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  1. Socioeconomic position and surgery for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Starr, Laila; Osler, Merete; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine possible associations between socioeconomic position and surgical treatment of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In a register-based clinical cohort study, patients with early-stage (stages I-IIIa) NSCLC were identified in the Danish Lung Cancer...... in a health care system with free, equal access to health services, disadvantaged groups are less likely to receive surgery for lung cancer....

  2. Apathy in untreated early-stage Parkinson disease: relationship with other non-motor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Kathy; Langlois, Carole; Plomhause, Lucie; Carette, Anne-Sophie; Delliaux, Marie; Duhamel, Alain; Defebvre, Luc

    2014-12-01

    Apathy is a frequent and disabling behavioral disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Its prevalence in treatment-naive patients with early-stage PD has not been extensively investigated. Moreover, whether apathy is related to other non-motor symptoms in early-stage PD is unknown. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and features of apathy and associated factors in a group of treatment-naive patients with early-stage PD. Ninety-five treatment-naive patients with early-stage PD participated in the study. Apathy, depression, motor symptoms, and overall cognitive efficiency were assessed. The presence of the main non-motor symptoms was checked during a detailed clinical interview. Group comparisons were carried out to investigate the association with apathy. Eighteen patients (18.95%) were diagnosed as apathetic, and five of the latter had concomitant depression. Apathetic patients had significantly more severe motor symptoms (P apathy was significantly associated only with fatigue (P = 0.007) and anhedonia (P = 0.010), both of which were more prevalent in apathetic patients than in non-apathetic patients. In treatment-naive patients with early-stage PD, apathy was significantly associated with more severe motor symptoms and a lower cognitive status. After adjustment for these factors, apathy appeared to be a relatively isolated, independent symptom because the only other associated non-motor symptoms were fatigue and anhedonia. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Is thymomectomy sufficient for non-myasthenic early stage thymoma patients? A retrospective, single center experience.

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    Rusidanmu, Aizemaiti; Huang, Sha; Lv, Xiayi

    2017-10-31

    Thymic complete resection is considered the standard treatment for all thymic tumors; however, the ideal resection for non-myasthenic early stage thymic tumors has not yet been determined. We conducted a retrospective study to examine this unique scenario. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 118 early stage thymoma patients who underwent thymectomy (TM) or thymomectomy (TMM) with curative intent between January 2003 and December 2013 at our institution. Patients with myasthenia, thymic carcinomas, tumors with undetermined histology, and more advanced stage thymoma patients were excluded. We compared overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) according to the extent of thymic resection, tumor staging, and size. One hundred and eighteen patients were staged as early thymoma. TM was performed in 43 (35.6%) patients and TMM in 75 (64.4%). Forty-nine (65.3%) patients with a tumor ≤ 3 cm underwent TMM, and 9 (20.9%) TM. Twenty-six (34.7%) patients with a tumor > 3 cm underwent TMM, and 34 (79.1%) TM. Seventy-four patients were categorized as stage I: 57 (76%) underwent TMM and 17 (39.5%) TM. Forty-four patients were categorized as stage II: 18 (24%) underwent TMM and 26 (60.5%) TM. There was no statistically significant difference in recurrence between the groups (P = 0.250). No difference in the rate of recurrence was observed in early stage non-myasthenic patients following thymic resection and Masaoka-Koga staging. However, TM is considered a better option for early stage thymoma patients with tumors > 3 cm. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Treatment of Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Surgery or Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy?

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    Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Abacıoğlu, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    The management of early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) has improved recently due to advances in surgical and radiation modalities. Minimally-invasive procedures like Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy decreases the morbidity of surgery, while the numerous methods of staging the mediastinum such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsies are helping to achieve the objectives much more effectively. Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) has become the frontrunner as the standard of care in medically inoperable early stage NSCLC patients, and has also been branded as tolerable and highly effective. Ongoing researches using SABR are continuously validating the optimal dosing and fractionation schemes, while at the same time instituting its role for both inoperable and operable patients. PMID:25759766

  5. Role of chemotherapy and targeted therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Nagasaka, Misako; Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2018-01-01

    Adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy is accepted as standard of care in stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and is often considered in patients with stage IB disease who have tumors ≥ 4 cm. The survival advantage is modest with approximately 5% at 5 years. Areas covered: This review article presents relevant data regarding chemotherapy use in the perioperative setting for early stage NSCLC. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed as well as clinical trial.gov. Randomized phase III studies in this setting including adjuvant and neoadjuvant use of chemotherapy as well as ongoing trials on targeted therapy and immunotherapy are also discussed. Expert commentary: With increasing utilization of screening computed tomography scans, it is possible that the percentage of early stage NSCLC patients will increase in the coming years. Benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage NSCLC patients remain modest. There is a need to better define patients most likely to derive survival benefit from adjuvant therapy and spare patients who do not need adjuvant chemotherapy due to the toxicity of such therapy. Trials for adjuvant targeted therapy, including adjuvant EGFR-TKI trials and trials of immunotherapy drugs are ongoing and will define the role of these agents as adjuvant therapy.

  6. Role of Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of several randomized trials and meta-analyses, adjuvant chemotherapy is the accepted standard of care for certain patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with stage II, IIIA, or large (≥ 4 cm) IB tumors are candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy. The survival improvement with adjuvant chemotherapy is approximately 5% at 5 years, though certain trials have suggested that it can be 8% to 10%. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy also has shown a survival advantage, though the volume of data with this approach is far less than that of adjuvant chemotherapy. The combination of cisplatin and vinorelbine is the most well-studied regimen, but current consensus is to use four cycles of any of the platinum-based chemotherapy regimens commonly used as front-line therapy for patients with advanced-stage NSCLC. Trials to define biomarkers that can predict benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy have not been successful, but results of other such trials are still awaited. On the basis of the benefit observed with targeted agents in patients with advanced-stage disease and driver genetic alterations in their tumors, ongoing trials are evaluating the utility of these targeted agents as adjuvant therapy. Similarly, clinical benefit observed with checkpoint inhibitors has prompted assessment of these drugs in patients with early-stage NSCLC. It is very likely, in the future, that factors other than the anatomy of the tumor will be used to select patients with early-stage NSCLC for systemic therapy and that the choice of systemic therapy will extend beyond platinum-based chemotherapy.

  7. SSX2-4 expression in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, K B V; Pøhl, M; Olsen, K E

    2014-01-01

    The expression of cancer/testis antigens SSX2, SSX3, and SSX4 in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) was examined, since they are considered promising targets for cancer immunotherapy due to their immunogenicity and testis-restricted normal tissue expression. We characterized three SSX antibodies...... was only detected in 5 of 143 early-stage NSCLCs, which is rare compared to other cancer/testis antigens (e.g. MAGE-A and GAGE). However, further studies are needed to determine whether SSX can be used as a prognostic or predictive biomarker in NSCLC....

  8. Drug Repositioning Discovery for Early- and Late-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning is a popular approach in the pharmaceutical industry for identifying potential new uses for existing drugs and accelerating the development time. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. To reduce the biological heterogeneity effects among different individuals, both normal and cancer tissues were taken from the same patient, hence allowing pairwise testing. By comparing early- and late-stage cancer patients, we can identify stage-specific NSCLC genes. Differentially expressed genes are clustered separately to form up- and downregulated communities that are used as queries to perform enrichment analysis. The results suggest that pathways for early- and late-stage cancers are different. Sets of up- and downregulated genes were submitted to the cMap web resource to identify potential drugs. To achieve high confidence drug prediction, multiple microarray experimental results were merged by performing meta-analysis. The results of a few drug findings are supported by MTT assay or clonogenic assay data. In conclusion, we have been able to assess the potential existing drugs to identify novel anticancer drugs, which may be helpful in drug repositioning discovery for NSCLC.

  9. Proton-Based Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

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    Grant, Jonathan D.; Chang, Joe Y.

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), a recent implementation in the practice of radiation oncology, has been shown to confer high rates of local control in the treatment of early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This technique, which involves limited invasive procedures and reduced treatment intervals, offers definitive treatment for patients unable or unwilling to undergo an operation. The use of protons in SABR delivery confers the added physical advantage of normal tissue sparing due to the absence of collateral radiation dose delivered to regions distal to the target. This may translate into clinical benefit and a decreased risk of clinical toxicity in patients with nearby critical structures or limited pulmonary reserve. In this review, we present the rationale for proton-based SABR, principles relating to the delivery and planning of this modality, and a summary of published clinical studies. PMID:25136582

  10. Survival after community diagnosis of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Kanarek, Norma F; Hooker, Craig M; Mathieu, Luckson; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Rudin, Charles M; Herman, James G; Brock, Malcolm V

    2014-05-01

    "Rush to surgery" among patients with worse symptoms, delays related to morbidity, and inclusion of patients with advanced disease in study populations have produced a mixed picture of importance of time to treatment to survival of non-small cell lung cancer. Our objective was to assess the contribution of diagnosis to first surgery interval to survival among patients diagnosed in the community with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Patients with early-stage lung cancer (N = 174) at the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins who were diagnosed and treated from 2003 to 2009 and followed through 2011 made up a prospective study of overall survival. Diagnosis to first surgery interval was examined overall, as 2 segments (referral interval and treatment interval), as short and longer intervals, and as a continuous variable. The majority of patients were female (55%) and aged more than 65 years (61%). The average mean referral and treatment delays were 61.2 and 5.9 days, respectively. Cox method hazard analysis revealed that older age (years) at diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.05), stage IIB (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.12-4.21), large (>4 cm) (HR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.05-12.93) or unknown tumor size (HR, 4.45; 95% CI, 1.21-16.38), and weeks from diagnosis to first surgery interval (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09) predicted worse overall survival. The threshold period of less than 42 days from diagnosis to surgery did not reach statistical significance. Patients seem to benefit from rapid reduction of tumor burden with surgery. Reasons for delay were not available. Nevertheless, referral delay experienced in the community is unduly long. In addition to patient choices, an unconscious patient or physician bias that lung cancer is untreatable or an inevitable consequence of smoking may be operating and needs further investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cognitive impairment in early-stage non-demented Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Helle Cecilie Viekilde; Løkkegaard, A; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2013-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) are common. PD-MCI is a risk factor for developing PDD. Knowledge of cognition in early-stages PD is essential in understanding and predicting the dementia process.......In Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) are common. PD-MCI is a risk factor for developing PDD. Knowledge of cognition in early-stages PD is essential in understanding and predicting the dementia process....

  12. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Unusual motor and non-motor symptoms and signs in the early stage of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD may present with unusual motor and non-motor symptoms and signs in the early stage of the disease. Methods Cases were collected over a five-year period at two tertiary movement disorders clinics. All had a diagnosis of PD with unusual presentations defined retrospectively as the presence of complaints not objectively related to any of the classic cardinal signs of parkinsonism or the typical early non-motor features of PD. Results A total of 15 early PD patients fulfilled the proposed criteria, presenting with symptoms such as atypical tremors, shoulder pain, signs related to the rigid akinetic syndrome, as well as cases of asthenia, rhinorrhea, parosmia, dysgeusia, nocturnal sialorrhea, and color discrimination disorders. Conclusions Unusual motor and non-motor symptoms and signs in the early stage of PD can be difficult to interpret. Specialists should be aware of these conditions as clues to a potential diagnosis.

  14. Non-destructive Phenotyping of Lettuce Plants in Early Stages of Development with Optical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan; Hayes, Ryan J; Furbank, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of plants is important for the production of 'baby-leaf' lettuce that is harvested when plants reach the four- to eight-leaf stage of growth. However, environmental factors, such as high or low temperature, or elevated concentrations of salt, inhibit lettuce growth. Therefore, non-destructive evaluations of plants can provide valuable information to breeders and growers. The objective of the present study was to test the feasibility of using non-destructive phenotyping with optical sensors for the evaluations of lettuce plants in early stages of development. We performed the series of experiments to determine if hyperspectral imaging and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging can determine phenotypic changes manifested on lettuce plants subjected to the extreme temperature and salinity stress treatments. Our results indicate that top view optical sensors alone can accurately determine plant size to approximately 7 g fresh weight. Hyperspectral imaging analysis was able to detect changes in the total chlorophyll (RCC) and anthocyanin (RAC) content, while chlorophyll fluorescence imaging revealed photoinhibition and reduction of plant growth caused by the extreme growing temperatures (3 and 39°C) and salinity (100 mM NaCl). Though no significant correlation was found between Fv/Fm and decrease in plant growth due to stress when comparisons were made across multiple accessions, our results indicate that lettuce plants have a high adaptability to both low (3°C) and high (39°C) temperatures, with no permanent damage to photosynthetic apparatus and fast recovery of plants after moving them to the optimal (21°C) temperature. We have also detected a strong relationship between visual rating of the green- and red-leaf color intensity and RCC and RAC, respectively. Differences in RAC among accessions suggest that the selection for intense red color may be easier to perform at somewhat lower than the optimal temperature. This study serves as a proof of concept

  15. Non-destructive Phenotyping of Lettuce Plants in Early Stages of Development with Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan; Hayes, Ryan J.; Furbank, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of plants is important for the production of ‘baby-leaf’ lettuce that is harvested when plants reach the four- to eight-leaf stage of growth. However, environmental factors, such as high or low temperature, or elevated concentrations of salt, inhibit lettuce growth. Therefore, non-destructive evaluations of plants can provide valuable information to breeders and growers. The objective of the present study was to test the feasibility of using non-destructive phenotyping with optical sensors for the evaluations of lettuce plants in early stages of development. We performed the series of experiments to determine if hyperspectral imaging and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging can determine phenotypic changes manifested on lettuce plants subjected to the extreme temperature and salinity stress treatments. Our results indicate that top view optical sensors alone can accurately determine plant size to approximately 7 g fresh weight. Hyperspectral imaging analysis was able to detect changes in the total chlorophyll (RCC) and anthocyanin (RAC) content, while chlorophyll fluorescence imaging revealed photoinhibition and reduction of plant growth caused by the extreme growing temperatures (3 and 39°C) and salinity (100 mM NaCl). Though no significant correlation was found between Fv/Fm and decrease in plant growth due to stress when comparisons were made across multiple accessions, our results indicate that lettuce plants have a high adaptability to both low (3°C) and high (39°C) temperatures, with no permanent damage to photosynthetic apparatus and fast recovery of plants after moving them to the optimal (21°C) temperature. We have also detected a strong relationship between visual rating of the green- and red-leaf color intensity and RCC and RAC, respectively. Differences in RAC among accessions suggest that the selection for intense red color may be easier to perform at somewhat lower than the optimal temperature. This study serves as a proof of

  16. Early stage colon cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-01-01

    .... After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced...

  17. Early stages of wind wave and drift current generation under non-stationary wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Generation and amplification mechanisms of ocean waves are well understood under constant wind speed or limited fetch conditions. Under these situations, the momentum and energy transfers from air to water are also quite well known. However during the wind field evolution over the ocean, we may observe sometime high wind acceleration/deceleration situations (e.g. Mexican Tehuano or Mediterranean Mistral wind systems). The evolution of wave systems under these conditions is not well understood. The purpose of these laboratory experiments is to better understand the early stages of water-waves and surface-drift currents under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine the balance between transfers creating waves and surface currents during non-equilibrium situations. The experiments were conducted in the Institut Pythéas wind-wave facility in Marseille-France. The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. We used 11 different resistive wave-gauges located along the tank. The momentum fluxes in the air column were estimated from single and X hot-film anemometer measurements. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. Water-current measurements were performed with a profiling velocimeter. This device measures the first 3.5 cm of the water column with a frequency rate of 100Hz. During the experiments, the wind intensity was abruptly modified with a constant acceleration and deceleration over time. We observed that wind drag coefficient values for accelerated wind periods are lower than the ones reported in previous studies for constant wind speed (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2010; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). This is probably because the turbulent boundary layer is not completely developed during the increasing-wind sequence. As it was reported in some theoretical studies (Miles 1957; Phillips 1957; Kahma and Donelan 1988), we

  18. Towards non-invasive diagnostic imaging of early-stage Alzheimer's disease

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    Viola, Kirsten L.; Sbarboro, James; Sureka, Ruchi; de, Mrinmoy; Bicca, Maíra A.; Wang, Jane; Vasavada, Shaleen; Satpathy, Sreyesh; Wu, Summer; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Macrenaris, Keith; Waters, E. Alex; Lu, Chang; Phan, Joseph; Lacor, Pascale; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Klein, William L.

    2015-01-01

    One way to image the molecular pathology in Alzheimer's disease is by positron emission tomography using probes that target amyloid fibrils. However, these fibrils are not closely linked to the development of the disease. It is now thought that early-stage biomarkers that instigate memory loss are composed of Aβ oligomers. Here, we report a sensitive molecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast probe that is specific for Aβ oligomers. We attach oligomer-specific antibodies onto magnetic nanostructures and show that the complex is stable and binds to Aβ oligomers on cells and brain tissues to give a magnetic resonance imaging signal. When intranasally administered to an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, the probe readily reached hippocampal Aβ oligomers. In isolated samples of human brain tissue, we observed a magnetic resonance imaging signal that distinguished Alzheimer's disease from controls. Such nanostructures that target neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are potentially useful for evaluating the efficacy of new drugs and ultimately for early-stage Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and disease management.

  19. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stefan Starup; Schytte, Tine; Jensen, Henrik R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single...... and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients....

  20. [Application of non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring on high-risk surgical patients in the early stages after emergency admission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun-qiang; Li, Chun-sheng; Yang, Jia-yong; Zhu, Jay; Wo, Charles; Shoemaker, Willaim

    2003-12-01

    Pulmonary artery (PA) catheterization monitoring (Swan-Ganz) is usually not available to critically high-risk surgical patients before admission to ICU, where action to correct values derived from such monitoring may be too late. To explored the effect of non-invasive monitoring systems that allow hemodynamic monitoring during the early stages after trauma. The early temporal hemodynamic patterns after high-risk trauma with non-invasive monitoring systems were evaluated, and compared these to invasive PA monitoring. The study included 156 patients monitored shortly after admission to the emergency department. The non-invasive impedance cardiac output estimations under extenuating emergency conditions were similar to those of the thermodilution method: r=0.69, r(2)=0.87, Parterial hemoglobin desaturation, low transcutaneous oxygen and high transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension, and low oxygen consumption during initial resuscitation. Low flow and poor tissue perfusion were more pronounced in non-survivors by both METHODS. Multicomponent non-invasive monitoring systems offer continuous on-line, real-time display of hemodynamic data, they allow early recognition of circulatory dysfunction. Such systems provide information similar to that provided by the invasive thermodilution method, and are more effective and safer.

  1. Genomic Copy Number Imbalances Associated with Bone and Non-bone Metastasis of Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Zhou, Renke; Baumbusch, Lars O.; Tsavachidis, Spyros; Brewster, Abenaa M.; Do, Kim-Anh; Sahin, Aysegul; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Taube, Joseph H.; Mani, Sendurai A.; Aarøe, Jørgen; Wärnberg, Fredrik; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Mills, Gordon B.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Bondy, Melissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify and validate copy number aberrations in early-stage primary breast tumors associated with bone or non-bone metastasis. Patients and Methods Whole-genome molecular inversion probe arrays were used to evaluate copy number imbalances (CNIs) in breast tumors from 960 early-stage patients with information about site of metastasis. The CoxBoost algorithm was used to select metastasis site-related CNIs and to fit a Cox proportional hazards model. Results Gains at 1q41 and 1q42.12 and losses at 1p13.3, 8p22, and Xp11.3 were significantly associated with bone metastasis. Gains at 2p11.2, 3q21.3–22.2, 3q27.1, 10q23.1, and 14q13.2–3 and loss at 7q21.11 were associated with non-bone metastasis. To examine the joint effect of CNIs and clinical predictors, patients were stratified into three risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) based on the sum of predicted linear hazard ratios (HRs). For bone metastasis, the hazard (95% confidence interval) for the low-risk group was 0.32 (0.11–0.92) compared to the intermediate-risk group and 2.99 (1.74–5.11) for the high-risk group. For non-bone metastasis, the hazard for the low-risk group was 0.34 (0.17–0.66) and 2.33 (1.59–3.43) for the high-risk group. The prognostic value of loss at 8p22 for bone metastasis and gains at 10q23.1 for non-bone metastasis, and gain at 11q13.5 for both bone and non-bone metastases were externally validated in 335 breast tumors pooled from four independent cohorts. Conclusions Distinct CNIs are independently associated with bone and non-bone metastasis for early-stage breast cancer patients across cohorts. These data warrant consideration for tailoring surveillance and management of metastasis risk. PMID:24305980

  2. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R L Paine

    Full Text Available High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy.

  3. Non-pharmacological Interventions for Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Stage Dementia: An Updated Scoping Review

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    Rodakowski, Juleen; Saghafi, Ester; Butters, Meryl A.; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the science related to non-pharmacological interventions designed to slow decline for older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment or early-stage dementia. We reviewed 32 unique randomized controlled trials that employed cognitive training (remediation or compensation approaches), physical exercise, or psychotherapeutic interventions that were published before November 2014. Evidence suggests that cognitive training focused on remediation and physical exercise interventions may promote small improvements in selected cognitive abilities. Cognitive training focused on compensation interventions and selected psychotherapeutic interventions may influence how cognitive changes impact daily living. However, confidence in these findings is limited due methodological limitations. To better assess the value of non-pharmacological interventions for this population, we recommend: 1) adoption of universal criteria for “early stage cognitive decline” among studies, 2) adherence to guidelines for the conceptualization, operationalization, and implementation of complex interventions, 3) consistent characterization of the impact of interventions on daily life, and 3) long-term follow-up of clinical outcomes to assess maintenance and meaningfulness of reported effects over time. PMID:26070444

  4. Meta-analysis of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy without radiotherapy in early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Yuan Chen,* Lin-Wei Wang,* Shu-Yi Wang, Bi-Bo Wu, Zhen-Meng Wang, Fang-Fang Chen, Bin Xiong Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Many clinical trials have confirmed that postoperative adjuvant therapy can prolong survival of non-small cell lung cancer. However, the efficiency of postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy is unclear, especially in early stage (stages I and II. We aimed to assess the effect of postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy in early stage patients.Methods: Databases and manual searches were adopted to identify eligible randomized control trials. Hazard ratio (HR was used to assess the advantage of disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS by fixed or random-effects models.Results: Fourteen trials with 3,923 patients were included based on inclusion criteria. Compared with surgery alone, postoperative chemotherapy significantly improved DFS and OS with HR of 0.71 (P=0.005 and 0.74 (P<0.00001, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed both cisplatin-based (HR: 0.75, P<0.0001 and single tegafur–uracil (UFT chemotherapy (HR: 0.72, P=0.002 yielded significant survival benefits, but the latter did not improve DFS (HR: 1.04, P=0.81. Indirect treatment comparison showed cisplatin-based chemotherapy was superior to single UFT in DFS, but comparable in OS. The benefits of postoperative chemotherapy were maintained in patients in stage I (HR: 0.74, P<0.00001 and IB (HR: 0.74, P=0.0003, but not in stage IA, although the trend supported chemotherapy (HR: 0.76, P=0.43.Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy improves survival of stage I–II, I, and IB non-small cell lung cancer patients, but not for IA. Meanwhile, efficacy of cisplatin

  5. Phase 0 Trial of Itraconazole for Early Stage Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A-18295) on May 19, 2015. The protocol was activated at UT Southwestern Medical Center and Parkland Health and Hospital System in June 2015...Departments of Radiology, Thoracic Surgery, Pulmonary Medicine, Hematology-Oncology; Texas Tech School of Pharmacy; Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology...Ethnicity Smoking Status Pack Years 7701 63 Male Caucasian Non-Hispanic Former 40 7702 64 Female Caucasian Non-Hispanic Former 47 7706 50 Female

  6. Use of non-selective β-blockers is associated with decreased tumor proliferative indices in early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alexa; Amaya, Clarissa N; Belmont, Andres; Diab, Nabih; Trevino, Richard; Villanueva, Geri; Rains, Steven; Sanchez, Luis A; Badri, Nabeel; Otoukesh, Salman; Khammanivong, Ali; Liss, Danielle; Baca, Sarah T; Aguilera, Renato J; Dickerson, Erin B; Torabi, Alireza; Dwivedi, Alok K; Abbas, Aamer; Chambers, Karinn; Bryan, Brad A; Nahleh, Zeina

    2017-01-24

    Previous studies suggest beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonists (β-blockers) decrease breast cancer progression, tumor metastasis, and patient mortality; however the mechanism for this is unknown. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue revealed overexpression of β1-AR and β3-AR in breast cancer. A retrospective cross-sectional study of 404 breast cancer patients was performed to determine the effect of β-blocker usage on tumor proliferation. Our analysis revealed that non-selective β-blockers, but not selective β-blockers, reduced tumor proliferation by 66% (p cancer compared to non-users. We tested the efficacy of propranolol on an early stage breast cancer patient, and quantified the tumor proliferative index before and after treatment, revealing a propranolol-mediated 23% reduction (p = 0.02) in Ki67 positive tumor cells over a three-week period. The anti-proliferative effects of β-blockers were measured in a panel of breast cancer lines, demonstrating that mammary epithelial cells were resistant to propranolol, and that most breast cancer cell lines displayed dose dependent viability decreases following treatment. Selective β-blockers alone or in combination were not as effective as propranolol at reducing breast cancer cell proliferation. Molecular analysis revealed that propranolol treatment of the SK-BR-3 breast cancer line, which showed high sensitivity to beta blockade, led to a reduction in Ki67 protein expression, decreased phosphorylation of the mitogenic signaling regulators p44/42 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK, and CREB, increased phosphorylation of the cell survival/apoptosis regulators AKT, p53, and GSK3β. In conclusion, use of non-selective β-blockers in patients with early stage breast cancer may lead to decreased tumor proliferation.

  7. Dynamics and diversity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during the early stages in winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zott, Katharina; Miot-Sertier, Cecile; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Masneuf-Pomarede, Isabelle

    2008-07-15

    This detailed study observed the yeasts present in the ecological niche of "wine must". The dynamics and identity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during the cold maceration and alcoholic fermentation of grape must were investigated under real production conditions in the Bordeaux region. Furthermore, we studied the impact of two oenological parameters on the development and diversity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during cold maceration: temperature management and the timing of dried yeast addition. The non-Saccharomyces community underwent constant changes throughout cold maceration and alcoholic fermentation. The highly diverse non-Saccharomyces microflora was present at 10(4)-10(5) CFU/mL during cold maceration. The population increased to a maximum of 10(6)-10(7) CFU/mL at the beginning of alcoholic fermentation, then declined again at the end. The population at this point, evaluated at around 10(3)-10(4) CFU/mL, was shown to be dependent on the timing of yeast inoculation. The choice of temperature was the key factor for controlling the total yeast population growth, as well as the species present at the end of cold maceration. Hanseniaspora uvarum was a major species present in 2005 and 2006, while Candida zemplinina was very abundant in 2006. A total of 19 species were isolated.

  8. Effect of non-electroactive additives on the early stage pyrrole electropolymerization on indium tin oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Beltran, A. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ave. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Centro de Innovación Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, PIIT-Monterrey C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Dominguez, C.; Bahena-Uribe, D. [Centro Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas (CIICAp), Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Sepulveda-Guzman, S., E-mail: selene.sepulvedagz@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ave. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Centro de Innovación Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, PIIT-Monterrey C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Cruz-Silva, R. [Research Center for Exotic NanoCarbon, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    The use of non-electroactive additives during electrodeposition of conducting polymers has long been used to modify the properties of deposited films. These additives can improve the adhesion, and not only change the morphology and deposition rate but also modify the chemical composition of the electrodeposited polymer. Several compounds have been used to modify deposition of polypyrrole; however, there is no systematic study of these compounds. In this work, we comparatively studied several water soluble chemical compounds, a cationic polymer, an anionic polymer, a cationic surfactant, and an anionic surfactant during potentiostatic electrodeposition of polypyrrole. In order to study the effect of these compounds on the interface, where the electrochemical polymerization takes place, we used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The morphology during the initial stage of growth was studied by atomic force microscopy, whereas the resulting polypyrrole films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Early-stage polymerization polypyrrole particles on indium tin oxide (ITO). • Anionic additives promote pyrrole oxidation and polypyrrole film growth on ITO. • Cationic polyelectrolyte promotes adhesion between ITO and polypyrrole film. • Non-electroactive additives strongly influence polypyrrole nucleation on ITO.

  9. Non-Abellian field dynamics in the early stage of ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rischke, D.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-22

    It was argued that the gluon field of a large, ultrarelativistic nucleus can be considered as a classical field for small values of the longitudinal momentum fraction x and on transverse momentum scales {Lambda}{sup 2}{sub QCD} << k{sup 2}{perpendicular} << {mu}{sup 2}, where {mu}{sup 2} is the transverse area density of color charges. The authors estimated {mu} {approx} 0.4 GeV for collisions of Au-nuclei at RHIC energies. Based on this argument, the gluon field produced in a collision of two ultrarelativistic nuclei is computed perturbatively by solving the classical Yang-Mills equations order by order in the strong coupling constant g. It is shown that to first order in g, the spectrum of produced gluons is identical to that obtained in a perturbative quantum calculation of gluon Bremsstrahlung. It is also identical with that of a coherent quantum state generated by independent collisions between the (classical) color charges in the two nuclei. The perturbative solution is unstable under perturbations. The instabilities arise from the non-Abelian terms in the equations of motion for the gluon field, which enter only at higher order in the perturbative solution scheme. The decay rate of the perturbative solution is shown to be of order {mu}. Since the non-Abelian terms describe the self-interaction of the produced gluon field, and since such interactions lead to thermalization, the decay rate provides an estimate for the thermalization time scale of classical color fields in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. For Au-nuclei, this time scale is therefore of order 0.5 fm/c, in agreement with results for the kinetic thermalization time scale.

  10. Cause-specific death after surgical resection for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Anders Standal; Lund, May Brit; Valberg, Morten; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Solberg, Steinar; Kongerud, Johny

    2018-01-01

    Surgical resection is the recommended treatment for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. However, it is believed that causes other than lung cancer can lead to death following surgical resection. Investigating the risk factors for overall mortality and analysing the specific causes of death may indicate the degree of influence of other causes of death. We assessed individual risk factors affecting overall and cause-specific mortality in a Cox proportional hazards model in a cohort of patients with resected Stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 756) from 2007 to 2015 in a tertiary university centre. The follow-up period ranged from 3 days to 9.3 years. Median survival time was 7.3 years (95% confidence interval 6.0-7.9). A few patients died of cardiovascular disease (n = 19) and were included in the group 'other cause'. In a competing risk model, we evaluated the risk factors for specific causes of death in patients dying of lung cancer and dying of non-lung cancer specific conditions. The overall survival was 94%, 62% and 50% at 1, 5 and 7 years, respectively. At the end of the follow-up period, the risk of having died of, respectively, lung cancer or other causes was 36% and 24%. The cumulative incidence of death of lung cancer increased continuously during the study. Risk factors predicting death of all causes and death of non-small-cell lung cancer were increasing age, severely reduced lung function, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status ≥2, preoperative examination without positron emission tomography/computed tomography, histological tumour diagnosis other than adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma and increasing disease stage. In patients dying of other causes, age, gender, body mass index, smoking and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status ≥2 affected the mortality rate. The probability of having died of lung cancer continued to increase beyond 5 years after the operation

  11. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  12. Absence of toxicity with hypofractionated 3-dimensional radiation therapy for inoperable, early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuong Te

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Hypofractionated radiotherapy may overcome repopulation in rapidly proliferating tumors such as lung cancer. It is more convenient for the patients and reduces health care costs. This study reports our results on patients with medically inoperable, early stage, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC treated with hypofractionation. Materials and methods Stage T1-2N0 NSCLC patients were treated with hypofractionation alone, 52.5 Gy/15 fractions, in 3 weeks, with 3-dimensional conformal planning. T1-2N1 patients with the hilar lymphnode close to the primary tumor were also eligible for this treatment. We did not use any approach to reduce respiratory motion, but it was monitored in all patients. Elective nodal radiotherapy was not performed. Routine follow up included assessment for acute and late toxicity and radiological tumor response. Median follow up time was 29 months for the surviving patients. Results Thirty-two patients with a median age of 76 years, T1 = 15 and T2 = 17, were treated. Median planning target volume (PTV volume was 150cc and median V16 of both lungs was 13%. The most important finding of this study is that toxicity was minimal. Two patients had grade ≤ 2 acute pneumonitis and 3 had mild (grade 1 acute esophagitis. There was no late toxicity. Actuarial 1 and 2-year overall survival rates are 78% and 56%, cancer specific survival rates (CSS are 90% and 74%, and local relapse free survival rates are 93% and 76% respectively. Conclusion 3-D planning, involved field hypofractionation at a dose of 52.5 Gy in 15 daily fractions is safe, well tolerated and easy radiation treatment for medically inoperable lung cancer patients. It shortens by half the traditional treatment. Results compare favorably with previously published studies. Further studies are needed to compare similar technique with other treatments such as surgery and stereotactic radiotherapy.

  13. Survival Outcome after Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Surgery for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Jun; Dai, Wan-Rong; Xu, Yong

    2017-08-22

    Treatment modalities in medically compromised patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are controversial. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy has been increasingly recognized as a favorable alternative to surgical resection for early-stage NSCLC. Many retrospective analyses compared the efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with surgery for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the efficacy between SBRT and surgery regimens for patients with early-stage NSCLC remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy between SBRT and surgery. Publications on comparison SBRT with Surgery in treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from 2011 to 2017 were collected. Retrospective trials analyzed the summary hazard ratios (HRs) of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local control survival (LC), regional control survival (RC), loco-regional control survival (LRC), and distant control survival (DC) between SBRT and Surgery. The major outcomes measures were hazard ratios (HRs). Meta-analysis Revman 5.3 software was used to analyze the combined Pooled HRs using fixed- or random-effects models according to the heterogeneity. A systematic literature search was conducted including14 studies. In this meta-analysis, patients with SBRT achieved inferior OS, DFS, LC, RC, LRC and DC, compared with surgery. In this study we found more favorable outcomes with stage I NSCLC treated with SBRT. The surgery had no obvious advantages in this meta-analysis. Although surgery has become the recommended treatment at present, SBRT has potential to be an alternative treatment as a novel non-invasive radiation therapy modality in patients with stage I-II NSCLC.

  14. Genetic characterization drives personalized therapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and survivors with metachronous second primary tumor (MST): A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xingchen; Wang, Linlin; Liu, Xijun; Sun, Xindong; Yu, Jinming; Meng, Xue

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenesis and progression of lung cancer is a complicated process in which many genes take part. But molecular gene testing is typically only performed in advanced-stage non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The value of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) administration is not widely recognized with respect to early-stage NSCLC. Here, we present a case of a man, heavy smoker who initially presented with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Three years after a lung lobectomy, he was diagnosed with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), according to laboratory, imaging, and pathological examinations. The case initially had an early-stage LADC with an L858R epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. A subsequent advanced SCC bearing EGFR L858R/T790M mutations occurred 3 years after surgery. The comprehensive therapy we utilized, including surgical resection for the early-stage lesion and GP chemotherapy and local radiotherapy as the first line therapy along with gefitinib maintenance treatment for the advanced metachronous second primary tumors (MST). The synthetical therapy, have resulted in our patient with remaining alive and progression free for 4.5 years. This case suggests that changes in molecular pathology should be monitored closely throughout cancer progression to guide personalized therapy and improve prognosis. We further review administration of TKI to early-stage NSCLC and to the metachronous second primary tumors (MST) in survivors.

  15. FGFR1, 2 and 3 protein overexpression and molecular aberrations of FGFR3 in early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, Willemijn Sme; Mittempergher, Lorenza; Willems, Stefan M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33189582X; Bosma, Astrid J; Peters, Dennis Dgc; van der Noort, Vincent; Japenga, Eva J; Peeters, Ton; Koole, Koos; Šuštić, Tonći; Blaauwgeers, J L; van Noesel, Carel J; Bernards, René|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070416990; van den Heuvel, Michel M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine protein expression levels of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1, 2 and 3 in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Additionally, a screen to define the frequency of FGFR3-TACC3 translocation and FGFR3 amplification was performed. Archived tissues from

  16. Comparable outcome between endometrioid and non-endometrioid tumors in patients with early-stage high-grade endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaers, E. A. E. M.; Ezendam, N. P. M.; Pijnenborg, J. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 25% of endometrial cancer patients present with high-grade tumors. Unlike the clearly defined work-up for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer, no consensus exists for surgical staging and adjuvant therapy in high-grade endometrioid endometrial cancer. We compared the

  17. Comparable outcome between endometrioid and non-endometrioid tumors in patients with early-stage high-grade endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaers, E.A.; Ezendam, N.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 25% of endometrial cancer patients present with high-grade tumors. Unlike the clearly defined work-up for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer, no consensus exists for surgical staging and adjuvant therapy in high-grade endometrioid endometrial cancer. We compared the

  18. Fluid biopsy for circulating tumor cell identification in patients with early-and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a glimpse into lung cancer biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Marco; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Boshuizen, Rogier; Kolatkar, Anand; Honnatti, Meghana; Cho, Edward H.; Marrinucci, Dena; Sandhu, Ajay; Perricone, Anthony; Thistlethwaite, Patricia; Bethel, Kelly; Nieva, Jorge; van den Heuvel, Michel; Kuhn, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggest a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there are few published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid-phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface-receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (>0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs mL-1 (range 0-515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs mL-1. No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n = 31, range 0-178.2), stage III (n = 34, range 0-515.6) and stages I/II (n = 13, range 0-442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging. Our results demonstrate that despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early- and late-stage lung cancer CTCs. Extensive studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early-stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of extensive studies examining screening, therapy and surveillance in

  19. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  20. Tumor-targeted SN38 inhibits growth of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in a KRas/p53 transgenic mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y Deneka

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with a 5-year survival of only ~16%. Potential strategies to address NSCLC mortality include improvements in early detection and prevention, and development of new therapies suitable for use in patients with early and late stage diagnoses. Controlling the growth of early stage tumors could yield significant clinical benefits for patients with comorbidities that make them poor candidates for surgery: however, many drugs that limit cancer growth are not useful in the setting of long-term use or in comorbid patients, because of associated toxicities. In this study, we explored the use of a recently described small molecule agent, STA-8666, as a potential agent for controlling early stage tumor growth. STA-8666 uses a cleavable linker to merge a tumor-targeting moiety that binds heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 with the cytotoxic chemical SN38, and has been shown to have high efficacy and low toxicity, associated with efficient tumor targeting, in preclinical studies using patient-derived and other xenograft models for pancreatic, bladder, and small cell lung cancer. Using a genetically engineered model of NSCLC arising from induced mutation of KRas and knockout of Trp53, we continuously dosed mice with STA-8666 from immediately after tumor induction for 15 weeks. STA-8666 significantly slowed the rate of tumor growth, and was well tolerated over this extended dosing period. STA-8666 induced DNA damage and apoptosis, and reduced proliferation and phosphorylation of the proliferation-associated protein ERK1/2, selectively in tumor tissue. In contrast, STA-8666 did not affect tumor features, such as degree of vimentin staining, associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, or downregulate tumor expression of HSP90. These data suggest STA-8666 and other similar targeted compounds may be useful additions to control the growth of early stage NSCLC in patient

  1. The associations of TERT-CLPTM1L variants and TERT mRNA expression with the prognosis of early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Wang, J; Bai, Y; Wang, S; Yin, X; Xiang, J; Li, X; He, M; Zhang, X; Wu, T; Xu, P; Guo, H

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified TERT-CLPTM1L as plausible causative locus for lung cancer development. This study aimed to investigate the associations of genetic variations in TERT-CLPTM1L and the expression level of TERT with the survival of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We selected three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of TERT-CLPTM1L (rs2853669, rs2736108 and rs31490) and genotyped in 140 early stage NSCLC patients by TaqMan assay. Associations between these variations and survival outcome of early stage NSCLC patients were further investigated. We also used TCGA data to evaluate the associations of TERT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and survival outcome of early stage NSCLC patients. Survival analysis showed that, compared with early NSCLC patients carrying TERT rs2853669 TT+TC genotypes, patients with rs2853669 CC genotype had significantly longer median survival time (MST=102.2 vs 52.4 months; log-rank P=0.028) and lower death risk [hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI))=0.38(0.17-0.82), P=0.014]. Early NSCLC patients carrying TERT rs2736108 AA genotype had significantly shorter MST (MST=29.0 vs 63.3 months; log-rank P=0.020) and increased death risk [HR (95% CI)=2.22(1.01-5.80), P=0.046], when compared with patients carrying rs2736108 GG genotypes. TCGA data revealed that early NSCLC patients with higher expression level of TERT mRNA in lung tumor tissues had a longer MST and decreased death risk than those with low expression level of TERT mRNA [MST=54.4 vs 49.0 months; log-rank P=0.041; adjusted HR (95% CI)=0.68(0.50-0.94)]. These findings may add potential evidence to understand the prognostic value of TERT and provide a new prospect of individualized prevention and treatment for early stage NSCLC.

  2. Relationship Between Preoperative Sarcopenia Status and Immuno-nutritional Parameters in Patients with Early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Fumihiro; Matsubara, Taichi; Kozuma, Yuka; Haratake, Naoki; Akamine, Takaki; Takamori, Shinkichi; Katsura, Masakazu; Toyokawa, Gouji; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-12-01

    Although the skeletal muscle in the region of the third lumbar vertebra (L3) is generally assessed in order to judge sarcopenia, not every patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoes computed tomography including the L3 region. We hypothesized that immuno-nutritional parameters could predict the existence of sarcopenia in patients with NSCLC. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the correlation between preoperative sarcopenia and immuno-nutritional parameters in patients with early-stage NSCLC. We selected 147 of patients with pathological stage I NSCLC who underwent preoperative measurement of immuno-nutritional parameters and CT including the L3 region. Preoperative sarcopenia was significantly associated with female gender (p=0.0003) and poor prognosis (p=0.0322). In Kaplan-Meier analysis of overall survival (OS) by preoperative sarcopenia status, the sarcopenic group had significantly shorter OS than the non-sarcopenic group (5-year OS: 87.27% vs. 77.37%, p=0.0131, log-rank test). In multivariate analysis, the preoperative sarcopenia status (hazard ratio=5.138; 95% confidence interval=2.305-11.676; psarcopenia status was significantly related to controlling nutritional status score (p=0.0071) and Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) (psarcopenia status and GNRI (r=0.348, psarcopenia which was associated with poor outcome in patients with early-stage NSCLC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Early-Stage and Oligometastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Evidence for Changing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahele, Max

    2011-01-01

    A compelling body of non-randomized evidence has established stereotactic ablative lung radiotherapy (SABR) as a standard of care for medically inoperable patients with peripheral early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This convenient outpatient therapy, which is typically delivered in 3-8 fractions, is also well tolerated by elderly and frail patients, makes efficient use of resources and is feasible using standard commercial equipment. The introduction of lung SABR into large populations has led to an increased utilization of radiotherapy, a reduction in the proportion of untreated patients and an increase in overall survival. In selected patients, the same ablative technology can now achieve durable local control of NSCLC metastases in a variety of common locations including the adrenal glands, bone, brain, and liver. At the same time as this, advances in prognostic molecular markers and targeted systemic therapies mean that there is now a subgroup of patients with stage IV NSCLC and a median survival of around 2 years. This creates opportunities for new trials that incorporate SABR and patient-specific systemic strategies. This selective mini-review focuses on the emerging role of SABR in patients with early-stage and oligometastatic NSCLC. PMID:21811422

  4. Early stages of Ostwald ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A

    2013-07-01

    The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

  5. Overall Survival Following Thoracoscopic vs Open Lobectomy for Early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaji, Masatsugu; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Burt, Bryan M

    2017-01-01

    A majority of observational studies on overall survival following thoracoscopic vs open lobectomy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer did not demonstrate a significant difference, whereas several meta-analyses on this topic showed a significant difference. The PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were queried for studies published in the English language. We searched for meta-analyses and original studies comparing overall survival between thoracoscopic and open lobectomy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Our meta-analysis, using random effect models and with a hazard ratio as a measure of effect, was performed on original studies. Publication bias was evaluated with funnel plots of precision and the Egger test. Seven meta-analyses on this topic were found and all of them have shown that thoracoscopic lobectomy is associated with significantly more favorable overall survival than open lobectomy, using odds ratio, risk ratio, or risk difference as measures of effect. Our meta-analysis of 11 observational studies demonstrated no significant difference in overall survival between thoracoscopic (n = 2386) and open lobectomy (n = 3494) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (pooled hazard ratio: 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.76-1.09, P = 0.30). Neither funnel plots of precision nor the Egger test suggested a publication bias. Our meta-analysis, using a hazard ratio as a measure of effect for a time-to-event outcome, did not demonstrate a significant difference in overall survival between thoracoscopic and open lobectomy with the current dataset available in the literature, as opposed to previous meta-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Myeloid clusters are associated with a pro-metastatic environment and poor prognosis in smoking-related early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the role of myeloid cell clusters in uninvolved regional lymph nodes from early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients.Uninvolved regional lymph node sections from 67 patients with stage I-III resected non-small cell lung cancer were immunostained to detect myeloid clusters, STAT3 activity and occult metastasis. Anthracosis intensity, myeloid cluster infiltration associated with anthracosis and pSTAT3 level were scored and correlated with patient survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with prognostic variables. Human macrophages were used for in vitro nicotine treatment.CD68+ myeloid clusters associated with anthracosis and with an immunosuppressive and metastasis-promoting phenotype and elevated overall STAT3 activity were observed in uninvolved lymph nodes. In patients with a smoking history, myeloid cluster score significantly correlated with anthracosis intensity and pSTAT3 level (P<0.01. Nicotine activated STAT3 in macrophages in long-term culture. CD68+ myeloid clusters correlated and colocalized with occult metastasis. Myeloid cluster score was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.049 and was associated with survival by Kaplan-Maier estimate in patients with a history of smoking (P = 0.055. The combination of myeloid cluster score with either lymph node stage or pSTAT3 level defined two populations with a significant difference in survival (P = 0.024 and P = 0.004, respectively.Myeloid clusters facilitate a pro-metastatic microenvironment in uninvolved regional lymph nodes and associate with occult metastasis in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Myeloid cluster score is an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with a history of smoking, and may present a novel method to inform therapy choices in the adjuvant setting. Further validation studies are warranted.

  7. High-dose-rate Three-dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Combined with Active Breathing Control for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Early-stage Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruozheng; Yin, Yong; Qin, Yonghui; Yu, Jinming

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of using high-dose-rate three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) combined with active breathing control (ABC) for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eight patients with early-stage NSCLC underwent CT scans under standard free-breathing (FB) and moderately deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) with ABC. Two high-dose-rate 3D-CRT plans (1000 Mu/min) were designed based on the CT scans with FB and mDIBH. The maximal dose (D1%), minimal dose (D99%), conformity index (CI), and homogeneity index (HI) of the planning target volume (PTV), and dose-volume indices of the organs at risk between each plan were compared. The mean PTV volume decreased from 158.04 cm(3) with FB to 76.90 cm(3) with mDIBH (p < 0.05). When mDIBH was used, increases in the affected lung volume (by 47%), contralateral lung volume (by 55%), and total lung volume (by 50%) were observed compared to FB (p < 0.05). The V5-V40 of the affected lung (Vx represented the percentage volume of organs receiving at least the x Gy), V5-V40 and the mean dose for the total lung, V5-V40 and mean dose of the chest wall, and the maximum dose of the spinal cord were less for mDIBH than FB (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in CI, HI, D1%, or D99% for the PTV between the plans. In conclusion, high-dose-rate 3D-CRT combined with ABC reduced the radiation dose to the lungs and chest wall without affecting the dose distribution in SBRT of early-stage NSCLC patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: Executive Summary of an ASTRO Evidence-Based Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videtic, Gregory M M; Donington, Jessica; Giuliani, Meredith; Heinzerling, John; Karas, Tomer Z; Kelsey, Chris R; Lally, Brian E; Latzka, Karen; Lo, Simon S; Moghanaki, Drew; Movsas, Benjamin; Rimner, Andreas; Roach, Michael; Rodrigues, George; Shirvani, Shervin M; Simone, Charles B; Timmerman, Robert; Daly, Megan E

    This guideline presents evidence-based recommendations for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in challenging clinical scenarios in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The American Society for Radiation Oncology convened a task force to perform a systematic literature review on 4 key questions addressing: (1) application of SBRT to operable patients; (2) appropriate use of SBRT in tumors that are centrally located, large, multifocal, or unbiopsied; (3) individual tailoring of SBRT in "high-risk" clinical scenarios; and (4) SBRT as salvage therapy after recurrence. Guideline recommendations were created using a predefined consensus-building methodology supported by American Society for Radiation Oncology-approved tools for grading evidence quality and recommendation strength. Although few randomized trials have been completed for SBRT, strong consensus recommendations based on extensive, consistent publications were generated for several questions, including recommendations for fractionation for central tumors and surgery versus SBRT in standard-risk medically operable patients with early-stage NSCLC. Lower quality evidence led to conditional recommendations on use of SBRT for tumors >5 cm, patients with prior pneumonectomy, T3 tumors with chest wall invasion, synchronous multiple primary lung cancer, and as a salvage therapy after prior radiation therapy. These areas of moderate- and low-quality evidence highlight the importance of clinical trial enrollment as well as the role of prospective data registries. SBRT has an important role to play in treating early-stage NSCLC, particularly for medically inoperable patients with limited other treatment options. Shared decision-making with patients should be performed in all cases to ensure the patient understands the risks related to SBRT, the side effects, and the alternative treatments available. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Early-stage mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabaja, B S; Zelenetz, A D; Ng, A K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) rarely presents as early-stage disease, but clinical observations suggest that patients who present with early-stage disease may have better outcomes than those with advanced-stage disease. Patients and methods: In this 13-institution study, we examined...

  10. Clinical Analysis of stereotactic body radiation therapy using extracranial gamma knife for patients with mainly bulky inoperable early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Hanjun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the clinical efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT using extracranial gamma knife in patients with mainly bulky inoperable early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. Materials and methods A total of 43 medically inoperable patients with mainly bulky Stage I/II NSCLC received SBRT using gamma knife were reviewed. The fraction dose and the total dose were determined by the radiation oncologist according to patients' general status, tumor location, tumor size and the relationship between tumor and nearby organ at risk (OAR. The total dose of 34~47.5 Gy was prescribed in 4~12 fractions, 3.5~10 Gy per fraction, one fraction per day or every other day. The therapeutic efficacy and toxicity were evaluated. Results The median follow-up was 22 months (range, 3-102 months. The local tumor response rate was 95.35%, with CR 18.60% (8/43 and PR 76.74% (33/43, respectively. The local control rates at 1, 2, 3, 5 years were 77.54%, 53.02%, 39.77%, and 15.46%, respectively, while the 1- and 2-year local control rates were 75% and 60% for tumor ≤3 cm; 84% and 71% for tumor sized 3~5 cm; 55% and 14.6% for tumor sized 5~7 cm; and 45%, 21% in those with tumor size of >7 cm. The overall survival rate at 1, 2, 3, 5 years were 92.04%, 78.04%, 62.76%, 42.61%, respectively. The toxicity of stereotactic radiation therapy was grade 1-2. Clinical stages were significantly important factor in local control of lung tumors (P = 0.000. Both clinical stages (P = 0.015 and chemotherapy (P = 0.042 were significantly important factors in overall survival of lung tumors. Conclusion SBRT is an effective and safe therapy for medically inoperable patients with early stage NSCLC. Clinical stage was the significant prognostic factors for both local tumor control and overall survival. The toxicity is mild. The overall local control for bulky tumors is poor. Tumor size is a poor prognostic factor, and the patients for

  11. Non-destructive phenotypic analysis of early stage tree seedling growth using an automated stereovision imaging method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Montagnoli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A plant phenotyping approach was applied to evaluate growth rate of containerized tree seedlings during the precultivation phase following seed germination. A simple and affordable stereo optical system was used to collect stereoscopic RGB images of seedlings at regular intervals of time. Comparative analysis of these images by means of a newly developed software enabled us to calculate a the increments of seedlings height and b the percentage greenness of seedling leaves. Comparison of these parameters with destructive biomass measurements showed that the height traits can be used to estimate seedling growth for needle-leaved plant species whereas the greenness trait can be used for broad-leaved plant species. Despite the need to adjust for plant type, growth stage and light conditions this new, cheap, rapid, and sustainable phenotyping approach can be used to study large-scale phenome variations due to genome variability and interaction with environmental factors.

  12. Non-destructive Phenotypic Analysis of Early Stage Tree Seedling Growth Using an Automated Stereovision Imaging Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnoli, Antonio; Terzaghi, Mattia; Fulgaro, Nicoletta; Stoew, Borys; Wipenmyr, Jan; Ilver, Dag; Rusu, Cristina; Scippa, Gabriella S; Chiatante, Donato

    2016-01-01

    A plant phenotyping approach was applied to evaluate growth rate of containerized tree seedlings during the precultivation phase following seed germination. A simple and affordable stereo optical system was used to collect stereoscopic red-green-blue (RGB) images of seedlings at regular intervals of time. Comparative analysis of these images by means of a newly developed software enabled us to calculate (a) the increments of seedlings height and (b) the percentage greenness of seedling leaves. Comparison of these parameters with destructive biomass measurements showed that the height traits can be used to estimate seedling growth for needle-leaved plant species whereas the greenness trait can be used for broad-leaved plant species. Despite the need to adjust for plant type, growth stage and light conditions this new, cheap, rapid, and sustainable phenotyping approach can be used to study large-scale phenome variations due to genome variability and interaction with environmental factors.

  13. Lack of a Dose-Effect Relationship for Pulmonary Function Changes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guckenberger, Matthias, E-mail: Guckenberger_M@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Klement, Rainer J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kestin, Larry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Hope, Andrew J. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Belderbos, Jose [The Netherlands Cancer Institute–Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Yan, Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Sonke, Jan-Jakob [The Netherlands Cancer Institute–Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Xiao, Ying [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grills, Inga S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of tumor size, prescription dose, and dose to the lungs on posttreatment pulmonary function test (PFT) changes after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: The analysis is based on 191 patients treated at 5 international institutions: inclusion criteria were availability of pre- and post-SBRT PFTs and dose-volume histograms of the lung and planning target volume (PTV); patients treated with more than 1 SBRT course were excluded. Correlation between early (1-6 months, median 3 months) and late (7-24 months, median 12 months) PFT changes and tumor size, planning target volume (PTV) dose, and lung doses was assessed using linear regression analysis, receiver operating characteristics analysis, and Lyman's normal tissue complication probability model. The PTV doses were converted to biologically effective doses and lung doses to 2 Gy equivalent doses before correlation analyses. Results: Up to 6 months after SBRT, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity changed by −1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], −3.4% to 0) and −7.6% (95% CI, −10.2% to −3.4%) compared with pretreatment values, respectively. A modest decrease in PFTs was observed 7-24 months after SBRT, with changes of −8.1% (95% CI, −13.3% to −5.3%) and −12.4% (95% CI, −15.5% to −6.9%), respectively. Using linear regression analysis, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and normal tissue complication probability modeling, all evaluated parameters of tumor size, PTV dose, mean lung dose, and absolute and relative volumes of the lung exposed to minimum doses of 5-70 Gy were not correlated with early and late PFT changes. Subgroup analysis based on pre-SBRT PFTs (greater or equal and less than median) did not identify any dose-effect relationship. Conclusions: This study failed to demonstrate a significant dose-effect relationship for

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma: early-stage management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erstad DJ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Derek J Erstad,1 Kenneth K Tanabe2–4 1Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, 3Division of Surgical Oncology, 4Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a major cause of cancer death and is increasing in incidence. This review focuses on HCC surveillance and treatment of early-stage disease, which are essential to improving outcomes. Multiple societies have published HCC surveillance guidelines, but screening efforts have been limited by noncompliance and overall lack of testing for patients with undiagnosed chronic liver disease. Treatment of early-stage HCC has become increasingly complex due to expanding therapeutic options and better outcomes with established treatments. Surgical indications for HCC have broadened with improved preoperative liver testing, neoadjuvant therapy, portal vein embolization, and perioperative care. Advances in post-procedural monitoring have improved efficacies of transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation, and novel therapies involving delivery of radiochemicals are being studied in small trials. Finally, advances in liver transplantation have allowed for expanded indications beyond Milan criteria with non-inferior outcomes. More clinical trials evaluating new therapies and multimodal regimens are necessary to help clinicians design better treatment algorithms and improve outcomes. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis, surveillance, Barcelona clinic liver cancer, staging, cirrhosis, hepatectomy, hepatic resection, locoregional therapy, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, liver transplantation

  15. Detection of ubiquitous and heterogeneous mutations in cell-free DNA from patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal-Hanjani, M; Wilson, G A; Horswell, S; Mitter, R; Sakarya, O; Constantin, T; Salari, R; Kirkizlar, E; Sigurjonsson, S; Pelham, R; Kareht, S; Zimmermann, B; Swanton, C

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether both ubiquitous and heterogeneous somatic mutations could be detected in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Three stage I and one stage II primary NSCLC tumors were subjected to multiregion whole-exome sequencing (WES) and validated with AmpliSeq. A subset of ubiquitous and heterogeneous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) were chosen. Multiplexed PCR using custom-designed primers, coupled with next-generation sequencing (mPCR-NGS), was used to detect these SNVs in both tumor DNA and cfDNA isolated from plasma obtained before surgical resection of the tumors. The limit of detection for each assay was determined using cfDNA from 48 presumed-normal healthy volunteers. Tumor DNA and plasma-derived cfDNA was successfully amplified and sequenced for 37/50 (74%) SNVs using the mPCR-NGS method. Twenty-five (68%) were ubiquitous and 12 (32%) were heterogeneous SNVs. Variant detection by mPCR-NGS and WES-AmpliSeq in tumor tissue was well correlated (R(2) = 0.8722, P ubiquitous SNVs with a variant allele frequency (VAF) range of 0.15-23.25%, and four of these were heterogeneous SNVs with a VAF range of 0.28-1.71%. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the VAFs for tumor and cfDNA (R(2) = 0.5144; P = 0.0018). For all four patients, at least two variants were detected in plasma. The estimated number of copies of variant DNA present in each sample ranged from 5 to 524. The average number of variant copies required for detection (VCRD) was 3.16 (range: 0.2-7.6 copies). The mPCR-NGS method revealed intratumor heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC tumors, and was able to detect both ubiquitous and heterogeneous SNVs in cfDNA. Further validation of mPCR-NGS in cfDNA is required to define its potential use in clinical practice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved

  16. No Clinically Significant Changes in Pulmonary Function Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early- Stage Peripheral Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Analysis of RTOG 0236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, Sinisa, E-mail: sinisa.stanic@carle.com [Carle Cancer Center and University of Illinois College of Medicine, Urbana, Illinois (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Timmerman, Robert D. [University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Barriger, Robert B. [Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Bezjak, Andrea [Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate pulmonary function test (PFT) results and arterial blood gas changes (complete PFT) following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and to see whether baseline PFT correlates with lung toxicity and overall survival in medically inoperable patients receiving SBRT for early stage, peripheral, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: During the 2-year follow-up, PFT data were collected for patients with T1-T2N0M0 peripheral NSCLC who received effectively 18 Gy × 3 in a phase 2 North American multicenter study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] protocol 0236). Pulmonary toxicity was graded by using the RTOG SBRT pulmonary toxicity scale. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test, logistic regression model, and Kaplan-Meier method were used for statistical analysis. Results: At 2 years, mean percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide declines were 5.8% and 6.3%, respectively, with minimal changes in arterial blood gases and no significant decline in oxygen saturation. Baseline PFT was not predictive of any pulmonary toxicity following SBRT. Whole-lung V5 (the percentage of normal lung tissue receiving 5 Gy), V10, V20, and mean dose to the whole lung were almost identical between patients who developed pneumonitis and patients who were pneumonitis-free. Poor baseline PFT did not predict decreased overall survival. Patients with poor baseline PFT as the reason for medical inoperability had higher median and overall survival rates than patients with normal baseline PFT values but with cardiac morbidity. Conclusions: Poor baseline PFT did not appear to predict pulmonary toxicity or decreased overall survival after SBRT in this medically inoperable population. Poor baseline PFT alone should not be used to exclude patients with early stage lung cancer from treatment with SBRT.

  17. A Panel of Genetic Polymorphism for the Prediction of Prognosis in Patients with Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer after Surgical Resection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yup Lee

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate whether a panel of eight genetic polymorphisms can predict the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC after surgical resection.We selected eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs which have been associated with the prognosis of lung cancer patients after surgery in our previous studies. A total of 814 patients with early stage NSCLC who underwent curative surgical resection were enrolled. The association of the eight SNPs with overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS was analyzed.The eight SNPs (CD3EAP rs967591, TNFRSF10B rs1047266, AKT1 rs3803300, C3 rs2287845, HOMER2 rs1256428, GNB2L1 rs3756585, ADAMTSL3 rs11259927, and CD3D rs3181259 were significantly associated with OS and/or DFS. Combining those eight SNPs, we designed a prognostic index to predict the prognosis of patients. According to relative risk of death, a score value was assigned to each genotype of the SNPs. A worse prognosis corresponded to a higher score value, and the sum of score values of eight SNPs defined the prognostic index of a patient. When we categorized the patients into two groups based on the prognostic index, high risk group was significantly associated with worse OS and DFS compared to low risk group (aHR for OS = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.69-2.88, P = 8.0 x 10-9, and aHR for DFS = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.29-1.94, P = 1.0 x 10-5.Prognostic index using eight genetic polymorphisms may be useful for the prognostication of patients with surgically resected NSCLC.

  18. Dislocation generation during early stage sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J. E.; Lenel, F. V.; Ansell, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of capillarity-induced stresses on dislocations during early stage sintering. A special version of Hirth's (1963) theoretical calculation procedures modified to describe dislocation nucleation on planes meeting the sintering body's neck surface obliquely is shown to predict plastic flow at stress levels know to exist between micron size metal particles in the early stages of sintering.

  19. [Cryopreservation of early human embryo stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vökler, T; Fliess, F R

    1988-01-01

    A short review of freezing procedures applied to early human embryos is given. It is noted that human embryos survived freezing and thawing at a developmental stage of 1. cell to blastocyst. But it seems to be necessary to use for any developmental stage of early embryo a special freezing and thawing method. Embryo survival is correlated with their morphologic features where as neither age of embryos nor developmental stage were involved in freezing and thawing ability.

  20. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC....

  1. Measuring ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting early-stage type 2 diabetes: A step toward personalized medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, M.; Wijk, E. van; Koval, S.; Wijk, R. van; He, M.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to reach 4.4% by 2030, placing a significant burden on our healthcare system. Therefore, the ability to identify patients in early stages of the disease is essential for both prevention and effective management, and diagnostic methods based on

  2. Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Quantitative Imaging Characteristics of (18)F Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT Allow Prediction of Distant Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Aguilera, Todd; Shultz, David; Gudur, Madhu; Rubin, Daniel L; Loo, Billy W; Diehn, Maximilian; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To identify quantitative imaging biomarkers at fluorine 18 ((18)F) positron emission tomography (PET) for predicting distant metastasis in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, the pretreatment (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose PET images in 101 patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy from 2005 to 2013 were analyzed. Data for 70 patients who were treated before 2011 were used for discovery purposes, while data from the remaining 31 patients were used for independent validation. Quantitative PET imaging characteristics including statistical, histogram-related, morphologic, and texture features were analyzed, from which 35 nonredundant and robust features were further evaluated. Cox proportional hazards regression model coupled with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator was used to predict distant metastasis. Whether histologic type provided complementary value to imaging by combining both in a single prognostic model was also assessed. Results The optimal prognostic model included two image features that allowed quantification of intratumor heterogeneity and peak standardized uptake value. In the independent validation cohort, this model showed a concordance index of 0.71, which was higher than those of the maximum standardized uptake value and tumor volume, with concordance indexes of 0.67 and 0.64, respectively. The prognostic model also allowed separation of groups with low and high risk for developing distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 4.8; P = .0498, log-rank test), which compared favorably with maximum standardized uptake value and tumor volume (hazard ratio, 1.5 and 2.0, respectively; P = .73 and 0.54, log-rank test, respectively). When combined with histologic types, the prognostic power was further improved (hazard ratio, 6.9; P = .0289, log-rank test; and concordance index, 0.80). Conclusion PET

  3. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2013-10-08

    The unique expression pattern and immunogenic properties of cancer/testis antigens make them ideal targets for immunotherapy of cancer. The MAGE-A3 cancer/testis antigen is frequently expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and vaccination with MAGE-A3 in patients with MAGE-A3-positive NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC. Tumor biopsies from normal lung tissue and from a large cohort (n = 169) of NSCLC patients were examined for GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of these antigens was further matched to clinical and pathological features using univariate cox regression analysis. GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigens were not expressed in normal lung tissue, while SP17 was expressed in ciliated lung epithelia. The frequency of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 expression in NSCLC tumors were 26.0% (44/169), 11.8% (20/169) and 4.7% (8/169), respectively, and 33.1% (56/169) of the tumors expressed at least one of these antigens. In general, the expression of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was not significantly associated with a specific histotype (adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma), but high-level GAGE expression (>50%) was more frequent in squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.02). Furthermore, the frequency of GAGE expression was demonstrated to be significantly higher in stage II-IIIa than stage I NSCLC (17.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.02). Analysis of the relation between tumor expression of GAGE and NY-ESO-1 and survival endpoints revealed no significant associations. Our study demonstrates that GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigens are candidate targets for immunotherapy of NSCLC and further suggest that multi-antigen vaccines may be beneficial.

  4. Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Lyng, Maria Bibi; Binder, Harald

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are currently no highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for detection of early-stage breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in the circulation and may be unique biomarkers for early diagnosis of human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate......RNA signature to stratify samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls was confirmed in the validation set (p = 0.012) with a corresponding AUC = 0.665 in the ROC-curve analysis. No association between miRNA expression and tumor grade, tumor size, menopausal- or lymph node status was observed....... The signature was also successfully validated in a previously published independent data set of circulating miRNAs in early-stage breast cancer (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: We present herein a 9 miRNA signature capable of discriminating between ER-positive breast cancer and healthy controls. Using a specific...

  5. Validation of High-Risk Computed Tomography Features for Detection of Local Recurrence After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peulen, Heike [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mantel, Frederick [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Guckenberger, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Belderbos, José [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hope, Andrew; Giuliani, Meredith [Department of Radiation Oncology University of Toronto and Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Grills, Inga [Department of Radiation Oncology Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Fibrotic changes after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are difficult to distinguish from local recurrences (LR), hampering proper patient selection for salvage therapy. This study validates previously reported high-risk computed tomography (CT) features (HRFs) for detection of LR in an independent patient cohort. Methods and Materials: From a multicenter database, 13 patients with biopsy-proven LR were matched 1:2 to 26 non-LR control patients based on dose, planning target volume (PTV), follow-up time, and lung lobe. Tested HRFs were enlarging opacity, sequential enlarging opacity, enlarging opacity after 12 months, bulging margin, linear margin disappearance, loss of air bronchogram, and craniocaudal growth. Additionally, 2 new features were analyzed: the occurrence of new unilateral pleural effusion, and growth based on relative volume, assessed by manual delineation. Results: All HRFs were significantly associated with LR except for loss of air bronchogram. The best performing HRFs were bulging margin, linear margin disappearance, and craniocaudal growth. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the number of HRFs to detect LR had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-1.0), which was identical to the performance described in the original report. The best compromise (closest to 100% sensitivity and specificity) was found at ≥4 HRFs, with a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 85%. A model consisting of only 2 HRFs, bulging margin and craniocaudal growth, resulted in a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 100%, with an AUC of 0.96 (95% CI 0.9-1.0) (HRFs ≥2). Pleural effusion and relative growth did not significantly improve the model. Conclusion: We successfully validated CT-based HRFs for detection of LR after SBRT for early-stage NSCLC. As an alternative to number of HRFs, we propose a simplified model with the combination of the 2 best HRFs

  6. Analysis of middle- and long-term efficacy of thoracoscope-assisted segmental resection of the lung on non-small cell lung cancer in the early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Zhou, Ning; Li, Qinglin; Ren, Guangming; Zhou, Min

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the short- and long-term efficacy of thoracoscope-assisted segmental resection of lung of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We selected a total of 94 patients with lung cancer in the early stage who were admitted to The First People's Hospital of Xuzhou for treatment between March 2011 and February 2012. Patients were divided randomly into either the control group (n=47) or the observation group (n=47). In the observation group, patients received thoracoscope-assisted segmental resection of lung, while in the control group, the conventional thoracic surgery was performed for treatment. After surgeries, we observed the incidence rate of complications among the two groups, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adopted to detect levels of inflammatory factors. We also compared the cardiac and pulmonary functions, the levels of immunoglobulins and subgroups of T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of the patients. In addition, all patients attended a 5-year follow-up to determine the recurrence and survival rate. Compared to the control group, patients in the observation group had significantly less intra-operative bleeding volume, a shorter duration of surgery, and suffered slighter pain after surgery (P<0.05). After surgery, the incidence rate of complications in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). After surgeries, patients in both groups experienced a remarkable improvement in cardiac and pulmonary functions, and the improvement in the observation group was superior to that of the control group (P<0.05). During the 5-year follow-up, the survival rate of the observation group is significantly higher than that in thecontrol group, and patients in the observation group experienced a lower recurrence rate than those in the control group (P<0.05). Thus, thoracoscope-assisted segmental resection of lung is of great significance in clinical practice.

  7. Measuring ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting early-stage type 2 diabetes: A step toward personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengmeng; Van Wijk, Eduard; Koval, Slavik; Van Wijk, Roeland; He, Min; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to reach 4.4% by 2030, placing a significant burden on our healthcare system. Therefore, the ability to identify patients in early stages of the disease is essential for both prevention and effective management, and diagnostic methods based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be suitable for identifying patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes. Here, a panel of three physicians trained in TCM classified 44 pre-diabetic subjects into three syndrome subtypes using TCM-based diagnostics. In addition, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was measured at four anatomical sites in each subject. Ten properties encompassing 40 parameters were then extracted from the UPE time series. Statistical analyses, including multinomial logistic regression, were performed using the results of each parameter measured at the four sites. Sixteen UPE parameters were then selected and used to discriminate between the three subtypes of pre-diabetic subjects. Next, Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to quantify the correlation between the 16 UPE parameters and the TCM-based diagnoses. The resulting correlation networks accurately reflected the differences between the three syndrome subtypes. These results suggest that UPE is a suitable tool for detecting subtypes in early-stage type 2 diabetes. In addition, our results provide evidence that TCM may represent an important step toward personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Keratin 34betaE12/keratin7 expression is a prognostic factor of cancer-specific and overall survival in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen Ege; Holst, Rene

    2016-01-01

    proliferation, migration, and possibly cancer invasion, factors impacting prognosis in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tumor tissue from a retrospective Danish cohort of 177 patients with completely resected NSCLC, stage I-IIIA tumors, were analyzed for keratin 7 (K7......: Keratin 34βE12/K7 expression is a prognostic parameter in resected early stage NSCLC that allows identification of high-risk NSCLC patients with poor cancer-specific and overall survival.......) and keratin 34βE12 expression by immunohistochemistry and validated in a comparable independent Norwegian cohort of 276 stage I-IIIA NSCLC patients. RESULTS: Based on keratin 34βE12/K7 expression, three subgroups with significantly different median cancer-specific survival rates were identified (34βE12+/K7...

  9. Early stage malignant phyllodes tumor case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, Thao; Leigh, Emilia C N; Barry, Rahman; Traylor, Jack R; Legenza, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast is an extremely rare entity usually presenting with similar clinical features with those of benign fibroadenoma. Due to its scarcity and clinical presentation, it is quite difficult for clinicians to suspect and diagnose the disease at its early stage. There is currently no consensus regarding adjunctive radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and systemic chemotherapy recommended for malignant phyllodes tumors. This report presents a case of early-stage malignant phyllodes tumor treated by lumpectomy only without adjunctive chemoradiation therapy, but with an excellent outcome. Early diagnosis and staging with high suspicion are crucial in malignant phyllodes tumor patients since they do not only improve the overall outcome of the disease after lumpectomy only but they also decrease morbidity and mortality with adjunctive chemoradiation therapy. This case report has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria (Agha et al., 2016 [1]). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. [Surgical management for early stage gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K; Möller, D; Bernhardt, J

    2017-10-26

    In the last decade the implementation of the new technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and the rapid progression of laparoscopic gastric cancer (LAG) resection with an adequate lymphadenectomy (LAD) have played an increasing role in the treatment of patients with early stage gastric cancer (EGC). A systematic review of the currently available data in the literature was carried out to evaluate the contemporary surgical management for treatment of EGC. Endoscopic resection (ER) of mucosal T1 gastric cancer (T1m) in accordance with the German guidelines on resection criteria is a widely accepted treatment option, if a definitive R0 resection can be achieved. Excellent en bloc and R0 results in more than 90% of these cases have been shown particularly for ESD. In contrast to T1m gastric carcinomas with a low risk of lymph node metastases (approximately 3%), nodal involvement reaches more than 20% for submucosal infiltrated EGC (T1sm). For this reason, a surgical resection with adequate LAD is further recommended in all cases of non-curative ER or any T1sm gastric cancer. In seven randomized controlled trials and a series of meta-analyses including high-quality non-randomized trials, significant benefits in short-term postoperative outcome have been demonstrated for LAG in comparison to open gastrectomy (OG) in the treatment of EGC. The general morbidity was also significantly lower in LAG than in OG. The 30-day mortality and long-term survival outcome were comparable between the two groups. The use of ESD should be the standard treatment for T1m EGC within the guidelines criteria. For non-curative ESD and T1sm gastric cancer, surgical resection with LAD is recommended. The LAG is a technically safe, feasible, and favorable approach in terms of faster recovery compared to OG. The long-term survival outcome is comparable between LAG and OG for EGC.

  11. [Treatment of early stage Hodgkin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.

    1993-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment is still an unresolved issue. Twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out world-wide. The preliminary results of a global meta-analysis of these trials...... a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against early chemotherapy is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may be kept at a minimum. Recently, trials have been carried out...... indicate that we still do not definitively know whether or not the early addition of prophylactic chemotherapy improves survival. Arguments in favour of early chemotherapy are: that laparotomy may be avoided, that radiation fields and doses may perhaps be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing...

  12. [Treatment of early stage Hodgkin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.

    1993-01-01

    indicate that we still do not definitively know whether or not the early addition of prophylactic chemotherapy improves survival. Arguments in favour of early chemotherapy are: that laparotomy may be avoided, that radiation fields and doses may perhaps be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing......In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment is still an unresolved issue. Twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out world-wide. The preliminary results of a global meta-analysis of these trials...... a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against early chemotherapy is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may be kept at a minimum. Recently, trials have been carried out...

  13. [Chemoradiotherapy in early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farha, Georges; Nasr, Elie; Ghosn, Marwan; Nasr, Dolly Nehmé; Nasr, Fadi; Kattan, Joseph; Azoury, Fares; Aftimos, Philippe; Chahine, Georges

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the response to and toxicities of chemo-radiotherapy (CT-RT) in patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma treated in our institution. Retrospective study of 42 patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma treated between 2002 and 2007. The age of patients ranges from 11 to 57 with a mean of 30.7 years; the sex-ratio is 0.8 (19 males and 23 females). There are 33 cases of nodular-sclerosing Hodgkin lymphoma, 6 of mixed cellularity, one lymphocyte-rich, one interfollicular and one granulomatous. As for the stages, 31 Hodgkin lymphomas are stage IIA, 6 stage IA, 3 bulky and 2 stage IAe. The ABVD protocol was given to 38 patients, the VBVP to 3 patients and the ABV to one patient. IFRT was used with dose ranging from 19.8 to 39.6 Gy. The acute toxicity of chemotherapy was hematologic only, grade 1 anemia accounting for 11.1% and grade 2 anemia for 14.8%, grade 1 leukopenia for 51.8%, grade 2 leukopenia for 333% and grade 3 leukopenia for 14.8%. Dysphagia, radiodermitis and radiomucositis were seen after radiotherapy, accounting for 16.5%, 4.6% and 9.1% respectively. No long-term toxicity of the combined therapy was found. During the follow-up period, one relapse occurred and no death was reported. The overall survival (OS), the disease free survival (DFS) and the toxicities of the combined therapy CT-RT of the patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma stage IA and IIA treated in our institution were similar to those seen in the literature.

  14. Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, A.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable malignancies today. This is particularly true for patients with early-stage disease. Today, most patients in this risk group are treated with a combination of chemotherapy followed by small-field radiotherapy. More recent clinical trials such

  15. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Carde, P; Mauch, P

    1992-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a global...... be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against the use of chemotherapy up front is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may...

  16. Plasma miR-145, miR-20a, miR-21 and miR-223 as novel biomarkers for screening early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Mao, Feng; Shen, Tuyang; Luo, Qingquan; Ding, Zhengping; Qian, Liqiang; Huang, Jia

    2017-02-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Late diagnosis is one of the most significant reasons for the high mortality rate of lung cancer. The identification of microRNAs (miRNAs) has opened a new field for molecular diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether plasma miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for early-stage NSCLC. A total of 232 participants, including 149 NSCLC patients and 83 healthy controls, were recruited between July 2012 and May 2014. We measured the levels of 10 miRNAs (miR-30d, miR-383, miR-20a, miR-145, miR-221, miR-25, miR-223, miR-21, miR-126 and miR-210) in plasma samples of 40 individuals (20 patients and 20 matched healthy controls) at the point of identification of disease, and 129 NSCLC patients and 83 healthy controls at the validation stage using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were generated for each possible combination of the miRNAs. We observed that the expression of plasma miR-145, miR-20a, miR-21 and miR-223 was significantly increased in the early-stage NSCLC samples compared with controls. miRNAs have significant diagnostic value for early-stage NSCLC. Combined ROC analyses using these four miRNAs revealed an elevated area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.897, with a sensitivity and specificity of 81.8 and 90.1%, respectively. This AUC helped in distinguishing early-stage NSCLC. Furthermore, the levels of the four plasma miRNAs were significantly decreased following surgery (Pearly-stage NSCLC.

  17. Pretreatment Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score Predicts Clinical Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Takahiro; Matsuo, Yukinori, E-mail: ymatsuo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ueki, Nami; Iizuka, Yusuke; Nakamura, Akira; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Data from 165 patients who underwent SBRT for stage I NSCLC with histologic confirmation from January 1999 to September 2010 were collected retrospectively. Factors, including age, performance status, histology, Charlson comorbidity index, mGPS, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class based on sex and T stage, were evaluated with regard to overall survival (OS) using the Cox proportional hazards model. The impact of the mGPS on cause of death and failure patterns was also analyzed. Results: The 3-year OS was 57.9%, with a median follow-up time of 3.5 years. A higher mGPS correlated significantly with poor OS (P<.001). The 3-year OS of lower mGPS patients was 66.4%, whereas that of higher mGPS patients was 44.5%. On multivariate analysis, mGPS and RPA class were significant factors for OS. A higher mGPS correlated significantly with lung cancer death (P=.019) and distant metastasis (P=.013). Conclusions: The mGPS was a significant predictor of clinical outcomes for SBRT in NSCLC patients.

  18. A window of opportunity study of potential tumor and soluble biomarkers of response to preoperative erlotinib in early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, Adrian G; Le, Lisa W; Lara-Guerra, Humberto; Waddell, Thomas K; Sakashita, Shingo; Chen, Zhuo; Kim, Lucia; Zhang, Tong; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Salvarrey, Alexandra; Darling, Gail; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Keshavjee, Shaf; de Perrot, Marc; Shepherd, Frances A; Liu, Geoffrey; Tsao, Ming Sound; Leighl, Natasha B

    2016-05-03

    Erlotinib is highly active in EGFR mutant NSCLC, but may benefit some with wild-type tumors. We examined pre-operative erlotinib in early stage NSCLC to assess response and correlation with potential biomarkers. Twenty-five patients were enrolled; 22 received erlotinib treatment and were evaluable (median follow-up 4.4 years). Histology was predominantly adenocarcinoma although 31% had squamous carcinoma. PET response was observed in 2 patients (9%), both with squamous carcinoma. Most (20/22) had stable disease (RECIST), with frequent minor radiographic regression and histologic findings of fibrosis/necrosis including in squamous histology. Only two had EGFR mutations identified, one with minor radiographic response and the other stable disease after 4 weeks of EGFR TKI. High pre-treatment serum levels of TGF-α correlated with primary resistance to erlotinib (p = 0.02), whereas high post-treatment soluble EGFR levels correlated with response (p = 0.03). EGFR, PTEN, cMET and AXL expression did not correlate with tumor response. Clinical stage IA-IIB NSCLC patients received erlotinib 150 mg daily for 4 weeks followed by resection. Tumor response was assessed using CT, PET and pathological response. Tumor genotype was established using Sequenom Mass ARRAY; EGFR, PTEN, cMET and AXL expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, circulating markers of EGFR activation (TGF-α, amphiregulin, epiregulin, EGFR ECD) by ELISA and EGFR, MET copy number by FISH. Erlotinib appears to demonstrate activity in EGFR wild-type tumors including squamous carcinoma. Further research is needed to characterize those wild-type patients that may benefit from EGFR TKI and predictive biomarkers including TGF-α, EGFR copy and others.

  19. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.

    1992-01-01

    metaanalysis of these trials indicate that we still do not definitively know whether or not the addition of prophylactic chemotherapy up front improves survival. Arguments in favour of the addition of chemotherapy up front are: that laparotomy may be avoided, that radiation fields and doses may perhaps......In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a global...... be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against the use of chemotherapy up front is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may...

  20. TCM tongue diagnosis index of early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lun-Chien; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Yi-Jing; Natsagdorj, Sainbuyan; Chiang, John Y

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates discriminating tongue features to distinguish between early stage breast cancer (BC) patients and non-breast cancer individuals through non-invasive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) tongue diagnosis. The tongue features for 67 patients with 0 and 1 stages of BC, and 70 non-breast cancer individuals are extracted by the automatic tongue diagnosis system (ATDS). A total of nine tongue features, namely, tongue color, tongue quality, tongue fissure, tongue fur, red dot, ecchymosis, tooth mark, saliva, and tongue shape are identified for each tongue. Features extracted are further sub-divided according to the areas located, i.e., spleen-stomach, liver-gall-left, liver-gall-right, kidney, and heart-lung areas. This study focuses on deriving significant tongue features (pearly-stage BC patients from non-breast cancer individuals. The Mann-Whitney test shows that the amount of tongue fur (p=0.024), maximum covering area of tongue fur (p=0.009), thin tongue fur (p=0.009), the average area of red dot (p=0.049), the maximum area of red dot (p=0.009), red dot in the spleen-stomach area (p=0.000), and red dot in the heart-lung area (p=0.000) demonstrate significant differences. The data collected are further classified into two groups. The training group consists of 57 early-stage BC patients and 60 non-breast cancer individuals, while the testing group is composed of 10 early-stage BC patients and 10 non-breast cancer individuals. The logistic regression by utilizing these 7 tongue features with significant differences in Mann-Whitney test as factors is performed. In order to reduce the number of tongue features employed in prediction, tongue features with the least amount of significant difference, namely, maximum area of red dot and average area of red dot, are removed progressively. The tongue features of the testing group are employed in the aforementioned three models to test the power of significant tongue features identified in predicting early-stage

  1. Fertility-sparing surgery for early stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Toyomi; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    Discussion of fertility-sparing treatment is an important part of pretreatment counseling for young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. As a result of late childbearing nowadays, fertility preservation has become a major issue in ovarian cancer patients. The purpose of this review is to update current knowledge on fertility-sparing treatment for early stage epithelial ovarian cancer, which may be useful for pretreatment counseling for reproductive-age patients. The multicenter study data on the fertility-sparing treatment published by Japan Clinical Oncology Group in 2010 confirmed that fertility-sparing surgery is a safe treatment for Stage IA patients with non-clear cell histology and Grade 1 or 2 and suggested that Stage IA patients with clear cell histology and Stage IC patients with non-clear cell histology and Grade 1 or 2 can be candidates for fertility-sparing surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. In the current review, we added the recent case series and review, and discussed the fertility-sparing treatment on young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We need not to change the proposal by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group study, but we should wait for the results of an ongoing prospective study to strongly recommend the proposal of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Osteogenic Potential of Human Non-differentiated and Pre-differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Combined with an Osteoconductive Scaffold – Early Stage Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Tuček

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the huge research into stem cells and their regenerative properties for bone healing, there are still unanswered questions including the recipient’s respond to the presence of the stem cells, the fate of stem cells inside the bone defect and the possible advantage in utilizing pre-differentiated cells. To address these problems, we used human multipotent mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs, GMP Grade, in a rat model of bone formation. In a “bioreactor concept” approach seven Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold seeded with 2 × 106 MSCs, seven Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold seeded with 1 × 106 predifferentiated osteoblasts and 1 × 106 pre-differentiated endothelial cells and 14 Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold without seeded cells into an intramuscular pocket on the left side of their back. The right side of each rat was used as a control, and 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold was implanted into the intramuscular pocket alone. To see the early stage healing the samples were harvested 14 days after the implantation, MSCs were detected by positive DAPI and MTCO2 staining in 43% of all the samples implanted with MSCs, and no inflammation signs were present in any implanted animal. New vessels could be found in both groups implanted with MSCs, but not in the control group of animals. However, hematoxylin-eosin staining could not detect newly created bone within the implant in any of the groups. These results were in line with COLL1 staining, where we could detect positive staining only in three cases, all of which were implanted with un-differentiated MSCs. According to our findings, there were no benefits of using the pre-differentiated of MSC.

  3. Bicalutamide monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The current evidence is considered to support 150 mg of the nonsteroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide for early stage prostate cancer.......The current evidence is considered to support 150 mg of the nonsteroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide for early stage prostate cancer....

  4. Non-native scientists, research dissemination and English neologisms: What happens in the early stages of reception and re-production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Linder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available That the English language is the prevailing language in international scientific discourse is an undeniable fact for research professionals who are non-native speakers of English (NNSE. An exploratory, survey-based study of scientists in the experimental disciplines of neuroscience and medicine seeks to reveal, on the one hand, the habits of scientists who in their research practice come across neologisms in English and need to use them in oral and written scientific discourse in their own languages, and, on the other hand, their attitudes towards these neologisms and towards English as the language of international science. We found that all scientists write and publish their research articles (RAs in English and most submit them unrevised by native speakers of English. When first encountering a neologism in English, scientists tend to pay close attention to these new concepts, ideas or terms and very early in the reception process attempt to coin acceptable, natural-sounding Spanish equivalents for use in the laboratory and in their Spanish texts. In conjunction with the naturalized Spanish term, they often use the English neologism verbatim in a coexistent bilingual form, but they avoid using only the English term and very literal translations. These behaviors show an ambivalent attitude towards English (the language of both new knowledge reception and dissemination of their RAs and Spanish (used for local professional purposes and for popularization: while accepting to write in their acquired non-native language, they simultaneously recognize that their native language needs to preserve its specificity as a language of science.

  5. Management of Early-stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herst, J; Crump, M; Baldassarre, F G; MacEachern, J; Sussman, J; Hodgson, D; Cheung, M C

    2017-01-01

    In the past, treatment for patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma consisted mainly of radiotherapy. Now, chemotherapy alone and chemoradiotherapy are treatment options. These guidelines aim to provide recommendations on the optimal management of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a systematic review searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and other literature sources from 2003 to 2015, and applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Two authors independently reviewed and selected studies, and appraised the evidence quality. The document underwent internal and external review by content, methodology experts, a patient representative and clinicians in Ontario. We have issued recommendations for patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma and with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; with favourable and unfavourable prognosis; and for the use of positron emission tomography to direct treatment. We have provided our interpretation of the evidence and considerations for implementation. Examples of recommendations are: 'Patients with early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma should not be treated with radiotherapy alone'; 'chemotherapy plus radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone are recommended treatment options for patients with early-stage non-bulky Hodgkin lymphoma'; 'The Working Group does not recommend the use of a negative interim positron emission tomography scan alone to identify patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma for whom radiotherapy can be omitted without a reduction in progression-free survival'. Through the use of GRADE, recommendations were geared towards patient important outcomes and their strength reflected the available evidence and its interpretation from the patients' point of view. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early nutritional support in non-metastatic stage IV oral cavity cancer patients undergoing adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy: analysis of treatment tolerance and outcome in an area endemic for betel quid chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Pang, Yi-Ping; Yeh, Kun-Yun

    2012-06-01

    Non-metastatic stage IV oral cavity cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) are at risk of malnutrition because of postoperative eating problems and CCRT-related complications. A high percentage of betel quid use, which is associated with metabolic disorders, is found in oral cavity cancer patients in Taiwan. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an early and intensive nutritional support program, comprising individualized counseling, nasogastric tube feeding, and mandatory hospitalization, throughout the CCRT period for such cases in an area where betel quid use is prevalent. We retrospectively analyzed 35 patients with nutritional support (NI) and 23 patients with no specifically designed nutrition program (NC). The NI group had better maintenance of body weight (p < 0.001) and higher serum albumin levels (p < 0.002) than the NC group. There was no difference in the total dose of radiation completed in the two groups; in contrast, the percentage of NI group patients who had radiation therapy (RT) breaks was lower and who completed planned chemotherapy was higher than in the NC group. Furthermore, more NC group patients suffered from sepsis during the treatment period, and fewer were alive 2 years after treatment. An early and intensive nutrition support may be beneficial to minimizing body weight loss, offering better treatment tolerance and probable survival benefits for patients with non-metastatic stage IV oral cavity cancers undergoing CCRT in endemic betel quid chewing areas.

  7. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Endorsement of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Evidence-Based Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Bryan J; Daly, Megan E; Kennedy, Erin B; Antonoff, Mara B; Broderick, Stephen; Feldman, Jill; Jolly, Shruti; Meyers, Bryan; Rocco, Gaetano; Rusthoven, Chad; Slotman, Ben J; Sterman, Daniel H; Stiles, Brendon M

    2017-11-06

    Purpose The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) produced an evidence-based guideline on treatment with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. ASCO has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing and/or adapting clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. Methods The ASTRO Evidence-Based Guideline for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. An ASCO Expert Panel updated the literature search and reviewed the guideline content and recommendations. Results The ASCO Expert Panel determined that the recommendations from the ASTRO guideline, published in 2017, are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence. ASCO statements and minor modifications were added to enhance the applicability of the ASTRO guideline for the broader ASCO audience. Recommendations For standard operative risk patients with stage I NSCLC, SBRT is not recommended outside of a clinical trial. Lobectomy with systematic lymph node evaluation remains the recommended treatment, although a sublobar resection may be considered in select clinical scenarios. Recommendations are provided regarding the use of SBRT in high operative risk patients and for inoperative patients, including in challenging scenarios where tumors are: centrally located, > 5 cm in diameter, lacking tissue diagnosis, synchronous primary or multifocal, second primary after pneumonectomy, proximal to or involved with mediastinal structures, abutting the chest wall, or recurring after previous treatment. Qualifying statements are included to provide further guidance for implementation, and the importance of a discussion of treatment options among members of the multidisciplinary cancer care team is emphasized. Additional information is available at: www.asco.org/thoracic-cancer-guidelines and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki .

  8. Assessing the Effect of Potential Reductions in Non-Hepatic Mortality on the Estimated Cost-Effectiveness of Hepatitis C Treatment in Early Stages of Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Andrew J; Chesson, Harrell W; Spradling, Philip R; Holmberg, Scott D

    2017-02-01

    Most cost-effectiveness analyses of hepatitis C (HCV) therapy focus on the benefits of reducing liver-related morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to assess how cost-effectiveness estimates of HCV therapy can vary depending on assumptions regarding the potential impact of HCV therapy on non-hepatic mortality. We adapted a state-transition model to include potential effects of HCV therapy on non-hepatic mortality. We assumed successful treatment could reduce non-hepatic mortality by as little as 0 % to as much as 100 %. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed comparing immediate treatment versus delayed treatment and comparing immediate treatment versus non-treatment. Comparing immediate treatment versus delayed treatment, when we included a 44 % reduction in non-hepatic mortality following successful HCV treatment, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by HCV treatment fell by 76 % (from US$314,100 to US$76,900) for patients with no fibrosis and by 43 % (from US$62,500 to US$35,800) for patients with moderate fibrosis. Comparing immediate treatment versus non-treatment, assuming a 44 % reduction in non-hepatic mortality following successful HCV treatment, the incremental cost per QALY gained by HCV treatment fell by 64 % (from US$186,700 to US$67,300) for patients with no fibrosis and by 27 % (from US$35,000 to US$25,500) for patients with moderate fibrosis. Including reductions in non-hepatic mortality from HCV treatment can have substantial effects on the estimated cost-effectiveness of treatment.

  9. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep

    2017-06-01

    Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post-absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Major surgery resulted in an up-regulation of post-absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P early stage breast cancer or surgery. The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the anabolic response to meal intake within 24 h after major surgery in patients with non-cachectic breast cancer. This indicates that the acute anabolic potential to conventional feeding is maintained in non-cachectic early stage breast cancer after major surgery. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  10. Non-invasive detection of genomic imbalances in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells in early and advanced stage Hodgkin's lymphoma by sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA: a technical proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Peter; Wlodarska, Iwona; Tousseyn, Thomas; Dehaspe, Luc; Dierickx, Daan; Verheecke, Magali; Uyttebroeck, Anne; Bechter, Oliver; Delforge, Michel; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Brison, Nathalie; Verhoef, Gregor E G; Legius, Eric; Amant, Frederic; Vermeesch, Joris R

    2015-02-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is one of the most common lymphoid neoplasms in young adults, but the low abundance of neoplastic Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells in the tumour hampers the elucidation of its pathogenesis, biology, and diversity. After an incidental observation that genomic aberrations known to occur in Hodgkin's lymphoma were detectable in circulating cell-free DNA, this study was undertaken to investigate whether circulating cell-free DNA can be informative about genomic imbalances in Hodgkin's lymphoma. We applied massive parallel sequencing to circulating cell-free DNA in a prospective study of patients with biopsy proven nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma. Genomic imbalances in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells were investigated by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) on tumour specimens. By non-invasive prenatal testing, we observed several genomic imbalances in circulating cell-free DNA of a pregnant woman, who was subsequently diagnosed with early-stage nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma stage IIA during gestation. FISH on tumour tissue confirmed corresponding genomic imbalances in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells. We prospectively studied circulating cell-free DNA of nine nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma cases: eight at first diagnosis and one at first relapse. Seven patients had stage IIA disease and two had stage IVB disease. In eight, genomic imbalances were detected, including, among others, gain of chromosomes 2p and 9p, known to occur in Hodgkin's lymphoma. These gains and losses in circulating cell-free DNA were extensively validated by FISH on Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells in biopsy samples. Initiation of chemotherapy induced normalisation of circulating cell-free DNA profiles within 2-6 weeks. The cell cycle indicator Ki67 and cleaved caspase-3 were detected in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells by immunohistochemistry, suggesting high turnover of Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells. In early and advanced stage nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma, genomic

  11. Early stage phytohormone and fatty acid profiles of plants associated with host and non-host resistance to hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytohormones and fatty acids play important roles in plant resistance to insects and pathogens. In this study, we investigated the similarities and differences in the accumulations of phytohormones and fatty acids in the resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ‘Molly’ and the non-host rice (Oryza sa...

  12. Preoperative PET/CT in early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M; Berthelsen, A K; Wielenga, V T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer.......The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer....

  13. Non-native scientists, research dissemination and English neologisms: What happens in the early stages of reception and re-production?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Linder; Goedele De Sterck

    2016-01-01

    That the English language is the prevailing language in international scientific discourse is an undeniable fact for research professionals who are non-native speakers of English (NNSE). An exploratory, survey-based study of scientists in the experimental disciplines of neuroscience and medicine seeks to reveal, on the one hand, the habits of scientists who in their research practice come across neologisms in English and need to use them in oral and written scientific discou...

  14. Very early stages of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyunina, Tatiana

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this thesis work is to investigate the initial conditions and the early phases of the formation of high-mass stars by means of dedicated observational studies. We consider two object classes: infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), and a subsequent stage characterized by the presence of young embedded (proto-)stellar clusters. First, we estimate masses and column densities for a completely new sample of southern IRDCs, utilizing our own millimeter continuum emission maps as well as Spitzer satellite data. The parameters we derive show that IRDCs from our sample have the potential to form not only low- and intermediate-mass stars, but can also be the birth places of massive stars. In particular, the comparison of our results with previously obtained data for low-mass starless cores shows a clear trend for IRDCs to have systematically higher column densities. The interpolated IRDC peak column densities exceed the threshold for the onset of massive star formation previously advocated by theoretical studies. We also critically evaluate the limitations of the applied emission and extinction methods. Second, we investigate the physical conditions and the chemical composition of the dense gas within the IRDCs of our sample by means of a multi-line molecular spectroscopy analysis. All the clouds have complex HCO+ line pro les, and we detect SiO emission in some clouds. These ndings mark the presence of infall and out ow motions in at least some parts of the IRDCs, and hence, ongoing star formation. In comparison with low-mass starless cores, the IRDCs have broader and more intense lines. Thus, they may be characterised by more turbulent conditions. Nevertheless, we nd a tendency for the IRDCs to have molecular abundances similar to the case of low-mass starless cores. This indicates similar chemical initial conditions for low- and high-mass star-forming regions. Finally, we study the stellar composition and environmental conditions in the young embedded cluster IRAS

  15. Genomic aberrations relate early and advanced stage ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.; Peyrot, W.J.; Berns, P.M.J.J.; van der Burg, M.E.L.; Veerbeek, J.H.W.; Trimbos, J.B.; Cadron, I.; van Diest, P.J.; van Wieringen, W.N.; Krijgsman, O.; Meijer, G.A.; Piek, J.M.J.; Timmers, P.J.; Vergote, I.; Verheijen, R.H.; Ylstra, B.; Zweemer, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Because of the distinct clinical presentation of early and advanced stage ovarian cancer, we aim to clarify whether these disease entities are solely separated by time of diagnosis or whether they arise from distinct molecular events. Methods Sixteen early and sixteen advanced stage

  16. The role of estuarine type in characterizing early stage fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assemblages of early stage fishes (larval and early juvenile stages) were investigated and compared in seven permanently open and five intermittently open estuarine systems on the warm temperate Eastern Cape coast of South Africa. Estuarine type, by virtue of mouth state and prevailing physico chemical conditions, ...

  17. A comparative study of the target volume definition in radiotherapy with «Slow CT Scan» vs. 4D PET/CT Scan in early stages non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, M; Anducas, N; Simó, M; Seoane, A; Ramos, M; Cuberas-Borros, G; Beltran, M; Castell, J; Giralt, J

    To evaluate the use of 4D PET/CT to quantify tumor respiratory motion compared to the «Slow»-CT (CTs) in the radiotherapy planning process. A total of 25 patients with inoperable early stage non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were included in the study. Each patient was imaged with a CTs (4s/slice) and 4D PET/CT. The adequacy of each technique for respiratory motion capture was evaluated using the volume definition for each of the following: Internal target volume (ITV) 4D and ITVslow in relation with the volume defined by the encompassing volume of 4D PET/CT and CTs (ITVtotal). The maximum distance between the edges of the volume defined by each technique to that of the total volume was measured in orthogonal beam's eye view. The ITV4D showed less differences in relation with the ITVtotal in both the cranio-caudal and the antero-posterior axis compared to the ITVslow. The maximum differences were 0.36mm in 4D PET/CTand 0.57mm in CTs in the antero-posterior axis. 4D PET/CT resulted in the definition of more accurate (ITV4D/ITVtotal 0.78 vs. ITVs/ITVtotal 0.63), and larger ITVs (19.9 cc vs. 16.3 cc) than those obtained with CTs. Planning with 4D PET/CT in comparison with CTs, allows incorporating tumor respiratory motion and improving planning radiotherapy of patients in early stages of lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. A new index comparable to BED for evaluating the biological efficacy of hypofractionated radiotherapy schemes on early stage non-small cell lung cancer: analysis of data from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Cheng; Guo, Wen-jie; Zha, Wen-wu; Zhu, Xiang-zhi; Huang, Sheng-fu; Zhang, Ye-wei; Xu, Jian-hua; He, Xia

    2014-04-01

    Hypofractionated radiotherapy has been the principal curative treatment option for early stage NSCLC patients who are medically inoperable or those who refuse surgery and achieved favorable clinical outcomes. Evidence demonstrated that the linear quadratic model widely used in normally fractionated radiotherapy cannot work well to fit outcome data by use of BED to predict the effect of hypofractionation schemes. New models and the related metrics need to be developed to quantify the effect of high-dose ablative regimens for early stage NSCLC. Trials using hypofractionated radiotherapy without chemotherapy to treat early stage (T1 or T2N0M0) primary NSCLC and providing information on patient numbers, age, T stage and local control rates were eligible. The endpoint was local relapse and the covariates analyzed were total radiotherapy dose, dose per fraction or combinations of the two parameters, treatment duration, T stage and median age of patients within the trial. The model used was a multivariate logistic regression. 19 trials were included (767 patients) in which 90 patients suffered local relapse. Only total dose × dose per fraction (D × d) and stage T had statistically significant effect on local control. Smaller T stage (p=0.000) and increasing D × d (p=0.006) were associated with improved probability of local control. In contrast, BED10 had no significant impact on local control, which probably indicated that D × d might be a more effective metric than BED10 to predict tumor control rate and assess the efficacy of the large dose fractionation schemes for early stage NSCLC. BED was not an ideal metric to estimate the effect of the schemes of high-dose ablative radiotherapy for early stage NSCLC, and total dose × fraction dose could be considered as a comparable index, though the result need to be further validated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early stages in the development of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Anne; Alda, Martin; Hajek, Tomas; Sherry, Simon B; Grof, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Numerous studies have observed that offspring of bipolar parents manifest a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders. We tested the hypothesis that in high risk offspring, bipolar disorder evolves in a predictable clinical sequence from non-specific (non-mood) to specific (mood) psychopathology. Offspring from well-characterized families with one bipolar parent (high risk) or two well parents (controls) were assessed annually or at anytime symptoms developed using KSADS-PL interviews for up to 15 years. DSM-IV diagnoses were made on blind consensus review using all available clinical material. We compared the age-adjusted risks of lifetime psychopathology between high risk and control subjects and assessed the conditional probability of developing a mood disorder given a history of non-mood disorders. In subjects meeting full DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder, we assessed the sequence of psychopathology against a clinical staging model. High risk offspring manifest higher rates of anxiety and sleep disorders, as well as major mood and substance use disorders compared to controls. Antecedent anxiety increased the age-adjusted risk of mood disorder from 40 to 85% (hazard ratio of 2.6). High risk subjects who developed a mood disorder had an increased risk of a substance use disorder (hazard ratio of 2.4), typically meeting diagnostic criteria during or after the first major mood episode. The evolution of psychopathology leading to bipolar disorder generally followed the proposed sequence, although not all subjects manifest all stages. Larger numbers of high risk offspring prospectively assessed over the risk period would allow confirmation of these preliminary findings. Clinical staging may be a useful approach to refine the early diagnosis and facilitate research into the evolution of bipolar disorder in those at familial risk. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Critical pneumonia complicating early-stage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercieri, Marco; Di Rosa, Roberta; Pantosti, Annalisa; De Blasi, Roberto Alberto; Pinto, Giovanni; Arcioni, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    We present a case of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia, Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive, in a woman at 14 weeks of pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case reporting this critical lung infection occurring during an early phase of pregnancy. This case study alerts physicians to the increasing worldwide spread of these uncommon yet virulent and potentially lethal infections. In our patient, antibiotic therapy with linezolid plus rifampin started at 14 weeks of pregnancy had a successful outcome without inducing toxicity or teratogenesis in the fetus.

  1. Modeling the early stages of reactive wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel; Warren, James A; Boettinger, William J

    2010-11-01

    Recent experimental studies of molten metal droplets wetting high-temperature reactive substrates have established that the majority of triple-line motion occurs when inertial effects are dominant. In light of these studies, this paper investigates wetting and spreading on reactive substrates when inertial effects are dominant using a thermodynamically derived diffuse interface model of a binary three-phase material. The liquid-vapor transition is modeled using a van der Waals diffuse interface approach, while the solid-fluid transition is modeled using a phase field approach. The results from the simulations demonstrate an O(t(-1/2)) spreading rate during the inertial regime and oscillations in the triple-line position when the metal droplet transitions from inertial to diffusive spreading. It is found that the spreading extent is reduced by enhancing dissolution by manipulating the initial liquid composition. The results from the model exhibit good qualitative and quantitative agreement with a number of recent experimental studies of high-temperature droplet spreading, particularly experiments of copper droplets spreading on silicon substrates. Analysis of the numerical data from the model suggests that the extent and rate of spreading are regulated by the spreading coefficient calculated from a force balance based on a plausible definition of the instantaneous interface energies. A number of contemporary publications have discussed the likely dissipation mechanism in spreading droplets. Thus, we examine the dissipation mechanism using the entropy-production field and determine that dissipation primarily occurs in the locality of the triple-line region during the inertial stage but extends along the solid-liquid interface region during the diffusive stage.

  2. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  3. Early post-cleavage stages and abnormalities identified in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six early, post-cleavage embryonic stages for chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii eggs that were developed in an aquarium are identified and described, expanding the embryonic stages for this species from 14 to 20. The influence of water temperature on embryonic development is described. At temperatures  ...

  4. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. DART-bid: dose-differentiated accelerated radiation therapy, 1.8 Gy twice daily. High local control in early stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehentmayr, Franz; Wurstbauer, Karl; Deutschmann, Heinz; Sedlmayer, Felix [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversitaet, Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Fussl, Christoph; Kopp, Peter; Dagn, Karin; Fastner, Gerd [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Porsch, Peter; Studnicka, Michael [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Pneumologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria)

    2014-09-23

    While surgery is considered standard of care for early stage (I/II), non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radiotherapy is a widely accepted alternative for medically unfit patients or those who refuse surgery. International guidelines recommend several treatment options, comprising stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for small tumors, conventional radiotherapy ≥ 60 Gy for larger sized especially centrally located lesions or continuous hyperfractionated accelerated RT (CHART). This study presents clinical outcome and toxicity for patients treated with a dose-differentiated accelerated schedule using 1.8 Gy bid (DART-bid). Between April 2002 and December 2010, 54 patients (median age 71 years, median Karnofsky performance score 70 %) were treated for early stage NSCLC. Total doses were applied according to tumor diameter: 73.8 Gy for < 2.5 cm, 79.2 Gy for 2.5-4.5 cm, 84.6 Gy for 4.5-6 cm, 90 Gy for > 6 cm. The median follow-up was 28.5 months (range 2-108 months); actuarial local control (LC) at 2 and 3 years was 88 %, while regional control was 100 %. There were 10 patients (19 %) who died of the tumor, and 18 patients (33 %) died due to cardiovascular or pulmonary causes. A total of 11 patients (20 %) died intercurrently without evidence of progression or treatment-related toxicity at the last follow-up, while 15 patients (28 %) are alive. Acute esophagitis ≤ grade 2 occurred in 7 cases, 2 patients developed grade 2 chronic pulmonary fibrosis. DART-bid yields high LC without significant toxicity. For centrally located and/or large (> 5 cm) early stage tumors, where SBRT is not feasible, this method might serve as radiotherapeutic alternative to present treatment recommendations, with the need of confirmation in larger cohorts. (orig.) [German] Die Standardbehandlung fuer nichtkleinzellige Bronchialkarzinome (NSCLC) im Stadium I/II ist die Operation, wobei Radiotherapie fuer Patienten, die nicht operabel sind oder die Operation ablehnen, als Alternative

  6. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  7. Diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of early stage breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the diagnostic work up and minimally invasive surgical treatment of early stage breast carcinoma is studied. Although the surgical treatment of breast carcinoma has improved significantly over the past decades, there is still room for improvement. On the one hand the focus is on early

  8. Genomic aberrations relate early and advanced stage ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zaal; W.J. Peyrot (Wouter ); P.M.J.J. Berns (Els); M.E.L. van der Burg (Maria); J.H.W. Veerbeek (Jan ); J.B. Trimbos; I. Cadron (Isabelle); P.J. van Diest (Paul); W.N. Wieringen (Wessel); O. Krijgsman (Oscar); G.A. Meijer (Gerrit); J.M.J. Piek (Jurgen ); P.J. Timmers (Petra); I. Vergote (Ignace); R.H.M. Verheijen (René); B. Ylstra (Bauke); R.P. Zweemer (Ronald )

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground Because of the distinct clinical presentation of early and advanced stage ovarian cancer, we aim to clarify whether these disease entities are solely separated by time of diagnosis or whether they arise from distinct molecular events. Methods Sixteen early and sixteen advanced

  9. Selection occurs within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction in Robinia pseudoacacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cun-Quan; Sun, Yu-Han; Li, Yun-Fei; Zhao, Ke-Qi; Hu, Rui-Yang; Li, Yun

    2014-03-21

    Pollen donor compositions differ during the early stages of reproduction due to various selection mechanisms. In addition, ovules linearly ordered within a fruit have different probabilities of reaching maturity. Few attempts, however, have been made to directly examine the magnitude and timing of selection, as well as the mechanisms during early life stages and within fruit. Robinia pseudoacacia, which contains linear fruit and non-random ovule maturation and abortion patterns, has been used to study the viability of selection within fruit and during the early stages of reproduction. To examine changes in the pollen donor composition during the early stages of reproduction and of progeny originating from different positions within fruit, paternity analyses were performed for three early life stages (aborted seeds, mature seeds and seedlings) in the insect-pollinated tree R. pseudoacacia. Selection resulted in an overall decrease in the level of surviving selfed progeny at each life stage. The greatest change was observed between the aborted seed stage and mature seed stage, indicative of inbreeding depression (the reduced fitness of a given population that occurs when related individual breeding was responsible for early selection). A selective advantage was detected among paternal trees. Within fruits, the distal ends showed higher outcrossing rates than the basal ends, indicative of selection based on the order of seeds within the fruit. Our results suggest that selection exists both within linear fruit and during the early stages of reproduction, and that this selection can affect male reproductive success during the early life stages. This indicates that tree species with mixed-mating systems may have evolved pollen selection mechanisms to increase the fitness of progeny and adjust the population genetic composition. The early selection that we detected suggests that inbreeding depression caused the high abortion rate and low seed set in R. pseudoacacia.

  10. Early stage design and analysis of biorefinery networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    of the process configuration which exhibits the best performances, for a given set of economical, technical and environmental criteria. To this end, we formulate a computer-aided framework as an enabling technology for early stage design and analysis of biorefineries. The tool represents different raw materials......, different products and different available technologies and proposes a conceptual (early stage) biorefinery network. This network can then be the basis for further detailed and rigorous model-based studies. In this talk, we demonstrate the application of the tool for generating an early stage optimal......Recent work regarding biorefineries resulted in many competing concepts and technologies for conversion of renewable bio-based feedstock into many promising products including fuels, chemicals, materials, etc. The design of a biorefinery process requires, at its earlier stages, the selection...

  11. Functioning in early and late stages of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gazzi Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is frequently associated with a debilitating course and prominent impairment in social and occupational functioning. Although the criteria for classification into stages have not been defined in the literature, illness duration and functioning seem to be good candidates.OBJECTIVE:To compare functioning of patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the disease (early vs. late and healthy sex- and age-matched controls.METHODS: This double-blinded, case-controlled study included 79 individuals: 23 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed up to 5 years earlier; 19 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed at least 20 years earlier; and healthy matched controls. Diagnoses were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I Disorder. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST.RESULTS: Patients in the early stage had significantly higher scores than healthy controls in total FAST and in autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning and interpersonal relationships. Individuals in the late stage had significantly poorer functioning than controls in all domains. The comparison of functioning between the two groups of patients revealed no significant differences, except in occupational functioning, in which late stage patients had a poorer performance.CONCLUSION: Functioning impairment in schizophrenia tends to remain stable despite illness duration. Therefore, functioning should be effectively assessed at an early stage, as illness duration alone may not be the most reliable criterion to stage patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Lyng, Maria B; Binder, Harald; Cold, Søren; Gravgaard, Karina; Knoop, Ann S; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2014-07-01

    There are currently no highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for detection of early-stage breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in the circulation and may be unique biomarkers for early diagnosis of human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the differential expression of miRNAs in the serum of breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Global miRNA analysis was performed on serum from 48 patients with ER-positive early-stage breast cancer obtained at diagnosis (24 lymph node-positive and 24 lymph node-negative) and 24 age-matched healthy controls using LNA-based quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). A signature of miRNAs was subsequently validated in an independent set of 111 serum samples from 60 patients with early-stage breast cancer and 51 healthy controls and further tested for reproducibility in 3 independent data sets from the GEO Database. A multivariable signature consisting of 9 miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-18a, miR-107, miR-133a, miR-139-5p, miR-143, miR-145, miR-365, miR-425) was identified that provided considerable discrimination between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Further, the ability of the 9 miRNA signature to stratify samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls was confirmed in the validation set (p = 0.012) with a corresponding AUC = 0.665 in the ROC-curve analysis. No association between miRNA expression and tumor grade, tumor size, menopausal- or lymph node status was observed. The signature was also successfully validated in a previously published independent data set of circulating miRNAs in early-stage breast cancer (p = 0.024). We present herein a 9 miRNA signature capable of discriminating between ER-positive breast cancer and healthy controls. Using a specific algorithm based on the 9 miRNA signature, the risk for future individuals can be predicted. Since microRNAs are highly stable in blood components, this signature might be useful in the development of a blood

  13. Nanoparticles target early-stage breast cancer metastasis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Evgeniya; Zinger, Assaf; da Silva, Dana; Yaari, Zvi; Kajal, Ashima; Vardi-Oknin, Dikla; Goldfeder, Mor; Schroeder, Josh E.; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Hershkovitz, Dov; Schroeder, Avi

    2017-10-01

    Despite advances in cancer therapy, treating cancer after it has metastasized remains an unmet clinical challenge. In this study we demonstrate that 100 nm liposomes target triple-negative murine breast-cancer metastases post intravenous administration. Metastatic breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice either experimentally, by a tail vein injection of 4T1 cells, or spontaneously, after implanting a primary tumor xenograft. To track their biodistribution in vivo the liposomes were labeled with multi-modal diagnostic agents, including indocyanine green and rhodamine for whole-animal fluorescent imaging, gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and europium for a quantitative biodistribution analysis. The accumulation of liposomes in the metastases peaked at 24 h post the intravenous administration, similar to the time they peaked in the primary tumor. The efficiency of liposomal targeting to the metastatic tissue exceeded that of a non-liposomal agent by 4.5-fold. Liposomes were detected at very early stages in the metastatic progression, including metastatic lesions smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Surprisingly, while nanoparticles target breast cancer metastasis, they may also be found in elevated levels in the pre-metastatic niche, several days before metastases are visualized by MRI or histologically in the tissue. This study highlights the promise of diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles for treating metastatic cancer, possibly even for preventing the onset of the metastatic dissemination by targeting the pre-metastatic niche.

  14. New Y chromosomes and early stages of sex chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... [Traut W. 2010 New Y chromosomes and early stages of sex chromosome differentiation: sex determination in Megaselia. J. Genet. 89, ..... Schultheis C., Böhne A., Schartl M., Volff J. and Galiana-Arnoux D. 2009 Sex determination diversity and sex chromosome evolution in poeciliid fish. Sex. Dev. 3, 68–77 ...

  15. Early morbidity after simultaneous and staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to investigate the early morbidity after bilateral simultaneous and staged total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to clarify potential benefits of a well-established fast-track regime. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was searched for all...

  16. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.I. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark). Dept. of Ecotoxicology; Kristensen, P. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. for Cleaner Technology

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

  17. Brain Age in Early Stages of Bipolar Disorders or Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Tomas; Franke, Katja; Kolenic, Marian; Capkova, Jana; Matejka, Martin; Propper, Lukas; Uher, Rudolf; Stopkova, Pavla; Novak, Tomas; Paus, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Spaniel, Filip; Alda, Martin

    2017-12-20

    The greater presence of neurodevelopmental antecedants may differentiate schizophrenia from bipolar disorders (BD). Machine learning/pattern recognition allows us to estimate the biological age of the brain from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans (MRI). The discrepancy between brain and chronological age could contribute to early detection and differentiation of BD and schizophrenia. We estimated brain age in 2 studies focusing on early stages of schizophrenia or BD. In the first study, we recruited 43 participants with first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES) and 43 controls. In the second study, we included 96 offspring of bipolar parents (48 unaffected, 48 affected) and 60 controls. We used relevance vector regression trained on an independent sample of 504 controls to estimate the brain age of study participants from structural MRI. We calculated the brain-age gap estimate (BrainAGE) score by subtracting the chronological age from the brain age. Participants with FES had higher BrainAGE scores than controls (F(1, 83) = 8.79, corrected P = .008, Cohen's d = 0.64). Their brain age was on average 2.64 ± 4.15 years greater than their chronological age (matched t(42) = 4.36, P < .001). In contrast, participants at risk or in the early stages of BD showed comparable BrainAGE scores to controls (F(2,149) = 1.04, corrected P = .70, η2 = 0.01) and comparable brain and chronological age. Early stages of schizophrenia, but not early stages of BD, were associated with advanced BrainAGE scores. Participants with FES showed neurostructural alterations, which made their brains appear 2.64 years older than their chronological age. BrainAGE scores could aid in early differential diagnosis between BD and schizophrenia.

  18. The microorganisms in chronically infected end-stage and non-end-stage cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed; Alhede, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) develop chronic lung infections because of highly viscous mucus, where bacteria can form biofilms. In this study, we investigated the microorganisms present in the lungs of end-stage and non-end-stage patients using standard culturing techniques...... and molecular methods. Tissue and sputum samples (n = 34) from explanted lungs of five end-stage patients were examined along with routine expectorates (n = 15) from 13 patients with non-end-stage CF, representing earlier stages of chronic lung infections. Previously, using peptide nucleic acid (PNA......) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we have shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the sole pathogen in end-stage CF lungs (Pediatr Pulmonol 2009, 44: 547). In this study, this tendency was supported by the results of real-time PCR, confirming previous results obtained by standard culturing and 16S r...

  19. Therapy for stage I aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke

    2002-01-01

    Although radiotherapy was considered sufficient for stage I and limited stage II aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the past, new data from randomized studies have shown that intensified chemotherapy or combined modality therapy (multiagent chemotherapy followed by involved field radiotherapy) can

  20. Prognostic significance of NGAL in early stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Taner; Sari, Ozlem; Koc, Yener; Eren, Nezaket; Isleem, Mahmoud; Kara, Ekrem; Sevinc, Mustafa; Sakaci, Tamer; Ahbap, Elbis; Hasbal, Nuri B; Bayrakdar Caglayan, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2017-06-01

    Neutrophilgelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been proven to be a useful biomarker for early detection of acute kidney injury, but it is not known whether adding NGAL measurements to conventional risk factors will improve the risk assessment in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation of NGAL with early stage renal impairment in CKD and to evaluate its prognostic value in these subjects. This is a prospective observational cohort study of 54 patients with early stage (stage 1-2) CKD. Patients aged between 18 and 65 years with stable disease were enrolled in this study. Patients with a history of primary glomerulonephritis, diabetes mellitus, acute kidney injury, systemic diseases and stage 3-4-5 CKD were excluded from the study group. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) rate was calculated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula. The patients were followed for two years to determine the ability of baseline NGAL for prediction of renal outcome. In our study disease progression was defined as changes in eGFR (ΔeGFR) and proteinuria (Δproteinuria). Patients divided into two groups according to NGAL cut-off value as group 1 (N.=23, NGAL ≤98.71 ng/mL) and group 2 (N.=31, NGAL >98.71 ng/mL). Out of 54 patients (mean age: 45.6±7.6 years, 64.8% female, baseline eGFR: 84.6±16.8 mL/min/1.73 m2, baseline NGAL level: 157.47±121.52 ng/mL); 18 patients were stage 1 and 36 patients were stage 2 CKD. In the ROC analysis, we found that the optimal cut-off value of NGAL for predicting stage 2 CKD was 98.71ng/mL (P=0.005) with the 72.2% sensitivity and 72.2% specificity. In correlation analysis, we evaluated significantly positive correlations between NGAL and CKD stage (r=0.389, P=0.004), baseline/last serum creatinine level (r=0.530, Pearly stage CKD. But further studies stated in different patient groups may also explain the usability of NGAL in clinical practice.

  1. A Phase 2 Trial of Concurrent Chemotherapy and Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results and Reflections Following Early Closure of a Single-Institution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Henderson, Randal [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Pham, Dat; Cury, James D.; Bajwa, Abubakr [Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); D' Agostino, Harry [Department of Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Flampouri, Stella; Huh, Soon; Li, Zuofeng [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McCook, Barry [Department of Radiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Nichols, Romaine C. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton therapy has been shown to reduce radiation dose to organs at risk (OAR) and could be used to safely escalate the radiation dose. We analyzed outcomes in a group of phase 2 study patients treated with dose-escalated proton therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From 2009 through 2013, LU02, a phase 2 trial of proton therapy delivering 74 to 80 Gy at 2 Gy/fraction with concurrent chemotherapy for stage 3 NSCLC, was opened to accrual at our institution. Due to slow accrual and competing trials, the study was closed after just 14 patients (stage IIIA, 9 patients; stage IIIB, 5 patients) were accrued over 4 years. During that same time period, 55 additional stage III patients were treated with high-dose proton therapy, including 7 in multi-institutional proton clinical trials, 4 not enrolled due to physician preference, and 44 who were ineligible based on strict entry criteria. An unknown number of patients were ineligible for enrollment due to insurance coverage issues and thus were treated with photon radiation. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 52 months. Results: Two-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 57% and 25%, respectively. Median lengths of overall survival and progression-free survival were 33 months and 14 months, respectively. There were no acute grade 3 toxicities related to proton therapy. Late grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and pulmonary toxicity each occurred in 1 patient. Conclusions: Dose-escalated proton therapy with concurrent chemotherapy was well tolerated with encouraging results among a small cohort of patients. Unfortunately, single-institution proton studies may be difficult to accrue and consideration for pragmatic and/or multicenter trial design should be considered when developing future proton clinical trials.

  2. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive......, the new knowledge is shared between the design team to reduce ambiguity with regards to its meaning and to build a shared understanding – reducing perceived uncertainty. Thus, we propose that Information-Processing Theory is suitable to describe designer activity in the early design stages......Developing appropriate theory is one of the main challenges facing engineering design (Cross, 2007). Theory helps to both explain design activity but also support greater research impact in the domain. It is useful for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of design activity and developing...

  3. Early stage vision in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Brian F; Bismark, Andrew; Hetrick, William P; Bodkins, Misty; Vohs, Jenifer L; Shekhar, Anantha

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies of visual perception have reported deficits in contrast sensitivity and dot motion discrimination in schizophrenia. We tested whether these deficits also appear in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). SPD appears to be genetically and symptomatically related to schizophrenia, but without the marked psychosocial impairment associated with psychotic disorders. The present study investigated contrast sensitivity for moving and static gratings, form discrimination and dot motion discrimination in 24 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ), 16 individuals with SPD, and 40 control subjects. SZ, but not SPD subjects, showed impairments on tests of contrast sensitivity for static and moving gratings, form discrimination in noise, and dot motion discrimination. Visual performance did not differ between medicated SZ patients and patients withdrawn from medication. These results confirm early stage visual deficits in schizophrenia regardless of medication status. SPD subjects, in contrast, show intact early stage visual processing despite the presence of marked schizotypal symptoms.

  4. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in a proteomic legacy in adult gills. Part B; the effect of a second radiation dose, after one year, on the proteomic responses in the irradiated and non-irradiated bystander fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Moccia, Richard D; Mothersill, Carmel E; Seymour, Colin B

    2018-02-09

    This study extends the investigation of the legacy effects of exposure to a single radiation dose at one of four early life stages, in adult rainbow trout (Part A), by examining the effects of a second identical dose after one year; i.e. egg 48 h after fertilisation (48 h egg) + 1 year, eyed egg + 1 year, yolk sac larvae (YSL) + 1 year and first feeder + 1 year. This included the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated trout which had swam with the irradiated fish. The second radiation dose negated any beneficial proteomic responses following early life stage irradiation only, particularly irradiation of 48 h eggs and eyed eggs (Part A). Instead the responses after early life stage + 1 year irradiation are consistently associated with tumorigenesis, cancer progression, or are otherwise damaging: upregulation of alpha-globin 1 (YSL + 1 year and first feeders + 1 year) and downregulation of histone H1, type II keratin, malate dehydrogenase 2-2, Na/K ATPase alpha subunit isoform 1b, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (48 h egg + 1 year), electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alpha (eyed egg + 1 year), 60 S ribosomal protein L30 (YSL + 1 year) and haemoglobin subunit beta-4 (first feeder + 1 year). Most significantly the second radiation dose also negated the overwhelmingly beneficial bystander effect proteomic responses induced by trout irradiated at an early life stage only (Part A). Instead the bystander effect proteomic changes induced by trout irradiated at an early life stage and again at 1 year have been associated with uncertain, with respect to tumorigenesis, or detrimental effects; upregulation of alpha-globin 1 (YSL + 1 year and first feeder + 1 year) and downregulation of malate dehydrogenase 2-2, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (48 h egg + 1 year), transferrin precursor (eyed egg + 1 year), 60 S ribosomal protein L30 (YSL + 1 year) and serine / threonine-protein phosphatase 2 A 65 kDa (first feeder + 1 year). This difference between

  5. Early Contact Stage of Apoptosis: Its Morphological Features and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheri Mikadze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis has been a biological phenomenon of intense interest for 20 years, but the earlier morphological features of apoptosis have not been determined hitherto. Using the methods of semi- and ultrathin sections, the livers of intact embryos and young rats have been studied under the effect of cycloheximide to determine morphological features of an early stage of apoptosis. It is discovered that both in hepatoblasts and hepatocytes, apoptosis, besides the well-known stages, also includes an early contact stage, distinguishing features of which are agglutination of bound ribosomes (breaking of translation, elimination of the nucleolus, reduction of free polysomes (and in hepatocytes, reduction of cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum, formation of cytoplasmic excrescences, and cell shape changes. The early stage of apoptosis is characterized by close contact with neighboring cells. At a certain phase of the contact stage of apoptosis, the nucleolus reappears in the nucleus and the number of free polysomes in the cytoplasm increases, which suggests the renewal of synthesis of new RNA and proteins. Close contact of differentiating and mitotic hepatoblasts with apoptotic cells indicates a certain functional relationship between these cells that is realized not only by micropinocytosis, but through gap junctions as well. We assume that the apoptotic cell, besides proteolytic products, can contain newly synthesized, low-molecular substances, the relocation of which from apoptotic to neighboring cells may contribute to both functional activity and proliferation of adjacent hepatoblasts and, therefore, the function of apoptosis may not be limited only to the elimination of harmful, damaged, and unwanted cells.

  6. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyo [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Min [Research Institute of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In-Kyung [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yunsook [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Hyun, E-mail: jjhkim@cau.ac.kr [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  7. Effects of Nanosilica on Early Age Stages of Cement Hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Forood Torabian Isfahani; Elena Redaelli; Weiwen Li; Yaru Sun

    2017-01-01

    Effects of nanosilica on cement hydration have been broadly investigated in the literature and early age cement hydration, as a whole, has been mainly considered, disregarding the substages of the hydration. The hydration of cement is characterized by different substages and nanosilica effect on the hydration could be a result of diverse, even contradictory, behavior of nanosilica in individual stages of the hydration. In this study, effects of nanosilica on different substages of cement hydr...

  8. Phyllotactic pattern formation in early stages of cactus ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta M. Gola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of the family Cactaceae are characterized by a wide range of phyllotaxis. To assess the origin of this diversity, early stages of phyllotactic pattern formation were examined in seedlings. The analysis of the sequence of areole initiation revealed intertribal differences. In seedlings from the Trichocereeae (Gymnocalycium, Rebutia and Notocacteae (Parodia tribes, two opposite cotyledonal areoles developed as the first elements of a pattern. Usually, next pair of areoles was initiated perpendicularly to cotyledonal areoles, starting the decussate pattern. This pattern was subsequently transformed into bijugate or into simple spiral phyllotaxis. In seedlings from the Cacteae tribe (Mammillaria and Thelocactus, cotyledonal areoles were never observed and the first areoles always appeared in the space between cotyledons. It was either areole pair (mainly in Mammillaria, starting a decussate pattern, or a single areole (mainly in Thelocactus quickly followed by areoles spirally arranged, usually in accordance with the main Fibonacci phyllotaxis. Differences in the initial stages of pattern formation do not fully explain the phyllotaxis diversity in mature cacti. Only two, the most common phyllotactic patterns occurred in the early development of studied seedlings, i.e. the main Fibonacci and the decussate pattern. Discrepancy in the range of phyllotactic spectra in seedlings and in mature plants suggests that phyllotaxis diversity emerges during further plant growth. Initial phyllotactic transformations, occurring already in the very early stages, indicate great plasticity of cactus growth and seem to support the hypothesis of the ontogenetic increase of phyllotaxis diversity due to transformations.

  9. Oral propranolol in early stages of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancalari, Aldo; Schade, Ricardo; Muñoz, Tomás; Lazcano, Carolina; Parada, Rodrigo; Peña, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    To assess the effect of oral propranolol on the progression of early stages of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We analyzed VLBW infants with ROP (stages 2-3, zones II-III). Newborns received oral propranolol (0.5 mg/kg/dose q8h), and were monitored throughout the treatment period for possible side effects. Propranolol was administered until regression of ROP. A historic control group of patients with equivalent ROP was used. We compared characteristics of both groups and the progression of retinopathy. Forty-seven newborns were included, 20 in the propranolol group and 27 in the control group. There were no significant differences in gestational age, birthweight or gender. The mean duration of treatment with propranolol was 58.2±17.6 days. Most patients started treatment with stage 2 disease (65.0%), and had zone III involvement (55.0%). In the treated group, 90.0% (18/20) of patients did not require intervention with laser or bevacizumab, compared to 51.8% in the control group (Ppropranolol in early stages of ROP could prevent disease progression and reduce the need for invasive rescue therapy with laser or bevacizumab. No significant side effects were reported.

  10. MDC and BLC are independently associated with the significant risk of early stage lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwei; Yu, Keke; Hu, Song; Lou, Yuqing; Liu, Chunxing; Xu, Jianlin; Li, Rong; Zhang, Xueyan; Wang, Huimin; Han, Baohui

    2016-12-13

    This prospective study was designed to investigate the association between ten circulating inflammatory biomarkers and the risk for early stage lung adenocarcinoma. All inflammatory biomarkers were measured in 228 patients with early stage (IA to IIB) lung adenocarcinoma and 228 age-, sex- and smoking-matched healthy controls by using the Luminex bead-based assay. Only two biomarkers were significantly associated with the risk of early stage lung adenocarcinoma after the Bonferroni correction: the multivariate odd ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval or CI) was 0.29 (0.16-0.53) for MDC and 4.17 (2.23-7.79) for BLC for the comparison of patients in the 4th quartile with the 1st quartile (both Pearly stage lung adenocarcinoma (OR, 95% CI, P: 0.37, 0.21-0.66, Pearly stage lung adenocarcinoma, even in non-smokers and in stage IA patients. BLC was further identified to play a carcinogenic role in the progression of lung adenocarcinoma.

  11. Pain in early-stage Parkinson's disease: Implications from clinical features to pathophysiology mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsung Tseng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD that markedly impacts patients' quality of life. Although pain occurs mostly secondary to motor disability of PD, pain may antedate motor symptoms by years. Numerous studies have shown that PD patients manifest altered sensory and pain thresholds compared with control subjects. Although both levodopa and deep brain stimulation improve motor symptoms, there remains no direct correlation between motor improvement and altered pain sensitivity, suggesting that motor symptoms and pain do not necessarily share pathogenetic mechanisms. Whether nociceptive processing is dysfunctional in the early stages of PD, when motor symptoms are not prominent, remains uncertain. In this review, we highlight the evidence for disrupted nociceptive processing in patients with early-stage PD. Painful symptoms and aberrant pain processing in early PD are associated with both central and peripheral deafferentation. Dopamine depletion in selective striatal regions, and the development of Lewy pathology in specific non-dopaminergic subcortical areas, underlie the clinical features of pain at this early disease stage. An increased awareness of pain as an early feature of PD might provide further insights into a mechanism-based approach to sensory system dysregulation in this disease.

  12. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements...... axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3......, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). METHODS: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30...

  13. Use and duration of chemotherapy and its impact on survival in early-stage ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelspiel, Helen E; Tergas, Ana I; Zimmerman, Lilli A; Burke, William M; Hou, June Y; Chen, Ling; Hillyer, Grace; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2015-05-01

    Although 5-year survival for early-stage ovarian cancer is favorable, prognosis at recurrence is poor, necessitating appropriate initial management. We examined the patterns of care and the impact of the duration of chemotherapy on survival for women with early-stage ovarian cancer. We used the SEER-Medicare database to identify women ≥ 65 years of age with stage I ovarian cancer diagnosed from 1992 to 2009. Patients were categorized as low-risk (non-clear cell histology, stage IA or IB, grade 1 or 2) or high-risk (clear cell histology, grade 3, or stage IC). We used multivariable logistic regression models to determine predictors of chemotherapy use and duration and Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the effect of chemotherapy use and duration on survival. We identified 1394 patients. Among low-risk patients, 32.9% received adjuvant chemotherapy and the use of chemotherapy increased with time. Among high-risk patients, 71.9% received adjuvant chemotherapy; 44.2% had ≤ 3 months of treatment, and 55.8% had > 3 months of treatment. Older patients were less likely to receive chemotherapy, while those with higher stage and grade were more likely to receive chemotherapy (Pearly-stage ovarian cancer patients, practice patterns are widely divergent. Extended duration chemotherapy does not appear to impact survival for women with high-risk disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A patient with medulloblastoma in its early developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinojima, Naoki; Nakamura, Hideo; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Kameno, Kouki; Anai, Shigeo; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Ando, Yukio; Seto, Hiroshi; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2014-12-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor of the posterior fossa in children and is considered an embryonal tumor. It has been suggested that medulloblastomas be categorized into 4 distinct molecular subgroups- WNT (DKK1), SHH (SFRP1), Group 3 (NPR3), or Group 4 (KCNA1)-since each subgroup is distinct and there is no overlap. The authors report on a 13-year-old boy with medulloblastoma. He presented with sudden-onset nausea and vomiting due to intratumoral hemorrhage. The medulloblastoma was thought to be in an early developmental stage because the tumor volume was extremely small. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the tumor was mainly composed of DKK1- and NPR3-positive areas. The individual areas of the tumor stained only for DKK1 or NPR3, with no overlap-that is, DKK1 and NPR3 expression were mutually exclusive. Samples obtained by laser microdissection of individual areas and subjected to mass spectrometry confirmed that the expression patterns of proteins were different. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosome 6 showed there were 2 distinct types of cells that exhibited monosomy or disomy of chromosome 6. These results demonstrated that distinct subtypes of medulloblastoma may be present within a single tumor, an observation that has not been previously reported. Our findings in this case indicate that early-stage medulloblastoma may include more than 1 distinct subtype and hint at factors involved in the origin and development of medulloblastomas.

  15. DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    tasks Major Task 1: Obtain DNA samples from consortium specimens • Subtask 1 Pathological review of 592 early-stage high-grade ovarian cancer specimens...the pelvis do well with many being cured, while those patients whose tumor has spread outside of the pelvis suffer recurrences and the majority will...5-year follow-up, clinical annotation and accurate pathological review (228 recurrent and 364 non-recurrent), 3) established a specimen repository

  16. Redefining radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer with single dose ablative treatment : a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Charaghvandi, R K; van Asselen, B; Philippens, M E P; Verkooijen, H M; van Gils, C H; van Diest, P J; Pijnappel, R M; Hobbelink, M G G; Witkamp, A J; van Dalen, T; van der Wall, E; van Heijst, T C; Koelemij, R; van Vulpen, M; van den Bongard, H J G D

    2017-01-01

    Background A shift towards less burdening and more patient friendly treatments for breast cancer is currently ongoing. In low-risk patients with early-stage disease, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an alternative for whole breast irradiation following breast-conserving surgery. MRI-guided single dose ablative APBI has the potential to offer a minimally burdening, non-invasive treatment that could replace current breast-conserving therapy. Methods The ABLATIVE study is a prosp...

  17. Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft, Diana Schack

    Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives......Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives...

  18. The surgical management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicrú, Sabina R; de la Torre, Javier F V; Gil-Moreno, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The main objective is to update the literature data in the last year which may support a surgical approach to early cervical cancer [ECC; Stage International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IA-IB1-IIA1]. Radical hysterectomy remains the gold standard by most international guidelines because surgical treatment has hardly changed in recent decades, except for stage IA1. Trends in clinical research in the past 12-18 months involve minimal invasive surgery (with laparoscopic surgery or robotic-assisted surgery), fertility preservation (in the initial stages and in the absence of bad prognostic factors), nerve-sparing and sentinel node techniques. Some institutions have published studies in specific groups such as older, obese or pregnant women. There is a growing trend to practice less aggressive surgery in order to preserve fertility in young women and avoid an excess of treatment in some selected patients. Therefore, nerve-sparing techniques can help to improve the quality of life. More studies are needed to demonstrate oncologic results of the sentinel node technique. Laparoscopic and robotic-assisted surgery can substitute open surgical treatment.

  19. TREATMENT OF EARLY STAGES HODGKIN LYMPHOMA DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Avilès

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To assess maternal and fetal outcome of women who receiving chemotherapy during pregnancy to treat Hodgkin lymphoma(HL in early stages (IA and IIA, we performed an retrospective analysis of 44 women with HL at early stage, diagnosed and treated between 1988 to 2010, in a tertiary reference cancer center. Methods:We analyze data of HL: clinical characteristics and treatment; and special attention to maternal and fetal complications ; children : physical development, assess scholar performance phsycological, cardiac and neurological function and intellegence tests. Results:  Forty-four pregnant women were enrolled. Median age was 29.4 (range 21-37years; most patients were stage IIA (86%, had mediastinal bulky disease (78% and > 3 nodal sites involved; thus these patients were recorded to have a not favourable condition. Abortion was refused when proposed. All patients received combined chemotherapy: ABVD ( adryamicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine, even during first trimester, at standar doses and schedules. Radiotherapy, when necessary was administered after delivery in 39 patients. No obstetrical complications were observed. Delivery ocurred between 31 to 36 weks in 10 patients (22% and > 37 weeks in 34 cases (77%. Four newborns were low-weight: 2012 (median (range:1750 -2350 g. No clinical malformations were observed and development of children were normal without evidence of cardiac, neurological damage. Behavior, scholar attendance and intellegence tests were normal. With a median follow-up of 120.4 (range 48-299 months, progression-free survival and overall survival were 93% and 95 %, respectively. Conclusion: Chemotherapy as initial therapy appear to be thes best therapeutic approach in these setting of patients, with a excelent outcome to both: mother and children. If radiotherapy is necessary, could be administered after delivery

  20. Vitrification of early-stage bovine and equine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Chillòn, L F; Suh, T K; Barcelo-Fimbres, M; Seidel, G E; Carnevale, E M

    2009-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine an optimal method and stage of development for vitrification of bovine zygotes or early embryos; and (2) use the optimal procedure for bovine embryos to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of early embryos. Initially, bovine embryos produced by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were frozen and vitrified in 0.25mL straws with minimal success. A subsequent experiment was done using two vitrification methods and super open pulled straws (OPS) with 1- or 8-cell bovine embryos. In Method 1 (EG-O), embryos were exposed to 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG) for 5min, 7M ethylene glycol and 0.6M galactose for 30s, loaded in an OPS, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. In Method 2 (EG-DMSO), embryos were exposed to 1.1M ethylene glycol and 1.1M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 3min, 2.5M ethylene glycol, 2.5M DMSO and 0.5M galactose for 30s, and loaded and plunged as for EG-O. Cryoprotectants were removed after warming in three steps. One- and eight-cell bovine embryos were cultured for 7 and 4.5 d, respectively, after warming, and control embryos were cultured without vitrification. Cleavage rates of 1-cell embryos were similar (P>0.05) for vitrified and control embryos, although the blastocyst rates for EG-O and control embryos were similar and higher (Pvitrification and warming. In summary, a successful method was established for vitrification of early-stage bovine embryos, and this method was used to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of 2- to 8-cell embryos produced by ICSI.

  1. Early-\\x90stage Electrical Breakdown involving Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarson, Harold; Moore, Chris; Schultz, Peter; Bussman, Ezra; Scrymgeour, David; Hopkins, Matt

    The early stage of electrical breakdown from a surface is assumed to involve field emission. In real-world applications, the electrical field is often assumed to be increased by geometrical effects. In addition to these enhancement effects, contamination by adsorbates can lead to reductions in the effective work functions. To develop a physics-based understanding beyond the use of these empirical effects, the field emission currents at early times are being computed and measured. The calculations involve a solution of the Boltzmann equation, and the measurements involve a scanning tunneling microscope. Early results from this collaborative theoretical-experimental project will be described in this presentation. The presentation will focus on results for an ideal system with an absence of geometrical effects. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Axial differentiation and early gastrulation stages of the pig embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Romia; Schwartz, Peter; Feistel, Kerstin; Blum, Martin; Viebahn, Christoph

    2009-12-01

    Differentiation of the principal body axes in the early vertebrate embryo is based on a specific blueprint of gene expression and a series of transient axial structures such as Hensen's node and the notochord of the late gastrulation phase. Prior to gastrulation, the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) of the mouse egg-cylinder or the anterior marginal crescent (AMC) of the rabbit embryonic disc marks the anterior pole of the embryo. For phylogenetic and functional reasons both these entities are addressed here as the mammalian anterior pregastrulation differentiation (APD). However, mouse and rabbit show distinct structural differences in APD and the molecular blueprint, making the search of general rules for axial differentiation in mammals difficult. Therefore, the pig was analysed here as a further species with a mammotypical flat embryonic disc. Using light and electron microscopy and in situ hybridisation for three key genes involved in early development (sox17, nodal and brachyury), two axial structures of early gastrulation in the pig were identified: (1) the anterior hypoblast (AHB) characterised by increased cellular height and density and by sox17 expression, and (2) the early primitive streak characterised by a high pseudostratified epithelium with an almost continuous but unusually thick basement membrane, by localised epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and by brachyury expression in the epiblast. The stepwise appearance of these two axial structures was used to define three stages typical for mammals at the start of gastrulation. Intriguingly, the round shape and gradual posterior displacement of the APD in the pig appear to be species-specific (differing from all other mammals studied in detail to date) but correlate with ensuing specific primitive streak and extraembryonic mesoderm development. APD and, hence, the earliest axial structure presently known in the mammalian embryo may thus be functionally involved in shaping extraembryonic membranes and

  3. Exercise in the Early Stage after Stroke Enhances Hippocampal Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression and Memory Function Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himi, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Hisashi; Okabe, Naohiko; Nakamura, Emi; Shiromoto, Takashi; Narita, Kazuhiko; Koga, Tomoshige; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2016-12-01

    Exercise in the early stage after stroke onset has been shown to facilitate the recovery from physical dysfunction. However, the mechanism of recovery has not been clarified. In this study, the effect of exercise on spatial memory function recovery in the early stage was shown, and the mechanism of recovery was discussed using a rat model of brain embolism. Intra-arterial microsphere (MS) injection induced small emboli in the rat brain. Treadmill exercise was started at 24 hours (early group) or 8 days (late group) after MS injection. The non-exercise (NE) and sham-operated groups were included as controls. Memory function was evaluated by the Morris water maze test, and hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. To further investigate the effect of BDNF on memory function, BDNF was continuously infused into the hippocampus via implantable osmotic pumps in the early or late stage after stroke. Memory function significantly improved only in the early group compared with the late and the NE groups, although hippocampal BDNF concentrations were temporarily elevated after exercise in both the early and the late groups. Rats infused with BDNF in the early stage exhibited significant memory function recovery; however, rats that received BDNF infusion in the late stage showed no improvement. Exercise elevates hippocampal BDNF levels in the early stage after cerebral embolism, and this event facilitates memory function recovery. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictors and Diagnostic Strategies for Early-Stage Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hideyo; Ohtsuka, Takao; Matsunaga, Taketo; Watanabe, Yusuke; Tamura, Koji; Ideno, Noboru; Aso, Teppei; Miyazaki, Tetsuyuki; Osoegawa, Takashi; Aishima, Shinichi; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Junji; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Igarashi, Hisato; Ito, Tetsuhide; Takahata, Shunichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masao

    2015-10-01

    As a strategy to diagnose early-stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is urgently needed, we aimed to clarify characteristics of early-stage PDAC. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 299 consecutive patients who underwent R0 or R1 surgical resection for PDAC between 1994 and 2013 and compared clinical characteristics between patients with early-stage (stages 0-I by Japanese General Rules for Pancreatic Cancer) and advanced-stage (stages II-IV) disease. Diagnostic processes were also analyzed. Twenty-four patients (8%) had early-stage PDAC (stage 0: 11; stage I: 13). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that presence or history of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (P early-stage PDAC. Cytological examination during endoscopic retrograde pancreatography cytology was ∼65% sensitive in preoperative diagnosis of early-stage PDAC, whereas other imaging modalities were only 29% to 38% sensitive; 9 of 24 early-stage PDACs were diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography cytology alone. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography cytology for patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm or pancreatitis may help diagnose early-stage PDAC. Surveillance of extrapancreatic malignancies might also provide opportunities to detect early-stage PDAC as a second malignancy.

  5. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1......Increasing pressure to the environment due to human activities manifests the necessity of applying new approaches to determine the environmental impact of a new product before scale-up. Nanoadsorbents as an emerging product and a special application of nanomaterial play an important role...... in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...

  6. Controversies in the Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Z. Press

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the publication of numerous studies, including some multicentered randomized controlled trials, there continues to be vigorous debate regarding the optimal management of early stage endometrial cancer, including the extent of surgery and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Resolving these questions has become increasingly important in view of the increase of endometrial cancer, related to the aging population and the alarming incidence of obesity. Furthermore, there are more surgical challenges encountered when operating on elderly patients or on patients with increased BMI and the associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and pulmonary dysfunction. This paper will focus on the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, the value of lymphadenectomy including sentinel lymph node mapping, and some of the current controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation.

  7. Classification of Early Stages of NAFLD Based on Dual Diagnostic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Secrieru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has made this domain of medical diagnostics one of high professional and public interest. The major problem of NAFLD diagnostics is that in its initial phase non-alcoholic fatty liver tends to be benign without tendency to progress, while in its second phase -- non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH can progress to cirrhosis, which subsequently may cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This fact explains the need for more sensitive classifications that would allow early diagnostics of NAFLD. NAFLD diagnostics in most cases is based on clinicopathological criteria -- decision rules expressed through ultarasound signs and laboratory data, annotated by hepatologist/gastroenterologist. In this article we describe the process of creation of a classification of NAFLD early stages based on a decisional reasoning, which combines two methods of medical diagnostics.

  8. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Gupta

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54 or infrared coagulation (N = 46. Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years. The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months. The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale. Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059. The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03, but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03. Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  9. Paranasal Manifestations of Early Stage Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

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    Ceren Günel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common adult leukemia. A few studies have been reported about the relationship between CLL and paranasal sinuses. We aimed to investigate the paranasal manifestations of CLL and to determine the expression of nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-kB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in the nasal mucosa in patients with CLL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a clinical trial that involved 40 patients. Group CLL (n=20 consisted of patients with early-stage CLL who were followed-up at the hematology clinic and who did not receive any treatment. The control group (n=20 consisted of patients who had undergone concha surgery because of nasal obstruction. Paranasal sinus computer tomography scans of all patients were taken, they were scored on the basis of the Lund–Mackay system, and sinusitis findings were recorded. The biopsy material taken from the inferior concha head of all patients was immunohistochemically stained with primary antibodies against NF-kB and TNF-α. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to NF-κB (p=0.716 and TNF-α staining scores (p=1.000. The Lund–Mackay scores were significantly higher in the CLL group than in the control group (p=0.004. Fourteen patients had sinusitis at different locations, while the most common diagnosis was maxillary sinusitis (n=8 in the CLL group. CONCLUSION: This study showed that patients with early-stage CLL tend to have rhinosinusitis. However, NF-kB and TNF-α may not have a role in the inflammatory process involving the paranasal sinuses in patients with CLL.

  10. Short report: interim safety results for a phase II trial measuring the integration of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) plus surgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (MISSILE-NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, David A; Nguyen, Timothy K; Kwan, Keith; Gaede, Stewart; Landis, Mark; Malthaner, Richard; Fortin, Dalilah; Louie, Alexander V; Frechette, Eric; Rodrigues, George B; Yaremko, Brian; Yu, Edward; Dar, A Rashid; Lee, Ting-Yim; Gratton, Al; Warner, Andrew; Ward, Aaron; Inculet, Richard

    2017-01-27

    A phase II trial was launched to evaluate if neoadjuvant stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) before surgery improves oncologic outcomes in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report a mandated interim safety analysis for the first 10 patients who completed protocol treatment. Operable patients with biopsy-proven T1-2 N0 NSCLC were eligible. SABR was delivered using a risk-adapted fractionation (54Gy/3 fractions, 55/5 or 60/8). Surgical resection was planned 10 weeks later at a high-volume center (>200 lung cancer resections annually). Patients were imaged with dynamic positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans using 18F-fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG-PET CT) and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT before SABR and again before surgery. Toxicity was recorded using CTCAE version 4.0. Twelve patients were enrolled between 09/2014 and 09/2015. Two did not undergo surgery, due to patient or surgeon preference; neither patient has developed toxicity or recurrence. For the 10 patients completing both treatments, median age was 70 (range: 54-76), 60% had T1 disease, and 60% had adenocarcinoma. Median FEV1 was 73% predicted (range: 54-87%). Median time to surgery post-SABR was 10.1 weeks (range: 9.3-15.6 weeks). Surgery consisted of lobectomy (n = 8) or wedge resection (n = 2). Median follow-up post-SABR was 6.3 months. After combined treatment, the rate of acute grade 3-4 toxicity was 10%. There was no post-operative mortality at 90 days. The small sample size included herein precludes any definitive conclusions regarding overall toxicity rates until larger datasets are available. However, these data may inform others who are designing or conducting similar trials. NCT02136355 . Registered 8 May 2014.

  11. Early-stage mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizawa T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Nizawa1, Toshiyuki Oshitari1, Ryuta Kimoto1, Fusae Kajita1, Jiro Yotsukura1, Kaoru Asanagi1, Takayuki Baba1, Yoko Takahashi2, Takashi Oide2, Takako Kiyokawa2, Takashi Kishimoto2, Shuichi Yamamoto11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Chiba, JapanAbstract: We present the findings of an early-stage primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma in the lower eyelid of a Japanese patient. The patient was a 73-year-old man who had had a nodule on the left lower eyelid for two years. He was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of a swollen chalazion. The clinical and histopathological records were reviewed and the mass was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography excluded systemic metastases. After the histopathological findings, a complete surgical excision of the margins of the adenocarcinoma was performed, with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. After the final histopathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with a primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the left eyelid. Six months after the surgery, no recurrence has been observed. Because the appearance of mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the eyelid is quite variable, the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. A complete surgical excision is recommended.Keywords: complete surgical excision, eyelid, initial stage, mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma

  12. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage lung cancer: History and updated role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardi, Umberto; Badellino, Serena; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo

    2015-12-01

    Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) represents a consolidated treatment option for patients with medically inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical evidence accumulated over the past decade supports its use as an alternative to surgery with comparable survival outcomes. Due to its limited toxicity, SBRT is also applicable to elderly patients with very poor baseline pulmonary function or other severe comorbidities. Recent comparative studies in operable patients raised the issue of the possible use of SBRT also for this subgroup, with quite promising results that still should be fully confirmed by prospective trials with long-term follow up. In early stage lung cancer, clinicians are now faced with a decision-making process that should take into account different factors. The need of pathological diagnosis and accurate nodal staging still represents a challenge, as well as the interpretation of radiological findings after SBRT, often confusing du to the difficulties in distinguishing between radiation-induced changes and local relapse. Aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the major studies on SBRT for early stage lung cancer, providing data on its efficacy and toxicity and discussing the still open issues on its role. Quality of life, pulmonary function and risk of secondary cancers are also discussed, as well as future perspectives and current research topics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Nanosilica on Early Age Stages of Cement Hydration

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    Forood Torabian Isfahani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of nanosilica on cement hydration have been broadly investigated in the literature and early age cement hydration, as a whole, has been mainly considered, disregarding the substages of the hydration. The hydration of cement is characterized by different substages and nanosilica effect on the hydration could be a result of diverse, even contradictory, behavior of nanosilica in individual stages of the hydration. In this study, effects of nanosilica on different substages of cement hydration are investigated. Isothermal calorimetry results show that at early ages (initial 72 hours the effects of nanosilica depend on the phenomenon by which the hydration is governed: when the hydration is chemically controlled, that is, during initial reaction, dormant period, and acceleratory period, the hydration rate is accelerated by adding nanosilica; when the hydration is governed by diffusion process, that is, during postacceleratory period, the hydration rate is decelerated by adding nanosilica. The Thermal Gravimetric Analysis on the samples at the hardened state (after 28 days of curing reveals that, after adding nanosilica, the hydration degree slightly increased compared to the plain paste.

  14. A deformation-based morphometry study of patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, P; Østergaard, Karen; Cumming, P

    2010-01-01

    purported to be more sensitive than VBM, to test for atrophy in patients with early-stage PD. METHODS: T1-weighted MRI images from 24 early-stage PD patients and 26 age-matched normal control subjects were compared using DBM. Two separate studies were conducted, where two minimally-biased nonlinear...... intensity-average were created; one for all subjects and another for just the PD patients. The DBM technique creates an average population-based MRI-average in an iterative hierarchical fashion. The nonlinear transformations estimated to match each subject to the MRI-average were then analysed. RESULTS......: The DBM comparison between patients and controls revealed significant contraction in the left cerebellum, and non-significant trends towards frontal, temporal and cingulate sulcal expansions with frontal and temporal white matter contractions. Within the patient group, the unified PD rating scores were...

  15. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located Early Stage or Isolated Parenchymal Recurrences of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: How to Fly in a “No Fly Zone”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li, Qiao-Qiao; Xu, Qing-Yong; Allen, Pamela K.; Rebueno, Neal; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Balter, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mehran, Reza; Swisher, Stephen G.; Roth, Jack A. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We extended our previous experience with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR; 50 Gy in 4 fractions) for centrally located non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); explored the use of 70 Gy in 10 fractions for cases in which dose-volume constraints could not be met with the previous regimen; and suggested modified dose-volume constraints. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT)-based volumetric image-guided SABR was used for 100 patients with biopsy-proven, central T1-T2N0M0 (n=81) or isolated parenchymal recurrence of NSCLC (n=19). All disease was staged with positron emission tomography/CT; all tumors were within 2 cm of the bronchial tree, trachea, major vessels, esophagus, heart, pericardium, brachial plexus, or vertebral body. Endpoints were toxicity, overall survival (OS), local and regional control, and distant metastasis. Results: At a median follow-up time of 30.6 months, median OS time was 55.6 months, and the 3-year OS rate was 70.5%. Three-year cumulative actuarial local, regional, and distant control rates were 96.5%, 87.9%, and 77.2%, respectively. The most common toxicities were chest-wall pain (18% grade 1, 13% grade 2) and radiation pneumonitis (11% grade 2 and 1% grade 3). No patient experienced grade 4 or 5 toxicity. Among the 82 patients receiving 50 Gy in 4 fractions, multivariate analyses showed mean total lung dose >6 Gy, V{sub 20} >12%, or ipsilateral lung V{sub 30} >15% to independently predict radiation pneumonitis; and 3 of 9 patients with brachial plexus D{sub max} >35 Gy experienced brachial neuropathy versus none of 73 patients with brachial D{sub max} <35 Gy (P=.001). Other toxicities were analyzed and new dose-volume constraints are proposed. Conclusions: SABR for centrally located lesions produces clinical outcomes similar to those for peripheral lesions when normal tissue constraints are respected.

  16. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenaarde, Kim; Copper, Marcel P.; Klop, W. M. C.; van Veen, Robert; Wildeman, Maarten; Bing Tan, I.

    2010-01-01

    The indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis-T2) to identify the success rates for each subgroup according to T stage, primary or non-primary treatment and subsites. In total, 170 patients with 226 lesions are treated with PDT. From these lesions, 95 are primary neoplasms, 131 were non-primaries (recurrences and multiple primaries). The overall response rate is 90.7% with a complete response rate of 70.8%. Subgroup analysis identified oral tongue, floor of mouth sites with more favorable outcome. PDT has more favorable results with certain subsites and with previously untreated lesions. However, PDT can find its place for treating lesions in previously treated areas with acceptable results. PMID:20706842

  17. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  18. Affective motives for smoking among early stage smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Wahlquist, Amy E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16-20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR - NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  20. Antibody profiling with protein antigen microarrays in early stage cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Brian C-S; Dijohnson, Daniel A; O'Rourke, Dennis J

    2012-05-01

    Proteins not present in normal cells, that is, cancer cells, may elicit a host immune response that leads to the generation of antibodies that might react with these tumor-associated proteins. In recent years, a growing number of reports have showed that autoantibody profiling may provide an alternative approach for the detection of cancer. However, most studies of antigen-autoantibody reactivity have relied on recombinant proteins. Recombinant proteins lack the proper post-translational modifications present in native proteins. Because of this limitation, native or natural protein antigen microarrays are gaining popularity for profiling antibody responses. i) To illustrate some examples of autoantibodies as signatures for early stage cancer; ii) to briefly outline the various protein antigen microarray platforms; iii) to illustrate the use of native or natural protein microarrays in the discovery of potential biomarkers and iv) to discuss the advantages of native protein antigen microarrays over other approaches. The nature of protein microarray platforms is conducive to multiplexing, which amplifies the potential for uncovering effective biomarkers for many significant diseases. However, the major challenge will be in integrating microarray platforms into multiplexed clinical diagnostic tools, as the main drawback is the reproducibility and coefficient of variation of the results from array to array, and the transportability of the array platform to a more automatable platform.

  1. Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Wendy; Palidis, Dimitrios J; Spering, Miriam; McKeown, Martin J

    2016-10-01

    Visual impairments are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and impact normal functioning in daily activities. Visual contrast sensitivity is a powerful nonmotor sign for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, it is usually assessed with static visual stimuli. Here we examined the interaction between perception and eye movements in static and dynamic contrast sensitivity tasks in a cohort of mildly impaired, early-stage PD patients. Patients (n = 13) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 12) viewed stimuli of various spatial frequencies (0-8 cyc/deg) and speeds (0°/s, 10°/s, 30°/s) on a computer monitor. Detection thresholds were determined by asking participants to adjust luminance contrast until they could just barely see the stimulus. Eye position was recorded with a video-based eye tracker. Patients' static contrast sensitivity was impaired in the intermediate spatial-frequency range and this impairment correlated with fixational instability. However, dynamic contrast sensitivity and patients' smooth pursuit were relatively normal. An independent component analysis revealed contrast sensitivity profiles differentiating patients and controls. Our study simultaneously assesses perceptual contrast sensitivity and eye movements in PD, revealing a possible link between fixational instability and perceptual deficits. Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity profiles may represent an easily measurable metric as a component of a broader combined biometric for nonmotor features observed in PD.

  2. Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S.; di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Bianconi, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered.

  3. Building performance simulation in the early design stage: An introduction to integrated dynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Designing with building performance simulation feedback in the early design stage has existed since the early days of computational modeling. However, as a consequence of a fragmented building industry building performance simulations (BPSs) in the early design stage are closely related to who...

  4. Nerve growth factor regulates axial rotation during early stages of chick embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Annalisa; Capsoni, Simona; Di Luzio, Anna; Vignone, Domenico; Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Brandi, Rossella; Arisi, Ivan; Cattaneo, Antonino; Levi-Montalcini, Rita

    2012-02-07

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was discovered because of its neurotrophic actions on sympathetic and sensory neurons in the developing chicken embryo. NGF was subsequently found to influence and regulate the function of many neuronal and non neuronal cells in adult organisms. Little is known, however, about the possible actions of NGF during early embryonic stages. However, mRNAs encoding for NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75(NTR) are expressed at very early stages of avian embryo development, before the nervous system is formed. The question, therefore, arises as to what might be the functions of NGF in early chicken embryo development, before its well-established actions on the developing sympathetic and sensory neurons. To investigate possible roles of NGF in the earliest stages of development, stage HH 11-12 chicken embryos were injected with an anti-NGF antibody (mAb αD11) that binds mature NGF with high affinity. Treatment with anti-NGF, but not with a control antibody, led to a dose-dependent inversion of the direction of axial rotation. This effect of altered rotation after anti NGF injection was associated with an increased cell death in somites. Concurrently, a microarray mRNA expression analysis revealed that NGF neutralization affects the expression of genes linked to the regulation of development or cell proliferation. These results reveal a role for NGF in early chicken embryo development and, in particular, in the regulation of somite survival and axial rotation, a crucial developmental process linked to left-right asymmetry specification.

  5. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauna L Rankin

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  6. The appearance of Blacks on the Early Modern stage: Love's Labour's Lost's African connections to court

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chapman, Matthieu A

    2014-01-01

    While scholarship is certain that white actors did appear in blackface on the Elizabethan stages, this paper argues for the additional possibility of actual moors and blacks appearing on stage in early modern London...

  7. Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugalho, Paulo; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD), although vivid dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and hallucinations. Dreams of 19 male PD patients and 21 matched control subjects were classified according to Hall and van de Castle system. h statistics was used to compare the dream content between patients and controls. We tested the relation between patients' dreams characteristics and cognitive function (Frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Mini-Mental State Examination tests) depression (Beck depression inventory), motor function (UPDRS), dopaminergic treatment, the presence of RBD (according to clinical criteria) and hallucinations, using general linear model statistics. Patients and controls differed only on FAB scores. Relevant differences in the Hall and van de Castle scale were found between patient's dreams and those of the control group, regarding animals, aggression/friendliness, physical aggression, befriender (higher in the patient group) and aggressor and bodily misfortunes (lower in the patient group) features. Cognitive and particularly frontal dysfunction had a significant influence on the frequency of physical aggression and animal related features, while dopaminergic doses, depressive symptoms, hallucinations and RBD did not. We found a pattern of dream alteration characterized by heightened aggressiveness and the presence of animals. These were related to more severe frontal dysfunction, which could be the origin of such changes.

  8. Early stage of urolithiasis formation in experimental hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S; Yachiku, S; Okuyama, M; Tokumitsu, M; Kaneko, S; Tsurukawa, H

    2001-04-01

    We have previously noted marked acceleration in the proliferative activity of parathyroid cells in rats with spontaneous hypercholesterolemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Using this proliferative potential we investigated whether transplantation of these enlarged parathyroids into normal rats would induce hyperparathyroidism and renal stones. We used 26-week-old male rats with spontaneous hypercholesterolemia as donors, and 5-week-old normal male Sprague-Dawley rats and rats with spontaneous hypercholesterolemia as recipients. Enlarged parathyroid glands were transplanted into group 1--Sprague-Dawley rats with no treatment, group 2--Sprague-Dawley rats that received FK-506 as an immuno-suppressor, group 3--rats with spontaneous hypercholesterolemia rats that underwent parathyroidectomy plus FK-506 administration and group 4--Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent parathyroidectomy plus FK-506 administration. Parathyroidectomy was performed in recipients before transplantation to ensure a low calcium condition. Grafts were rejected within 11 and 15 weeks in groups 1 and 2, respectively. In group 3, 78% of the grafts were successful even after 19 weeks. In group 4 graft survival was 30% at 15 weeks with complete rejection at 19 weeks. In group 3 gradually elevated serum parathyroid hormone was observed as well as stone plaques containing calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in renal tubules located mainly in the corticomedullary junction. An increased number of plaques was associated with higher parathyroid hormone. Our study shows that transplanted parathyroid glands function with an immunosuppressive agent and the maintenance of hypocalcemic conditions, and they secrete sufficient parathyroid hormone to demonstrate hyperparathyroidism. Plaque in these kidneys indicates an early stage of urolithiasis caused by hyperparathyroidism.

  9. Aromatase inhibitors and calcium absorption in early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaarwerk, Amye; Burkard, Mark E; Wisinski, Kari B; Shafer, Martin M; Davis, Lisa A; Gogineni, Jyothi; Crone, Elizabeth; Hansen, Karen E

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effect of aromatase inhibitors (AI) on intestinal calcium absorption, measured using the gold-standard dual stable calcium isotope method. In this pilot study, we recruited 10 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who planned to initiate AI therapy; women receiving chemotherapy were excluded. Women completed two 24 h inpatient calcium absorption study visits, the first prior to AI therapy and the second at least 6 weeks following onset of AI therapy. We calculated total fractional calcium absorption (TFCA) using the dose-corrected fractional recovery of two stable isotopes from 24 h urine collections. Ten postmenopausal women (mean±SD age, 66±7 years; 25(OH)D 40±7 ng/mL, and total calcium intake of 1,714±640 mg/day) exhibited no change in TFCA related to AI therapy (0.155±0.042 prior to and 0.160±0.064 following AI therapy, p=1.0). Subjects exhibited a surprisingly small decline in serum estradiol levels with AI therapy that was not statistically significant. However, there was a significant correlation between duration of AI therapy and the decline in serum estradiol levels (r=-0.65, p=0.040). In this pilot study, AI therapy did not decrease TFCA. Women with early stage breast cancer exhibited an unexpectedly low TFCA, most likely due to their high calcium intake. The null effect of AI therapy on TFCA might relate to the brief duration of AI therapy, the minimal effect of AI therapy on estradiol levels, subjects' high calcium intake or excellent vitamin D status.

  10. Size of sentinel-node metastasis and chances of non-sentinel-node involvement and survival in early stage vulvar cancer: results from GROINSS-V, a multicentre observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H.; van Hemel, Bettien M.; Hollema, Harry; de Hullu, Joanne A.; Ansink, Anca C.; Vergote, Ignace; Verheijen, René H.; Maggioni, Angelo; Gaarenstroom, Katja N.; Baldwin, Peter J.; van Dorst, Eleonora B.; van der Velden, Jacobus; Hermans, Ralph H.; van der Putten, Hans W.; Drouin, Pierre; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van der Zee, Ate G.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, all patients with vulvar cancer with a positive sentinel node undergo inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, irrespective of the size of sentinel-node metastases. Our study aimed to assess the association between size of sentinel-node metastasis and risk of metastases in non-sentinel nodes, and

  11. Size of sentinel-node metastasis and chances of non-sentinel-node involvement and survival in early stage vulvar cancer : results from GROINSS-V, a multicentre observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H.; van Hemel, Bettien M.; Hollema, Harry; de Hullu, Joanne A.; Ansink, Anca C.; Vergote, Ignace; Verheijen, Rene H.; Maggioni, Angelo; Gaarenstroom, Katja N.; Baldwin, Peter J.; van Dorst, Eleonora B.; van der Velden, Jacobus; Hermans, Ralph H.; van der Putten, Hans W.; Drouin, Pierre; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van der Zee, Ate G.

    Background Currently, all patients with vulvar cancer with a positive sentinel node undergo inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, irrespective of the size of sentinel-node metastases. Our study aimed to assess the association between size of sentinel-node metastasis and risk of metastases in non-sentinel

  12. Size of sentinel-node metastasis and chances of non-sentinel-node involvement and survival in early stage vulvar cancer: results from GROINSS-V, a multicentre observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, M.H.; Hemel, B.M. van; Hollema, H.; Hullu, J.A. de; Ansink, A.C.; Vergote, I.; Verheijen, R.H.; Maggioni, A.; Gaarenstroom, K.N.; Baldwin, P.J.; Dorst, E.B. van; Velden, J. van der; Hermans, R.H.; Putten, H.W. van der; Drouin, P.; Runnebaum, I.B.; Sluiter, W.J.; Zee, A.G. van der

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, all patients with vulvar cancer with a positive sentinel node undergo inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, irrespective of the size of sentinel-node metastases. Our study aimed to assess the association between size of sentinel-node metastasis and risk of metastases in non-sentinel

  13. Clinical outcome and prognostic factors of patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Ning; Sun, Yangchun; Li, Bin; Xu, Lily; Wu, Lingying

    2017-04-04

    Some subsets of early stage ovarian cancer patients experience more recurrences than others. Studies on prognostics factors gave conflicting results. We investigated consecutive 221 patients with stage I/II ovarian cancer at our institution from 1999 to 2010. Univariate and multivariate analysis of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed. After a median follow-up of 79 months, the 5-year/10-year PFS and 5-year/10-year OS were 78% /76% and 90% /87% respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that stage as the most prominent independent prognostic factor in terms of PFS (stage I vs stage IIA vs stage IIB, Hazard Ratio (HR): 1 vs 4 vs 6.1, P stage I vs stage II, HR: 1 vs 2.1, P early-stage ovarian cancer had a favorable outcome, stage was the most powerful prognostic factor.

  14. Utility of a patient survey in identifying fluctuations in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silburn, P A; Mellick, G D; Vieira, B I; Danta, G; Boyle, R S; Herawati, L

    2008-11-01

    Motor and non-motor fluctuations are well known sequelae of dopaminergic therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly during the advanced stages. However, the prevalence of fluctuations early in the treatment course has been less well recognised and may be missed clinically if not specifically probed. We examined the used of a survey for this purpose. Patients to be surveyed were recruited by neurologists and geriatricians at 20 Australian centres. Patients had a diagnosis of idiopathic PD with a duration of fewer than 5 years and were considered by their treating physician to be non-fluctuating or had no change in their treatment plan in the prior 6 months. Patients, with or without assistance, completed a 19-item wearing-off questionnaire to assess the presence of motor and non-motor fluctuations that indicated early wearing-off. Investigators assessed the usefulness of the questionnaire in detecting fluctuations and guiding PD treatment. Of 105 patients recruited, 92 were eligible for analysis. There were 56 (61%) identified as having fluctuations. Patients with wearing-off were younger (mean 67 vs 72 years), and more likely to have had PD for more than 3 years. About half the patients (49%) were able to complete the questionnaire independently. Clinicians perceived the questionnaire as useful for detecting fluctuations and adjusting treatment. A simple and easily administered wearing-off questionnaire may be useful in the early detection of fluctuations in PD patients and assist in guiding therapy.

  15. D-dimer and histamine in early stage bacteremia: A prospective controlled cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameis, Michael; Steiner, Margarete Maria; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Lagler, Heimo; Buchtele, Nina; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Boehm, Thomas; Jilma, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Plasma histamine levels and D-dimer predict disease severity and mortality in advanced septic shock. We hypothesized that increased plasma histamine levels parallel coagulation activation and yield prognostic significance already at a very early stage of bacteremia. This prospective controlled cohort study enrolled 72 consecutive non-surgical non-ICU-ward inpatients with newly culture-diagnosed bacteremia and a Pitt Bacteremia score ≤2 to determine the extent of histamine and D-dimer release and their predictive role on outcome at the earliest stage of blood stream infection. Age-matched healthy adults served as internal controls (n=36). A binominal logistic regression and a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to ascertain the effects of D-dimer and histamine on in-hospital mortality. In contrast to plasma histamine, D-dimer levels were significantly higher within hours of culture-proven bacteremia. In-hospital mortality occurred in 17%. Histamine levels were neither associated with D-dimer level (r=0.04; p>0.05) nor with ICU admissions (r=0.06; p>0.05) and outcome (crude OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.3-1.9; p=0.6). In contrast, early-elevated D-dimer levels predicted mortality: the odds to die increased with the D-dimer level, and was 12.6 (crude OR, 95% CI 3-52; p=0.001) in patients with a D-dimer ≥4μg/mL (n=13). Histamine levels are elevated in only few patients (4%) with newly diagnosed bacteremia. Our findings suggest that D-dimer, but not plasma histamine, could be a promising marker of lethality already at a very early stage of blood stream infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Petschow

    Full Text Available Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels.13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ and higher (E = 640 mJ target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale.No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex.Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  17. Clinical heterogeneity in patients with early-stage Parkinson’s disease: a cluster analysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Feng, Tao; Wang, Yong-jun; Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Biao

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical heterogeneity of Parkinson’s disease (PD) among a cohort of Chinese patients in early stages. Clinical data on demographics, motor variables, motor phenotypes, disease progression, global cognitive function, depression, apathy, sleep quality, constipation, fatigue, and L-dopa complications were collected from 138 Chinese PD subjects in early stages (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1–3). The PD subject subtypes were classified using k-means cluster analysis according to the clinical data from five to three-cluster consecutively. Kappa statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the consistency among different subtype solutions. The cluster analysis indicated four main subtypes: the non-tremor dominant subtype (NTD, n=28, 20.3%), rapid disease progression subtype (RDP, n=7, 5.1%), young-onset subtype (YO, n=50, 36.2%), and tremor dominant subtype (TD, n=53, 38.4%). Overall, 78.3% (108/138) of subjects were always classified between the same three groups (52 always in TD, 7 in RDP, and 49 in NTD), and 98.6% (136/138) between five- and four-cluster solutions. However, subjects classified as NTD in the four-cluster analysis were dispersed into different subtypes in the three-cluster analysis, with low concordance between four- and three-cluster solutions (kappa value=−0.139, P=0.001). This study defines clinical heterogeneity of PD patients in early stages using a data-driven approach. The subtypes generated by the four-cluster solution appear to exhibit ideal internal cohesion and external isolation. PMID:21887844

  18. COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE DISORDERS AT EARLY STAGES OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Bogdanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-motor signs, including affective and cognitive ones, are important initial manifestations of Parkinsons disease, along with motor dysfunction. Some of them manifest even before motor disorders and affect patients’ quality of life. Aim: To evaluate prevalence and severity of affective and cognitive disorders at early stages of Parkinson’s disease, as well as efficacy of their correction with a dopamine receptor agonist treatment.Materials and methods: We assessed 33 treatment-naive patients with Parkinsons disease Hoehn & Yahr stage I and II. Degree of motor dysfunction (UPDRS, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, depressive (MADRS, Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, anxiety (HARS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and cognitive (Montreal Cognitive Assessment – MoCA, symbols and figures test, Schulte tables, Gorbovs black and red tables was assessed at baseline and after 1, 3 and 6 months of treatment with pramipexole.Results: Patients with early signs of Parkinson’s disease had subdepressive disorders, moderate anxiety disorders, mild cognitive disorders of a neurodynamic type and represented mainly be delayed recall of information and attention disorders. Treatment with pramipexole decreased the degree of depressive symptoms by 82% and of anxiety symptoms by 74%. There was an improvement in cognitive functions, indicated by an increase in a delayed recall (+34%, better efficacy (+31%, a decrease in switching time (-38% and attention distribution (-33%; however, age-related normal values were not achieved.Conclusion: Already early stages of Parkinsons disease are characterized not only by motor abnormalities, but also by affective and neurodynamic cognitive dysfunction. Medical treatment with pramipexole was effective in correction of motor and neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with Parkinsons disease Hoehn & Yahr stage I–II.

  19. Overlapping DNA methylation dynamics in mouse intestinal cell differentiation and early stages of malignant progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Forn

    Full Text Available Mouse models of intestinal crypt cell differentiation and tumorigenesis have been used to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying both processes. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark and plays an important role in cell identity and differentiation programs and cancer. To get insights into the dynamics of cell differentiation and malignant transformation we have compared the DNA methylation profiles along the mouse small intestine crypt and early stages of tumorigenesis. Genome-scale analysis of DNA methylation together with microarray gene expression have been applied to compare intestinal crypt stem cells (EphB2high, differentiated cells (EphB2negative, ApcMin/+ adenomas and the corresponding non-tumor adjacent tissue, together with small and large intestine samples and the colon cancer cell line CT26. Compared with late stages, small intestine crypt differentiation and early stages of tumorigenesis display few and relatively small changes in DNA methylation. Hypermethylated loci are largely shared by the two processes and affect the proximities of promoter and enhancer regions, with enrichment in genes associated with the intestinal stem cell signature and the PRC2 complex. The hypermethylation is progressive, with minute levels in differentiated cells, as compared with intestinal stem cells, and reaching full methylation in advanced stages. Hypomethylation shows different signatures in differentiation and cancer and is already present in the non-tumor tissue adjacent to the adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice, but at lower levels than advanced cancers. This study provides a reference framework to decipher the mechanisms driving mouse intestinal tumorigenesis and also the human counterpart.

  20. Progestin Intrauterine Devices and Metformin: Endometrial Hyperplasia and Early Stage Endometrial Cancer Medical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanodi, Oroma

    2017-07-08

    Globally, endometrial cancer is the sixth leading cause of female cancer-related deaths. Non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia (EH), has a lifetime progression rate to endometrial cancer ranging from less than 5%, if simple without atypia, to 40%, if complex with atypia. Site specific, long-acting intrauterine devices (IUDs) provide fertility sparing, progestin-based EH medical management. It is unclear which IUD is most beneficial, or if progesterone sensitizing metformin offers improved outcomes. For resolution, PubMed searches for "Mirena" or "Metformin," "treatment," "endometrial hyperplasia," or "stage 1 endometrial cancer," were performed, yielding 33 articles. Of these, 19 articles were included. The 60 mg high-dose frameless IUD/20 mcg levonorgestrel has achieved sustained regression of Grade 3 endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia for 14 years. Case series on early stage endometrial cancer (EC) treatment with IUDs have 75% or greater regression rates. For simple through complex EH with atypia, the 52 mg-IUD/10-20 mcg-LNG-14t has achieved 100% complete regression in 6-months. Clearly, IUDs have an outcome advantage over oral progestins. However, studies on metformin for EH, and of progestins or metformin for early stage EC management are underpowered, with inadequate dose ranges to achieve significant differences in, or optimal outcomes for, the treatment modalities. Therefore, outcomes from the feMMe trial for the 52 mg-IUD/10-20 mcg-LNG-14t and metformin will fill a gap in the literature.

  1. Does estrogen receptor determination affect prognosis in early stage breast cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Nilufer; Altundag, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    ER+ and ER- tumors exhibit different histopathological and clinical properties. Receptor determination exists as a marker with predictive value rather than prognostic importance. Patients with invasive breast cancer (n=2849) were investigated retrospectively between 1981 and 2013. Patients were separated to four subgroups, as follows: ER+; non-luminal HER2+; ER-/PR-/HER2-; ER-PR+. We investigated the effects of ER positivity on long-term survival in breast cancers, by considering their pathological properties, surgical method applications, chemotherapy preferences, and combined hormonal treatments with regard to ER, PR and HER2 status. ER+ cases were premenopausal, and they existed with low-grade, small-sized and early stage tumors (P0.05). Furthermore, recurrence risk rose significantly when age, tumor stage and tumor grade increased (P<0.05). ER+ tumors are observed in women of advanced age, but have a good clinical response. Currently, receptor determination is still generally preferred as a practical application. ER analysis in the early stage breast cancers for women of advanced ages must be considered as an indicator of anti-estrogenic therapy administration, rather than prognostic importance. PMID:26885091

  2. Active compressive intraoceanic deformation: early stages of ophiolites emplacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias; Montési, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    investigate the very early stages of formation of faulted oceanic bodies that may further be incorporated into mountain belts as ophiolites. They allow to discuss rates and duration of deformation, diffuse vs localized deformation, re-activation vs neo-formed faults, serpentinization and thermal regime, spacing of minor and major thrust faults. Delescluse, M., L. G. J. Montesi, and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Fault reactivation and selective abandonment in the oceanic lithosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 35. Delescluse, M., and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Serpentinization pulse in the actively deforming Central Indian Basin. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 276, p. 140-151. Eittreim, S. L., and J. Ewing (1972), Mid-Plate Tectonics in the Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 77(32), 6413-6421.

  3. Early-stage primary school children attending a school in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) have better reversal learning and lean muscle mass growth than those attending a non-SFP school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Owen W W; Duffy, Maresa E; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Davidson, Philip W; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; O'Brien, Gerard M

    2013-08-01

    In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6-8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children.

  4. 76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... the ``Early Stage SBIC'' definition. Third, an Early Stage SBIC must invest at least 50 percent of its... the second phase only if SBA issues a ``green light'' letter inviting them to do so. In the standard licensing process, the green light letter is valid for 18 months, allowing the applicant time to raise...

  5. To Stay or to Go? Narratives of Early-Stage Sociologists about Persisting in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhrer, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyses of life course questionnaires, semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group interviews carried out with early-stage sociologists over a period of 8 years, this paper presents analyzes of continuity and change in the decisions made by early-stage researchers in regard to their work and careers. The longitudinal approach…

  6. A robust prognostic gene expression signature for early stage lung adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzystanek, Marcin; Moldvay, Judit; Szüts, David

    2016-01-01

    Stage I lung adenocarcinoma is usually not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy; however, around half of these patients do not survive 5 years. Therefore, a reliable prognostic biomarker for early stage patients would be critical to identify those most likely to benefit from early additional treatm...

  7. Prognostic Model for Survival in Patients With Early Stage Cervical Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, Petra; van der Velden, Jacobus; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Schilthuis, Marten S.; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Burger, Matthé P. M.; Buist, Marrije R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the management of early stage cervical cancer, knowledge about the prognosis is critical. Although many factors have an impact on survival, their relative importance remains controversial. This study aims to develop a prognostic model for survival in early stage cervical cancer

  8. Targeted labeling of early-​stage tumor spheroid in chorioallantoic membrane model with upconversion nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, K.; Holz, J.A.; Ding, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Tu, L.; Kong, X.; Priem, B.; Nadort, A.; Lambrechts, S.A.G.; Aalders, M.C.G.; Buma, W.J.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo detection of cancer at early-​stage, i.e. smaller than 2 mm, is a challenge in biomedicine. In this work target labeling of early-​stage tumor spheroid (∼500 μm) is realized for the first time in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with monoclonal antibody functionalized

  9. Prognostic significance of TBL1XR1 in predicting liver metastasis for early stage colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongda; Xu, Yunfei; Zhang, Qun; Yang, Hui; Shi, Weichen; Liu, Zhaochen; Li, Kangshuai; Gong, Zheng; Ning, Shanglei; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yuxin

    2017-03-01

    Liver metastasis is the leading cause of lethal colorectal cancer (CRC). For patients with early stage CRC, metachronous liver metastasis is the primary risk for poor prognosis. Accordingly, identification of prospective biomarkers for metachronous liver metastasis would be invaluable in evaluating patients' clinical outcomes and developing personal treatment therapy. Here we investigated the role of transducin (β)-like 1 X-linked receptor 1 (TBL1XR1) in predicting liver metastasis for early stage CRC. To accomplish this goal, a multi-center retrospective study was performed which included three stages: exploration stage (43 patients), identification stage (162 patients) and validation stage (38 patients). TBL1XR1 expression was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining and RT-qPCR. The prognostic significance of TBL1XR1 in both stage IV CRC patients and early stage CRC patients were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariate analysis, respectively. For stage IV CRC patients, TBL1XR1 expression was correlated with the number of liver metastases (P = 0.036), and high levels of TBL1XR1 in liver metastases indicated poor overall survival (P = 0.028). Moreover, high expressions of TBL1XR1 can serve as a predictor for liver metastasis in early stage CRC patients (P = 0.003). TBL1XR1 is a promising biomarker for predicting liver metastasis in early stage CRC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Setting the Stage for Lifetime Physical Activity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Holly; Lounsbery, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale and suggestions for emphasizing health-related physical education in preschool settings. In order to accomplish this, it will examine what is currently known about early childhood physical activity, as well as the existing professional preparation and accreditation standards for early childhood…

  11. Oxidative stress tolerance of early stage diabetic endothelial progenitor cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sukmawati

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Primitive BM-EPCs showed vasculogenic dysfunction in early diabetes. However the oxidative stress is not denoted as the major initiating factor of its cause. Our results suggest that primitive BM-KSL cell has the ability to compensate oxidative stress levels in early diabetes by increasing the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes.

  12. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  13. A spectrum of genes expressed during early stages of rice panicle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To unravel gene expression patterns during rice inflorescence development, particularly at early stages of panicle and floral organ specification, we have characterized random cloned cDNAs from developmental-stage-specific libraries. cDNA libraries were constructed from rice panicles at the stage of branching and flower ...

  14. Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed Ahmed; Skoetz, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined modality treatment (CMT) consisting of chemotherapy followed by localised radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, due to long term adverse effects such as secondary malignancies, the role of radiotherapy has been...... chemotherapy regimen plus radiotherapy. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing chemotherapy alone with CMT in patients with early stage HL. Trials in which the chemotherapy differed between treatment arms were excluded. Trials with more than 20% of patients in advanced stage were also...

  15. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Portella; Sergio Machado; Oscar Arias-Carrión; Sack, Alexander T.; Julio Guilherme Silva; Marco Orsini; Marco Antonio Araujo Leite; Adriana Cardoso Silva; Nardi, Antonio E.; Mauricio Cagy; Roberto Piedade; Pedro Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a vis...

  16. Inter-scan and inter-observer tumour volume delineation variability on cone beam computed tomography in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Lee, Stephanie; Agrawal, Vishesh; Romano, John; Baldini, Elizabeth H; Chen, Aileen B; Kozono, David E; Killoran, Joseph H; Wagar, Matthew; Hacker, Fred L; Aerts, Hugo Jwl; Lewis, John H; Mak, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Quantification of volume changes on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and for adaptive treatment planning. This study quantifies inter-scan and inter-observer variability in tumour volume delineation on CBCT. Three clinicians independently contoured the primary gross tumour volume (GTV) manually on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (post) for 19 NSCLC patients. Relative volume differences (RVD) were calculated between the pre- and post-CBCTs for a given treatment and between any two of three observers for a given CBCT. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to quantitatively measure and compare the extent of variability. Inter-observer variability had a significantly higher CV of 0.15 ± 0.13 compared to inter-scan CV of 0.03 ± 0.04 with P volume delineation on CBCT with greatest variability for small tumours (volume change during SBRT treatment for tumours with diameter greater than 2 cm, with larger thresholds needed for smaller tumours. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  17. Lack of miRNA misregulation at early pathological stages in Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eReinhardt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Late onset neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health concern as the population in many countries ages. Both frequent diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD, 14% incidence for 80-84 year old Europeans or Parkinson disease (PD, 1.4% prevalence for > 55 years old share, with other low-incidence neurodegenerative pathologies such as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs, 0.01% prevalence and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, 0.02% prevalence, a lack of efficient treatment in spite of important research efforts. Besides significant progress, studies with animal models have revealed unexpected complexities in the degenerative process, emphasizing a need to better understand the underlying pathological mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs, a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. The current data supporting a role of miRNAs in PD, tauopathies, dominant ataxias and FTLD will first be discussed to emphasize the different levels of the pathological processes which may be affected by miRNAs. To investigate a potential involvement of miRNA dysregulation in the early stages of these neurodegenerative diseases we have used Drosophila models for 7 diseases (PD, 3 FTLD, 3 dominant ataxias that recapitulate many features of the human diseases. We performed deep sequencing of head small RNAs after 3 days of pathological protein expression in the fly head neurons. We found no evidence for a statistically significant difference in miRNA expression in this early stage of the pathological process. In addition, we could not identify small non coding CAG repeat RNAs (sCAG in polyQ disease models. Thus our data suggest that transcriptional deregulation of miRNAs or sCAG is unlikely to play a significant role in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Early Stage Diagnosis of Oral Cancer Using 1H NMR–Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Tiziani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and represents a significant disease burden. If detected at an early stage, survival from oral cancer is better than 90% at 5 years, whereas late stage disease survival is only 30%. Therefore, there is an obvious clinical utility for novel metabolic markers that help to diagnose oral cancer at an early stage and to monitor treatment response. In the current study, blood samples of oral cancer patients were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to derive a metabolic signature for oral cancer. Using multivariate chemometric analysis, we obtained an excellent discrimination between serum samples from cancer patients and from a control group and could also discriminate between different stages of disease. The metabolic profile obtained for oral cancer is significant, even for early stage disease and relatively small tumors. This suggests a systemic metabolic response to cancer, which bears great potential for early diagnosis.

  20. Raman spectroscopy based investigation of molecular changes associated with an early stage of dengue virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Maria; Bilal, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Khurram, Muhammad; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ali, Hina; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Shahzada, Shaista; Ullah Khan, Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy based investigations of the molecular changes associated with an early stage of dengue virus infection (DENV) using a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is presented. This study is based on non-structural protein 1 (NS1) which appears after three days of DENV infection. In total, 39 blood sera samples were collected and divided into two groups. The control group contained samples which were the negative for NS1 and antibodies and the positive group contained those samples in which NS1 is positive and antibodies were negative. Out of 39 samples, 29 Raman spectra were used for the model development while the remaining 10 were kept hidden for blind testing of the model. PLS regression yielded a vector of regression coefficients as a function of Raman shift, which were analyzed. Cytokines in the region 775-875 cm-1, lectins at 1003, 1238, 1340, 1449 and 1672 cm-1, DNA in the region 1040-1140 cm-1 and alpha and beta structures of proteins in the region 933-967 cm-1 have been identified in the regression vector for their role in an early stage of DENV infection. Validity of the model was established by its R-square value of 0.891. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100% each and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was found to be 1.

  1. Early stage detection of β→α transition in Sn by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarek, Agata, E-mail: askwarek@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland); Zachariasz, Piotr [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland); Żukrowski, Jan [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Center for Materials and Nanotechnology, A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Synkiewicz, Beata; Witek, Krzysztof [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for the early stage detection of the β→α transition (tin pest) in Sn matrix. The results were compared with the data from X-ray diffraction and a variance in the sensitivity for both methods has been proven. Mössbauer spectroscopy is more responsive method than XRD to tin pest finding and with possible detection level of even 1.8%. Furthermore, in reference sample, suspected to be pure α-Sn, large content of white tin (β-Sn), even after 6 years of exposure at sub-zero temperature, has been identified. 48% of α-Sn phase but also 52% of non-transferred β-Sn has been still detectable. - Highlights: • β→α transition (tin pest) could completely disintegrate Sn-rich material. • Early stage detection of β→α transition still exhibits substantial difficulties. • Mössbauer spectroscopy is very sensitive method in detection of β→α transition in Sn matrix. • Different values of Mössbauer-Lamb factors for β and α-Sn allow to detect tin pest at the level of 1.8%.

  2. Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Swimming speed alteration in the early developmental stages of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin as ecotoxicological endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgana, Silvia; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Pronzato, Roberto; Garaventa, Francesca; Faimali, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral endpoints have been used for decades to assess chemical impacts at concentrations unlikely to cause mortality. With recently developed techniques, it is possible to investigate the swimming behavior of several organisms under laboratory conditions. The aims of this study were: i) assessing for the first time the feasibility of swimming speed analysis of the early developmental stage sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by an automatic recording system ii) investigating any Swimming Speed Alteration (SSA) on P. lividus early stages exposed to a chemical reference; iii) identifying the most suitable stage for SSA test. Results show that the swimming speed of all the developmental stages was easily recorded. The swimming speed was inhibited as a function of toxicant concentration. Pluteus were the most appropriate stage for evaluating SSA in P. lividus as ecotoxicological endpoint. Finally, swimming of sea urchin early stages represents a sensitive endpoint to be considered in ecotoxicological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Redefining radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer with single dose ablative treatment: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaghvandi, R K; van Asselen, B; Philippens, M E P; Verkooijen, H M; van Gils, C H; van Diest, P J; Pijnappel, R M; Hobbelink, M G G; Witkamp, A J; van Dalen, T; van der Wall, E; van Heijst, T C; Koelemij, R; van Vulpen, M; van den Bongard, H J G D

    2017-03-09

    A shift towards less burdening and more patient friendly treatments for breast cancer is currently ongoing. In low-risk patients with early-stage disease, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an alternative for whole breast irradiation following breast-conserving surgery. MRI-guided single dose ablative APBI has the potential to offer a minimally burdening, non-invasive treatment that could replace current breast-conserving therapy. The ABLATIVE study is a prospective, single arm, multicenter study evaluating preoperative, single dose, ablative radiation treatment in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Patients with core biopsy proven non-lobular invasive breast cancer, (estrogen receptor positive, Her2 negative, maximum tumor size 3.0 cm on diagnostic MRI) and a negative sentinel node biopsy are eligible. Radiotherapy (RT) planning will be performed using a contrast enhanced (CE) planning CT-scan, co-registered with a CE-MRI, both in supine RT position. A total of twenty-five consecutive patients will be treated with a single ablative RT dose of 20 Gy to the tumor and 15 Gy to the tumorbed. Follow-up MRIs are scheduled within 1 week, 2, 4 and 6 months after single-dose RT. Breast-conserving surgery is scheduled at six months following RT. Primary study endpoint is pathological complete response. Secondary study endpoints are the radiological response and toxicity. Furthermore, patients will fill out questionnaires on quality of life and functional status. Cosmetic outcome will be evaluated by the treating radiation oncologist, patient and 'Breast Cancer Conservation Treatment cosmetic results' software. Recurrence and survival rates will be assessed. The patients will be followed up to 10 years after diagnosis. If patients give additional informed consent, a biopsy and a part of the irradiated specimen will be stored at the local Biobank and used for future research on radiotherapy response associated genotyping. The ABLATIVE study evaluates

  5. Has lymphography a role in early stage testicular germ cell tumours?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, N.J.H. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sandeman, T.F.; McKenzie, A.F. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Inst., Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Depts. of Radiation Oncology and Diagnostic Imaging

    1995-02-01

    A retrospective study was performed of 183 newly diagnosed seminoma cases and 73 newly diagnosed non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) presenting from 1985 to 1989 to a tertiary referral cancer hospital. The purpose was to assess the contribution of bipedal lymphography (LG) to the management of these patients. As the main value of LG is in detecting small retroperitoneal lymph node (LN) metastases, analysis concentrated upon early stage disease, specifically N{sub 0} and N{sub 1a} LN disease. Comparison between LG results, abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT), final clinical stage and treatment outcome was performed. We found that with the LG and APCT criteria used (filling defects > 2 mm and LN diameter >20 mm, respectively), LG was much more sensitive in disease detection. However, with modern techniques APCT can reliably detect disease 10 mm or greater. In addition, tumour marker status, primary tumour vascular invasion status and initial clinical examination were each more important in staging NSGCT disease than LG alone. Thus, LG is now rarely used in our institution but we will have to monitor our excellent survival data to confirm that this change in policy is warranted. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Early stage leucocytosis in Nigerian pigs experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential leukocyte changes associated with early phase of Trypanosoma brucei infection were investigated in indigenous Nigerian pigs. This was with the view to providing further hematological basis for effective chemotherapy of natural porcine trypanosomosis and to assessing the possible roles of leukocytes in ...

  7. Original Paper Early stage leucocytosis in Nigerian pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential leukocyte changes associated with early phase of Trypanosoma brucei infection were investigated in indigenous Nigerian pigs. This was with the view to providing further hematological basis for effective chemotherapy of natural porcine trypanosomosis and to assessing the possible roles of leukocytes in.

  8. A Plasma Biomarker Panel to Identify Surgically Resectable Early-Stage Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasenthil, Seetharaman; Huang, Ying; Liu, Suyu; Marsh, Tracey; Chen, Jinyun; Stass, Sanford A; KuKuruga, Debra; Brand, Randall; Chen, Nanyue; Frazier, Marsha L; Jack Lee, J; Srivastava, Sudhir; Sen, Subrata; McNeill Killary, Ann

    2017-08-01

    Blood-based biomarkers for early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are urgently needed. Current biomarkers lack high sensitivity and specificity for population screening. The gold-standard biomarker, CA 19-9, also fails to demonstrate the predictive value necessary for early detection. To validate a functional genomics-based plasma migration signature biomarker panel, plasma tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), tenascin C (TNC-FN III-C), and CA 19-9 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in three early-stage PDAC plasma cohorts, including two independent blinded validation cohorts containing a total of 43 stage I, 163 stage II, 86 chronic pancreatitis, 31 acute biliary obstruction, and 108 controls. Logistic regression models developed classification rules combining TFPI and/or TNC-FN III-C with CA 19-9 for patient cases and control subjects, with or without adjustment for age and diabetes status. Model classification performance was evaluated and analyses repeated among subpopulations without diabetes and pancreatitis history. Two-sided P values were calculated using bootstrap method. The TFPI/TNC-FN III-C/CA 19-9 panel improved CA 19-9 performance in all early-stage cohorts, including discriminating stage IA/IB/IIA, stage IIB, and all early-stage cancer from healthy controls. Statistical significance was reached for a number of subcohorts, including for all early-stage cancer vs healthy controls (cohort 1 AUC = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.86 to 0.96, P  = .04; cohort 3 AUC = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.89, P  = .045). Among subcohorts without diabetes and pancreatitis history, the panel approaches potential clinical utility for early detection to discriminate early-stage PDAC from healthy controls including an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87 (95% CI = 0.77 to 0.95) for stage I/IIA, an AUC of 0.93 (95% CI = 0.87 to 0.98) for stage IIB, and a statistically significant AUC of 0.89 (95% CI = 0

  9. [Anxiety-phobic disorders in the early childhood stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, O M; Kozlovskaia, G V; Proselkova, M O

    2012-01-01

    The complex of such phenomena as anxiety and fear in children of the early age and their relationship with risk factors for psychic pathology were investigated. Eighty cases of anxiety-phobic disorders in children of the first five years of life were studied. The types of behavioral and somatic reactions that allowed to reveal not only the clinically expressed phenomena of anxiety and fear but the higher readiness to them were described. The first anxiety-phobic reactions appeared at the age when emotional functions were not completely formed and might be considered as the presentations of emotional dysontogenesis. The authors assume that characteristics of fear expression in the early age allow to suspect a mental disease which might be timely diagnosed in case of its manifestation. The conclusions made in the paper may be useful for clinical practice of pediatricians, children neurologists, psychologists and psychiatrists.

  10. Alignment Verification in the Early Stage of Service Design

    OpenAIRE

    Tapandjieva, Gorica; Filipponi, Matteo; Wegmann, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Verification is a costly task, sometimes burdensome and tedious, requiring strong formal background. To reduce the effort and cost invested in verification, we developed a model-driven approach for automatic verification of service properties, done in the early service design phase. Our approach is based on SEAM, a service modeling method, and it incorporates a verification system called Leon. With our approach service designers do not need substantial understanding of specific formal and ver...

  11. Relationship Stages in Early Intervention Practice for Children with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Clare; Sixsmith, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Background: While a lot is known about the value of relationships in family-centered care for children infants and preschoolers with disabilities insufficient attention has been paid to this in the context of Early Intervention (EI) service provision and practice.  Within EI practice, there is an expectation that parents and professionals collaborate and form partnerships to engage in an integrated way.   This study aimed to understand the process constructs that underpin EI practice in Irela...

  12. Discriminating patients with early-stage pancreatic cancer or chronic pancreatitis using serum electrospray mass profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocker, James R.; Postier, Russell G.; Li, Min; Lerner, Megan R.; Lightfoot, Stan A.; Peyton, Marvin D.; Deb, Subrato J.; Baker, Candace M.; Williams, Travis L.; Hanas, Rushie Jane; Stowell, Donald E.; Lander, Theresa J.; Brackett, Daniel J.; Hanas, Jay S.

    2015-01-01

    Blood tests are needed to aid in the early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and monitoring pancreatitis development into malignancy especially in high risk patients. This study exhibits efforts and progress toward developing such blood tests, using electrospray-mass spectrometry (MS) serum profiling to distinguish patients with early-stage PDAC or pancreatitis from each other and from controls. Identification of significant serum mass peak differences between these individuals was performed using t tests and “leave one out” cross validation. Serum mass peak distributions of control individuals were distinguished from those of patients with chronic pancreatitis or early-stage PDAC with P values early-stage PDAC with a P value stages I, IIA and IIB were blindly validated from controls. Tandem MS/MS identified a cancer phenotype with elements of PDAC involved in early-stage PDAC/control discrimination. These studies indicate electrospray-MS mass profiling can detect serum changes in patients with pancreatitis or early-stage pancreatic cancer. Such technology has the potential to aid in early detection of pancreatic cancer, biomarker development, and in monitoring development of pancreatitis into PDAC. PMID:25637792

  13. Promising clinical practices of metformin in women with PCOS and early-stage endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Shao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS have a high risk of developing endometrial cancer (EC. There is an urgent need for non-surgical prevention and treatment strategies for these patients who fail to respond to progesterone treatment and wish to preserve their fertility. Recently, we have reported that the combined treatment with metformin and progesterone-based oral contraceptives has successfully reversed the early-stage EC into normal endometria in addition to improvement of insulin resistance in women with PCOS. More importantly, one of these treated women has successfully delivered a healthy newborn baby. However, before such treatment can be recommended to the clinical practice, the molecular basis of metformin in the endometrium under physiological and pathological conditions must be elucidated.

  14. Laparoscopic Radical Hysterectomy in Early Stage Cervical Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Hang, Bo; Xiong, Guang-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Wei

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the value of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (LRH) in the treatment of early stage cervical cancer by comparing intraoperative and postoperative outcomes with abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH). We searched the Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, through February 2, 2016 with keywords of "laparoscopic OR laparoscopy" AND "radical hysterectomy OR early cervical cancer OR stage IB, stage IB1, stage IB2, stage IIA, stage IIA1, stage IIA2, stage IIA cervical cancer" to identify all relevant studies that compared LRH with ARH in treating early cervical cancer. Two reviewers evaluated the quality of literature independently. Standardized tables were used to extract data (study or participant details and results) from the texts, tables, figures, or any other attachments of eligible publications. Weighted mean differences (MDs) and odds ratios (ORs) were pooled with the random effects model. Then we conducted meta-analysis using the RevMan5.3 software. A total of 615 studies were initially identified. After screening, 23 studies, including 4205 patients were recruited. LRH was associated with lower estimated blood loss (mL) (MD = -178.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -214.89 to -141.94, P early stage cervical cancer in most essential aspects, which should arouse sufficient attention.

  15. Non-albuminuric renal disease among subjects with advanced stages of chronic kidney failure related to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, Mauro; García-Cantón, César; Quevedo, Virginia; Lorenzo, Dionisio L; López-Ríos, Laura; Batista, Fátima; Riaño, Marta; Saavedra, Pedro; Checa, María D

    2014-03-01

    Urinary albumin excretion has been consistently found to be normal in a significant number of subjects with early stages of diabetic kidney disease. This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of non-albuminuric chronic kidney disease associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus among subjects who reach advanced stages of renal failure. Study population was composed of incident patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (glomerular filtration rate chronic kidney disease, characteristically women, have normal urinary albumin excretion. HbA1c and polyneuropathy are inversely related to this non-albuminuric form of nephropathy.

  16. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  17. Ultrastructure of the early stages of Colletotrichum acutatum infection of strawberry tissues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arroyo, Francisco T; Moreno, Javier; Garcia-Herdugo, Gregorio; Santos, Berta D.l; Barrau, Carmen; Porras, Maria; Blanco, Cesar; Romero, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The early stages of the infection of attached leaves and petioles of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. 'Camarosa') by Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy...

  18. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  19. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  20. Neuroinflammation and regeneration in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, J. J. M.; Veerhuis, R.; Rozemuller, J. M.; Eikelenboom, P.

    2006-01-01

    The initial stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology in the neocortex show upregulation of cell cycle proteins, adhesion and inflammation related factors, indicating the early involvement of inflammatory and regenerating pathways in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. These brain changes precede the

  1. New NIA Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents ... you have a family member or friends with Alzheimer's disease? Are you wondering what they're going ...

  2. Selected Fertility Indices of Topsoil Impacted By Early Stage Erosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the effect of rill erosion on soil fertility in Isuikwuato, Ohafia, Ukwa East and Ikwuano LGAs in Abia state, Nigeria. In each location, five composite topsoil samples of 0 – 20 cm depth were collected from sites which exhibited surface erosion and compared with non eroded soils of the same location.

  3. Formal Verification Toolkit for Requirements and Early Design Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Julia M.; Miller, Sheena Judson

    2011-01-01

    Efficient flight software development from natural language requirements needs an effective way to test designs earlier in the software design cycle. A method to automatically derive logical safety constraints and the design state space from natural language requirements is described. The constraints can then be checked using a logical consistency checker and also be used in a symbolic model checker to verify the early design of the system. This method was used to verify a hybrid control design for the suit ports on NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Exploration Vehicle against safety requirements.

  4. Early and Late Stage Metals and Sulfides in Diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideras, L. C.; Domanik, K. J.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Diogenites are typically highly brecciated orthopyroxenites that contain 84-100 vol.% orthopyroxene. Common accessory minerals include olivine, chromite, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase, silica, troilite and Fe-Ni metal. Metal and sulfides are minor phases in diogenites with an average abundance of copper and copper sulfide minerals; ii) Textural evidence that at least some of the metal and sulfide occurring interstitially between, and as inclusions within, orthopyroxene formed from an early immiscible sulfide-oxide liquid; iii) That this sulfide- oxide liquid subsequently fractionated into assemblages containing either Fe-Ni metal, troilite, and chromite or pentlandite, troilite, and copper-bearing sulfide.

  5. White Matter Deterioration May Foreshadow Impairment of Emotional Valence Determination in Early-Stage Dementia of the Alzheimer Type

    OpenAIRE

    Rajmohan, Ravi; Anderson, Ronald C.; Fang, Dan; Meyer, Austin G.; Laengvejkal, Pavis; Julayanont,Parunyou; Hannabas, Greg; Linton, Kitten; Culberson, John; Khan, Hafiz M. R.; Toledo, John De; Reddy, P. Hemachandra; O’Boyle, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In Alzheimer Disease (AD), non-verbal skills often remain intact for far longer than verbally mediated processes. Four (1 female, 3 males) participants with early-stage Clinically Diagnosed Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (CDDAT) and eight neurotypicals (NTs; 4 females, 4 males) completed the emotional valence determination test (EVDT) while undergoing BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We expected CDDAT participants to perform just as well as NTs on the EVDT, and to display in...

  6. Circulating Tumor DNA in Predicting Outcomes in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer or Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  7. Early stage cervical cancer: psychosocial and sexual outcomes of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, A; Cowie, V J; Farquharson, D I; Livingstone, J R; Smart, G E; Elton, R A

    1993-12-01

    Eighty-three women, mean age 45 years, successfully treated by surgery (S) or radiotherapy (RT) for stage 1b cervical cancer were assessed a mean of 97 weeks post treatment. Forty to 50% reported persistent tiredness, lack of energy and weight gain. Sixty per cent had not resumed their full premorbid functional status. Mean scores for anxiety and depression were higher than general population means and this sample scored higher for psychological distress than published data quoted for disease free cancer patients. These women reported many concerns about cervical cancer, most commonly fear of recurrent disease (91%). More than one-third blamed themselves for the disease. There were no significant differences in functional outcome or psychological status between treatment groups or by age or time since treatment. Psychological distress scores were significantly correlated with physical complaints (P attention to their psychological and sexual concerns.

  8. Brain activation profiles during the early stages of reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Fletcher, Jack M; Foorman, Barbara R; Francis, David J; Castillo, Eduardo M; Davis, Robert N; Fitzgerald, Michele; Mathes, Patricia G; Denton, Carolyn; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2002-03-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time the presence of an aberrant brain mechanism for reading in children who have just started acquiring reading skills. Children who, at the end of kindergarten, are found to be at risk for developing reading problems display markedly different activation profiles than children who have, at this stage, already mastered important prereading skills. This aberrant profile is characterized by the lack of engagement of the left-hemisphere superior temporal region, an area normally involved in converting print into sound, and an increase in activation in the corresponding right-hemisphere region. This finding is consistent with current cognitive models of reading acquisition and dyslexia, pointing to the critical role of phonologic awareness skills in learning to read.

  9. AB103. Prostatectomy versus active surveillance for early stage prostate cancer: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, You; Fu, Shengjun; Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival effect between radical prostatectomy (RP) and active surveillance (AS) for the treatment of early stage prostate cancer. Method Randomized controlled trials were computerized searched from Medline, Cochrane Library, ISI web of knowledge, Science Direct, Google scholar, CBM database for the evaluation of prognosis of treatment for early stage prostate cancer?RP versus AS. Prognosis of the treatment includes all-cause mortality, prostate cancer specific mortali...

  10. Serum markers in early-stage and locally advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugowska, Iwona; Kowalska, Maria; Fuksiewicz, Małgorzata; Kotowicz, Beata; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Koseła-Paterczyk, Hanna; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The identification of prognostic factors in cutaneous melanoma allows choosing the most effective treatment, especially in group of patients with locoregional disease. Markers related to carcinogenesis and angiogenesis in particular have effect on the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical utility of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and YKL-40 in serum of melanoma patients at pathological stages I-III. We included 148 adult patients with melanoma. The median follow-up was 40 months. Disease recurrence was observed in 43 patients; 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 71.7%; 35 patients died; and the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 85%. Concentrations of VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and YKL-40 were measured by ELISA kits. VEGF, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and YKL-40 were significantly higher in group of patients than in controls. Increased concentrations of TIMP-1 were related to patient survival, which in the group of lower and increased TIMP-1, disease-free survival amounted to 81 vs. 61% (p = 0.014) and overall survival -88 vs. 82% (p = 0.050), respectively. An increased concentration of YKL-40 was observed in 59% of patients with ulceration and in 26% of patients without ulceration (p = 0.012). We have found a clinically significant correlation between YKL-40 and MMP-9 (rho = 0.363; p = 0.004) as well as YKL-40 and VEGF (rho = 0.306; p = 0.018). In melanoma patients at stages I-III, the high concentrations of TIMP-1 in serum predicted adverse prognosis. YKL-40 was associated with ulceration of primary tumor, which is a very important prognostic factor.

  11. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  12. Macular micropseudocysts in early stages of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolada, Gemma; Pierro, Luisa; de Benedetto, Umberto; Margari, Sergio; Gagliardi, Marco; Maestranzi, Gisella; Calori, Giliola; Lorenzi, Mara; Lattanzio, Rosangela

    2011-01-01

    To identify by noninvasive means early retinal abnormalities that may predict diabetic macular edema. The authors analyzed retrospectively data from consecutive patients with Type 1 (n = 16) or Type 2 (n = 23) diabetes who presented for routine follow-up of early retinopathy, had no clinical signs or symptoms of diabetic macular edema, and were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Age- and gender-matched nondiabetic subjects provided normative data. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed in the macular region of diabetic patients small hyporeflective areas (median diameter, 55 μm) contained within discrete retinal layers that we named micropseudocysts (MPCs). Micropseudocysts are associated with vascular leakage. The patients showing MPCs had more frequently systemic hypertension and increased central foveal thickness than those without MPCs. The association with increased central foveal thickness was only in the patients with Type 2 diabetes. Macular MPCs in patients with mild diabetic retinopathy appear to reflect leakage and can precede macular thickening. The association of MPCs with increased central foveal thickness in patients with Type 2 diabetes, but not in patients with Type 1 diabetes, points to a greater tendency to retinal fluid accumulation in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Studies in larger cohorts will determine the usefulness of MPCs in strategies to abort diabetic macular edema.

  13. Familiarity and Emotional Expression Influence an Early Stage of Face Processing: An Electrophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caharel, Stephanie; Courtay, Nolwenn; Bernard, Christian; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Recent data indicate that the familiarity and the emotional expression of faces occur at an early stage of information processing. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these two aspects interact at the structural encoding stage as reflected by the N170 component of event-related potentials in tasks requiring the subjects either…

  14. Prognostic Factors and Treatment of Early-stage Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käsmann, Lukas; Bolm, Louisa; Janssen, Stefan; Rades, Dirk

    2017-03-01

    Only 0.1-0.17% of all lung cancer patients are diagnosed with stage I or II small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Radiochemotherapy remains the standard treatment for limited stage disease. This study focused on prognostic factors in early stage SCLC treated with radiochemotherapy. Seven factors in eight patients with early stage SCLC were analyzed concerning the impact on overall survival, namely gender, age, Karnofsky performance score, N-category, UICC-stage, concurrent chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). Median overall survival was 46 months. On univariate analysis, UICC stage I (48 vs. 24 months, p=0.022) and PCI (48 vs. 20 months, p=0.004) were significantly associated with improved overall survival. On multivariate analysis, PCI was an independent positive prognostic factor (pstage and PCI were identified as significant predictors of survival in early stage SCLC. PCI qualified as an independent positive prognostic factor and should be administered in early-stage SCLC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Endoscopic Ultrasound Does Not Accurately Stage Early Adenocarcinoma or High-Grade Dysplasia of the Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY 2010;8:1037-1041 ORIGINAL ARTICLES- ALIMENTARY TRACT Endoscopic Ultrasound Does Not Accurately Stage Early... quality ; 8 had indi- vidual patiem-level data (n = 132). Compared with surgical or EMR pathology staging, EUS had T-stage concordance of 65%, including...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Endoscopic

  16. Travelers’ tales: magic and superstition on early modern European and London stages

    OpenAIRE

    Katritzky, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    This examination of early modern stage magic overviews its occurrence in the earliest type of mixed-gender professional theater, the Italian commedia dell’arte, discusses necromancers and stage magicians, and concludes by inquiring into the significance of magical impotence superstitions for the London stage. Drawing on travel journals and medical treatises as well as more familiar sources, it confirms that ‘travelers’ tales’ can represent an invaluable documentary resource for the theater hi...

  17. Hydrogenation of iron in the early stage of Earth's evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka-Oku, Riko; Yagi, Takehiko; Gotou, Hirotada; Okuchi, Takuo; Hattori, Takanori; Sano-Furukawa, Asami

    2017-01-01

    Density of the Earth's core is lower than that of pure iron and the light element(s) in the core is a long-standing problem. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the solar system and thus one of the important candidates. However, the dissolution process of hydrogen into iron remained unclear. Here we carry out high-pressure and high-temperature in situ neutron diffraction experiments and clarify that when the mixture of iron and hydrous minerals are heated, iron is hydrogenized soon after the hydrous mineral is dehydrated. This implies that early in the Earth's evolution, as the accumulated primordial material became hotter, the dissolution of hydrogen into iron occurred before any other materials melted. This suggests that hydrogen is likely the first light element dissolved into iron during the Earth's evolution and it may affect the behaviour of the other light elements in the later processes.

  18. Confined mobility in biomembranes modeled by early stage Brownian motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2014-08-01

    An equation of motion, derived from the fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory, makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for early times, before the Einstein formula becomes valid. The diffusion coefficient increases with the distance travelled which can be restricted by the geometrical conditions. The corresponding diffusion coefficient cannot increase further to achieve a value characteristic for unrestricted environment. Explicit formula is derived for confined diffusivity related to the unrestricted one as dependent on the maximum particle mean square displacement possible normalized by the square of its mean free path. The model describes the lipid and protein diffusion in tubular membranes with different radii, originally fitted by the modified Saffman-Delbrück equation, and the lateral mobility of synthetic model peptides for which the diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to the radius of the diffusing object and to the thickness of the membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthy, C

    2000-09-01

    The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms."

  20. Early Stage of Pulsed High Current Discharge with Copper Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takuma; Kuraoka, Takuya; Takano, Kazuya; Ibuka, Shinji; Yasuoka, Koichi; Ishii, Shozo

    Early phase of powder plasmas powered by a pulsed high current discharge was examined by use of high-speed cameras and a laser shadowgraph and schlieren techniques. Initial electrons created by a pre-ionization discharge collide with both an anode and powder particles, of which surfaces evaporate after then. Evaporation of the particle by electron collision initially occured in the hemisphere surface which is close to cathode side. Since vaporization of the anode far exceeds that of the particles, discharge characteristics is almost similar to that of vacuum sparks in which expanding anode plasmas are observed. In order to suppress the developpment of the anode plasma, reduction of the effective anode area by varying the anode shape was examined.

  1. Modelling early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggieri M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we model early time dynamics of relativistic heavy ion collisions by an initial color-electric field which then decays to a plasma by the Schwinger mechanism. The dynamics of the many particles system produced by the decay is described by relativistic kinetic theory, taking into account the backreaction on the color field by solving self-consistently the kinetic and the field equations. Our main results concern isotropization and thermalization for a 1+1D expanding geometry. In case of small η/s (η/s ≲ 0.3 we find τisotropization ≈ 0.8 fm/c and τthermalization ≈ 1 fm/c in agreement with the common lore of hydrodynamics.

  2. The impact of p53 on the early stage replication of retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnetz, Michaela; Alghamdi, Faris; Racz, Michael; Hu, Wenwei; Shi, Binshan

    2017-08-09

    The function of p53 in cancer biology has been studied extensively, but its role in anti-retrovirus infection has been elusive for many years. The restriction of retrovirus early stage replication by p53 was investigated in this study. VSV-G pseudotyped retrovirus with GFP reporter gene was used to infect both HCT116 p53(+/+) cells and its isogenic p53 knockout HCT116 p53(-/-) cells. The infection was detected by flow cytometry. Reverse transcription products were quantified by real time PCR. Mutation analysis was performed after 1-LTR cycle and 2-LTR cycle DNA were amplified and PCR products were sequenced. Transcription and translation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21(Cip1)) and SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) were analyzed by TaqMan PCR and Western blot experiments. siRNA experiment was applied to study the role of p53 downstream gene p21(Cip1) in the restriction of retrovirus infection. It was found that the block of retrovirus infection in non-cycling cells was significantly attenuated in HCT116 p53(-/-) cells when compared to HCT116 p53(+/+) cells. It was found that both late reverse transcription products and viral 2-LTR cycle DNA were significantly increased in infected non-cycling HCT116 p53(-/-) cells. Furthermore, the mutation frequency detected in 1-LTR DNA from HCT116 p53(+/+) cells were significantly decreased in comparison to HCT116 p53(-/-) cells. A higher number of insertion and deletion mutations were detected in the joint region of 2-LTR cycle DNA in infected p53(+/+) cells. Cell cycle analysis showed retrovirus infection promoted host cell replication. Higher levels of mRNA and protein of p21(Cip1) were found in HCT116 p53(+/+) cells in comparison to the HCT116 p53(-/-) cells. Furthermore, knockdown of p21(Cip1) in non-cycling HCT116 p53(+/+) cells significantly increased the infection. The results of this study showed that p53 is an important restriction factor that interferes with retrovirus infection in its

  3. Direct detection of early-stage cancers using circulating tumor DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phallen, Jillian; Sausen, Mark; Adleff, Vilmos; Leal, Alessandro; Hruban, Carolyn; White, James; Anagnostou, Valsamo; Fiksel, Jacob; Cristiano, Stephen; Papp, Eniko; Speir, Savannah; Reinert, Thomas; Orntoft, Mai-Britt Worm; Woodward, Brian D.; Murphy, Derek; Parpart-Li, Sonya; Riley, David; Nesselbush, Monica; Sengamalay, Naomi; Georgiadis, Andrew; Li, Qing Kay; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk; Mortensen, Frank Viborg; Huiskens, Joost; Punt, Cornelis; van Grieken, Nicole; Fijneman, Remond; Meijer, Gerrit; Husain, Hatim; Scharpf, Robert B.; Diaz, Luis A.; Jones, Siân; Angiuoli, Sam; Ørntoft, Torben; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Velculescu, Victor E.

    2017-01-01

    Early detection and intervention are likely to be the most effective means for reducing morbidity and mortality of human cancer. However, development of methods for noninvasive detection of early-stage tumors has remained a challenge. We have developed an approach called targeted error correction

  4. Advancing early detection of autism spectrum disorder by applying an integrated two-stage screening approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterling, I.J.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Visser, J.C.; Woudenberg, T.; Minderaa, R.B.; Steenhuis, M.P.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of

  5. Advancing early detection of autism spectrum disorder by applying an integrated two-stage screening approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of

  6. Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

  7. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  8. Cortical gyrification and sulcal spans in early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition.

  9. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengsi Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered—that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioural study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral and sociality (social, non-social, to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and

  10. Differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis between non-Hispanic white and Hispanic populations, San Diego County 1988-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, J R; Delfino, R J; Taylor, T H; Howe, S; Anton-Culver, H

    1998-07-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in the U.S. is lower among Hispanic women than non-Hispanic white women. However, population-based studies show that Hispanic women are more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage than non-Hispanic whites. We aimed to determine whether: 1) a lower proportion of breast cancer was diagnosed at early vs. late stages in Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic white women from 1988-93 in San Diego County, and 2) lower income is related to later stage at diagnosis for both groups. All incident cases of breast cancer in San Diego County from the California Cancer Registry (10,161 cases) were stratified by 'early' (in situ or localized) or 'late' (regional or distant) stage, and by race/ethnicity. Annual average age-adjusted incidence rates/100,000 (AAIR) were calculated. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) (AAIR for early stages divided by AAIR for late stages) were used as a surrogate of early detection. AAIRs for early and late stage disease were significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites (89.3, 42.3) than Hispanic women (46.7, 27.2). The IRR was significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites than Hispanics, (2.11 vs 1.72, p = 0.01). This difference was greatest among women under 50 years old (IRR difference 0.63), and not apparent for women 65 or older (IRR difference 0.06). There was also an association between increasing census tract per capita income and higher rates of early stage disease among non-Hispanic whites but not Hispanics. Results suggest that Hispanic women and lower income women should be targeted for early detection.

  11. Influence of hope, social support, and self-esteem in early stage dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Valerie T; Gonzalez, Elizabeth W; Fisher, Kathleen; Richards, Kathy C

    2018-02-01

    Background People in the early stages of dementia adjust to the illness through stages of awareness, coping, and evaluation. Studies have found that hope, social support, and self-esteem facilitate coping, adjustment, and adaptation in chronic illness. Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationships between hope, social support, and self-esteem in individuals with early stage dementia. Methods Data were obtained from 53 individuals with early stage dementia. The scores on the Herth Hope Index, Social Support Questionnaire Short-Form, and the State Self-Esteem Scale were analyzed using linear regression. Results Hope was moderately associated with self-esteem ( r = .49, p self-esteem and was a key component in predicting self-esteem. No significant relationship was found between social support and self-esteem. Conclusion Findings suggest that hope may be an important factor to help individuals manage potential threats to self-esteem in the experience of early stage dementia. Strategies to inspire hope and then enhance self-esteem are promising for individuals living with early stage dementia.

  12. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  13. Trust During the Early Stages of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREIMUTH, VICKI S.; MUSA, DON; HILYARD, KAREN; QUINN, SANDRA CROUSE; KIM, KEVIN

    2013-01-01

    Distrust of the government often stands in the way of cooperation with public health recommendations in a crisis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the public’s trust in government recommendations during the early stages of the H1N1 pandemic and identify factors that might account for these trust levels. We surveyed 1543 respondents about their experiences and attitudes related to H1N1 influenza between June 3, 2009 and July 6, 2009, during the first wave of the pandemic using the Knowledge Networks (KN) online panel. This panel is representative of the US population, and uses a combination of random-digit dial and address-based probability sampling frames covering 99% of the US household population to recruit participants. To ensure participation of low-income individuals and those without Internet access, KN provides hardware and access to the Internet if needed. Measures included standard demographics, a trust scale, trust ratings for individual spokespersons, involvement with H1N1, experience with H1N1, and past discrimination in health care. We found that trust of government was low (2.3 out of 4) and varied across demographic groups. Blacks and Hispanics reported higher trust in government than did Whites. Of the spokespersons included, personal health professionals received the highest trust ratings and religious leaders the lowest. Attitudinal and experience variables predicted trust better than demographic characteristics. Closely following the news about the flu virus, having some self-reported knowledge about H1N1, self-reporting of local cases and previously experiencing discrimination were the significant attitudinal and experience predictors of trust. Using a second longitudinal survey, trust in the early stages of the pandemic did predict vaccine acceptance later but only for white, non-Hispanic individuals. PMID:24117390

  14. Oxidative stress in early stage Bipolar Disorder and the association with response to lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Rafael T; Zarate, Carlos A; Zanetti, Marcus V; Costa, Alana C; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have described increased oxidative stress (OxS) parameters and imbalance of antioxidant enzymes in Bipolar Disorder (BD) but few is know about the impact of treatment at these targets. However, no study has evaluated OxS parameters in unmedicated early stage BD and their association with lithium treatment in bipolar depression. Patients with BD I or II (n = 29) in a depressive episode were treated for 6 weeks with lithium. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and endpoint, and were also compared to age-matched controls (n = 28). The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured. Subjects with BD depression at baseline presented a significant increase in CAT (p = 0.005) and GPx (p lithium only induced a decrease in TBARS (p = 0.023) and SOD (p = 0.029) levels, especially in BDII. Finally, TBARS levels were significantly lower at endpoint in lithium responders compared to non-responders (p = 0.018) with no difference in any biomarker regarding remission. The present findings suggest a reactive increase in antioxidant enzymes levels during depressive episodes in early stage BD with minimal prior treatment. Also, decreased lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels were observed, associated with lithium's clinical efficacy. Overall, these results reinforce the role for altered oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of BD and the presence of antioxidant effects of lithium in the prevention of illness progression and clinical efficacy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Identification of cellular infiltrates during early stages of brain inflammation with magnetic resonance microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmar Waiczies

    Full Text Available A comprehensive view of brain inflammation during the pathogenesis of autoimmune encephalomyelitis can be achieved with the aid of high resolution non-invasive imaging techniques such as microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI. In this study we demonstrate the benefits of cryogenically-cooled RF coils to produce μMRI in vivo, with sufficient detail to reveal brain pathology in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model. We could visualize inflammatory infiltrates in detail within various regions of the brain, already at an early phase of EAE. Importantly, this pathology could be seen clearly even without the use of contrast agents, and showed excellent correspondence with conventional histology. The cryogenically-cooled coil enabled the acquisition of high resolution images within short scan times: an important practical consideration in conducting animal experiments. The detail of the cellular infiltrates visualized by in vivo μMRI allows the opportunity to follow neuroinflammatory processes even during the early stages of disease progression. Thus μMRI will not only complement conventional histological examination but will also enable longitudinal studies on the kinetics and dynamics of immune cell infiltration.

  16. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Targeting of Cancer Stem Cells and Their Microenvironment in Early-Stage MutantK-ras Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    cancer stem cells of non-small cell lung cancer with IIWR-1, a Wnt and tankyrase inhibitor , and 6-thio-2’deoxyguanosine, a nucleoside-based telomerase ...cyclopamine 200 nM (a potent SMO inhibitor ) and the anti-SHH/IHH 5E1 (2, 3) monoclonal antibody. The inhibitory activity of 5E1 suggests that the... inhibitor in early stage human non-small cell lung cancer. Role: Co-investigator 3. P50-CA70907 (PI: John Minna) 7/1/2014-6/30/2019 0.0 cal months

  19. Lobectomy for early-stage lung carcinoma: a cost analysis of full thoracoscopy versus posterolateral thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ricard; Masuet, Cristina; Gossot, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Major pulmonary resections for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are increasingly being performed by thoracoscopy, but there are economic concerns related to the use of many disposable items and increased operative time. We evaluated and compared the costs of thoracoscopic lobectomy versus open lobectomy. Data from all patients who underwent lobectomy for clinical stage I NSCLC from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2009 were reviewed. Two hundred eighty-seven major pulmonary resections (269 lobectomies and 18 anatomic segmentectomies) for NSCLC were performed: 98 cases via a totally endoscopic approach (TS) and 189 via a classical posterolateral thoracotomy (PLT). Direct medical costs [hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, disposables, theatre time, laboratory, and radiology costs] were evaluated. Patient demographics were similar in both groups. The two groups did not differ in histology, pathologic stage, or type of lobectomy. There were no differences in postoperative complications or readmissions during the 30-day postoperative period; however, patients in the TS group had significantly fewer chest tube days and shorter hospital length of stay (p costs were significantly higher in the TS group [2,861 ± 458 vs. 2,260 ± 399 (p cost for disposables for TS was 1,800 ± 560.46 vs. 901 ± 328 for PLT (p costs for hospital stay, laboratory, and radiological services for TS were less than for PLT (p costs were significantly greater for the PLT group (14,145.57 ± 7,117.84) than for the TS group (11,934.13 ± 6,690.25) (p cost, overall cost is less expensive due to a shorter hospital stay.

  20. Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 and Photodynamic Therapy in Stage IA-IIA Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage II Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IIA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome

  1. Semantic memory organization during the early stage of recovery from traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Jennifer; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2008-03-01

    This study used an object definitions test to examine semantic memory and the organization of semantic knowledge during the early stage of recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Twenty-four participants with moderate-to-severe TBI and 24 controls described three living and three non-living objects as if they were describing them to someone who had never heard of or seen such things before. The verbal definitions were examined at a feature level and for whether they communicated the core concept (i.e. could a blind rater identify the object). Compared to the control group, the TBI group less often provided object definitions that communicated the core concept and included superordinate category information. The TBI group also produced a smaller proportion of physical specific features and the production of fewer physical specific features was associated with lower production of the core concept. Despite these group differences, both groups produced more specific feature information about the objects than general feature information; and more physical specific features for living objects and associative specific features for non-living objects. The findings were interpreted as suggesting a decreased efficiency in ability to access semantic information following moderate-to-severe TBI, which influenced core concept production, despite intact organization of semantic knowledge.

  2. Aggressive Salivary Malignancies at Early Stage: Outcomes and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppsteiner, Robert W; Fowlkes, Jonathan W; Anderson, Carryn M; Robinson, Robert A; Pagedar, Nitin A

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have examined whether the use of adjuvant treatment impacts survival for early stage high-grade salivary tumors. A retrospective review of the SEER database between 1973 and 2012 was performed. Patients with high-grade major salivary gland tumors including salivary duct carcinoma, carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, or adenocarcinoma, NOS were identified. Only stage I-II tumors were included. The impact of radiation status on observed and relative survival was examined. Five hundred seventy-four patients with high-grade, early stage salivary tumors met inclusion criteria. Sixty-seven percent of patients received radiation therapy. There was no difference in observed or relative survival based on having received radiation. Adjuvant radiation is indicated for advanced stage tumors or early stage tumors with adverse features. For early stage tumors without adverse features, there was no survival benefit from radiation therapy. Adjuvant radiation should be decided on a case-by-case basis for these patients.

  3. Effects of chronic crude oil exposure on early developmental stages of the Northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Maj; Moodley, Leon; Dunaevskaya, Evgenia; Ramanand, Sreerekha; Ingvarsdóttir, Anna; Nilsen, Marianne; Ravagnan, Elisa; Westerlund, Stig; Sanni, Steinar; Tarling, Geraint A; Bechmann, Renée K

    2017-01-01

    Rising oil and gas activities in northern high latitudes have led to an increased risk of petroleum pollution in these ecosystems. Further, seasonal high UV radiation at high latitudes may elevate photo-enhanced toxicity of petroleum pollution to marine organisms. Zooplanktons are a key ecological component of northern ecosystems; therefore, it is important to assess their sensitivity to potential pollutants of oil and gas activity. As ontogenetic development may be particularly sensitive, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of chronic exposure to oil water dispersion (OWD) on development and feeding of early life stages of the Northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica. In a range of experiments, embryonic, nonfeeding, and feeding larval stages were exposed to concentrations of between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/L of oil or photo-modified oil for 19 and 21 d. No significant effects on egg respiration, hatching success, development, length and larval survival were observed from these treatments. Similarly, evolution of fatty acid composition patterns during ontogenetic development was unaffected. The results indicates a high degree of resilience of these early developmental stages to such types and concentrations of pollutants. However, feeding and motility in later calyptopis-stage larvae were significantly impaired at exposure of 0.1 mg/L oil. Data indicate that feeding larval stage of krill was more sensitive to OWD than early nonfeeding life stages. This might be attributed to the narcotic effects of oil pollutants, their direct ingestion, or accumulated adverse effects over early development.

  4. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy of early-stage breast cancer and long-term disease-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleszczuk, Jan; Luddy, Kimberly; Chen, Lu; Lee, Jae K; Harrison, Louis B; Czerniecki, Brian J; Soliman, Hatem; Enderling, Heiko

    2017-06-30

    Compared with surgery alone, postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) improves relapse-free survival of patients with early-stage breast cancer. We evaluated the long-term overall and disease-free survival rates of neoadjuvant (presurgical) versus adjuvant RT in early-stage breast cancer patients. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database provided by the National Institutes of Health to derive an analytic dataset of 250,195 female patients with early-stage breast cancer who received RT before (n = 2554; 1.02%) or after (n = 247,641; 98.98%) surgery. Disease-free survival, defined as time to diagnosis of a second primary tumor at any location, was calculated from automated patient identification matching of all SEER records. Partial and complete mastectomies were performed in 94.4% and 5.6% of patients, respectively. In the largest cohort of estrogen receptor-positive women who underwent partial mastectomy, the HR of developing a second primary tumor after neoadjuvant compared with adjuvant RT was 0.64 (95% CI 0.55-0.75; P early-stage breast cancer. This finding warrants further exploration of potential long-term benefits of neoadjuvant radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer in a controlled, prospective clinical trial setting, with correlative studies done to identify potential mechanisms of superiority.

  5. Effects of nicotine on a rat model of early stage osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qiangrong; Li, Dong; Wei, Bo; Guo, Yang; Yan, Junwei; Mao, Fengyong; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of nicotine on articular cartilage degeneration and inflammation in a rat model of early stage osteoarthritis (OA), using T2 mapping. In this study, a rat model of early stage OA was established by immobilizing the left knee joints of adult male rats for two weeks. Subsequently, rats were fed with nicotine for two and four weeks. Changes in the articular cartilage from the medial femoral condylar region of the knee were evaluated by gross observation and histological grading with the contents of cartilage matrix detected. T2 values of the articular cartilage were estimated through high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (7.0 T). Levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed by ELISA. The expression of TNF-α and the cholinergic receptor, α7nAChR, in the synovial tissue was measured by RT-PCR. Nicotine treatment ameliorated cartilage destruction, promoted matrix production, reduced the serum level of TNF-α and the expression of TNF-α in the synovial tissue, and increased the expression of α7nAChR in the synovial tissue in the rat model of early stage OA. In conclusion, nicotine prevented cartilage damage and had an anti-inflammatory effect in a rat model of early stage OA. Thus nicotine may have potential as a therapeutic strategy for early stage OA.

  6. Early postoperative tumor marker responses provide a robust prognostic indicator for N3 stage gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingrui; Qu, Hui; Sun, Guorui; Li, Zhiqiang; Ma, Shuzhen; Shi, Zhenxing; Zhao, Ensheng; Zhang, Hao; He, Qingsi

    2017-08-01

    The clinical significance of tumor markers after radical gastrectomy has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of early postoperative tumor marker normalization in N3 stage gastric cancer (GC) patients. A total of 259 N3 stage GC patients with preoperatively elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, >5 ng/mL) or carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, >37 U/mL) levels underwent radical gastrectomy were analyzed retrospectively. Early postoperative tumor marker response was considered as a normalization of CEA or CA19-9 levels 4 weeks after surgery. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. N3 stage GC patients were divided into N3a (n = 157) and N3b (n = 102) groups according to the 8th TNM stage system. Early tumor marker response was identified in 96 of 157 N3a patients (61.15%) and 57 of 102 N3b patients (55.88%). In N3 stage GC patients with a tumor marker response, significant increase was observed in both DFS (25.2 months vs 12.5 months, P early tumor marker response was an independent factor for DFS and OS in N3 stage GC, as well as for depth of invasion and metastatic lymph node rate (P Early postoperative CEA or CA19-9 normalization serves as a strong prognostic indicator in N3 stage GC. Both N3a and N3b patients with increased early postoperative tumor marker levels showed poor outcomes.

  7. IgG1-iS18 impedes the adhesive and invasive potential of early and late stage malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munien, Carmelle; Rebelo, Thalia M; Ferreira, Eloise; Weiss, Stefan F T

    2017-02-15

    The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is a non-integrin laminin receptor which is overexpressed in tumorigenic cells and supports progression of cancer via promoting metastasis, angiogenesis and telomerase activity and impediment of apoptosis. The present study investigates the role of LRP/LR on the metastatic potential of early (A375) and late (A375SM) stage malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry revealed that both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells display high levels of LRP/LR on their cell surface. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that late stage malignant melanoma cells display significantly higher total and cell surface LRP/LR levels in comparison to early stage malignant melanoma cells and the poorly invasive breast cancer (MCF-7) control cell line. Targeting LRP/LR using the LRP/LR specific antibody IgG1-iS18 resulted in a significant reduction of the adhesive potential to laminin-1 and the invasive potential through the 'ECM-simulating' Matrigel™ of both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient confirmed that increased LRP levels correlate with the increased invasive and adhesive potential in early and late stage melanoma cells. Thus, blocking LRP/LR using the IgG1-iS18 antibody may therefore be a promising therapeutic strategy for early and late stage malignant melanoma treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for adults with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Oliver; von Tresckow, Bastian; Monsef, Ina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined modality treatment consisting of chemotherapy followed by localised radiotherapy is the standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, due to long- term adverse effects such as secondary malignancies the role of radiotherapy has been questioned...... recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chemotherapy alone compared to chemotherapy plus radiotherapy in adults with early stage HL . SEARCH METHODS: For the or i ginal version of this review, we searched MEDLINE, Embase...... radiotherapy. For the updated review we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL and conference proceedings to December 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs comparing chemotherapy alone with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy in patients with early stage HL. We excluded trials with more than 20% of patients in advanced...

  9. Photodynamic Therapy With YAG-OPO Laser for Early Stage Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H; Okunaka, T; Konaka, C; Furuse, K; Kusunoki, Y; Horai, T; Takifuji, N; Negoro, S; Fukuoka, M; Yaya, T; Kawase, I

    1997-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizing Photofrin is proving to be effective for the treatment of early stage lung cancers. The effect of PDT utilizing YAG-OPO laser as new light source was evaluated in 26 patients (29 lesions) with early stage lung cancers. YAG-OPO laser is solid state tunable laser which is easy to change wavelength between 620 and 670 nm exciting various kinds of photosensitizers. Moreover, YAG-OPO laser is more reliable, smaller and has less consumables than argon-dye laser or excimer-dye laser. As the result of PDT with YAG-OPO laser, complete remission (CR) was obtained in 82.6% of the 29 lesions, partial remission (PR) in 13.8% and no change (NC) was obtained in 3.4%. We conclude that PDT utilizing YAG-OPO laser is efficacious in the treatment of early stage lung cancers and can achieve complete remission.

  10. Photodynamic Therapy With YAG-OPO Laser for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harubumi Kato

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT utilizing Photofrin is proving to be effective for the treatment of early stage lung cancers. The effect of PDT utilizing YAG-OPO laser as new light source was evaluated in 26 patients (29 lesions with early stage lung cancers. YAG-OPO laser is solid state tunable laser which is easy to change wavelength between 620 and 670 nm exciting various kinds of photosensitizers. Moreover, YAG-OPO laser is more reliable, smaller and has less consumables than argon-dye laser or excimer-dye laser. As the result of PDT with YAG-OPO laser, complete remission (CR was obtained in 82.6% of the 29 lesions, partial remission (PR in 13.8% and no change (NC was obtained in 3.4%. We conclude that PDT utilizing YAG-OPO laser is efficacious in the treatment of early stage lung cancers and can achieve complete remission.

  11. Bone density does not reflect mechanical properties in early-stage arthrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, CC; Hvid, I

    2001-01-01

    energy, and an increase in ultimate strain of arthrotic cancellous bone. Bone volume fraction, apparent density, apparent ash density, and collagen density were higher in cancellous bone with arthrosis, but no differences were found in tissue density, mineral and collagen concentrations between arthrotic...... cancellous bone and the 3 controls. None of the mechanical properties of arthrotic cancellous bone could be predicted by the physical/compositional properties measured. The increase in bone tissue in early-stage arthrotic cancellous bone did not make up for the loss of mechanical properties, which suggests......Subchondral cancellous bone specimens were removed from 10 human postmortem early-stage arthrotic proximal tibiae (mean age 73 (63-81) years) and 10 age- and gender-matched normal proximal tibiae. The early-stage arthrosis was confirmed histologically and the specimens were divided into 4 groups...

  12. Sequential Validation of Blood-Based Protein Biomarker Candidates for Early-Stage Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Michela; Bantis, Leonidas E; Scelo, Ghislaine; Zhao, Yang; Li, Peng; Dhillon, Dilsher S; Patel, Nikul J; Kundnani, Deepali L; Wang, Hong; Abbruzzese, James L; Maitra, Anirban; Tempero, Margaret A; Brand, Randall; Firpo, Matthew A; Mulvihill, Sean J; Katz, Matthew H; Brennan, Paul; Feng, Ziding; Taguchi, Ayumu; Hanash, Samir M

    2017-04-01

    CA19-9, which is currently in clinical use as a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) biomarker, has limited performance in detecting early-stage disease. We and others have identified protein biomarker candidates that have the potential to complement CA19-9. We have carried out sequential validations starting with 17 protein biomarker candidates to determine which markers and marker combination would improve detection of early-stage disease compared with CA19-9 alone. Candidate biomarkers were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based sequential validation using independent multiple sample cohorts consisting of PDAC cases (n = 187), benign pancreatic disease (n = 93), and healthy controls (n = 169). A biomarker panel for early-stage PDAC was developed based on a logistic regression model. All statistical tests for the results presented below were one-sided. Six out of the 17 biomarker candidates and CA19-9 were validated in a sample set consisting of 75 PDAC patients, 27 healthy subjects, and 19 chronic pancreatitis patients. A second independent set of 73 early-stage PDAC patients, 60 healthy subjects, and 74 benign pancreatic disease patients (combined validation set) yielded a model that consisted of TIMP1, LRG1, and CA19-9. Additional blinded testing of the model was done using an independent set of plasma samples from 39 resectable PDAC patients and 82 matched healthy subjects (test set). The model yielded areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.949 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.917 to 0.981) and 0.887 (95% CI = 0.817 to 0.957) with sensitivities of 0.849 and 0.667 at 95% specificity in discriminating early-stage PDAC vs healthy subjects in the combined validation and test sets, respectively. The performance of the biomarker panel was statistically significantly improved compared with CA19-9 alone (P early-stage PDAC.

  13. Identification of Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Using Sulcal Morphology and Other Common Neuroimaging Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kunpeng; Xu, Hong; Guan, Hao; Zhu, Wanlin; Jiang, Jiyang; Cui, Yue; Zhang, Jicong; Liu, Tao; Wen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Identifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) at its early stage is of major interest in AD research. Previous studies have suggested that abnormalities in regional sulcal width and global sulcal index (g-SI) are characteristics of patients with early-stage AD. In this study, we investigated sulcal width and three other common neuroimaging morphological measures (cortical thickness, cortical volume, and subcortical volume) to identify early-stage AD. These measures were evaluated in 150 participants, including 75 normal controls (NC) and 75 patients with early-stage AD. The global sulcal index (g-SI) and the width of five individual sulci (the superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure) were extracted from 3D T1-weighted images. The discriminative performances of the other three traditional neuroimaging morphological measures were also examined. Information Gain (IG) was used to select a subset of features to provide significant information for separating NC and early-stage AD subjects. Based on the four modalities of the individual measures, i.e., sulcal measures, cortical thickness, cortical volume, subcortical volume, and combinations of these individual measures, three types of classifiers (Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machine) were applied to compare the classification performances. We observed that sulcal measures were either superior than or equal to the other measures used for classification. Specifically, the g-SI and the width of the Sylvian fissure were two of the most sensitive sulcal measures and could be useful neuroanatomical markers for detecting early-stage AD. There were no significant differences between the three classifiers that we tested when using the same neuroanatomical features.

  14. Valuation of Early-Stage Ventures: Option Valuation Models vs. Traditional Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Keeley; Sanjeev Punjabi; Lassaad Turki

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for valuing early stage ventures, a method which views new ventures as multi-stage call options. It examines the traditional methods for valuing such ventures--the ubiquitous Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Method using a risk adjusted discount rate, and the Venture Capital method which uses high discount rates to offset optimistic forecasts--and describes their conceptual disadvantages visa vis the Option Method. In order to make the Option Method a practical alte...

  15. Methods for surgical targeting of the STN in early stage Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C R Camalier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson’s disease experience progressive neurological decline, and future interventional therapies are thought to show most promise in early stages of the disease. There is much interest in therapies that target the subthalamic nucleus (STN with surgical access. While locating STN in advanced disease patients (Hoehn-Yahr III or IV is well understood and routinely performed at many centers in the context of deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS, the ability to identify this nucleus in early stage patients has not previously been explored in a sizeable cohort. We report surgical methods used to target the STN nucleus in fifteen patients with early Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn-Yahr II, using a combination of image guided surgery, microelectrode recordings and clinical responses to macrostimulation of the region surrounding the STN. Measures of electrophysiology (firing rates, root mean squared activity have previously been found to be lower than in later stage patients, however, the patterns of electrophysiology seen and dopamimetic macrostimulation effects are qualitatively similar to those seen in advanced stages. Our experience with surgical implantation of Parkinson’s patients with minimal motor symptoms suggest that it remains possible to accurately target the STN in early stage Parkinson’s disease using traditional methods.

  16. Early retirement and non-employment after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbohm, M-L; Kuosma, E; Taskila, T

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether workplace support, sociodemographic factors and co-morbidity are associated with early retirement or non-employment due to other reasons among breast cancer survivors. We also compared quality of life and chronic symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression) among...... employed, retired and other non-employed breast cancer survivors....

  17. The role of para aortic lymphadenectomy in early stage of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yousefi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical staging is the standard treatment of ovarian cancer. Pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy is the important part of the surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of para aortic lymph node dissection in early stage of patients with ovarian cancer. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional cohort study was performed on all stage I of ovarian cancer patients admitted in department of gynecology oncology of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in November 2012 to March 2014. Every patient with clinical early stage of ovarian cancer candidate to surgical treatment selected. All cases underwent surgical staging surgery with concurrent systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. In laparotomy after identification of left and right iliac artery, all lymph nodes have been properly exposed and dissected as a part of a staging laparotomy. The dissection was continued up to the nodal tissues surrounding the aorta, and inferior vena cava, until inferior mesenteric artery lymphadenectomy level. The procedure performed only by gynecologist oncologist. In addition, we assessed other parameters such as operation time, estimated blood loss, associated mortality and morbidity and vascular injuries. Finally, the effect of para aortic lymph node dissection in early stage of ovarian cancer evaluated. Results: Among a total of 57 ovarian cancer patients, 27 of them apparent stage I disease cases were selected. Surgical staging surgery with concurrent systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was carried for all of them. Positive para-aortic lymph node was found only in one case. The average number removed para-aortic lymph nodes in the pelvis was 9 and in para aortic was 7, respectively. In addition, 20 minutes increase in total length of operation time was observed duo to para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Also the rate increase in intra-abdominal hemorrhage rate was estimated 60 ml. Conclusion: Lymph

  18. Screening key genes and miRNAs in early-stage colon adenocarcinoma by RNA-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jixi; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiaoou; Song, Xin; Zhou, Lei; Jie, Jianzheng

    2017-07-01

    Colon adenocarcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths across the world, developing novel and non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for the early-stage colon adenocarcinoma at molecular level is essential. In our study, RNA-sequencing was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes and miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) in early-stage colon adenocarcinoma compared to tissues of precancerous lesions, colonic intraepithelial neoplasia. The DEmiRNA-target interaction network was constructed and functional annotation of targets of DEmiRNAs was performed. The Cancer Genome Atlas was used to verify the expression of selected differentially expressed genes. The receiver operating characteristic analyses of selected differentially expressed genes was performed. In total, 865 differentially expressed genes, 26 DEmiRNAs, and 329 DEmiRNA-target pairs were obtained. Based on the early-stage colon adenocarcinoma network, miR-548c-5p, miR-548i, and miR-548am-5p were the top three DEmiRNAs that covered most differentially expressed genes. NTRK2, DTNA, and BTG2 were the top three differentially expressed genes regulated by most DEmiRNAs. Cancer and colorectal cancer pathways were two significantly enriched pathways in early-stage colon adenocarcinoma. The common differentially expressed genes in both the pathways were AXIN2, Smad2, Smad4, PIK3R1, and BCL2. The expression levels of eight differentially expressed genes (NTRK2, DTNA, BTG2, COL11A1, Smad2, Smad4, PIK3R1, and BCL2) in The Cancer Genome Atlas database were compatible with our RNA-sequencing. All these eight differentially expressed genes and AXIN2 had the potential diagnosis value for Colon adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, a total of ten differentially expressed genes (NTRK2, DTNA, BTG2, COLCA1, COL11A1, AXIN2, Smad2, Smad4, PIK3R1, and BCL2) and four DEmiRNAs (miR-548c-5p, miR-548i, mir-424-5p, and miR-548am-5p) may be involved in the pathogenesis of early-stage colon adenocarcinoma which may

  19. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  20. Factors influencing recruitment of walleye and white bass to three distinct early ontogenetic stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence recruitment to sequential ontogenetic stages is critical for understanding recruitment dynamics of fish and for effective management of sportfish, particularly in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We sampled walleye (Sander vitreus) and white bass (Morone chrysops) at 3 ontogenetic stages (age 0 during spring: ‘age-0 larval’; age 0 during autumn: ‘age-0 juvenile’; and age 1 during autumn: ‘age-1 juvenile’) from 3 reservoirs. We developed multiple linear regression models to describe factors influencing age-0 larval, age-0 juvenile and age-1 juvenile walleye and white bass abundance indices. Our models explained 40–80% (68 ± 9%; mean ± SE) and 71%–97% (81 ± 6%) of the variability in catch for walleye and white bass respectively. For walleye, gizzard shad were present in the candidate model sets for all three ontogenetic stages we assessed. For white bass, there was no unifying variable in all three stage-specific candidate model sets, although walleye abundance was present in two of the three white bass candidate model sets. We were able to determine several factors affecting walleye and white bass year-class strength at multiple ontogenetic stages; comprehensive analyses of factors influencing recruitment to multiple early ontogenetic stages are seemingly rare in the literature. Our models demonstrate the interdependency among early ontogenetic stages and the complexities involved with sportfish recruitment.

  1. Management of people with early- or very early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: an attempted network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Avik; Roccarina, Davide; Thorburn, Douglas; Davidson, Brian R; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2017-03-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer) is classified in many ways. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) group staging classifies the cancer based on patient's life expectancy. People with very early- or early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma have single tumour or three tumours of maximum diameter of 3 cm or less, Child-Pugh status A to B, and performance status 0 (fully functional). Management of hepatocellular carcinoma is uncertain. To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different interventions used in the treatment of early or very early hepatocellular carcinoma through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the available interventions according to their safety and efficacy. However, it was not possible to assess whether the potential effect modifiers were similar across different comparisons. Therefore, we did not perform the network meta-analysis and instead assessed the benefits and harms of different interventions versus each other or versus sham or no intervention using standard Cochrane methodology. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trials registers to September 2016 to identify randomised clinical trials (RCTs) on hepatocellular carcinoma. We included only RCTs, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status, in participants with very early- or early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, irrespective of the presence of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma, size and number of the tumours, and future remnant liver volume. We excluded trials including participants who were previously liver transplanted. We considered interventions compared with each other, sham, or no intervention. We calculated the odds ratio, mean difference, rate ratio, or hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals using both fixed-effect and random-effects models based on available-participant analysis with Review Manager 5. We assessed the risk of bias according to Cochrane

  2. Study on rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-li ZOU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the incidence, occurrence time and electrophysiological characteristics of rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD in patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD, and the characteristics of motor symptoms and non . motor symtoms (NMS. Methods Sixty PD patients were divided into PD + RBD group (N = 42 and control group (N = 18 according to whether they were complicated with RBD or not. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRSⅡ andⅢ, Hoehn-Yahr Stage, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and polysomnography (PSG were used in 60 patients. Results Among 60 patients, 42 (70% were accompanied by RBD. PSG showed that PD + RBD patients mainly presented upper limb stretching and gripping, body twitching, laughing, shouting, cursing and other non.violent actions, except 2 cases presented violent actions, such as hitting, kicking, etc. In PD + RBD group, the age was older (P = 0.024, duration was longer (P = 0.000, and UPDRSⅡ (P = 0.005,UPDRSⅢ(P = 0.001, the scale values of Hoehn-Yahr Sotage 2 (P = 0.007, anxiety (P = 0.044 and depression (P = 0.001 ratio were all higher than control group. There were significant differences in density of mandible myoelectric activity (P = 0.000 and ratio of rapid eye movement (REM without atonia (P = 0.000 between 2 groups. In PD + RBD group, 16 patients (38.10% had symptoms of RBD, earlier than PD occurred 5.20 (3.91, 6.51 years. Conclusions PD patients with older age, longer duration, more severe motor symptoms and non?motor symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by RBD. The severity of RBD in PD patients accompanied with RBD is higher than that in PD without RBD. RBD may be the early manifestation of PD. PSG has important value in the diagnosis of PD with RBD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.10.006

  3. Amino and fatty acid dynamics of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Paula, José R; Couto, Ana; Bandarra, Narcisa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The oceans are becoming warmer, and the higher temperatures are expected to have a major impact on marine life at different levels of biological organization, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Thus, we hypothesize that the future warmer scenarios (here +3 °C) will affect the biochemical composition (amino acid - AA, and fatty acid-FA) of octopod (Octopus vulgaris) embryos and recently-hatched pelagic paralarvae. The main essential amino acids found in octopus embryos were arginine, leucine and lysine; while aspartic and glutamic acids, and taurine were the main non-essential amino acids. Palmitic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the main FAs found in octopus tissues. Relevant ontogenetic changes were observed, namely a steep decrease in the content of many AAs, and a selective retention of FAs, thus evidencing the protein-based metabolism of these cephalopods. Temperature per si did not elicit significant changes in the overall FA composition, but was responsible for a significant decrease in the content of several AAs, indicating increased embryonic consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the mechanical properties of cement in terms of its early-stage gelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Abhay; Tiede, Christopher; Ioannidou, Katerina; Pellenq, Roland; Del Gado, Emanuela

    Despite the nearly ubiquitous use of concrete as a construction material, cement hydration is still poorly understood. The variety of hydration products, the non-uniform rate of reaction, and the changing chemical background all contribute to making this a complex process. Recently, a novel statistical physics approach combining Grand Canonical Monte Carlo with molecular dynamics has achieved remarkable correspondence with experimental data. It treats the main hydration product, Calcium Silicate Hydrates (C-S-H), as colloidal particles with a simple effective interaction that varies with the degree of hydration-due to changing ph, ion concentration, etc. Working with this model, I investigate the percolation of the gel structure and the onset of mechanical properties in the early stages of hydration, which end up affecting the material properties at much later times. In particular, I have studied how the tendency of C-S-H to form at the surface of cement grains may affect the gel morphology, its structural heterogeneity, and ultimately its mechanical strength. By varying the effective interaction potential between C-S-H particles, I can rationalize the interplay between the evolution of the gel morphology and the changing physicochemical environment in which the gel forms.

  5. Longitudinal correlation of 3D OCT to detect early stage erosion in bovine enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Abdirahman; Anderson, Paul; Burnett, Gary R; Lynch, Richard J M; Tomlins, Peter H

    2017-02-01

    Erosive tissue-loss in dental enamel is of significant clinical concern because the net loss of enamel is irreversible, however, initial erosion is reversible. Micro-hardness testing is a standard method for measuring initial erosion, but its invasive nature has led to the investigation of alternative measurement techniques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an attractive alternative because of its ability to non-invasively image three-dimensional volumes. In this study, a four-dimensional OCT system is used to longitudinally measure bovine enamel undergoing a continuous erosive challenge. A new method of analyzing 3D OCT volumes is introduced that compares intensity projections of the specimen surface by calculating the slope of a linear regression line between corresponding pixel intensities and the associated correlation coefficient. The OCT correlation measurements are compared to micro-hardness data and found to exhibit a linear relationship. The results show that this method is a sensitive technique for the investigation of the formation of early stage erosive lesions.

  6. Data fusion for detection of early-stage lung cancer cells using evidential reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei-Jian; Yang, Jingyu; Lu, Jian

    1993-08-01

    Data fusion has already been widely used in various applications in which multiple sources of information are presented. One of the most widely used applications of data fusion is in the field of object recognition and classification, since it can efficiently improve the accuracy and the ability of fault tolerance. This presentation describes a cytological color image processing system, using data fusion method, developed for the detection of early stage lung cancers used in the health inspection. As most of the existing microscopic diagnostic systems use morphological, textual and gray or color features respectively, which results in the instability of the diagnosis, this system makes use of all these features by fusing multiple classification results obtained using morphological, textual and chromatic features respectively. Data fusion is achieved using Dempster-Shafer's Evidential Reasoning (DSER). In the current system, all the nuclei are first segmented by thresholding in a special color space which is a non-linear transformation of the (R,G,B) color space. Then, using morphological, textual and chromatic features respectively, the segmented cells are classified as normal or abnormal cells. Using DSER, the classification results obtained above are fused into a final result. Finally, a decision strategy based on the fused data is presented to get the final classification results. And experiment results are given to show the feasibility of the data fusion approach proposed here.

  7. Accuracy of Perceived Risk of Recurrence among Patients with Early-stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Pérez, Maria; Aft, Rebecca L.; Massman, Kerry; Robinson, Erica; Myles, Stephanie; Schootman, Mario; Gillanders, William E.; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate breast cancer recurrence-risk perceptions might motivate health-promoting behaviors and alleviate undue anxiety. Although a few studies have examined early-stage breast cancer survivors' perceived risk of recurrence, none have assessed the accuracy of survivors' perceived risk of recurrence. Methods First primary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and early-invasive breast cancer (EIBC) survivors reported their perceived risk of recurrence during 6- and 12-month post-surgery interviews. We estimated patients' 10-year risk of recurrence from published clinical trials, and, for EIBC patients, risk of distant recurrence was based on their breast-cancer-specific mortality calculated using Adjuvant! Online. Patients' perceived risk was compared with their calculated risk and categorized as “Accurate,” “Underestimated,” “Overestimated,” and “Uncertain.” Multinomial logit marginal-effects models were fitted using “Accurate” as the reference. Results Only 17% of 531 patients accurately perceived their risk at six months, most of whom inaccurately perceived their risk at 12 months (P = 0.0143). Patients who were non-white (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.56) and received radiation therapy (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.07 to 3.77) were more likely to underestimate their risk. Patients with DCIS (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.70), lower social support (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.95), and anxiety (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.47) were more likely to overestimate their risk. Conclusion Few breast cancer survivors accurately perceived their risk of recurrence. Impact The accuracy of perceived risk may be increased by better physician-patient communications about their prognosis, provision of social support, and treatment for coexisting anxiety. PMID:20160274

  8. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  9. Reliability and validity of A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed for detecting early-stage dementia in elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumi; Awata, Shuichi; Sakuma, Naoko; Inagaki, Hiroki; Ijuin, Mutsuo

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) for detecting early-stage dementia in the elderly Japanese population. A total of 280 clinical participants (180 with mild Alzheimer's disease, 43 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 32 with non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 25 control subjects) and 22 community-dwelling elderly individuals without dementia were recruited. The Clinical Dementia Rating, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and AQT were administered to all participants. The Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination was also administered to clinical participants. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the test-retest reliability of colour-form naming time on AQT was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.74-0.95, P colour-form naming time was significantly correlated with the Clinical Dementia Rating, the total score on the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the total score on the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination and most of its subscales. AQT colour-form naming time was significantly longer in elderly individuals with mild Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment than in control subjects. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that AQT colour-form naming time significantly distinguished subjects with early-stage dementia (mild Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment) from controls. The area under the curve was estimated to be 0.88 (95%CI = 0.82-0.95). A cut-off of 71/72 seconds yielded the best sensitivity/specificity trade-off: sensitivity = 85% and specificity = 76%. AQT is a useful brief screening tool for detecting early-stage dementia in elderly Japanese individuals. © 2012 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2012 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. Bile duct invasion can be an independent prognostic factor in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ye-Rang; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-11-01

    In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), bile duct invasion occurs far more rarely than vascular invasion and is not well characterized. In addition, the pathologic finding of bile duct invasion is not considered an independent prognostic factor for HCC following surgery. In this study, we determined the characteristics of HCC with bile duct invasion, and assessed the clinical significance of bile duct invasion. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 363 patients who underwent hepatic resection for HCC at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) from January 2009 to December 2011. Preoperative, operative, and pathological data were collected. The risk factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed. Subsequently, the patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer 7(th) edition): early stage (T1 and 2) and advanced stage (T3 and 4) group; and risk factors in the sub-groups were analyzed. Among 363 patients, 13 showed bile duct invasion on pathology. Patients with bile duct invasion had higher preoperative total bilirubin levels, greater microvascular invasion, and a higher death rate than those without bile duct invasion. In multivariate analysis, bile duct invasion was not an independent prognostic factor for survival for the entire cohort, but, was an independent prognostic factor for early stage. Bile duct invasion accompanied microvascular invasion in most cases, and could be used as an independent prognostic factor for survival especially in early stage HCC (T1 and T2).

  11. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakullukcu, B.; van Oudenaarde, K.; Copper, M.P.; Klop, W.M.C.; van Veen, R.; Wildeman, M.; Tan, I.

    2011-01-01

    The indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis-T2) to

  12. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  13. 77 FR 74908 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Regulatory Capital, up to a maximum of $50 million. Early Stage SBICs must invest at least 50% of their...- circled.'' (This may include drop-down funds.) Track 1 applicants that receive a Green Light letter will...-June March 29, 2013. 14, 2013. Anticipated Green April 30, 2013.... September 27, Light Decision. 2013...

  14. 77 FR 25775 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Regulatory Capital, up to a maximum of $50 million. Early Stage SBICs must invest at least 50% of their.... Should SBA issue you a ``Green Light letter'' (described in paragraph III.B.6), you must submit the SBIC... the end of the Initial Review phase, SBA will issue Green Light letters to those applicants that meet...

  15. Modelling dispersal dynamics of the early life stages of a marine flatfish (Solea solea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacroix, G.; Maes, G.E.; Bolle, L.J.; Volckaert, F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Connectivity throughout the life cycle of flatfish remains an open question, especially during the early life stages. Their effective management requires understanding of how spawning grounds and nurseries are connected and what processes influence larval retention and dispersal. The case of sole

  16. Assessing Children's Play: Reality or Illusion? The Case of Early Years Foundation Stage in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) in England in 2008, assessment of children has taken a formal and standardized measurable approach. Such an approach goes against most findings of play-oriented research. Thus, the project reported here employed participatory action research with practitioners in order to identify…

  17. Early-stage detection of breakthrough-class scientific research : using micro-level citation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnink, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this PhD thesis describes ways of identifying at an early-stage, 2-3 years after their publication, discoveries in science that are expected to have a major impact on science. Bibliographic information extracted from those scientific publications is analysed to select

  18. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  19. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  20. Internet of Things: Business plan for an early-stage technology driven start-up

    OpenAIRE

    Verteletskyi, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to write a business plan for an early stage internet of things startup, specializing in indoor safety & facility management. Evaluate the potential of this business idea and its value proposition. Select the proper entry markets and calculate financial projections. Do it in such way that it would be acceptable by investors interested in making capital inputs.

  1. Test Design Optimization in CAT Early Stage with the Nominal Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E.

    2007-01-01

    The early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) refers to the phase of the trait estimation during the administration of only a few items. This phase can be characterized by bias and instability of estimation. In this study, an item selection criterion is introduced in an attempt to lessen this instability: the D-optimality criterion. A…

  2. Effective Packet Number for 5G IM WeChat Application at Early Stage Traffic Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate network traffic classification at early stage is very important for 5G network applications. During the last few years, researchers endeavored hard to propose effective machine learning model for classification of Internet traffic applications at early stage with few packets. Nevertheless, this essential problem still needs to be studied profoundly to find out effective packet number as well as effective machine learning (ML model. In this paper, we tried to solve the above-mentioned problem. For this purpose, five Internet traffic datasets are utilized. Initially, we extract packet size of 20 packets and then mutual information analysis is carried out to find out the mutual information of each packet on n flow type. Thereafter, we execute 10 well-known machine learning algorithms using crossover classification method. Two statistical analysis tests, Friedman and Wilcoxon pairwise tests, are applied for the experimental results. Moreover, we also apply the statistical tests for classifiers to find out effective ML classifier. Our experimental results show that 13–19 packets are the effective packet numbers for 5G IM WeChat application at early stage network traffic classification. We also find out effective ML classifier, where Random Forest ML classifier is effective classifier at early stage Internet traffic classification.

  3. Phytoplankton dynamics in contrasting early stage North Atlantic spring blooms: composition, succession, and potential drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniels, C.J.; Poulton, A. J.; Esposito, M.

    2015-01-01

    by a lack of in situ observations of the phytoplankton community composition and its evolution during this critical period. We investigated the dynamics of the phytoplankton community structure at two contrasting sites in the Iceland and Norwegian Basins during the early stage (25 March–25 April...

  4. The effect on esophagus after different radiotherapy techniques for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anni; Maraldo, M.; Brodin, Nils Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The cure rate of early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is excellent; investigating the late effects of treatment is thus important. Esophageal toxicity is a known side effect in patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the mediastinum, although little is known of this in HL survivors. This study...

  5. Sexuality and body image following treatment for early-stage vulvar cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Ellen L; Hacker, Neville F; Hussain, Rafat; Parmenter, Glenda

    2014-08-01

    To describe women's experiences of sexuality and body image following treatment for early-stage vulvar cancer. There is limited information available on sexual function following treatment for early-stage vulvar cancer. A review of the literature has shown a lack of qualitative investigation into this topic. This study was undertaken to address this deficiency and to add to the existing body of knowledge describing the psychosexual outcomes for these women. Qualitative interview study. A qualitative approach based on interpretive phenomenology was used to interview a purposive sample of 10 women (mean age 58 years) who had previously been treated for an early-stage vulvar cancer. Interviews were conducted from June-October 2009. Data were generated from verbatim transcription of the semi-structured in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis of these data revealed themes that were common to the women's experiences of sexuality and body image. Four themes were identified that described the structure of the experience. Only two of these themes, sexuality and body image, will be discussed in this paper. Findings from this study indicated that the majority of women experienced little to no long-term disruption to sexuality and body image following conservative treatment for early-stage vulvar cancer. Intimacy and relationship status were more closely linked to women's sexual satisfaction than physical arousal. Factors contributing to women experiencing negative emotions were radical vulvar excision, multiple vulvar procedures and/or the development of lymphoedema. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Treatment of Early-Stage Pressure Ulcers by Using Autologous Adipose Tissue Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Francesco Marangi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients.

  7. Current controversies in the management of patients with early-stage vulvar cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H. M.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to outline current controversies in management of early-stage vulvar cancer. The main focus will be on the procedures for assessing the sentinel node and the treatment of those with evidence of metastatic involvement. Recent findings Assessment of the

  8. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  9. In silico studies of the early stages of aggregation of Aβ₄₂ peptides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Molecular simulation; intrinsically disordered protein; amyloid β. ... We have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulation to study the early stages of the aggregation process of five full-length Aβ₄₂ peptide monomers with varying secondary structural contents in aqueous solution. Attempts have been ...

  10. Spawning strategies and transport of early stages of the two Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and short-term variability of environmental parameters influence the spawning strategies of fish species. In this study, the spawning strategies and the transport of early stages of the two Cape hake species off South Africa were investigated. Distribution of eggs and larvae of Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis ...

  11. Vitamin D deficiency is not associated with early stages of thyroid autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effraimidis, Grigoris; Badenhoop, Klaus; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a risk factor for a number of autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Objective: We hypothesized that low levels of vitamin D are related to the early stages of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Design: Two

  12. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  13. Early-Stage Design Considerations for the Energy-Efficiency of High-Rise Office Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raji, B.; Tenpierik, M.J.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Decisions made at early stages of the design are of the utmost importance for the energy-efficiency of buildings. Wrong decisions and design failures related to a building’s general layout, shape, façade transparency or orientation can increase the operational energy tremendously. These failures can

  14. Early-Stage White Matter Lesions Detected by Multispectral MRI Segmentation Predict Progressive Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokinen, H.; Goncalves, N.; Vigario, R.; Lipsanen, J.; Fazekas, F.; Schmidt, R.; Barkhof, F.; Madureira, S.; Verdelho, A.; Inzitari, D.; Pantoni, L.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    2015-01-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model-based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in

  15. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias

    pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  16. Adjuvant (post-surgery) chemotherapy for early stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrie, Theresa A.; Winter-Roach, Brett A.; Heus, Pauline; Kitchener, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To undertake a systematic review of the evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer to determine whether chemotherapy following surgery offers a survival advantage over the policy of observation following surgery (with chemotherapy reserved for treatment

  17. Radical (Wertheim) hysterectomy for early stages (1B and 2A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of cases of early stages (1B & 2A) cancer of the cervix, managed by radical hysterectomy at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital Sagamu Nigeria between 1997 and 2004 was carried out to appraise the outcome in terms of the success and safety of the operation. Seventeen cases were so treated, and ...

  18. Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2013-01-01

    This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

  19. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  20. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes predicts severe weight loss in patients with early stage laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langius, Jacqueline A. E.; Doornaert, Patricia; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although patients with early stage (T1/T2) laryngeal cancer (LC) are thought to have a low incidence of malnutrition, severe weight loss is observed in a subgroup of these patients during radiotherapy (RI). The objective of this study was to evaluate weight loss and

  1. Patient Preferences for Minimally Invasive and Open Locoregional Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuttel, Floor; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182981630; Young-Afat, Danny A.; Emaus, Marleen J.; van den Bongard, Desirée H J G; Witkamp, Arjen J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/245008780; Verkooijen, Helena M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/213707705

    Background: Noninvasive or minimally invasive treatments are being developed as alternatives to surgery for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Patients' preferences with regard to these new treatments have not been investigated. Objectives: To assess preferences of patients with breast cancer

  2. Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, L.M.; Pijlman, B.M.; Ezendam, N.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The

  3. Patients' preferences for adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer: is treatment worthwhile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S. J.; Kievit, J.; Nooij, M. A.; de Haes, J. C.; Overpelt, I. M.; van Slooten, H.; Maartense, E.; Stiggelbout, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    When making decisions about adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, costs and benefits of treatment should be carefully weighed. In this process, patients' preferences are of major importance. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine the minimum benefits that patients

  4. Clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, Lindy M J; Pijlman, Brenda M; Ezendam, N.P.M.; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The

  5. Discrepancy between subjective and objective sleep disturbances in early and moderate stage Alzheimer’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Most, E.I.S.; Aboudan, S.; Scheltens, P.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Sleep disturbances such as nocturnal awakenings frequently occur in demented elderly persons and can contribute to depression, cognitive impairment, and caregiver burden. Recognizing sleep disturbances at an early stage of the disease progress is a first prerequisite of intervention and

  6. Early-Stage Comparative Sustainability Assessment of New Bio-based Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.D.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Uil, den H.; Jong, de E.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to

  7. Does the kidney injury molecule-1 predict cisplatin-induced kidney injury in early stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekce, Buket Kin; Uyeturk, Ummugul; Tekce, Hikmet; Uyeturk, Ugur; Aktas, Gulali; Akkaya, Akcan

    2015-01-01

    It is not possible to diagnose acute kidney injury (AKI) in early stages with traditional biomarkers. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a novel biomarker promising the diagnosis of AKI in early stages. We studied whether urinary and serum KIM-1 (KIM-1 U and KIM-1 S ) concentrations were useful in predicting cisplatin-induced AKI in early stages. We prospectively analysed 22 patients on cisplatin treatment. KIM-1 S and KIM-1 U concentrations were assessed in the samples of the patients on four different time periods (before treatment [BT], first [AT1], third [AT3] and fifth [AT5] day after treatment). KIM-1 U concentrations on the first day after cisplatin treatment in patients with AKI were significantly increased compared to both KIM-1 U concentrations of the same patients BT (P=0.009) and to AT1-KIM-1 U concentrations of the patients without AKI (P=0.008). A receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that AT1-KIM-1 U concentrations may predict AKI with an 87.5% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity (area under the curve=0.94). KIM-1 S concentrations were not significantly changed between BT and AT periods. KIM-1 U concentrations may predict cisplatin-induced AKI in early stages with high sensitivity and specificity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Creating Socionas : Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  9. 77 FR 25042 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... help encourage private sector investment in job-creating startups and small firms, accelerate research... billion in financings to U.S. businesses in calendar year 2010, this represented over a 23% decline from 2007. Less than a third of these financing dollars went to early stage or start-up businesses. Of the...

  10. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmes, Marc; Neumann, Ulrike; Lühmann, Dagmar; Schönermark, Matthias P; Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-05

    Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA) which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare) are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a technology and

  11. The power of personality in discriminating between healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchek, Janet M; Balota, David A; Storandt, Martha; Larsen, Randy

    2007-11-01

    This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO Five-Factor Inventory. On the basis of both self-report and informant report, there was an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness in persons with very mild DAT relative to healthy individuals without it, and in persons with mild DAT relative to those with very mild DAT. Moreover, informant reports of neuroticism and conscientiousness capture substantial unique variance in discriminating healthy aging and very mild DAT, above and beyond standard neuropsychological tests. Discussion focuses on the importance of personality traits as a noncognitive indicator of early-stage DAT.

  12. The δ-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

    We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the δ-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the δ1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the δ3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the δ1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

  13. Extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy and use of adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy for early-stage endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Machida, Hiroko; Ragab, Omar M; Takiuchi, Tsuyoshi; Pham, Huyen Q; Roman, Lynda D

    2017-03-01

    To examine trends of adjuvant radiotherapy choice and to examine associations between pelvic lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy choice for women with early-stage endometrial cancer. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify surgically treated stage I-II endometrial cancer between 1983 and 2012 (type 1 n=79,474, and type 2 n=25,020). Piecewise linear regression models were used to examine temporal trends of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) and whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) use, pelvic lymphadenectomy rate, and sampled node counts. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors for ICBT use. There was a significant increase in ICBT use and decrease in WPRT use during the study period. ICBT use exceeded WPRT use in 2003 for type 1 stage IA, and in 2007 for type 1 stage IB and type 2 stage IA diseases. In addition, number of sampled pelvic nodes significantly increased over time in type 1-2 stage I-II diseases (mean, 7.0-12.7 in 1988 to 15.2-17.6 in 2012, all P10 nodes versus no lymphadenectomy in stage IA (1.38/2.40), IB (2.75/6.32), and II (1.36/2.91) diseases. Similar trends were observed for type 2 cancer: adjusted-odds ratios for stage IA (1.69/3.73), IB (2.25/5.65), and II (1.36/2.19) diseases. Our results suggest that surgeons and radiation oncologists are evaluating the extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy when counseling women with early-stage endometrial cancer for adjuvant radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. BANF1, PLOD3, SF3B4 as Early-stage Cancer Decision Markers and Drivers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingyu; Eun, Jung Woo; Lee, Kyungbun; Kim, Hyung Seok; Yang, Hee Doo; Kim, Sang Yean; Lee, Eun Kyung; Kim, Taemook; Kang, Keunsoo; Kim, Seongchan; Min, Dal-Hee; Oh, Soon-Nam; Lee, Young-Joon; Moon, Hyuk; Ro, Simon Weonsang; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Nam, Suk Woo

    2017-10-23

    An accurate tool enabling early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is clinically important, since early detection of HCC markedly improves survival. We aimed to investigate the molecular markers underlying early progression of HCC that can be detected in precancerous lesions. We designed a gene selection strategy to identify potential driver genes by integrative analysis of transcriptome and clinicopathologic data of human multi-stage HCC tissues including precancerous lesions, low- and high-grade dysplastic nodules. The gene selection process was guided by detecting the selected molecules in both HCC and precancerous lesion. Using various computational approaches, we selected 10 gene elements as a candidate and, through immunohistochemical staining, showed that BANF1, PLOD3 and SF3B4 are HCC decision markers with superior capability to diagnose early-stage HCC in a large cohort of HCC patients, as compared to the currently popular trio of HCC diagnostic markers: glypican 3, glutamine synthetase, and heat-shock protein 70. Targeted inactivation of BANF1, PLOD3 and SF3B4 inhibits in vitro and in vivo liver tumorigenesis by selectively modulating EMT and cell cycle proteins. Treatment of nanoparticles containing siRNAs of the three genes suppressed liver tumor incidence as well as tumor growth rates in spontaneous mouse HCC model. We also demonstrated that SF3B4 overexpression triggers SF3b complex to splice tumor suppressor KLF4 transcript to non-functional skipped exon transcripts. This contributes to malignant transformation and growth of hepatocyte via transcriptional inactivation of p27Kip1 and simultaneously activation of Slug genes. The findings suggest novel molecular markers of BANF1, PLOD3 and SF3B4 indicating early-stage HCC in precancerous lesion, and also suggest drivers for understanding the development of hepatocarcinogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of

  15. Comparison between FCSRT and LASSI-L to Detect Early Stage Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias-Guiu, Jordi A; Cabrera-Martín, María Nieves; Curiel, Rosie E; Valles-Salgado, María; Rognoni, Teresa; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Carreras, José Luis; Loewenstein, David A; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2017-11-08

    The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is the most accurate test for the diagnosis of prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, a novel cognitive test, the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scale for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), has been developed in order to provide an early diagnosis. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the FCSRT and the LASSI-L for the diagnosis of AD in its preclinical and prodromal stages using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a reference. Fifty patients consulting for subjective memory complaints without functional impairment and at risk for AD were enrolled and evaluated using FCSRT, LASSI-L, and FDG-PET. Participants were evaluated using a comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological protocol and were assessed with the FCSRT and LASSI-L. FDG-PET was acquired concomitantly and used for classification of patients as AD or non-AD according to brain metabolism using both visual and semi-quantitative methods. LASSI-L scores allowed a better classification of patients as AD/non-AD in comparison to FCSRT. Logistic regression analysis showed delayed recall and failure to recovery from proactive semantic interference from LASSI-L as independent statistically significant predictors, obtaining an area under the curve of 0.894. This area under the curve provided a better discrimination than the best FCSRT score (total delayed recall, area under the curve 0.708, p = 0.029). The LASSI-L, a cognitive stress test, was superior to FCSRT in the prediction of AD features on FDG-PET. This emphasizes the possibility to advance toward an earlier diagnosis of AD from a clinical perspective.

  16. Association of choroidal thickness with early stages of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Shen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the correlation between choroidal thickness (CT and the early stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We divided 83 diabetic patients (51-80 years of age; 50 females into non diabetic retinopathy group (NDR and mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR group, and compared them with 26 non-diabetic control subjects (51-78 years of age; 16 females. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT and parafoveal choroidal thickness (PFCT were measured using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT. Ocular health status, disease duration, body mass index, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c were recorded. RESULTS: The mean ages of the NDR, NPDR, and control groups were 68.0±6.9y, 67.8±6.4y, and 65.1±6.3y, respectively (P=0.17. Pearson correlation of the right and left eyes for the control subjects was 0.95 and for the NDR subjects was 0.93. SFCT for the right eyes of the controls was 252.77± 41.10 μm, which was significantly thicker than that of the right eyes in NDR group (221.51±46.56 μm and the worse eyes of the NPDR group (207.18±61.87 μm; ANOVA, P<0.01. In the diabetic patients pooled together, age was the only variable significantly associated with SFCT (multiple linear regression analysis, P=0.01. CONCLUSION: CT decreased significantly in the NDR and mild/moderate NPDR eyes compared with the control eyes. Age is significantly associated with SFCT in the diabetic patients. Diabetic choroidopathy may be present before clinical retinopathy.

  17. Biomarkers for early and late stage chronic allograft nephropathy by proteogenomic profiling of peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil M Kurian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in life expectancy of kidney transplant patients due to advances in surgery and immunosuppression, Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (CAN remains a daunting problem. A complex network of cellular mechanisms in both graft and peripheral immune compartments complicates the non-invasive diagnosis of CAN, which still requires biopsy histology. This is compounded by non-immunological factors contributing to graft injury. There is a pressing need to identify and validate minimally invasive biomarkers for CAN to serve as early predictors of graft loss and as metrics for managing long-term immunosuppression.We used DNA microarrays, tandem mass spectroscopy proteomics and bioinformatics to identify genomic and proteomic markers of mild and moderate/severe CAN in peripheral blood of two distinct cohorts (n = 77 total of kidney transplant patients with biopsy-documented histology.Gene expression profiles reveal over 2400 genes for mild CAN, and over 700 for moderate/severe CAN. A consensus analysis reveals 393 (mild and 63 (moderate/severe final candidates as CAN markers with predictive accuracy of 80% (mild and 92% (moderate/severe. Proteomic profiles show over 500 candidates each, for both stages of CAN including 302 proteins unique to mild and 509 unique to moderate/severe CAN.This study identifies several unique signatures of transcript and protein biomarkers with high predictive accuracies for mild and moderate/severe CAN, the most common cause of late allograft failure. These biomarkers are the necessary first step to a proteogenomic classification of CAN based on peripheral blood profiling and will be the targets of a prospective clinical validation study.

  18. Characterization of xylan in the early stages of secondary cell wall formation in tobacco bright yellow-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tadashi; Matsuoka, Keita; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakano, Yoshimi; Ohtani, Misato; Demura, Taku; Iwai, Hiroaki; Satoh, Shinobu

    2017-11-15

    The major polysaccharides present in the primary and secondary walls surrounding plant cells have been well characterized. However, our knowledge of the early stages of secondary wall formation is limited. To address this, cell walls were isolated from differentiating xylem vessel elements of tobacco bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells induced by VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VND7). The walls of induced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells consisted of cellulose, pectic polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and contained more xylan and cellulose compared with non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells. A reducing end sequence of xylan containing rhamnose and galaturonic acid- residues is present in the walls of induced, uninduced, and non-transformed BY-2 cells. Glucuronic acid residues in xylan from walls of induced cells are O-methylated, while those of xylan in non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced cells are not. Our results show that xylan changes in chemical structure and amounts during the early stages of xylem differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association Between Prognosis and Tumor Laterality in Early-Stage Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Safiya; Brennan, Kelly; Nanji, Sulaiman; Berry, Scott R; Booth, Christopher M

    2017-10-01

    Recent data have suggested that disease biology and outcome of colon cancer may differ between right-sided and left-sided tumors. However, the literature on the prognostic value of tumor laterality is conflicting. To explore differences in laterality based on disease characteristics and outcomes in a population-based cohort of early-stage colon cancer. This investigation was a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients with early-stage colon cancer from the province of Ontario, Canada. Electronic records of treatment were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all patients with colon cancer who underwent resection between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2008. The date of the final analysis was October 20, 2016. The study population included a 25% random sample of all patients with resected stage I to III disease. Right-sided colon cancer was defined as any tumor arising in the cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, or transverse colon. Left-sided colon cancer was defined as any tumor arising in the splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, or rectosigmoid colon. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) measured from the time of resection. This study identified 6365 patients with early-stage colon cancer (48.7% [3098 of 6365] female). Their median age was 72 years, and 51.7% (3291 of 6365) had right-sided disease. Stage distribution was 18.3% (1163 of 6365) stage I, 38.4% (2446 of 6365) stage II, and 43.3% (2756 of 6365) stage III. Patients with right-sided colon cancer were more likely to be older (median age, 73 vs 70 years; P stage III disease: the hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93-1.14) for OS and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.97-1.24) for CSS. In this population-based cohort of early-stage resected colon cancer, disease laterality was not associated with long-term OS or CSS.

  20. Prognostic model for survival in patients with early stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewenga, Petra; van der Velden, Jacobus; Mol, Ben Willem J; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Schilthuis, Marten S; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Burger, Matthé P M; Buist, Marrije R

    2011-02-15

    In the management of early stage cervical cancer, knowledge about the prognosis is critical. Although many factors have an impact on survival, their relative importance remains controversial. This study aims to develop a prognostic model for survival in early stage cervical cancer patients and to reconsider grounds for adjuvant treatment. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to identify the prognostic weight of clinical and histological factors for disease-specific survival (DSS) in 710 consecutive patients who had surgery for early stage cervical cancer (FIGO [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics] stage IA2-IIA). Prognostic scores were derived by converting the regression coefficients for each prognostic marker and used in a score chart. The discriminative capacity was expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The 5-year DSS was 92%. Tumor diameter, histological type, lymph node metastasis, depth of stromal invasion, lymph vascular space invasion, and parametrial extension were independently associated with DSS and were included in a Cox regression model. This prognostic model, corrected for the 9% overfit shown by internal validation, showed a fair discriminative capacity (AUC, 0.73). The derived score chart predicting 5-year DSS showed a good discriminative capacity (AUC, 0.85). In patients with early stage cervical cancer, DSS can be predicted with a statistical model. Models, such as that presented here, should be used in clinical trials on the effects of adjuvant treatments in high-risk early cervical cancer patients, both to stratify and to include patients. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  1. The value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Brian; Tanev, Stoyan; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on conceptualizing the value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups that are typical of university-based entrepreneurial ecosystems. The challenge of such conceptualization consists in two main issues. The first issue is taking into account the specificity...... of the needs of early stage start-ups since they: i) do not have a well-articulated business model but work towards establishing one; ii) operate under conditions of significantly high risks and uncertainties; and iii) have not developed the minimum viable set of partners that would enable them to demonstrate...... that they could create value for the different stakeholders involved in their business ecosystem. The second issue is the need to categorize the various types of business incubators before examining the way they create value for early start-ups. In most national or regional entrepreneurial ecosystems...

  2. Sustainability Evaluation of Retrofitting and Renovation of Buildings in Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir; Gohardani, Navid

    2013-01-01

    proposals and to follow-up on a project and assess the results. The tool will cover the four main parameters: Environment, users (satisfaction), organisation (including competences), and economy (in a wide sense). Evaluations will be subjective, but based on facts and arguments. The different stakeholder......Research on the barriers for building renovation in Denmark has revealed that an important obstacle is a lack of simple and holistic tools that can assist stakeholders in decision-making during the early stages of projects (pre-project phases). The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary...... research results and ideas for the development of a tool, which can be used as decision support for renovation projects in early stages. The research is part of the Eracobuild project ACES – “A concept for promotion of sustainable retrofitting and renovation in early stages” with participants from Denmark...

  3. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Conclusions: Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. Citation: Ogna A, Forni Ogna V, Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  4. Wedge resection and segmentectomy in patients with stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Reveliotis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of sublobar resections as definitive management in stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma is a controversial topic in the medical community. We intend to report the latest developments and trends in relative indications for each of the above-mentioned surgical approaches for the treatment of stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma as well as the results of studies regarding local recurrence, disease-free survival and five-year survival rates. We reviewed 45 prospective and retrospective studies conducted over the last 25 years listed in the Pubmed and Scopus electronic databases. Trials were identified through bibliographies and a manual search in journals. Authors, citations, objectives and results were extracted. No meta-analysis was performed. Validation of results was discussed. Segmentectomies are superior to wedge resections in terms of local recurrences and cancer-related mortality rates. Sublobar resections are superior to lobectomy in preserving the pulmonary parenchyma. High-risk patients should undergo segmentectomy, whereas lobectomies are superior to segmentectomies only for tumors >2 cm (T2bN0M0 in terms of disease-free and overall 5-year survival. In most studies no significant differences were found in tumors <2 cm. Disease-free surgical margins are crucial to prevent local recurrences. Systematic lymphadenectomy is mandatory regardless of the type of resection used. In sublobar resections with less thorough nodal dissections, adjuvant radiotherapy can be used. This approach is preferable in case of prior resection. In pure bronchoalveolar carcinoma, segmentectomy is recommended. Sublobar resections are associated with a shorter hospital stay. The selection of the type of resection in T1aN0M0 tumors should depend on characteristic of the patient and the tumor. Patient age, cardiopulmonary reserve and tumor size are the most important factors to be considered. However further prospective randomized trials are needed to

  5. Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early stage lung cancer evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbosh, Christopher; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Wilson, Gareth A.

    2017-01-01

    The early detection of relapse following primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer and the characterization of emerging subclones seeding metastatic sites might offer new therapeutic approaches to limit tumor recurrence. The potential to non-invasively track tumor evolutionary dynamics in ct...

  6. A mid-term follow-up of Koutsogiannis' osteotomy in adult-acquired flatfoot stage II and "early stage III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinius, Camilla; Manrique, Elena; Urda, Antonio; Cardoso, Zulema; Galeote, Jose Enrique; Marco, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Koutsogiannis' osteotomy has been widely described to treat adult-acquired flatfoot. However, few articles describe its midterm follow-up. Our aim was to study clinical and radiological outcomes at least one year after surgery and to analyze whether a combined procedure on the medial soft tissue affected these outcomes. We performed a retrospective study of 30 feet of patients who underwent a Koutsogiannis' osteotomy due to adult-acquired flatfoot stage II and "early stage III": a stage III acquired flatfoot without any important structural deformities. The parameters studied were additional medial soft tissue procedures, clinical outcome through the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle and midfoot score as well as complications and radiological measurements. Sixteen cases were "early stage III" and 14 stage II. Thirteen patients underwent an associated posterior tibial tendon (PTT) revision: in three cases an end-to-end suture was possible, seven cases needed a FDL transposition, and three underwent synovectomy. Statistically significant improvement was found in the AOFAS score although no significant changes were seen radiologically. No additional benefit was found with the revision of the posterior tibial tendon. As to clinical and radiological results, no differences were found between stage II and "early stage III". Five cases presented a mild dysesthesia but only one patient needed neurolysis. We consider the Koutsogiannis' osteotomy to be a safe and effective procedure to reduce pain in patients with stage II and "early stage III" adult-acquired flatfoot. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  7. Clinical performance of a multivariate index assay for detecting early-stage ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoria, Teresa C; Ueland, Frederick R; Zhang, Zhen; Chan, Daniel W; Smith, Alan; Fung, Eric T; Munroe, Donald G; Bristow, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    We sought to analyze the effectiveness of a multivariate index assay (MIA) in identifying early-stage ovarian malignancy compared to clinical assessment, CA 125-II, and modified American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines among women undergoing surgery for an adnexal mass. Patients were recruited in 2 related prospective, multi-institutional trials involving 44 sites. All women had preoperative imaging and biomarker analysis. Preoperative biomarker values, physician assessment of ovarian cancer risk, and modified ACOG guideline risk stratification were correlated with surgical pathology. A total of 1016 patients were evaluable for MIA, CA 125-II, and clinical assessment. Overall, 86 patients (8.5%) had primary-stage I/II primary ovarian malignancy, with 70.9% having stage I disease and 29.1% having stage II disease. For all early-stage ovarian malignancies, MIA combined with clinical assessment had significantly higher sensitivity (95.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 88.6-98.2) compared to clinical assessment alone (68.6%; 95% CI, 58.2-77.4), CA 125-II (62.8%; 95% CI, 52.2-72.3), and modified ACOG guidelines (76.7%; 95% CI, 66.8-84.4) (P early-stage ovarian cancer was 89.3% (95% CI, 72.8-96.3) for MIA combined with clinical assessment, 60.7% (95% CI, 42.4-76.4) for clinical assessment alone, 35.7% (95% CI, 20.7-54.2) for CA 125-II, and 78.6% (95% CI, 60.5-89.8) for modified ACOG guidelines. Early-stage ovarian cancer in postmenopausal patients was correctly detected in 98.3% (95% CI, 90.9-99.7) of cases by MIA combined with clinical assessment, compared to 72.4% (95% CI, 59.8-82.2) for clinical assessment alone, 75.9% (95% CI, 63.5-85.0) for CA 125-II, and 75.9% (95% CI, 63.5-85.0) for modified ACOG guidelines. MIA combined with clinical assessment demonstrated higher sensitivity for early-stage ovarian malignancy compared to clinical assessment alone, CA 125-II, and modified ACOG guidelines with consistent performance across menopausal

  8. Early infection risk with primary versus staged Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) graft implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Andrew S; Gage, Shawn M; Lawson, Jeffrey H; Kim, Charles Y

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the use of a staged Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO; Merit Medical, South Jordan, Utah) implantation strategy incurs increased early infection risk compared with conventional primary HeRO implantation. A retrospective review was performed of 192 hemodialysis patients who underwent HeRO graft implantation: 105 patients underwent primary HeRO implantation in the operating room, and 87 underwent a staged implantation where a previously inserted tunneled central venous catheter was used for guidewire access for the venous outflow component. Within the staged implantation group, 32 were performed via an existing tunneled hemodialysis catheter (incidentally staged), and 55 were performed via a tunneled catheter inserted across a central venous occlusion in an interventional radiology suite specifically for HeRO implantation (intentionally staged). Early infection was defined as episodes of bacteremia or HeRO infection requiring resection ≤30 days of HeRO implantation. For staged HeRO implantations, the median interval between tunneled catheter insertion and conversion to a HeRO graft was 42 days. The overall HeRO-related infection rate ≤30 days of implantation was 8.6% for primary HeRO implantation and 2.3% for staged implantations (P = .12). The rates of early bacteremia and HeRO resection requiring surgical resection were not significantly different between groups (P = .19 and P = .065, respectively), nor were age, gender, laterality, anastomosis to an existing arteriovenous access, human immunodeficiency virus status, diabetes, steroids, chemotherapy, body mass index, or graft location. None of the patient variables, techniques, or graft-related variables correlated significantly with the early infection rate. The staged HeRO implantation strategy did not result in an increased early infection risk compared with conventional primary implantation and is thus a reasonable strategy for HeRO insertion in hemodialysis patients

  9. Early stages of pediatric bipolar disorder: retrospective analysis of a Czech inpatient sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Michal Goetz,1 Tomas Novak,2 Marie Vesela,1 Zdenek Hlavka,3 Martin Brunovsky,2 Michal Povazan,4 Radek Ptacek,5 Antonin Sebela21Department of Child Psychiatry, Second Faculty of Medicine, Motol University Hospital, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 2National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany and Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Department of Probability and Mathematical Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 4Children’s Department, Bohnice Psychiatric Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, General Teaching Hospital, Charles University in Prague, Czech RepublicBackground: Approximately 30%–60% of adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD report onset between the ages 15 and 19 years; however, a correct diagnosis is often delayed by several years. Therefore, investigations of the early features of BD are important for adequately understanding the prodromal stages of the illness.Methods: A complete review of the medical records of 46 children and adolescents who were hospitalized for BD at two psychiatric teaching centers in Prague, Czech Republic was performed. Frequency of BD in all inpatients, age of symptom onset, phenomenology of mood episodes, lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, differences between very-early-onset (<13 years of age and early-onset patients (13–18 years, and differences between the offspring of parents with and without BD were analyzed.Results: The sample represents 0.83% of the total number of inpatients (n=5,483 admitted during the study period at both centers. BD often started with depression (56%, followed by hypomania (24% and mixed episodes (20%. The average age during the first mood episode was 14.9 years (14.6 years for depression and 15.6 years for hypomania. Seven children (15% experienced their first mood episode before age 13

  10. Parameter estimation for fm signals in two stages: non uniform fast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study deals with estimating the parameters of the received signal of the poly phase in three orders. The process of estimation occurs in two stages: in the first stage, the high orders of the signal are estimated highly accurately using the Non Uniform FFT. The received signal passes through the componential match filter ...

  11. Identification and comparison of the 3 early stages of resynthesis for the lichen Cladonia rangiferina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, Sarangi N P; Huebner, Erwin; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2014-01-01

    A lichen is an association between a biotrophic fungal partner and a green algal and (or) cyanobacterial partner, which may be considered a "controlled" parasitic interaction. While controlled parasitism implies benefit to both interacting partners, a parasitism that is not controlled implies that one partner benefits to the detriment of the other partner. The objective of this study was to compare morphological development of the interaction between Cladonia rangiferina with its compatible algal partner (Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis) and incompatible algae (Coccomyxa peltigerae and Chloroidium ellipsoideum) at 3 early resynthesis stages. The fungus was co-inoculated with each alga separately and the stages of development were compared using quantitative measures. The first 3 stages of development of the lichen thallus were identified in the compatible interaction as the "pre-contact" stage (1 day post co-inoculation (PCI)), "contact" stage (8 days PCI), and "growth together" stage (21 days PCI). Compatible interactions showed significantly shorter internode length, significantly more new lateral hyphal branches, significantly greater appressorial frequency, and no reduction in cell diameter of the algal cells, compared with incompatible interactions. At 21 days PCI, a parasitic interaction was observed between Cladonia rangiferina and Chloroidium ellipsoideum. These findings support the importance of recognition between compatible partners for successful lichenization. This study also revealed a strategy that may explain the success of this species in northern habitats. Identification of the resynthesis stages of Cladonia rangiferina is required before expression of the proteins involved in recognition and defense can be understood.

  12. Histological study of the early stage of {sup 32}P-induced experimental osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahagi, Hiroshi; Osaka, Shunzo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-04-01

    {sup 32}P radioisotope as an orthophosphate solution was injected intraperitoneally into C.F. Wistar strain albino rats to induce primary osteosarcoma. To capture the early stage of tumor formation, bone scintigraphy employing technetium-99m ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and soft radiography were conducted from week 16 after the beginning of {sup 32}P administration. The histological findings were compared at the stages when both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram showed no abnormalities (Group A), the soft radiogram showed no abnormality but the bone scintigram revealed abnormal deposition (Group B), similar findings to those in Group B were obtained but 2 weeks later (Group C), and both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram were positive (Group D). The histological picture before osteosarcoma formation demonstrated a marked reduction of bone marrow tissue, many irregular bone trabeculae in the metaphysis due to abnormal endochondral ossification, and zonal obliteration of the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. The histological findings at the ultra-early stage of osteosarcoma formation included irregularity in the growing cartilage zone and highly atypical osteoblast-like cells among the irregular trabeculae. Osteoid formation occurred 2 weeks later. In conclusion, we were able to observe the morphological changes of the osteosarcoma tissue at a very early stage of tumor formation. (author)

  13. Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIUS SUWANTO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at early developmental stages. Biodiversitas 11 (2: 65-68.Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP was used to monitor the dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with early developmental stages of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. Samples for analysis were egg, hatching nauplii, 24 hours old nauplii, and 48 hours old nauplii which were collected from one cycle of production at commercial hatchery. T-RFLP results indicated that the bacterial community associated with early stages of shrimp development might be transferred vertically from broodstock via egg. There was no significant difference between bacterial communities investigated, except the bacterial community of 48 hours old nauplii. Diversity analyses showed that the bacterial community of egg had the highest diversity and evenness, meanwhile the bacterial community of 48 hours old nauplii had the lowest diversity. Nine phylotypes were found at all stages with high abundance. Those TRFs were identified as γ- proteobacteria, α-proteobacteria, and bacteroidetes group.

  14. Effects of copper on early developmental stages of Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Phaeophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Loretto [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); Medina, Matias H. [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); CIIMAR - Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Andrade, Santiago [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); Oppliger, Valeria [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); Correa, Juan A. [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: jcorrea@bio.puc.cl

    2007-01-15

    Copper effects on the early developmental gametophytic and sporophytic stages of the kelp Lessonia nigrescens were tested in gradients of increasing concentrations of ASV-labile copper. The results demonstrated a high sensitivity to copper of all life-history stages of the alga, where even the lowest tested concentration affected spore release as well as their subsequent settlement. More significant, concentrations higher than 7.87 {mu}g L{sup -1} totally interrupted the development of the spores after they settle. This effect led to a failure in the formation of male and female gametophytes and, as a consequence, to a complete disruption of the normal life cycle of the kelp. Thus, we suggest that the absence of L. nigrescens from copper-enriched environments results from the high sensitivity of its early life cycle stages, which limits growth and maturation of the gametophytic microscopic phase and, as a consequence, prevents development of the macroscopic sporophytic phase. - Early developmental stages of Lessonia nigrescens are highly sensitive to copper.

  15. Impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the prognosis of early stage triple-negative breast cancer in People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang-Jing; Liu, Zhe-Bin; Qu, Li; Hao, Shuang; Liu, Guang-Yu; Wu, Jiong; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases. Increased cause-specific mortality and decreased disease-free survival (DFS) have been reported among cancer patients with T2DM compared with patients without T2DM, even after adjustments of other comorbidities. However, less is known about the impact of T2DM and other comorbidities on DFS in Chinese patients with early stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We assessed patients who were newly diagnosed with early stage primary TNBC at the Department of Breast Surgery, Fudan University, from 2003 to 2011. Of the 1,100 TNBC patients, 865 female patients had invasive and early stage TNBC. The association of the variables in the T2DM and non-T2DM groups was compared using the Pearson's chi-square and independent t-tests. DFS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The effects of T2DM and other possible risk factors on DFS were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression using univariate or multivariate analysis. A total of 865 early stage primary TNBC cases were studied, including 104 (12.02%) subjects with T2DM. Metastatic or recurrent disease was detected in 24 (23.08%) patients in the T2DM group and 35 (4.60%) patients in the non-T2DM group. Patients with T2DM exhibited a significantly lower DFS than patients without T2DM (log-rank P50 or ≤50), menopausal status (post- or premenopausal), tumor size (>5 cm or ≤5 cm), lymph node involvement (positive or negative), and adjuvant chemotherapy (received or not) using the Kaplan-Meier method (log-rank Pearly stage TNBC. The presence of T2DM should be taken into account when evaluating the risk for an early stage TNBC patient. More effective therapeutic regimens are needed for early stage TNBC patients with T2DM.

  16. Complications after radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy in early-stage cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdin, E. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Gynecologic Oncology, Uppsala (Sweden); Cnattingius, S. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Social Medicine, Uppsala (Sweden); Johnson, P. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate the overall complications, major as well as minor, in patients treated for early-stage cervical carcinoma as related to treatment parameters. Methods: In this retrospective study, 167 consecutive patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma treated with preoperative radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy were investigated. Clinical data were collected from the medical files. Results: Transient or permanent complications appeared in up to half of all patients. Seven percent exhibited intraoperative complications and 35% suffered from early postoperative urinary tract problems; most frequently urinary tract infection. After one year, the urinary tract complications dominated; voidance difficulties and incontinence being most common. Gastrointestinal complications occurred in 15% of patients. Lymphedema appeared during the first year in 21% of the patients but several of the mild or moderate cases improved after the first year. The relative risk of lymphedema was increased with shorter duration of surgery, extensive preoperative irradiation to the bladder and after external postoperative irradiation. Some form of late sequelae remained in every fifth patient, and every fourth patient, aged 23-44 years, periodically suffered from vasomotor symptoms despite estrogen replacement therapy. Conclusion: The complications after radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy in early stage cervical carcinoma suggest that attempts should be made to evaluate effective treatments designed to minimize risk to the patients. (au) 29 refs.

  17. Innovative Point-of-Care (POC Micro Biochip for Early Stage Ovarian Cancer Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Babu NUNNA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the cancers are curable if they are detected at early stages. The early stage detection of cancers can significantly improve the patient treatment outcomes and thus helps to decrease the. To achieve the early detection of specific cancer, the biochip is incorporated with an innovative sensing mechanism and surface treated microchannels. The sensing mechanism employed in the Point of Care (POC biochip is designed to be highly specific and sensitive. The surface treated microchannel helps to control the self-driven flow of the blood sample. Cancer antibodies with enhanced specificity and affinity are immobilized on the surface of the nano circuit in the microchannel. When the blood sample flows in the microchannel over the cancer antibodies, the corresponding cancer antigens from the blood form the antigen-antibody complex. These antigen-antibody interactions are captured with the variation in the electrical properties of the gold nano circuit using the sensing mechanism in the biochip. The point of care (POC micro biochip is designed as an in- situ standalone device to diagnose ovarian cancer at the early stages by sensing the cancer antigens in the blood sample drawn from a finger prick. The POC biochip can help to diagnose, the existence of cancer and also its severity using the qualitative and the quantitative results of the sensing mechanism in the biochip.

  18. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of chronic hepatitis C on the early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Zhevnerova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – to assess the clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC on the early stages of development and their comparison with the level of galectin3. The study included 78 patients with oligosymptomatic course of the disease and minimal liver fibrosis in the most cases. In the most patients with stages of the disease exceeding 8 years, viral load was over a million copies/ml. In 10 % of patients on the early stages of the disease, changes corresponding to severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis F3 and F4 were detected. Moderate correlation of ALT activity, viral load and low severity with the duration of the disease was identified. There is a trend towards a higher level of galectin3 in a long course of CHC in comparison with earlier stages of its development, with significantly higher average level of galectin-3 in patients with minimal liver fibrosis (F0–F1 as compared to advanced stages, suggesting its importance in the launching and initial mechanisms of fibrogenesis.

  19. Preoperative single ventricle function determines early outcome after second-stage palliation of single ventricle heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pająk, Jacek; Buczyński, Michał; Stanek, Piotr; Zalewski, Grzegorz; Wites, Marek; Szydłowski, Lesław; Mazurek, Bogusław; Tomkiewicz-Pająk, Lidia

    2017-09-11

    Second-stage palliation with hemi-Fontan or bidirectional Glenn procedures has improved the outcomes of patients treated for single-ventricle heart disease. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze risk factors for death after second-stage palliation of single-ventricle heart and to compare therapeutic results achieved with the hemi-Fontan and bidirectional Glenn procedures. We analyzed 60 patients who had undergone second-stage palliation for single-ventricle heart. Group HF consisted of 23 (38.3%) children who had been operated with the hemi-Fontan method; Group BDG consisted of 37 (61.7%) who had been operated with the bidirectional Glenn method. The analysis focused on 30-day postoperative mortality rates, clinical and echocardiographic data, and early complications. The patients' ages at the time of repair was 33 ± 11.2 weeks; weight was 6.7 ± 1.2 kg. The most common anatomic subtype was hypoplastic left heart syndrome, in 36 (60%) patients. The early mortality rate was 13.3%. Significant preoperative atrioventricular valve regurgitation, single-ventricle heart dysfunction, pneumonia/sepsis, and arrhythmias were associated with higher mortality rates after second-stage palliation. Multivariate analysis identified significant preoperative single-ventricle heart dysfunction as an independent predictor of early death after second-stage palliation. No differences were found in the analyzed variables after bidirectional Glenn compared with hemi-Fontan procedures. Significant preoperative atrioventricular valve regurgitation, arrhythmias and pneumonia/sepsis are closely correlated with mortality in patients with single-ventricle heart after second-stage palliation. Preoperative significant single-ventricle heart dysfunction is an independent mortality predictor in this group of patients. There are no differences in clinical, echocardiographic data, or outcomes in patients treated with the hemi-Fontan compared with bidirectional Glenn procedures.

  20. Circulating ECV-Associated miRNAs as Potential Clinical Biomarkers in Early Stage HBV and HCV Induced Liver Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Joeri; Jan Poortmans, Pieter; Verhulst, Stefaan; Reynaert, Hendrik; Mannaerts, Inge; van Grunsven, Leo A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus infection is associated with the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) toward a myofibroblastic phenotype, resulting in excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, the development of liver fibrosis, and its progression toward cirrhosis. The gold standard for the detection and staging of liver fibrosis remains the liver biopsy, which is, however, associated with some mild and severe drawbacks. Other non-invasive techniques evade these drawbacks, but lack inter-stage specificity and are unable to detect early stages of fibrosis. We investigated whether circulating vesicle-associated miRNAs can be used in the diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis in HBV and HCV patients. Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from 14 healthy individuals and 39 early stage fibrotic patients (F0-F2) with chronic HBV or HCV infection who underwent transient elastography (Fibroscan). Extracellular vesicles were extracted from the plasma and the level of miRNA-122, -150, -192, -21, -200b, and -92a was analyzed by qRT-PCR in total plasma and circulating vesicles. Finally, these same miRNAs were also quantified in vesicles extracted from in vitro activating primary HSCs. Results: In total plasma samples, only miRNA-200b (HBV: p = 0.0384; HCV: p = 0.0069) and miRNA-122 (HBV: p < 0.0001; HCV: p = 0.0007) were significantly up-regulated during early fibrosis. In circulating vesicles, miRNA-192 (HBV: p < 0.0001; HCV: p < 0.0001), -200b (HBV: p < 0.0001; HCV: p < 0.0001), -92a (HBV: p < 0.0001; HCV: p < 0.0001), and -150 (HBV: p = 0.0016; HCV: p = 0.004) displayed a significant down-regulation in both HBV and HCV patients. MiRNA expression profiles in vesicles isolated from in vitro activating primary mouse HSCs resembled the miRNA expression profile in circulating vesicles. Conclusion: Our analysis revealed a distinct miRNA expression pattern in total plasma and its circulating vesicles. The expression profile of miRNAs in

  1. Usability of tablet computers by people with early-stage dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Fabian S; Wallace, Tim; Luszcz, Mary A; Reynolds, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    Tablet computers are generally associated with an intuitive interface. The adoption and use of tablet computers within the early-stage dementia context could potentially assist in daily living and provide users with a source for leisure activities and social networking. As dementia mainly affects the older adult population, it is expected that many people with dementia and even their carers do not use tablet computers as part of their everyday living. This paper explores the usability of tablet computers within the early-stage dementia context as a source of leisure for people with dementia. The main advantage of the use of tablet computers in this manner is to provide carers some reprieve from the constant care and attention often required in caring for people with dementia. Seven-day in-home trials were conducted to determine whether people with early-stage dementia were -capable of using a tablet computer independently. Twenty-one people with early-stage dementia and carer dyads participated in the trial. Feedback was gathered through questionnaires from both the person with dementia and their carer regarding the use of a tablet computer as part of their everyday living. Approximately half the participants with dementia were able to engage with and use the tablet computer independently, which proved to be helpful to their carers. No significant traits were observed to help identify those who were less likely to use a tablet computer. Carer relief was quantified by the amount of time participants with dementia spent using the device without supervision. The results and feedback from the trial provide significant insights to introducing new technology within the early-stage dementia context. Users' needs must be considered on a case-by-case basis to successfully facilitate the uptake of tablet computers in the dementia context. The trial has provided sufficient justification to further explore more uses of tablet computers in the dementia context, and not just for

  2. Oxidative stress parameters in early developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after subchronic exposure to terbuthylazine and metribuzin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostovsky, Martin; Blahova, Jana; Plhalova, Lucie; Stepanova, Stanislava; Praskova, Eva; Marsalek, Petr; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    This work assessed the subchronic effects of the triazine compounds terbuthylazine and metribuzin on embryo-larval stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using biotransformation enzyme and selected oxidative stress parameters. Early developmental stages of fish, from embryo to larvae, were exposed to terbuthylazine at concentrations of 0.9, 160, 520, and 820 μg/L, and metribuzin at concentrations of 0.9, 4, 14, and 32 mg/L for 30 days and compared to the non-treated control group. For assessment of free radical defence the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured; the lipid peroxidation (TBARS) level was determined as a marker of free radical damage. Terbuthylazine had no significant effect (p>0.05) at any tested concentrations on GST activity. Terbuthylazine caused an increase (p0.05) effect of terbuthylazine exposure on TBARS level. In metribuzin treated groups, the activity of GST was increased (pmetribuzin induced oxidative stress in embryo-larval stages of common carp. Increased activities of biotransformation enzymes or antioxidant defence enzymes were markers of free radical attack. There was low lipid peroxidation in early developed fish after triazine exposure.

  3. Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B; Specht, L; Henrichsen, J

    1989-01-01

    response to pneumococcal type antigens was similar in healthy adults and in patients with early stage HD before therapy. After treatment, postvaccination antibody response became negligible. Even up to 7 years after cessation of therapy patients were not able to raise a significant antibody response.......Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was studied in 76 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) before, during and at different time intervals after cessation of therapy. All patients were in pathological stage I and II following explorative laparatomy with splenectomy. The increase...

  4. THE METHOD FOR TREATMENT OF EARLY STAGE PERTHES DISEASE (PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Akhtyamov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of conservative treatment of Perthes disease in the early stages, before the end of the stage of fragmentation is described. The method consists in carrying out prolonged epidural analgesia by administering through an epidural catheter in a segmental innervation zone of the femoral head with local anesthetic dosage rate for 6-10 days. As a result of drug sympathectomy vasodilation and decreased tone of the vascular wall occur, that leading to improved microcirculation in the hip joint. The using this method in 7 patients showed that it allows to stop pain and restore functionality in patients immediately after the end of treatment.

  5. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 1 - The Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhamra, T.; Evans, S.; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    1999-01-01

    This paper will report on the results of a three year UK government funded research project entitled Design for the Environment Decision Support (DEEDS). As part of this project a survey of the Electronic and Electrical Industry was carried out in order to understand the way in which industry...... environmental decisions into their product development process which is very unusual in that ecodesign is significantly different for the pre- and post-specification stages of the design process. This paper explains the findings related to the first phase being the very early stages of the product development...

  6. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dun [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Chen, Hai-Xiao, E-mail: Hxchen-1@163.net [Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Yu, Hai-Qiang [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Lian, Qing-Quan [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); Deng, Hai-Teng, E-mail: dengh@mail.rockefeller.edu [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Ge, Ren-Shan, E-mail: rge@popcbr.rockefeller.edu [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

  7. Multitype Bellman-Harris branching model provides biological predictors of early stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Sierra, Amanda; Deudero, Juan Jose; Semerci, Fatih; Laitman, Andrew; Kimmel, Marek; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2017-10-03

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the process of formation of new neurons, occurs throughout life in the hippocampus. New neurons have been associated with learning and memory as well as mood control, and impaired neurogenesis has been linked to depression, schizophrenia, autism and cognitive decline during aging. Thus, understanding the biological properties of adult neurogenesis has important implications for human health. Computational models of neurogenesis have attempted to derive biologically relevant knowledge, hard to achieve using experimentation. However, the majority of the computational studies have predominantly focused on the late stages of neurogenesis, when newborn neurons integrate into hippocampal circuitry. Little is known about the early stages that regulate proliferation, differentiation, and survival of neural stem cells and their immediate progeny. Here, based on the branching process theory and biological evidence, we developed a computational model that represents the early stage hippocampal neurogenic cascade and allows prediction of the overall efficiency of neurogenesis in both normal and diseased conditions. Using this stochastic model with a simulation program, we derived the equilibrium distribution of cell population and simulated the progression of the neurogenic cascade. Using BrdU pulse-and-chase experiment to label proliferating cells and their progeny in vivo, we quantified labeled newborn cells and fit the model on the experimental data. Our simulation results reveal unknown but meaningful biological parameters, among which the most critical ones are apoptotic rates at different stages of the neurogenic cascade: apoptotic rates reach maximum at the stage of neuroblasts; the probability of neuroprogenitor cell renewal is low; the neuroblast stage has the highest temporal variance within the cell types of the neurogenic cascade, while the apoptotic stage is short. At a practical level, the stochastic model and simulation framework

  8. Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Groen, Henk; Roberts, Claire; Dekker, Gus A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy may be promising in evaluating maternal hemodynamic (mal)adaptation to pregnancy. We explored usage of applanation tonometry and Doppler ultrasound for assessment of cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance

  9. Dual time point FDG PET/CT:Is it useful for lymph node staging in patients with non small cell lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Chang Guhn [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Dual time point (DTP)FDG PET/CT has been shown to be useful for lymph node (LN)staging in patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the LN staging ability of DTP FDG PET/CT in the predominant area of pulmonary tuberculosis. Sixty nine NSCLC patients underwent DTP PET/CT. Regions of interest were placed on each LN of each station, and the maximum SUVs were measured. Three variables were obtained: (1)the SUV on the early scan (SUV{sup early}), (2)the SUV on the delayed scan (SUV{sup delayed}), and (3)the retention index of the SUV (RI). Each patient had one final LN stage and three other LN stages according to the cutoff values of SUV{sup early}, SUV{sup delayed}, and RI. In the LN based analysis, the area under the ROC curve of SUV{sup delayed} (0.884)was significantly larger (p<0.01)than those of SUV{sup early} (0.868)and RI (0.717). Among the three variables, SUV{sup delayed} was more accurate (P<0.01)for detecting the mediastinal LN metastasis than SUV{sup early} and RI. In the patient based analysis, SUV{sup delayed} had correctly determined LN stages in 55 of 69 patients (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy=88.7%, 50.0%, and 79.7%), whereas SUV{sup early} and RI correctly determined LN stages in 53 and 52 patients, respectively. In this study, comparing the diagnostic efficacy of SUV{sup early}, SUV{sup delayed}, and RI for LN staging in patients with NSCLC, SUV{sup delayed} was the most accurate variable for LN staging. DTP PET/CT could provide improved diagnostic accuracy for the LN staging of NSCLC.

  10. Genetically Modified T Cells in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer or Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Advanced Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; HLA-A*0201 Positive Cells Present; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma AJCC v7; WT1 Positive

  11. Sensitivity of the early-life stages of freshwater mollusks to neonicotinoid and butenolide insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; de Solla, S R; Holman, E A M; Osborne, R; Robinson, S A; Bartlett, A J; Maisonneuve, F J; Gillis, P L

    2016-11-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides can be transported from agricultural fields, where they are used as foliar sprays or seed treatments, to surface waters by surface or sub-surface runoff. Few studies have investigated the toxicity of neonicotinoid or the related butenolide insecticides to freshwater mollusk species. The current study examined the effect of neonicotinoid and butenolide exposures to the early-life stages of the ramshorn snail, Planorbella pilsbryi, and the wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola. Juvenile P. pilsbryi were exposed to imidacloprid, clothianidin, or thiamethoxam for 7 or 28 d and mortality, growth, and biomass production were measured. The viability of larval (glochidia) L. fasciola was monitored during a 48 h exposure to six neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, or dinotefuran), or a butenolide (flupyradifurone). The 7-d LC50s of P. pilsbryi for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam were ≥4000 μg/L and the 28-d LC50s were ≥182 μg/L. Growth and biomass production were considerably more sensitive endpoints than mortality with EC50s ranging from 33.2 to 122.0 μg/L. The 48-h LC50s for the viability of glochidia were ≥456 μg/L for all seven insecticides tested. Our data indicate that neonicotinoid and butenolide insecticides pose less of a hazard with respect to mortality of the two species of mollusk compared to the potential hazard to other non-target aquatic insects. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Patient Preferences in Treatment Choices for Early-Stage Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Betty C; Wallace, Scott; Hartwig, Matthew G; D'Amico, Thomas A; Huber, Joel C

    2016-12-01

    Decision-making for lung cancer treatment can be complex because it involves both provider recommendations based on the patient's clinical condition and patient preferences. This study describes the relative importance of several considerations in lung cancer treatment from the patient's perspective. A conjoint preference experiment began by asking respondents to imagine that they had just been diagnosed with lung cancer. Respondents then chose among procedures that differed regarding treatment modalities, the potential for treatment-related complications, the likelihood of recurrence, provider case volume, and distance needed to travel for treatment. Conjoint analysis derived relative weights for these attributes. A total of 225 responses were analyzed. Respondents were most willing to accept minimally invasive operations for treatment of their hypothetical lung cancer, followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT); they were least willing to accept thoracotomy. Treatment type and risk of recurrence were the most important attributes from the conjoint experiment (each with a relative weight of 0.23), followed by provider volume (relative weight of 0.21), risk of major complications (relative weight of 0.18), and distance needed to travel for treatment (relative weight of 0.15). Procedural and treatment preferences did not vary with demographics, self-reported health status, or familiarity with the procedures. Survey respondents preferred minimally invasive operations over SBRT or thoracotomy for treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Treatment modality and risk of cancer recurrence were the most important factors associated with treatment preferences. Provider experience outweighed the potential need to travel for lung cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating plant stem emerging points (PSEPs) of sugar of beets in early growth stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtiby, Henrik; Mosgaard Giselsson, Thomas; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2012-01-01

    Successful intra--row mechanical weed control of sugar beet 
(beta vulgaris) in early growth stages requires precise 
knowledge about location of crop plants.
A computer vision system for locating Plant Stem Emerging Point (PSEP) 
of sugar beet in early growth stages was developed and tested.......
The system is based on detection of individual leaves; each leaf location 
is then described by centre of mass and petiole location.
From location of detected leaves is a model of the true PSEP then 
generated.
From testing the system, PSEP estimates based on a single leaf have 
an average error of ~3mm...

  14. Application of Ic-VEP in diagnosis of early and middle stage glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the sensitivity and specificity of Ic-VEP in diagnose of early and middle stage glaucoma. METHODS: All the participants included glaucoma patients and normal people came from Beijing Aier-Intech Eye Hospital from October 2014 to October 2016. All the participants performed slit lamp examination, fundus examination, Goldmann applanation tonometer, Humphery visual field examination, retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFLthickness and macular ganglion cell complex(GCCthickness examination and Ic-VEP. The sensitivity and specificity of Ic-VEP in diagnose of glaucoma were main results. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of Ic-VEP in diagnose of glaucoma is 82% and 92% respectively. The area under ROC curve was 0.872. Consistency of Ic-VEP and GCC thickness in moderate glaucoma was good(Kappa value=0.75. CONCLUSION: Ic-VEP is a useful new method for the diagnosis of early and middle stage glaucoma.

  15. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.O.; Orton, M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, B. [Univ. of Leicester, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, Leicester (United Kingdom); Tofts, P.S. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Univ. of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Sussex (United Kingdom); Buckley, D.L. [University of Leeds, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Huang, W. [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Advanced Imaging Research Centre, Portland, OR (United States); Horsfield, M.A. [Medical Physics Section, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chenevert, T.L. [Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Collins, D.J. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jackson, A. [Univ. of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Withington, Manchester, M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Lomas, D. [Univ. of Cambridge, Dept. of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Whitcher, B. [Unit 2 Greenways Business Park, Mango Solutions, Chippenham (United Kingdom); Clarke, L. [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States); Plummer, R. [Univ. of Newcastle Upon Tyne, The Medical School, Medical Oncology, Northern Inst. for Cancer Research, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Judson, I. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jones, R. [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Alonzi, R. [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood (United Kingdom); Brunner, T. [Gray Inst. for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Koh, D.M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Diagnostic Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2012-07-15

    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  16. CdiGMP signaling at early stages of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Xian, Wujing; Utada, Andrew; Wong, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Biofilm communities on surfaces constitute an important physiological state of bacteria. CdiGMP is a secondary messenger that has recently emerged as a master regulator of biofilm behavior. It has been shown that cdiGMP can affect bacterial adhesion, motility and exopolysaccharides production, which are important in regulating biofilm formation. However, at a single cell level, the details of how cdiGMP regulate bacterial behavior are largely unknown. Here we examine the dynamics of intracellular cdiGMP levels at early stages of biofilm in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, by using cell tracking techniques. We show that cells with different cdiGMP levels play different roles in the microcolony development at early stages of biofilm. The correlation between Psl and cdiGMP levels is also investigated.

  17. A decade of comparative dose planning studies for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Specht, Lena

    2014-01-01

    , especially in young patients with a long life expectancy. In this study, we review the current evidence for modern radiation therapy planning and delivery techniques in the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma with a focus on a reduced delivered dose, a reduced irradiated volume, and a more conformal......During the past 4 decades, the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma has changed dramatically, and combined modality treatment is now considered the standard of care for patients with early-stage disease. However, the risk of late effects has led to concerns regarding the use of radiation therapy...... the estimated risk of late effects. However, there is no such thing as a single best modern delivery technique when multiple organs at risk are considered simultaneously because of the heterogeneity in patient anatomy and disease location, and the choice of radiation therapy technique should be made...

  18. Minimally invasive approaches for diagnosis and treatment of early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Verkooijen, Helena M

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer management has been evolving toward minimally invasive approaches. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy techniques provide accurate histologic diagnosis without the need for surgical biopsy. Breast conservation therapy has become the treatment standard for early-stage breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a new procedure that can predict axillary lymph node status without the need of axillary lymph node dissection. The next challenge is to treat primary tumors without surgery. For this purpose, several new minimally invasive procedures, including radiofrequency ablation, interstitial laser ablation, focused ultrasound ablation, and cryotherapy, are currently under development and may offer effective tumor management and provide treatment options that are psychologically and cosmetically more acceptable to the patients than are traditional surgical therapies. In this review, we give an overview of minimally invasive approaches for the diagnostic and therapeutic management of early-stage breast cancer.

  19. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  20. Direct detection of early-stage cancers using circulating tumor DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phallen, Jillian; Sausen, Mark; Adleff, Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Early detection and intervention are likely to be the most effective means for reducing morbidity and mortality of human cancer. However, development of methods for noninvasive detection of early-stage tumors has remained a challenge. We have developed an approach called targeted error correction...... sequencing (TEC-Seq) that allows ultrasensitive direct evaluation of sequence changes in circulating cell-free DNA using massively parallel sequencing. We have used this approach to examine 58 cancer-related genes encompassing 81 kb. Analysis of plasma from 44 healthy individuals identified genomic changes...... related to clonal hematopoiesis in 16% of asymptomatic individuals but no alterations in driver genes related to solid cancers. Evaluation of 200 patients with colorectal, breast, lung, or ovarian cancer detected somatic mutations in the plasma of 71, 59, 59, and 68%, respectively, of patients with stage...

  1. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the early stages of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees...... of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system....... of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result...

  2. Variation in treatment and outcome in the early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogarty, Darragh S; Lennon, Paul; Deady, Sandra; Barry O'Sullivan, J; McArdle, Orla; Leader, Mary; Sheahan, Patrick; O'Neill, James Paul

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine the survival impact of patient characteristics and treatment options associated with the early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, OCSCC. The methods are analysis of Irish cancer database examining T1/2, N0, and M0 cases of OCSCC from 1997 to 2007 inclusive. In total, 397 cases were identified. Anterolateral tongue accounted for 52.9 % of cases. Increased age at diagnosis and smoking are independent prognostic survival indicators associated with poorer outcomes. Surgery as the initial intervention was associated with significantly better survival outcomes, while surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy significantly worse outcomes. Surgical intervention is recommended as the first-line treatment in the early stage OCSCC in combination with elective neck dissection.

  3. Substantial toxic effect of water-pipe smoking on the early stage of embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Anas A; Haik, Mahmoud Y; Sadek, Khaled W; Yalcin, Huseyin C; Bitharas, Joanna; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Batist, Gerald; Yasmeen, Amber; Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin

    2017-06-12

    Water-pipe smoking (WPS) is the most widespread tobacco use in the Middle-East, and is rapidly spreading globally. Smoke from WP contains most of the compounds present in cigarette smoke, although in different proportions. WPS is associated with the risk of several human diseases; however, its impact on the early stage of normal development has not been investigated yet. Thus, in this investigation, we assess the effect of WPS on the embryo at the early stage of development. Chicken embryos at three days of incubations were used in this study. Meanwhile, we explored the outcome of WPS on angiogenesis using the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chicken embryos. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR was used to study the regulation of some key control genes of cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Our data reveal that WPS inhibits angiogenesis of the CAM and in embryos in comparison with their matched controls; in addition, WPS-exposed embryos show slight reduction in their sizes. We also noted that around 80% of WPS-exposed embryos die before ten days of incubation. More significantly, WPS induces up-regulations of BCL-2, Caspase-8, ATF-3, INHIB-A and Cadherin 6 genes, which are important key regulators of cell apoptosis, proliferation and migration. Our data reveal, for the first time, that WPS has very toxic effects during the early stage of embryogenesis. Thus, we believe that further studies are required to elucidate the pathogenic effect of WPS on human health especially on the embryo at the early stage of its development. This investigation addresses an important gap on the outcome of WPS during the early stage of embryogenesis. Data of this study point out that WPS can have a very toxic effect on the embryo at this stage. Additionally, results from this report display for the first time that WPS can damage normal angiogenesis of the embryo thus provoking a significant number of embryonic death. Moreover, this study reveals that this effect can occur

  4. Treatment of stage I non-small cell lung cancer: What's trending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Timothy L; Shah, Puja M; Samson, Pamela; Robinson, Clifford G; Kozower, Benjamin D

    2017-09-01

    Stage I non-small cell lung cancer traditionally is treated with lobectomy. Sublobar resection and stereotactic body radiation therapy provide alternative treatments for higher-risk groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the national treatment trends for stage I lung cancer. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer between 1998 and 2012. Patients were compared across treatment groups, and trends in treatment and disease were evaluated over the 15-year time period. The National Cancer Database contained 369,931 patients with clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer. After removing patients who received chemotherapy as a first course of treatment and patients with pathologic stage IV, 357,490 patients were analyzed. The first recorded cases of stereotactic body radiation therapy are in 2003 and rapidly increased to 6.6% (2063) of all patients treated in 2012. The number of diagnoses of stage I non-small cell lung cancer steadily increased over the 15-year period, whereas the rate of lobectomy decreased from 55% in 1998 to 50% in 2012 (P < .001). Most of the decrease in lobectomy can be explained by the increase in the rate of sublobar resection from 12% to 17% (P < .001). The percentage of untreated patients remained stable at approximately 7% (P = .283). Although the number of stage I non-small cell lung cancer cases continues to increase, lobectomy rates are decreasing while sublobar resection and stereotactic body radiation therapy rates are increasing. Although the increasing popularity of alternative therapies to lobectomy for treatment of stage I non-small cell lung cancer should allow more patients to undergo treatment, we did not observe this trend in the data. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeted labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid in a chorioallantoic membrane model with upconversion nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Kai; Holz, Jasmin A.; Ding, Yadan; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Youlin; Tu, Langping; Kong, Xianggui; Priem, Bram; Nadort, Annemarie; Lambrechts, Saskia A. G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Buma, Wybren Jan; Liu, Yichun; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    In vivo detection of cancer at an early-stage, i.e. smaller than 2 mm, is a challenge in biomedicine. In this work target labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid (∼500 μm) is realized for the first time in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with monoclonal antibody functionalized

  6. Natural history and long-term outcomes of patients treated for early stage colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-07-01

    The long-term natural history of early stage colon cancer and the outcome of long-term colonoscopic surveillance in routine specialist clinical practice after removal of the incident cancers have not been fully defined. In the present long-term evaluation up to 25 years, metachronous neoplasia, including both advanced adenomas and carcinomas, was defined. All early stage colorectal cancer patients evaluated consecutively from a single clinical practice underwent follow-up colonoscopic evaluations after removal of the incident cancer and clearing of neoplastic disease. Colonoscopic surveillance was planned for two phases - initially on an annual basis for five years, followed by continued surveillance every three years up to 25 years with removal of any metachronous neoplastic lesion. A total of 128 patients (66 men and 62 women) with 129 incident early stage colorectal cancers were evaluated. Virtually all patients were symptomatic, usually with clinical evidence of blood loss. Incident early cancers were located throughout the colon, especially in the rectosigmoid, and showed no pathological evidence of nodal or other metastases. All patients evaluated during the first five years did not experience recurrent disease or have metachronous cancer detected. After five years, a total of 94 patients were evaluated up to 25 years; six of these patients were found to have seven metachronous colon cancers. All developed cancer more than seven years after removal of the incident colorectal cancer, including six asymptomatic adenocarcinomas, of which only one had evidence of single node involvement. Another patient in this cohort developed a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon. In addition, 45% of patients had a total of 217 adenomas removed, including 11% of patients with 33 advanced adenomas. Among 14 patients with advanced adenomas, seven (50%) developed ≥1 late metachronous cancers. Following removal of an incident symptomatic early stage

  7. Role of Subchondral Bone during Early-stage Experimental TMJ Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Embree, M.; Ono, M.; Kilts, T.; Walker, D.; Langguth, J.; Mao, J.; Bi, Y; Barth, J.L.; Young, M

    2011-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) is a degenerative disease that affects both cartilage and subchondral bone. We used microarray to identify changes in gene expression levels in the TMJ during early stages of the disease, using an established TMJ OA genetic mouse model deficient in 2 extracellular matrix proteins, biglycan and fibromodulin (bgn-/0fmod-/-). Differential gene expression analysis was performed with RNA extracted from 3-week-old WT and bgn-/0fmod-/- TMJs with an int...

  8. A Bayesian Procedure for Resource Evaluation of Petroleum Provinces in the Early Stages of Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Medova, E.

    1981-01-01

    A major open problem in quantitative methods for petroleum resource evaluation concerns the provision of statistical techniques for geological provinces in the early stages of exploration-for example, if all exploratory wells drilled to date have been found to be dry or if only a few fields have been discovered. A considerable body of literature exists concerning statistical methods for mature provinces in which discovery volumes are on a general declining trend; all these methods use explora...

  9. Differences in the early stages of social information processing for adolescents involved in bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Alexa; Lee, Kirsty; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Bullying victimization has commonly been associated with deficiencies in social information processing (SIP). In contrast, findings regarding bullying perpetration are mixed, with some researchers claiming that bullies may have superior SIP abilities than victimized or uninvolved youth. This study investigated the effects of bullying and victimization on early SIP; specifically the recognition and interpretation of social information. In stage 1, 2,782 adolescents (11–16 years) were screened ...

  10. Procarti Forte in the Complex Treatment of Patients with Early-Stage Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Burianov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of the treatment of osteoarthritis. The review of current recommendations on the feasibility of using glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, using of SYSADOA drugs, metabolic drugs was performed. The study on the efficacy and safety of using combination drug Procarti Forte in the system of treatment of patients with early-stage osteoarthritis is presented.

  11. Decline in Cognitive Function in Older Adults With Early-Stage Breast Cancer After Adjuvant Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Marie; Heutte, Natacha; Rigal, Olivier; Noal, Sabine; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Lévy, Christelle; Allouache, Djelila; Rieux, Chantal; Lefel, Johan; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Veyret, Corinne; Barthélémy, Philippe; Longato, Nadine; Castel, Hélène; Eustache, Francis

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Background. The impact of chemotherapy on cognition among elderly patients has received little attention, although such patients are more prone to presenting with age-related cognitive deficits and/or cognitive decline during chemotherapy. The present study assessed the cognitive function in older adults treated for early-stage breast cancer (EBC). Patients and Methods. The participants were newly diagnosed EBC patients aged $65 years without previous systemic treatmen...

  12. [Retraction of: Diagnostics and treatment of early stages of oral cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warloe, Trond; Aamdal, Steinar; Reith, Albrecht; Bryne, Magne

    2006-09-07

    The undersigned, who are co-authors of the article Diagnostics and treatment of early stages of oral cancer, wish to retract it. The reason is that the basis for the review article has been shown to be false. A review committee, that has assessed the research activity of the main author, has concluded that the data in this article are fabricated. We can no longer stand behind the article and hereby retract it.

  13. SU-F-R-24: Identifying Prognostic Imaging Biomarkers in Early Stage Lung Cancer Using Radiomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, X [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Wu, J [Stanford University Palo Alto, CA (United States); Cui, Y; Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gao, H [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patients diagnosed with early stage lung cancer have favorable outcomes when treated with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy. However, a significant proportion (∼20%) of patients will develop metastatic disease and eventually die of the disease. The purpose of this work is to identify quantitative imaging biomarkers from CT for predicting overall survival in early stage lung cancer. Methods: In this institutional review board-approved HIPPA-compliant retrospective study, we retrospectively analyzed the diagnostic CT scans of 110 patients with early stage lung cancer. Data from 70 patients were used for training/discovery purposes, while those of remaining 40 patients were used for independent validation. We extracted 191 radiomic features, including statistical, histogram, morphological, and texture features. Cox proportional hazard regression model, coupled with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), was used to predict overall survival based on the radiomic features. Results: The optimal prognostic model included three image features from the Law’s feature and wavelet texture. In the discovery cohort, this model achieved a concordance index or CI=0.67, and it separated the low-risk from high-risk groups in predicting overall survival (hazard ratio=2.72, log-rank p=0.007). In the independent validation cohort, this radiomic signature achieved a CI=0.62, and significantly stratified the low-risk and high-risk groups in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio=2.20, log-rank p=0.042). Conclusion: We identified CT imaging characteristics associated with overall survival in early stage lung cancer. If prospectively validated, this could potentially help identify high-risk patients who might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy.

  14. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuela eSaita; Chiara eAcquati; Karen eKayser

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of seventy-two Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized tha...

  15. [Signal exchange between plants and Arbuscular Mycorrhizae fungi during the early stage of symbiosis - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Xiaohong; Huang, Xianzhi

    2015-07-04

    Much is known about Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (AM), an important component of the ecosystem, whereas little is known about the signal exchange that allows mutual recognition and reprograming for the anticipated physical interaction. This review addresses the latest advances of signal exchange between plants and AM, including signal substances and their function, related genes and regulation function in the early stage of plant-fungal symbiosis.

  16. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A.T.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder

    2012-01-01

    restrictedly fermented. Silage digestible organic matter in dry matter (DM) values were 747, 708, and 647 g/kg of DM for H1, H2, and H3, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed in a 3×3 factorial arrangement of the 3 silages supplemented with 3 concentrate levels (4, 8, and 12 kg/d) and, additionally, H1...... differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (... was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate...

  17. Deep brain stimulation in early stage Parkinson's disease: operative experience from a prospective randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Elyne; D'Haese, Pierre-Francois; Dawant, Benoit; Allen, Laura; Kao, Chris; Charles, P David; Konrad, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) may have a disease modifying effect in early Parkinson's disease (PD). A randomised, prospective study is underway to determine whether STN-DBS in early PD is safe and tolerable. 15 of 30 early PD patients were randomised to receive STN-DBS implants in an institutional review board approved protocol. Operative technique, location of DBS leads and perioperative adverse events are reported. Active contact used for stimulation in these patients was compared with 47 advanced PD patients undergoing an identical procedure by the same surgeon. 14 of the 15 patients did not sustain any long term (>3 months) complications from the surgery. One subject suffered a stroke resulting in mild cognitive changes and slight right arm and face weakness. The average optimal contact used in symptomatic treatment of early PD patients was: anterior -1.1±1.7 mm, lateral 10.7±1.7 mm and superior -3.3±2.5 mm (anterior and posterior commissure coordinates). This location is statistically no different (0.77 mm, p>0.05) than the optimal contact used in the treatment of 47 advanced PD patients. The perioperative adverse events in this trial of subjects with early stage PD are comparable with those reported for STN-DBS in advanced PD. The active contact position used in early PD is not significantly different from that used in late stage disease. This is the first report of the operative experience from a randomised, surgical versus best medical therapy trial for the early treatment of PD.

  18. Palliative Care Intervention in Improving Symptom Control and Quality of Life in Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Caregiver; Psychological Impact of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  19. Mitochondrial Epigenetic Changes Link to Increased Diabetes Risk and Early-Stage Prediabetes Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise D. Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is characterized by mitochondrial derangement and oxidative stress. With no known cure for T2D, it is critical to identify mitochondrial biomarkers for early diagnosis of prediabetes and disease prevention. Here we examined 87 participants on the diagnosis power of fasting glucose (FG and hemoglobin A1c levels and investigated their interactions with mitochondrial DNA methylation. FG and A1c led to discordant diagnostic results irrespective of increased body mass index (BMI, underscoring the need of new biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis. Mitochondrial DNA methylation levels were not correlated with late-stage (impaired FG or A1c but significantly with early-stage (impaired insulin sensitivity events. Quartiles of BMI suggested that mitochondrial DNA methylation increased drastically from Q1 (20 40, morbidly obese. A significant change was also observed from Q1 to Q2 in HOMA insulin sensitivity but not in A1c or FG. Thus, mitochondrial epigenetic changes link to increased diabetes risk and the indicator of early-stage prediabetes. Further larger-scale studies to examine the potential of mitochondrial epigenetic marker in prediabetes diagnosis will be of critical importance for T2D prevention.

  20. Determinants of objectively measured physical functional performance in early to mid-stage Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Benzi M; Brown, R Preston; Aerts, Shanae; Schenkman, Margaret

    2014-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) may lead to functional limitations through both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although patients with advanced disease have well-documented and profound functional limitations, less is known about the determinants of function in early to mid-stage disease where interventions may be more likely to benefit and preserve function. The objective of the current study was to identify motor, cognitive, and gait determinants of physical functional performance in patients with early to mid-stage PD. This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a randomized clinical trial of exercise. The study was performed at a tertiary academic medical center. The study included 121 patients with early to mid-stage PD. Our functional performance outcomes included the following: the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP; primary outcome); the Timed Up and Go test (TUG); and Section 2 (Activities of Daily Living) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Explanatory variables included measures of disease severity, motor function, cognitive function, balance, and gait. Stepwise linear regression models were used to determine correlations between explanatory variables and outcome measures. In our regression models, the CS-PFP significantly correlated with walking endurance (Six-Minute Walk Test; r(2) = 0.12, P activity outcomes may underestimate the impact of both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Body movements during early stages of chick embryo under intermittent low oxygen environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Kenji; Chiba, Yuya; Shimouchi, Akito

    2017-07-01

    We have attempted to elucidate the characteristic pattern of body movements in early stages of chick embryos under intermittent low oxygen incubation environment. In order to achieve this aim, the oxygen control system that can be set arbitrary oxygen concentration was developed. We choose the 18% of O2 concentration and tried to measure the embryonic body movements. As a results, only one chick embryo in the early stages under intermittent 18% O2 environment (the cycle is 18%O2-10min and 21%O2-50min) was successfully recorded and its body movements were analyzed. The characteristic body movements, which are attributed to the instantaneous effect of low oxygen environment, compared with before and after normal O2 condition were not observed. Because the early stage embryos in which the significant organs aside from heart are not formed yet have a strong adaptation to environment changes, short hypoxic condition like a 10 min might not affect instantaneous embryonic physiological changes. Meanwhile, although the cyclic interval of the large body movements becomes short in the normal development, it became long in 18%O2 condition. This result might indicate that intermittent low oxygen condition accumulatively influenced physiological function. Further improvements of accuracy in the oxygen control system and the calculation system of body movements, and further experiments under low oxygen conditions are required in the next step.

  3. Risk of Fatal Cerebrovascular Accidents after External Beam Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Glottic Larynx Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Lin, Alexander; Ahn, Peter; Wan, Fei; O’Malley, Bert; Weinstein, Gregory S.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compared the risk of fatal cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials Using a competing risks survival analysis, we compared the risk of death due to CVA among patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or EBRT in the SEER database. Results The cumulative incidence of fatal CVA at 15 years was higher in patients receiving EBRT (2.8 %; 95% CI 2.3%–3.4%) compared to surgery (1.5 %; 95% CI 0.8 %–2.3%, p= 0.024). In multivariable competing risks regression models, EBRT remained associated with an increased risk of fatal CVA compared to surgery (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.04–2.96, p= 0.037). Conclusion Treatment of early stage glottic larynx cancer with EBRT was associated with a small increase in the risk of late fatal CVA events relative to surgery. PMID:23595858

  4. Differences in the early stages of social information processing for adolescents involved in bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Alexa; Lee, Kirsty; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-11-01

    Bullying victimization has commonly been associated with deficiencies in social information processing (SIP). In contrast, findings regarding bullying perpetration are mixed, with some researchers claiming that bullies may have superior SIP abilities than victimized or uninvolved youth. This study investigated the effects of bullying and victimization on early SIP; specifically the recognition and interpretation of social information. In stage 1, 2,782 adolescents (11-16 years) were screened for bullying involvement, and in stage 2, 723 of these participants (mean age = 13.95) were assessed on measures of emotion recognition, hostile attribution bias, and characterological self-blame (CSB). No associations between bullying and early SIP were found. In contrast, victimization was associated with more hostile attribution bias and CSB attributions. Girls performed better than boys on the emotion recognition task while boys showed greater hostile attribution biases. No interaction effects of bullying or victimization with gender were found. Follow-up categorical analyses that considered pure victims versus victims who also bullied (bully-victims) on SIP, found a similar pattern of findings. These findings suggest that those who purely bully others are neither superior nor deficient in the early stages of SIP. Victimized adolescents, however, show biases in their interpretations of social situations and the intentions of others. These biases may lead to maladaptive responses and may increase risk for further victimization by peers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Ontogenetic development in the morphology and behavior of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Duan, Ming; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Songguang

    2014-09-01

    Loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are a commercially important fish in China and an ideal aquaculture species. However, culturists experience high larval and juvenile mortality during mass production. To provide insight into ways to improve larviculture techniques, we describe the morphological characteristics and behavior of loach during the larval and early juvenile stages. Yolksac larvae ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mm body length (BL) between days 0 to 4; preflexion larvae ranged from 3.6 to 5.5 mm BL between days 4 to 6; flexion larvae ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 mm BL between days 5 and 14; and postflexion larvae ranged from 7.1 to 15.7 mm BL between days 11 to 27; the minimum length and age of juveniles was 14.1 mm BL and 23 d, respectively. Loach are demersal from hatch through to the early juvenile stages. A suite of morphological characteristics (e.g., external gill filament and ventral mouth opening) and behavioral traits have developed to adapt to demersal living. We observed positive allometric growth in eye diameter, head length, head height, and pectoral fin length during the early larval stages, reflecting the priorities in the development of the organs essential for survival. Our results provide a basis for developing techniques to improve the survival of larval and juvenile loach during mass production.

  6. Finite element simulation of ultrasonic waves in corroded reinforced concrete for early-stage corrosion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qixiang; Yu, Tzuyang

    2017-04-01

    In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, corrosion of steel rebar introduces internal stress at the interface between rebar and concrete, ultimately leading to debonding and separation between rebar and concrete. Effective early-stage detection of steel rebar corrosion can significantly reduce maintenance costs and enable early-stage repair. In this paper, ultrasonic detection of early-stage steel rebar corrosion inside concrete is numerically investigated using the finite element method (FEM). Commercial FEM software (ABAQUS) was used in all simulation cases. Steel rebar was simplified and modeled by a cylindrical structure. 1MHz ultrasonic elastic waves were generated at the interface between rebar and concrete. Two-dimensional plain strain element was adopted in all FE models. Formation of surface rust in rebar was modeled by changing material properties and expanding element size in order to simulate the rust interface between rebar and concrete and the presence of interfacial stress. Two types of surface rust (corroded regions) were considered. Time domain and frequency domain responses of displacement were studied. From our simulation result, two corrosion indicators, baseline (b) and center frequency (fc) were proposed for detecting and quantifying corrosion.

  7. The treatment effect of porous titanium alloy rod on the early stage talar osteonecrosis of sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Kang Li

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the talus (ONT may severely affect the function of the ankle joint. Most orthopedists believe that ONT should be treated at an early stage, but a concise and effective surgical treatment is lacking. In this study, porous titanium alloy rods were prepared and implanted into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT (IM group. The curative effect of the rods was compared to treatment by core decompression (DC group. No significant differences in bone reconstruction were observed between the two groups at 1 month after intervention. After 3 months, the macroscopic view of gross specimens of the IM group showed ordinary contours, but the specimens of the DC group showed obvious partial bone defects and cartilage degeneration. Quantitative analysis of the reconstructed trabeculae by micro-CT and histological study suggested that the curative effect of the IM group was superior to that of the DC group at 3 months after intervention. These favorable short-term results of the implantation of porous titanium alloy rods into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT may provide insight into an innovative surgical treatment for ONT.

  8. Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Hanna-Pladdy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to identify mild cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD prior to extensive neurodegeneration and to evaluate the extent to which dopamine depletion and other disease-related predictors can explain cognitive profiles. Methods: Neuropsychological performances of 40 nondemented early-stage PD patients and 42 healthy controls were compared across on or off dopaminergic medications. Stepwise regression evaluated cognitive predictors of early-stage PD and disease-related predictors of PD cognition (levodopa dose, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, sleep, quality of life, and mood across on and off states. Results: Neuropsychological performance was lower in PD patients across cognitive domains with significant memory, naming, visuomotor, and complex attention/executive deficits, but with intact visuospatial, simple attention, and phonemic fluency functions. However, medication effects were absent except for simple attention. Regression analyses revealed age, working memory, and memory recall to be the best cognitive predictors of PD, while age, quality of life, disease duration, and anxiety predicted PD cognition in the off state. Conclusion: Nondemented early-stage PD patients presented with extensive mild cognitive deficits including prominent memory impairment. The profile was inconsistent with expected isolated frontostriatal dysfunction previously attributed to dopamine depletion and this highlights the need to further characterize extranigral sources of mild cognitive impairment in PD.

  9. Shelf acetabuloplasty for containment in the early stages of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsi, Belen; Judd, Julia; Clarke, Nicholas M P

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of shelf acetabuloplasty in the containment of extruded hips without hinge abduction in early stages of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, we present a retrospective series of 44 patients (45 hips) treated between August 1999 and February 2010, which included 34 boys and 10 girls with a mean age at diagnosis of 7.4 years (range, 3.9 to 15.3). All patients presented with sclerosis or early fragmentation stages. The average time from diagnosis to surgery was 2.1 months (range, 0 to 8.2) and the mean time to heal was 40.4 months (range, 20 to 82.2). The Reimer migration and the deformity indices were measured on initial, preoperative, postoperative, and healed x-rays. The average deformity index at 3 of those 4 timepoints was significantly related to their final Stulberg classification. CE angles increased and Sharp angles decreased significantly as a result of treatment. At the healed stage and consistent with other published series, 84.4% of patients were Stulberg III or less, denying any pain, and with full range of movement, whereas 15.6% were classified as Stulberg IV. We defend that shelf acetabuloplasty should be performed early in the disease and, uniquely, we propose that the indication for treatment should be guided by the deformity and the Reimer migration indices. IV.

  10. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast-conservation therapy in early-stage breast cancer patients with a positive family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Mirza, Nadeem Q; Meric, Funda; Hunt, Kelly K; Mirza, Attiqa N; Newman, Lisa A; Ames, Frederick C; Kuerer, Henry M; Ross, Merrick I; Feig, Barry; Babiera, Gildy; Buchholz, Thomas A; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Singletary, S Eva

    2002-11-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the role of breast-conservation therapy in early-stage breast cancer patients with a family history (FH) of breast cancer. Between 1970 and 1994, 1324 female patients with breast cancer were treated with breast-conservation therapy at our institution. From these, we identified 985 patients with stage 0-II breast cancer and who had available information on FH status. FH was considered positive in any patient who had a relative who had been previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Disease-specific survival was calculated from the date of initial diagnosis using the Kaplan-Meier method. The stage distribution for the 985 patients was as follows: 0 in 65 (7%), I in 500 (51%), and II in 420 (43%). The median age was 50 years (range, 21-88), with a median follow-up time of 8.8 years (range,.25-29). The median tumor size was 1.5 cm. FH was positive in 31%. There were no significant differences in locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, disease-specific survival, or incidence of contralateral breast cancer in patients with a positive FH versus patients with a negative FH. Breast-conservation therapy is not contraindicated in early-stage breast cancer patients with a positive FH.

  12. Toxicity of dispersed weathered crude oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Stephen; King, Tom; Wu, Dongmei; Hodson, Peter V

    2010-05-01

    Reports of the chronic toxicity of dispersed crude oil to early life stages of fish perpetuate uncertainty about dispersant use. However, realistic exposures to dispersed oil in the water column are thought to be much briefer than exposures associated with chronic toxicity testing. To address this issue, the toxicity of dispersed weathered oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) was tested for short exposure durations, ranging from 1 to 144 h. Toxicity was a function of concentration and duration of exposure, as well as of the life stage exposed. Medium South American crude oil dispersed with Corexit 9500 caused blue sac disease in embryos, but not in free-swimming embryos. The age of embryos was negatively correlated with their sensitivity to oil; those freshly fertilized were most sensitive. Sensitivity increased after hatch, with free-swimming embryos showing signs of narcosis. Gametes were also tested; dispersed oil dramatically impaired fertilization success. For exposures of less than 24 h, gametes and free-swimming embryos were the most sensitive life stages. For those of more than 24 h, young embryos (fish spawning habitats. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  13. Treatment of early stage breast cancer by limited surgery and radical irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, A.M.; Cope, O.; Russo, R.; Wang, C.C.; Schulz, M.D.; Wang, C.; Rodkey, G.

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-five female patients with early stage breast cancer, i.e., Stage I and II were treated by limited surgery followed by radical radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between January, 1956 and December, 1974. Patients included those who were medically inoperable or who refused mastectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 83% and 76% for Stage I and II, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival (absolute) was 67% and 42%. Although the number of patients so treated is small, there was no significant difference in survival from the results of the radical mastectomy series at the same institution. No major complications were encountered. Seventeen of eighty-five patients developed minor problems; mostly fibrosis and minimal arm lymphedema stemmming from older orthovoltage equipment and treatment techniques. With the current availability of megavoltage equipment, improvements in techniques and dosimetry, complications should decrease. Combined limited surgery and radical radiation therapy should be considered in those patients where a radical mastectomy is not feasible because of psychological or medical problems. Since this procedure results in a cosmetically acceptable breast, radical radiation in early stage breast cancer seems a reasonable alternative to radical mastectomy.

  14. Factors associated with surgical decision making in women with early-stage breast cancer: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Bride, Maire Brid; Neal, Lonzetta; Dilaveri, Christina A; Sandhu, Nicole P; Hieken, Tina J; Ghosh, Karthik; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L

    2013-03-01

    Current recommendations for surgical management of early-stage breast cancer include breast-conserving surgery with postoperative irradiation. However, studies show that mastectomy is still being used by women with early-stage breast cancer. Review of the medical literature published between 2000 and 2010 to determine the factors associated with the decision of patients for surgical treatment in early-stage breast cancer. The following patient characteristics affect the surgical decision-making process in early-stage breast cancer: age, socioeconomic factors, geographic area in which the patient lives, proximity to a radiation therapy center, testing for BRCA gene, breast imaging, and decision aids. Of increasing importance in the decision making about treatment of women with early-stage breast cancer are the woman's perception of having a surgical choice and the influence of that choice on postoperative quality of life.

  15. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1-2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Results of radiotherapy in patients with stage I orbital non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, J.G.J.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.; Oskam, J.; Koornneef, L.; Dijk, J.D.P. van; Boukes, R.; Bras, J. (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Heerde, P. van; Bartelink, H. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-09-01

    The results of radiotherapy in early stage orbital non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are described. From 1970-1985, 33 orbital localizations in 30 patients were treated. Total dose applied ranged from 21-57 Gy (2 Gy/fraction), 2/3 off all patients received a 40 Gy dose. Complete response rate was 94% and 10 years actuarial survival was 90%; between patients with low grade or intermediate grade lymphoma no significant difference in survival was observed. No local recurrence was detected during follow up and 20% of the patients developed generalized disease. Two optic nerve neuropathies and 3 retinopathies were observed in 5 patients, 4 of these occurred at a dose level of less than 43 Gy. Keratitis occurred in 58% of the patients treated, a sicca syndrome in 30% and cataract of different grades in 58%. Although local control was excellent, severe complications were observed in 13% of the patients who received a dose of less than 43 Gy. (author). 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. [Ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: Two stages of disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, D G; Dubinina, T V; Demina, A B; Rumyantseva, O A; Agafonova, E M; Smirnov, A V; Erdes, Sh F

    To compare the clinical manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nrAxSpA). A Moscow early spondyloarthritis cohort has now included 132 patients with axial spondyloarthritis, of whom 69 patients who have been followed up at least 12 months are to be involved in a preliminary analysis. The mean age at the time of inclusion in the study was 28.1±5.5 years; the mean disease duration was 24.7±15.8 months; 63 (91.3%) patients were HLA-B27 positive; 41 and 28 included patients were diagnosed with AS and nrAxSpA, respectively. Men were significantly more in the AS group than in the nrAxSpA group (58.5 and 32.1%, respectively; p=0.05). The patients of the two groups did not differ in main clinical parameters (the presence of arthritis and enthesitis), disease activity (BASDAI, ASDAS-CRP) and functional status (BASFI). All indicators of inflammatory activity decreased nearly 2-fold in both groups after 12 months of follow up. In 7 (25%) patients with nrAxSpA, radiologically detectable sacroiliitis (SI) developed over 12 months and the diagnosis of AS was verified. Among them, 2 (28.5%) patients had initially active SI detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); 4 (57.1%) had chronic SI, and 1 (14.4%) had no pathological MRI changes. Due to the fact that the clinical manifestations of AS and nrAxSpA are comparable, it can be assumed that the latter is an early stage of AS.

  18. A comparative analysis of breast cancer stage between women enrolled in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and women not participating in the program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manxia; Austin, Harland; Eheman, Christie R; Myles, Zachary; Miller, Jacqueline; Royalty, Janet; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-05-01

    To determine the proportional distribution of early- and late-stage breast cancers diagnosed in years 2004-2009 among women enrolled in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) and to compare this distribution to that of geographically comparable non-enrolled women diagnosed with breast cancer. Using data from the National Program of Cancer Registries, we compared the demographic characteristics and cancer stage distribution of women enrollees and non-enrollees by use of conditional logistic regression using the odds ratio as a measure of association. NBCCEDP enrollees were slightly younger and more likely to identify as African-American, API and AIAN than were non-enrollees. The proportion of late-stage breast cancer (regional and distant) decreased slightly over the study period. NBCCEDP enrollees generally were diagnosed at a later stage of breast cancer than were those not enrolled in the NBCCEDP. The NBCCEDP has been effective in achieving its goal of enrolling racial and ethnic populations; however, enrollees had a poorer stage distribution of breast cancer than did non-enrollees underscoring the need to expand breast cancer control efforts among low-income, underserved populations.

  19. COMPARISON OF EARLY AND DELAYED UMBILICAL CORD CLAMPING IN THE THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Serdinšek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Umbilical cord clamping in the third stage of labour is still controversial. Early cord clamping is defined as clamping at 10, 15, 30 or 60 seconds after delivery and delayed as clamping after 60 seconds or at 2-5 minutes after delivery, when the cord stops pulsating or when the placenta is visible within the birth canal. Early clamping is one of the three components of active management of the third stage of labour, which has been used widely in modern obstetrics during the last century. However, in some northern European countries, various parts of the USA and Canada and in developing countries physiological management is preferred.Conclusions: After publication of several trials describing advantages of delayed clamping, this has recently been progressively replacing early clamping. The most important advantages of delayed cord clamping are higher haemoglobin and ferritin levels, higher iron stores, lower incidence of iron deficiency anaemia, better cardiopulmonary adaptation, lower rate of respiratory distress syndrome, and longer duration of early breastfeeding in term neonates, while there is no increase in the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. Delayed clamping seems to bring some advantages for preterm neonates as well. However, caution is still advised because of the potential adverse effects, especially polycythaemia with hyperviscosity, hyperbilirubinaemia and respiratory distress.

  20. Autoantibodies against HSF1 and CCDC155 as Biomarkers of Early-stage, High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy L; Moffitt, Laura R; Duffield, Nadine; Rainczuk, Adam; Jobling, Tom W; Plebanski, Magdalena; Stephens, Andrew N

    2017-11-15

    Tumor-directed circulating autoantibodies (AAbs) are a well-established feature of many solid tumor types, and are often observed prior to clinical disease manifestation. As such, they may provide a good indicator of early disease development. We have conducted a pilot study to identify novel AAbs as markers of early stage HGSOCs. A rare cohort of patients with early (FIGO stage Ia-c) HGSOCs for IgG, IgA and IgM-mediated AAb reactivity using high content protein arrays (containing 9184 individual proteins). AAb reactivity against selected antigens was validated by ELISA in a second, independent cohort of individual patients. A total of 184 antigens were differentially detected in early-stage HGSOC patients compared to all other patient groups assessed. Amongst the six most highly detected "early stage" antigens, anti-IgA AAbs against HSF1 and anti-IgG AAbs CCDC155 (KASH5; nesprin 5) were significantly elevated in patients with early-stage malignancy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested that AAbs against HSF1 provided better detection of early-stage malignancy than CA125 alone. Combined measurement of anti-HSF1, anti-CCDC155 and CA125 also improved efficacy at higher sensitivity. The combined measurement of anti-HSF1, anti-CCDC155 and CA125 may be useful for early stage HGSOC detection. This is the first study to specifically identify AAbs associated with early-stage HGSOC. The presence and high frequency of specific AAbs in early stage cancer patients warrants a larger scale examination to define their value for early disease detection at primary diagnosis and/or recurrence. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. [Current aspects of risk factors in early stage cancer of the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutariu, Monica Mihaela; Voroneanu, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Understanding opinions, attitudes and practices of dental healthcare professionals is vital in order to assess their effectiveness in the prevention and early detection of oral cancer, thus helping to reduce its mortality and morbidity. There is current debate on whether the implementation of screening and detecting of risk factors as a separate procedure from the daily routine work of dental healthcare professionals would be an effective measure for the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. Being able to routinely detect oral cancer at an early stage and counsel patients in prevention is a continuous challenge for the dental profession. Dentists must be familiar with the risk factors and clinical signs and symptoms of oral cancer if they are to be effective in identifying, referring and counseling high-risk patients.

  2. The added value of SPECT-CT for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes in early stage oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toom, Inne J. den; Bree, Remco de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UMC Utrecht Cancer Center, University Medical Center, Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schie, Annelies van; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Weert, Stijn van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Karagozoglu, K.H. [VU University Medical Center/Academic Centre for Dentistry (ACTA) Amsterdam, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bloemena, Elisabeth [VU University Medical Center/Academic Centre for Dentistry (ACTA) Amsterdam, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    To assess the role of single-photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT-CT) for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with early stage (T1-T2) oral cancer and a clinically negative neck (cN0). In addition to planar lymphoscintigraphy, SPECT-CT was performed in 66 consecutive patients with early stage oral cancer and a clinically negative neck. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar images was retrospectively analyzed for the number of additional SLNs, more precise localization of SLNs, and importance of anatomical information by a team consisting of a nuclear physician, surgeon, and investigator. Identification rate for both imaging modalities combined was 98% (65/66). SPECT-CT identified 15 additional SLNs in 14 patients (22%). In 2/15 (13%) of these additional SLNs, the only metastasis was found, resulting in an upstaging rate of 3% (2/65). In 20% of the patients with at least one positive SLN, the only positive SLN was detected due to the addition of SPECT-CT. SPECT-CT was considered to add important anatomical information in two patients (3%). In 5/65 (8%) of the patients initially scored SLNs on planar lymphoscintigrams were scored as non-SLNs when SPECT-CT was added. There were four false-negative SLN biopsy procedures in this cohort. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar lymphoscintigraphy is recommended for the identification of more (positive) SLNs and better topographical orientation for surgery in sentinel lymph node biopsy for early stage oral cancer. (orig.)

  3. Prevalence of and risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications after lung cancer surgery in patients with early-stage COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Young Tae; Kang, Chang Hyun; Park, In Kyu; Bae, Won; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is even higher in the early stages of COPD than in such patients with normal lung function and to verify the usefulness of symptom- or quality of life (QoL)-based scores in predicting risk for PPCs. Patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC between July 2012 and October 2014 were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative measurements of lung function, dyspnea, and QoL, operative characteristics, PPCs, duration of postoperative hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality were assessed. Among 351 consecutive patients with NSCLC, 343 patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≥70% of predicted value were enrolled. At least one PPC occurred in 57 (16.6%) patients. Prevalence of PPC was higher in patients with COPD (30.1%) than in those with normal spirometry (10.0%; Pprevalence of PPC was not different in patients with FEV1 ≥70% compared to those with FEV1 chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2011 guidelines. In patients with COPD, body mass index (odds ratio [OR]: 0.80, P=0.007), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLCO), % predicted value (OR: 0.97, P=0.024), and operation time (OR: 1.01, P=0.003), but not COPD assessment test or St George Respiratory Questionnaire scores, were significantly associated with PPCs. Even in patients with early-stage COPD, the prevalence of PPCs is higher than in patients with NSCLC with normal spirometry. However, this rate is not different between group A and group B patients with COPD. In accordance with this, scores based on symptoms or QoL are not predictors of risk of PPCs in patients with early-stage COPD.

  4. Early- and late-stage ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaftenaar, Erik; Meenken, Christina; Baarsma, G Seerp; McIntyre, James A; Verjans, Georges M G M; Peters, Remco P H

    2016-03-01

    To describe the spectrum of ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) in rural South Africa. Patients presenting with visual complaints and active or healed HZO at the ophthalmology outpatient department of three hospitals in rural South Africa were included in this study. Demographic and clinical data were collected, and HIV status was determined for all participants. Forty-eight patients were included, and 81% were HIV infected. Poor vision was reported by 94% of patients, painful eye by 79% and photophobia by 63%. A diverse spectrum of ocular complications was observed with corneal inflammation and opacification in 77% followed by anterior uveitis in 65%. The majority (65%) presented with late-stage ocular complications associated with irreversible loss of vision whereas early-stage complications, such as punctate epithelial keratitis and anterior uveitis, were less common. Blindness of the affected eye was observed in 68% of patients with late-stage complications. There was a considerable delay between onset of symptoms and first presentation to the ophthalmology outpatient department (median time 35 days; range 1-2500 days), and longer delay was associated with late-stage ocular complications (P = 0.02). HZO patients present with relatively late-stage ocular complications, and blindness among these patients is common. The delayed presentation to the ophthalmology outpatient department of hospitals in our rural setting is of concern, and efforts to improve ocular outcomes of HZO are urgently needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Association between weight gain during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer and survival outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartsman, Gustavo; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Song, Juhee; Ueno, Naoto T; Peterson, Susan K; Arun, Banu

    2017-10-10

    Obese and overweight women have an increased risk of breast cancer and worse outcomes at the time of diagnosis. Women tend to gain weight after breast cancer diagnosis and during chemotherapy for early-stage disease, which may in turn increase risk for worse outcomes. We examined if weight gained during adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with worse survival outcomes. We queried our database for data on patients who received adjuvant third-generation chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses by Cox regression were performed for survival outcomes across three categories according to BMI variation from start to end of chemotherapy: >0.5 kg/m(2) loss or gain and stable BMI (±0.5 kg/m(2) ). We included 1998 patients in this study. Women over 50 years old and postmenopausal were more likely to lose weight during adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas women under 30 years old gained more weight (P original weight (ρ = -0.3, P 0.5 kg/m(2) compared to maintaining BMI was marginally associated with increased locoregional recurrence risk (HR: 2.53; 95% CI, 1.18-5.45; P = 0.017), adjusting for grade, stage, and radiation delivery. Weight variation during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer may occur as both weight gain and weight loss in a balanced manner. Furthermore, this variation seems to be transient in nature and does not appear to significantly influence recurrence rates and overall survival. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  7. Early-stage white matter lesions detected by multispectral MRI segmentation predict progressive cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eJokinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available White matter lesions (WML are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model-based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in normal-appearing brain tissue. This study investigated how the different stages of WML, from a pre-visible stage to fully developed lesions, predict future cognitive decline. MRI scans of 78 subjects, aged 65-84 years, from the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS study were analyzed using a self-supervised multispectral segmentation algorithm to identify tissue types and partial WML volumes. Each lesion voxel was classified as having a small (33%, intermediate (66%, or high (100% proportion of lesion tissue. The subjects were evaluated with detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and at three annual follow-up visits. We found that voxels with small partial WML predicted lower executive function compound scores at baseline, and steeper decline of executive scores in follow-up, independently of the demographics and the conventionally estimated hyperintensity volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. The intermediate and fully developed lesions were related to impairments in multiple cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, memory and global cognitive function. In conclusion, early-stage partial WML, still too faint to be clearly detectable on conventional MRI, already predict executive dysfunction and progressive cognitive decline regardless of the conventionally evaluated WML load. These findings advance early recognition of small vessel disease and incipient vascular cognitive impairment.

  8. Dose to heart substructures is associated with non-cancer death after SBRT in stage I-II NSCLC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Barbara; Peulen, Heike; Guckenberger, Matthias; Mantel, Frederick; Hope, Andrew; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Belderbos, Jose; Grills, Inga; O'Connell, Nicolette; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2017-06-01

    To investigate potential associations between dose to heart (sub)structures and non-cancer death, in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). 803 patients with early stage NSCLC received SBRT with predominant schedules of 3×18Gy (59%) or 4×12Gy (19%). All patients were registered to an average anatomy, their planned dose deformed accordingly, and dosimetric parameters for heart substructures were obtained. Multivariate Cox regression and a sensitivity analysis were used to identify doses to heart substructures or heart region with a significant association with non-cancer death respectively. Median follow-up was 34.8months. Two year Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate was 67%. Of the deceased patients, 26.8% died of cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that the maximum dose on the left atrium (median 6.5Gy EQD2, range=0.009-197, HR=1.005, p-value=0.035), and the dose to 90% of the superior vena cava (median 0.59Gy EQD2, range=0.003-70, HR=1.025, p-value=0.008) were significantly associated with non-cancer death. Sensitivity analysis identified the upper region of the heart (atria+vessels) to be significantly associated with non-cancer death. Doses to mainly the upper region of the heart were significantly associated with non-cancer death. Consequently, dose sparing in particular of the upper region of the heart could potentially improve outcome, and should be further studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  10. Sentinel lymph node mapping in early stage of endometrial and cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajossadat Allameh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sentinel lymph node (SLN is defined as the first chain node in the lymphatic basin that receives primary lymphatic flow. If the SLN is negative for metastatic disease, then other nodes are expected to be disease-free. SLN techniques have been extensively applied in the staging and treatment of many tumors, including melanoma, breast and vulvar cancers. This study aims to evaluate our technique in SLN mapping in early stage endometrial and cervical cancers. Materials and Methods: We scheduled a cross-sectional pilot study for patients undergoing staging surgery for endometrial and cervical cancer from November 2012 to February 2014 in Beheshti and Sadoughi Hospitals. Our SLN mapping technique included 1 h preoperative or intraoperative injection of 4 ml of 1% methylene blue dye in the tumor site. At the time of surgery, blue lymph nodes were removed and labeled as SLNs. Then systematic lymph node dissection was completed, and all of the nodes were sent for pathologic examination concerning metastatic involvement. All of the sentinel nodes were first stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined. Those negative in this study were then stained with immunohistochemistry using anti-keratin antibody. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, negative predictive values (NPV, false negative (FN and detection rates were calculated. Results: Twenty-three patients including 62% endometrial and 38% cervical cancers enrolled in the study. Median of SLN count in the endometrial and cervical cancers was 3 and 2, respectively. Among endometrial and cervical cancers, detection rate of metastatic disease was 80% and 87.5%, respectively. The FN rate for this technique was 0 and the sensitivity and NPV are 100% for both endometrial and cervical cancers. Conclusion: Considering the lower risk of metastases in early stage of both endometrial and cervical cancers, SLN technique allows for confident and accurate staging of cancer.

  11. Proton Beam Therapy of Stage II and III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Hidetsugu, E-mail: hnakayam@tokyo-med.ac.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Satoh, Hiroaki [Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sugahara, Shinji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kurishima, Koichi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishikawa, Shigemi [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tokuuye, Koichi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The present retrospective study assessed the role of proton beam therapy (PBT) in the treatment of patients with Stage II or III non-small-cell lung cancer who were inoperable or ineligible for chemotherapy because of co-existing disease or refusal. Patients and Methods: Between November 2001 and July 2008, PBT was given to 35 patients (5 patients with Stage II, 12 with Stage IIIA, and 18 with Stage IIIB) whose median age was 70.3 years (range, 47.4-85.4). The median proton dose given was 78.3 Gy (range, 67.1-91.3) (relative biologic effectiveness). Results: Local progression-free survival for Stage II-III patients was 93.3% at 1 year and 65.9% at 2 years during a median observation period of 16.9 months. Four patients (11.4%) developed local recurrence, 13 (37.1%) developed regional recurrence, and 7 (20.0%) developed distant metastases. The progression-free survival rate for Stage II-III patients was 59.6% at 1 year and 29.2% at 2 years. The overall survival rate of Stage II-III patients was 81.8% at 1 year and 58.9% at 2 years. Grade 3 or greater toxicity was not observed. A total of 15 patients (42.9%) developed Grade 1 and 6 (17.1%) Grade 2 toxicity. Conclusion: PBT for Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer without chemotherapy resulted in good local control and low toxicity. PBT has a definite role in the treatment of patients with Stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer who are unsuitable for surgery or chemotherapy.

  12. Differences in miRNA expression in early stage lung adenocarcinomas that did and did not relapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mick D Edmonds

    Full Text Available Relapse of adenocarcinoma, the most common non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, is a major clinical challenge to improving survival. To gain insight into the early molecular events that contribute to lung adenocarcinoma relapse, and taking into consideration potential cell type specificity, we used stringent criteria for sample selection. We measured miRNA expression only from flash frozen stage I lung adenocarcinomas, excluding other NSCLC subtypes. We compared miRNA expression in lung adenocarcinomas that relapsed within two years to those that did not relapse within three years after surgical resection prior to adjuvant therapy. The most significant differences in mRNA expression for recurrent tumors compared to non-recurrent tumors were decreases in miR-106b*, -187, -205, -449b, -774* and increases in miR-151-3p, let-7b, miR-215, -520b, and -512-3p. A unique comparison between adjacent normal lung tissue from relapse and non-relapse groups revealed dramatically different miRNA expression, suggesting dysregulation of miRNA in the environment around the tumor. To assess patient-to-patient variability, miRNA levels in the tumors were normalized to levels in matched adjacent normal lung tissue. This analysis revealed a different set of significantly altered miRNA in tumors that recurred compared to tumors that did not. Together our analyses elucidated miRNA not previously linked to lung adenocarcinoma that likely have important roles in its development and progression. Our results also highlight the differences in miRNA expression in normal lung tissue in adenocarcinomas that do and do not recur. Most notably, our data identified those miRNA that distinguish early stage tumors likely to relapse prior to treatment and miRNA that could be further studied for use as biomarkers for prognosis, patient monitoring, and/or treatment decisions.

  13. Laparoscopic compared with open radical hysterectomy in obese women with early-stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Young-Tak; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2012-06-01

    To compare the surgical and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and open radical hysterectomy in obese women with early-stage cervical cancer. The medical records of 166 patients with stage IA2-IIA2 cervical cancer and a body mass index of at least 30 who underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (n=54) or open radical hysterectomy (n=112) at the Asan Medical Center between 1998 and 2011 were reviewed. None of the patients in the laparoscopic radical hysterectomy group required conversion to laparotomy. The resection margin was negative in 98.1% of the laparoscopic radical hysterectomy group and 98.2% of the open radical hysterectomy group (P=.976). No difference between the two groups was observed in terms of operating time, perioperative hemoglobin level change, transfusion requirement, or the number of retrieved lymph nodes. Compared with open radical hysterectomy, laparoscopic radical hysterectomy was associated with a significant reduction in the following: interval to return of bowel movements (2 days compared with 2.7 days, Pobese women with early-stage cervical cancer because it is associated with a more favorable surgical outcome without compromising survival outcomes. II.

  14. Prognostic Fifteen-Gene Signature for Early Stage Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung-Tsa Chen

    Full Text Available The outcomes of patients treated with surgery for early stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC are variable with median survival ranging from 6 months to more than 5 years. This challenge underscores an unmet need for developing personalized medicine strategies to refine the current treatment decision-making process. To derive a prognostic gene signature for patients with early stage PDAC, a PDAC cohort from Moffitt Cancer Center (n = 63 was used with overall survival (OS as the primary endpoint. This was further evaluated using an independent microarray cohort dataset (Stratford et al: n = 102. Technical validation was performed by NanoString platform. A prognostic 15-gene signature was developed and showed a statistically significant association with OS in the Moffitt cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.26; p<0.001 and Stratford et al cohort (HR = 2.07; p = 0.02, and was independent of other prognostic variables. Moreover, integration of the signature with the TNM staging system improved risk prediction (p<0.01 in both cohorts. In addition, NanoString validation showed that the signature was robust with a high degree of reproducibility and the association with OS remained significant in the two cohorts. The gene signature could be a potential prognostic tool to allow risk-adapted stratification of PDAC patients into personalized treatment protocols; possibly improving the currently poor clinical outcomes of these patients.

  15. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  16. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  17. Involved Node Radiation Therapy: An Effective Alternative in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aznar, Marianne C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vogelius, Ivan R.; Petersen, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy in a cohort of 97 clinical stage I-II HL patients. Methods and Materials: Patients were staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans, treated with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy, and given INRT (prechemotherapy involved nodes to 30 Gy, residual masses to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. Results: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7 malignancies were diagnosed, and 5 patients developed heart disease. Conclusions: INRT offers excellent tumor control and represents an effective alternative to more extended radiation therapy in the combined modality treatment for early-stage HL.

  18. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

  19. Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2013-06-01

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development.

  20. The educative prevention of the early stage of educationist’s formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Alfonso Nazco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces a characterization of the educative prevention stage at the early professional formation process of educacionist in Sancti Spìritus province. The study is done by the indication analysis of assistant, learning, permanence and behavior at youths who course pedagogical carrers, and haven’t expressed a desire stage yet. The main shown results dealt with the assumption of the searching variables and its indicators, the construction of instruments and the definition of aspects concerning the educative prevention at the early stage of educationist’s formation in the selected choosing. Theoretical, empirical and statistical- math, methods were used which were helped by the constructed instruments and the triangulations among them thus arriving to generalizations for the caracterization. The results have better the work at the area project of the educative prevention in adolescents and youths in the territory, witch mainly concern the desing and implementation of actions withing the pedagogical process, foccuse in the integration of institutions, socializer and educative agents functioning to eductive prevention.

  1. Measurement of the human esophageal cancer in an early stage with Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    The esophageal cancer has a tendency to transfer to another part of the body and the surgical operation itself sometimes gives high risk in vital function because many delicate organs exist near the esophagus. So the esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. So, in order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, the investigation of the diagnosis methods or techniques of the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy are required. In this study, we performed the ex vivo experiments to obtain the Raman spectra from normal and early-stage tumor (stage-0) human esophageal sample by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are collected by the homemade Raman spectrometer with the wavelength of 785 nm and Raman probe with 600-um-diameter. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed after collection of spectra to recognize which materials changed in normal part and cancerous pert. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is performed to predict the tissue type. The result of PCA indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by LDA which model is made by tryptophan bands.

  2. Efficient and rapid isolation of early-stage embryos from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissig, Michael T; Gagliardini, Valeria; Jaenisch, Johan; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baroux, Célia

    2013-06-07

    In flowering plants, the embryo develops within a nourishing tissue - the endosperm - surrounded by the maternal seed integuments (or seed coat). As a consequence, the isolation of plant embryos at early stages (1 cell to globular stage) is technically challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection at early stages is strongly impaired by the small size of young Arabidopsis seeds and the adhesiveness of the embryo to the surrounding tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of young Arabidopsis embryos, yielding up to 40 embryos in 1 hr to 4 hr, depending on the downstream application. Embryos are released into isolation buffer by slightly crushing 250-750 seeds with a plastic pestle in an Eppendorf tube. A glass microcapillary attached to either a standard laboratory pipette (via a rubber tube) or a hydraulically controlled microinjector is used to collect embryos from droplets placed on a multi-well slide on an inverted light microscope. The technical skills required are simple and easily transferable, and the basic setup does not require costly equipment. Collected embryos are suitable for a variety of downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RNA sequencing, DNA methylation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunostaining, and reporter gene assays.

  3. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  4. Early-stage hip involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A Chinese study based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongying; Yuan, Shiwen; Zhan, Zhongping; Xiao, Youjun; Li, Hao; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and identify potential factors of the early-stage hip involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A cross-sectional retrospective study of 655 consecutive patients was performed. Patients with hip pain or limited hip function but lacking definitive evidence of hip involvement on radiography underwent hip MRI. Based on the results of the imaging tests, the patients were classified into three categories: (1) no hip involvement; (2) early-stage hip involvement according to MRI but not radiography; (3) advanced-stage hip involvement according to a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index-hip score ≥2. One hundred and sixty-eight patients had early-stage hip involvement and 103 patients had advanced-stage hip involvement. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age at onset, worse BASMI score, and more active inflammation in the sacroiliac joints were associated with the occurrence of early-stage hip involvement. Negative plain radiography results cannot be used to rule out hip involvement. MRI was superior to radiography for the detection of early-stage hip involvement. Susceptible AS patients with symptoms or risk factors for hip involvement should undergo hip MRI to test for lesions in the early stage.

  5. {sup 1}H NMR-based spectroscopy detects metabolic alterations in serum of patients with early-stage ulcerative colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying; Lin, Lianjie [Second Department of Gastroenterology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Xu, Yanbin [Wanlei Life Sciences (Shenyang) Co., Ltd., Shenyang 110179 (China); Lin, Yan; Jin, Yu [Second Department of Gastroenterology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zheng, Changqing, E-mail: changqing_zheng@126.com [Second Department of Gastroenterology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Twenty ulcerative colitis patients and nineteen healthy controls were enrolled. •Increased 3-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, phenylalanine, and decreased lipid were found. •We report early stage diagnosis of ulcerative colitis using NMR-based metabolomics. -- Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC) has seriously impaired the health of citizens. Accurate diagnosis of UC at an early stage is crucial to improve the efficiency of treatment and prognosis. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR)-based metabolomic analysis was performed on serum samples collected from active UC patients (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 19), respectively. The obtained spectral profiles were subjected to multivariate data analysis. Our results showed that consistent metabolic alterations were present between the two groups. Compared to healthy controls, UC patients displayed increased 3-hydroxybutyrate, β-glucose, α-glucose, and phenylalanine, but decreased lipid in serum. These findings highlight the possibilities of NMR-based metabolomics as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for UC.

  6. The influence of gene expression profiling on decisional conflict in decision making for early-stage breast cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Karen V; Bombard, Yvonne; Deal, Ken; Trudeau, Maureen; Leighl, Natasha; Marshall, Deborah A

    2016-07-01

    Women with early-stage breast cancer, of whom only 15% will experience a recurrence, are often conflicted or uncertain about taking chemotherapy. Gene expression profiling (GEP) of tumours informs risk prediction, potentially affecting treatment decisions. We examined whether receiving a GEP test score reduces decisional conflict in chemotherapy treatment decision making. A general population sample of 200 women completed the decisional conflict scale (DCS) at baseline (no GEP test score scenario) and after (scenario with GEP test score added) completing a discrete choice experiment survey for early-stage breast cancer chemotherapy. We scaled the 16-item DCS total scores and subscores from 0 to 100 and calculated means, standard deviations and change in scores, with significance (p uncertainty, informed, values clarity, support, and effective decision) decreased significantly in the respondent subgroup who were unsure about taking chemotherapy initially but changed to no chemotherapy (n =33). In the subgroup of respondents (n = 25) who chose chemotherapy initially but changed to unsure, effective decision subscore increased significantly. In the overall sample, changes in total and all subscores were non-significant. GEP testing adds value for women initially unsure about chemotherapy treatment with a decrease in decisional conflict. However, for women who are confident about their treatment decisions, GEP testing may not add value. Decisions to request GEP testing should be personalised based on patient preferences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tenascin-C and fibronectin expression divide early stage tongue cancer into low- and high-risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Elias; Kauppila, Joonas H; Veijola, Johanna; Mroueh, Rayan; Lehenkari, Petri; Laitinen, Saara; Risteli, Juha; Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; Macedo, Carolina Carneiro Soares; Bloigu, Risto; Coletta, Ricardo D; Salo, Tuula

    2017-02-28

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) metastasises early, especially to regional lymph nodes. There is an ongoing debate on which early stage (T1-T2N0) patients should be treated with elective neck dissection. We need prognosticators for early stage tongue cancer. Mice immunisation with human mesenchymal stromal cells resulted in production of antibodies against tenascin-C (TNC) and fibronectin (FN), which were used to stain 178 (98 early stage), oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma samples. Tenascin-C and FN expression in the stroma (negative, moderate or abundant) and tumour cells (negative or positive) were assessed. Similar staining was obtained using corresponding commercial antibodies. Expression of TNC and FN in the stroma, but not in the tumour cells, proved to be excellent prognosticators both in all stages and in early stage cases. Among early stages, when stromal TNC was negative, the 5-year survival rate was 88%. Correspondingly, when FN was negative, no cancer deaths were observed. Five-year survival rates for abundant expression of TNC and FN were 43% and 25%, respectively. Stromal TNC and, especially, FN expressions differentiate patients into low- and high-risk groups. Surgery alone of early stage primary tumours might be adequate when stromal FN is negative. Aggressive treatments should be considered when both TNC and FN are abundant.

  8. Astronomical constraints on the duration of the Early Jurassic Pliensbachian Stage and global climatic fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Micha; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Hinnov, Linda; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Xu, Weimu; Riding, James B.; Storm, Marisa; Minisini, Daniel; Ullmann, Clemens V.; Leng, Melanie J.

    2016-12-01

    The Early Jurassic was marked by multiple periods of major global climatic and palaeoceanographic change, biotic turnover and perturbed global geochemical cycles, commonly linked to large igneous province volcanism. This epoch was also characterised by the initial break-up of the super-continent Pangaea and the opening and formation of shallow-marine basins and ocean gateways, the timing of which are poorly constrained. Here, we show that the Pliensbachian Stage and the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian global carbon-cycle perturbation (marked by a negative shift in δ13 C of 2- 4 ‰), have respective durations of ∼8.7 and ∼2 Myr. We astronomically tune the floating Pliensbachian time scale to the 405 Kyr eccentricity solution (La2010d), and propose a revised Early Jurassic time scale with a significantly shortened Sinemurian Stage duration of 6.9 ± 0.4 Myr. When calibrated against the new time scale, the existing Pliensbachian seawater 87Sr/86Sr record shows relatively stable values during the first ∼2 Myr of the Pliensbachian, superimposed on the long-term Early Jurassic decline in 87Sr/86Sr. This plateau in 87Sr/86Sr values coincides with the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary carbon-cycle perturbation. It is possibly linked to a late phase of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) volcanism that induced enhanced global weathering of continental crustal materials, leading to an elevated radiogenic strontium flux to the global ocean.

  9. Polyamines affect histamine synthesis during early stages of IL-3-induced bone marrow cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Faroldi, Gianni; Correa-Fiz, Florencia; Abrighach, Hicham; Berdasco, María; Fraga, Mario F; Esteller, Manel; Urdiales, José L; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Fajardo, Ignacio

    2009-09-01

    Mast cells synthesize and store histamine, a key immunomodulatory mediator. Polyamines are essential for every living cell. Previously, we detected an antagonistic relationship between the metabolisms of these amines in established mast cell and basophilic cell lines. Here, we used the IL-3-driven mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC) culture system to further investigate this antagonism in a mast cell model of deeper physiological significance. Polyamines and histamine levels followed opposite profiles along the bone marrow cell cultures leading to BMMCs. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)-induced polyamine depletion resulted in an upregulation of histidine decarboxylase (HDC, the histamine-synthesizing enzyme) expression and activity, accompanied by increased histamine levels, specifically during early stages of these cell cultures, where an active histamine synthesis process occurs. In contrast, DFMO did not induce any effect in either HDC activity or histamine levels of differentiated BMMCs or C57.1 mast cells, that exhibit a nearly inactive histamine synthesis rate. Sequence-specific DNA methylation analysis revealed that the DFMO-induced HDC mRNA upregulation observed in early bone marrow cell cultures is not attributable to a demethylation of the gene promoter caused by the pharmacological polyamine depletion. Taken together, the results support an inverse relationship between histamine and polyamine metabolisms during the bone marrow cell cultures leading to BMMCs and, moreover, suggest that the regulation of the histamine synthesis occurring during the early stages of these cultures depends on the concentrations of polyamines. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Discovery of piRNAs Pathway Associated with Early-Stage Spermatogenesis in Chicken.

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    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs play a key role in spermatogenesis. Here, we describe the piRNAs profiling of primordial germ cells (PGCs, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, and the spermatogonium (Sp during early-stage spermatogenesis in chicken. We obtained 31,361,989 reads from PGCs, 31,757,666 reads from SSCs, and 46,448,327 reads from Sp cells. The length distribution of piRNAs in the three samples showed peaks at 33 nt. The resulting genes were subsequently annotated against the Gene Ontology (GO database. Five genes (RPL7A, HSPA8, Pum1, CPXM2, and PRKCA were found to be involved in cellular processes. Interactive pathway analysis (IPA further revealed three important pathways in early-stage spermatogenesis including the FGF, Wnt, and EGF receptor signaling pathways. The gene Pum1 was found to promote germline stem cell proliferation, but it also plays a role in spermatogenesis. In conclusion, we revealed characteristics of piRNAs during early spermatogonial development in chicken and provided the basis for future research.

  11. Shortened telomere length in bipolar disorder: a comparison of the early and late stages of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia M. Barbé-Tuana

    Full Text Available Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD has been associated with increased rates of age-related diseases, such as type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disorders. Several biological findings have been associated with age-related disorders, including increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and telomere shortening. The objective of this study was to compare telomere length among participants with BD at early and late stages and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-six euthymic subjects with BD and 34 healthy controls were recruited. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and mean telomere length was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Telomere length was significantly shorter in both the early and late subgroups of BD subjects when compared to the respective controls (p = 0.002 and p = 0.005, respectively. The sample size prevented additional subgroup analyses, including potential effects of medication, smoking status, and lifestyle. Conclusion: This study is concordant with previous evidence of telomere shortening in BD, in both early and late stages of the disorder, and supports the notion of accelerated aging in BD.

  12. Liver breath tests non-invasively predict higher stages of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portincasa, Piero; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Lauterburg, Bernhard H.; Palmieri, Vincenzo O.; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Stellaard, Frans

    Effectively assessing subtle hepatic metabolic functions by novel non-invasive tests might be of clinical utility in scoring NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) and in identifying altered metabolic pathways. The present study was conducted on 39 (20 lean and 19 obese) hypertransaminasemic

  13. Detecting early stage pressure ulcer on dark skin using multispectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Wang, Fengtao; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fuhan; Adibi, Ali; Tummala, Rao

    2010-02-01

    We are developing a handheld multispectral imaging device to non-invasively inspect stage I pressure ulcers in dark pigmented skins without the need of touching the patient's skin. This paper reports some preliminary test results of using a proof-of-concept prototype. It also talks about the innovation's impact to traditional multispectral imaging technologies and the fields that will potentially benefit from it.

  14. Efficacy of transvaginal contrast-enhanced MRI in the early staging of cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, Deniz; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Oezmen, Mustafa N.; Akhan, Okan [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Koese, Faruk [Social Security Hospital, Department of Gynecology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transvaginal contrast for local staging of cervical carcinoma. Fifty patients diagnosed with cervical carcinoma prospectively underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before and after vaginal opacification (VO) with a mixture of 25 ml saline and 25 ml barium. T2-weighted (T2W) TSE images in axial and sagittal planes were compared before and after vaginal opacification. Dynamic T1W images in sagittal and fat-suppressed T1W images in transverse planes were also evaluated after intravenous contrast administration. Involvement of vaginal wall, lumen, and fornices; parametrium; rectum; and bladder were noted. Changes in local tumor staging and in treatment planning were also assessed after vaginal opacification. MR results were later compared with surgical pathological findings. Twenty-eight patients who went through surgical staging were included in the study. VO did not change any of the MR interpretations in 14 patients (50%). Correct staging was achieved with T2W TSE images with and without VO (in sagittal and transverse planes) in 78.5% and 50% of the patients, respectively. VO correctly lowered staging in seven and increased it in three patients compared with sagittal standard T2W images. Treatment planning was also changed in four (14%) of these patients. When overall accuracy of MR staging to indicate the appropriate treatment was evaluated, patients would have received the proper treatment in 90% and 79% of the cases when only T2W sagittal images with and without VO were evaluated, respectively. Dynamic gradient-echo images in sagittal planes and postcontrast T1W images in transverse planes evaluated with T2W series after VO, accomplished correct staging in 23 (82%) of the patients. MRI staging in early cervical cancer may be difficult and overestimated, especially if the tumor is slightly extended into the proximal vagina. Use of vaginal contrast medium is an easy, well-tolerated, and effective

  15. Long-term outcomes in patients with early stage nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek A Solanki

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Radiation therapy (RT is commonly used as definitive treatment for early-stage nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (NLPHL. We evaluated the cause-specific survival (CSS, overall survival (OS, and second malignancy (SM rates in patients with early-stage NLPHL treated with RT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with stage I-II NLPHL between 1988 and 2009 who underwent RT were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. Univariate analysis (UVA for CSS and Os was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and included age, gender, involved site, year of diagnosis, presence of B-symptoms, and extranodal involvement (ENI. Multivariable analysis (MVA was performed using Cox Proportional Hazards modeling and included the above clinical variables. SM were classified as RT-related or non-RT-related. Freedom from SM and freedom from RT-related SM were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The study cohort included 469 patients. Median age was 37 years. The most common involved sites were the head and neck (36%, axilla/arm (26%, and multiple lymph node regions (18%. Sixty-eight percent had stage I disease, 70% were male, 4% had ENI, and 7% had B-symptoms. Median follow-up was 6 years. Ten-year CSS and Os were 98% and 88%, respectively. On UVA, none of the covariates was associated with CSS. Increasing age (p<0.01 and female gender (p<0.01 were associated with worse Os. On MVA, older age (p<0.01, female gender (p=0.04, multiple regions of involvement (p=0.03, stage I disease (p=0.02, and presence of B-symptoms (p=0.02 were associated with worse Os. Ten-year freedom from SM and freedom from RT-related SM were 89% and 99%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest series to evaluate the outcomes of stage I-II NLPHL patients treated with RT and found that this patient population has an excellent long-term prognosis and a low rate of RT-related second malignancies.

  16. Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Brooks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

  17. A role for E2-2 at the DN3 stage of early thymopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Ingela; Forssell, Johan; Penha-Goncalves, Mario N

    2008-01-01

    Roles for the E-proteins E2A and HEB during T lymphocyte development have been well established. Based on our previous observations of counter selection against T cells lacking E2-2, it seemed reasonable to assume that there would be a function also for E2-2 in thymocyte development. Aiming...... at assigning such a role for E2-2, we analyzed the expression of E2-2, E2A, HEB as well as Id mRNA during T cell development. Interestingly, whereas all three E-proteins were expressed during early thymocyte development, significant expression beyond the DP stage was detected only for E2A. Among the Id...... proteins, Id2 displayed a prominent expression exclusively in DN1, whereas Id3 showed some expression in DN1, followed by a down regulation and then a prominent induction, peaking in the DP stage. E2-2 was expressed during the DN stages, as well as in the DP stage, suggesting that E2-2 operates in concert...

  18. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture.

  19. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  20. Early stages in the biogenesis of eukaryotic β-barrel proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jores, Tobias; Rapaport, Doron

    2017-09-01

    The endosymbiotic organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts harbour, similarly to their prokaryotic progenitors, β-barrel proteins in their outer membrane. These proteins are encoded on nuclear DNA, translated on cytosolic ribosomes and imported into their target organelles by a dedicated machinery. Recent studies have provided insights into the import into the organelles and the membrane insertion of these proteins. Although the cytosolic stages of their biogenesis are less well defined, it is speculated that upon their synthesis, chaperones prevent β-barrel proteins from aggregation and keep them in an import-competent conformation. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge about the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins, focusing on the early stages from the translation on cytosolic ribosomes to the recognition on the surface of the organelle. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. Cognitive and social processes predicting partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners' psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner's diagnosis (N=253), 9 (N=167), and 18 months (N=149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners' processing depends upon whether these efforts result in changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners' adaptation to cancer.

  2. Reaction Time Is Negatively Associated with Corpus Callosum Area in the Early Stages of CADASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, S; De Guio, F; Reyes, S; Jabouley, A; Chabriat, H; Jouvent, E

    2017-11-01

    Reaction time was recently recognized as a marker of subtle cognitive and behavioral alterations in the early clinical stages of CADASIL, a monogenic cerebral small-vessel disease. In unselected patients with CADASIL, brain atrophy and lacunes are the main imaging correlates of disease severity, but MR imaging correlates of reaction time in mildly affected patients are unknown. We hypothesized that reaction time is independently associated with the corpus callosum area in the early clinical stages of CADASIL. Twenty-six patients with CADASIL without dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score > 24 and no cognitive symptoms) and without disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 1) were compared with 29 age- and sex-matched controls. Corpus callosum area was determined on 3D-T1 MR imaging sequences with validated methodology. Between-group comparisons were performed with t tests or χ2 tests when appropriate. Relationships between reaction time and corpus callosum area were tested using linear regression modeling. Reaction time was significantly related to corpus callosum area in patients (estimate = -7.4 × 103, standard error = 3.3 × 103, P = .03) even after adjustment for age, sex, level of education, and scores of depression and apathy (estimate = -12.2 × 103, standard error = 3.8 × 103, P = .005). No significant relationship was observed in controls. Corpus callosum area, a simple and robust imaging parameter, appears to be an independent correlate of reaction time at the early clinical stages of CADASIL. Further studies will determine whether corpus callosum area can be used as an outcome in future clinical trials in CADASIL or in more prevalent small-vessel diseases. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Patient-specific core decompression surgery for early-stage ischemic necrosis of the femoral head.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Core decompression is an efficient treatment for early stage ischemic necrosis of the femoral head. In conventional procedures, the pre-operative X-ray only shows one plane of the ischemic area, which often results in inaccurate drilling. This paper introduces a new method that uses computer-assisted technology and rapid prototyping to enhance drilling accuracy during core decompression surgeries and presents a validation study of cadaveric tests.Twelve cadaveric human femurs were used to simulate early-stage ischemic necrosis. The core decompression target at the anterolateral femoral head was simulated using an embedded glass ball (target. Three positioning Kirschner wires were drilled into the top and bottom of the large rotor. The specimen was then subjected to computed tomography (CT. A CT image of the specimen was imported into the Mimics software to construct a three-dimensional model including the target. The best core decompression channel was then designed using the 3D model. A navigational template for the specimen was designed using the Pro/E software and manufactured by rapid prototyping technology to guide the drilling channel. The specimen-specific navigation template was installed on the specimen using positioning Kirschner wires. Drilling was performed using a guide needle through the guiding hole on the templates. The distance between the end point of the guide needle and the target was measured to validate the patient-specific surgical accuracy.The average distance between the tip of the guide needle drilled through the guiding template and the target was 1.92±0.071 mm.Core decompression using a computer-rapid prototyping template is a reliable and accurate technique that could provide a new method of precision decompression for early-stage ischemic necrosis.

  4. AB103. Prostatectomy versus active surveillance for early stage prostate cancer: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, You; Fu, Shengjun; Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival effect between radical prostatectomy (RP) and active surveillance (AS) for the treatment of early stage prostate cancer. Method Randomized controlled trials were computerized searched from Medline, Cochrane Library, ISI web of knowledge, Science Direct, Google scholar, CBM database for the evaluation of prognosis of treatment for early stage prostate cancer—RP versus AS. Prognosis of the treatment includes all-cause mortality, prostate cancer specific mortality and cancer metastasis. The latest retrieval date was May 2014. The data was extracted and the quality of included studies was independently assessed by two reviewers and RevMan5.2 software was used to perform data synthesis. Result Three RCTs involving 1,537 patients (772 RP vs. 765 AS) were included finally. The results of meta-analysis displayed that the hazard of all-cause mortality in RP group was significantly lower than AS group, HR =0.79 (95% CI, 0.69-0.90, P=0.0005), no significant difference was seen in <65 years group or ≥65 years group. Prostate cancer specific mortality risk was HR =0.58 (95% CI, 0.44-0.76), P=0.0001). And subgroup analysis showed RP protect patients from cancer specific mortality by age under 65 years, HR=0.46 (95% CI, 0.31-0.68, P=0.0001), no significant difference in patients above 65 years. Hazard of tumor metastasis was lower in RP group than in AS group regardless of age stratification, HR =0.54 (95% CI, 0.42-0.68, P<0.00001). Conclusions Radical prostatectomy reduced hazard of all-cause mortality, cancer specific mortality and cancer metastasis, and the benefit to prostate cancer survival was mainly manifested in patients under age 65 years. After combining patient expectant survival assessment and quality of life, active surveillance was still an effective management protocol for early stage prostate cancer.

  5. Prognostic Value of Tumor Budding in Early-Stage Cervical Adenocarcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satabongkoch, Nopporn; Khunamornpong, Surapan; Pongsuvareeyakul, Tip; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Sukpan, Kornkanok; Soongkhaw, Aungsumalee; intaraphet, Suthida; Suprasert, Prapaporn; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee

    2017-06-25

    Background: Tumor budding has recently been reported as an independent adverse prognostic factor for colorectal adenocarcinomas and other types of carcinoma in the digestive tract. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of tumor budding in patients with early-stage cervical adenocarcinomas and any associations with other clinical and pathological features. Methods: Histological slides of patients with early-stage (IB-IIA) usual-type endocervical adenocarcinoma who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection, without preoperative chemotherapy, between January 2006 and December 2012 were reviewed. Tumor budding was evaluated in routinely-stained sections and defined as detached single cells or clusters of fewer than 5 cells in a tumor invasive front and was stratified based on the number of bud counts in 10-high-power fields as low (buds) and high (≥15 buds). Correlations between tumor bud count and other clinical and pathological variables including follow-up outcomes were assessed. Results: Of 129 patients, a high tumor bud count was observed in 15 (11.6%), positively associated with histologic grade 3 (ptumor size >2 cm (p=0.036). Kaplan-Meyer analysis showed a significant decrease in both disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival for patients with a high tumor bud count (p=0.027 and 0.031, respectively). On multivariate analysis, histologic grade 3 was the only independent predictor for decreased disease-free survival (p=0.004) and cancer-specific survival (p=0.003). Conclusions: A high tumor budding count based on assessment of routinely-stained sections was found to be associated with decreased disease-free and cancer-specific survival in patients with early-stage cervical adenocarcinomas. However, it was not found to be an independent prognostic predictor in this study. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. Low-Dose Consolidation Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Unfavorable Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Jordan A., E-mail: jordan.torok@dm.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wu, Yuan [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Prosnitz, Leonard R.; Kim, Grace J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Beaven, Anne W.; Diehl, Louis F. [Division of Hematologic Malignancy and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trial HD11 established 4 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and 30 Gy of radiation therapy (RT) as a standard for early stage (I, II), unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Additional cycles of ABVD may allow for a reduction in RT dose and improved toxicity profile. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with combined modality therapy at the Duke Cancer Institute for early stage, unfavorable HL by GHSG criteria from 1994 to 2012 were included. Patients who did not undergo post-chemotherapy functional imaging (positron emission tomography or gallium imaging) or who failed to achieve a complete response were excluded. Clinical outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Late effects were also evaluated. Results: A total of 90 patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. Median follow-up was 5 years. Chemotherapy consisted primarily of ABVD (88%) with a median number of 6 cycles. The median dose of consolidation RT was 23.4 Gy. Four patients had relapses, 2 of which were in-field. Ten-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.97) and 98% (95% CI: 0.92-0.99), respectively. For the subset of patients (n=46) who received 5 to 6 cycles of chemotherapy and ≤24 Gy, the 10-year PFS and OS values were 88% (95% CI: 70%-96%) and 98% (95% CI: 85% - 99%), respectively. The most common late effect was hypothyroidism (20%) with no cardiac complications. Seven secondary malignancies were diagnosed, with only 1 arising within the RT field. Conclusions: Lower doses of RT may be sufficient when combined with more than 4 cycles of ABVD for early stage, unfavorable HL and may result in a more favorable toxicity profile than 4 cycles of ABVD and 30 Gy of RT.

  7. Positive surgical margins in early stage oral cavity cancer: an analysis of 20,602 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luryi, Alexander L; Chen, Michelle M; Mehra, Saral; Roman, Sanziana A; Sosa, Julie A; Judson, Benjamin L

    2014-12-01

    To report the incidence of positive surgical margins in early oral cavity cancer and identify patient, tumor, and system factors associated with their occurrence. Retrospective analysis of the National Cancer Database. Patients diagnosed with stage I or II oral cavity squamous cell cancer between 1998 and 2011 were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with positive margins were conducted. In total, 20,602 patients with early oral cancer were identified. Margin status was reported in 94.8% of cases, and positive margins occurred in 7.5% of those cases. Incidence of positive margins by institution varied from 0% to 43.8%, with median incidence of 7.1%. Positive margins were associated with clinical factors including stage II disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55-1.98), intermediate grade (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.37), high grade (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.39-2.03), and floor of mouth (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.52-2.08), buccal mucosa (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.59-2.68), and retromolar locations (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.85-3.11). Positive margins were also associated with treatment at nonacademic cancer centers (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04-1.44) and institutions with a low oral cancer case volume (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.23-1.69). Positive margins are associated with tumor factors, including stage, grade, and site, reflecting disease aggressiveness and difficulty of resection. Positive margins also are associated with factors such as treatment facility type, hospital case volume, and geographic region, suggesting potential variation in quality of care. Margin status may be a useful quality measure for early oral cavity cancer. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  8. Elevated levels of circulating IL-7 and IL-15 in patients with early stage prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmann Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation has been suggested to favour prostate cancer (PCA development. Interleukins (IL represent essential inflammation mediators. IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21, sharing a common receptor γ chain (c-γ, control T lymphocyte homeostasis and proliferation and play major roles in regulating cancer-immune system interactions. We evaluated local IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21 gene expression in prostate tissues from patients with early stage PCA or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. As control, we used IL-6 gene, encoding an IL involved in PCA progression. IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 titres were also measured in patients' sera. Methods Eighty patients with BPH and 79 with early (1 to 2c stage PCA were enrolled. Gene expression in prostate tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Serum IL concentrations and acute phase protein titres were evaluated by ELISA. Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and χ2 tests were used to compare IL gene expression and serum titers in the two groups of patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the possibility to distinguish sera from different groups of patients based on IL titers. Results IL-2 and IL-21 gene expression was comparably detectable, with low frequency and at low extents, in PCA and BPH tissues. In contrast, IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 genes were expressed more frequently (p Conclusions Expression IL-7 and IL-15 genes in prostate tissues and corresponding serum titres are significantly increased in patients with early stage PCA as compared with patients with BPH.

  9. Clinical Significance of IGFBP-3 Methylation in Patients with Early Stage Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Tae Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IGFBP-3 is a multifunctional protein that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Hypermethylation of the promoter represses expression of the IGFBP-3 gene. We undertook this study to assess the impact of IGFBP-3 methylation on survival of early stage gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Of the 482 tissue samples from gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery, IGFBP-3 methylation was tested in 138 patients with stage IB/II gastric cancer. We also analyzed IGFBP-3 methylation in 26 gastric cancer cell lines. IGFBP-3 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight. Statistical analyses, all two-sided, were performed to investigate the prognostic effects of methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter on various clinical parameters. RESULTS: Hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 was observed in 26 (19% of the 138 stage IB/II gastric cancer patients. Clinicopathological factors such as age, Lauren classification, sex, tumor infiltration, lymph node metastasis, and histologic grade did not show a statistically significant association with the methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter. Patients with a hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter had similar 8-year disease-free survival compared with those without a hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter (73% vs 75%, P = .78. In subgroup analyses, females, but not males, seemed to have poorer prognosis for DFS and OS in the subset of patients with IGFBP-3 methylation as compared with those without IGFBP-3 methylation (8-year DFS: 55.6% vs 71.6%, P = .3694 and 8-year overall survival: 55.6% vs 68.4%, P = .491, respectively even with no statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The status of IGFBP-3 methylation as measured by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction proposed the modest role for predicting survival in specific subgroups of patients with early-stage gastric cancer who undergo curative surgery. However, this needs further investigation.

  10. Establishing achievable benchmarks for quality improvement in systemic therapy for early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Melanie; Sutradhar, Rinku; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Enright, Katherine A; Taback, Nathan A; Booth, Christopher M; Trudeau, Maureen; Krzyzanowska, Monika K

    2017-10-01

    Setting realistic targets for performance is a consistent challenge in quality improvement. In the current study, the authors used administrative data to define achievable targets for a panel of 15 previously developed quality indicators (QIs) focusing on systemic therapy in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Deterministically linked administrative databases were used to identify patients with TNM stage I to stage III breast cancer who were diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 in Ontario, Canada. For each individual indicator, data-driven empirical benchmarks were calculated using the pared-mean benchmark approach. Variation in institution-level performance for each indicator was examined through the construction of funnel plots. A total of 28,303 patients with early-stage breast cancer were identified, 43% of whom received adjuvant chemotherapy. For the 9 QIs for which receiving the service or outcome was desirable (ie, consultation with a medical oncologist), the benchmark varied from 40.9% to 100%. For the 6 indicators for which not receiving the service or outcome was desirable (ie, incidence of febrile neutropenia), the benchmark varied from 0% to 49.0%. There was substantial variation noted with regard to the number of institutions meeting the target and the amount of interinstitution variation between the QIs. Top performing institutions varied by indicator, with no individual institution meeting the benchmark for all indicators. For the majority of indicators, institution size was not found to be correlated with performance. Data-derived benchmarking can be used to facilitate quality improvement by identifying areas of both good as well as suboptimal performance while defining an achievable target for which to strive. Cancer 2017;123:3772-3780. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Aβ seeding potency peaks in the early stages of cerebral β-amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lan; Rasmussen, Jay; Kaeser, Stephan A; Marzesco, Anne-Marie; Obermüller, Ulrike; Mahler, Jasmin; Schelle, Juliane; Odenthal, Jörg; Krüger, Christian; Fritschi, Sarah K; Walker, Lary C; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Baumann, Frank; Jucker, Mathias

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the extent to which pathogenic factors drive the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at different stages of the long preclinical and clinical phases. Given that the aggregation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is an important factor in AD pathogenesis, we asked whether Aβ seeds from brain extracts of mice at different stages of amyloid deposition differ in their biological activity. Specifically, we assessed the effect of age on Aβ seeding activity in two mouse models of cerebral Aβ amyloidosis (APPPS1 and APP23) with different ages of onset and rates of progression of Aβ deposition. Brain extracts from these mice were serially diluted and inoculated into host mice. Strikingly, the seeding activity (seeding dose SD50) in extracts from donor mice of both models reached a plateau relatively early in the amyloidogenic process. When normalized to total brain Aβ, the resulting specific seeding activity sharply peaked at the initial phase of Aβ deposition, which in turn is characterized by a temporary several-fold increase in the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio. At all stages, the specific seeding activity of the APPPS1 extract was higher compared to that of APP23 brain extract, consistent with a more important contribution of Aβ42 than Aβ40 to seed activity. Our findings indicate that the Aβ seeding potency is greatest early in the pathogenic cascade and diminishes as Aβ increasingly accumulates in brain. The present results provide experimental support for directing anti-Aβ therapeutics to the earliest stage of the pathogenic cascade, preferably before the onset of amyloid deposition. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Clean Energy Finance: Challenges and Opportunities of Early-Stage Energy Investing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heap, D.; Pless, J.; Aieta, N.

    2013-12-01

    Characterized by a changing landscape and new opportunities, today's increasingly complex energy decision space will need innovative financing and investment models to appropriately assess risk and profitability. This report provides an overview of the current state of clean energy finance across the entire spectrum but with a focus on early stage investing, and it includes insights from investors across all investment classes. Further, this report aims to provide a roadmap with the mechanisms, limitations, and considerations involved in making successful investments by identifying risks, challenges, and opportunities in the clean energy sector.

  13. Psychological effects of poetry workshops with people with early stage dementia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Ioana; MacFarlane, Kit; Ranzijn, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of writing poetry on psychological functioning in people with early stage dementia. A series of poetry writing workshops was conducted with four women, at the end of which a one-on-one short structured interview was conducted. All of the women said that they benefited from the workshops, but their experiences differed greatly. Themes included competence and self-efficacy, personal growth, wanting to contribute and poetry writing as a way of coping with the progression of the condition. Creative activities such as writing poetry hold promise for enhancing the quality of life of people with dementia.

  14. Oxidation of polycrystalline Ni studied by spectromicroscopy: Phase separation in the early stages of crystallite growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, A.; Eralp, T.; Shavorskiy, A.; Bennett, R. A.; Held, G.; Cavill, S. A.; Potenza, A.; Marchetto, H.; Dhesi, S. S.

    2010-02-01

    Low-energy and photoemission electron microscopy enables the determination of facet planes of polycrystalline surfaces and the study of their chemical composition at the sub- μm scale. Using these techniques the early oxidation stages of nickel were studied. After exposing the surface to 20 L of oxygen at 373 K a uniform layer of chemisorbed oxygen was found on all facets. After oxygen exposure at 473-673 K, small NiO crystallites are formed on all facets but not in the vicinity of all grain boundaries. The crystallites are separated by areas of bare Ni without significant oxygen coverage.

  15. EARLY STAGE OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN OROGENIC BELT BUILDING: EVIDENCES FROM THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN CRATON

    OpenAIRE

    D. P. Gladkochub; T. V. Donskaya; Shihong Zhang; S. A. Pisarevsky; A. M. Stanevich; A. M. Mazukabzov; Z. L. Motova

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC) is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO). Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB) on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan ...

  16. Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; De Coensel, Bert; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Botteldooren, Dick; Hostens, Kris; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically generated underwater noise in the marine environment is ubiquitous, comprising both intense impulse and continuous noise. The installation of offshore wind farms across the North Sea has triggered a range of ecological questions regarding the impact of anthropogenically produced underwater noise on marine wildlife. Our interest is on the impact on the "passive drifters," i.e., the early life stages of fish that form the basis of fish populations and are an important prey for pelagic predators. This study deals with the impact of pile driving and operational noise generated at offshore wind farms on Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass) larvae.

  17. A case of painless thyroiditis in a very early stage of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shiori; Endo, Kei; Iizaka, Toru; Saiki, Ryo; Iwaku, Kenji; Sato, Shotaro; Takahashi, Yasuyoshi; Otsuka, Fumiko; Taniyama, Matsuo

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of painless thyroiditis detected during the first trimester of pregnancy. A 29-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized because of thyrotoxicosis and she was confirmed to be pregnant. The gestational age was 4 weeks. Blood examinations revealed negative TSH receptor antibodies, however, we started potassium iodide because we were unable to rule out Graves' disease. Thyroid hormone levels were normalized in 3 weeks and remained low even after discontinuation of medication. She received replacement therapy with levothyroxine sodium hydrate till 3 months after delivery. Painless thyroiditis can be one of the differential diagnoses of thyrotoxicosis in a very early stage of pregnancy.

  18. Colorimetric visualization of tin corrosion: A method for early stage corrosion detection on printed circuit boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    circuit board assembly (PCBA) provides a basis for the mechanistic understanding of PCBA corrosion failures and leak current tracks which eventually can lead to electrochemical migration. This paper presents a method for identification of such failures at the early stage of corrosion by using...... a colorimetric tin ion indicator applied as a gel. The examples provided in this paper include visualization of corrosion caused by weak organic acids found in solder fluxes, corrosion profiling on the PCBAs after climatic device level testing, and failure analysis of field returns....

  19. Independent prognostic impact of tumour-infiltrating macrophages in early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotti, Manuel; Nicola, Marta; Lucioni, Marco; Fiaccadori, Valeria; Ferretti, Virginia; Sciarra, Roberta; Costanza, Mariangela; Bono, Elisa; Molo, Silvana; Maffi, Aldo; Croci, Giorgio A; Varettoni, Marzia; Frigeni, Marco; Pascutto, Cristiana; Arcaini, Luca; Bonfichi, Maurizio; Paulli, Marco; Cazzola, Mario

    2017-09-01

    Although patients with early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma have a high rate of cure, a portion of these are resistant to or relapse after standard treatment. Current prognostic criteria based on clinical and laboratory parameters at diagnosis do not allow to accurately identify the subset of patients with less favourable clinical outcome. An increased number of tumour-infiltrating macrophages was found to be associated with shortened survival in patients with classic Hodgkin's Lymphoma. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of the proportion of CD68-positive infiltrating macrophages in patients with early-stage classic Hodgkin's lymphoma. By using immunohistochemistry technique, we evaluated for CD68 expression diagnostic biopsies of 106 patients affected by supradiaphragmatic early-stage classic Hodgkin's lymphoma treated at our institution since 2000 to 2010. All patients were treated with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy in the majority. The 2-year overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) in the entire cohort were 97% and 83% respectively. The 2-year PFS was statistically different between patients with favourable and those with unfavourable prognosis according to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk criteria (96% vs 79%, p = 0.039) and between patients having less than 25% of CD68-positive infiltrating macrophages and those with more than 25% (85% vs 67%, p = 0.012). All patients with favourable EORTC criteria had CD68 expression lower than 25%. Within those with unfavourable EORTC criteria, patients with a CD68+ count greater than 25% had a worse 2-year PFS than patients having values lower than 25% (64% vs 82%, p = 0.03). Moreover, in multivariate analysis, after adjusting for CD68+ macrophages count and EORTC score, only CD68+ macrophages count higher than 25% retained a prognostic effect on PFS (hazard ratio = 2

  20. A model of knowledge acquisition in early stage breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Laura E; Mendlinger, Sheryl E; Corso, Katherine A; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2012-01-01

    To meaningfully participate in the decision-making regarding a newly diagnosed breast cancer, a patient must acquire new knowledge. We describe a model of knowledge acquisition that can provide a framework for exploring the process and types of knowledge that breast cancer patients gain following their diagnosis. The four types of knowledge presented in this model-authoritative, technical, embodied, and traditional-are described and potential sources discussed. An understanding of knowledge acquisition in early stage breast cancer patients can provide healthcare practitioners with an important framework for optimizing decision-making in this population. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...... in the second half of the 2000s, new analyses of stomach content of sprat and herring were conducted, to elucidate the contribution of changes in predation pressure on cod recruitment. Comparison of stomach contents of sprat and herring in 2004–2008 with data from the 1990s showed a similar diet composition...

  2. Change in bone mineral density during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carina Ørts; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Frøslev, Trine

    2016-01-01

    of chemotherapy, i.e., 4 months. METHODS: Dual-imaging X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline and after completing anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy to measure BMD in the spine, hip, and forearm in early-stage breast cancer patients. High-dose prednisolone was used at three weekly...... intervals to reduce nausea and vomiting. Patients were advised a daily calcium/vitamin D supplement. Linear regression was used to assess mean percentage change in BMD and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) according to doses of prednisolone, menopausal status, smoking, and BMI. RESULTS: Eight patients...

  3. Changes in the Papez Circuit in early stages of Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    García-Polo, Pablo; Pajares, Gonzalo; Hernández Tamames, J.A.; Alfayate, E.; Frank, A.; Alvarez Linera, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of demenMa. Neuronal and synapMc losses occur iniMally and predominantly in the medial temporal lobe structures including hippocampus, amygdala and thalamus, structures that belong to the Papez circuit. The integrity of the connecMons amongst them is essenMal for episodic memory, which is specifically impaired in AD. For this reason we have invesMgated the degeneraMon paRern of subcorMcal structures and its relaMon to early stages of AD, i.e. ...

  4. Survival after early-stage breas