lens cortex and nucleus the cellular junctional complexes are damaged severely, the cystic degeneration of mitochondria in the cytoplasm is obvious, the cytoplasmic density becomes lower and slight liquefaction can be observed in some parts of cytoplasm. In the galactosemic cataractous lens, in the cortex obvious liquefaction, vesicles and globular structures can be found within the cytoplasm, intercellular spaces are enlarged and liquified markedly, and in the lens nuclear area the cytoplasm appears as fine sands. In congenital cataractous lens, the cellular structure in cortex is essentially normal, but there are marked destruction of junctional complexes, obvious cystic degeneration of mitochondria and cytoplasmic aggregation with uneven distribution in the lens nuclear area. The ultrastructural changes in different kinds of cataractous lenses depend on the extent and location of opacification in lenses.

  10. Ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni caused by artemether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Shuhua

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress has been made over the last decade with the development and clinical use of artemether as an agent against major human schistosome parasites. The tegument has been identified as a key target of artemether, implying detailed studies on ultrastructural damage induced by this compound. We performed a temporal examination, employing a transmission electron microscope to assess the pattern and extent of ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni harboured in mice treated with a single dose of 400 mg/kg artemether. Eight hours post-treatment, damage to the tegument and subtegumental structures was seen. Tegumental alterations reached a peak 3 days after treatment and were characterized by swelling, fusion of distal cytoplasma, focal lysis of the tegumental matrix and vacuolisation. Tubercles and sensory organelles frequently degenerated or collapsed. Typical features of subtegumental alterations, including muscle fibres, syncytium and parenchyma tissues, were focal or extensive lysis, vacuolisation and degeneration of mitochondria. Severe alterations were also observed in gut epithelial cells and vitelline cells of female worms. Our findings of artemether-induced ultrastructural alterations in adult S. mansoni confirm previous results obtained with juvenile S. mansoni and S. japonicum of different ages.

  11. Ultrastructural mitochondrial alterations in equine myopathies of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driessche, K; Ducatelle, R; Chiers, K; Van Coster, R; van der Kolk, J H; van der Kolk, H

    2015-03-01

    Very few mitochondrial myopathies have been described in horses. To examine the ultrastructure of muscle mitochondria in equine cases of myopathy of unknown origin. Biopsies of vastus lateralis of the Musculus quadriceps femoris were taken predominantly immediately post mortem and processed for transmission electron microscopy. As a result, electron micrographs of 90 horses in total were available for analysis comprising 4 control horses, 16 horses suffering from myopathy and 70 otherwise diseased horses. Following a thorough clinical and laboratory work-up, four out of five patients that did not fit into the usual algorithm to detect known causes of myopathy showed ultrastructural mitochondrial alterations. Small mitochondria with zones with complete disruption of cristae associated with lactic acidemia were detected in a 17-year-old pony mare, extremely long and slender mitochondria with longitudinal cristae in a 5-year-old Quarter horse stallion, a mixture of irregular extremely large mitochondria (measuring 2500 by 800 nm) next to smaller ones in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare and round mitochondria with only few cristae in a 11-year-old pony gelding. It remains uncertain whether the subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulations observed in the fifth patient have any pathological significance. Ultrastructural alterations in mitochondria were detected in at least four horses. To conclude that these are due to mitochondrial dysfuntions, biochemical tests should be performed. The possibility of a mitochondrial myopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of muscle weakness.

  12. Prevalence of Oro-Facial Lesions in Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Oro-facial lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of HIV infection. These were commonly observed in HIV infected Nigerian women. Oral candidiasis the most common oral lesion observed in the series may therefore be used as a clinical indicator of early immunodeficiency associated with HIV.

  13. Traditional lesion detection aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, K W; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Lesion detection aids ideally aim at increasing the sensitivity of visual caries detection without trading off too much in terms of specificity. The use of a dental probe (explorer), bitewing radiography and fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI) have long been recommended for this purpose. Today, probing of suspected lesions in the sense of checking the 'stickiness' is regarded as obsolete, since it achieves no gain of sensitivity and might cause irreversible tooth damage. Bitewing radiography helps to detect lesions that are otherwise hidden from visual examination, and it should therefore be applied to a new patient. The diagnostic performance of radiography at approximal and occlusal sites is different, as this relates to the 3-dimensional anatomy of the tooth at these sites. However, treatment decisions have to take more into account than just lesion extension. Bitewing radiography provides additional information for the decision-making process that mainly relies on the visual and clinical findings. FOTI is a quick and inexpensive method which can enhance visual examination of all tooth surfaces. Both radiography and FOTI can improve the sensitivity of caries detection, but require sufficient training and experience to interpret information correctly. Radiography also carries the burden of the risks and legislation associated with using ionizing radiation in a health setting and should be repeated at intervals guided by the individual patient's caries risk. Lesion detection aids can assist in the longitudinal monitoring of the behaviour of initial lesions. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Temporal and Quantitative Analysis of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet-induced atherosclerotic rabbit is an ideal model for atherosclerosis study, but temporal changes in atherosclerotic development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits are poorly understood. Japanese white rabbits were fed a high-cholesterol diet to induce sustained hypercholesterolemia, and each group of 10–12 animals was then sacrificed at 6, 12, 16, or 28 weeks. The rabbit aortas were harvested, and the sizes of the gross and intima atherosclerotic lesions were quantified. The cellular component of macrophages (Mφs and smooth muscle cells (SMCs in aortic intimal lesions was also quantified by immunohistochemical staining, and the correlation between plasma cholesterol levels and the progress of atherosclerotic lesions was studied. The ultrastructure of the atherosclerotic lesions was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Widely variable atherosclerotic plaques were found from 6 weeks to 28 weeks, and the lesional progress was closely correlated with cholesterol exposure. Interestingly, a relatively reduced accumulation of Mφ, an increased numbers of SMCs, and a damaged endothelial layer were presented in advanced lesions. Moreover, SMCs were closely correlated with cholesterol exposure and lesional progress for the whole period. Cholesterol exposure directly determines atherosclerotic progress in a rabbit model, and the changes in the cellular component of advanced lesions may affect plaque stability in an atherosclerotic rabbit model.

  15. Ovarian microcystic stromal tumor: report of a new entity with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mary; Bhattacharjee, Meenakshi B

    2014-08-01

    Microcystic stromal tumor is a recently described rare subtype of ovarian tumor for which there has been no previously reported ultrastructural study. We report a case with the characteristic histological and immunohistochemical features and the first ultrastructural study. The immunohistochemical findings of strong and diffuse nuclear staining for beta catenin and P27 are suggestive of dysregulation of more than one genetic pathway. The ultrastructural findings are supportive of the previous postulation of an ovarian stromal origin of the neoplastic cells.

  16. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies of the tapeworm Monobothrium wageneri (Caryophyllidea) in the intestinal tract of tench Tinca tinca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C F; Poddubnaya, L G; Scholz, T; Turnbull, J F; Ferguson, H W

    2011-12-06

    Monobothrium wageneri is a monozoic caryophyllidean tapeworm of tench Tinca tinca. The pathological changes caused by this parasite within the intestinal tract of wild tench are described for the first time. Parasites were found attached to the anterior third of the intestine in tight clusters comprising up to 109 tapeworms. Infection was associated with the formation of raised inflammatory swellings surrounding the parasites. This host response, combined with the deep penetration of the scolex into the gut wall, formed a very firm seat of parasite attachment. Histopathological changes were characterised by a pronounced fibrogranulomatous lesion that extended through all layers of the intestine. This was accompanied by haemorrhage, oedema, necrosis and degeneration of the muscularis. A marked eosinophilic interface layer between the scolex of the tapeworm and gut wall indicated intimate host-parasite contact. Ultrastructural examinations revealed coniform spinitriches covering the neck and lateral sides of the scolex and capilliform filitriches present on the apical end of the scolex. Numerous glandular cytons (tegumental glands) were recorded throughout the scolex tegument. Large numbers of secretory granules discharged from the glands through a network of processes onto the scolex surface were consistent with distancing the cellular responses of the host. Observations of severe inflammatory lesions, partial intestinal occlusion and the potential for intestinal perforation represent important pathological changes that are consistent with loss of normal gut function. The lesions associated with the attachment of M. wageneri are more severe than those recorded for any other tapeworm of British freshwater fish.

  17. Enhancement of International Dermatologists' Pigmented Skin Lesion Biopsy Decisions Following Dermoscopy with Subsequent Integration of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Richard R; Farberg, Aaron S; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S

    2016-07-01

    Early detection and subsequent management of melanoma are critical for patient survival. New technologies have been developed to augment clinician analysis of suspicious pigmented skin lesions. To determine how information provided by a multispectral digital skin lesion analysis device affects the biopsy decisions of international dermatologists following clinical and dermoscopic pigmented skin lesion evaluation. Participants at a dermoscopy conference in Vienna, Austria, were shown 12 clinical and dermoscopic images of pigmented skin lesions (2 melanomas in situ, 3 invasive melanomas, and 7 low-grade dysplastic nevi) previously analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images, again after observing high-resolution dermoscopy images, and again when subsequently shown multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information. Data were analyzed from a total of 70 international dermatologists. Overall, sensitivity was 58 percent after clinical evaluation (C) and 59 percent post-dermoscopy (D), but 74 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participant specificity was 56 percent (C) decreasing to 51 percent (D), but increasing to 61 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Diagnostic accuracy was 57 percent (C) decreasing to 54 percent (D), but increasing to 67 percent for dermatologists after integrating the multispectral digital skin lesion analysis data into the biopsy decision. The overall number of lesions biopsied increased from 50 percent (C) to 53 percent (D), rising to 54 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Decisions to biopsy melanocytic lesions were more sensitive and specific when multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information was provided with no significant increase in the number of biopsies recommended. Providing multispectral digital skin lesion analysis data may lead to additional improvement in biopsy

  18. Enhancement of International Dermatologists’ Pigmented Skin Lesion Biopsy Decisions Following Dermoscopy with Subsequent Integration of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farberg, Aaron S.; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection and subsequent management of melanoma are critical for patient survival. New technologies have been developed to augment clinician analysis of suspicious pigmented skin lesions. Objective: To determine how information provided by a multispectral digital skin lesion analysis device affects the biopsy decisions of international dermatologists following clinical and dermoscopic pigmented skin lesion evaluation. Methods: Participants at a dermoscopy conference in Vienna, Austria, were shown 12 clinical and dermoscopic images of pigmented skin lesions (2 melanomas in situ, 3 invasive melanomas, and 7 low-grade dysplastic nevi) previously analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images, again after observing high-resolution dermoscopy images, and again when subsequently shown multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information. Results: Data were analyzed from a total of 70 international dermatologists. Overall, sensitivity was 58 percent after clinical evaluation (C) and 59 percent post-dermoscopy (D), but 74 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participant specificity was 56 percent (C) decreasing to 51 percent (D), but increasing to 61 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Diagnostic accuracy was 57 percent (C) decreasing to 54 percent (D), but increasing to 67 percent for dermatologists after integrating the multispectral digital skin lesion analysis data into the biopsy decision. The overall number of lesions biopsied increased from 50 percent (C) to 53 percent (D), rising to 54 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Conclusion: Decisions to biopsy melanocytic lesions were more sensitive and specific when multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information was provided with no significant increase in the number of biopsies recommended. Providing multispectral digital skin lesion analysis

  19. Ultrastructure of sheep primordial follicles cultured in the presence of indol acetic acid, EGF, and FSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Da Cruz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured...... in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6¿d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus......, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro....

  20. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: ultrastructural study of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Wartchow, Eric P; Mierau, Gary W; Stolzenberg, Ethan D; Gumerlock, Mary Kay; Fung, Kar-Ming

    2012-02-01

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently classified neuroepithelial tumor for which there has been little comprehensive ultrastructural study. Here, we describe the radiographic, intraoperative, histologic, immunohistochemical, and in-depth ultrastructural findings in a case of PTPR. This study corroborates that PTPR has concomitant ependymal, neuroendocrine, and secretory features, and details novel ultrastructural as well as immunohistochemical features that further this argument. Discrepancies with prior descriptions of PTPR are described, as these differences may reflect phenotypic variability in this rare tumor, and the ultrastructural features that relate to the putative ependymal origin of the entity are emphasized.

  1. Traumatic lesions of the posterior urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde-Ramos, L; Gómez-Illanes, R; Campos-Juanatey, F; Portillo-Martín, J A

    2016-11-01

    The posterior urethral lesions are associated with pelvis fractures in 5-10% of cases. The posterior urethra is attached to the pelvis bone by puboprostatic ligaments and the perineal membrane, which explains why disruption of the pelvic ring can injure the urethra at this level. To identify suspected cases of posterior urethral trauma and to perform the diagnosis and its immediate or deferred management. Search in PubMed of articles related to traumatic posterior urethral lesions, written in English or Spanish. We reviewed the relevant publications including literature reviews and chapters from books related to the topic. With patients with pelvis fractures, we must always rule out posterior urethral lesions. The diagnostic examination of choice is retrograde urethrography, which, along with the severity of the condition, will determine the management in the acute phase and whether the treatment will be performed immediately or deferred. Early diagnosis and proper acute management decrease the associated complications, such as strictures, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Despite the classical association between posterior urethral lesions and pelvic fractures, the management of those lesions (whether immediate or deferred) remains controversial. Thanks to the growing interest in urethral disease, there are an increasing number of studies that help us achieve better management of these lesions. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of 90° Hopkin's Telescopic Examination as an OPD Tool to Clinically Evaluate and Record Oral Cavity Lesions: Our Experience in Early Detection, Especially in Patients with Limited Mouth Opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlik, Dushyant; Gupta, Karan; Patel, Daxesh; Patel, Purvi; Toprani, Rajendra; Patel, Kaustubh

    2015-06-01

    Restricted mouth opening due to premalignant lesions like oral sub-mucous fibrosis, malignancies of oral cavity and postoperative status is very common in Indian patients. It is very difficult to evaluate, document and biopsy the lesions due to inability to access, vast area and diversity of premalignant lesions and subject variations. 90° Hopkin's slender out-patient examination telescope was found useful tool in this. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of magnified view and reach of a slender telescope to document and examine the oral cavity for any premalignant and malignant lesions, especially for patients with restricted mouth opening and to study its impact on management. A 90(0) Hopkin's telescope was used to evaluate and document oral cavity examination in the Out Patients Department (OPD). The data of first 2000 patients was analysed. Difficult to reach areas, where mouth opening was severely restricted was the significant subset. A total of 1394 patients approached OPD for primary diagnosis at our tertiary cancer care centre. Six hundred and six patients were the ones in follow up after treatment in form of Surgery, Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy, or combination. Five twenty three patients (of 1394) with mouth opening ≤ 20mm formed the study group. Telescope guided biopsies were also taken in 50 patients from 56 sites. Serial recordings were compared objectively in premalignant, treatment evaluation and close watch groups. An increase of 5.6% in rate of diagnosis of malignancy was made possible with the help of telescopic examination in patients with mouth opening ≤ 20mm. A 90(0) Hopkin's telescopic examination is a useful tool to evaluate and record oral cavity lesions, especially in patients with restricted mouth openings. It is a useful tool for screening high risk group, giving definite advantage of objective evaluation and recording of the lesion. It can also be used to objectively evaluate response of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and as a

  3. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva

    1999-01-01

    (nonactivated) or S phase (activated) cytoplasts. Control embryos were fixed at the two-, four-, early eight- and late eight-cell stages; nuclear transfer embryos were fixed at 1 and 3 hr post fusion and at the two-, four-, and eight-cell stages. Control embryos possessed a nucleolar precursor body throughout...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  4. The development of adrenal homolog of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina P; Civinini, Annalena

    2005-02-01

    In this work we describe the adrenal homolog of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during development. At the histological level, the interrenal primordium is clearly evident in larvae 25 days after fertilization (dpf), and the immunohistochemical reactions for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which mark the chromaffin cells, appear as early as 27 dpf. Both reactions are evident in cells localized in the head kidney and in some, probably migrating, cells close to the notochord. In 27-dpf larvae, the ultrastructural analysis shows the presence of the interrenal cells with mitochondria with tubulovesicular cristae, typical of steroidogenic cells, sometimes surrounded by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) cisternae, indicating that in this stage the cells have the capacity for steroid synthesis and secretion. In the same stage the chromaffin cells are characterized by few and small membrane-bound granules containing cores of heterogeneous electron density. Both types of cells show large nuclei, numerous free or clumped ribosomes, developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), and scarce SER. Rare nerve endings contacting chromaffin cells are present. In the subsequent developmental stages, a further differentiation of both types of cells is evidenced by modifications of cell organelles as mitochondria, chromaffin granules, RER, SER, and so on. A clear discrimination of the two types of catecholamine-containing cells, adrenaline and noradrenaline cells, is evident only 5 days after hatching. The presence of different interrenal cell types in larvae at 5 and 10 days after hatching probably indicates the activation of a physiological cellular cycle. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural results are compared with those obtained by other authors in the same and other vertebrate species.

  5. Ultrastructural changes and the distribution of arabinogalactan proteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao; Yang, Xiao; Lin, Guimei; Zou, Ru; Chen, Houbin; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2011-08-01

    A better understanding of somatic embryogenesis in banana (Musa spp.) may provide a practical way to improve regeneration of banana plants. In this study, we applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize the ultrastructural changes during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1'). We also used histological and immunohistochemical techniques with 16 monoclonal antibodies to study the spatial distribution and cellular/subcellular localization of different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) components of the cell wall during somatic embryogenesis. Histological study with periodic acid-Schiff staining documented diverse embryogenic stages from embryogenic cells (ECs) to the late embryos. SEM revealed a mesh-like structure on the surface of proembryos which represented an early structural marker of somatic embryogenesis. TEM showed that ECs were rich in juvenile mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stacks. Cells in proembryos and early globular embryos resembled ECs, but they were more vacuolated, showed more regular nuclei and slightly more developed organelles. Immunocytochemical study revealed that the signal of most AGP epitopes was stronger in starch-rich cells when compared with typical ECs. The main AGP component in the extracellular matrix surface network of banana proembryos was the MAC204 epitope. Later, AGP immunolabelling patterns varied with the developmental stages of the embryos. These results about developmental regulation of AGP epitopes along with developmental changes in the ultrastructure of cells are providing new insights into the somatic embryogenesis of banana. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  6. Clinicomorphological Spectrum of Ovarian Cystic Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, R; Makaju, R; Bastakoti, R

    2016-01-01

    Background Ovarian cysts, which present as neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, are the most common gynaecological cause of hospital admissions. Early diagnosis is difficult due to asymptomatic nature. Clinical, radiological and gross examination alone cannot distinguish benign from malignant lesions, hence, histopathological examination is important for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic approach. Objective The objective of the study is to analyze the spectrum of ovarian cystic lesions with their clinico-morphorgical features. Method This is a prospective study done in between July 2014 and July 2015 in Dhulikhel Hospital-Kathmandu University Hospital. Clinical data of patients were obtained from hospital records and requisition submitted along with the tissue specimens received in the department. Result A total 84 cases of ovarian cystic lesions were studied. Among these, 47 (55.9%) were non-neoplastic lesions, 33 (39.3%) were benign neoplasms, two (2.4%) were borderline and two (2.4%) were malignant neoplasms. The most common nonneoplastic lesions were follicular cysts, 26 (55.3%) followed by simple cysts 14 (29.8%), hemorrhagic cysts five (10.6%) and corpus luteal cysts two (4.3%). Among all neoplasms, 19 (51.4%) were mature cystic teratoma followed by 10 (27.0%) cases of mucinous cystadenoma and four (10.8%) cases of serous cystadenoma. Between two (5.4%) malignant cases, one was immature cystic teratoma and the other was mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Besides these, two (5.4%) cases of borderline mucinous cystadenoma were also present. Conclusion Ovarian cystic lesions are difficult to categorize on the basis of clinical and radiological findings. Histopathological examination plays a significant role to differentiate benign lesion from malignant as well as for the proper management.

  7. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  8. [Rare mesenchymal lesions in siblings. Two case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guschmann, M; Frege, J; Lübbert, E; Golla, S; Rudolph, B; Haake, K; Stöver, B

    2003-05-01

    We report on a 15-month-old boy presenting a juvenile active ossifying fibroma in the right nasal cavity and the sibling, a 9-month-old girl with a mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall. The two lesions showed many similarities. Both lesions are present at the time of birth or in early life with local obstructive or compressive effects. The lesions have a similar mixture of mature and immature mesenchymal tissue with areas of ossification. The entities present a tumor-like development with an abnormal mixture of tissue indigenous to the specific area of the body without notable atypical cytologic features. These features are typical criteria for hamartoma lesions.

  9. Suspected Acoustic Neuroma Demyelinating Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuming; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiejun; Wu, Qiang; Huang, Guodong; Li, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    Demyelinating lesions were recognized as a kind of rare central nervous system demyelinating lesion. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of demyelinating lesions is difficult. Once the diagnosis was delayed or incorrect, it will make a great impact on patients.Demyelinating lesions often involved in young and middle-aged, but this patient was the aged, which is rare.

  10. Ultrasound study of skin tumors; Estudio ecografico de lesiones tumorales de la piel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, J.; Cueto, L.; Roldan, F.; Perez, I.; Rangel, M. E.; Garcia, A. [Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    To study the ultrasonographic features associated with different skin tumors. Between June 2000 and May 2001, ultrasound studies using a 10MHz-circular array transducer were performed in 53 patients with skin tumors. Each lesion was analyzed to assess the following ultrasonographic features: shape, size, margins, neighborhood relations and ultrastructure (echogenicity, homogeneity and ultrasound conduction). The lesions studied included 5 epidermal nevi, 2 epidermal cysts 6 basal cell carcinomas, 5 spindle cell carcinomas, 10 sebaceous cysts, 1 lymph angioma, 5 hemangiomas, 6 benign fibrous histiocytomas, 3 cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. 2 plexiformneurofibromas. 4 lipomas, 1. melanocyte nevus and 3 malignant melanomas. The ultrasonographic features of different skin tumors are described. The use of high-frequency probes is indispensable in the study of the epidermis. Ultrasound allows the determination of the extension of the lesion, a feature that is especially useful in cases of melanoma. (Author) 24 refs.

  11. Ultrastructural studies of epidermis keratinization in grass snake embryos Natrix natrix L. (Lepidosauria, Serpentes) during late embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadźba, Elwira; Rupik, Weronika

    2010-12-01

    The changes and biochemical features of the epidermis that accompany the differentiation and embryonic shedding complex formation in grass snake Natrix natrix L. embryos were studied ultrastructurally and immunocytochemically with two panels of antibodies (AE1, AE3, AE1/AE3; anti-cytokeratin, pan mixture, Lu-5 and PCK-26). All observed changes in the ultrastructure of the cells forming the epidermal layers were associated with the physiological changes that occurred in the embryonic epidermis, such as changing of the manner of nutrition and keratinization leading to the embryonic shedding complex formation. The layers that originated first (basal, outer and inner periderm and clear layer) differentiated very early and rapidly. Rapid differentiation was also observed in the layers that are very important for the functioning of the epidermis in Natrix embryos (oberhäutchen and beta-layers). They started to differentiate at developmental stage IX, and then fused and formed the embryonic shedding complex at developmental stage XI. During the embryonic development of the grass snake the smallest changes appeared in the ultrastructure of the cells in the mesos and alpha-layers because they perform supplementary functions in the process of embryonic molting. They were undifferentiated until the end of embryonic development and started to differentiate just before the first adult molting. AE1/AE3, anti-cytokeratin, pan mixture, Lu-5 and PCK-26 antibodies immunolabeled clear layer, oberhäutchen and beta-layers at the latest phase of developmental stage XI. It should be noted that these antibodies did not immunolabel the alpha-layer until hatching. The presence of alpha-keratin immunolabeling in layers that were keratinized, particularly in the oberhäutchen and beta-layers in embryos, indicated that they were not as hard as in fully mature individuals. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Spontaneous Lung Lesions in Aging Laboratory Rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, T K; Griffith, J W; Chroneos, Z C; Izer, J M; Willing, L B; Peng, X

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous age-related lesions of laboratory rabbits are not well documented in the contemporary scientific literature. A retrospective study of diagnostic necropsies of 36 rabbits >2 years of age found a number of common lung lesions. Fibromuscular intimal hyperplasia affected medium and to a lesser extent large pulmonary arteries and was present to a variable extent in all 36 rabbits >2 years of age. The lesions were characterized by fragmentation and/or reduplication of the internal elastic lamina (IEL), proliferation of smoothelin+/alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+/vimentin- smooth muscle cells and fewer smoothelin-/α-SMA+/vimentin+ myofibroblasts, and intimal deposition of collagen without thrombosis, embolism, or evidence of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary emphysema, present in 30/36 rabbits, was characterized by the loss of alveolar septa; most affected rabbits did not have clinical signs of respiratory disease. In 8/13 rabbits of the inbred EIII/JC audiogenic strain, we identified a unique syndrome of granulomatous pneumonia containing hyaline brown to gray, globular to ring-like acellular material that was Alcian blue and periodic acid-Schiff positive. The material was immunoreactive for surfactant protein-A and had the ultrastructural appearance of multilamellar vesicles, suggesting a genetic defect in surfactant metabolism. Additionally, we found small benign primary lung tumors (fibropapillomas, 5 rabbits) not previously described. Other findings included heterotopic bone (5 rabbits), subacute to chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia, pyogranulomatous pneumonia with plant material, and pulmonary artifacts from barbiturate euthanasia solution.

  13. Periapical implant lesion: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya-Tárraga, J-A; Cervera-Ballester, J; Peñarrocha-Oltra, D; Peñarrocha-Diago, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence for periapical implant lesion, which makes a patient more susceptible to the periapical lesion, frequency, symptoms, signs (including radiological findings) and possible treatment options. A systematic literature review and analysis of publications included in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane; articles published until March 2016; with a populations, exposures and outcomes (PEO) search strategy was performed, focused on the issue: "In patients with periapical lesion to the implant during the osseointegration, what symptoms, signs, and changes in complementary examination manifested, for according to that stage, be intervened with the appropriate approach?". The set criteria for inclusion were peer-reviewed articles. From a total of 212 papers identified, 36 studies were included in this systematic review, with 15461 implants evaluated and 183 periapical implant lesions. Which 8 papers included more than 5 cases and 28 included equal or less than 5 cases. Analysis of the papers revealed that periapical implant lesion is classified according to evolution stages into acute (non-suppurated and suppurated) and subacute (or suppurated-fistulized). In the acute stage and in the subacute if there is no loss of implant stability, the correct treatment approach is implant periapical surgery. In the subacute stage associated with implant mobility the implant must be removed. Evidence on the subject is very limited, there are few studies with small sample, without homogeneity of criteria for diagnosing the disease and without design of scientific evidence. Currently etiology lacks consensus. The early diagnosis of periapical implant periapical lesions during the osseointegration phase and early treatment, will lead to a higher survival rate of implants treated, hence preventing the need for implant extraction.

  14. Ultra-structural study of Egyptian Buffalo oocytes before and after in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... This procedure was established and obtained from Electron Microscope. Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt. Ultra-structure evaluation. Ultrastructural alterations were examined, interpreted and assessed according to the scheme based on previous works by Fuku et al. (1995 a and ...

  15. Ultrastructural assessment of cellulite morphology: clues to a therapeutic strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Tokuya; Sato, Shigeru; Kawana, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Cellulite is a problematic condition affecting mostly women, characterized by a bumpy or nodular skin surface. Recent approaches with laser treatment have offered some promise. The present study sought to identify possible targets for laser treatment or light therapy through an ultrastructural investigation of the condition. Study subjects comprised 7 healthy Japanese female volunteers (Age range 37-46 yr, average 38.4) with cellulite, graded on the 4-point Nurnberger-Muller cellulite severity scale. Four patients were at grade 2 and 3 at grade 3. Three millimeter punch biopsies were obtained and routinely processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. Microphotography of specimens from cellulite patients demonstrated the presence of fibrotic septa which divided up larger clusters of adipose tissue into smaller packets, with the septa acting as a tethering system, thus producing the typical dimpling pattern. Ultrastructural findings showed proliferation of collagen and elastic fibers down into the cellulite tissue with compression of capillaries and congestion of arterioles, resulting in poor blood flow. The histological and ultrastructural findings of cellulite clearly distinguish the condition from simple fat deposition. The remodeling of the fat layer into lobulated packets of lipocytes sequestered by fibrotic septa with a high proportion of elastic fibers would suggest the use of a fiber-based interstitial laser-assisted lipolysis system at an appropriate wavelength which might offer benefits through disruption of the septae through a photomechanical effect and lipolysis of the sequestered lipocytes. This could be followed by a course of near-infrared phototherapy to accelerate clearance of freed lipid and debris and reestablish the vascular system.

  16. Ultrastructural evidence of thyroid damage in amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, E; Boldorini, R; Tosoni, A; Piraneo, S; Bernasconi, R; Raggi, U

    1995-12-01

    Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis occurs in 2-12.1% of patients on chronic amiodarone treatment. In most cases its pathogenesis is related to iodine overload in the presence of preexisting thyroid abnormalities, such as multinodular or diffuse goiter or autonomous nodule. A minority of patients show apparently normal glands or pictures of non-autoimmune thyroiditis. However, there is recent evidence of a direct toxic effect of amiodarone, with consequent release of iodothyronines into the circulation. We report a patient with amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis with toxic thyroid effects demonstrated by electron microscopy in a fine-needle aspiration biopsy. There were three main pathologic findings: multilamellar lysosomal inclusions, intramitchondrial glycogen inclusions--both ultrastructural findings indicating thyroid cell damage--and a microscopic morphological pattern of thyroid cell hyperfunction. No inflammatory changes were found. Plasma thyroglobulin levels were high. The patient proved to be a non responder to simultaneous administration of methimazole (starting dose 30 mg/day) and potassium perchlorate (1000 mg/day for 40 days), while still taking amiodarone, thus providing evidence against a possible pathogenetic role of iodine overload. Dexamethasone (starting dose 3 mg/day) was added to methimazole. After three months euthyroidism had been restored and plasma thyroglobulin level substantially decreased. Subsequent subclinical hypothyroidism developed, which persisted after stopping antithyroid treatment and required substitution treatment with levothyroxine. In view of the primary role of lysosome function in the proteolysis of thyroglobulin molecules and of the energy-requiring carrier-mediated transport of monoiodotyrosine across the lysosomal membrane for iodine salvage and reutilization, we suggest that the pathological lysosomal and mitochondrial changes observed could be an ultrastructural marker for subsequent hypothyroidism in amiodarone

  17. Mallory-Weiss lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, J.; Jensen, Lone Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Malory-Weiss syndrome (MW) has been known since 1929. Only few studies exist which focus on the prognosis of the lesion. No Danish MW data are available. The purpose of the study was to describe the demographics of patients admitted with an MW to a Danish surgical unit during a 5-year...

  18. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    where vision is affected, if the pterygium looks suspicious or if it is cosmetically unacceptable. Limbal dermoid (Fig. 6). A limbal dermoid is a congenital tumour that usually occurs at the inferotemporal limbus or globe. ... Such lesions may be multiple and appear in the caruncle or fornix. e sessile papilloma is more frequently ...

  19. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  20. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    or permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth...

  1. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  2. Ultrastructural investigation of renomedullary interstitial cells in "endocrine kidney".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavi, B L

    1980-01-01

    In the renomedullary interstitial cells of rats with Selye's "endocrine kidney" in the phase of beginning hypertension there appeared bilateral stress hypergranulation and an ultrastructural pattern of intensive prostaglandin synthesis. In the interstitial tissue of the left medulla there appeared light and dense (fibroblast- or macrophage-like) cells. Along with the stabilization of hypertension a relative degranulation of interstitial cells in the right kidney and an absolute degranulation in the left kidney took place. Necrobiotic changes, appearing in the ischaemic kidney, reflected an exhaustion of morphological substrates of prostaglandin synthesis. The changes in the interstitial cells, possessing endocrine activity, present the decisive links in the genesis of experimental malignant hypertension in rats.

  3. Hepatotoxicity of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs: ultrastructural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manov, Irena; Motanis, Helen; Frumin, Idan; Iancu, Theodore C

    2006-03-01

    With the increasing incidence of drug-induced liver disease, attempts are being made to better understand the mechanisms behind these frequently life-endangering reactions. Analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs are a major group exhibiting hepatotoxicity. We review research relating to these reactions, focusing on ultrastructural findings, which may contribute to the comprehension and possible avoidance of drug-induced liver disease. We also present some original observations on clinical material and cultured cells exposed to acetaminophen alone or in combination with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil.

  4. [Ketamine-induced ultrastructural changes in the retina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdolina, A

    1978-10-01

    Alterations of the retina caused by ketamin were studied in experiment. After a 60-minutes monoanaesthesia with ketamin ultrastructural changes were observed on the inner members of receptor cells, in the three nuclear layers and in the layer of nerve fibres. Severe damage to the structure of the Müller's glial cells providing nutrition to neural-elements was also revealed. Three days after the anaesthesia beside the regression of these alterations, glycogen deposits could be seen in the Müller's cells. This phenomenon and some side effects caused by ketamin can be explained by increased utilization of oxygen and relative hypoxia.

  5. Ultrastructural modification of the endothelium in placental insufficiency and microangiopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidagulova, S V; Zhornik, T M; Nepomnyashchikh, D L; Marinkin, I O; Vinogradova, E V; Nokhrina, Zh V

    2009-05-01

    Structural reorganization of endotheliocytes was studied on models of various pathological processes: placental dysfunction, glomerular pathology, vibration syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome, and diffuse angiokeratoma, all of these characterized by endothelial insufficiency. Universal modification of endothelial associations was revealed. It included a chain of stereotypical reactions: from degeneration alternating with compensatory hypertrophy to subsequent atrophy and death of endotheliocytes. The time course of the process was confirmed by the results of light microscopy in combination with ultrastructural examination and by evaluation of the biosynthetic reactions by in vitro radioautography.

  6. Ultrastructural studies of oogenesis in Bolinus brandaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Amor

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural studies of oogenesis in Bolinus brandaris are described. Although the initial phase of oogenesis is common to most animal species, vitellogenesis can be considered a species-specific characteristic. In the vitellogenesis of B.brandaris, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticula play a relevant role in the formation of myelinised membranous systems. Nuclear envelope, Golgi body and the oocyte plasma membrane invaginations are three possible origins for annulate lamellae. The latter can be considered membranous reservoirs. There are two sources for the vitellum: exogenous (from follicular cells and endogenous (from the endoplasmic reticulum of the same oocyte.

  7. Anatomy and ultrastructure of root nodules of Lupinus luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Woźny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents anatomic structure of root nodules of lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Express and ultrastructure of cells infected by Rhizobium, The inside of cells from the infected nodule region was filled with numerous bacteria; only centrally located cell nucleus was free of bacteria. Rhizobium was present mostly in the form of "transforming bacteria" (according to the terminology by Ching et al. 1977, characterized by visible nucleoid areas, numerous ribosomes, and polyphosphate granules, although typical bacterioids with poly-β-hydroxybutyrate were also found.

  8. Ultrastructural and cellular basis for the development of abnormal myocardial mechanics during the transition from hypertension to heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjiv J; Aistrup, Gary L; Gupta, Deepak K; O'Toole, Matthew J; Nahhas, Amanda F; Schuster, Daniel; Chirayil, Nimi; Bassi, Nikhil; Ramakrishna, Satvik; Beussink, Lauren; Misener, Sol; Kane, Bonnie; Wang, David; Randolph, Blake; Ito, Aiko; Wu, Megan; Akintilo, Lisa; Mongkolrattanothai, Thitipong; Reddy, Mahendra; Kumar, Manvinder; Arora, Rishi; Ng, Jason; Wasserstrom, J Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Although the development of abnormal myocardial mechanics represents a key step during the transition from hypertension to overt heart failure (HF), the underlying ultrastructural and cellular basis of abnormal myocardial mechanics remains unclear. We therefore investigated how changes in transverse (T)-tubule organization and the resulting altered intracellular Ca(2+) cycling in large cell populations underlie the development of abnormal myocardial mechanics in a model of chronic hypertension. Hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; n = 72) were studied at different ages and stages of hypertensive heart disease and early HF and were compared with age-matched control (Wistar-Kyoto) rats (n = 34). Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler and speckle-tracking analysis, was performed just before euthanization, after which T-tubule organization and Ca(2+) transients were studied using confocal microscopy. In SHRs, abnormalities in myocardial mechanics occurred early in response to hypertension, before the development of overt systolic dysfunction and HF. Reduced longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain as well as reduced tissue Doppler early diastolic tissue velocities occurred in concert with T-tubule disorganization and impaired Ca(2+) cycling, all of which preceded the development of cardiac fibrosis. The time to peak of intracellular Ca(2+) transients was slowed due to T-tubule disruption, providing a link between declining cell ultrastructure and abnormal myocardial mechanics. In conclusion, subclinical abnormalities in myocardial mechanics occur early in response to hypertension and coincide with the development of T-tubule disorganization and impaired intracellular Ca(2+) cycling. These changes occur before the development of significant cardiac fibrosis and precede the development of overt cardiac dysfunction and HF.

  9. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  10. Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Quinn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest descriptions of MS, the venocentric characteristic of plaques was noted. Recently, numerous MRI studies have proposed this finding as a prospective biomarker for MS, which might aid in differentiating MS from other diseases with similar MRI findings. High field MRI studies have shown that penetrating veins can be detected in most MS lesions using T2* weighted or susceptibility weighted imaging. Future studies must address the feasibility of imaging such veins in a clinically practical context. The specificity of this biomarker has been studied only in a limited capacity. Results in microangiopathic lesions are conflicting, whereas asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities as well as lesions of NMO are less frequently venocentric compared to MS plaques. Prospective studies have shown that the presence of venocentric lesions at an early clinical presentation is highly predictive of future MS diagnosis. This is very promising, but work remains to be done to confirm or exclude lesions of common MS mimics, such as ADEM, as venocentric. A number of technical challenges must be addressed before the introduction of this technique as a complementary tool in current diagnostic procedures.

  11. Ultrastructure of previtellogene oocytes in the neotenic cave salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus (Amphibia, Urodela, Proteidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Lilijana Bizjak; Bulog, Boris

    2010-10-01

    Oogenesis in the neotenic, cave dwelling salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus has not been studied yet, and this study provides a detailed description of the early growth of the oocytes. Early previtellogene oocytes ranging from 100 to 600 µm in diameter were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The oocytes were divided into two stages based on size, color, and histology. Stage I oocytes can be identified by their transparent cytoplasm and a homogenous juxtanuclear mass, composed of numerous lipid droplets and mitochondria. Stage II oocytes are no longer transparent and have increased in diameter to 300- 600 µm, and many cortical alveoli differing in size have appeared. The common and most predominant ultrastructural characteristics of both stages of previtellogene oocytes are extensive quantities of smooth membrane, numerous mitochondria, and lipid droplets, as well as abundant free ribosomes. Myeline-like structures and remarkable annulate lamellae of closely packed membrane stacks are also frequently observed. Previtellogenic oocytes are the most predominant oocytes in the ovaries of Proteus, and while they possess certain structural characteristics typical for other amphibians, some features are unique and could result from adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  12. Frequency of USP6 rearrangements in myositis ossificans, brown tumor, and cherubism: molecular cytogenetic evidence that a subset of "myositis ossificans-like lesions" are the early phases in the formation of soft-tissue aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukov, William R; Franco, Marcello F; Erickson-Johnson, Michele; Chou, Margaret M; Unni, K Krishnan; Wenger, Doris E; Wang, Xiaoke; Oliveira, Andre M

    2008-04-01

    USP6 rearrangements with several partner genes have been identified recently in primary but not in secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs). Several lesions show histologic features that may overlap with ABC, including myositis ossificans (MO), brown tumor, and cherubism. The objective of this study was to assess whether these lesions harbored USP6 rearrangements. Twelve patients with classic radiologic and histologic features of MO, 6 with brown tumors, and 5 with cherubism diagnosed at our institution were studied for the presence of USP6 rearrangements using fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes flanking the USP6 locus on chromosome 17p13. In addition, conventional cytogenetic analysis was performed in 2 patients with cherubism. USP6 rearrangements were identified in 2 patients with radiologic and histologic features consistent with MO. None of the patients with brown tumor or cherubism demonstrated USP6 rearrangements. Cytogenetic analysis of the cherubism patients demonstrated normal karyotypes. These findings indicate that a subset of cases with apparent classic histologic and imaging features of MO are rather better classified as being soft-tissue ABC with clonal USP6 rearrangements. In contrast, no USP6 rearrangements were found in patients with cherubism or brown tumor, supporting the prevailing view that these lesions are distinct biologic entities.

  13. Ultrastructure of Intervertebral Disc and Vertebra-Disc Junctions Zones as a Link in Etiopathogenesis of Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina L. Burger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Context. There is no general accepted theory on the etiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS. An important role of the vertebrae endplate physes (VEPh and intervertebral discs (IVD in spinal curve progression is acknowledged, but ultrastructural mechanisms are not well understood. Purpose. To analyze the current literature on ultrastructural characteristics of VEPh and IVD in the context of IS etiology. Study Design/Setting. A literature review. Results. There is strong evidence for multifactorial etiology of IS. Early wedging of vertebra bodies is likely due to laterally directed appositional bone growth at the concave side, caused by a combination of increased cell proliferation at the vertebrae endplate and altered mechanical properties of the outer annulus fibrosus of the adjacent IVD. Genetic defects in bending proteins necessary for IVD lamellar organization underlie altered mechanical properties. Asymmetrical ligaments, muscular stretch, and spine instability may also play roles in curve formation. Conclusions. Development of a reliable, cost effective method for identifying patients at high risk for curve progression is needed and could lead to a paradigm shift in treatment options. Unnecessary anxiety, bracing, and radiation could potentially be minimized and high risk patient could receive surgery earlier, rendering better outcomes with fewer fused segments needed to mitigate curve progression.

  14. Ultrastructural changes in the Malpighian tubules of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, at the onset of diuresis: A time study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, S R; Felgenhauer, B E; Spring, J H

    2001-01-01

    The Malpighian tubules (Mt) of insects are responsible for maintaining osmotic homeostasis and eliminating waste from the hemolymph. When stimulated by diuretic factors the tubule cells are able to transport extraordinary volumes of fluid over short periods of time. We have been studying the changes that occur within the cells that accompany and facilitate this phenomenon. We present the ultrastructural changes that occur in the mid-tubule of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, following exposure to the second messenger analog, dibutyryl cAMP, over the period from 15-420 sec. Vacuolation of the cytoplasm begins as early as 30 sec poststimulation with a significant increase in vacuolation occurring after 120 sec. As expected, there is an increase in the surface area of the basolateral membrane to facilitate the rapid movement of fluid into the cells. Other ultrastructural changes noted to accompany the onset of diuresis include the movement of mitochondria into areas adjacent to transport membranes, the vesiculation of Golgi, mobilization of CaPO(4) spherites, and a direct interaction of these spherites with active mitochondria. We discuss several possible roles for these changes in terms of rapid fluid transport. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Hypergranular promyelocytic leukemia (APL): cytogenetic and ultrastructural specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, J.R.; Golomb, H.M.; Rowley, J.D.; Vardiman, J.W.; Sweet, D.L. Jr.

    1978-08-01

    Cytogenetic and ultrastructural findings were important diagnostic indicators of hypergranular promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in a patient whose bone marrow morphology appeared, by light microscopy, to be similar to that in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) with maturation. Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow specimens examined by light microscopy showed few cells with the numerous coarse, azurophilic granules typical of APL. Cytogenetic analyses, with several banding techniques, of cells from bone marrow and unstimulated peripheral blood revealed the 15; 17 translocation, which has been observed only in APL. A reinterpretation of the reciprocal translocation, based on R banding, suggests that the breakpoints are distal to q24 in No. 15 and at or near the junction of q21 and q22 in No. 17. In addition, the patient had disseminated intravascular coagulation. The characteristic morphology of granules seen in APL was observed in this case only when transmission electron microscopy was used, since the granules were quite small. Since treatment for AML differs from that for APL, identification of the 15; 17 translocation and ultrastructural evidence of granules represents valuable diagnostic aids for APL.

  16. [Effects of infrasound on ultrastructure of testis cell in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ya-Ning; Liu, Jing; Shu, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Jing-Zao

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effects of infrasound on ultrastructure of testis in mouse. Twelve male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three groups according to exposed duration on 1, 7 and 14 day. The mice were separately exposed to infrasound environment under 8 Hz/90 dB, 8 Hz/130 dB, 16 Hz/90 dB, 16 Hz/130 dB 2 hours per day. There was another control group which had three mice were separated into module with no infrasound. All the mice were killed on schedule. Then all the sections of testis were observed under electronic microscope. The alterations of structure and the chromatin were observed. Some acute alteration in one day group was found in testis cell, such as cellular denaturation and necrosis, intercellular edema, mitochondria swelling, liposome hyperplasia. When the infrasound was up to 8 Hz/130 dB, the damage showed seriously. In 7 and 14 day group, the acute alteration was gradually decreased. A plenty of abnormal sperm were found. And other alteration was chromatin condense. The effect of variational frequency was important in ultrastructure. The infrasound markedly effected to testicular cell morphology and secreting function. Infrasound will lead to the alteration of procreation in mouse.

  17. Dietary adaptions in the ultrastructure of dinosaur dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Kirstin S; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Ya-Na; Liu, Wei-Min; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Huang, Timothy D; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Reisz, Robert R

    2016-12-01

    Teeth are key to understanding the feeding ecology of both extant and extinct vertebrates. Recent studies have highlighted the previously unrecognized complexity of dinosaur dentitions and how specific tooth tissues and tooth shapes differ between taxa with different diets. However, it is unknown how the ultrastructure of these tooth tissues contributes to the differences in feeding style between taxa. In this study, we use third harmonic generation microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to examine the ultrastructure of the dentine in herbivorous and carnivorous dinosaurs to understand how the structure of this tissue contributes to the overall utility of the tooth. Morphometric analyses of dentinal tubule diameter, density and branching rates reveal a strong signal for dietary preferences, with herbivorous saurischian and ornithischian dinosaurs consistently having higher dentinal tubule density than their carnivorous relatives. We hypothesize that this relates to the hardness of the dentine, where herbivorous taxa have dentine that is more resistant to breakage and wear at the dentine-enamel junction than carnivorous taxa. This study advocates the detailed study of dentine and the use of advanced microscopy techniques to understand the evolution of dentition and feeding ecology in extinct vertebrates. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Collyricloides massanae (Digenea, Collyriclidae: spermatozoon ultrastructure and phylogenetic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhoum Abdoulaye Jacque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spermatological characteristics of Collyricloides massanae (Digenea: Collyriclidae, a parasite of Apodemus sylvaticus caught in France, were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mature sperm of C. massanae presents two axonemes of different lengths with the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, one mitochondrion, a nucleus and granules of glycogen. An analysis of spermatological organisation emphasised some differences between the mature spermatozoon of C. massanae and those reported in the Gorgoderoidea species studied to date, specially belonging to the families Dicrocoeliidae, Paragonimidae and Troglotrematidae. The ultrastructural criteria described in C. massanae such as the morphology of both anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, the association “external ornamentation + cortical microtubules”, the type 2 of external ornamentation and the spine-like bodies would allow us to bring closer the Collyriclidae to Microphalloidea. However, further ultrastructural and molecular studies are needed particularly in the unexplored taxa in order to fully resolve the phylogenetic position of the Collyriclidae.

  19. Ultrastructural and metabolic changes in osteoblasts exposed to uranyl nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasat, D.R. [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Pcia de Bs.As. (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Catedra de Histologia y Embriologia, Facultad de Odontologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Orona, N.S. [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Pcia de Bs.As. (Argentina); Mandalunis, P.M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Catedra de Histologia y Embriologia, Facultad de Odontologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabrini, R.L. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Departamento de Radiobiologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ubios, A.M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Departamento de Radiobiologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Catedra de Histologia y Embriologia, Facultad de Odontologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-05-15

    Exposure to uranium is an occupational hazard to workers who continually handle uranium and an environmental risk to the population at large. Since the cellular and molecular pathways of uranium toxicity in osteoblast cells are still unknown, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the adverse effects of uranyl nitrate (UN) on osteoblasts both in vivo and in vitro. Herein we studied the osteoblastic ultrastructural changes induced by UN in vivo and analyzed cell proliferation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (APh) activity in osteoblasts exposed to various UN concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 {mu}M) in vitro. Cell proliferation was quantified by means of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, ROS was determined using the nitro blue tetrazolium test, apoptosis was morphologically determined using Hoechst 3332 and APh activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. Electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructure of active and inactive osteoblasts exposed to uranium presented cytoplasmic and nuclear alterations. In vitro, 1-100 {mu}M UN failed to modify cell proliferation ratio and to induce apoptosis. ROS generation increased in a dose-dependent manner in all tested doses. APh activity was found to decrease in 1-100 {mu}M UN-treated cells vs. controls. Our results show that UN modifies osteoblast cell metabolism by increasing ROS generation and reducing APh activity, suggesting that ROS may play a more complex role in cell physiology than simply causing oxidative damage. (orig.)

  20. An ultrastructural study of Trichophyton rubrum induced onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xueping; Li, Qing; Wang, Hongwei; Sun, Yilin; Wang, Aiping; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Cuiping

    2015-11-17

    Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) caused onychomycosis is the most common nail fungal disease. The common diagnostic methods are direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. In this study we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the subungual ultrastructural changes in T. rubrum induced onychomycosis. Six outpatients with onychomycosis were recruited and T.rubrum infection was confirmed by fungal culture. Six toenail samples were collected and prepared for SEM characterization. The cultured fugal colonies were prepared for SEM and TEM characterization. 1) SEM showed significant structural damages and the formation of a thin layer or a single layer of keratinocytes in all infected nail plates. Hyphae (piercing or penetrating keratinocytes layers), arthrospores and local bacterial aggregation were observed on the ventral surface of the nail plates. 2) SEM of the cultured fungal colony showed relatively straight, highly branched hyphae and microconidias; TEM showed branching hyphae that were composed of double-layer cell walls. Hyphae had nucleus, mitochondria, liposomes, lysosomes, scattered rough endoplasmic reticulum, myeloid bodies and aggregated ribosomes. There were high-density particles outside the hyphae. SEM showed a large number of hyphae penetrated the keratinocytes layer, suggesting that T. rubrum can cause severe damage to the stratum corneum. TEM showed the ultrastructural features of T. rubrum-induced infection before treatment.

  1. The ultrastructural features of developing Kveim test granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, E A; Mitchell, D N; Dewar, A; Corrin, B

    1989-10-01

    The Kveim test provides a useful model for the ultrastructural study of developing epithelioid cell granulomas in man. We present a controlled prospective study in which 140 patients with possible sarcoidosis had two simultaneous Kveim tests, one being biopsed at a varying interval and the other at the usual 28 days: 52 patients showed a positive test. Controls were provided by the 88 negative tests, Kveim biopsis from 12 healthy subjects, and biopsies of normal spleen injection sites in a further 12 sarcoid patients. In all three groups the initial response (3 to 5 days) was macrophage influx. From 8 to 10 days, in developing positive tests only, mononuclear cells with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum appeared. Mature epithelioid cells were seen at 12 to 14 days, when lymphocyte numbers and lymphocyte-histiocyte interactions were at a maximum. Epithelioid cells showed marked secretory activity; the ultrastructural features of the developing epithelioid cell vacuoles are identical to those seen in exocrine cells. Mast cells are not involved in the development of granulomas.

  2. [Ultrastructural alterations in colonic mucosa of nifurtimox treated rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto de Mecca, M; Rodríguez de Castro, C; Díaz, E G; Castro, J A

    2001-01-01

    Nifurtimox (Nfx) is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of acute Chagas' disease. Clinical and experimental studies with this nitroheterocyclic compound evidenced serious undesirable side effects. These were correlated with Nfx nitroreduction to a nitroanion radical followed by superoxide anion generation through a redox cycling process. The aim of this study was to verify whether the oral administration of Nfx to Sprague Dawley male rats (100 mg.kg-1, p.o.) produced any observable ultrastructural alteration in the cells of the colonic mucosa. Results showed that 24 h after Nfx administration there were observable alterations in this type of cells. They essentially consisted of moderate dilatation of their endoplasmic reticulum and intense dilatation of their Golgi complex. Already 1 and 3 h after Nfx administration, the original compound reached a concentration of 9.7 +/- 2.9 and 7.0 +/- 1.7 nmol.g-1 respectively in the colonic tissue. Studies on Nfx nitroreductase activity of colonic mucosa as determined spectrophotometrically and by HPLC methods showed that the microsomal fraction (from 0.72 +/- 0.29 to 0.26 +/- 0.04 nmol Nfx.min-1.mg-1 protein) but not the cytosol had the ability to nitroreduce Nfx. The results obtained show a correlation between the ultrastructural localization of injury and that of nitroreductase activity. The intense deleterious effects of Nfx in the Golgi apparatus suggest the potential occurrence of alterations in the synthesis/storage of secretory products of the colonic mucosa.

  3. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Insights into UV-induced apoptosis: ultrastructure, trichrome stain and spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marian L; Andringa, Anastasia; Dixon, Kathleen; Carty, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear substructures associated with apoptosis in HeLa cells have been examined using light-microscopic morphometry, trichrome staining, spectral imaging and transmission electron microscopy. This detailed analysis reveals several sites where alterations in the normal cellular ultrastructure occur during apoptotic progression. To correlate these ultrastructural changes with the underlying molecular processes, we have characterized and quantified apoptotic cell morphology with and without inhibition of two caspases, which are key effectors of the apoptotic program. Using this analysis, early apoptotic events included: (a) the segregation of nucleolar components, a diminished granular component, and a reduction in number but increase in size of fibrillar centers, (b) an increase in the number of cytoplasmic ribosomes and (c) a very minimal increase in the amount of peripherally condensed DNA. Apoptosis progressed with: (a) an increase in the number of perichromatin granules and perichromatin fibrils, (b) a reduction in number of interchromatin granule centers concomitant with an increase in their size, (c) partial digestion and circumferential condensation of the DNA at the nuclear membrane and (d) rounding of the cytoplasm with an increase in organellar density and shrinkage in cell size. Endstage apoptotic cells showed: (a) one (or two) very large pools of incompletely digested DNA, (b) one (or two) very large interchromatin granule centers, (c) an increased number of perichromatin granules which were distanced from DNA and often closely apposed to the nucleolus, (d) formation of unusually condensed, highly coiled perinucleolar bodies and (e) blebbing of highly dense cytoplasm. In HeLa cells treated with UV and inhibitors of caspase 1 and 3, the length of time from early apoptosis to the formation of apoptotic bodies was greatly extended. Inhibiting caspase activity: (a) prevented the pooling of DNA, (b) retarded the formation of large interchromatin granule

  5. Ultrastructural changes in the third-stage, infective larvae of ruminant nematodes treated with sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, S; Fourquaux, I; Hoste, H

    2011-12-01

    Plants rich in condensed tannins are an alternative to chemical anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in ruminants. Previous functional studies have shown that sainfoin extracts affect the two forms of infective larvae (L3), ensheathed and exsheathed. However, the mechanisms of action remain unknown. The aim of this study was thus to compare ultrastructural changes in ensheathed and exsheathed L3 of two GIN species after in vitro contact with sainfoin extracts using transmission electron microscopy. The main changes identified were an alteration of the hypodermis, the presence of numerous vesicles in the cytoplasm and degeneration and/or death of muscular and intestinal cells. The changes suggested similar and nonspecies-specific lesions in the two nematode species. Comparison of the modifications found in the ensheathed vs. exsheathed L3s revealed different locations of the main cellular changes depending on the larval form. It is hypothesized that these spatial differences in lesions are mainly influenced by the presence of the sheath which favors contact between the active compounds and either the cuticle or the digestive tract. Overall, our observations suggest that the functional changes observed in the biology of GIN L3s after contact with sainfoin extracts are mediated through a direct mode of action, i.e. different interactions between the bioactive plant metabolites and the nematode structure depending on the route of contact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PS-OCT of natural pigmented and nonpigmented interproximal caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image early dental caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the measured reflectivity of natural caries lesions with the mineral loss measured using digital microradiography. An all polarization-maintaining fiber based PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of natural white spot lesions and pigmented lesions on the smooth surfaces of extracted teeth. There was a strong positive correlation between the increase in the integrated reflectivity in the perpendicular polarization axis of the PS-OCT system and the increase in the integrated mineral loss or lesion severity for both white-spot and pigmented lesions, P caries lesions and resolve the internal structure of early caries lesions for the potential assessment of the lesion activity.

  7. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LAPRADE, ROBERT F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and conse...

  8. Skin lesions in sadomasochism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sønderbo, K; Nyfors, A

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a 35-year-old man who consulted the department of venereology because of healing problems with some wounds caused by burning his skin perianally with cigarettes as part of a sexual satisfaction ritual. Knowledge of such lesions may be useful to physicians and social workers. Sadomasochism and 'offers' in the intimate-massage clinics in Copenhagen are surveyed.

  9. Ultrastructure of epidermis of mice with chronic proliferative dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijbels, M. J.; HogenEsch, H.; Blauw, B.; Roholl, P.; Zurcher, C.

    1995-01-01

    C57BL/Ka mice with chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm/cpdm) develop chronic persistent skin lesions characterized by epidermal hyperplasia, infiltration by granulocytes and macrophages, and vascular dilatation. Similar lesions are present in other orthokeratotic epithelia in affected mice, in

  10. Skin lesion removal-aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave excision - skin aftercare; Excision of skin lesions - benign aftercare; Skin lesion removal - benign aftercare; Cryosurgery - skin aftercare; BCC - removal aftercare; Basal cell cancer - removal aftercare; Actinic keratosis - removal aftercare; Wart - ...

  11. Morphological classifications of gastrointestinal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Jasper L. A.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    In the era of spreading adoption of gastrointestinal endoscopy screening worldwide, endoscopists encounter an increasing number of complex lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. For decision-making on optimal treatment, precise lesion characterization is crucial. Especially the assessment of

  12. Ultrastructural features of vagina at different phases of the oestrous cycle in the female African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinloye, Adebayo K; Oke, Bankole O

    2014-06-01

    The ultrastructures of the vagina at various stages of the oestrous cycle in female African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse) were described in the present study. At mid-proestrus, late proestrus (LP)/early estrus (EE) and mid-estrus (ME) as well as late metestrus (LM)/early diestrus (ED) and mid-diestrus (MD), complex interface of epithelium and lamina propria were observed. Cells of the stratum basale formed finger-like extensions into the underlying lamina propria and tips of the extensions displayed hemidesmosome while basal lamina followed the contour of the extensions. At mid-metestrus (MM) and late diestrus/early proestrus, well developed, relatively straight basal lamina interfaced between the stratum basale and the lamina propria without finger-like projections. Polygonal cells with indented nuclei and, cytoplasm containing ribosomes, polysomes, intermediate filaments, and mitochondria were observed in stratum spinosum at all the phases of the oestrus cycle. At MM, LM/ED, and MD, the stratum spinosum had numerous desmosomes with tonofilaments, large microvilli that intermingled at the intercellular spaces and evidence of trapped/migrating neutrophils and lymphocytes. The superficial layer displayed short microvilli at mid-proestrus, cornification at LP/EE and desquamation at ME while it showed condensation of intermediate filaments; projections of large microvilli into the luminal surface at MM, and embeddement of neutrophils at LM/ED as well as MD. This study looked into the reproductive biology of female African giant rats to produce baseline information on its reproductive organs and represented the first comprehensive description of the vagina at the ultrastructural level during oestrous cycle. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A Comparison of 3 Ways of Conventional Pap Smear, Liquid-Based Cytology and Colposcopy vs Cervical Biopsy for Early Diagnosis of Premalignant Lesions or Cervical Cancer in Women with Abnormal Conventional Pap Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Peighmbari, Fateme; Karimi, Neda; Rohi, Mitra; Chiti, Zohre

    2013-12-01

    The most cost effective method of prevention and detection of cervical cancer is the Pap smear. In abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy, endocervical curettage and biopsy will be done. Gold standard method in detecting cervical lesion is biopsy. Now in two ways conventional Pap smear and liquid base are routine diagnostic technique in Iran and given easily and cost-effectiveness of this method in the detection of cervical lesions to determine the sensitivity the objective of this study was compare three methods of Pap smear and colposcopy in detection of any lesion to gold standard biopsy in the positive ASC cases who referred to gynecologic Oncology Clinic of shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Science. This study is a descriptive analytic in 2009-2010 years on 150 cases of patients with Atypical Squamose Cell (ASC) results in previous pap smear ,conventional pap smear, liquid based pap smear, colposcopy and cervical biopsy had been done for all patient and finally data were analyzed with chi-square statistical test on spss ver 16 saftware. Average age of patients in this study was, 42 ± 9.9 year and reason for referring patients in 35.4% of cases was due to follow-up of abnormal results of previous Pap smear, in 30% bleeding, 12% Pain and 2.6% percent of cases was checking-up. In final results of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy any of the methods conventional and liquid based Pap smear and colposcopy were compared with cervical biopsy as a gold standard. The conventional Pap smear method had a sensitivity 51%, specificity 66.6%, PPV 96%, NPV was 8% and accuracy was 92%, about the liquid base Pap smear method, sensitivity was 55.3%, specificity was 77.7%, PPV was 97.5%, NPV was 10% and accuracy was 56/6%. About the colposcopy, sensitivity was70/9 % specificity 44/4%, PPV was 95.2%, NPV was 8/8% and accuracy was 69.3%. The relationship between sensitivity results of conventional Pap smear and

  14. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  15. Resin infiltration of natural proximal caries lesions regarding different stages of disease in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Büchting, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Resin infiltration provides a treatment option for non-cavitated proximal caries lesions. Although further demineralisation of early non-cavitated lesions can be hampered by this treatment, it is uncertain; weather caries infiltration of cavitated lesions is possible. Thus, this in vitro study aimed to evaluate the performance of resin infiltration regarding proximal caries lesions (n=72) differing in International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) codes. METHOD...

  16. Finite element modeling of hyper-viscoelasticity of peripheral nerve ultrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Tao; Chen, Yu-Hsing; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2015-07-16

    The mechanical characteristics of ultrastructures of rat sciatic nerves were investigated through animal experiments and finite element analyses. A custom-designed dynamic testing apparatus was used to conduct in vitro transverse compression experiments on the nerves. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) was utilized to record the cross-sectional images of nerve during the dynamic testing. Two-dimensional finite element models of the nerves were built based on their OCT images. A hyper-viscoelastic model was employed to describe the elastic and stress relaxation response of each ultrastructure of the nerve, namely the endoneurium, the perineurium and the epineurium. The first-order Ogden model was employed to describe the elasticity of each ultrastructure and a generalized Maxwell model for the relaxation. The inverse finite element analysis was used to estimate the material parameters of the ultrastructures. The results show the instantaneous shear modulus of the ultrastructures in decreasing order is perineurium, endoneurium, and epineurium. The FE model combined with the first-order Ogden model and the second-order Prony series is good enough for describing the compress-and-hold response of the nerve ultrastructures. The integration of OCT and the nonlinear finite element modeling may be applicable to study the viscoelasticity of peripheral nerve down to the ultrastructural level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Palpation as a useful diagnostic tool for skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punj, Puvesh; Devitt, Peter G; Coventry, Brendon J; Whitfield, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Early identification and accurate diagnosis of malignant pigmented skin lesions is essential for effective management and cost containment. The aim was to investigate the additional value of tactile descriptive information from lesion palpation on the diagnostic accuracy of pigmented skin lesions by medical students using computer-driven learning. Sixth year medical students (n = 152) from the University of Adelaide were invited to participate in an online teaching module on pigmented skin lesions. Users were asked to describe, diagnose and manage 15 pigmented skin lesions in three separate case studies based on pertinent clinical history and visual images of the lesions. Tactile descriptive information was then provided and users were asked to reflect on their diagnosis and management. A total of 66 (43%) of the sixth year students successfully completed the online module. Diagnostic accuracy improved significantly with the provision of tactile descriptive information for seborrhoeic keratosis (p = 0.012), basal cell carcinoma (p = 0.001), squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.02), and dysplastic naevi (p = 0.035). Tactile descriptive information was stated by 23% of medical students to be important in the clinical diagnosis of pigmented skin lesion. Students managed all malignant pigmented skin lesions with either appropriate biopsy or specialist referral. Palpation information about skin lesions offers useful information for improvement of diagnostic accuracy in an online computer learning setting for medical students. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  19. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Oral Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soussan Irani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic gram-negative spiral organism. It is recognized as the etiologic factor for peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Recently, it has been isolated from dental plaque and the dorsum of the tongue. This study was designed to assess the association between H. pylori and oral lesions such as ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and primary lymphoma. Materials and methods. A total of 228 biopsies diagnosed as oral ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and oral primary lymphoma were selected from the archives of the Pathology Department. Thirty-two samples that were diagnosed as being without any pathological changes were selected as the control group. All the paraffin blocks were cut for hematoxylin and eosin staining to confirm the diagnoses and then the samples were prepared for immunohistochemistry staining. Data were collected and analyzed. Results. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between the frequency of H. pylori positivity in normal tissue and the lesions were examined (P=0.000. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the lesions examined (P=0.042. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between H. pylori positivity and different tissue types except inside the muscle layer as follows: in epithelium and in lamina propria (P=0.000, inside the blood vessels (P=0.003, inside the salivary gland duct (P=0.036, and muscle layer (P=0.122. Conclusion. There might be a relation between the presence of H. pylori and oral lesions. Therefore, early detection and eradication of H. pylori in high-risk patients are suggested.

  20. [Cellphone electromagnetic radiation damages the testicular ultrastructure of male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Hui-Rong; Ma, Xue-Lian; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Guo-Hong

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the influence of cellphone electromagnetic radiation (CER) on the testicular ultrastructure and the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in male rats.atability, feasibility, applicability, and controllability in the construction of experimental animal models, we compared the major anatomic features of the penis of 20 adult beagle dogs with those of 10 adult men. Using microsurgical techniques, we performed cross-transplantation of the penis in the 20 (10 pairs) beagle dogs and observed the survival rate of the transplanted penises by FK506+MMF+MP immune induction. We compared the relevant indexes with those of the 10 cases of microsurgical replantation of the amputated penis. Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a 2 h CER, a 4 h CER, and a normal control group, the former two groups exposed to 30 days of 900 MHz CER for 2 and 4 hours a day, respectively, while the latter left untreated. Then the changes in the ultrastructure of the testis tissue were observed under the transmission electron microscope and the apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells was determined by TUNEL. Compared with the normal controls, the rats of the 2 h CER group showed swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, increased cell intervals, apparent vacuoles and medullization in some mitochondria, and increased apoptosis of spermatogenic cells, mainly the apoptosis of primary spermatocytes (P<0.05 ). In comparison with the 2 h CER group, the animals of the 4 h CER group exhibited swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, more separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, wider cell intervals, incomplete membrane of spermatogonial cells, fragments of cytoplasm, nuclear pyknosis and notch, slight dilation of perinuclear space, abnormalities of intracellular mitochondria with vacuoles, fuzzy structure, and fusion or disappearance of some cristae, and increased damage of mitochondria and apoptosis of spermatogenic

  1. Ceroid lipofuscinosis in the border collie dog: retinal lesions in an animal model of juvenile Batten disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R

    1992-02-15

    Ceroid lipofuscinosis, an inherited disorder of lipopigment accumulation, was identified in a group of Border Collie dogs. The dogs developed mental, motor, and visual signs between age 15 and 22 months and progressed rapidly to severe neurological disease. The principal signs were blindness and gait and behavioural abnormalities with progressive dementia. Lipopigment accumulation was severe in neurones and glial cells of the central nervous system and was present in some visceral cells. Inclusions with variable ultrastructure were common in all cells of the retina, but the pigment accumulation did not damage the retinal architecture. The cytoplasmic inclusions were granular, sudanophilic, eosinophilic, and autofluorescent. Ultrastructural morphology varied, but fingerprint and curvilinear patterns predominated. The retinal lesions in the Border Collies were similar to those in English Setters with ceroid lipofuscinosis, but were much less severe than in juvenile human ceroid lipofuscinosis. This disorder bears a close resemblance to ceroid lipofuscinosis in English Setters and is another useful model for Batten's disease.

  2. Phenotypic plasticity of wall ultrastructure in the green alga Pediastrum s.l. (Chlorophyta, Sphaeropleales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenarczyk Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined wall ultrastructure variability in the microscopic green alga Pediastrum s.l. Its value as a diagnostic character is discussed. Field and cultured material of 21 taxa were compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Nine ultrastructural elements occurring on the surface of Pediastrum are documented with LM and SEM micrographs. The highest number of taxa showed reticulate ornamentation composed of a trigonal mesh and granules situated on its corners. The paper considers the use of wall ultrastructure to reconcile traditional and modern taxonomical systems with regard to Pediastrum varieties, and addresses the phylogenetic relationships between strains representing different varieties.

  3. Ultrastructure of paraquat-treated pine cells (Pinus elliottii Engelm. ) in suspension culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchem, R.; Henk, W.G.; Brown, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    The ultrastructure of liquid suspension cultures of Pinus elliottii was studied, noting characteristics of dividing and senescent cells. The cultures were treated with 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg 1/sup -1/ paraquat, an herbicide which stimulates oleoresin synthesis and resinosis in the xylem of treated pine trees. The ultrastructural effects of the toxin were studied at each paraquat concentration over a period of 24 days. The ultrastructural observations are correlated with physiological studies in suspension culture and in living trees.

  4. Effect of atmospheric pollution on Vitis vinifera L. pollen ultrastructure under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirban, M.; Craciun, C.; Bathory, D.; Cipleu, D.

    1984-06-01

    The ultrastructural modification of pollen grains in Vitis vinifera L. variety and hybrids in areas of SO atmospheric pollution (the main polluting SO2 usually reaches 2.72 mg/m3), nitrogen oxide, and other gases derived from noniron metal processing factories have been studied. Strains 1001 and 1002, resistant varieties, do not undergo ultrastructural modifications. Neuburger and Issabelle, medium resistant ones, have a heterogeneity in ultrastructural organization from normal forms to forms having both wall covers as well as the main organelles changed.

  5. Ultrastructural study of morphological changes in Schistosoma mansoni after in vitro exposure to the monoterpene rotundifolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Rocha, Thiago José; Cavalcanti, Marília Gabriela Dos Santos; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Lúcio, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; Veras, Dyana Leal; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Here, we report the in vitro effect of rotundifolone, a monoterpene isolated from Mentha x villosa (Lamiaceae), on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The in vitro effect of rotundifolone on adult Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated by analysis of behavior and mortality and through a scanning electron microscopic analysis of ultrastructural changes in the tegument of the worms. At concentrations of 3.54 and 7.09μg/mL-1 rotundifolone, no worm mortality was observed at any of the sampling intervals. A minor reduction in movement of the tail, suckers, and gynecophoral canal membrane was observed after 96 h of exposure to 7.09μg/mL-1 rotundifolone. At 70.96μg/mL-1, a lack of movement was observed from 72h onwards and all worms were deemed dead; similar effects were observed at 48h with 177.4μg/mL-1, and at 24h with 354.8μg/mL-1 and 700.96μg/mL-1. Rotundifolone also caused death of all parasites and separation of coupled pairs into individual males and females after 24h at 354.8μg/mL-1. The main changes in the tegument induced by the different ROT treatments were: after 24h incubation, bubble lesions spread over the entire body and loss of tubercles occurred in some regions of the ventral region.

  6. Correlation between left ventricular diastolic function before and after valve replacement surgery and myocardial ultrastructural changes in patients with left ventricular volume-overloaded valvular heart diseases; Evaluation with gated blood pool scintigraphy using [sup 99m]Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Tomiro (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic functions in 23 patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) and 22 patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) were evaluated by gated blood pool scintigraphy. LV myocardial biopsy was performed during open heart surgery, and LV myocardial ultrastructural changes were evaluated by electron microscope. Correlation between LV diastolic function and myocardial ultrastructural changes was examined. It was suggested that preoperative LV diastolic dysfunction occurred earlier than LV systolic dysfunction in patients with AR and MR. LV early diastolic dysfunction was especially significant in patients with AR. LV systolic function was significantly improved postoperatively compared with LV diastolic function in patients with AR and MR. It was suggested that LV interstitial fibrosis caused LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with AR and MR, and insufficiency of myocardial thickening as compensation in patients with MR. It was presumed that LV diastolic dysfunction was irreversible in patients with AR and MR in the distant postoperative period due to persistence of the preoperative myocardial ultrastructural change, e.g., interstitial fibrosis. These LV diastolic indices measured by gated pool scintigraphy were useful in predicting LV ultrastructural changes and postoperative LV dysfunction in patients with LV volume-overloaded valvular heart disease. (author).

  7. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  8. [Pigmentation and pigmented lesions of the gingival mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobio, S; Noujeim, Z; Boutigny, H; Jensen, M; Cassia, A; Soueidan, A

    2008-01-01

    The pigmentation is the physiological or pathological accumulation of a pigment in a tissue. Physiological pigmentation in gingiva which is a part of masticatory mucous membranes depends on the activity of the melanocytes. These non keratinocytic cells include the melanosoma where an endogenous pigment, the melanin, is synthesized. Quantitative or qualitative disruption of mucous pigmentation leads to the apparition of pigmented lesions. When melanocytes are directly concerned, the lesions can be of intrinsic origin, such as oral mucosa melanoma, the nevus, pigmented oral lichen planus etc. Pigmented lesions can be also of extrinsic origin caused by medicaments, dental materials, tobacco etc. In this article, gingival pigmentations are described to allow practitioner to elaborate a differential and positive diagnosis of gingival pigmented lesions and to facilitate an early detection of these lesions particularly the gingival melanoma.

  9. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  10. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  11. Lesiones Deportivas En Corredores

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Cano, Juan Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Hoy escribo como médico pero también como corredor. Por eso hay que empezar diciendo que los corredores somos unos apasionados con este deporte. Se convierte en una adicción. No se corre de vez en cuando, se hace por lo menos 5 días a la semana. Y los días que no corremos, quedamos incompletos. Eso es lo que siente un corredor, una sensación que parecería que sólo la entiende quien ha corrido. Tal vez por eso las lesiones deportivas son tan sentidas en este gremio d...

  12. Missed Massive Morel-Lavallee Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Takahara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL involves posttraumatic fluid collection around the greater trochanter. Many cases of MLL are missed at the initial evaluation, and the treatment of MLL is not well established. We present two cases in which MLL was missed at the initial evaluation. Case 1. A 65-year-old man was run over by a parade float. There was subcutaneous hematoma around the left greater trochanter, and no fracture was found. We diagnosed this injury as MLL on the 7th day after the trauma. Although we performed percutaneous drainage, the injured area was infected. Case 2. A 57-year-old man was hit by a train in a factory. There was an iliac wing fracture, but an MLL was not initially recognized. On the 6th day after the trauma, when performing open reduction and internal fixation for the iliac fracture, we recognized the lesion and performed percutaneous drainage simultaneously. This lesion also became infected. In these two cases, the wounds finally healed after a long duration of treatment. We suggest that it is important to keep this injury in mind and debride the lesion early and completely in the treatment course.

  13. Missed massive morel-lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Shunsuke; Oe, Keisuke; Fujita, Hironori; Sakurai, Atsushi; Iwakura, Takashi; Lee, Sang Yang; Niikura, Takahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    A Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) involves posttraumatic fluid collection around the greater trochanter. Many cases of MLL are missed at the initial evaluation, and the treatment of MLL is not well established. We present two cases in which MLL was missed at the initial evaluation. Case 1. A 65-year-old man was run over by a parade float. There was subcutaneous hematoma around the left greater trochanter, and no fracture was found. We diagnosed this injury as MLL on the 7th day after the trauma. Although we performed percutaneous drainage, the injured area was infected. Case 2. A 57-year-old man was hit by a train in a factory. There was an iliac wing fracture, but an MLL was not initially recognized. On the 6th day after the trauma, when performing open reduction and internal fixation for the iliac fracture, we recognized the lesion and performed percutaneous drainage simultaneously. This lesion also became infected. In these two cases, the wounds finally healed after a long duration of treatment. We suggest that it is important to keep this injury in mind and debride the lesion early and completely in the treatment course.

  14. Dermoscopic features of facial pigmented skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Yana; Attia, Enas A S; Souid, Khawla; Vasilenko, Inna V

    2013-01-01

    Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp demarcation, pigment pattern, follicular/epidermal pattern, and vascular pattern. In SK, the most specific dermoscopic features are follicular/epidermal pattern (cerebriform pattern; 100% of lesions, milia-like cysts; 50%, and comedo-like openings; 37.50%), and sharp demarcation (54.17%). AK and LM showed a composite characteristic pattern named "strawberry pattern" in 41.18% and 25% of lesions respectively, characterized by a background erythema and red pseudo-network, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo. However, in LM "strawberry pattern" is widely covered by psewdonetwork (87.5%), homogenous structureless pigmentation (75%) and other vascular patterns. In SL, structureless homogenous pigmentation was recognized in all lesions (100%). From the above mentioned data, we developed an algorithm to guide in dermoscopic features of FPSLs.

  15. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  16. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  17. Sperm ultrastructure in Bathypolypus bairdii and B. sponsalis (Cephalopoda: Octopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Alvaro; Guerra, Angel; González, Angel F; Pascual, Santiago

    2010-02-01

    A morphological comparison of the spermatozoa of the octopods Bathypolypus bairdii and B. sponsalis has been carried out by electron microscopy. Although the mature spermatozoon of B. bairdii is longer and thinner than that of B. sponsalis, its general ultrastructure is similar except for some minor differences. Their characteristic acrosomes, described here for the first time, consist of a periodically banded cone surrounded by a double helix whose arrangement has been defined by a numeric expression. The plasma membrane of sponsalis that surrounds the acrosome has many projections filled with abundant granular cytoplasm, which appears as a star-shaped acrosome in cross-section. The mitochondrial sheath contains 9-11 mitochondria in bairdii but only 9 in sponsalis. A comparison with other Octopodidae shows that the nucleus of both species is the largest ever seen. Our results support the capability of sperm morphology to discriminate between species and could even discern at higher taxonomic levels.

  18. Collagenous Tissues upon Lithium Treatment: A Quantitative Ultrastructural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Tzaphlidou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the influence of lithium treatment in mouse, rat, and rabbit skin, liver, bone, and aorta, as well as arachnoid and dura mater collagen fibrils, is examined using electron microscopy and image processing. Structural changes (fibril architecture and diameter are detected at the ultrastructural level in specimens from all lithium-treated tissues. The overall collagen fibril architecture is disturbed as compared with specimens from normal species. The mean diameter values of treated collagen fibrils are significantly smaller than those from controls in all tissues examined. The banding patterns of fibrils are normal in all cases. Measurements by a computerized method of measuring axial periodicity of fibrils indicate no effect of lithium on this parameter. Computer analysis shows no differences in charged amino acid composition between lithium-treated and -untreated samples. Under the present experimental conditions, lithium can induce permanent structural collagen alterations.

  19. Black thyroid: clinical manifestations, ultrastructural findings, and possible mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, C.B.; Herrera, G.A.; Jaffe, K.; Yu, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of three black thyroid glands showed lysosomal accumulations of lipofuscin-like pigment and granular electron-dense material in association with 1) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with normal thyroid function; 2) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with a significant inflammatory component, fibrosis, and primary hypothyroidism; and 3) a black thyroid gland with no exposure to minocycline. The deposition of the pigments in the three cases resulted in macroscopically recognizable black thyroid glands. It is speculated that an imbalance in lysosomal function accounts for this abnormality. The glandular hypofunction documented in case 2 is unique and confirms the need to monitor function carefully in patients who are receiving minocycline. In one case electrondense deposits were identified in the thyroid gland interstitium.

  20. Ultrastructural study of primordial germ cells, oogonia and oocytes in goat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Banan Khojasteh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to morphological evidences, primordial germ cells (PGCs are derived from the caudal endoderm of the yolk sac and migrate to embryonic gonads. After entering the gonads, first they differentiate to oogonia and then to oocytes. In the present study, ultrastructure of PGCs, oogonia and oocytes has been examined. Tissue samples were collected from posterior parts of the yolk sacs of fetuses in the early stages of development (with age of less than 1 month, and also gonads of fetuses at later developmental stages (with age of more than 1 month. Samples were studied using transmission electron microscopy after fixation, washing with buffers, dehydration, embedding and staining with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The Results indicated that PGCs were large with oval to spherical nuclei, reticular chromatin with nucleoli, and there were plenty of glycogen and also different organelles in their cytoplasm. Oogonia showed active mitotic divisions. These cells had regular plasma membranes and were observed as cellular clusters with spherical shape, euchromatin nucleus containing one or more nucleoli, round mitochondria and vacuoles with different sizes in cytoplasm. Oocytes had larger sizes in comparison with oogonia but didn't show cellular clusters.

  1. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Mello Luvielmo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24 h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress.

  2. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvielmo, Márcia de Mello; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis in a rare desert amphisbaenian Diplometopon zarudnyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dokhi, Othman; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Dosary, Abdulhakeem; Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K

    2013-10-01

    Spermiogenesis, in particular the head differentiation of Diplometopon zarudnyi, was studied at the ultrastructural level by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The process includes acrosomal vesicle development, nuclear elongation, chromatin condensation and exclusion of excess cytoplasm. In stage I, the proacrosomal vesicle occurs next to a shallow fossa of the nucleus, and a dense acrosomal granule forms beneath it. This step commences with an acrosome vesicle forming from Golgi transport vesicles; simultaneously, the nucleus begins to move eccentrically. In stage II, the round proacrosomal vesicle is flattened by projection of the nuclear fossa, and the dense acrosomal granule diffuses into the vesicle as the fibrous layer forms the subacrosomal cone. Circular manchettes surrounded by mitochondria develop around the nucleus, and the chromatin coagulates into small granules. The movement of the nucleus causes rearrangement of the cytoplasm. The nucleus has uniform diffuse chromatin with small indices of heterochromatin. The subacrosome space develops early, enlarges during elongation, and accumulates a thick layer of dark staining granules. In stage III, the front of the elongating nucleus protrudes out of the spermatid and is covered by the flat acrosome; coarse granules replace the small ones within the nucleus. One endonuclear canal is present where the perforatorium resides. In stage IV, the chromatin concentrates to dense homogeneous phase. The circular manchette is reorganized longitudinally. The Sertoli process covers the acrosome and the residues of the cytoplasmic lobes are removed. In stage V, the sperm head matures. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental and ultrastructural characters of the pollen grains and tapetum in species of Nymphaea subgenus Hydrocallis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Lucía Melisa; Galati, Beatriz Gloria; Zarlavsky, Gabriela; Ferrucci, María Silvia

    2017-07-01

    Variations in pollen characters and tapetum behavior were recently acknowledged in the early-divergent family Nymphaeaceae and even within the genus Nymphaea, which probably is not monophyletic; some traits such as infratectum and tapetum type are also a matter of different interpretations. In this study, developmental characters of the pollen grains and tapetum in Nymphaea subgenus Hydrocallis are provided for the first time. Observations were made in N. amazonum, N. gardneriana, and N. prolifera using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tapetum is of the secretory type and produces orbicules. At microspore and pollen grain stages, the distal and proximal walls differ considerably. This result supports the operculate condition of the aperture in Hydrocallis, and such aperture might be plesiomorphic for Nymphaeoideae. The infratectum is intermediate, composed of inter-columellae granular elements, robust columellae consisting of agglomerated granules, complete columellae, and fused columellae. Narrow microchannels are present and persist until the mature pollen grain stage. The membranous granular layer is often present in the pollen grains of Nymphaeaceae. In N. gardneriana, this layer is most probably a component of the intine because it is lost after acetolysis. Orbicules in the Nymphaeaceae are characterized as spherical or subspherical, with a smooth sporopolleninic wall that surrounds an electron-lucent core and with individual orbicules that usually merge to give irregular aggregations. The aperture, pollen wall ultrastructure, and the tapetum of the studied species are discussed in an evolutionary and systematic context, and these characters are also compared with those of other angiosperm lineages.

  5. Ovarian development of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, in southern Caspian Sea: A histological and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akhoundian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The histology and ultrastructure of the ovarian maturation process in Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, was studied. A total 170 female specimens were collected from the Gharasoo River, Bandar Turkmen, the southern Caspian Sea to evaluate its maturation cycle. Based on the results, its ovarian follicle’s development could classified into six stages by distinct characteristics. Minimum and maximum diameter of oocytes were recorded in the chromatin-nucleolus and maturation stages as 56.34±3.74 and 918.83±14.82 µm, respectively. The zona radiata was observed from the cortical alveoli stage and its maximum diameter measured in the secondary vitellogenesis stage as 93.11±23.0 µm. Gonadosomatic index (GSI reached to its peak in mid-March and its sharp drop in the late April showed its spawning period from late March or early April till the end of April. A positive correlation was found between the GSI and HSI in the vitellogenesis stage. The results also revealed Caspian roach as iteroparous synchronous spawner.

  6. Ultrastructure of the coelom in the brachiopod Lingula anatina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temereva, Elena N

    2017-07-01

    The organization of the coelomic system and the ultrastructure of the coelomic lining are used in phylogenetic analysis to establish the relationships between major taxa. Investigation of the anatomy and ultrastructure of the coelomic system in brachiopods, which are poorly studied, can provide answers to fundamental questions about the evolution of the coelom in coelomic bilaterians. In the current study, the organization of the coelom of the lophophore in the brachiopod Lingula anatina was investigated using semithin sectioning, 3D reconstruction, and transmission electron microscopy. The lophophore of L. anatina contains two main compartments: the preoral coelom and the lophophoral coelom. The lining of the preoral coelom consists of ciliated cells. The lophophoral coelom is subdivided into paired coelomic sacs: the large and small sinuses (= canals). The lining of the lophophoral coelom varies in structure and includes monociliate myoepithelium, alternating epithelial and myoepithelial cells, specialized peritoneum and muscle cells, and podocyte-like cells. Connections between cells of the coelomic lining are provided by adherens junctions, tight-like junctions, septate junctions, adhesive junctions, and direct cytoplasmic bridges. The structure of the coelomic lining varies greatly in both of the main stems of the Bilateria, that is, in the Protostomia and Deuterostomia. Because of this great variety, the structure of the coelomic lining cannot by itself be used in phylogenetic analysis. At the same time, the ciliated myoepithelium can be considered as the ancestral type of coelomic lining. The many different kinds of junctions between cells of the coelomic lining may help coordinate the functioning of epithelial cells and muscle cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of praziquantel effects on Echinostoma paraensei ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Júlia P; Oliveira-Menezes, Aleksandra; Maldonado Junior, Arnaldo; Carvalho, Técia M U; de Souza, Wanderley

    2013-05-01

    Echinostomiasis is a food-borne, intestinal, zoonotic, snail-mediated helminthiasis caused by digenean trematodes of the family Echinostomatidae with seven species of the genus Echinostoma infecting humans or domestic and wildlife animals. Echinostoma paraensei is a peristomic 37-collar-spined echinostome belonging to the "revolutum group". Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for treatment and control of human schistosomiasis and food-borne trematodiasis. In the present study we used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to further elucidate the trematocidal effect of PZQ on adult E. paraensei and confirmed that this trematode is a suitable model to study anthelmintic drugs. Hamsters infected with E. paraensei were treated with a single dose of 30 mg kg(-1) of PZQ. The worms were recovered 15, 30, 90 and 180 min after drug administration. There was a significant decrease in worm burden in the small intestine in the hamster-E. paraensei model at the intervals of 30, 90 and 180 min after the treatment. The worms displayed damage of the peristomic collar with internalization of the spines and erosion of the tegument of the circumoral head-collar of spines. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated an intense vacuolization of the tegument, appearance of autophagic vacuoles and swelling of the basal infolds of the tegumental syncytium. There was no change in the morphology of cells from the excretory system of adult E. paraensei, however, there was an apparent decrease of stores of glycogen particles in parenchymal cells in PZQ-treated worms. Our results demonstrated that PZQ promotes surface and ultrastructural damage of the tegument of adult E. paraensei supporting the idea that this trematode may constitute a good model to investigate drug effects mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intracellular origin and ultrastructure of platelet-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, A A; Nevzorova, T A; Mordakhanova, E R; Andrianova, I A; Rauova, L; Litvinov, R I; Weisel, J W

    2017-08-01

    Essentials Platelet microparticles play a major role in pathologies, including hemostasis and thrombosis. Platelet microparticles have been analyzed and classified based on their ultrastructure. The structure and intracellular origin of microparticles depend on the cell-activating stimulus. Thrombin-treated platelets fall apart and form microparticles that contain cellular organelles. Background Platelet-derived microparticles comprise the major population of circulating blood microparticles that play an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Despite numerous studies on the (patho)physiological roles of platelet-derived microparticles, mechanisms of their formation and structural details remain largely unknown. Objectives Here we studied the formation, ultrastructure and composition of platelet-derived microparticles from isolated human platelets, either quiescent or stimulated with one of the following activators: arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen, thrombin or calcium ionophore A23187. Methods Using flow cytometry, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, we analyzed the intracellular origin, structural diversity and size distributions of the subcellular particles released from platelets. Results The structure, dimensions and intracellular origin of microparticles depend on the cell-activating stimulus. The main structural groups include a vesicle surrounded by one thin membrane or multivesicular structures. Thrombin, unlike other stimuli, induced formation of microparticles not only from the platelet plasma membrane and cytoplasm but also from intracellular structures. A fraction of these vesicular particles having an intracellular origin contained organelles, such as mitochondria, glycogen granules and vacuoles. The size of platelet-derived microparticles depended on the nature of the cell-activating stimulus. Conclusion The results obtained provide a structural basis for the qualitative differences of various platelet activators, for specific

  9. Organic matrix composition and ultrastructure of eggshell: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panheleux, M; Bain, M; Fernandez, M S; Morales, I; Gautron, J; Arias, J L; Solomon, S E; Hincke, M; Nys, Y

    1999-05-01

    1. The avian eggshell is a biomineralised composite ceramic consisting of calcium carbonate embedded in an organic matrix. Matrix components are supposed to be involved in the control of mineralisation, crystallographic texture and biomechanical properties of eggshell. 2. The structure and eggshell matrix composition of various domesticated bird species were compared to gain insight into the universality of the eggshell mineralisation process. 3. The SDS-PAGE profiles of soluble eggshell matrix were specific within groups of birds (a: laying hen, breeder hen, quail, pheasant and possibly turkey; b: guinea fowl; c: duck and goose) but some of the protein bands were common to all groups. 4. Analogies between species were confirmed by Western blotting using hen protein antibodies. Ovocleidin-17 (OC-17) and ovalbumin were revealed in all species (except quail for OC-17). Lysozyme was present only in hen eggshell. Another egg white protein: ovotransferrin showed a positive signal in hens, turkey and quail. Osteopontin was observed in laying and breeder hens and quail. 5. Different proteoglycans were localised to discrete regions within the eggshell. Dermatan sulphate was observed within the matrix of the calcified shell of all species except quail which contained chondroitin-6-sulfate. Keratan sulphate was observed in mammillary bodies of breeder and laying hen, quail, pheasant and turkey while chondroitin sulphate was also present in guinea fowl and duck. 6. The general structural organisation of the different avian eggshells was similar but specific differences were observed in the ultrastructure of the mammillary layer. Species of the same taxonomic family could be grouped according to their structural analogies: breeder hen, turkey and pheasant resembled that of the domestic fowl. Guinea fowl was unique. Goose and duck were quite similar with large and confluent mammillary bodies. 7. Some matrix components are therefore common to eggshells of various species but

  10. Histological, histochemical and ultrastructural study of slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresoldi, I; Modesti, A; Dragoni, M; Potenza, V; Ippolito, E

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the histological, histochemical and ultrastructural aspects of the proximal femoral growth plate in slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). Eight core biopsies of the proximal femoral growth plate were performed during in situ epiphysiodesis in patients with SCFE that was at the pre-slipping stage in two cases and at the mild slipping stage (Southwick angle femoral growth plate was thicker than normal in the SCFE cases, and the 3:1 ratio between the thickness of the resting zone and the other zones of the plate was reversed. Chondrocytes of the proliferating, maturation, hypertrophic and degenerating zones were arranged in large clusters rather than in columns, which were separated by loose fibrillary septae that appeared moderately alcian blue positive and metachromatic. The collagen fibrils of the longitudinal septae were uniformly thin, measuring about 200 Å, whereas in the normal plate collagen fibrils were in the range of 300 to 1200 Å in thickness. Chondrocytes were elongated and smaller than normal, with a dark cytoplasm. In the degenerating zone, mineralisation of the longitudinal and transversal septae was scanty and enchondral ossification was impaired, with a few small osteoblasts forming thin bone trabeculae on the cartilage septae of the degenerating zone. In SCFE, the proximal femoral growth plate undergoes several histological, histochemical and ultrastructural changes that precede slipping of the epiphysis since they are already present at a pre-slipping stage of the disease. The loss of solidity of the extracellular matrix and the disarrangement of the normal architecture of the physis very likely cause the consequent slipping of the proximal femoral epiphysis. SCFE aetiology remains unknown.

  11. Geography, structure, and evolution of diffusion and perfusion lesions in Diffusion and perfusion imaging Evaluation For Understanding Stroke Evolution (DEFUSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivot, Jean-Marc; Mlynash, Michael; Thijs, Vincent N; Purushotham, Archana; Kemp, Stephanie; Lansberg, Maarten G; Wechsler, Lawrence; Gold, Garry E; Bammer, Roland; Marks, Michael P; Albers, Gregory W

    2009-10-01

    The classical representation of acute ischemic lesions on MRI is a central diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion embedded in a perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) lesion. We investigated spatial relationships between final infarcts and early DWI/PWI lesions before and after intravenous thrombolysis in the Diffusion and perfusion imaging Evaluation For Understanding Stroke Evolution (DEFUSE) study. Baseline and follow-up DWI and PWI lesions and 30-day fluid-attenuated inversion recovery scans of 32 patients were coregistered. Lesion geography was defined by the proportion of the DWI lesion superimposed by a Tmax (time when the residue function reaches its maximum) >4 seconds PWI lesion; Type 1: >50% overlap and Type 2: PWI lesion) versus multiple lesions. Lesion reversal was defined by the percentage of the baseline DWI or PWI lesion not superimposed by the early follow-up DWI or PWI lesion. Final infarct prediction was estimated by the proportion of the final infarct superimposed on the union of the DWI and PWI lesions. Single lesion structure with Type 1 geography was present in only 9 patients (28%) at baseline and 4 (12%) on early follow-up. In these patients, PWI and DWI lesions were more likely to correspond with the final infarcts. DWI reversal was greater among patients with Type 2 geography at baseline. Patients with multiple lesions and Type 2 geography at early follow-up were more likely to have early reperfusion. Before thrombolytic therapy in the 3- to 6-hour time window, Type 2 geography is predominant and is associated with DWI reversal. After thrombolysis, both Type 2 geography and multiple lesion structure are associated with reperfusion.

  12. Ultrastructural alterations during the critical phase of reperfusion: a stereological study in buffer-perfused isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegstad, A C; Ytrehus, K; Lindal, S; Jørgensen, L

    1999-01-01

    The present study focuses on myocardial ultrastructural alterations during the early phase of reperfusion. Isolated buffer-perfused rat hearts were exposed to standard perfusion (control group,n = 10); 60 min of global ischemia (n = 10); 60 min of global ischemia followed by 2 min of reperfusion (n = 10); or 60 min of global ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion (n = 10). The hearts were perfusion-fixed for electron microscopy, and ultrastructural evaluation was performed using stereological technique in order to obtain an estimate of the volume fraction and absolute volume of different tissue components. EFFECT OF ISCHEMIA: Neither the ventricular nor the myocytic volume differed significantly from the respective control values. Both the myocytic mitochondrial volume (135+/-8 vs control 89+/-6 microl) and the volume of myocytic clear space (35+/-6 vs control 10+/-2 microl) were significantly increased. The capillary volume (22+/-4 vs control 58+/-6 microl) and the volume of the capillary lumen (15+/-3 vs control 48+/-5 microl) were significantly decreased. The volume of the capillary wall, however, was not altered after exposure to ischemia (7+/-3 vs control 10+/-1 microl). ADDITIVE EFFECT OF ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION: Both the ventricular volume (755+/-28 vs control 600+/-32 microl) and the myocytic volume (396+/-24 vs control 287+/-16 microl) were significantly increased after 10 min of reperfusion. EFFECT OF REPERFUSION: The ischemic-induced myocytic mitochondrial swelling and increase of clear space were not reinforced during reperfusion. Furthermore, the volume of the capillary lumen and the capillary wall did not alter significantly in the groups exposed to reperfusion compared to the ischemic hearts. In conclusion, stereological evaluation did not reveal significant aggravation of ischemic-induced myocardial injury during the early phase of reperfusion.

  13. Developed and resolving lesions in porcine proliferative enteropathy: possible pathogenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOrist, S; Roberts, L; Jasni, S; Rowland, A C; Lawson, G H; Gebhart, C J; Bosworth, B

    1996-07-01

    Proliferative enteropathy, caused by Lawsonia intracellularis, offers the opportunity to examine bacterial mechanisms that influence epithelial cell proliferation. Ultrastructural features of developed and resolving lesions included the presence of enlarged intestinal crypts containing undifferentiated immature epithelial cells and an absence of goblet cells. Numerous intracytoplasmic bacteria, identified as L. intracellularis, were consistently present within affected cells. In recovering intestinal tissue, additional features were (1) the common presence of pale, swollen, protruding epithelial cells, (2) shrunken, degenerate epithelial cells, (3) apoptotic bodies in both epithelial cells and macrophages, (4) the reappearance of normal goblet cells, and (5) reduced numbers of L. intracellularis within lesions. Bacteria were released from cells via cytoplasmic and cellular protrusions into the intestinal lumen. It is speculated that the presence of the intracytoplasmic bacterium, L. intracellularis, may disrupt normal processes of cell growth, differentiation or apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium.

  14. Oral lesions in lupus erythematosus: correlation with cutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Marcello Menta Simonsen; Vilela, Maria Apparecida Constantino; Rivitti, Evandro Ararigbóia; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Oral lesions in the context of lupus erythematosus (LE) have long been described. However, definitive agreement on about the exact nature and correct classification of these manifestations is lacking in published studies. Controversy exists on the significance of oral LE lesions regarding patient outcome. In this article, medical and dental literature on clinical and histopathological aspects of oral LE lesions are reviewed and critically discussed. A clinico-pathological correlation of oral lesions (interface mucositis-lupus mucositis) with cutaneous lesions (interface dermatitis-lupus dermatitis) is established, for those represent the mucosal counterparts of cutaneous LE. Validity about widely used but imprecise terms such as "oral ulcers", "ulcerative plaques", and others, in the context of LE, is discussed, and the uncertain relationship of these alterations to systemic disease with a worse outcome is commented. Furthermore, insights about the nature, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of oral lesions in LE patients are presented.

  15. Capsaicin induced histological and ultrastructural changes in the submandibular salivary gland of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmoud Halawa

    2016-06-01

    From the present work, it could be concluded that chronic capsaicin intake was associated with noticeable histological and ultrastructural changes in acini, granular convoluted tubules and excretory ducts of the SMSG in albino rats.

  16. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcia Demello Luvielmo; Caroline Dellinghausen Borges; Daniela Deoliveira Toyama; Claire Tondo Vendruscolo; Adilma Regina Pippa Scamparini

    2016-01-01

      The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95...

  17. Ultra-structural study of Egyptian Buffalo oocytes before and after in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-12

    2008). Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) preantral follicle population and ultrastructural characterization of antral follicle oocyte. Reprod. Dom. Anim. Epub ahead of print. Boni R, Santella L, Dale B, Roviello S, Di. Palo R, Barbieri V (1992).

  18. Ultrastructural changes in fish gills as biomarker to assess small stream pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawert, M; Müller, E; Triebskorn, R

    1998-12-01

    In order to verify the principal suitability of gill ultrastructure as a biomarker, semi-field studies with two endigoneous fish, trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) and loach (Barbatula barbatula), were performed. The fish were exposed in flow-through systems to one heavily polluted (Körsch) and one lightly polluted small stream (Krähenbach) in South-West Germany. Ultrastructural responses in gills were correlated with limnological and chemical data recorded over a 2 year period in each stream. After 8 weeks of exposure to the heavily polluted stream, fish showed ultrastructural changes in the gills, such as cell proliferation, dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum, hyperplasia, hypersecretion, and epithelial lifting in chloride, epithelial, and mucus cells. The results of the study demonstrate that ultrastructural reactions in the gills of fish kept under semi-field conditions are potentially useful biomarkers indicating small stream pollution.

  19. Chlorella Vulgaris Alleviates Lead-induced Testicular Toxicity Better than Zingiber Officinale: An Ultrastructural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Hesham N.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorella Vulgaris Alleviates Lead-induced Testicular Toxicity Better than Zingiber Officinale: An Ultrastructural Study   XXIV International Symposium on Morphological Sciences, Prof. Dr. Cemil Bilsel Congress Hall, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. Oral Presentation; 09/2015

  20. Ultrastructure of Sheep Primordial Follicles Cultured in the Presence of Indol Acetic Acid, EGF, and FSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Rabelo Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6 d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.

  1. Ultrastructure of oogenesis in imposex females of Babylonia areolata (Caenogastropoda: Buccinidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muenpo, C; Suwanjarat, J; Klepal, W

    2011-01-01

    During a tributyltin (TBT)-exposure experiment, the ultrastructural features of oogenesis have been examined in TBT-induced imposex females of Babylonia areolata and compared with those of the normal female...

  2. Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on ultrastructural integrity of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and phytotoxin implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. Ultrastructural investigations of MV effe...

  3. [Ultrastructural characteristic of gunpowder charge remains in forensic medical examination of gunshot bullet injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, G M; Gubeeva, E G; Aleksandrov, V N; Osin, Iu N

    2008-01-01

    Particles of 3 different marks of gunpowder, withdrawing from experimental gunshot injuries, were examined with scanning electronic microscopy. Features of ultrastructure, making possible to differentiate gunpowder of studied marks, were detected.

  4. Mitochondrial disruption and limited apoptosis of erythroblasts are associated with high risk myelodysplasia. An ultrastructural analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Loosdrecht, AA; Brada, SJL; Blom, NR; Smit, JW; van den Berg, E; de Wolf, JTM; Vellenga, E

    Aims: To investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of erythroblasts in myelodysplasia (MDS) which might be of additional importance in understanding its pathogenesis. Methods and results: 22 patients were classified according to FAB (French-American-British classification), IPSS (international

  5. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  6. Oral Lesions in Elderly Patients in Referral Centers for Oral Lesions of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aging population phenomenon is occurring on a global scale; aging affects all of the structures of organisms, including the oral cavity. Objective To estimate the frequency of oral lesions, according to the clinical and histopathologic diagnoses, and to describe the sociodemographic profile of the elderly treated at the referral centers of oral lesions of public universities in Bahia, Brazil. Methods A descriptive epidemiologic study with transverse characteristics was conducted with elderly patients between August 2010 and January 2012. A form was used to collect data. The descriptive analysis consisted of calculating the simple and relative frequencies of sociodemographic variables and oral lesions. Results The population was predominantly black women, and the minority of elderly people were retired. Fibroid (13% and squamous cell carcinoma (145% were more prevalent clinical diagnoses, with squamous cell carcinoma (30.7% and fibrous hyperplasia more prevalent histopathologic diagnoses. Conclusion A prevention policy needs to be implemented to reduce new cases of oral lesions in Bahia, Brazil and to aid in early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of oral lesions.

  7. Neurosonography of cranial lesions in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sung Sik; Lee, Soon Il [Sowha Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Ro [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Je Geun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Since early 1980's, high resolution ultrasound has been world-widely used for detection of cranial lesions in infants but not widely used in Korea. Authors prospectively analysed ultrasonographic findings of 107 cases which were confirmed by CT, autopsy or follow-up studies as supplement. The distribution of 107 cases was intracranial hematoma 40 cases, hydrocephalus 36 cases, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 10 cases, porencephalic cyst 5 cases, cephalhematoma 5 case, agenesis of corpus callosum 4 cases, medulloblastoma 2 cases and each one case of A-V malformation, intraventricular cyst, Dandy Walker cyst, lipoma and hydranencephaly. We could conclude that neurosonography of infants was very useful and effective method in detection of cranial lesions such as intracranial hematoma, especially germinal matrix hemorrhage or intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infant, hydrocephalus, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and congenital anomalies.

  8. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuexiang; Shen, Linlin

    2018-02-11

    Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1), lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2) and lesion classification (task 3). A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN) is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU) is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved.

  9. Bovine oocyte vitrification before or after meiotic arrest: effects on ultrastructure and developmental ability

    OpenAIRE

    Díez, Carmen; Duque, Paloma; Gómez, Enrique; Hidalgo, C.O. (Carlos); Tamargo, Carolina; Rodríguez, Aida; Fernández, Lina; Varga, Santiago; Fernández, Alba; Facal, Nieves; Carbajo, Maite

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear stage at which oocytes are cryopreserved influences further development ability and cryopreservation affects ultrastructure of both cumulus cells and the oocyte. In this work, we analyze the effects of vitrification at different nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation stages on the oocyte ultrastructure and developmental ability. Culture in TCM199 + PVA with roscovitine 25 M during 24 h led to meiotic arrest (MA) in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), while permissive in vitro...

  10. Ultrastructure and Development of Vitrified/Warmed Bovine Oocytes Matured with 9-cis Retinoic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Aida; Gómez, Enrique; Antolín, Isaac; Duque, Paloma; Hidalgo, C.O. (Carlos); Alonso, Cristina; Tamargo, Carolina; Fernández, Lina; Carbajo, Maite; Facal, Nieves; Caamaño, J.N. (José); Díez, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In this work we analyze the effects of vitrification on the ultrastructure and developmental ability of bovine oocytes matured in the presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA). Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in a basic medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), 9-cis-RA or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Mature oocytes were vitrified using the Open Pulled Straw method with minor modifications. A group of fresh and vitrified/warmed COCs was fixed for ultrastructural analysis, wh...

  11. Remineralization of artificial dentinal caries lesions by biomimetically modified Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi-pin; Li, Nan; Niu, Li-na; Primus, Carolyn M.; Ling, Jun-Qi; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride-releasing restorative materials are available for remineralization of enamel and root caries. However, dentin remineralization is more difficult than enamel remineralization due to the paucity of apatite seed crystallites along the lesion surface for heterogeneous crystal growth. Extracellular matrix proteins play critical roles in controlling apatite nucleation/growth in collagenous tissues. This study examined the remineralization efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in phosphate-containing simulated body fluid (SBF) by incorporating polyacrylic acid and sodium tripolyphosphate as biomimetic analogs of matrix proteins for remineralizing caries-like dentin. Artificial caries-like dentin lesions incubated in SBF were remineralized over a 6-week period using MTA or MTA containing biomimetic analogs in the absence or presence of dentin adhesive application. Lesion depths and integrated mineral loss were monitored with micro-computed tomography. Ultrastructure of baseline and remineralized lesions were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Dentin remineralization was best achieved using MTA containing biomimetic analogs regardless of whether an adhesive was applied; dentinal tubules within the remineralized dentin were occluded by apatite. It is concluded that the MTA version employed in the study may be doped with biomimetic analogs for remineralization of unbonded and bonded artificial caries-like lesions in the presence of SBF. PMID:22085925

  12. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

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    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  13. Anatomy and ultrastructure of embryonic leaves of the C4 species Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Nicia E G; Ortiz-Silva, Bianca; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinícius; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Dickinson, Hugh G; Langdale, Jane A; Reinert, Fernanda

    2018-02-05

    Setaria viridis is being promoted as a model C4 photosynthetic plant because it has a small genome (~515 Mb), a short life cycle (~60 d) and it can be transformed. Unlike other C4 grasses such as maize, however, there is very little information about how C4 leaf anatomy (Kranz anatomy) develops in S. viridis. As a foundation for future developmental genetic studies, we provide an anatomical and ultrastructural framework of early shoot development in S. viridis, focusing on the initiation of Kranz anatomy in seed leaves. Setaria viridis seeds were germinated and divided into five stages covering development from the dry seed (stage S0) to 36 h after germination (stage S4). Material at each of these stages was examined using conventional light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Dry seeds contained three embryonic leaf primordia at different developmental stages (plastochron 1-3 primordia). The oldest (P3) leaf primordium possessed several procambial centres whereas P2 displayed only ground meristem. At the tip of P3 primordia at stage S4, C4 leaf anatomy typical of the malate dehydrogenase-dependent nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADP-ME) subtype was evident in that vascular bundles lacked a mestome layer and were surrounded by a single layer of bundle sheath cells that contained large, centrifugally located chloroplasts. Two to three mesophyll cells separated adjacent vascular bundles and one mesophyll cell layer on each of the abaxial and adaxial sides delimited vascular bundles from the epidermis. The morphological trajectory reported here provides a foundation for studies of gene regulation during early leaf development in S. viridis and a framework for comparative analyses with other C4 grasses.

  14. Morphology and ultrastructure of the germarium in panoistic ovarioles of a basal "apterygotous" insect, Thermobia domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworzydlo, Waclaw; Kisiel, Elzbieta; Jankowska, Wladyslawa; Bilinski, Szczepan M

    2014-06-01

    It has been shown that in Drosophila the germline stem cells (GSCs), similar to the germline and non-germline stem cells of other species, develop and function in specialized microenvironments formed by somatic cells, referred to as the niches. In the fruit fly ovaries, the female GSCs divide asymmetrically to produce new GSCs and the progenitor cells, the cystoblasts (Cbs). Each Cb then divides to generate the cyst composed of 16 interconnected sibling cells, the cystocytes. After cyst formation, specific molecules are transferred to one of the cystocytes which differentiates into the oocyte, whereas the other 15 cystocytes become the nurse cells. We have studied morphology and ultrastructure of the germaria in the ovarioles (ovaries) of a basal "apterygotous" insect, the firebrat (Thermobia domestica). Our analyses have revealed that in this insect, putative GSCs are present along the anterior apex of the germarium. These cells are separated from each other and from the basement lamina covering the ovariole by characteristic somatic cells, termed the apical somatic cells (ASCs), or their elongated processes. We believe that all the ASCs of a given ovariole constitute a "dispersed" niche in which putative GSCs are anchored. Our analyses have additionally shown that in Thermobia, both the Cbs and young (meiotic) oocytes are always individual and never form syncytial cysts. These findings indicate that in certain basal insects the syncytial phase of oogenesis has been eliminated during evolution. Finally, we show that in the early meiotic oocytes of Thermobia, during the so-called bouquet stage, prominent Balbiani bodies (Bbs) are formed. Analysis of serial micrographs indicates that the Bbs invariably arise next to the segment of the nuclear envelope to which the telomeres of the bouquet chromosomes are attached. We suggest, in the light of these data, that the localization of the Bb together with the polar attachment of the bouquet chromosomes play a crucial role

  15. Thalamic Lesions: A Radiological Review

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    Dimitri Renard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thalamic lesions are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, trauma, tumours, and infections. In some diseases, thalamic involvement is typical and sometimes isolated, while in other diseases thalamic lesions are observed only occasionally (often in the presence of other typical extrathalamic lesions. Summary. In this review, we will mainly discuss the MRI characteristics of thalamic lesions. Identification of the origin of the thalamic lesion depends on the exact localisation inside the thalamus, the presence of extrathalamic lesions, the signal changes on different MRI sequences, the evolution of the radiological abnormalities over time, the history and clinical state of the patient, and other radiological and nonradiological examinations.

  16. Biopsy of the pigmented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, David; Mariwalla, Kavita

    2012-07-01

    Although new technologies are becoming available to aid in diagnosis, the skin biopsy continues to be the fundamental tool of the dermatologist to evaluate the nature of a pigmented lesion. There are 3 major techniques for the biopsy of a pigmented lesion: shave biopsy, punch/incisional biopsy, and excisional biopsy. This article discusses when to biopsy a pigmented lesion and reviews the different biopsy techniques, with reference to specific clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. pH imaging reveals worsened tissue acidification in diffusion kurtosis lesion than the kurtosis/diffusion lesion mismatch in an animal model of acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enfeng; Wu, Yin; Cheung, Jerry S; Zhou, Iris Yuwen; Igarashi, Takahiro; Zhang, XiaoAn; Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2017-10-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been commonly used in acute stroke examination, yet a portion of DWI lesion may be salvageable. Recently, it has been shown that diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) defines the most severely damaged DWI lesion that does not renormalize following early reperfusion. We postulated that the diffusion and kurtosis lesion mismatch experience heterogeneous hemodynamic and/or metabolic injury. We investigated tissue perfusion, pH, diffusion, kurtosis and relaxation from regions of the contralateral normal area, diffusion lesion, kurtosis lesion and their mismatch in an animal model of acute stroke. Our study revealed significant kurtosis and diffusion lesion volume mismatch (19.7 ± 10.7%, P lesion and kurtosis/diffusion lesion mismatch, we showed lower pH in the kurtosis lesion (pH = 6.64 ± 0.12) from that of the kurtosis/diffusion lesion mismatch (6.84 ± 0.11, P lesion and kurtosis/diffusion mismatch agreed well with literature values for regions of ischemic core and penumbra, respectively. Our work documented initial evidence that DKI may reveal the heterogeneous metabolic derangement within the commonly used DWI lesion.

  18. Fuzzy description of skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Nikolaos; Ballerini, Lucia; Fisher, Robert B.; Aldridge, Ben; Rees, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    We propose a system for describing skin lesions images based on a human perception model. Pigmented skin lesions including melanoma and other types of skin cancer as well as non-malignant lesions are used. Works on classification of skin lesions already exist but they mainly concentrate on melanoma. The novelty of our work is that our system gives to skin lesion images a semantic label in a manner similar to humans. This work consists of two parts: first we capture they way users perceive each lesion, second we train a machine learning system that simulates how people describe images. For the first part, we choose 5 attributes: colour (light to dark), colour uniformity (uniform to non-uniform), symmetry (symmetric to non-symmetric), border (regular to irregular), texture (smooth to rough). Using a web based form we asked people to pick a value of each attribute for each lesion. In the second part, we extract 93 features from each lesions and we trained a machine learning algorithm using such features as input and the values of the human attributes as output. Results are quite promising, especially for the colour related attributes, where our system classifies over 80% of the lesions into the same semantic classes as humans.

  19. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  20. Straight sinus: ultrastructural analysis aimed at surgical tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Marcelo Campos Moraes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Colli, Benedicto Oscar

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of the straight sinus (SS) is relevant for surgical purposes. During one surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the SS wall, the authors observed that the venous blood flow was maintained in the SS, possibly through a vein-like structure within the dural sinus or dural multiple layers. This observation and its divergence from descriptions of the histological features of the SS walls motivated the present study. The authors aimed to investigate whether it is possible to dissect the SS walls while keeping the lumen intact, and to describe the histological and ultrastructural composition of the SS wall. METHODS A total of 22 cadaveric specimens were used. The SS was divided into three portions: anterior, middle, and posterior. The characteristics of the SS walls were analyzed, and the feasibility of dissecting them while keeping the SS lumen intact was assessed. The thickness and the number of collagen fibers and other tissues in the SS walls were compared with the same variables in other venous sinuses. Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff's stains were used to assess collagen and elastic fibers, respectively. The data were analyzed using Zeiss image analysis software (KS400). RESULTS A vein-like structure independent of the SS walls was found in at least one of the portions of the SS in 8 of 22 samples (36.36%). The inferior wall could be delaminated in at least one portion in 21 of 22 samples (95.45%), whereas the lateral walls could seldom be delaminated. The inferior wall of the SS was thicker (p < 0.05) and exhibited less collagen and greater amounts of other tissues-including elastic fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers (p < 0.05)-compared with the lateral walls. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of muscle fibers at a level deeper than that of the subendothelial connective tissue in the inferior wall of the SS, extending from its junction with the great cerebral vein

  1. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and tissue respiration of pea leaves under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykov, Vasyl

    2016-07-01

    Respiration is essential for growth, maintenance, and carbon balance of all plant cells. Mitochondrial respiration in plants provides energy for biosynthesis, and its balance with photosynthesis determines the rate of plant biomass accumulation (production). Mitochondria are not only the energetic organelles in a cell but they play an essential regulatory role in many basic cellular processes. As plants adapt to real and simulated microgravity, it is very important to understand the state of mitochondria in these conditions. Disturbance of respiratory metabolism can significantly affect the productivity of plants in long-term space flights. We have established earlier that the rate of respiration in root apices of pea etiolated seedlings rose after 7 days of clinorotation. These data indicate the oxygen increased requirement by root apices under clinorotation, that confirms the necessity of sufficient substrate aeration in space greenhouses to provide normal respiratory metabolism and supply of energy for root growth. In etiolated seedlings, substrate supply of mitochondria occurs at the expense of the mobilization of cotyledon nutrients. A goal of our work was to study the ultrastructure and respiration of mitochondria in pea leaves after 12 days of clinorotation during (2 rpm/min). Plants grew at a light level of 180 μµmol m ^{-2} s ^{-1} PAR and a photoperiod of 16 h light/4 h dark. It was showed an essential increase in the mitochondrion area on 53% in palisade parenchyma cells at the sections. Such phenomenon can not be described as swelling of mitochondria, since enlarged mitochondria contained a more quantity of crista 1.76 times. In addition, the cristae total area per organelle also increased in comparison with that in control. An increase in a size of mitochondria in the experimental conditions is supposed to occur by a partial alteration of the chondriom. Thus, a size of 49% mitochondria in control was 0.1 - 0.3 μµm ^{2}, whereas only 26

  2. Unsupervised sub-segmentation for pigmented skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Sun, Jiuai; Smith, Melvyn; Smith, Lyndon; Warr, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Early identification of malignant melanoma with the surgical removal of thin lesions is the most effective treatment for skin cancers. A computer-aided diagnostic system assists to improve the diagnostic accuracy, where segmenting lesion from normal skin is usually considered as the first step. One of the challenges in the automated segmentation of skin lesions arises from the fact that darker areas within the lesion should be considered separate from the more general suspicious lesion as a whole, because these pigmented areas can provide significant additional diagnostic information. This paper presents, for the first time, an unsupervised segmentation scheme to allow the isolation of normal skin, pigmented skin lesions, and interesting darker areas inside the lesion simultaneously. An adaptive mean-shift is first applied with a 5D spatial colour-texture feature space to generate a group of homogenous regions. Then the sub-segmentation maps are calculated by integrating maximal similarity-based region merging and the kernel k-means algorithm, where the number of segments is defined by a cluster validity measurement. The proposed method has been validated extensively on both normal digital photographs and dermoscopy images, which demonstrates competitive performance in achieving automatic segmentation. The isolated dark areas have proved helpful in the discrimination of malignant melanomas from atypical benign nevi. Compared with the results obtained from the asymmetry measure of the entire lesion, the asymmetry distribution of the isolated dark areas helped increase the accuracy of the identification of malignant melanoma from 65.38% to 73.07%, and this classification accuracy reached 80.77% on integrating both asymmetry descriptors. The proposed segmentation scheme gives the lesion boundary closed to the manual segmentation obtained by experienced dermatologists. The initial classification results indicate that the study of the distributions of darker areas

  3. [The focal renal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-05

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful.

  4. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  5. Connecting Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Hypertensive Target Organ Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sierra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hypertension leads to concomitant remodeling of the cardiac and vascular systems and various organs, especially the brain, kidney, and retina. The brain is an early target of organ damage due to high blood pressure, which is the major modifiable risk factor for stroke and small vessel disease. Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability worldwide and over 80% of strokes occur in the elderly. Preclinical hypertensive lesions in most target organs are clearly identified: left ventricular hypertrophy for the heart, microalbuminuria for the kidney, fundus abnormalities for the eye, and intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity for the vessels. However, early hypertensive brain damage is not fully studied due to difficulties in access and the expense of techniques. After age, hypertension is the most-important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions, which are an important prognostic factor for stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia, and death. Studies have shown an association between white matter lesions and a number of extracranial systems affected by high BP and also suggest that correct antihypertensive treatment could slow white matter lesions progression. There is strong evidence that cerebral white matter lesions in hypertensive patients should be considered a silent early marker of brain damage.

  6. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... and magnetic resonance imaging data and obtained follow-up (FU) information on 77 of these patients over a mean duration of 4 years. The AIIDLs presented as a single lesion in 72 (80 %) patients and exhibited an infiltrative (n = 35), megacystic (n = 16), Baló (n = 10) or ring-like (n = 16) lesion appearance...... in 77 (86 %) patients. Additional multiple sclerosis (MS)-typical lesions existed in 48 (53 %) patients. During FU, a further clinical attack occurred rarely (23-35 % of patients) except for patients with ring-like AIIDLs (62 %). Further attacks were also significantly more often in patients...

  7. Endoscopic approach to subepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Laila; Buscaglia, Jonathan M

    2014-05-01

    Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) play a critical role in the detection and management of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common subepithelial lesions detected by endoscopists are gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), leiomyomas, lipomas, granular cell tumors (GCTs), pancreatic rests and carcinoid tumors. These lesions can be classified based on unique histochemical staining and the gastrointestinal layer of origin. While the majority of the lesions are considered benign, some tumors such as GISTs and carcinoids have a strong propensity for malignant transformation. Therefore, appropriate endoscopic versus surgical management based on size and location is crucial in the prevention of malignant transformation and metastasis. In this review, we provide a systematic approach to the diagnosis, management and treatment of commonly encountered subepithelial lesions.

  8. Ultrastructure of the body cavities in Phylactolaemata (Bryozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhl, Alexander; Wegener, Ines; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Only species belonging to the bryozoan subtaxon Phylactolaemata possess an epistome. To test whether there is a specific coelomic cavity inside the epistome, Fredericella sultana, Plumatella emarginata, and Lophopus crystallinus were studied on the ultrastructural level. In F. sultana and P. emarginata, the epistome contains a coelomic cavity. The cavity is confluent with the trunk coelom and lined by peritoneal and myoepithelial cells. The lophophore coelom extends into the tentacles and is connected to the trunk coelom by two weakly ciliated coelomic ducts on either side of the rectum. The lophophore coelom passes the epistome coelom on its anterior side. This region has traditionally been called the forked canal and hypothesized to represent the site of excretion. L. crystallinus lacks an epistome. It has a simple ciliated field where an epistome is situated in the other species. Underneath this field, the forked canal is situated. Compared with the other species, it is pronounced and exhibits a dense ciliation. Despite the occurrence of podocytes, which are prerequisites for a selected fluid transfer, there is no indication for an excretory function of the forked canal, especially as no excretory porus was found. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Ultrastructural description of rabies virus infection in cultured sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam L Velandia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary cultures were made from adult mouse spinal ganglia for depicting an ultrastructural description of rabies virus (RABV infection in adult mouse sensory neuron cultures; they were infected with rabies virus for 24, 36, and 48 h. The monolayers were processed for transmission electron microscopy and immunochemistry studies at the end of each period. As previously reported, sensory neurons showed great susceptibility to infection by RABV; however, in none of the periods evaluated were assembled virions observed in the cytoplasm or seen to be associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. Instead, fibril matrices of aggregated ribonucleoprotein were detected in the cytoplasm. When infected culture lysate were inoculated into normal animals via intra-cerebral route it was observed that these animals developed clinical symptoms characteristic of infection and transmission electron microscopy revealed assembled virions in the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain. Sensory neurons infected in vitro by RABV produced a large amount of unassembled viral ribonucleoprotein. However, this intracellular material was able to produce infection and virions on being intra-cerebrally inoculated. It can thus be suggested that the lack of intracellular assembly in sensory neurons forms part of an efficient dissemination strategy.

  10. Histologic and ultrastructural studies on the mineralization process in hypophosphatasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, A; Adomian, G E; Rimoin, D L

    1985-12-01

    Chondroosseous tissue from six infants with infantile hypophosphatasia and six control infants were studied by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. Alkaline phosphatase histochemical reaction of the growth plate was studied in two infants and was greatly reduced when compared to two control infants. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were increased in number with persisting cartilage islets in the metaphysis. In five of the six cases studied, chondrocytes and intercartilagenous intercellular chondroid matrix appeared ultrastructurally normal. Matrix vesicle distribution was similar to that of control subjects, but they were associated with few mineral crystals. In two infants, the matrix vesicles were alkaline phosphatase nonreactive. In the calcifying zone of the growth plate and in the newly formed metaphyseal trabecular bone, cartilagenous calcospherites often were small and the orientation of crystals was nonradial when compared to that of control infants. The mineralization of diaphyseal bone appeared normal. It seems that matrix vesicles are present in hypophosphatasia and that the impaired mineralization of cartilage is due primarily to the deficiency of alkaline phosphatase. In spite of the lack of alkaline phosphatase, secondary mineralization of bone which is not mediated by matrix vesicles was normal.

  11. Effects of Aflatoxin on Seeding Growth and Ultrastructure in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Eli V.

    1973-01-01

    Nineteen plants belonging to 11 species of the cruciferae were studied to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 on seed germination and seedling development. Germination was not inhibited in any test organism at a concentration of 100 μg of aflatoxin per ml of agar substrate. Inhibition of elongation of the hypocotyls and roots in the species studied varied from 29 to 93% and from 22 to 91% in the respective tissues. Lepidium sativum was the most susceptible plant studied and exhibited the maximal inhibitory response noted above at concentrations of 8 μg of aflatoxin per ml. The ultrastructure of Lepidium root cells treated with crystalline aflatoxin B1 exhibited morphological changes characteristic of those found in aflatoxin-treated animal cells. In addition to changes in the cytoplasmic organelles, numerous ring-shaped nucleoli with prominent nucleolar caps were produced. The effect of aflatoxin on plant cells is compared with similar effects induced by actinomycin D. Seed germination and seedling development is discussed in relation to the effects of both compounds on deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid biosynthesis. Images PMID:4767301

  12. Ultrastructural changes in the developing chicken cornea following caffeine administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel Hieronim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is one of the most frequently consumed psychoactive substances. It has been known for many years that caffeine at high concentrations exerts harmful effects on both women's and laboratory animals' fertility, moreover it may impair normal development of many organs in the prenatal period. So far there have been few studies performed that demonstrate teratogenic effects of caffeine on structures of the developing eye, particularly the cornea. The aim of the study was to show ultrastructural changes in the developing cornea, as the effect of caffeine administration to chicken embryos. The experimental materials were 26 chicken embryos from incubated breeding eggs. Eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30 in which Ringer liquid was administrated, and experimental (n=30 in which teratogenic dose of caffeine 3.5mg/egg was given. In 36th hour of incubation solutions were given with cannula through hole in an egg shell directly onto amniotic membrane. After closing the hole with a glass plate and paraffine, eggs were put back to incubator. In 10th and 19th day of incubation corneas were taken for morphological analysis with a use of electron microscopy. Administration of caffeine during chicken development causes changes of collagen fibers of Bowman's membrane patterns and of the corneal stroma but it also changes proportion of amount of collagen fibers and of the stromal cells.

  13. Peel Ultrastructure During Developmental Stages of Citrus Sinensis (L. Osbeck.

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    Indira Prabasari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The peel structureof Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and showed the distinct regions of the peel: the outer-yellowish part that was called the flavedo and the inner part of the peel that was called the albedo.  The flavedo has compact cells with oil glands embedded in it whereas the albedo contains of spongy cells with vascular bundles embedded in it. The ultrastructural examination of the albedo during development revealed the changes of albedo morphology from compact tissue to the loosely arranged tissue. In addition, the distribution of polysaccharide cell walls was observed with histochemical staining and later the distribution of peptic polysaccharide was conducted using anti-pectin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. Histochemical staining during development demonstrated the difference of abundance of polysaccharide at the tissue level.  Furthermore, the distribution of homogalacturonan (HG was studied with mAb JIM5 that recognizes low methyl-esterified HG and JJM7 which labels high methyl-esterified HG. The observation at the fruit level was conducted using tissue printing and the result showed that low and high methyl-esterified HG was distributed almost similar at the fruit level. Further experiment at the tissue level was performed using Light Microscopy (LM and revealed that HG was found more abundant in the albedo and vascular bundle followed by the flavedo and oil gland.

  14. Nonrandom chromosome segregation in Neocurtilla (Gryllotalpa) hexadactyla: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubai, D F; Wise, D

    1981-02-01

    During meiosis I in males of the mole cricket Neocurtilla (Gryllotalpa) hexadactyla, the univalent X1 chromosome and the heteromorphic X2Y chromosome pair segregate nonrandomly; the X1 and X2 chromosomes move to the same pole in anaphase. By means of ultrastructural analysis of serial sections of cells in several stages of meiosis I, metaphase of meiosis II, and mitosis, we found that the kinetochore region of two of the three nonrandomly segregating chromosomes differ from autosomal kinetochores only during meiosis I. The distinction is most pronounced at metaphase I when massive aggregates of electron-dense substance mark the kinetochores of X1 and Y chromosomes. The lateral position of the kinetochores of X1 and Y chromosomes and the association of these chromosomes with microtubules running toward both poles are also characteristic of meiosis I and further distinguish X1 and Y from the autosomes. Nonrandomly segregating chromosomes are typically positioned within the spindle so that the kinetochoric sides of the X2Y pair and the X1 chromosome are both turned toward the same interpolar spindle axis. This spatial relationship may be a result of a linkage of X1 and Y chromosomes lying in opposite half spindles via a small bundle of microtubules that runs between their unusual kinetochores. Thus, nonrandom segregation in Neocurtilla hexadactyla involves a unique modification at the kinetochores of particular chromosomes, which presumably affects the manner in which these chromosomes are integrated within the spindle.

  15. Ultrastructural and stereological analysis of trypanosomatidis of the genus Endotrypanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurílio J. Soares

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture forms of four strains of Endotrypanum (E. schaudinni and E. monterogeii were processed for transmission electron microscopy and analyzed at the ultrastructural level. Quantitative data about some cytoplasmic organelles were obeined by stereology. All culture forms were promastigotes. In their cytoplasm four different organelles could be found: lipid inclusions (0,2-0,4 µm in diameter, mebrane-bounded vacuoles (0.10-0,28 µm in diameter, glycosomes (0,2-0,3 µm in diameter, and the mitochondrion. The kenetoplast appears as a thin band, except for the strain IM201, which possesses a broader structure, and possibly is not a member of this genus. Clusters of virus-like particles were seen in the cytoplasm of the strain LV88. The data obtained show that all strains have the typical morphological feature of the trypanosomatids. Only strain IM201 could be differentiated from the others, due to its larger kenetoplast-DNA network and its large mitochondrial and glycosomal relative volume. The morphometrical data did not allow the differentiation between E. schaudinni (strains IM217 and M6226 and E. monterogeii (strain LV88.

  16. Vaginolysin drives epithelial ultrastructural responses to Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randis, Tara M; Zaklama, Joanne; LaRocca, Timothy J; Los, Ferdinand C O; Lewis, Emma L; Desai, Purnahamsi; Rampersaud, Ryan; Amaral, Fábio E; Ratner, Adam J

    2013-12-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis, the bacterial species most frequently isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), produces a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC), vaginolysin (VLY). At sublytic concentrations, CDCs may initiate complex signaling cascades crucial to target cell survival. Using live-cell imaging, we observed the rapid formation of large membrane blebs in human vaginal and cervical epithelial cells (VK2 and HeLa cells) exposed to recombinant VLY toxin and to cell-free supernatants from growing liquid cultures of G. vaginalis. Binding of VLY to its human-specific receptor (hCD59) is required for bleb formation, as antibody inhibition of either toxin or hCD59 abrogates this response, and transfection of nonhuman cells (CHO-K1) with hCD59 renders them susceptible to toxin-induced membrane blebbing. Disruption of the pore formation process (by exposure to pore-deficient toxoids or pretreatment of cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin) or osmotic protection of target cells inhibits VLY-induced membrane blebbing. These results indicate that the formation of functional pores drives the observed ultrastructural rearrangements. Rapid bleb formation may represent a conserved response of epithelial cells to sublytic quantities of pore-forming toxins, and VLY-induced epithelial cell membrane blebbing in the vaginal mucosa may play a role in the pathogenesis of BV.

  17. Ultrastructure features of camel cornea--collagen fibril and proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almubrad, Turki; Akhtar, Saeed

    2012-01-01

      The uniform distribution of collagen fibrils and proteoglycans maintain the transparency of normal cornea. We describe the ultrastructural features of camel cornea including collagen fibrils and proteoglycans (PGs).   Camel corneas (of 6-, 8-, and 10-month-old animals) were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde containing cuprolinic blue in sodium acetate buffer and processed for electron microscopy. The 'AnalySIS LS Professional' program was used to analyze the collagen fibril diameter.   The camel cornea consists of four layers: the epithelium (227 μm), stroma (388 μm), Descemet's membrane (DM), and endothelium. The epithelium constituted 36% of the camel cornea, whereas corneal stroma constituted 62% of the corneal thickness (629 μm). The PGs in the posterior stroma were significantly larger in number and size compared with the anterior and middle stroma. The collagen fibril diameter was 25 nm and interfibrillar spacing 40 nm. Fibrillar structures are present throughout the DM.   The structure of the camel cornea is very different from human and other animals. The unique structure of the cornea might be an adaptation to help the camel to survive in a hot and dry climate. The camel cornea may also be a good model to study the effect of hot and dry climates on the cornea. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Ultrastructural changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manli; Han, Pei; Zhang, Ruimin; Li, Hao

    2013-09-01

    In the fermentative process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol, the performance of cells is often compromised by the accumulation of ethanol. However, the mechanism of how S. cerevisiae responds against ethanol stress remains elusive. In the current study, S. cerevisiae cells were cultured in YPD (yeast extract - peptone - dextrose) medium containing various concentrations of ethanol (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15% (v/v)). Compared with the control group without ethanol, the mean cell volume of S. cerevisiae decreased significantly in the presence of 7.5% and 10% ethanol after incubation for 16 h (P < 0.05), and in the presence of 15% ethanol at all 3 sampling time points (1, 8, and 16 h) (P < 0.05). The exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to ethanol also led to an increase in malonyldialdehyde content (P < 0.05) and a decrease in sulfhydryl group content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the observations through transmission electron microscopy enabled us to relate ultrastructural changes elicited by ethanol with the cellular stress physiology. Under ethanol stress, the integrity of the cell membrane was compromised. The swelling or distortion of mitochondria together with the occurrence of a single and large vacuole was correlated with the addition of ethanol. These results suggested that the cell membrane is one of the targets of ethanol, and the degeneration of mitochondria promoted the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

  19. Multiple sulfatase deficiency: clinical, neuropathological, ultrastructural and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, W F; Verity, M A; Fluharty, A L; Nguyen, H T; Philippart, M

    1990-07-01

    We describe the clinical, pathological, ultrastructural and biochemical features in the case of a 15-year-old boy with multiple sulfatase deficiency. Clinical abnormalities included hypotonia, retarded psychomotor development, hepatosplenomegaly, pigmentary degeneration of the retina, myoclonic seizures, aortic insufficiency and quadriplegia. Urinalysis revealed increased heparan sulfate. At necropsy, aortic and mitral valves revealed nodular thickening and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, metachromatic granules in renal proximal tubules. The brain weighed 400 g and demonstrated cerebral and cerebellar atrophy with a retrocerebellar meningeal cyst. Cortical neurons contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive and cresyl violet-reactive granules. White matter demonstrated brown metachromasia and intense fibrillary gliosis. Conjunctival fibroblasts contained amorphous vacuoles with dense osmiophilic nucleoid cores. Pleomorphic extracellular, intraneural and intraglial inclusions were noted in the brain. Activities of arylsulfatase A, B and C were diminished markedly in autopsied tissue from brain, liver, and kidney (0, 0 and less than 10% of control activities, respectively). Partial deficiencies of iduronate sulfatase and heparan sulfatase were noted in different tissues. Variable decreased enzyme activities were expressed in leukocytes: arylsulfatase A, less than 33%; B, 40%; and C, 90%; heparan sulfatase, 2%; and iduronate sulfatase was not detectable. Near normal activities were found in cultured fibroblasts.

  20. Ultrastructure of a novel tube-forming, intracellular parasite of dinoflagellates: Parvilucifera prorocentri sp. nov. (Alveolata, Myzozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Brian S; Hoppenrath, Mona

    2008-02-01

    We have characterized the intracellular development and ultrastructure of a novel parasite that infected the marine benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum fukuyoi. The parasite possessed a combination of features described for perkinsids and syndineans, and also possessed novel characters associated with its parasitic life cycle. Reniform zoospores, about 4 microm long, possessed a transverse flagellum, alveoli, a refractile body, a mitochondrion with tubular cristae, a syndinean-like nucleus with condensed chromatin, micronemes, bipartite trichocysts with square profiles (absent in perkinsids) and oblong microbodies. Like Parvilucifera, the zoospores also possessed a shorter posterior flagellum, a heteromorphic pair of central microtubules in the anterior axoneme and a reduced pseudoconoid positioned directly above an orthogonal pair of basal bodies. Early developmental stages consisted of a sporangium about 5-15 microm in diam that contained spherical bodies and amorphous spaces. The undifferentiated sporangium increased to about 20-25 microm in diam before being enveloped by a wall with a convoluted mid-layer. The sporangium differentiated into an unordered mass of zoospores that escaped from the cyst through a pronounced germ tube about 4-5 microm in diam and 10-15 microm long. Weakly developed germ tubes have been described in Perkinsus but are absent altogether in Parvilucifera and syndineans. Comparison of these data with other myzozoans led us to classify the parasite as Parvilucifera prorocentri sp. nov., Myzozoa. Although we were hesitant to erect a new genus name in the absence of molecular sequence data, our ultrastructural data strongly indicated that this parasite is most closely related to perkinsids and syndineans, and represents an intriguing candidate for the cellular identity of a major subclade of Group I alveolates.

  1. Trematode reproduction in the molluscan host: an ultrastructural study of the germinal mass in the rediae of Himasthla elongata (Mehlis, 1831) (Digenea: Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvyaznaya, Irina M; Galaktionov, Kirill V

    2014-03-01

    The germinal mass in Himasthla elongata rediae was studied in detail using transmission electron microscopy. It was shown to be a specialized reproductive organ consisting of germinal cells at various maturation stages, supporting cells and stem cells. The germinal mass also contains early cercarial embryos emerging as a result of cleavage division of mature germinal cells. The stem cells that give rise to germinal cells have heterochromatin-rich nuclei with distinct nucleoli and scarce cytoplasm containing mainly free ribosomes and few mitochondria. The differentiating germinal cells undergo a growth, which is accompanied by an emergence of annulate lamellae and the nuage in their cytoplasm, a noticeable development of RER and Golgi apparatus and an increase in the number of mitochondria. The mitochondria form a large group at one of the cell poles. During differentiation, the nucleus and nucleolus of the germinal cell enlarge while the chromatin becomes gradually less condensed. The supporting tissue of the germinal mass is made up of cells connected by septate junctions. These supporting cells are distinctly different in cellular shape and nuclear ultrastructure. Their outgrowths form a tight meshwork housing stem cells, germinal cells and early cercarial embryos. The cytoplasm of the supporting cells in the mesh area is separated into fine parallel layers by labyrinthine narrow cavities communicating with the intercellular space. The supporting tissue contains differentiating and degenerating cells which indicates its renewal. The results of this ultrastructural study lend support to the hypothesis that the germinal cells of digeneans are germ line cells.

  2. Ultrastructural characteristics and molecular identification of Entamoeba suis isolated from pigs with hemorrhagic colitis: implications for pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Suzuta, Fumiko; Terayama, Yoshimi; Shimojo, Kengo; Yui, Takeshi; Haritani, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2014-08-01

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Entamoeba infect many classes of vertebrates and are primarily classified based on morphological criteria. To date, only a few species have been proven to cause disease. Here, we examined the pathology of infected pigs with hemorrhage and detected Entamoeba parasites. Isolates were characterized genetically and ultrastructurally to identify the species. Histopathologically, bleeding and thrombus formation were seen only in the large intestine mucosa, where a large number of trophozoites or some Entamoeba cysts were observed around breakdowns in the lamina propria. No screw-shaped bacteria were detected in the lesions, and no pathogenic bacteria such as Brachyspira spp. were detected in fecal cultures. Interestingly, electron microscopy revealed that the parasites possessed mitochondrial organelles, unlike other Entamoeba spp. The isolates were identified as Entamoeba suis by PCR analysis and sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. In phylogenetic analyses based on the actin gene, the E. suis isolate formed a cluster with Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba invadens, as well as with other parasites of the Amoebidae. Whether the pathogenicity of the E. suis isolate is affected by the severity of infection or host health status remains unclear; however, our results suggest that E. suis could cause or exacerbate clinical symptoms such as hemorrhagic colitis or diarrhea.

  3. Melanocytic lesions and dermoscopy in childhood: diagnosis, therapy and foloving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irdina Drljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of malignant skin tumors, particularly malignant melanoma in childhood, which is most malignant of all, is of utmost importance for the prevention, treatment and outcome of the disease. If an observed lesion is characterized as melanocytic, the second step can be performed in the so called “two-step dermoscopy” algorithm, which includes the differentiation between a benign pigmented lesion (nevus and a malignant lesion (melanoma. Gigantic nevi, as a subgroup of large congenital nevi, may pose a huge psycho-social burden for children and their parents, primarily because of potential complications. Melanoma can develop in healthy children but also in those with identified genetic disorder or immune diseases. Dermoscopy, at the same time, has reduced the number of unnecessary biopsies and excisions of benign melanocytic lesions in childhood.

  4. Pigmented lesions of the nail bed - Clinical assessment and biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtshiladze, Michael Alexander; Stretch, Jonathan Raymond; Stewart, David Alexander; Saw, Robyn Pm

    2016-11-01

    Subungual melanoma is an uncommon type of melanoma that can be difficult to diagnose. Patients often present with advanced primary lesions and have an associated increased risk of nodal disease. Delays in diagnosis are believed to contribute to poor patient outcomes. The objective of this article is to offer an approach to assessing and managing patients who present with subungual pigmented lesions. We describe the anatomy of the nail bed to offer a rationale for our technique of nail bed biopsy, and warn of the potential to cause permanent nail dystrophy through other approaches. Many clinicians have limited experience in assessing lesions of the nail apparatus.Subungual pigmentation has extremely broad differential diagnoses, which include a variety of benign pathologies. A systematic approach to assessment, and early referral of patients with suspicious lesions to a specialist unit, has the potential to improve patient outcomes.

  5. Lesion margin analysis for automated classification of cervical cancer lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raad, Viara; Xue, Zhiyun; Lange, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Digital colposcopy is an emerging technology, replacing the traditional colposcope for diagnosis of cervical lesions. Incorporating automated algorithms within a digital colposcopy system can improve the reliability and the diagnostic accuracy of cervical precancer and cancer. An automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can assess the three important cervical diagnostic cues: the color, the vascular patterns and the lesion margins with quantitative measures, similar to the way colposcopists use the Reid's index in traditional colposcopy. In this work we present a novel way to analyze and classify the global and the local features of one of the three major components in colposcopy diagnosis - the lesion margins. The margins of cervical lesion can be described as 'feathered,' 'geographic,' 'satellite,' 'regular or smooth' and 'margin-in-margin,' or they can be of mixed type. As margin characterization is a complex task, we use irregularity descriptors such as compactness indices and curvature descriptors. To address the complexity of the problem, the dependency of scale and the position of the lesion on the cervical image, our method use novel Fourier energy descriptors. The conceptually complex analysis of describing lesions as 'satellite' lesions or lesions with multiple margins is performed using descriptors, where the distance, the position and the local statistical estimates of image intensity play important role. We trained this new algorithm to classify and diagnose the cervix, evaluating only the lesions. The accuracy of the results is assessed against a 'ground truth' scheme, using colposcopists' annotations and pathology results. We report the resulted accuracy of the classification method assessed against this scheme.

  6. The Pathology of Severe Dengue in Multiple Organs of Human Fatal Cases: Histopathology, Ultrastructure and Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póvoa, Tiago F.; Alves, Ada M. B.; Oliveira, Carlos A. B.; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Chagas, Vera L. A.; Paes, Marciano V.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a public health problem, with several gaps in understanding its pathogenesis. Studies based on human fatal cases are extremely important and may clarify some of these gaps. In this work, we analyzed lesions in different organs of four dengue fatal cases, occurred in Brazil. Tissues were prepared for visualization in optical and electron microscopy, with damages quantification. As expected, we observed in all studied organ lesions characteristic of severe dengue, such as hemorrhage and edema, although other injuries were also detected. Cases presented necrotic areas in the liver and diffuse macro and microsteatosis, which were more accentuated in case 1, who also had obesity. The lung was the most affected organ, with hyaline membrane formation associated with mononuclear infiltrates in patients with pre-existing diseases such as diabetes and obesity (cases 1 and 2, respectively). These cases had also extensive acute tubular necrosis in the kidney. Infection induced destruction of cardiac fibers in most cases, with absence of nucleus and loss of striations, suggesting myocarditis. Spleens revealed significant destruction of the germinal centers and atrophy of lymphoid follicles, which may be associated to decrease of T cell number. Circulatory disturbs were reinforced by the presence of megakaryocytes in alveolar spaces, thrombus formation in glomerular capillaries and loss of endothelium in several tissues. Besides histopathological and ultrastructural observations, virus replication were investigated by detection of dengue antigens, especially the non-structural 3 protein (NS3), and confirmed by the presence of virus RNA negative strand (in situ hybridization), with second staining for identification of some cells. Results showed that dengue had broader tropism comparing to what was described before in literature, replicating in hepatocytes, type II pneumocytes and cardiac fibers, as well as in resident and circulating monocytes/macrophages and

  7. The Impact of Quantitative Data Provided by a Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device on Dermatologists'Decisions to Biopsy Pigmented Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farberg, Aaron S; Winkelmann, Richard R; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S

    2017-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of melanoma is critical to survival. New technologies, such as a multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis (MSDSLA) device [MelaFind, STRATA Skin Sciences, Horsham, Pennsylvania] may be useful to enhance clinician evaluation of concerning pigmented skin lesions. Previous studies evaluated the effect of only the binary output. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine how decisions dermatologists make regarding pigmented lesion biopsies are impacted by providing both the underlying classifier score (CS) and associated probability risk provided by multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis. This outcome was also compared against the improvement reported with the provision of only the binary output. METHODS: Dermatologists attending an educational conference evaluated 50 pigmented lesions (25 melanomas and 25 benign lesions). Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images, and were asked this question again after being shown multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis data that included the probability graphs and classifier score. RESULTS: Data were analyzed from a total of 160 United States board-certified dermatologists. Biopsy sensitivity for melanoma improved from 76 percent following clinical evaluation to 92 percent after quantitative multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis information was provided ( p lesion analysis (64% vs. 86%, p lesions led to both increased sensitivity and specificity, thereby resulting in more accurate biopsy decisions.

  8. Investigation of the ultrastructural and histopathological changes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... Ultra structural lesions. Normal endothelial cells were observed in coronary arte- ries of control group (Figure 4). Abnormality of cells, va- cuolization of cytoplasm, demolition of nucleus, cell dege- neration, thickened basal membrane and decreased tran- sitional vesicles in the endothelial cells of coronary ...

  9. THE RENAL LESIONS OF ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jean; MacDowell, Muriel; Welt, L. G.; Holliday, M. A.; Hollander, W.; Winters, R. W.; Williams, T. F.; Segar, W. E.

    1957-01-01

    Renal tubular lesions during the early phases of progressive potassium depletion in rats were found in nephrons isolated by microdissection in two locations, the collecting tubules and the proximal convolutions. All other portions of the nephron, in particular the "distal tubule," i.e. ascending limbs of Henle's loop and distal convolutions, showed no structural alterations except the passive effects of dilatation and cellular compression which developed as a result of primary disturbances lower in the tubular system. The alterations affected all the collecting tubules uniformly and took two forms; the more severe, a swelling and hyperplasia of the tubular epithelium and the lesser, an intracellular accumulation of granule droplets. The former was limited to the outer zone of the medulla, the latter to its inner zone. In the proximal convolution the structural alteration began in its middle third and extended downward towards the medulla; only occasional nephrons were affected. The essential nature of the more severe epithelial lesion was similar in both collecting tubule and proximal convolution, beginning as a swelling of cell bodies, increasing to protoplasmic disturbances with disintegration of the mitochondrial pattern, followed by rupture of cells and nuclear disappearance. These retrogressive alterations were followed by prolific regenerative hyperplasia. In the collecting tubules of the outer zone these epithelial alterations were present in both the clear and the intercalcated cells; in the latter the swelling of the cells was not prominent, but the hyperplastic proliferative increase in their number was the predominating feature of the lesion when the dissected tubules were viewed intact in the continuity of their topographical relations. The cellular alterations in the tubules are associated with an inability to concentrate the urine; reasons are given for considering this functional disturbance a correlate of the structural lesion in the collecting

  10. Secondary Syphilitic Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughn, Robert E.; Musher, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    An important theme that emerges from all early historical accounts is that in addition to the decreased virulence of Treponema pallidum, the incidence of secondary syphilis has decreased drastically over the past three centuries. Even in the early 20th century, most syphilologists were of the opinion that the disease had undergone changes in its manifestations and that they were dealing with an attenuated form of the spirochete. Such opinions were based primarily on the observations that violent cutaneous reactions and fatalities associated with the secondary stage had become extremely rare. The rate of primary and secondary syphilis in the United States increased in 2002 for the second consecutive year. After a decade-long decline that led to an all-time low in 2000, the recent trend is attributable, to a large extent, by a increase in reported syphilis cases among men, particularly homosexual and bisexual men having sex with men. The present review addresses the clinical and diagnostic criteria for the recognition of secondary syphilis, the clinical course and manifestations of the disease if allowed to proceed past the primary stage of disease in untreated individuals, and the treatment for this stage of the disease. PMID:15653827

  11. Ultrastructural study of oogenesis in Marphysa sanguinea (Annelida: Polychaeta: Eunicida from the Lagoon of Tunis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Elbarhoumi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural features of oogenesis of the iteroparous and long lived eunicid polychaete Marphysa sanguinea (Montagu, 1815 from the Lagoon of Tunis were studied using both light and transmission electron microscopy methods. The ovaries consist of coelomic germ-cell clusters surrounded by a thin envelope of follicle cells derived from the peritoneum. They are attached to the genital blood vessels. Oogenesis is asynchronous; therefore, germ cells in premeiotic and previtellogenic phases are observed in one cluster. The oogenesis is of the extraovarian type. In each cluster the more differentiated oocytes detach and float free in the coelomic cavity where they undergo vitellogenesis as solitary cells. Inside the ovary, follicle cells are connected to young oocytes by intercellular bridges and data suggest that in the early stages of vitellogenesis, ribosomes, multivesicular bodies and dense bodies are transferred from the follicle cells to the oocytes through the intercellular bridges. Different morphological evidence supports the heterosynthetic (presence of endocytotic vesicles, abundant microvilli adorning the surface of the egg and autosynthetic (proteosynthetic organelles well developed, formation of blebs by the external membrane of the nuclear envelope origin of yolk in M. sanguinea. The cytoplasmic material of the mature oocytes is asymmetrically distributed; large lipid droplets (1.5 μm in size and large yolk spheres (6 μm in size occupy the vegetal pole of the oocyte while small yolk spheres (2-3 μm in size and numerous membranous organelles (mitochondria, cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum occupy the animal hemisphere. Spherical to elongated cortical granules up to 1.8 μm in size are located in the cortex of the mature oocytes. Finally, fibrogranular aggregates (“nuage” similar to that within the nucleus are observed in the cortical ooplasm located in the animal pole of mature oocytes. These aggregates probably come from the

  12. Ultrastructure of the ovarian follicles in the placentotrophic Andean lizard of the genus Mabuya (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simón; de Pérez, Gloria Romero; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2010-06-01

    We studied the ultrastructural organization of the ovarian follicles in a placentotrophic Andean lizard of the genus Mabuya. The oocyte of the primary follicle is surrounded by a single layer of follicle cells. During the previtellogenic stages, these cells become stratified and differentiated in three cell types: small, intermediate, and large globoid, non pyriform cells. Fluid-filled spaces arise among follicular cells in late previtellogenic follicles and provide evidence of cell lysis. In vitellogenic follicles, the follicular cells constitute a monolayered granulosa with large lacunar spaces; the content of their cytoplasm is released to the perivitelline space where the zona pellucida is formed. The oolemma of younger oocytes presents incipient short projections; as the oocyte grows, these projections become organized in a microvillar surface. During vitellogenesis, cannaliculi develop from the base of the microvilli and internalize materials by endocytosis. In the juxtanuclear ooplasm of early previtellogenic follicles, the Balbiani's vitelline body is found as an aggregate of organelles and lipid droplets; this complex of organelles disperses in the ooplasm during oocyte growth. In late previtellogenesis, membranous organelles are especially abundant in the peripheral ooplasm, whereas abundant vesicles and granular material occur in the medullar ooplasm. The ooplasm of vitellogenic follicles shows a peripheral band constituted by abundant membranous organelles and numerous vesicular bodies, some of them with a small lipoprotein core. No organized yolk platelets, like in lecithotrophic reptiles, were observed. Toward the medullary ooplasm, electron-lucent vesicles become larger in size containing remains of cytoplasmic material in dissolution. The results of this study demonstrate structural similarities between the follicles of this species and other Squamata; however, the ooplasm of the mature oocyte of Mabuya is morphologically similar to the ooplasm of

  13. Tooth -Wear Lesions Among Patients Attending Tertiary Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tooth wear manifest in the form of abrasion, attrition, erosion and abfraction and can affect the quality of life of the sufferer. This was a prospective study of patients who ... We recommend oral hygiene advice, dietary counseling and regular dental examination for early detection. Key words: Tooth wear, lesion, prospective, ...

  14. ULTRASTRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF EMBRYONIC AXES OF Fortunella polyandra TO DEHYDRATION AND CRYOPRESERVATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zoubi, Omar M; Normah, M N

    2015-01-01

    To further understand the survival characteristics of desiccation-sensitive excised embryonic axes of Fortunella polyandra to desiccation and cryopreservation it is necessary to study the impact of drying rates on both the ultrastructure and electrolyte leakage. To examine the effects of two different drying regimes (silica gel and ultra-rapid) on the survival, ultrastructure and membrane leakage characteristics of excised embryonic axes of F. polyandra before and after cryopreservation. The effects of the drying regimes on the survival, ultrastructure and membrane integrity of the excised embryonic axes of F. polyandra was determined. Survival was assessed in vitro, and the integrity of membranes following drying was estimated by electrolyte leakage and observation under the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Survival and ultrastructural changes were also observed after cryopreservation. Electrolyte leakage increased with decreasing water content of the embryonic axes, indicative of substantial subcellular damage, after both ultra-rapid dehydration (to water contents of shrinkage and disruption of cell membranes with longer dehydration periods. Normal seedling recovery of 50 to 47% for cryopreserved embryonic axes of F. polyandra was observed after ultra-rapid and silica gel drying respectively. Extreme cell injury was observed after exposure to liquid nitrogen at high moisture content. Although cells of dehydrated axes encountered stress during cryopreservation, the main damage occurred during the dehydration step. For surviving axes, the damage was less severe and the axes grew to become normal seedlings. Ultrastructural studies reveal the damage of the cells at different rates of dehydration and during cryopreservation.

  15. Ultrastructural analysis of the endometrial mucosa of female patients at menopause with hormonal substitutive therapy (TSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzea, Dana; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Iosif, Cristina; Vasilescu, Florina; Andrei, F; Dobrea, Camelia; Nicolae, Alina; Georgescu, Alina; Ceauşu, M; Vişan, Ariana; Mihai, Mihaela; Ardeleanu, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the paper was to observe the ultrastructural aspects of the endometrial biopsies taken from female patients at post-menopause with substitutive hormonal therapy (TSH). Material and methods. A number of three endometrial biopsies were taken from female patients at post-menopause with TSH. The ultrastructural analysis was carried out with the help of the electronic microscope Philips ME 301 using classical electronic microscopy methods. Results and discussions. The ultrastructural analysis has highlighted the presence of cuboidal and columnar epithelial cells, with basally situated nuclei, well represented cellular organelles, some cells having at the apical pole microvilli. At the electronic microscope, three types of epithelial cells are described, at the level of the endometrial mucosa of the woman who is in a fertile period: secretory cells (cells with an average electronic density with microvilli on the luminal surface), ciliated cells and clear cells (cells with a low electronic density). These cells have certain ultrastructural characteristics and of receptivity towards the steroid hormones. The stroma is axial with elongated cells with oval nuclei, with nucleoli and with smooth or undulated membrane. Conclusions. The ultrastructural aspects suggest the presence at endometrial level of epithelial active glandular cells, secretory cells and stromal active cells at female patients at post-menopause with TSH.

  16. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 4. Detection and diagnosis of initial caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, A; Gaucher, C; Bonte, E; Lasfargues, J J

    2012-12-01

    The detection of carious lesions is focused on the identification of early mineral changes to allow the demineralisation process to be managed by non-invasive interventions. The methods recommended for clinical diagnosis of initial carious lesions are discussed and illustrated. These include the early detection of lesions, evaluation of the extent of the lesion and its state of activity and the establishment of appropriate monitoring. The place of modern tools, including those based on fluorescence, is discussed. These can help inform patients. They are also potentially useful in regular control visits to monitor the progression or regression of early lesions. A rigorous and systematic approach to caries diagnosis is essential to establish a care plan for the disease and to identify preventive measures based on more precise diagnosis and to reduce reliance on restorative measures.

  17. Morel-Lavallée lesion: A closed degloving injury that requires real attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anirudh V; Nazar, Pk; Sekhar, Resmi; Ramachandran, Pv; Moorthy, Srikanth

    2014-07-01

    Morel-Lavallée lesions are post-traumatic, closed degloving injuries occurring deep to subcutaneous plane due to disruption of capillaries resulting in an effusion containing hemolymph and necrotic fat. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice in the evaluation of Morel-Lavallée lesion. Early diagnosis and management is essential as any delay in diagnosis or missed lesion will lead to the effusion becoming infected or leading to extensive skin necrosis.