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Sample records for early sixteenth-century florence

  1. An Early Researcher in the Field of Education: Bernardino de Sahagun in Sixteenth-Century Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Bernardino de Sahagun (1499/1500-1590), a Franciscan missionary in the colony of New Spain, can be seen as an early researcher in the field of education. Through his ethnographic work "General History of the Things of New Spain" he has been most influential in the historiography of Meso-American pre-Hispanic cultures. This paper focuses on the…

  2. An Early Researcher in the Field of Education: Bernardino de Sahagun in Sixteenth-Century Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Bernardino de Sahagun (1499/1500-1590), a Franciscan missionary in the colony of New Spain, can be seen as an early researcher in the field of education. Through his ethnographic work "General History of the Things of New Spain" he has been most influential in the historiography of Meso-American pre-Hispanic cultures. This paper focuses…

  3. Antonfrancesco Grazzini ‘Il Lasca’ (1505-1584) and the Burlesque. Poetry, Performance and Academic Practice in Sixteenth-Century Florence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Florentine Antonfrancesco Grazzini, alias ‘il Lasca’ (1505-1584), was notorious for the burlesque poems in which he mocked the current debates and issues of the literary Florence of his days. He also gained fame by founding two academies: the Accademia degli Umidi, which later became the Accadem

  4. A sixteenth century Portuguese report concerning an early Javanese world map Relatório português do século XVI descreve mapa-múndi antigo de origem javanesa

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    Benjamin B. Olshin

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available In the sixteenth century, there were numerous voyages of discovery in the oceans of the world, expanding European understanding and influence. These explorations, and in particular the knowledge they created, have tended to overshadow other ventures into the unknown. Not just the Europeans, but other cultures as well, navigated the seas and accumulated geographical information, putting together their own ideas about the distribution of the lands and seas around the globe. Arab and Asian seafarers plied the oceans in trade and exploration, and created maps and geographical texts. These maps and texts, however, are not as numerous as a scholar might wish. The Asian maps, particularly early ones, are few in number, and these are virtually all Chinese and Korean creations, world maps based on traditional religious concepts of a circular landmass. There are few maps based on actual navigation. But an early sixteenth-century Portuguese document gives a brief description of a Javanese map, which apparently showed much of the world. It also depicted the routes of the navigations of the Chinese and other Pacific peoples. The map itself has been lost, but we read of it in a letter from the Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque to his king, Dom Manuel, dated 1 April 1512.No século XVI, várias viagens de descobrimento expandiram a influência e o reconhecimento europeus. Essas expedições marítimas, e em particular o conhecimento que geraram, ofuscaram outras aventuras pelo desconhecido. Outros povos navegaram pelos oceanos, acumularam informações e organizaram suas próprias idéias sobre a distribuição de terras e mares. Navegadores árabes e asiáticos criaram mapas, cartas náuticas e textos geográficos expondo suas descobertas. Esses mapas, no entanto, não são tão numerosos. Os asiáticos, particularmente os mais antigos, são poucos e quase todos originários da China e Coréia, e baseavam-se em conceitos religiosos tradicionais e na id

  5. The social lives of paintings in Sixteenth-Century Venice

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    Kessel, Elisabeth Johanna Maria van

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies Venetian painting in its golden age, the sixteenth century, from an unconventional, anthropological point of view. Paintings of masters like Titian are demonstrated to have had social lives. Together with human beings they were embedded in social networks in which humans and pain

  6. Oral anatomy in the sixteenth century: Juan Valverde de Amusco.

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    López-Valverde, A; Gómez de Diego, R; De Vicente, J

    2013-08-01

    In 1554 Juan Valverde de Amusco, a Spanish anatomist, wrote the History of the composition of the human body, a complete anatomical treatise that took as its model the Vesalius school of thought (La fábrica of Vesalius). Considered one of the most complete anatomical treatises of the Renaissance and one of the most widely read books of the sixteenth century, it was translated into four languages in its day. The first chapter, devoted to bones, provides a meticulously detailed analysis of the bones of the facial structures and of the teeth, their supporting structures, vascularisation and innervation. Juan Valverde de Amusco even describes techniques for reducing mandibular luxations. Even with the imprecise observations typical of the time the treatise must be considered an exceptional document.

  7. The expurgation of medical books in sixteenth-century Spain.

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    Front, D

    2001-01-01

    Medical books figured prominently on lists of scientific books censured or expurgated by ecclesiastic authorities in the second half of the sixteenth century. A systematic examination of this censorship is still wanting. The following study, which describes and explains the mechanism of expurgation of centuria iv in Amatus Lusitanus's description of medical cases (Lyons edition, 1580), is an example of the sort of questions and information that can be drawn from such an examination. In particular, the expurgation of Amatus's discussion of false conception suffered by a nun is analyzed. Amatus did not rule out the possibility of natural virginal pregnancy, and in doing so he relied on medical authorities (Averroes) as well as on a Hebrew rabbinical source (Alphabet of Ben Sira).

  8. “Border Liners”. The Ship of Fools Tradition in Sixteenth-Century England

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    Zita Turi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of Sebastian Brandt’s The Ship of Fools in sixteenth-century England. My starting point is Michel Foucault’s Madness and Civilization and I attempt to trace the philological background and the way Brandt’s text determined early-Renaissance satire and later ’fool literature’ in England. My goal is to articulate the fact that the transgression of the ship does not manifest itself merely in the act of translation but also in the liminal position of the fool and the transgression among generic boundaries as well.En el ensayo estudio el efecto de la obra de Sebastian Brandt, titulada La nave de los locos, en la Inglaterra del siglo XVI. Mi estudio presenta el desarrollo del texto de Brandt en Inglaterra, partiendo del libro de Michael Foucault, La locura y la sinrazón, y destaca cómo el texto mencionado determina la sátira renacentista temprana y la literatura bufa de los finales del siglo. Espero que hasta el final de mi estudio pueda convencerles que el que el barco cruza la frontera no se encarna sólo en la existencia errante de los locos o en el acto de la traducción, sino se refiere a la interconexión de los géneros literarios también.

  9. Nature and Art, Making and Knowing: Reconstructing Sixteenth-Century Life-Casting Techniques

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    Smith, P.H.; Beentjes, T.

    2010-01-01

    Almost every Kunstkammer in sixteenth-century Europe contained small reptiles or plants cast from life in a variety of media. This widespread technique, which used small, recently killed animals as a pattern to create lifelike sculptures, was often prized more highly than works sculpted with the han

  10. Nature and Art, Making and Knowing: Reconstructing Sixteenth-Century Life-Casting Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, P.H.; Beentjes, T.

    2010-01-01

    Almost every Kunstkammer in sixteenth-century Europe contained small reptiles or plants cast from life in a variety of media. This widespread technique, which used small, recently killed animals as a pattern to create lifelike sculptures, was often prized more highly than works sculpted with the

  11. Genome data from a sixteenth century pig illuminate modern breed relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Óscar; Burgos-Paz, W; Ballester, Maria; Bianco, E; Olalde, Iñigo; Santpere, Gabriel; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) provides direct evidence of historical events that have modeled the genome of modern individuals. In livestock, resolving the differences between the effects of initial domestication and of subsequent modern breeding is not straight forward without aDNA data. Here, we have obtained shotgun genome sequence data from a sixteenth century pig from Northeastern Spain (Montsoriu castle), the ancient pig was obtained from an extremely well-preserved and diverse assemblage...

  12. Telling time: representations of ruins in the grotesques of sixteenth-century Italy

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    Maria Fabricius Hansen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of ruins feature frequently within the grotesques or ornamental frescoes of sixteenth-century Italy. What is at stake in the representations of ruins seems to be at stake on a more general level in the grotesques seen as a compositional device: the visualisation of passages between a form and the formless, or between culture and nature, with change and movement as key concepts. The article addresses how the exploration of transformation, which is fundamental to the representation of ruins in grotesques, is manifested in subject matter, composition, and spatial relations; and how all three are aspects of the telling of time. It is suggested that the prevalence of ruins in grotesques highlights the preoccupation with temporality as a major theme in the visual culture of the period.

  13. Deviance and Morals: a study of sixteenth-century Crete under Venetian rule: A first approach

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    Romina N. Tsakiri

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines indicatively offences such as blasphemy, sodomy, adultery and bigamy and the penalties imposed by the Venetian authorities on the island of Crete in sixteenth century. As the sixteenth century was characterised by a strong tendency towards the moralisation of life in the states of Western Europe, State and Church focused on all forms of deviance from the Christian order: issues related to faith, individual behaviour, family life and sexuality, all became objects of discipline. The Venetian state, in collaboration with the church, also penalised offences related to Christian morality, in the island of Crete as well as elsewhere in the Venetian state. The attitude of the Venetian state towards Crete, differences between the city of Venice and the island in the administration of rules governing deviance and promoting moral standards were slight, despite the presence of a substantial Orthodox community. Although, in some offences related to family life Venetian law respected the customs of the Orthodox church. Furthermore, in some cases the treatment of Jews was stricter, as Jews were considered as a possible threat to Christianity and the social structure of the Venetian state. A more significant factor than religious difference on the treatment of these offences was class and economic status and gender. Finally, the moral discipline and strict control over aspects of community life was intended not only to promote the well-being of subjects, and therefore the administration of the state, but also the protection of the prestige, identity and financial interests of the ruling class of nobility.

  14. Tartaglia’s science of weights and mechanics in the sixteenth century selections from quesiti et inventioni diverse books VII–VIII

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    Pisano, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a historical and scientific analysis as historical epistemology of the science of weights and mechanics in the sixteenth century, particularly as developed by Tartaglia in his Quesiti et inventioni diverse, Book VII and Book VIII (1546; 1554). In the early 16th century mechanics was concerned mainly with what is now called statics and was referred to as the Scientia de ponderibus, generally pursued by two very different approaches. The first was usually referred to as Aristotelian, where the equilibrium of bodies was set as a balance of opposite tendencies to motion. The second, usually referred to as Archimedean, identified statics with centrobarica, the theory of centres of gravity based on symmetry considerations. In between the two traditions the Italian scholar Niccolò Fontana, better known as Tartaglia (1500?–1557), wrote the treatise Quesiti et inventioni diverse (1546). This volume consists of three main parts. In the first, a historical excursus regarding Tartaglia’s lifetime,...

  15. "You have no good blood in your body". Oral communication in sixteenth-century physicians' medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In his personal notebooks, the little known Bohemian physician Georg Handsch (1529-c. 1578) recorded, among other things, hundreds of vernacular phrases and expressions he and other physicians used in their oral interaction with patients and families. Based primarily on this extraordinary source, this paper traces the terms, concepts and images to which sixteenth-century physicians resorted when they explained the nature of a patient's disease and justified their treatment. At the bedside and in the consultation room, Handsch and his fellow physicians attributed most diseases to a local accumulation of impure, putrid or otherwise pathological humours. The latter were commonly said to result, in turn, from an insufficient concoction and assimilation of food and drink in the stomach and the liver or from an obstruction of the humoral flow inside the body and across its borders. By contrast, other notions and explanatory models, which had a prominent place in contemporary learned medical writing, hardly played a role at all in the physicians' oral communication. Specific disease terms were rarely used, a mere imbalance of the four natural humours in the body was almost never inculpated, and the patient's personal life-style and other non-naturals did not attract much attention either. These striking differences between the ways in which physicians explained the patients' diseases in their daily practice and the explanatory models we find in contemporary textbooks, are attributed, above all, to the physicians' precarious situation in the early modern medical marketplace. Since dissatisfied patients were quick to turn to another healer, physicians had to explain the disease and justify their treatment in a manner that was comprehensible to ordinary lay people and in line with their expectations and beliefs, which, at the time, revolved almost entirely around notions of impurity and evacuation.

  16. Genome data from a sixteenth century pig illuminate modern breed relationships.

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    Ramírez, O; Burgos-Paz, W; Casas, E; Ballester, M; Bianco, E; Olalde, I; Santpere, G; Novella, V; Gut, M; Lalueza-Fox, C; Saña, M; Pérez-Enciso, M

    2015-02-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) provides direct evidence of historical events that have modeled the genome of modern individuals. In livestock, resolving the differences between the effects of initial domestication and of subsequent modern breeding is not straight forward without aDNA data. Here, we have obtained shotgun genome sequence data from a sixteenth century pig from Northeastern Spain (Montsoriu castle), the ancient pig was obtained from an extremely well-preserved and diverse assemblage. In addition, we provide the sequence of three new modern genomes from an Iberian pig, Spanish wild boar and a Guatemalan Creole pig. Comparison with both mitochondrial and autosomal genome data shows that the ancient pig is closely related to extant Iberian pigs and to European wild boar. Although the ancient sample was clearly domestic, admixture with wild boar also occurred, according to the D-statistics. The close relationship between Iberian, European wild boar and the ancient pig confirms that Asian introgression in modern Iberian pigs has not existed or has been negligible. In contrast, the Guatemalan Creole pig clusters apart from the Iberian pig genome, likely due to introgression from international breeds.

  17. Economía poder y regalo de Europa moderna. The Gifts sixteenth century France

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    Abel Ignacio López

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Economía, poder y regalo en la europa moderna. nathalie z. davis,. the gift in sixteenth century france. madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2000, pp: 185. Un regalo debe darse sin esperar nada a cambio? ¿Cómo diferenciar un regalo de un soborno? ¿Los regalos son parte permanente de las relaciones humanas o perdieron poder e importancia en la medida en que avanzó la economía de mercado la cual puso precio a todo tipo de intercambio.? Con estas preguntas la contra-carátula de este libro invita a su lectura. En efecto, son estas las cuestiones que la historiadora norteamericana aborda en esta investigación. Para ello escoge la sociedad francesa del siglo XVI. Según el antropólogo Marcel Mauss en su libro The Gift, una vez que la economía de mercado se fue desarrollando, con precios en dinero, contratos individuales , ya no fue necesaria una economía basada en los regalos.  

  18. Economía poder y regalo de Europa moderna. The Gifts sixteenth century France

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    Abel Ignacio López

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Economía, poder y regalo en la europa moderna. nathalie z. davis,. the gift in sixteenth century france. madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2000, pp: 185. Un regalo debe darse sin esperar nada a cambio? ¿Cómo diferenciar un regalo de un soborno? ¿Los regalos son parte permanente de las relaciones humanas o perdieron poder e importancia en la medida en que avanzó la economía de mercado la cual puso precio a todo tipo de intercambio.? Con estas preguntas la contra-carátula de este libro invita a su lectura. En efecto, son estas las cuestiones que la historiadora norteamericana aborda en esta investigación. Para ello escoge la sociedad francesa del siglo XVI. Según el antropólogo Marcel Mauss en su libro The Gift, una vez que la economía de mercado se fue desarrollando, con precios en dinero, contratos individuales , ya no fue necesaria una economía basada en los regalos.

  19. Ethics and Utopia: public health theory and practice in the sixteenth century. An essay comparing the Henrician Medical Act of 1540 and More's 1530 Ordinances, with Thomas More's novel 'Utopia' of 1516.

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    Bishop, M G H; Gelbier, S

    2003-09-13

    This essay places the early modern origins of the ethico-legal structure of medicine, in which eventually by exclusion or inclusion, dental activity shared, in the Humanist environment of the Italian Renaissance as it was imported into England in the first years of the sixteenth century. There were two linked stages to this, the first supported by the genius of Thomas Linacre (1460-1524), and the second by the administrative ability of Sir Thomas More (1478-1535). This paper concentrates on the evidence for the intellectual basis of More's medical legislation, and that which was made shortly after his death.

  20. Mare Occidentale Mare Occidentale: the adventure of imagining the Atlantic Ocean through sixteenth century maps

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    Carla Lois

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Desde el descubrimiento de América y a lo largo de todo el siglo XVI, una de las principales preocupaciones de los cartógrafos fue el dibujo cada vez más preciso de las costas del continente americano y de las islas atlánticas. Los estudios de los mapas de la época suelen concentrarse en los ensayos que los cartógrafos hicieron para diseñar las tierras nuevas, en especial, de América. En ese sentido, el océano Atlántico parecía ser el espacio que se definía por la negativa: aquello que no era tierra y que quedaba entre América y Europa. El Atlántico comenzó a ser objeto de diversas valoraciones simbólicas que fueron relevantes en la reorganización del imaginario geográfico de la época. El Atlántico, lejos de ser un espacio “hueco”, era parte de los territorios nuevos que se estaban conquistando y, así, fue integrado, con sus singularidades, a la nueva imagen del mundo. En este trabajo proponemos explorar los modos en que el Atlántico fue cartografiado en los mapamundis europeos del siglo XVI para analizar las formas en que este océano fue moldeado dentro del imaginario de un mundo geográfico que rápidamente se expandía y transformaba.Since the discovery of America and throughout the sixteenth century, one of the main concerns of cartographers was to draw with increasing precision the coasts of continental America and the Atlantic islands. The study of several maps from that time is included in essays developed by cartographers to outline the new land, especially in the case of America. In this sense, the Atlantic Ocean seemed to be the space defined by the negation of the above: that was not land and which filled up the space between America and Europe. The Atlantic Ocean started to be the object of a number of symbolic valuations which were relevant in the reorganization of the geographical imaginary space of the time. Far from being an “empty” space, the Atlantic Ocean, was part of the new territories being

  1. The Liturgical Use of the Organ in the Sixteenth Century: the Judgments of Cajetan and the Dominican Order

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    Michael O'Connor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the liturgical use of the organ in the sixteenth century according to the judgments of Tommaso de Vio, Cajetan (1469–1534 and the Dominicans. In particular, it asks the question: In worship, is solo organ music capable of conveying a specific meaning or a particular text (as seemed to be expected in alternatim practice? The Dominican sources show an increasingly skeptical attitude, with a consequent tendency to limit the organ’s role in worship. The implication of this study is that organ alternatim did not fall out of favor (with the Dominicans at least because it failed to carry out the job it was given in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but because it could not do the new job is was given in the sixteenth century. Organ alternatim made sense in a gothic worldview, but less so under the influence of renaissance humanism. While these Dominicans accepted the use of the organ, they did so with great concern at the potential influx of secular music into worship, since secular melodies and rhythms, even without their original words, bring multiple inappropriate associations. To remedy this, various strategies were used to harness instrumental music to text.

  2. ‘Vasari’s Vite and Italian artists in sixteenth-century England’

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    Cinzia Maria Sicca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vasari’s Vite provide valuable information about the way in which Italian art reached England, sometimes mentioning specific names of merchants and agents controlling the market. The migration of artists could in fact only occur with the backing of merchant-bankers who provided the financial means to undertake such costly and difficult trips, guaranteed a certain amount of work and in many cases even provided housing in their own company lodgings. The paper presents new archival evidence confirming the correctness of the leads offered in the Vite and argues that the movement of work and people was largely in the hands of a group of Florentine merchants with very close ties to the Medici in Florence and Rome.

  3. Winter temperatures in the second half of the sixteenth century in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula

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    T. Bullón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the winter temperatures of the second part of the sixteenth century in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula. A large number of historical documents that are stored in many different Spanish archives were consulted in order to carry out this research. The data was first arranged and weighted according to the intensity and significance of the meteorological phenomena described and, subsequently, these values were assigned an ordinal index ranging from +4 to −4. The statistical treatment applied is based on the reconstruction of temperatures equivalent to this ordinal index, expressed as anomalies of the 1961–1990 period, belonging to a reference station located at the approximate geographical center of the area under study. The results show winter thermal conditions different from current ones that, for the most part, stay below the reference average and that occurred with a wide range of variability. The influence that thermal conditions had on the evolution of some environmental aspects are considered based on the forest exploitation problem information and on the wine harvest production.

  4. Assessing the microbiological risk to stored sixteenth century parchment manuscripts: a holistic approach based on molecular and environmental studies.

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    Troiano, Federica; Polo, Andrea; Villa, Federica; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The microbial risk for the conservation of seven sixteenth century parchment manuscripts, which showed brown discolouration putatively caused by microorganisms, was evaluated using non-invasive sampling techniques, microscopy, studies of surface-associated and airborne microflora with culture-independent molecular methods, and by measuring repository thermo-hygrometric values. Microscopic observations and ATP assays demonstrated a low level of contamination, indicating that the discolouration was not related to currently active microbial colonisation. Nevertheless, a culture-independent molecular approach was adopted to fully characterise surface-associated communities searching for biodeteriogens that could grow under appropriate thermo-hygrometric conditions. Indeed, potential biodeteriogens and microorganisms that are ecologically related to humans were found, suggesting the need to control the conservation environment and improve handling procedures. Microbial loads of air and thermo-hygrometric measurements showed that the repository was not suitable for preventing the microbial deterioration of parchment. A holistic approach to the assessment of risk of microbial deterioration of documents and heritage preservation is proposed for the first time.

  5. Inter-ethnic marriage patterns in late sixteenth-century Shetland.

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    Knooihuizen, Remco

    2008-01-01

    Remco Knooihuizen is a postgraduate student in Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh, focusing on the sociolinguistics of minority languages in Early Modern Europe. As such he has a keen interest in the (population) history of this period, which can be extremely relevant to linguistic developments.

  6. Between East And West: Garcia de Orta’s Colloquies and the Circulation of Medical Knowledge in the Sixteenth Century

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    Fontes da Costa, Palmira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the importance of Garcia de Orta’s Colloquies on the simples and drugs of India (Goa, 1563 in the construction and circulation of Asian botanical and medical knowledge in the sixteenth century. It begins by examining the combined importance of experience and testimony in Orta’s assessment of materia medica from India. It then considers the relevance of interaction and exchange of medical systems between the West and the East in the Portuguese physician’s understanding of medical knowledge and practices. Finally, it analyses how medical and botanical information provided by this work was reframed by Carolus Clusius and circulated in new forms in Europe.En este artículo se analiza la importancia de los Coloquios sobre los medicamentos simples y drogas de la India [Colóquios sobre os simples e drogas da Índia] (Goa, 1563 de Garcia de Orta en la construcción y circulación del conocimiento médico y botánico en Asia en el siglo XVI. Se comienza examinando la importancia combinada de la experiencia y el testimonio en la evaluación de Orta sobre la materia medica de la India. A continuación se examina la importancia de la interacción y el intercambio de los sistemas médicos entre Occidente y Oriente en la comprensión del médico portugués sobre las prácticas y conocimientos médicos. Por último, se analiza como la información médica y botánica que ofrece este trabajo fue reformulada por Carolus Clusius y distribuida en una nueva forma en Europa.

  7. Craft, money and mercy: an apothecary's self-portrait in sixteenth-century Bologna.

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    Di Gennaro Splendore, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    The apothecary occupied a liminal position in early modern society between profit and healing. Finding ways to distance their public image from trade was a common problem for apothecaries across Europe. This article uses the case of a Bolognese apothecary, Filippo Pastarino, to address the question of how early modern apothecaries chose to represent themselves to political authorities and to the wider public. 'Mercy', alongside 'craft', was a pillar of apothecaries' social identity. By contrast, no matter how central financial transactions ('money') were to their activity, apothecaries did not want to be perceived as merchants. Thus, the assistance and advice apothecaries provided to patients and customers resulted as central aspects of their social role. In this context, Bolognese apothecaries aimed to defend their current status, which had been challenged by naturalist Ulysses Aldrovandi, city authorities and local monasteries. However, Pastarino's claims can also be seen as antecedents to the self-legitimizing strategy that seventeenth-century artisans deployed when faced with the need to enhance their new status as natural philosophers. The present study attributes a name, a date of birth and a shop to Filippo Pastarino, revising previous interpretations. More broadly, by focusing on how these artisans defended their position in the city it enriches our understanding of the self-representation of apothecaries.

  8. United We Suffer: Sixteenth-Century Anabaptism and Twentieth-Century «Auslandsdeutschtum» in M. V. Rubatscher’s «Das Lutherische Joggele»

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    Berit Jany

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sixteenth-century migrations of Anabaptist communities within Europe, particularly Tyrol, becomes an important literary theme for the Austrian novelist Maria Veronika Ru­batscher who draws parallels between the relocated fellowship and the German-speaking minority in Italy after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Discussing the portrait of Tyrolean Anabaptism in her novel Das Lutherische Joggele, this paper shows how the author utilizes the movement’s history as a means of expressing her nationalistic iden­tity.

  9. Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni: his early education among Florence, Rome and London

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    Francesco Guidoboni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work – part of a phd thesis in co-supervision between the " Sapienza " University of Rome and the University of Paris 1 “Panthéon- Sorbonne” - has the objective of investigating the lesser-known aspects of the life of architect Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, especially the period of his training in Florence and Rome, and the years when he lived in England before his arrival in Paris in 1724. At the same time he was painter, architect and decorator and his name was famous thanks to a large number of sets made for the Opéra and to the design of the façade of the church of Saint- Sulpice in Paris. During his life, Servandoni had the opportunity to travel throughout Europe, where he worked for the major courts of that time, from Paris to London, from Lisbon to Brussels, Vienna, Dresden and Stuttgart. The archival research allowed to make the major breakthroughs, such as the discovery of  the Servandoni stay in Rome between 1719 and 1720, in the Prince Vaini's palace, a man “entiérement attaché à la France” and related to the environment of the Capranica and d'Alibert theaters. This find let us to make some assumptions about his life and his contacts in the papal city. And yet, the study highlighted the strong relationship that he had with the english cultural environment during  his early stay in Rome, that convinced him to take the trip to London. Thanks to this research, Servandoni's complete work - so vaguely interpreted as an anticipation of the “goût à la grecque” and the revival of classicism of the late eighteenth century - is reinterpreted as the result of his training in Italy and England. It is indebted, in fact, that as well the classicism that characterized the Florentine architecture of that period as his close contact with the English Palladian circle and with the Wren, Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor works, exercised a great influence on him.

  10. Tridentine renewal and spiritual education of women in the experience of female monasticism. The case of Verona in the sixteenth century

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    Elisabetta Patrizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catholic world of the Sixteenth century, especially after the Council of Trent, exalted the condition of monastic life as the most perfect and noblest of the conditions of life traditionally reserved for women. The monastic state became the model to which the educational path of every woman had to conform to, even if she was destined to live in the world (as mother, virgin, widow, or married woman. The strong paradigmatic value exerted by the monastic condition of life is clear from the analysis of the pedagogical literature devoted to women published in this period.The present article focuses on two relevant examples of this literature: the Costituzioni per le monache (Constitutions for Nuns, 1539 by Gian Matteo Giberti and the Ricordi lasciati alle monache (Recollections left to nuns, 1575 by Agostino Valier. The two texts contain very interesting reasons for understanding the pedagogical directions of the time, which are highlighted by the author with specific references to the historical context and thanks to the support of documentary and published sources. These two works were written by two great reformer bishops, and are highly meaningful not only because they complement each other, since both were prepared for the religious women of the diocese of Verona, but mainly because they offer one very vivid insight into the growing importance assigned to the monastic modus vivendi in Sixteenth century Catholic society.

  11. Medical and professional ethics in sixteenth-century Istanbul: towards an understanding of the relationships between the Ottoman State and the medical guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Miri

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of Ottoman medical guilds, their relationship with the government, and the role played by medical ethics in this framework. Decrees by the sultans (sing. fermăn), issued in the Ottoman Imperial Council (Divăn) in Istanbul during the sixteenth century, concern themselves also with medical and ethical issues. The sheer number of these decrees may give the erroneous impression that the quality of medicine in the Ottoman Empire was low. This paper argues, however, that many of the complaints brought before the Ottoman authorities were instigated by medical guilds' members against their colleagues and competitors, not by aggravated patients demanding compensation from negligent healers. The discourse of medical ethics was raised in these cases not for its own sake, rather it embodied efforts by medical guild members to defend their economic interests and their intellectual and social status in the brutal competition in the medical realm.

  12. On sixteenth-century copies of the reliefs from the Column of Trajan – Two new drawings from an unknown rotulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heenes, Volker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two recently discovered drawings of the reliefs on the Trajan's column. To put them in their proper artistic context, the drawings are compared to known examples of such reproductions of the sixteenth century. Current research questions the attribution of codex ms. 254 in the Biblioteca dell'Istituto Nazionale di Archeologia e Storia dell'Arte in Rome to Jacopo Ripanda. The two series with representations of the column's entire frieze preserved in the Biblioteca (mss. 254 and 320 are therefore considered as two different strings of transmission of a yet to be identified original, from which derive all other drawings of the reliefs on the Trajan's Column. Research directed at the contextualisation of the newly published drawings has confirmed this view. The drawings belong without doubt to one of the two strings of transmission. In addition, an archaeological examination of representational details of this depiction has resulted in the suggestion of a new date for the rotuli from a private collection in Paris.

  13. Evidence for the Continued Use of Medieval Medical Prescriptions in the Sixteenth Century: A Fifteenth-Century Remedy Book and its Later Owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    This article examines a fifteenth-century remedy book, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson c. 299, and describes its collection of 314 medieval medical prescriptions. The recipes are organised broadly from head to toe, and often several remedies are offered for the same complaint. Some individual recipes are transcribed with modern English translations. The few non-recipe texts are also noted. The difference between a remedy book and a leechbook is explained, and this manuscript is situated in relation to other known examples of late medieval medical anthologies. The particular feature that distinguishes Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson c. 299 from other similar volumes is the evidence that it continued to be used during the sixteenth century. This usage was of two kinds. Firstly, the London lawyer who owned it not only inscribed his name but annotated the original recipe collection in various ways, providing finding-aids that made it much more user-friendly. Secondly, he, and other members of his family, added another forty-three recipes to the original collection (some examples of these are also transcribed). These two layers of engagement with the manuscript are interrogated in detail in order to reveal what ailments may have troubled this family most, and to judge how much faith they placed in the old remedies contained in this old book. It is argued that the knowledge preserved in medieval books enjoyed a longevity that extended beyond the period of the manuscript book, and that manuscripts were read and valued long after the advent of printing.

  14. An analysis of the hospitals of Sultan Suleyman and Hurrem: Two different approaches to healthcare in sixteenth-century Ottoman Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalp, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on two monumental Ottoman pious endowments, each with a major component devoted to healing. The first is the hospital of the Haseki Mosque Complex built by the wife of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. An examination of the deed and the modus operandi of this endowment will impart a sense of the role that women of the ruling class played in Ottoman society as builders and healers in the sixteenth century. The analysis of the Haseki Hospital will be followed by an examination of the hospital that is part of the Suleymaniye Mosque Complex built by Sultan Suleyman. The differences between the two perspectives in the promotion of public health will be emphasized, arguing that the Sultan's approach to healthcare was academic and research-oriented, whereas his wife's was holistic and devoted to rehabilitation. The endowment deeds and the physical layouts of the two hospitals shed light upon a dual approach to healthcare with gender-specific roles affirmed and shaped by Hurrem and Suleyman the Magnificent, who each built hospitals of their own in Istanbul, the Ottoman capital city.

  15. Evidence for the Continued Use of Medieval Medical Prescriptions in the Sixteenth Century: A Fifteenth-Century Remedy Book and its Later Owner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a fifteenth-century remedy book, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson c. 299, and describes its collection of 314 medieval medical prescriptions. The recipes are organised broadly from head to toe, and often several remedies are offered for the same complaint. Some individual recipes are transcribed with modern English translations. The few non-recipe texts are also noted. The difference between a remedy book and a leechbook is explained, and this manuscript is situated in relation to other known examples of late medieval medical anthologies. The particular feature that distinguishes Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson c. 299 from other similar volumes is the evidence that it continued to be used during the sixteenth century. This usage was of two kinds. Firstly, the London lawyer who owned it not only inscribed his name but annotated the original recipe collection in various ways, providing finding-aids that made it much more user-friendly. Secondly, he, and other members of his family, added another forty-three recipes to the original collection (some examples of these are also transcribed). These two layers of engagement with the manuscript are interrogated in detail in order to reveal what ailments may have troubled this family most, and to judge how much faith they placed in the old remedies contained in this old book. It is argued that the knowledge preserved in medieval books enjoyed a longevity that extended beyond the period of the manuscript book, and that manuscripts were read and valued long after the advent of printing. PMID:26971594

  16. Caspar Stromayr: sixteenth century ophthalmologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D L

    1990-01-01

    Caspar Stromayr, ophthalmologist and hernia surgeon, is credited with writing the first German ophthalmic work of known authorship. Written in about 1559 as an appendix to Practica Copiosa, a larger work on hernia surgery, the ophthalmic chapters describe Stromayr's thoughts on the etiology and treatment of cataract. Stromayr, a master craftsman, also expresses his hostility to the shams and ignorance of the charlatan eye surgeons of his day. This interesting historical article provides a biographical sketch of Stromayr, a description of his book, and a translation of two chapters, "On Cataract of the Eye: How They Take Their Beginning and Whence they Come" and "How You Recognize the Cataract, When It is Ripe to Recline or to be Taken Away."

  17. Florence Nightingale, feminism and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, M E; Parker, D L

    1997-09-01

    Three key aspects of Florence Nightingale remarkable life are examine. First, the influence during her formative years: the education and guidance provided by her father, the resistance by her family when she decided to become a nurse; and the rejection by Nightingale of the societal expectations of a woman in the Victorian era. Secondly, her professional life is examined, in particular how she appears to have been viewed by certain members of society, and how it turn she viewed them. It is anticipated that her position as an early feminist will be postulated and illuminated. Thirdly, an analysis of her personal and professional life indicates a way forward for the nursing profession.

  18. [Postmodernity for Florence Nightingale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapico Yáñez, Florentina

    2010-04-01

    The author analyzes the influence of the environmental paradigm presented by Hippocrates, the maieutics of Socrates, the role of religious orders in the overall nursing conception Florence Nightingale had by which the observation of social phenomena, both at an individual level as well as a systematic level, comprise the basis of her works.

  19. Il Doge and Easter Processions at San Marco in Early Modern Venice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    –1800. Traditional representational features – from the early Middle Ages – e.g. of the women at Christ’s grave had been incorporated into these ducal processions during the sixteenth century with special roles for the doge. The complex of solemn processions from the ducal palace around the San Marco piazza...

  20. The Republic of the Refugees : Early Modern Migrations and the Dutch Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.H.

    2017-01-01

    This essay surveys the wave of new literature on early modern migration and assesses its impact on the Dutch golden age. From the late sixteenth century, the Netherlands developed into an international hub of religious refugees, displaced minorities, and labour migrants. While migration to the Dutch

  1. Florence Fang Looks East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    FLORENCE Fang, the Chinese immigrant who moved to San Francisco’s Chinatown as a young woman with little money and a great ambition, has become one of the most influential Asian American women in the United States. Fang is now chairwoman of Pan Asia Venture Capital Corporation, which oversees the activities of more than 20 companies including a handful of news publications, printing houses, restaurants, hotels, real estate and chemical industry.

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of sixteenth century panel painting references using Raman, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and helium-Raman system for in situ analysis of Ibero-American Colonial paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bucio, María Angélica; Casanova-González, Edgar; Ruvalcaba-Sil, José Luis; Arroyo-Lemus, Elsa; Mitrani-Viggiano, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Colonial panel paintings constitute an essential part of Latin-American cultural heritage. Their study is vital for understanding the manufacturing process, including its evolution in history, as well as its authorship, dating and other information significant to art history and conservation purposes. Raman spectroscopy supplies a non-destructive characterization tool, which can be implemented for in situ analysis, via portable equipment. Specific methodologies must be developed, comprising the elaboration of reference panel paintings using techniques and materials similar to those of the analysed period, as well as the determination of the best analysis conditions for different pigments and ground preparations. In order to do so, Raman spectroscopy at 532, 785 and 1064 nm, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and a helium-Raman system were applied to a panel painting reference, in combination with X-ray fluorescence analysis. We were able to establish the analysis conditions for a number of sixteenth century pigments and dyes, and other relevant components of panel paintings from this period, 1064 nm Raman and SERS being the most successful. The acquired spectra contain valuable specific information for their identification and they conform a very useful database that can be applied to the analysis of Ibero-American Colonial paintings. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  3. Early rheumatoid arthritis in Italy: study of incidence based on a two-level strategy in a sub-area of Florence (Scandicci-Le Signe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Maurizio; Cammelli, Emanuela; Manfredi, Mariangela; Saviola, Gianantonio; Baiardi, Paola; Mannoni, Alessandro

    2008-06-01

    The concept of Early Arthritis represents a new diagnostic-therapeutic strategy in modern rheumatology. Even if many Early Arthritis clinics are starting up, we do not yet know the frequency of this pathology in the Italian population. With the collaboration of 20 general practictioners (GPs) operating in the municipalities of Scandicci, Lastra a Signa and Signa, we assessed the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis and of new cases of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (ERA) in the period from 1.09.2005 to 31.08.2006. The general population over 18 years old in the three municipalities according to the political electoral lists in April 2006 was as follows: Scandicci 42,474 (Males 20,290; Females 22,184), Lastra a Signa 15,368 (M 7,458; F 7,910) and Signa 13,372 (M 6,439; F 6,933). The total number of patients followed by the 20 GPs was 32,521 according to the records of ASL10 Florence. In one year 920 patients were referred by their GPs to a rheumatologist with suspected early undifferentiated arthritis according to Emery's criteria. The patients underwent a rheumatological examination and the rheumatoid factor IgM, hidden rheumatoid factors (IgG and IgA) and IgG antibodies anti-CCP (anti-cyclic citrullinate peptides) with a semiquantitative immuno-enzymatic test ELISA were investigated. In one year we observed 32 new cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis, of which 8 were males and 24 were females. The rate of incidence with respective intervals of confidence of 95% was 0.98 per thousand (0.64-1.32 per thousand). The average age was 47.7 +/- 10.5 in the females and 54.9 +/- 10.3 in the males. The patients had an average history of illness in months of 5.2 +/- 1.3 F versus 4.6 +/- 1.1 M, number of tender joints 6.2 +/- 2.3 F versus 5.3 +/- 2.2 M, number of swollen joints 4.8 +/- 1.4 F versus 4.2 +/- 1.5 M, a global assessment of 64.3 +/- 10 F versus 53 +/- 12 M, ESR (mm/h) 49.2 +/- 11.3 F versus 43.3 +/- 12.5 M, CRP (mg/dl) 2.8 +/- 1.3 F versus 2.3 +/- 1.4 M, DAS28 5.55 +/- 1.2 F

  4. El sello y registro real en Panamá: la Real Audiencia y Cancillería en el siglo XVI (The royal stamp and record in Panamá: Royal Audience and Chancellery in the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ángeles Sanz García-Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente estudio pretende analizar la historia del sello y registro regio en una realidad espacio-temporal concreta, esto es, como elemento fundamental en la constitución de la Audiencia y Cancillería de Panamá durante el siglo XVI. El protagonista central de esta investigación va a ser el sello en sí mismo, abordando todo lo que pudo afectarle en el seno de esta Audiencia y Cancillería, desde su apertura y remisión a las Indias, hasta su custodia, pasando por el análisis de aquellas personas que fueron responsables del mismo y de los efectos que su uso o simple presencia supusieron en lugares tan apartados. El objetivo último es conocer la función y el uso que, este importante medio de validación documental, tuvo en el gobierno de tan lejanas tierras y en la representación de la monarquía.Abstract: The present study tries to analyze royal stamp and record space-time specific, namely, as a key element in the Audience and Chancellery constitution of Panamá during the sixteenth century. The main character is going to be the stamp itself, approaching everything that could impact within this Audience and Chancellery, since opening and dispatch to Indies, to custody, going through review those who were responsible for it and the effects about their use or simple presence which amounted in places as far apart. The ultimate goal is to understand the role and use this important means of document validation had in the government from so remote lands and the representation of monarchy.

  5. El sello y registro real en Panamá: la Real Audiencia y Cancillería en el siglo XVI (The royal stamp and record in Panamá: Royal Audience and Chancellery in the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz García-Muñoz, Mª Ángeles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente estudio pretende analizar la historia del sello y registro regio en una realidad espacio-temporal concreta, esto es, como elemento fundamental en la constitución de la Audiencia y Cancillería de Panamá durante el siglo XVI. El protagonista central de esta investigación va a ser el sello en sí mismo, abordando todo lo que pudo afectarle en el seno de esta Audiencia y Cancillería, desde su apertura y remisión a las Indias, hasta su custodia, pasando por el análisis de aquellas personas que fueron responsables del mismo y de los efectos que su uso o simple presencia supusieron en lugares tan apartados. El objetivo último es conocer la función y el uso que, este importante medio de validación documental, tuvo en el gobierno de tan lejanas tierras y en la representación de la monarquía. Abstract: The present study tries to analyze royal stamp and record space-time specific, namely, as a key element in the Audience and Chancellery constitution of Panamá during the sixteenth century. The main character is going to be the stamp itself, approaching everything that could impact within this Audience and Chancellery, since opening and dispatch to Indies, to custody, going through review those who were responsible for it and the effects about their use or simple presence which amounted in places as far apart. The ultimate goal is to understand the role and use this important means of document validation had in the government from so remote lands and the representation of monarchy.

  6. Peace, love and Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Country Joe

    Legendary Woodstock music festival star Country Joe McDonald has a fascination with Florence Nightingale, dating from his work with Vietnam war veterans. Although her theories have diminished in popularity, he believes her life has lessons for modern nurses.

  7. 2009 SCDRN Lidar: Florence County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for Florence County, SC. Utilizing multi-return...

  8. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital.

  9. Florence Nightingale: Appreciating our legacy, envisioning our future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    "If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music that he hears, however measured or far away." This quote is attributed to Henry David Thoreau, (Walden, 1854) not Florence Nightingale, but it certainly can describe Florence, particularly in early life. Florence, you can say, "had it all": wealth, education, a doting extended family, and a life of leisure, which included the opportunity to travel anywhere in the world. Even her name was given because she was born in Florence, Italy, during her parents' 3-year honeymoon tour of Europe. But inside Florence, "the different drummer" quietly but steadily beat, and her life was compelled to seek until she could find or, in her case, create the music she heard. After years of searching, Florence determined that "nursing," a practice every woman engaged in, was not simply a matter of kindness and care, but rather a body of knowledge, an art and a science. She never lost sight of her goal that nursing should become a profession in its own right, and not a branch of medicine. Nursing at that time was reserved for nuns in Germany, Ireland, and France, or for family and friends caring for relatives who were ill. Florence felt nursing was her "calling" and her mission. Once she discovered nursing, she pursued it for more than 50 years until the last moment of her life. Her dedication has a good deal to do with how and why we are nursing today.

  10. Frederick the Great: Strategy in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    The great Frankish king Charlemagne expanded his empire eastward to the Elbe and Pope Leo crowned him as the " Emperor 3 of Rome" in 800 AD...i.e., legitimizing, the Holy Roman Emperor since the end of the Tenth Century. The Church’s power began to decline, however, in the Fourteenth and...Fifteenth Centuries due to internal abuses, and the beginnings of nationalism. By the late Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century the Holy Roman Emperors

  11. The voice of Florence Nightingale on advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Crane, Patrick C

    2012-01-31

    Modern nursing is complex, ever changing, and multi focused. Since the time of Florence Nightingale, however, the goal of nursing has remained unchanged, namely to provide a safe and caring environment that promotes patient health and well being. Effective use of an interpersonal tool, such as advocacy, enhances the care-giving environment. Nightingale used advocacy early and often in the development of modern nursing. By reading her many letters and publications that have survived, it is possible to identify her professional goals and techniques. Specifically, Nightingale valued egalitarian human rights and developed leadership principles and practices that provide useful advocacy techniques for nurses practicing in the 21st century. In this article we will review the accomplishments of Florence Nightingale, discuss advocacy in nursing and show how Nightingale used advocacy through promoting both egalitarian human rights and leadership activities. We will conclude by exploring how Nightingale's advocacy is as relevant for the 21st century as it was for the 19th century.

  12. El modelo de Florence Nightingale

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Ferrín, Carmen; Gusiñé, Francesca; Pardo Fernández, Andrea; Sales Pastor, Dolors

    1986-01-01

    Los grandes avances que se han realizado en el campo técnico y científico en los últimos años, y los cambios consiguientes de los valores sociales y culturales, no han invalidado el modelo de enfermería que elaboró Florence Nightingale hace casi un siglo. Sus escritos y pensamientos mantienen hoy su máxima vigencia. Quizá sea ésta la razón que la convirtiera en leyenda en su tiempo. Por todo ello, hoy hemos querido profundizar algo más en su modelo y conocer algunos rasgos importantes de su v...

  13. Florence Nightingale: her personality type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    This article casts new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  14. Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in early modern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, George R

    2003-07-01

    This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of early modern England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends.

  15. [Florence Nightingale: an Italian portrait.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Florence Nightingale was the pioneer of modern nursing. The aim of this article is to give a brief review of her character. Her Christian name derives from her birthplace, albeit her English nationality. She was trained in England, save for a brief spell in Germany. The nursing profession of her time left much to desire; competent nurses were hard to find, their preparation was poor, and so was availability. In Paris, she first encountered real issues related to nursing and sanitation, but did not tarry a moment to get to grips with them. She did not hide her organisational skills and humanitarian outlook, and the occasion to put them to good use presented itself with the Crimean War, where the opposition of army officers only aggravated the arduous process of putting local hygienic conditions under control. Invariably, Florence Nightingale was perceived by soldiers as an almost mythical mother figure, gentle and authoritative, a single firm point in moments of physical or moral decline. She did her best to help improve conditions in India, despite the odds. She died in London in 1910.

  16. Compañías y comercio de la madera en Castilla a fines del siglo XV e inicios del XVI = Wood Companies and Trade in Castile in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carvajal de la Vega

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La expansión de la economía castellana a fines del Medievo y, en particular, del mundo empresarial impulsó de manera notable la actividad comercial internacional y regional. En este contexto, la posibilidad de diversificar la inversión en compañías y las nuevas formas de organización del trabajo conformaron dos pilares sobre los que se asienta el auge del comercio y el abastecimiento de productos. Además, la creciente demanda procedente de centros urbanos y el aprovechamiento de las vías de comunicación fluvial terminaron por consolidar determinados negocios como el de la madera, una actividad económica poco conocida de la que pretendemos dar cuenta en este trabajo.The expansion of the Castilian economy at the end of the Middle Ages and in particular the development of business encouraged both international and regional trade. In this context, the possibility to diversify investment in companies and the existence of new forms of labour organization were the two pillars that sustained the growth of commerce and the supply of different products. Moreover, the increasing demand from urban centres and the use of inland waterways consolidated some businesses like the wood trade, a scarcely known activity that will be the focus of this study.

  17. La Cancillería Real en la Audiencia de Santo Domingo. Uso y posesión del sello y el registro en el siglo XVI (The Royal Chancery in the Audience of Santo Domingo. Use and possession of stamp and logbook in the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gómez Gómez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente estudio analiza el papel jugado por el sello real y el documento escrito en el complejo gobierno de La Española durante el siglo XVI. Su utilización como estrategia de poder por las diversas autoridades que se sucedieron en la isla y los problemas que su tenencia suscitó desde la llegada de Cristóbal Colón, muestran la importancia y el valor otorgado al sello como símbolo representativo de la jurisdicción del monarca.Abstract: This study analyzes the role played by the royal seal and the written document in the complex Spanish government during the sixteenth century. Its use as a power strategy by the various authorities that succeeded on the island and the problems that its use produced from the arrival of Christopher Columbus show the importance and the value given to the seal as a representative symbol of the jurisdiction of the monarch.

  18. The role of stage in teacher training for early childhood education: a debate, the University of Florence and the University of Vale do Itajaí models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Bonfanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the stage role in teacher training for early childhood education. Are research subjects the trainees of the Faculty of Education at the University of Vale do Itajaí (Brazil in 2014, and Corso di Laurea in Scienze della Formazione Primaria indirizzo Scuola dell’infanzia dell’Università di Firenze (Italy in 2015. The study is guided in qualitative research (Bogdan & Biklen, 1994. Interviews and documents of both courses were analyzed. We seek to support the theoretical studies (Bondioli & Ferrari, 2008; Calvani, 2014; Catarsi, 2014; Catarsi & Fortunati, 2012; Gomes, 2009; Pimenta & Lima, 2012; Silva, 2014. The analysis indicates that sometimes the students do not understand the connection between theory and practice, referring to the internship in the child education. It is considered that overcoming the dichotomy between theory and practice constitutes weakness to be overcome in the initial training of future teachers. We did not intend to compare the two contexts, but this paper is a suggestion for future researchers to continue the debate on the weaknesses identified in this research.O papel do estágio na formação de professores para a educação infantil: em debate, o modelo da Università degli Studi di Firenze e o da Universidade do Vale do ItajaíO trabalho discute o papel do estágio na formação dos professores para a educação infantil. São sujeitos da pesquisa as estagiárias do curso de Pedagogia da Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (Brasil, em 2014, e do Corso di Laurea in Scienze della Formazione Primaria indirizzo Scuola dell’infanzia dell’Università di Firenze (Italia, em 2015. O estudo pauta-se na abordagem qualitativa de pesquisa (Bogdan & Biklen, 1994 e foram analisados entrevistas e documentos de ambos os cursos. Buscou-se respaldo nos estudos teóricos de (Bondioli & Ferrari, 2008; Calvani, 2014; Catarsi, 2014; Catarsi & Fortunati, 2012; Gomes, 2009; Pimenta & Lima, 2012; Silva, 2014. A an

  19. High prevalence of clustered tuberculosis cases in Peruvian migrants in Florence, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zammarchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a leading cause of morbidity for Peruvian migrants in Florence, Italy, where they account for about 20% of yearly diagnosed cases. A retrospective study on cases notified in Peruvian residents in Florence in the period 2001-2010 was carried out and available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were genotyped (MIRU-VNTR-24 and Spoligotyping. One hundred thirty eight cases were retrieved. Genotyping performed in 87 strains revealed that 39 (44.8% belonged to 12 clusters. Assuming that in each cluster the transmission of tuberculosis from the index case took place in Florence, a large proportion of cases could be preventable by improving early diagnosis of contagious cases and contact tracing.

  20. High Prevalence of Clustered Tuberculosis Cases in Peruvian Migrants in Florence, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Tortoli, Enrico; Borroni, Emanuele; Bartalesi, Filippo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Baretti, Simonetta; Simonetti, Maria Tullia; Liendo, Carola; Santini, Maria Grazia; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a leading cause of morbidity for Peruvian migrants in Florence, Italy, where they account for about 20% of yearly diagnosed cases. A retrospective study on cases notified in Peruvian residents in Florence in the period 2001-2010 was carried out and available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were genotyped (MIRU-VNTR-24 and Spoligotyping). One hundred thirty eight cases were retrieved. Genotyping performed in 87 strains revealed that 39 (44.8%) belonged to 12 clusters. Assuming that in each cluster the transmission of tuberculosis from the index case took place in Florence, a large proportion of cases could be preventable by improving early diagnosis of contagious cases and contact tracing. PMID:25568758

  1. This Passionate Study: A Dialogue with Florence Nightingale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maindonald, John; Richardson, Alice M.

    2004-01-01

    On her death in 1910, Florence Nightingale left a vast collection of reports, letters, notes and other written material. There are numerous publications that make use of this material, often highlighting Florence's attitude to a particular issue. In this paper we gather a set of quotations and construct a dialogue with Florence Nightingale on the…

  2. The life and impact of Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle, Vickie A

    2008-01-01

    All nurses learn about Florence Nightingale sometime during their academic studies. Miss Nightingale, even though she lived over a century ago, still impacts current nursing care. This article provides a brief biographical review of her life and her impact on present day patient care.

  3. "Glory Catalogued": The Libraries of Florence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Wendy

    1983-01-01

    Narration of author's visit to the libraries of Florence, Italy, focuses on city, provincial, and national libraries, including the Laurentian Library, Biblioteca Communale Centrale (city), Biblioteca Marucelliana (regional), and Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale (national). Conversations with the directors of each library are highlighted. (EJS)

  4. Florence voorbij? : over verplegen, passie & wetenschappelijk onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Honderd jaar geleden overleed Florence Nightingale, zonder twijfel de bekendste verpleegkundige ooit. Nightingale wordt vaak geassocieerd met haar roeping voor de zorg. Haar werk in de Krimoorlog leverde haar de bijnaam ‘the lady with the lamp’ op. In verpleegkundige kringen wordt Nightingale tot op

  5. New radiocarbon data to study the history of roman and medieval Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoldus-Huyzendveld, A. [Dipartimento di Archeologia e Storia delle Arti, Universita di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Fedi, M.E., E-mail: fedi@fi.infn.i [INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cantini, F.; Bruttini, J. [Dipartimento di Archeologia e Storia delle Arti, Universita di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Cartocci, A. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Calabrisotto, C. Scire [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Florence is a town worldwide known for its Renaissance masterpieces. It is often forgotten that it was founded during Roman times and remained a small village until the end of the early Middle Ages, practically confined within the ancient Roman boundaries. Since 2003, an extended archaeological research executed by the University of Sienna has studied the most ancient layers in the centre of Florence with the aim to enhance both the archaeological and paleo-environmental reconstruction of this area. One of the peculiarities of these excavations is that the early medieval layers were poor in datable ceramics, thus charcoals were sampled from different stratigraphic layers in order to contribute to the dating. Several data have already been published; here we focus on the excavation site of Palazzo Vecchio, now the seat of the municipality of Florence. This area is located close to the Arno river, along the eastern margin of the slightly elevated height upon which the Roman town was founded; actually, in the layers beneath the surface, the Roman theatre is still preserved. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals was performed in the LABEC laboratory in Florence, at the AMS beam line of the AMS-IBA 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. Comparison of these new data with the former ones and with the archaeological and geological data adds new information especially on natural phenomena like floods and on the human occupation of this area in the past.

  6. New radiocarbon data to study the history of roman and medieval Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldus-Huyzendveld, A.; Fedi, M. E.; Cantini, F.; Bruttini, J.; Cartocci, A.; Calabrisotto, C. Scirè

    2010-04-01

    Florence is a town worldwide known for its Renaissance masterpieces. It is often forgotten that it was founded during Roman times and remained a small village until the end of the early Middle Ages, practically confined within the ancient Roman boundaries. Since 2003, an extended archaeological research executed by the University of Sienna has studied the most ancient layers in the centre of Florence with the aim to enhance both the archaeological and paleo-environmental reconstruction of this area. One of the peculiarities of these excavations is that the early medieval layers were poor in datable ceramics, thus charcoals were sampled from different stratigraphic layers in order to contribute to the dating. Several data have already been published; here we focus on the excavation site of Palazzo Vecchio, now the seat of the municipality of Florence. This area is located close to the Arno river, along the eastern margin of the slightly elevated height upon which the Roman town was founded; actually, in the layers beneath the surface, the Roman theatre is still preserved. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals was performed in the LABEC laboratory in Florence, at the AMS beam line of the AMS-IBA 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. Comparison of these new data with the former ones and with the archaeological and geological data adds new information especially on natural phenomena like floods and on the human occupation of this area in the past.

  7. The anti-semitic conspiracy theory in sixteenth-century Spain and Portugal and the origins of the Carta de los Judíos de Constantinopla: new evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyer, Francois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a largely unknown document preserved in the archives of the Instituto Valencia de Don Juan in Madrid. This rare document –a short memorandum written by the Portuguese Bishop Andrés de Noronha in the 1580s and probably intended for one of the high-ranking royal secretaries or even King Philip II himself– reveals new information regarding the belief that the Jews or judaizing conversos in the Iberian Peninsula were communicating with their coreligionists in the Ottoman Empire and plotting to destroy the Iberian monarchies by infiltrating Christian society. Reporting a conversation between the bishop and a Spanish inquisitor that took place in 1566 or 1567, the memorandum refers to the Carta de los judíos de Constantinopla, an infamous forgery that became the keystone of this powerful anti-Semitic conspiracy theory. Through an analysis of the text, this article sheds light upon the early circulation and dissemination of the Carta de los judíos de Constantinopla in both Spain and Portugal as well as its role in the creation in 1568 of discriminatory bursaries reserved for Old Christians wishing to study medicine at the University of Coimbra.Este artículo examina un documento en gran parte desconocido y conservado en los archivos del Instituto Valencia de Don Juan en Madrid. Este documento –un breve memorial escrito por el obispo portugués Andrés de Noronha en la década de 1580 y probablemente destinado a uno de los secretarios reales o tal vez el propio Felipe II– revela nueva información acerca de la creencia de que los judíos o conversos judaizantes en la Península Ibérica comunicaban con sus correligionarios en el Imperio otomano y conspiraban con el objetivo de infiltrar la sociedad cristiana y destruir a las monarquías ibéricas. Dando un informe de una conversación entre el obispo y un inquisidor español que habría tenido lugar en 1566 o 1567, el memorial se refiere a la Carta de los judíos de

  8. Protomedicato and Pharmacy in Castile at the End of the Sixteenth Century: Catálogo de las cosas que los boticarios han de tener en sus boticas (Catalogue of the Things that Apothecaries Must Have in their Shops, by Andrés Zamudio de Alfaro, Protomédico General (1592-1599

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis, Charles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a catalogue of medicinal products preserved in a manuscript copy among the papers of a druggist who died in Madrid in 1599. This catalogue, whose title expresses its normative character, contains 423 entries and is signed by Andrés Zamudio de Alfaro, Protomédico General of Castile from 1592 until his death in 1599. It was presumably issued by the Real Tribunal del Protomedicato during the last decade of the sixteenth century for the use of the protomédicos and examiners who carried out official visits to apothecaries under the aegis of the Tribunal, in accordance with the royal decrees of 1588 and 1593, and was also distributed among the apothecaries themselves and their suppliers, such as the druggist who possessed the copy edited here. The document offers valuable evidence of the policy of normalization of medical, and specifically pharmaceutical, practice imposed during this period by the State through the Protomedicato.

    En este trabajo presentamos un catálogo de productos medicinales conservado en copia manuscrita entre los papeles de un droguero, que falleció en Madrid en 1599. Este catálogo, cuyo título expresa su carácter normativo, contiene 423 entradas y está suscrito por Andrés Zamudio de Alfaro, Protomédico general de Castilla desde 1592 hasta su muerte en 1599. Cabe suponer que fue emitido por el Real Tribunal del Protomedicato durante la última década del siglo XVI para el uso de los protomédicos y examinadores que llevasen a cabo las visitas oficiales de boticas realizadas bajo los auspicios del Tribunal, de acuerdo con las pragmáticas de 1588 y 1593, distribuyéndose igualmente entre los propios boticarios y sus proveedores, como el droguero que poseía la copia aquí editada. El documento nos ofrece un valioso testimonio de la política de normalización de las prácticas médicas, y concretamente farmacéuticas, impuesta durante este período por el Estado a través del

  9. Florence Nightingale, Statistician: Implications for Teachers of Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marti H.; Stallings, William M.

    This paper presents an overview of Florence Nightingale's statistical background and accomplishments; discusses Victorian statistics, Nightingale's education and statistical contributions; and concludes with implications for professors and students of educational research. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), the first woman elected as a fellow of…

  10. Florence Nightingale: nurse and public health pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    August 2010 marks the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale, who must be, without doubt, the most famous name in nursing. Most people, even those in the health professions, think of her as 'The Lady with the Lamp'; the heroine of the Crimean War, who tended the sick and wounded soldiers at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution, which continued long after Crimea, was in the organization of nursing training, in hospital planning, public and military health, and in effective collection of medical statistics.

  11. Florence Nightingale's contribution to contemporary nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Florence Nightingale brought nursing from a disreputable and immoral vocation into the honest and ethical profession that is enjoyed today by emphasizing strict morals in the personal and work lives of her nursing students. In modern day, ethical principles guide the nursing profession and have many relevant connections to Nightingale's morals. Just as the high moral character of Nightingale's nurses helped nursing rise to a profession in her day, teaching and following ethical principles is crucial in furthering the nursing profession in our day.

  12. On Similarities and Differences Between the Reform of Zhang Juzheng and the European Religious Reform Movement in the Sixteenth Century%十六世纪张居正改革与欧洲宗教改革运动异同考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙连娣

    2016-01-01

    The sixteenth century was a transitional period of social structure when feudalism was declining and capitalism was developing rapidly. The reform of Zhang Juzheng and the European religious reform movement was under the same historical background, and their common purpose was to alleviate the social crises brought about by the decadent feudal autocracy. However, the social background of the West and China and the content of the reform were not the same, which lead to different development paths. The reform of Zhang Juzheng was only to solve the social crises by taking a series of political and economic measures but not to touch the feudal autocratic system, which would inevitably fail. The European religious reform movement was launched under the guise of being against the Roman Catholic Church, and was a bottom-up bourgeois reform movement to overthrow the feudal autocracy. In essence, the reform of Zhang Juzheng was self-salvation of the landlord class to maintain the feudal autocracy, while the religious reform movement conformed to the historical trends of developing capitalism and provided possibility for the establishment of a free, equal and bourgeois democratic state.%十六世纪处于社会结构变革转型期,封建主义日益衰落,资本主义迅速发展。张居正改革与欧洲宗教改革运动同处于这一历史背景之下,其共同目的都是为了缓和腐朽封建专制主义带来的社会危机,但中、西方所处的社会背景、改革的内容不尽相同,导致各自走向不同的发展道路。张居正改革仅通过采取一系列政治、经济措施以解决社会危机,而不触动封建专制主义制度,是不可能取得成功的;宗教改革运动则是在借助反对罗马天主教会外衣下,发动的自下而上以推翻封建专制主义为目标的资产阶级改革运动。从本质上来看,张居正改革是一场地主阶级开明分子以维护封建专制主义的自救运动,而宗

  13. Observations on sustainable and ubiquitous healthcare informatics from Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Helen J; Wright, Graham

    2009-01-01

    As nurses around the world prepare to celebrate the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale in 2010 this paper reviews her work on using information, especially statistics, to analyze and manage patient care and links that to current developments in informatics. It then examines assistive technologies and how they may impact on nursing practice in the future and links these developments to the writings of Florence Nightingale. The paper concludes by suggesting that in progressing towards sustainable and ubiquitous healthcare informatics we need to study history in order to learn from the lessons of Florence Nightingale and other healthcare pioneers.

  14. O legado de Florence Nightingale: uma viagem no tempo

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Costa; Maria Itayra Padilha; Lúcia Nazareth Amante; Eliani Costa; Lisnéia Fabiani Bock

    2009-01-01

    Es un estudio histórico, descriptivo, de carácter cualitativo, con el objetivo de reflexionar sobre las maneras como Florence Nightingale es representada en la producción científica de Enfermería en el período de 1950 a 2008. Se analizaron 79 estudios de la base de datos PubMed que contenían resúmenes de estas publicaciones. Después del análisis surgieron las siguientes categorías - La historia de Florence: la mirada del autor; Saberes y prácticas establecidas por Florence Nightingale: de las...

  15. Preliminary assessment report for Florence Military Reservation, Installation 04080, Florence, Arizona. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Arizona Army National Guard property near Florence, Arizona. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. Florence Military Reservation is a 5,655-acre site located in the southern portion of Arizona, about 65 mi southeast of Phoenix, in the county of Pinal. Florence Military Reservation includes Unit Training Equipment Site (UTES) 1, an artillery firing range, and ammunition storage. The subject of this PA is the UTES. The environmentally significant operations associated with the UTES property are (1) vehicle maintenance and refueling, (2) supply/storage of materials, and (3) the vehicle washrack.

  16. Florence, Oregon Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florence, Oregon Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  17. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  18. The Church of San Miniato al Monte, Florence: Astronomical and Astrological Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimplin, V.

    2011-06-01

    The church of San Miniato al Monte is examined in the context of interest in astrology and astronomy in early Renaissance Florence. Vitruvius emphasised the need for architects to "be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens" in his famous Ten Books of Architecture and, at San Miniato, astronomical and astrological features are combined in order to link humanity with the celestial or spiritual realm. The particular significance of Pisces and Taurus is explored in relation to Christian symbolism, raising questions about the role of astronomy and astrology in art and architecture.

  19. 40 CFR 81.109 - Florence Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.109 Florence Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Florence Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (South Carolina) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Florence Intrastate Air...

  20. [Florence Nightingale and charity sisters: revisiting the history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; Mancia, Joel Rolim

    2005-01-01

    This study presents an historical analysis on the links between the nursing practice and the influence received from various religious orders/associations along the times, especially from Saint Vincent Paul's charity sisters. The professional nursing which was pioneered by Florence Nightingale in the XlXth century, was directly influenced by the teachings of love and fraternity. In addition, other contributions from the religious orders/associations were the concepts of altruism, valorization of an adequate environment for the care of patients, and the division of work in nursing. The study shows the influence of Charity Sisters on Florence Nightingale.

  1. Les couleurs de Rome et de Florence The colours of Rome and Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Lolli Ghetti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La couleur est un sujet d’actualité en Italie, en raison des intérêts économiques liés à la réutilisation, précédée de la restauration, des bâtiments des centres historiques, et aux phénomènes de dégradation des matériaux de construction des façades. Certaines interventions sur des monuments célèbres ont fait l’objet d'une importante couverture médiatique et ont déclenché un phénomène en chaîne dont les conséquences sont très surprenantes. La couleur chaude de Rome et celle, bien plus froide, de Florence sont modifiées de manière très sensible. À Rome, on assiste à un éclaircissement général de la couleur vers les tons du travertin ou de la couleur de l’air, au détriment des rouges et des jaunes ocres habituels. À Florence, on commence à voir des couleurs vives sur les façades des bâtiments, caractéristiques du xixe siècle ou bien des verts et des azurs plus typiques du xviie siècle, qui viennent de remplacer la bichromie traditionnelle du blanc de l'enduit et du gris de la pierre serena. Le rôle de l'architecte chargé de la conservation de ces monuments est le contrôle et la juste orientation de ces changements du goût.Colour is an ongoing concern in Italy due to the economic benefits that can be obtained from the restoration and re-use of buildings at historical sites, and because of the deterioration of the construction materials used in facades. Some of the work carried out on famous monuments has received considerable media attention and triggered a chain reaction, the consequences of which are very surprising. The warm colours of Rome and the colder tones of Florence have been modified to a considerable degree. In Rome, colours have been generally lightened towards that of travertine, or that of the air, to the detriment of the usual reds and yellow ochres. In Florence, bright colours are appearing on facades, either those characteristic of the nineteenth century or else greens and blues

  2. Addressing the Addressee: Shakespeare and Early Modern Epistolary Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Gilbert-Cooke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the emergence of epistolary theory in mid-sixteenth-century England, its value and function, the article attempts to show how these theories helped to construct, in contemporary correspondence, the addressee’s identity. One of the most important precepts was, as Angel Day states in his manual The English Secretorie, that, when composing a letter, writers tailored their text to the addressee. Even invented letters in Shakespeare’s plays reveal that, while correctly addressing the addressee does not necessarily guarantee success, address was considered the most important tool at the writer’s disposal when attempting to secure the addressee’s good will. Importantly, the observance of this precept even in drama indicates that epistolary theory had a more pervasive influence in early modern England than previously thought.

  3. Paying tribute to florence nightingale and Mary Seacole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Angela

    2012-05-30

    Lynn McDonald (letters May 16) says the grounds of St Thomas' Hospital in London are the wrong place for the proposed memorial statue to Mary Seacole, pointing out that the hospital is more associated with Florence Nightingale and her work.

  4. Florence Nightingale'i medal / tõlk. Tiina Vilberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Medal on asutatud 16. mail 1912 inglise halastajaõe Florence Nightingale'i mälestuseks, kelle omakasupüüdmatu töö haavatute eest hoolitsemisel Krimmi sõjas juhtis haigeravi täiesti uutele radadele

  5. O legado de Florence Nightingale: uma viagem no tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio histórico, descriptivo, de carácter cualitativo, con el objetivo de reflexionar sobre las maneras como Florence Nightingale es representada en la producción científica de Enfermería en el período de 1950 a 2008. Se analizaron 79 estudios de la base de datos PubMed que contenían resúmenes de estas publicaciones. Después del análisis surgieron las siguientes categorías - La historia de Florence: la mirada del autor; Saberes y prácticas establecidas por Florence Nightingale: de las hermanas de la Caridad a la Guerra de Crimea; La educación y los puentes para la enfermería profesional; y Florence Nightingale: ¿feminista, reaccionaria y administradora? Se destaca su papel como administradora, educadora, estadística, y su acción feminista contradictoria. Se concluye que la vida de Nightingale y su papel como creadora de la enfermería moderna en el mundo es destacado como positivo, una mujer que dedicó su vida al cuidado de los otros y a la profesionalización de la enfermería.

  6. A medical amulet in the archaeological museum in Florence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, D

    1990-01-01

    In the Archaeological Museum in Florence, there is a medical amulet which is made of haematite and shows the reproduction of the womb, with four divinities and inscriptions, which can be considered a peculiar evidence of anatomical knowledge of the past.

  7. Florence Nightingale'i medal / tõlk. Tiina Vilberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Medal on asutatud 16. mail 1912 inglise halastajaõe Florence Nightingale'i mälestuseks, kelle omakasupüüdmatu töö haavatute eest hoolitsemisel Krimmi sõjas juhtis haigeravi täiesti uutele radadele

  8. Liquid-based endometrial cytology: the Florence and Bari experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccoliero, A M; Resta, L; Napoli, A; Taddei, G L

    2009-04-01

    Several diagnostic procedures are available to investigate the endometrium, i.e. sonography, hysteroscopy, biopsy, endometrial curettage and cytology. Among these, endometrial cytology is less commonly utilized. Although the use of cytology in the diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma has already been proposed due to its low cost and simple execution, a general consensus has not been reached. The improvement of the diagnostic capacity of endometrial cytology following the introduction of a liquid-based method suggests that this test should be routinely used in endometrial diagnosis. The main advantages of this method are the reduction in confounding factors, the distribution of cells on a thin layer and the possibility to obtain more slides from the same sample. The aim of this article is to focus on the methodological procedures and diagnostic criteria in liquid-based endometrial cytology based on the experience in two Italian centres: Department of Pathology, University of Bari and Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence. The sampling method used by the Bari authors consists in the collection of liquid for uterine distension during hysteroscopy, while the Florence group used an endometrial brush. The sensitivity and specificity at Bari were 75% and 83%, respectively, and were 94-100% and 95-100% at Florence, respectively. Endometrial cytology provided sufficient diagnostic material significantly more often than biopsy. We thus propose that endometrial cytology can be used in routine diagnosis either alone or in association with other diagnostic procedures in order to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  9. Florence and Pistoia: Territorial Government and City Factions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vannini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the process of its territorial dominion’s building, Florence faced the peculiarities of each subject town by implementing different strategic choices. In the case of the city of Pistoia the Florentine authorities were able to modulate specific interventions over time in order to manage and govern the territory. After a first period (1329-1376 in which a sort of political and military ‘protection’ was offered to the community of Pistoia —soon turned into a gradual erosion of political sovereignty— the formal institutionalization of city bipartisanship followed and helped to freeze the conflict between the factions, giving to Florence an easier control over city's political life. After the advent of the Medici regime the political dynamics of the parts of Pistoia were managed by the powerful Florentine family almost exclusively, so that after 1458 the bipartisan regime could in fact be abolished, coming finally in the Laurentian age to a real 'monopoly' of patronage. This third phase of the relationships between Florence and Pistoia, which ended at the dawn of the collapse of the Medici regime in 1494, left in Pistoia such a power void that the factional struggle broke out again even more bloody at the end of the century.

  10. Contribuicoes de florence nightingale: uma revisao integrativa da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Thaise Frello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Florence Nightingale é fonte de inspiração e alvo de pesquisa para estudiosos em todo o mundo. Este artigo teve como objetivo identificar a contribuição dos feitos e escritos de Florence Nightingale nos artigos publicados entre os anos de 2004 e 2011, na percepção de seus autores. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura exposta em artigos que continham, em seus títulos e/ou resumos, as palavras Florence Nightingale, realizada em bases de dados entre os anos de 2004 e 2011, totalizando 33 artigos. A análise ocorreu com base em um quadro com o objetivo e a sumarização dos pontos principais expostos nos artigos. Os resultados indicam que Nightingale, como uma pessoa pública, é alvo de comentários controversos sobre sua vida e profissão. Conclui-se que seus feitos e escritos influenciaram diversas áreas além da enfermagem, a exemplo da estatística, administração em saúde, saúde pública, fisioterapia e espiritualidade.

  11. Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Laura J

    2006-01-01

    In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data.

  12. Revisitando a Florence Nightingale desde una perspectiva de género Revisiting Florence Nightingale from a gender perspective

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    Alicia Narváez-Traverso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 2010 conmemoramos el centenario de la muerte de Florence Nightingale. En la época en la que vivió, la situación de la mujer era difícil con un ideal de feminidad que imponía su exclusión de la vida pública y laboral, reservada al varón; a pesar de esta situación social Nightingale fue una figura destacada, entre sus méritos destacan la demostración de la importancia que otras ciencias, como la estadística, proporcionaban para controlar, aprender y mejorar la asistencia hospitalaria. Fue pionera en la recogida, almacenamiento y uso de la información para analizar y gestionar la atención al paciente; precursora de una informática sanitaria sostenible y ubicua. Florence modeló una nueva profesión para las mujeres extraída de siglos de ignorancia y superstición.In 2010 we commemorated the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale. By the time he lived the situation of women was difficult with an ideal of femininity which imposed the exclusion of women from public life and work, restricted to men, despite the social situation Nightingale was a leading figure among merit include the demonstration of the importance of other sciences, such as statistics, provided to monitor, learn and improve hospital care. Pioneered the collection, storage and use of information for analyzing and managing patient care; harbinger of a sustainable health and ubiquitous computing. Florence shaped a new profession for women drawn from centuries of ignorance and superstition.

  13. The death of Florence Nightingale: BJN 100 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, Sir George

    This August marks the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale, who died at 2 o'clock on Saturday 13 August 1910 at her home, 10 South Street, Park Lane, London. The following are some snippets which appeared in the BJN of the 20 and 27 August 1910. It was not until the announcement of her death in the morning papers of Monday 15 August that the country heard about Nightingale's death. In her last hours she was attended by Sir Thomas Barlow and two nurses from the Nursing Sisters' Institution, Devonshire Square, founded by Mrs Elizabeth Fry in 1840.

  14. The empty carriage: lessons in leadership from Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Marge

    2011-01-01

    Florence Nightingale made a profound statement about leadership when she returned from the Crimean War without the fanfare offered to her. Promoters paraded her empty carriage around the city of Southampton England to applaud her accomplishments in the war. Her absence signaled a new leadership, one of quiet determination, humility, and political strategy to improve quality of life. The lessons to be learned for today's nurse leaders revolve around mindfulness, clarity of purpose, reverence for human life, collaborative partnerships, co-evolution, engagement, keeping up with a world in motion, and making meaning.

  15. Florence Nightingale: her Crimean fever and chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale's Crimean fever and chronic illness have intrigued historians for more than a century and a half. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to discuss the facts that point to the cause of Nightingale's Crimean fever as brucellosis, (b) to show that her debilitating illness for 32 years (1855-1887) was compatible with the specific form of chronic brucellosis, and (c) to present new evidence that she was still having severe symptoms in December 1887, when it was previously felt that she had no severe symptoms after 1870.

  16. 75 FR 55613 - Dupont Teijin Films Including On-Site Leased Workers From Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, SC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Logistics, Inc., Florence, SC; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, South Carolina (subject firm). The Department's notice was published in... Logistics, Inc., Florence, South Carolina, who became totally or partially separated from employment on...

  17. The Florence Baptistery: 3-D Survey as a Knowledge Tool for Historical and Structural Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Fiorini, L.; Conti, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Baptistery of San Giovanni is one of the most important pieces of architecture in Florence. It is an octagonal building, encrusted with marble both internally and externally (including the pyramidal roof) and covered inside by a magnificent dome with sparkling gold mosaics. During Dante's time, it appeared much older than the other monuments, so its origins were considered as hailing straight from Florence's most remote and mythical history. Even though we have much more data now, scholars still disagree over the interpretations on the origin and construction sequence of the monument. Survey has always been considered a main instrument for understanding historical architecture, mostly from constructional and structural points of view. During the last century, the Baptistery was surveyed using both traditional techniques and the most up-to-date instruments available at the time, such as topography, close-range photogrammetry and laser scanning. So, a review of those early applications, even if partial or isolated, can significantly attest to the state of the art and evolution of survey techniques. During recent years, the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore promoted new research and a wide range of diagnostic investigations aimed at acquiring greater knowledge of the monument in anticipation of the cleaning and restoration of the outer wall surfaces during 2015. Among this research, GeCo Lab carried out a new systematic and complete laser scanner survey of the whole Baptistery, acquiring data for the more inaccessible parts that were given little attention during other survey campaigns. First of all, the paper analyses recent contributions given by instrumental surveys in advancing knowledge of the building, with references to the cutting-edge techniques and measurement tools used at the time. Then, it describes the new survey campaign, illustrating the approach followed in the planning, data acquisition and data elaboration phases; finally, it gives examples of some

  18. Florence Nightingale: a 19th-century mystic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) received a clear and profoundly moving Call to serve God at the age of 16. Through a lifetime of hard work and discipline, she became a practicing mystic in the Western tradition, thereby becoming an instrument of God's love, which was the primarily source of her great energy and the fabled "Nightingale power." To understand the life and work of this legendary healer, who forever changed human consciousness, the role of women, and nursing and public health systems in the middle of the 19th century, it is necessary to understand her motivation and inspiration. This article will discuss her life and work in the context of her mystical practice and to show the parallels between her life and the lives of three recognized women mystics. In her epic Crimean war mission (1854-1856) of leading and directing women nurses in the army hospital at Scutari, Turkey, Florence Nightingale burst into world consciousness as a spiritual beacon of hope and compassion for all who suffered. Her historic breakthrough achievement--pioneering the modern administrative role of nurse superintendent with measurable outcomes supported by irrefutable data--in the face of incredible adversity was merely the cornerstone of her life work.

  19. Florence Nightingale: creator of modern nursing and public health pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2008-09-01

    In starting this series of articles on distinguished women in nursing, medicine and the related healthcare professions, the choice of the first name is obvious. Florence Nightingale is, I suggest, the most famous female in the long history of medicine and is a name that is known and revered throughout the world. Most people--even those in 'the trade'--think of her as 'the lady with the lamp', the heroine who went out to the Crimean War and nursed the sick and wounded at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution was her continued work, long after the war, in nursing organisation and training, hospital planning, public and military health and her pioneering work in the efficient gathering of medical statistics.

  20. An evaluation of the Florence Nightingale Foundation scholarships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Matthew; Tod, Angela; McCabe, Candy; Giordano, Richard

    2017-01-18

    The Florence Nightingale Foundation (FNF) is a charity that awards scholarships in leadership, travel and research to nurses, midwives and other healthcare professionals to promote excellence in practice. The FNF offers mentoring support to scholars, and provides support with career development and writing articles for publication, in addition to the financial award. The leadership scholarships are bespoke: leadership scholars can access a range of development opportunities that are specially commissioned for them, and select their programme of study and experiences, based on their individual needs. All scholarships provide opportunities to represent the FNF and to meet other scholars at the FNF annual conference. This article provides an overview of the FNF scholarships, based on the findings of two evaluations that demonstrated the value of these scholarships in improving services for patients and carers, as well as enhancing the careers of individual scholars.

  1. Florence Nightingale in absentia: nursing and the 1893 Columbian Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Crane, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    In 1893, Chicago hosted the Columbian Exposition. This event showcased America's social, cultural, and scientific advances and its growing cultural parity with Western Europe. This was the first major exposition in which women played a prominent role. Integral to the fair was a series of Congresses that provided an international platform for discussion of social issues. The Congress on Hospitals, Dispensaries, and Nursing, a section of the International Congress of Charities, Correction, and Philanthropy, particularly focused on health care issues. Nursing leaders from Europe and North America participated. Although Florence Nightingale provided a major paper that was read at the Congress, she was unable to attend the event. The intent of this article is to examine the issues and themes debated at the 1893 Congress and identify how the influence of Nightingale effected these discussions and the development of Western nursing for the next half-century.

  2. [Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), 101 years after her death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Pablo; Hortis De Smith, Verónica; Chambi, María C; Finn, Bárbara C

    2011-06-01

    We herein describe Florence Nightingale's life and work. She is considered one of the pioneers in nursing practice. Her greatest success was during the Crimean war when, along with 38 voluntary nurses, she cleaned and refurbished the hospital in Scutari and reduced the mortality rate from 40 to 2%. She used to make rounds at night in the wards under the light of a lamp, and therefore she was named "The Lady with the Lamp". Queen Victory gave her the Royal Red Cross and she was the first woman who was honored with the Order of Merit in 1907. She had solid knowledge on Statistics and Mathematics which were useful for her nursing job.

  3. Dante Dino and the "popular" government of Florence

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    Davide Cappi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discuss the problem of Dante’s and Dino’s position towards the regime of Popolo. At this purpose it analyzes some points of their works. The political experience in the Florentine Popular Commune left few and ambiguous traces in Dante’s works: his attitude towards the Popolo can be badly distinguished from the cultural sense of superiority over the unreasonable common people and the increasingly strong critical detachment against Florence. The political discourse of Dino is more explicit and municipal: he criticizes factionalism and arrogance of the “magnati”, recognizing the dangerous value of some of them, but does not spare complaints in weakness and falsehood of the “popolani”.

  4. Florence Nightingale and the women's movement: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hektor, L M

    1994-11-01

    The historical analysis of the complex and often contradictory views of Florence Nightingale regarding the rights of women is explored in this paper. Feminism and nursing are often viewed as contradictory and antithetical. The relationship between the two is examined through the link between Florence Nightingale and her contemporary, Barbara Leigh-Smith Bodichon. Leigh-Smith was founder and primary financier of The English Women's Journal that provided a public platform for the major feminist writings of the period. Its offices in Langham Place formed the administrative centre of the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women. Bodichon and her colleagues were often referred to as the 'Langham Place Group'. Unexplored prior to this study was the fact that Leigh-Smith and Nightingale were first cousins. Utilizing techniques of internal and external criticism, primary and secondary sources were surveyed relating to Nightingale and Leigh-Smith. The views of both women on the subjects of the rights of women, women's suffrage, the employment status of women, and the societal place of women are compared and contrasted. The legacy of both Leigh-Smith and Nightingale to twentieth century feminism, the status of women, and the profession of nursing is then elaborated. The exploration of the views of both Nightingale and Leigh-Smith is important to gain a clearer understanding of the existing relationship between nursing and feminism. In keeping with the aims of feminist inquiry, women's experiences, specifically those of Nightingale and Leigh-Smith, are the major 'objects' of investigation. The concluding interpretation provides a synthesis that is emancipatory as well as knowledge generative.

  5. La biopolitica della differenza Un’antropologia delle politiche dei campi nomadi di Firenze - Biopolitics of difference. An anthropology of the nomads camps policies in Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Picker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author focuses on the policies concerning the Roma in Florence, against the background of the recent eruption of exclusionary policy measures targeting Roma in Italy. In the mid-1980s the Tuscan regional council decided to construct urban camps as housing solutions for the Roma fleeing the economic and political dissolution of Yugoslavia. The author draws on the fieldwork he has conducted in Florence in 2007 and 2008, and borrows from Apparudai’s (1996 reflections on the “world of representation” in relation to globalization. He historically dissects the political imagination behind camp policies concerning Roma in Tuscany through the early 2000s. He also shows that in 2007 the fundamental traits of that representation persisted in Florentine civil servants’ views and practices vis-à-vis Roma. In the conclusion, the author defines the policy category “nomadism” as the main “political technology” which has allowed urban segregation of Roma in Florence to persist from the mid-1980s. More generally, the author argues that deploying “nomadism” as policy category was the condition under which over the last thirty years a single governmental system has been crystallizing.

  6. Medicean telescopes. The collection of the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mara

    The Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence preserves an important collection of 17th telescopes coming from the Medicean heritage. The paper will introduce these instruments and their connection with the contemporary astronomical and optical debate.

  7. A Historical Survey of Military Health Services: The Crimean War and Florence Nigtingale

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    Unal Demirtas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Crimean War freezing cold and contagious diseases was more important than the Russian soldiers for the allied armies. Typhus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepare the dead of a large number of soldiers. According to the resources, the contagious diseases led to death more than ten times of the military actions. That and #8217;s why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and the Crimean War became the beginning point in military health concept development. Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 volunteers provide clean bedding, improve ventilation and sewage disposal, and reorganize everyday sanitary procedures at British barracks in Istanbul. She was an early theorist of sanitation and one of the founders of the modern nursing profession. Nightingale worked to improve sanitation, nutrition, and activity of patients at hospitals. Death rates were reduced dramatically with the introduction of such measures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 1-6

  8. Entertainment and social gathering at the Ottoman court in the Sixteenth Century

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    Zeynep Tarım Ertuğ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Each society has a different life style and so an understanding of entertainment as well as they have different habits and traditions. This understanding is strictly connected with how a nation or a society perceives life. The perception of life determines the precedences and preferences of people or societies. In this article, how the understanding of entertainment is in Ottoman court which is a model for Ottoman society is deliberated.Meetings were arranged in the court by Sultan’s order. Only the musahips whom Sultan invites, sazandes, hanendes, meddahs and kıssahans as storytellers, poets and people whose friendships are enjoyable could join the minor meetings named “meclis” and Sultan-centered arranged. Music, poem and stories were discussed in those social gatherings after listening to them. The participants of these meetings and the discussed subjects express the perception of the life of Ottoman sultan and so courtiers, and Ottoman intellectuals who takes court as a model.

  9. Pakrac liva, under Ottoman rule in second half of sixteenth century

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    Selçuk Ural

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after completing its foundation process, by means of tahrir tradition which was especially started with entering the conquest process, the Ottoman Empire registered fastidiously conquered places one by one. The tahrir notebooks, which are commonly used nowadays as well, have come out with the aid of this application of the Ottoman Empire. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate one of the most significant title deed-tahrir notebooks with a numbered of 355 and dated of 1565 related to the region. It is also aimed to determine the state and regional management methods in the political sense of Ottoman Empire after settling down the Balkan political land. We believe that our paper and similar publications constitute the utmost important point in terms of Ottoman Political History, and these studies could help the Ottoman History to get rid of monotony which we get used to so far.

  10. The Renaissance Kidney-Nephrology in and about the Sixteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-07-01

    The endeavor to understand the workings of the human body is as old as civilization; but it is in the intellectual movement of the Renaissance that its actual scientific study began in earnest and has not ceased growing since then. It was in the 16th century that the study of organs was launched and with it that of the kidney, which was then conceived as an accessory organ to clear the excess water ingested with food. The study of the structural basis of kidney function was launched by Bartolomeo Eustachio (1514-1574); the elements of its physiology and pathology were promulgated by Jean Fernel (1497-1558), and that of the chemical study of urine and of the principal cause of kidney disease then, calculi, instigated by Joan Baptista Van Helmont (1577-1644). The methodological approaches of these and their contemporary investigators, which were crystallized and formulated by Francis Bacon (1561-1626), opened the gates of the Scientific Revolution that followed in the 17th century, beginning with that of describing the circulation in 1628 by William Harvey (1564-1657) that would finally free the kidney from the shackles imposed on it as a mere accessory organ to the liver in Galen's physiology.

  11. Pieter Bruegel the Elder : art discourse in the sixteenth-century Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Todd Marlin

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s later depictions of peasants and festivities—the Peasant Wedding Banquet, Peasant Dance, Peasant and Nest Robber and the Festival of Fools—both of the pictures and their viewing context. The study reconstructs two parallel conversations: first, a visual

  12. Writing on Pigments in Natural History and Art Technology in Sixteenth-Century Germany and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltrogge, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Renaissance painters used a number of inorganic color materials. The development of mineralogy as a discipline opened a new discourse on mineral pigments. Agricola and other naturalists were familiar with the contemporary writings on art technology, but their focus was different. Therefore, the exchange of knowledge between these two color worlds remained selective. One possible meeting point was the Kunstkammer where the study of natural objects and materials was combined with an interest in the manual execution of a painting.

  13. Rheticus' Heliocentric Providence : a study concerning the astrology, astronomy of the sixteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Kraai, Jesse

    2000-01-01

    Rheticus' engagement with Copernicus is discussed in the light of new documents. In particular it is shown that there were strong astrological motivations behind Rheticus' acceptance of the heliocentric theory.

  14. Ad fontes: International research on the sixteenth century Reformation and the position in South Africa

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    B. J. van der Walt

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Today more research on the Reformation in general and the great reformers in particular is being done than is generally known. The reappraisal of the 16th century has in the past decades brought about important results in Reformation research. This article will not go into these results — a whole series of articles would be necessary. It will merely illuminate the following facts: where, by whom and about what the relevant research is being done.

  15. Establishing Female Rule in Sixteenth Century England: A Tale of Two Queens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinMeixiang; ZhuShida; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    When Mary I, the first queen of England (1553-1558) and Elizabeth I (1558-1603) were in power, they faced dual challenges: suspicion about the inheritance of the imperial power and general social anxiety about the rule of women. Mary I worked to make her rule legitimate by establishing a united rule through marriage.

  16. Florence Nightingale at First Hand Lynn McDonald Florence Nightingale at First Hand Continuum UK £14.99 224pp 9781441132550 9781441132550 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    WRITINGS ON Florence nightingale offer two contrasting views of her life. the first is that she was a formidable and highly influential woman, with enlightened views about disease prevention, the care of sick people and the role of professionally trained nurses. the alternative view is that she was a flawed Victorian hero, who enjoyed celebrity status in her lifetime but whose achievements were overestimated.

  17. [Benzene in soft drinks: a study in Florence (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Perico, Andrea; Colzi, Alessio; Bavazzano, Paolo; Di Giusto, Maurizio; Lamberti, Ilaria; Martino, Gianrocco; Puggelli, Francesco; Lorini, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of benzene present in soft drinks sold in Florence (Italy). We analyzed 28 different types of soft drinks, by measuring concentrations of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, ascorbic acid (using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection) and benzene (using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry). Data was analysed by using SPSS 18.0.Traces of benzene were detected in all analyzed beverages, with a mean concentration of 0.45 µg/L (range: 0.15-2.36 µg/L). Statistically significant differences in mean benzene concentrations were found between beverages according to the type of additive indicated on the drink label, with higher concentrations found in beverages containing both ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate. Two citrus fruit-based drinks were found to have benzene levels above the European limit for benzene in drinking water of 1 µg /L. Sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid were also detected in the two drinks.In conclusion, not all soft drink producers have taken steps to eliminate benzoic acid from their soft drinks and thereby reduce the risk of formation of benzene, as recommended by the European Commission. Furthermore, the presence of benzene in trace amounts in all beverages suggests that migration of constituents of plastic packaging materials or air-borne contamination may be occurring.

  18. [An epidemiological study of cardiac emergency cases in the province of Florence and the Southeast Florence Hospital area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marinis, A; Buoncristiano, U; Pagni, E; Piacentino, V; Pailli, F; Santoro, G; Vergassola, R

    1980-05-01

    The national data provided by ANMCO in 1978 show a total of 2.5 m heart cases in Italy, including 1.5 m instances of ischaemic cardiopathy, and an annual incidence of 105,000 new cases of myocardial infarct. An assessment was made of the 1976 and 1977 pattern of "cardiological emergency cases" (ISTAT codes 402, 410-14, 427-29, 441, 450, 519, 997) in the province of Florence and two of its social and health consortia: 39 (municipalities of Dicomano, Londa, Pelago, Pontassieve, Rufina, S. Godenzo), and 51 (municipalities of Borgata Ripoli, Greve, Impruneta, S. Casciano, Tavarnelle). The records of the S. Maria Nuova, Florence Hospital were used for in-patient data, since this is the only hospital in the province with automatic filing by discharge diagnosis according to the ISTAT code. Mortality in emergency cases in the two consortia m and the province fell from 14.68% and 17.17% to 11.20% and 18.11% respectively in the two years. In both populations, the highest incidence was between 70 and 74 yr of age in 1976, and between 65 and 69 yr in 1977. In the case of infarct, mortality moved from 18.75 to 7.58% (consortia) and from 22.40% to 20.93% (province), with maximum incidences in 1976 between 70 and 74 yr (consortia and province), and in 1977 between 65 and 69 yr (province) and between 55 and 59 yr (consortia). Admissions were greatest in number on Mondays (peak hours: 11 a.m. to 4 p.m.) whereas no difference was noted between one month and another. The Hospital Resuscitation Centre, which serves the two consortia, received 45 emergency cases in 1977, including 25 infarct patients. Total mortality was 13.33% (infarct 20%). The slight numeric discrepancy between in the latter data and those held in the computer suggests that the ISTAT code may not be easy to use and not always employed by physicians in a rational manner.

  19. Florence Nightingale e as irmãs de caridade: revisitando a história Florence Nightingale y las hermanas de caridad: revisitando la historia Florence Nightingale and charity sisters: revisiting the history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza Padilha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo trata de uma reflexão historiográfica acerca dos elos de ligação entre a prática de enfermagem e a influência recebida das ordens/associações religiosas, que marcam o ideário de enfermagem até os dias de hoje, especialmente das Irmãs de Caridade de São Vicente de Paulo. A enfermagem profissional, que só ocorreria no século XIX na Inglaterra, erigida por Florence Nightingale sofreria influência direta dos ensinamentos de amor e fraternidade traduzidos pelo conceito de altruísmo, da valorização do ambiente adequado para o cuidado e a divisão social do trabalho em enfermagem. O estudo mostra também a influência sofrida por Florence Nightingale pelo trabalho exercido pelas Irmãs de Caridade.El estudio trata de una reflexión historiográfica acerca de los eslabones de conexión entre la práctica de enfermería y la influencia recibida de las órdenes/asociaciones religiosas, que marcan el ideario de enfermería hasta los días de hoy, especialmente de las Hermanas de la Caridad de San Vicente de Pablo. La enfermería profesional, que sólo se llevaría a cabo en el siglo XIX en Inglaterra, erigida por Florence Nightingale sufriría influencia directa de las enseñanzas de amor y fraternidad traducidos por el concepto de altruismo, de la valorización del ambiente adecuado para el cuidado y la división social del trabajo en enfermería. El estudio mostra también la influencia sufrida por Florence Nightingale por el trabajo ejercido por las hermanas de la Caridad.This study presents an historical analysis on the links betwen the nursing practice and the influence received from various religious orders/associations along the times, especially from Saint Vincent Paul's charity sisters. The professional nursing which was pioneered by Florence Nightingale in the XIXth century, was directly influenced by the teachings of love and fraternity. In addition, other contributions from the religious orders/associations were the

  20. Florence Nightingale a Hundred Years on: who she was and what she was not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews Florence Nightingale's work 100 years after her death, based on surviving writing compiled for The Collected Works of Florence Nightingale. Described are her founding of a new profession for women, based on patient care, her pioneering work in statistics and data analysis and her bold reform of the workhouse infirmaries. A section on historiography focuses on the negative impact of F. B. Smith's attack on Nightingale in 1982 and Monica Baly's progressively more negative interpretations from the 1970s to her death in 1998. Note is made of future research opportunities .

  1. Nos confins da civilização: Algumas histórias brasileiras de Hercule Florence At the edges of civilization: Some Brazilian stories, by Hercule Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Foot Hardman

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o texto Quelques anecdotes brésiliennes, redigido pelo viajante Hercule Florence entre 1829 e 1830, anexo ao relatório Continuation de l'esquisse du voyage de M. de Langsdorff... O documento foi por nós transcrito e traduzido sob o título Algumas histórias brasileiras. O manuscrito, publicado pela primeira vez aqui, é um registro de sete narrativas ouvidas provavelmente ao longo da expedição Langsdorff. Foram recolhidas, ao que consta, na tradição oral e anotadas ali como materiais específicos e passíveis de futuros estudos e pesquisas. Florence esboça a crítica da precariedade da organização da sociedade nacional nos confins da civilização, ao inaugurar-se a autonomia político-administrativa do Brasil.The article presents the text 'Quelques anecdotes brésiliennes', written between 1829 and 1830 by the voyager Hercule Florence and attached to the account entitled 'Continuation de l'esquisse du voyage de M. de Langsdorff...,'. We have transcribed and translated the text into Portuguese under the title Algumas histórias brasileiras. Published here for the first time, this manuscript offers an initial synthetic record of seven narratives most likely heard during the Langsdorff expedition. They apparently were gathered in the oral tradition. Annotated here, they may now be used in future studies and research. Florence drafts a criticism of the precarious organization of national society at the edges of civilization, at a moment when Brazil was inaugurating its political and administrative autonomy.

  2. [Evidence in support of Florence Nightingale's theories. 100 years after her death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapico Yáñez, Florentina

    2010-05-01

    This article has been written to pay homage to Florence Nightingale as a pioneer and beacon for scientific curiosity which should serve as the nursing professional's guide for fine praxis. For this purpose, the author studied the evidence regarding Ms Nightingale's supposed theories; these have been arranged into four large groups in order to make those findings which support her theories easier to understand.

  3. Le Bone Florence of Rome: The Profaned Body in Use and in Language

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Petya

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the poetic gestures of reversal of cultural models of representation of the body in the Middle English romance "Le Bone Florence of Rome". It raises the problematic of profanation and use as opposed to an ontology of representation.

  4. Florence Nightingale: Apontamentos sobre a fundadora da Enfermagem Moderna Florence Nightingale: Apuntes sobre la fundadora de la Enfermería Moderna Florence Nightingale: Notes on the founder of Modern Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Marlene Macário Lopes; Sandra Maria Pereira dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Avançada para a sua época, mas ao mesmo tempo conservadora, Florence Nightingale popularizou o exercício da Enfermagem, permitindo o estabelecimento de uma nova profissão para a mulher. Mulher bem formada e culta, recorreu aos seus conhecimentos e estatuto social para influenciar a política de saúde e educação, na sua época. Prestou cuidados de enfermagem aos doentes, durante a Guerra da Crimeia (1854-1856), afirmando a profissão de Enfermagem e dando início à sua caminhada para o estatuto de...

  5. Aldo Castellani, ed. Nuovi canti carnascialeschi di Firenze. Le “canzone” e mascherate di Alfonso de’ Pazzi. Firenze: Olschki Editore, 2006. Pp. 295.`(Bookreview)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Alfonso de’ Pazzi (1509-55) was one of the members of the Accademia Fiorentina and the literary scene of sixteenth-century Florence who has remained virtually neglected during the twentieth century. When scholars did refer to him, it was mainly because of his fame as a prolific writer of poems

  6. Stroke: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Pathways 11th National Congress of the Italian Interdisciplinary Neurovascular Society (SINV), Florence, December 2002: Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Castellani; Gian Franco Gensini

    2002-01-01

    Il volume contiene gli abstracts dell'11° convegno SINV "Stroke: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Pathways 11th National Congress of the Italian Interdisciplinary Neurovascular Society (SINV), Florence, December 2002 - presidenti e "guest editors" Sergio Castellani e Gian Franco Gensini The volume contains the abstracts of 2002 SINV meeting: "Stroke: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Pathways 11th National Congress of the Italian Interdisciplinary Neurovascular Society (SINV), Florence, December ...

  7. Dying with dignity in America: the transformational leadership of Florence Wald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    The aims of this study are to examine the constructs of transformational leadership as they played out for one nurse who steered significant change in the care of the dying in the United States and to provide deeper insights into how nursing leaders can design and direct meaningful changes in the delivery of health care in turbulent times. A significant problem was identified in how the terminally ill were treated in this country post World War II. The introduction of hospice care in the United States represented a paradigm shift in how the health care community viewed and treated dying patients. Critical to this transformation was the work of Florence Wald, who organized with community leaders, clergy, and other health care providers to create a vision and synergy around palliative care. She was instrumental in opening the first American hospice in 1971 in Connecticut. Within 15 years, there were more than 1,000 hospices in the United States. A single case study design was chosen for this qualitative research grounded in the theory of transformational leadership (J.M. Burns, 1978). The study used narrative inquiry to conduct an in-depth exploration of Florence Wald's transformational leadership and the perceptions of the group of founders she organized to conceptualize, build, and open the first hospice in the United States. The participants chosen for interview were involved directly in the designing, planning, and beginning of the first American hospice. In addition to the seven in-depth interviews conducted in 2007 in Connecticut, this research examined three groups of documents from The Florence and Henry Wald Archives in the Yale University Library. The findings from both interviews and the Yale Archives showed that Florence Wald based her leadership on the strong values of reverence for life and social justice for all. To direct meaningful change, Florence Wald elevated the consciousness of her hospice team by conducting a 2-year research study on the needs

  8. [Florence Nightingale and the Risorgimento: her way of thinking through her correspondence, 1837- 1872].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Anna; Lusignani, Maura

    2012-01-01

    Florence Nightingale was a great admirer of our country. She deeply loved the Italian culture, as demonstrated by her repeated trips in our country and her knowledge of the language and the ancient Roman's culture. The analysis of her letters concerning her journeys in Italy are very interesting because you can find reviews, descriptions and confirmation of her involvement in our Risorgimento, in terms of shared values and support the cause. The correspondence gives an overview of feeling and actions that it shows a sense of justice and freedom, feelings that led to a real participation, although the economic and intellectual, to the cause of the Italians insurgents. The evolution of these values in her life paint a less known side of the thoughts of Florence Nightingale, founder of the nursing profession, but also advocate for universal human rights. Even in this case, she shows the strength of character that has marked much of her work, exposing herself in support of the Risorgimento.

  9. Art and the teaching of pathological anatomy at the University of Florence since the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2009-07-01

    In 1840, the University of Florence was the first university in Italy to confer a Professorship in Pathological Anatomy. The origin of this teaching post is linked to the history of the Pathology Museum founded in 1824 by the Florentine Accademia Medico-Fisica. The Museum houses anatomical specimens and waxworks depicting pathological conditions in the nineteenth century. Both the need to instruct medical students in pathology without resorting to corpse dissection and the difficulty of the lengthy preservation of anatomical preparations made it necessary to produce life-sized wax duplicates of diseased parts of the body. Through the history of the Pathology Museum of Florence, we describe how pathology developed and, in particular, how pathologists from a literary circle laid the foundations of modern surgical pathology in Italy. Museum visits for the medical students guided by lecturers are still today a component of the course of Pathological Anatomy.

  10. ["The grandest hero who has ever lived": an unpublished letter written by Florence Nightingale about Garibaldi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festini, Filippo; Giusti, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    In the year of the 150th anniversary of the Unity of Italy, Italian nurses cannot forget that Florence Nightingale herself, founder of modern Nursing , was a fervid support of the Risorgimento and of Italian unity. An unpublished letter, signed by her and conserved in the State archives of Pistoia, illustrates her feelings about the process of unity under way in the country where she was born.

  11. The Two Nursing Disciplinary Scientific Revolutions: Florence Nightingale and Martha E. Rogers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Kan; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this essay is to share Kan Koffi's ideas about scientific revolutions in the discipline of nursing. Koffi has proposed that the works of Florence Nightingale and Martha E. Rogers represent two scientific revolutions in nursing as a learned discipline. The outcome of these two scientific revolutions is a catalyst for critical disciplinary and paradigmatic debate about the universal conceptualization of nursing's distinctive professional and scientific knowledge.

  12. Nursing in Ghana: A Search for Florence Nightingale in an African City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel; Brenya, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Nursing in Ghana is a crucial subject that permeates almost every issue in the society especially the field of hospital care. To a large extent, the frontiers of nursing have expanded since the time of Florence Nightingale. Globally some studies have been done to study nursing icons like her. The values in nursing practice however continue to preoccupy our minds. The need to accentuate the gains made by historical figures in nursing in present times as well as the nature of interactions between practitioners and patients continues to be of paramount concern to many across the globe and Ghana in particular. This study does an analysis of existing literature on Florence Nightingale and the nature of nursing in Ghana from the colonial times. Additionally, it analyzes responses concerning the activities of nurses and their interactions with patients in Kumasi. The varied information has been thematically pieced together to make inferences that are of great interest to nursing practitioners, policy makers, administrators, and educators among others. The findings to the study suggest among other things that the challenges faced by the nursing institution in modern times are similar to those of the earlier period. The study calls for the emulation of the positive ideas of Florence Nightingale to promote the interest of patients, a core objective championed by a revered nurse.

  13. Florence Nightingale e as irmãs de caridade: revisitando a história Florence Nightingale y las hermanas de caridad: revisitando la historia Florence Nightingale and charity sisters: revisiting the history

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza Padilha; Joel Rolim Mancia

    2005-01-01

    O estudo trata de uma reflexão historiográfica acerca dos elos de ligação entre a prática de enfermagem e a influência recebida das ordens/associações religiosas, que marcam o ideário de enfermagem até os dias de hoje, especialmente das Irmãs de Caridade de São Vicente de Paulo. A enfermagem profissional, que só ocorreria no século XIX na Inglaterra, erigida por Florence Nightingale sofreria influência direta dos ensinamentos de amor e fraternidade traduzidos pelo conceito de altruísmo, da va...

  14. Florence Nightingale: Apontamentos sobre a fundadora da Enfermagem Moderna Florence Nightingale: Apuntes sobre la fundadora de la Enfermería Moderna Florence Nightingale: Notes on the founder of Modern Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Marlene Macário Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avançada para a sua época, mas ao mesmo tempo conservadora, Florence Nightingale popularizou o exercício da Enfermagem, permitindo o estabelecimento de uma nova profissão para a mulher. Mulher bem formada e culta, recorreu aos seus conhecimentos e estatuto social para influenciar a política de saúde e educação, na sua época. Prestou cuidados de enfermagem aos doentes, durante a Guerra da Crimeia (1854-1856, afirmando a profissão de Enfermagem e dando início à sua caminhada para o estatuto de ícone e lenda. Este artigo constitui uma pequena recolha bibliográfica que pretende homenagear e dar a conhecer o percurso daquela que é considerada a fundadora da Enfermagem Moderna. Ao longo de 90 anos de vida, Florence Nightingale escreveu aproximadamente 20 mil cartas a amigos e conhecidos distinguidos e redigiu cerca de 200 obras repartidas entre livros, relatórios e panfletos que tiveram profundo impacto na saúde e na reorganização dos serviços de saúde. A sua obra foi de tal forma revolucionária e avançada que lhe permitiu um alcance mundial considerado, ainda hoje, pedra basilar na profissionalização da Enfermagem.Avanzada para su época, aunque al mismo tiempo conservadora, Florence Nightingale popularizó el ejercicio de la Enfermería, permitiendo el establecimiento de una nueva profesión para la mujer. Mujer bien formada y culta, recurrió a sus conocimientos y estatuto social para influenciar la política de salud y educación, en su época. Prestó cuidados de enfermería a enfermos, durante la Guerra de la Crimea (1854-1856, afirmando la profesión de la Enfermería y dando inicio a su recorrida hacia el estatuto de ícono y leyenda. Este artículo constituye una pequeña recolección bibliográfica que pretende homenajear y dar a conocer el trayecto de aquella que es considerada la fundadora de la Enfermería Moderna. A lo largo de 90 años de vida, Florence Nightingale escribió aproximadamente 20 mil cartas a

  15. Glocalization and the Marketing of Christianity in Early Modern Southeast Asia

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    Barbara Watson Andaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of European commercial interests into Southeast Asia during the early modern period was commonly justified by the biblical injunction to spread Christian teachings, and by the “civilizing” influences it was said to foster. In focusing on areas where Christianity gained a foothold or, in the Philippines and Timor Leste, became the dominant faith, this article invokes the marketing concept of “glocalization”, frequently applied to the sociology of religion. It argues that the historical beginnings of the processes associated with the global/local interface of Christianity are situated in the sixteenth century, when Europe, Asia and the Americas were finally linked through maritime connections. Christian missionizing was undertaken with the assumption that the European-based “brand” of beliefs and practices could be successfully transported to a very different environment. However, the application of these ideas was complicated by the goal of imposing European economic control, by the local resistance thus generated, and by competition with other religions and among Christians themselves. In this often antagonistic environment, the degree to which a global product could be “repackaged” and “glocalized” so that it was appealing to consumers in different cultural environments was always constrained, even among the most sympathetic purveyors. As a result, the glocalization of Christianity set up “power-laden tensions” which both global institutions and dispersed consumers continue to negotiate.

  16. The construction of the idea of the city in Early Modern Europe: Pérez de Herrera and Nicolas Delamare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    With the economic and social changes in Europe at the end of the sixteenth century and the formation and consolidation of an urban network throughout the continent, questions such as poverty, sanitation, and hygiene began to pose acute problems in the cities of the age. A new school of thought, known in Spain as Ciencia de Policía and in the Mediterranean area as Policy Science, proposed solutions for these problems and tested them through practical interventions inside the urban setting. In this article the author compares the work of two thinkers: Cristóbal Pérez de Herrera, a Spaniard, and Nicolas Delamare, a Frenchman. Writing in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, Pérez de Herrera examined the organization of Madrid, the newly founded (though still not firmly established) capital of Spain. Delamare based his study on the Paris of the early eighteenth century. The author stresses the coincidences in some of the ideas of both thinkers and shows how their writings begin to embody a new idea of the city, many aspects of which have survived until the present day.

  17. Motorways in Metropolitan Areas: The Northwestern Growth of Florence and the Urban Use of Motorway A1

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    Valerio Cutini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent urban growth of Florence was mainly oriented northward, thus determining the urbanization of the flatland and the inclusion within a unique conurbation of a number of pre-existing urban nuclei. Over time, the congestion of the inner core has caused more and more prominent activities to shift towards this developing area, which is today one of the most attractive parts of the whole settlement, counterbalancing the representativeness and the touristic attractiveness of the historic center of Florence. This paper is concerned with the use of space syntax in order to reconstruct the genesis of the configurational geography of Florence. Configurational values at different dates will be cross-referenced with vehicular traffic data, so as to pinpoint the actual inclusion of the motorway A1, touching Florence on its western side, within the urban grid of Florence and its influence in the distribution of local traffic flows. Aside from this case study, this method can be extended to the general issue of the management of motorways in metropolitan areas. More in general, this approach is proposed as a suitable tool for interconnecting spatial issues and traffic questions, so as to concur in bridging the gap between urban design, focused on the morphologic features of blocks and buildings, and transport analysis, strictly concerned with the distribution of movement flows on the street network.

  18. Introduction to “Marriage and Elite Structure in Renaissance Florence, 1282-1500”

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El siguiente texto, salido de una ponencia de conferencia y escrito en 1994 es el primer borrador de un artículo publicado en el 2010 en Renaissance Quarterly y llamado “Open Elite? Social Mobility, Marriage, and Family in Florence, 1282-1494.” Esta introducción debate las justificaciones metodológicas para publicar un primer borrador, escrito seis años antes del artículo final más sofisticado. Al descubrir algunos de los pasos del proceso de investigación permite examinar la relación entre l...

  19. The parasites of the badger (Meles meles) in the north of Mugello (Florence, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M; Banchi, C; Barchetti, A; Guberti, V

    1999-12-01

    During the period January 1993-June 1994, a parasitological survey was carried out on 19 badgers (Meles meles) road killed in Northern Mugello (Florence). The following helminths (together with their prevalence) were isolated and classified: Uncinaria criniformis (84.2%); Capillaria sp. (31.6%); Molineus patens (21.1%); Mesocestoides melesi (21.1%); Aelurostrongylus falciformis (52.6%); Crenosoma melesi (21.1%). According to results, only sex related differences in prevalence were studied. The parasite biocenosis is composed exclusively by dominant and codominant species. Mesocestoides melesi represents the first record for Italy. All the species found fitted a negative binomial distribution.

  20. PALEOPATHOLOGY OF PRE-COLUMBIAN MUMMIES AT THE MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY IN FLORENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzini, Andrea; Gaeta, Raffaele; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    We performed a histopathological study on the mummified tissue specimens of seven pre-Columbian mummies which arrived in Italy in the second half of the 19th century and are housed in the Section of Anthropology and Ethnology of the Museum of Natural History of the University of Florence. The results confirm that the modern techniques of pathological anatomy can be successfidly applied on mummifed tissues, so as to perform important paleopathological diagnoses. Among the results obtained from this study there is the only known complete paleopathological study of Chagas' disease (American Trypanosomiasis), comprising macroscopic, microscopic and ultrastructural data, as well as information on atherosclerosis, anthracosis, emphysema and pneumonia.

  1. Florence and the Florentine State in the 14th and 15th centuries

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    Gian Maria Varanini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dealing primarily with the 14th and 15th centuries, this article examines the collection of essays Florence et la Toscane, XIVe-XIXe siècles. Les dynamiques d’un État italien edited by J.Boutier, S. Landi, O. Rouchon (Rennes 2004. It argues that the focus on the city, the first term in the title, prevails on the attention to the subjected territory, following an interpretative framework that is extended to the modern age as well.

  2. Florence Nightingale: light to illuminate the world from the woman with the lantern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Gulten; Naderi, Sait; Kanpolat, Yücel

    2013-01-01

    The Ottoman-Russian war of 1853 to 1855 was significant not only as a war, but also in response to a reflex from the West brought with itself novel approaches related to care of patients under severe health conditions. Florence Nightingale and her associates assigned at that time to care for soldiers in Istanbul who were severely ailing as a result of battle conditions were instrumental in the emergence of a hitherto unknown profession. This article examines the progress of events in the London-Istanbul axis that led to this development.

  3. Rheumatic diseases at the court of the Medici of Florence: the so-called “gout” of the Medici

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    G. Fornaciari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the archive documents several members of the Medici family of Florence suffered from gout. The word “gout”, with which the Renaissance physicians indicated pain episodes localised to hands, feet, spine and shoulders, was in general improperly used, and hint other nosological entities. A paleopathological investigation carried out on the skeletal remains of the Grand Dukes of Florence and their relatives, revealed the true nature of the diseases they suffered from, allowing to diagnose two cases of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH, a case of rheumatoid arthritis in an advanced stage, and a case of gout.

  4. Languages of Difference in the Early Modern Portuguese Empire. The Spread of “Caste” in the Indian World

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    Ângela Barreto Xavier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the circulation of the language of caste in the Indian world in the context of the Portuguese empire. Caste is an inevitable word in the moment of considering the Indian social system, as well as to compare it with European/Western societies. Since it was a word initially brought by the Portuguese to the Indian world, it is relevant to ask whether the Portuguese played an important role in its transformation into such a relevant social category. Six of the most important sixteenth-century narratives about the Portuguese presence in India, as well as treatises, letters, legal documents, vocabularies and dictionaries of the early-modern period will be under scrutiny in order to identify the variations of the word “casta”, its circulation in Estado da Índia, and beyond it. The analysis of these sources will also permit to understand how Portuguese colonial experience shaped the future meanings of “casta”, and therefore, the ways “casta” shaped Indian society (and not only.

  5. The contribution of the Florence Laboratory to the foundation of "scientific" psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Gabriella

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the history of Italian psychology have thoroughly and somewhat systematically analysed the particular characteristics and principal themes that distinguished this discipline in the period between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. With regard to the affirmation of a "scientific" psychology in Italy, these studies have emphasized the importance of the research conducted at the University of Florence in the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, founded in 1903 by Francesco De Sarlo. The results of the activity carried out in this laboratory are collected in the two volumes of Ricerche di Psicologia, published in 1905 and 1907. An analysis of these works clarifies the way in which De Sarlo and his collaborators intervened directly in the experimental activity. Various types of experimentation were conducted in the laboratory, such as those on the measurement of sensations and perceptions. The psychologists made use of adequate instruments, which they themselves often prepared or modified, without however neglecting an attentive survey of the states of consciousness. On the basis of a methodological approach that reconciles the accuracy of the measurements with the verification of the internal dimensions of the mental processes of the subjects undergoing the experimentation, the research carried out in the Florence Laboratory contributes to characterising, in an original way, the foundation of "scientific" psychology in Italy. In particular, by means of the publication of the results of this laboratory's research activity, Italian psychology acquired a new impulse to assert itself as an autonomous science and to promote its accreditation on an institutional level.

  6. Teoria Ambientalista de Florence Nightingale: Uma Análise Crítica

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    Ana Beatriz de Almeida Medeiros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoObjetivo:Analisar a teoria ambientalista de Florence Nightingale com base no modelo proposto por Johnson e Webber.Métodos:Estudo teórico e reflexivo realizado nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 2012. Análise da teoria com base em oito critérios: significado, limites, linguagem, conceitos, formulação de proposições, variáveis e hipóteses, conhecimento teórico ajuda a explanar e predizer o fenômeno e conhecimento teórico influencia a prática de enfermagem.Resultados:A teoria apresenta: clareza de significado de ideias, limites claros, nível de compreensão acima de 90%, os principais conceitos, proposições formuladas com base nos conceitos, variáveis e hipóteses que ajudam a entender e interpretar proposições, influência na prática da enfermagem.Conclusão:Conclui-se que a teoria ambientalista de Florence Nightingale possui conceitos que servem de parâmetro na atualidade, sendo a sua relevância considerada um marco na história da enfermagem.

  7. On the history of gout: paleopathological evidence from the Medici family of Florence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffra, Valentina; Minozzi, Simona; Vitiello, Angelica; Fornaciari, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Throughout history, gout has been referred to as the "disease of the kings", and has been clearly associated with the lifestyle of the aristocratic social classes. According to the written sources, several members of the famous Medici family of Florence suffered from an arthritic disease that contemporary physicians called "gout". A paleopathological study carried out on the skeletal remains of some members of the family, exhumed from their tombs in the Church of San Lorenzo in Florence, offered a unique opportunity to directly investigate the evidence of the arthritic diseases affecting this elite group. The skeletal remains of several members of the family were examined macroscopically and submitted to x-ray investigation. The results of the study allowed us to ascertain that the so-called "gout of the Medici" should be considered the clinical manifestation of three different joint conditions: diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, rheumatoid arthritis and uratic gout. In particular, uric acid gout was diagnosed in the Grand Duke Ferdinand I (1549-1609). Recently, a new case of this disease was diagnosed in Anton Francesco Maria (1618-1659), a probable illegitimate member of the family. With this new case, uratic gout was observed in 2 out of 9 adult males, leading to suppose that the disease should have been a common health problem within the family. The aetiology of the disease has to be searched in environmental factors, since both historical and paleonutritional studies demonstrated that the diet of this aristocratic court was rich in meat and wine.

  8. Fish abundance, fisheries, fish trade and consumption in sixteenth-century Netherlands as described by Adriaen Coenen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennema, F.P.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Concern about fisheries impact on marine ecosystems has raised the interest in the reconstruction of the state of marine ecosystems and the nature of the human activities in the past. We present late 16th century information on the occurrence and relative abundance of biota in Dutch coastal and inla

  9. The Lords of Tetzcoco: Sixteenth-Century Transformation of Indigenous Leadership in the Aztec Empire's Second City

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    When Spaniards arrived in central Mexico in 1519, Tetzcoco was one of the two most important ethnic states in the region. It was a cultural center--home to famed "poet-kings"--and was second in power only to the Aztec capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Yet by the beginning of the seventeenth century, Tetzcoco had been reduced to a mere shadow of its former grandeur. This dissertation focuses specifically on Tetzcoco's native nobility in this period of waning influence. Using a combination of Spa...

  10. Sixteenth-century Mexican Architecture : Transmission of Forms and Ideas between the Old and the New World

    OpenAIRE

    Brenišínová, Monika

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This article deals with the subject of 16 th century Mexican monastic architecture and its artistic em-bellishments. Its aim is to present the architecture and its decoration program within an appropriate historical context, putting a particular emphasis on the process of cultural transmission and subsequent changes between the Old and the New World. Some attention is also paid to the European art of the modern age with regard to the discovery of America and its impact...

  11. The Christianization as the strategy of resistance: the representation of indigenous Christians in the art of the sixteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Pérez Flores

    2015-01-01

    In this article I will discuss the importance for indigenous charged under Spanish rule, represent themselves as Christians. I will show that after the conquest was compelling acquire legitimacy as a devout Christian; for this native attended the images codices and monastic mural painting, I will relate the cultural and political contexts with information from written sources and visual sources contained in tlaxcaltecas codices and the convent wall painting.

  12. The Christianization as the strategy of resistance: the representation of indigenous Christians in the art of the sixteenth century

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    José Luis Pérez Flores

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will discuss the importance for indigenous charged under Spanish rule, represent themselves as Christians. I will show that after the conquest was compelling acquire legitimacy as a devout Christian; for this native attended the images codices and monastic mural painting, I will relate the cultural and political contexts with information from written sources and visual sources contained in tlaxcaltecas codices and the convent wall painting.

  13. Assessment of Urban Renenewal Studies in the Context of Florence's Old Industrial Sites

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    Elif Özlem Aydın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the periphery of the historic city center of Florence, which is a settlement in Middle Italy, considered the symbol of Renaissance period train stations, small scale industrial structures were built under the influence of spread of industrialization in Continental Europe in the 19th century. Industrial buildings whose original functions are being lost nowadays are restricted to examples which started being built in the 18 th century, however, shaped in the 19 th century and were being able to brought until today with the increased industrialization activities in the first half of the 20 th century. The necessity of developing new thoughts aiming to revitalize areas around the city center and to reshape Florence, which witnessed a segmented growth due to increased industrialization in the first half of 20 th century, according to urban planning principles from 1990's onwards has been realized. Within the scope of integrated planning developed in the recent years, old industrial areas located in the historical city center peripheries whose functions have been lost are determined as urban renovation sites. In this study, Old Leopolda Train Station, Fiat Belfiore and Fiat Novoli factory sites as well as renovation/transformation work executed in old slaughter house sites, located in the west border of historical city center of Florence, have been studied with the help of technical surveys, personal interviews or published projects. Two approaches have been encountered when urban renovation projects executed in these areas where mixed-use strategies are adopted are examined. These are:  Preservation of some of the historical structures in the area, and demolition of some to create areas for new uses,  Demolition of all structures in the site to create areas for new uses. Not encountered in Florence, but there also exist renovation examples where almost all structures in the area are preserved. The results of research and observations have

  14. Educational Documentation: Present and Future. Proceedings of an International Meeting (Florence, Italy, May 31-June 4, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biblioteca di Documentazione Pedagogica, Florence (Italy).

    The Library of Educational Documentation in Florence, Italy began work in 1980 on the establishment of an educational documentation system for Italy. Recognition of its role in this regard was accorded by the Regional Institutes for Educational Research, Innovation and Teacher Training (IRRSAE) and by the European Centre for Education (CEDE) in…

  15. The Florence Bird Lecture: "From Strength to Strength: The Interrelated Rights of Women and Children over the Life Cycle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Landon

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's Florence Bird lecture, which was delivered at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada on International Women's Day, March 8, 2012. In the lecture, the author focuses on the interrelated rights of women and children over the life cycle. The author explores this linkage and offers a caveat. The author shares a…

  16. The Florence Bird Lecture: "From Strength to Strength: The Interrelated Rights of Women and Children over the Life Cycle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Landon

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's Florence Bird lecture, which was delivered at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada on International Women's Day, March 8, 2012. In the lecture, the author focuses on the interrelated rights of women and children over the life cycle. The author explores this linkage and offers a caveat. The author shares a…

  17. Economic burden of Clostridium difficile in five hospitals of the Florence health care system in Italy

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    Poli A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anna Poli,1 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Giacomo M Bruno,2 Enrica Fornai,1 Maria Chiara Valentino,2 Giorgio L Colombo2,31Vigilanza e Controllo Infezioni Correlate all'Assistenza, Ospedale Piero Palagi, Azienda Sanitaria di Firenze, Firenze, Italy; 2SAVE Studi – Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, ItalyIntroduction: Despite the awareness about the increasing rates of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI and the economic burden arising from its management (prolonged hospitalization, laboratory tests, visits, surgical treatment, environmental sanitation, few studies are available in Italy on the economic costs directly attributable to the CDI. The Florence health care system has designed a study with the aim of describing the costs attributable to the CDI and defines the incremental economic burden associated with the management of this complication.Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in five hospitals of the Florence health care system. The enrolled population included all patients who were hospitalized during the year 2013 with a diagnosis of CDI. Of the 187 total cases reported in 2013, 69 patients were enrolled, for whom the main cause of hospitalization was directly attributable to CDI.Results: We enrolled 69 patients (19 males and 50 females, with a mean age of 82.16 years (minimum 46 to maximum 98. The total number of hospitalization days observed was 886 (12.8 per patient on average. The data from this study show that the mean total incremental cost for a patient with CDI was €3,270.52 per year. The hospital stay length is the most significant cost parameter, having the largest influence on the overall costs, with an impact of 87% on the total cost. The results confirm the costs for the management of CDI in five hospitals of the Florence health care system are in line with data from the international literature.Conclusion: The economic impact of CDI is most

  18. Edith (1869-1938) and Florence (1870-1932) Stoney, two Irish sisters and their contribution to radiology during the World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Jean M

    2013-05-01

    Edith and Florence Stoney, two sisters born in Dublin and working in London, responded to the summons of suffragists and offered themselves for medical service in World War I. Each had a strong scientific background and experience that they were able to use in setting up and running radiological services in Belgium, France, Serbia and Macedonia. The British War Office was reluctant to employ women doctors but the work Florence and her colleagues achieved persuaded Sir Alfred Keogh that Florence should be the first woman doctor to be employed in a military hospital in England.

  19. Statistical Laws in Urban Mobility from microscopic GPS data in the area of Florence

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzani, Armando; Rambaldi, Sandro; Gallotti, Riccardo; Giovannini, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The application of Statistical Physics to social systems is mainly related to the search for macroscopic laws, that can be derived from experimental data averaged in time or space,assuming the system in a steady state. One of the major goals would be to find a connection between the statistical laws to the microscopic properties: for example to understand the nature of the microscopic interactions or to point out the existence of interaction networks. The probability theory suggests the existence of few classes of stationary distributions in the thermodynamics limit, so that the question is if a statistical physics approach could be able to enroll the complex nature of the social systems. We have analyzed a large GPS data base for single vehicle mobility in the Florence urban area, obtaining statistical laws for path lengths, for activity downtimes and for activity degrees. We show also that simple generic assumptions on the microscopic behavior could explain the existence of stationary macroscopic laws, with...

  20. Florence Nightingale: the evolution and social impact of feminist values in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C

    2010-03-01

    Although generally recognized as the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale has been criticized for her apparent lack of support of women's issues, including suffrage. This article examines the primary and supporting literature surrounding this topic. Findings indicate that Nightingale developed a complex set of beliefs that supported women as individuals rather than from a gender perspective. She did, in fact, support the concept of women's suffrage but did not give it priority. Victorian women suffered from lack of legal status, education, financial independence, and support from either the family or church as social institutions. Therefore, Nightingale's conception of nursing as a secular, educated profession cannot be overemphasized as a benchmark in the developing importance of women in the social system.

  1. Lights in the shadows: Florence Nightingale and others who made their mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, David

    2007-02-01

    Florence Nightingale, the 'lady with the lamp' became the image of 'heroic womanhood' (Bostridge 2004) when she returned from the Crimean War an iconic figure and ever since she has remained fated to wear the mantel of nursings' leading light. But she wasn't the only woman who made their mark or who undertook to risk their live caring for the sick and injured, wounded and dying in the Crimea. Sadly, Nightingale's iconic status has also succeeded in overshadowing the existence and the achievements of the many others who nursed during the Crimean war. These women, nuns, ordinary nurses, lady volunteers and others, working in Nightingale's shadow, contributed much to the comforts of the wounded and dying and this article seeks to illuminate their presence and contribution. It also highlights other aspects of Nightingale's work and in doing so, allows us to look into the shadows and shed more light on the others who were also there.

  2. An exploration of the nature of caring relationships in the writings of Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Debra J; Whaite, Bonnie

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, historical field study was to identify the nature and attributes of caring relationships as depicted in the writings of Florence Nightingale. Latent content analysis was the methodology used for the discovery and analysis of words, ideas, and themes from selected Nightingale works. Five themes were identified that represented a caring relationship: attend to, attention to, nurture, competent, and genuine. These themes are congruent with Nightingale's threefold concept of nursing. Watson's carative factors were used to cross-validate the results. The findings of this study indicate that the phenomenon of caring relationships in nursing has been a part of our professional language since Victorian times. Historical research provides a sense of connectedness to nursing's past and contributes to the ongoing education of nurses and further development of the nursing profession.

  3. Evidence-based medicine and hospital reform: tracing origins back to Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Maya; Chung, Kevin C

    2010-01-01

    The use of reliable evidence to evaluate health care interventions has gained strong support within the medical community and in the field of plastic surgery in particular. Evidence-based medicine aims to improve health care and reduce costs through the use of sound clinical evidence in evaluating treatments, procedures, and outcomes. The field is hardly new, however, and most trace its origins back to the work of Cochrane in the 1970s and Sackett in the 1990s. Though she wouldn't know it, Florence Nightingale was applying the concepts of evidence-based reform to the medical profession more than a century before. She used medical statistics to reveal the nature of infection in hospitals and on the battlefield. Moreover, Nightingale marshaled data and evidence to establish guidelines for health care reform. Tracing the origins of evidence-based medicine back to Nightingale underscores how critical this movement is to improving the quality and effectiveness of patient care today.

  4. A Lady 'in Proper Proportions'? Feminism, Lytton Strachey, and Florence Nightingale's Reputation, 1918-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, James

    2017-03-01

    Lytton Strachey's Eminent Victorians has long been regarded as a watershed in attitudes to Victorian culture, widely seen as having instigated a revolutionary backlash against the values and heroes of the Victorian era in England. Its impact, however, on the reputations of his four subjects-Thomas Arnold, General Gordon, Cardinal Manning and Florence Nightingale-has been subjected to surprisingly little scholarly attention. Drawing on the work of gender historians, this article reassesses Strachey's effect on the reputation of Nightingale, using biographies and contemporary reviews of Eminent Victorians. It argues that, far from 'debunking' the famous nurse as is generally assumed, Strachey in many ways enhanced her reputation and rendered her a plausible icon for English feminists of the 1920s and 1930s. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Management of Helicobacter pylori infection--the Maastricht IV/ Florence Consensus Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfertheiner, Peter; Megraud, Francis; O'Morain, Colm A; Atherton, John; Axon, Anthony T R; Bazzoli, Franco; Gensini, Gian Franco; Gisbert, Javier P; Graham, David Y; Rokkas, Theodore; El-Omar, Emad M; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2012-05-01

    Management of Helicobacter pylori infection is evolving and in this 4th edition of the Maastricht consensus report aspects related to the clinical role of H pylori were looked at again in 2010. In the 4th Maastricht/Florence Consensus Conference 44 experts from 24 countries took active part and examined key clinical aspects in three subdivided workshops: (1) Indications and contraindications for diagnosis and treatment, focusing on dyspepsia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin use, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and extraintestinal manifestations of the infection. (2) Diagnostic tests and treatment of infection. (3) Prevention of gastric cancer and other complications. The results of the individual workshops were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Recommendations are provided on the basis of the best current evidence and plausibility to guide doctors involved in the management of this infection associated with various clinical conditions.

  6. The best of 2005 in echocardiography back from EuroEcho 9 – Florence, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicari Rosa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ninth edition of the congress of the European Association of Echocardiography (EAE (former working group of Echocardiography held in Florence has just finished with a great success of participant attendance (2.842 and abstract submissions. Hot topics at EuroEcho 9 were: 1-live 3-dimensional echocardiography and surgical decision making; in pediatric cardiology; in resynchronization therapy 2- stress echocardiography beyond wall motion: from valve diseases to contractility to coronary flow reserve to diastolic function; 3- pulmonary cardiogenic interstitial thickening recognized by ultrasonic lung comets; 4- the "proven clinical inefficacy" of the many technologies sold as breakthrough: color kinesis, tissue characterization, strain rate, tissue Doppler, applied to stress echocardiography.

  7. Florence Belmonte, Madrid, février 1965. Une ligne de partage?

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    Marie-Aline Barrachina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Florence Belmonte présente ici un essai tendant à réévaluer positivement les événements universitaires de février 1965 à Madrid, et à leur conférer un poids nouveau dans le tableau chronologique du franquisme tardif tel qu’il est habituellement admis. Le titre choisi par l’auteure est en ce sens sans ambigüité : selon elle, il y aurait un avant et un après février 1965. Qu’il nous soit permis, avant de revenir sur cette thèse, de proposer un rapide descriptif de cet ouvrage d’une lecture extr...

  8. European Cosmoscapes. The case of the Festival of Europe in Florence

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    Dario Verderame

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to offer an empirical contribution to the understanding of cosmopolita-nization processes, centred on Europe. Specifically, the subject of my study is the Festival of Europe, an event dedicated to European themes that is held every two years in the city of Florence (Italy. By means of this case study I intend to analyse those elements that enable or constrain the formation of a European cosmopolitan imaginary within a concrete situational context. This analysis will also permit the formulation of some observations with regard to the role that such organizational and social forms – festivals – can play in the construction of a cosmopolitan social space.

  9. Florence nightingale at first hand Lynn McDonald Florence nightingale at first hand Continuum UK 224pp £14.99 978 1 4411 3255 0 1441132554 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Writings on Florence Nightingale offer two contrasting views of her life and achievements. The first is that she was a formidable, highly influential woman with enlightened views about disease prevention, the care of sick people and the role of professionally trained nurses. The alternative view is that she was a flawed Victorian hero, who enjoyed celebrity status in her lifetime, but whose achievements were over-estimated.

  10. Florence Richardson Wyckoff (1905-1997), Fifty Years of Grassroots Social ActivismVolume III: Watsonville Years 1960-1985

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Florence Wyckoff's three-volume oral history documents her remarkable, lifelong work as a social activist, during which she has become nationally recognized as an advocate of migrant families and children. From the depression years through the 1970s, she pursued grassroots, democratic, community-building efforts in the service of improving public health standards and providing health care, education, and housing for migrant families. Major legislative milestones in her career of advocacy were...

  11. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) and Sir John Forbes (1787-1861): neighbours in Old Burlington Street, Westminster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Robin

    2015-05-01

    The year 2010 marks the centenary of the birth of Florence Nightingale and will, no doubt, be universally remembered. Her life and nursing career have recently been fully described by Bostridge. It is less well known that her neighbour from November 1856 was the distinguished Scottish physician Sir John Forbes MD Edin FRCP Lond FRS DCL Oxon. Although they never met, they exchanged copies of each other's books and shared a mutual respect.

  12. Florence Nightingale som symbolsk overgangsfigur i lærebøger for sygeplejersker - et lille stykke sygeplejehistorie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emmy Brandt

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen er et lille indlæg om, hvordan man har anvendt Florence Nightingale i danske lærebøger for sygeplejersker som en legitimeringsfigur i forbindelse med forandringer inden for det danske hospitalsvæsen. Perioden, der behandles, er tiden før og efter skiftet til den kliniske medicin i Danmar....... Skiftet fra den klassifikatoriske til den kliniske medicin sker i Danmakr i midten af 1800-tallet. Analysen er inspireret af den franske filosof Michel Foucault....

  13. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  14. Micro-scale flood risk estimation in historic centres: a case study in Florence, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Fabio; Arrighi, Chiara; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo

    2013-04-01

    The route to flood risk assessment is much more than hydraulic modelling of inundation, that is hazard mapping. Flood risk is the product of flood hazard, vulnerability and exposure, all the three to be estimated with comparable level of accuracy. While hazard maps have already been implemented in many countries, quantitative damage and risk maps are still at a preliminary level. Currently one of the main challenges in flood damage estimation resides in the scarce availability of socio-economic data characterizing the monetary value of the exposed assets. When these public-open data are available, the variability of their level of detail drives the need of merging different sources and of selecting an appropriate scale of analysis. In this work a parsimonious quasi-2D hydraulic model is adopted, having many advantages in terms of easy set-up. In order to represent the geometry of the study domain an high-resolution and up-to-date Digital Surface Model (DSM) is used. The accuracy in flood depth estimation is evaluated by comparison with marble-plate records of a historic flood in the city of Florence (Italy). The accuracy is characterized in the downtown most flooded area by a bias of a very few centimetres and a determination coefficient of 0.73. The average risk is found to be about 14 €/m2•year, corresponding to about 8.3% of residents income. The spatial distribution of estimated risk highlights a complex interaction between the flood pattern and the buildings characteristics. Proceeding through the risk estimation steps, a new micro-scale potential damage assessment method is proposed. This method is based on the georeferenced census system considered as optimal compromise between spatial detail and open availability of socio-economic data. The census sections system consist of geographically contiguous polygons that usually coincide with building blocks in dense urban areas. The results of flood risk assessment at the census section scale resolve most of

  15. Flood risk and cultural heritage: the case study of Florence (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Cultural heritage plays a key role for communities in terms of both identity and economic value. It is often under serious threat by natural hazards, nevertheless, quantitative assessments of risk are quite uncommon. This work addresses the flood risk assessment to cultural heritage in an exemplary art city, which is Florence, Italy. The risk assessment method here adopted borrows the most common definition of flood risk as the product of hazard, vulnerability and exposure, with some necessary adjustments. The risk estimation is carried out at the building scale for the whole UNESCO site, which coincides with the historical centre of the city. A distinction in macro- and micro-damage categories has been made according to the vulnerability of the objects at risk. Two damage macro-categories are selected namely cultural buildings and contents. Cultural buildings are classified in damage micro-categories as churches/religious complexes, libraries/archives and museums. The damages to the contents are estimated for four micro-categories: paintings, sculptures, books/prints and goldsmith's art. Data from hydraulic simulations for different recurrence scenarios, historical reports of the devastating 1966 flood and the cultural heritage recognition sheets allow estimating and mapping the annual expected number of works of art lost in absence of risk mitigation strategies.

  16. A statistical campaign: Florence Nightingale and Harriet Martineau’s 'England and her Soldiers'

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    Iris Veysey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859 by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. After the war, she launched a campaign to convince the British government to make permanent reforms to military healthcare, compiling a dataset on mortality in the Crimea. She worked with the government’s Royal Commission investigating healthcare during the war, but also worked privately with Martineau to publicise her findings. Martineau and Nightingale grasped that the lay reader was more receptive to statistical information in a literary format than in dense statistical reports. As such, Nightingale’s data was interwoven with Martineau’s text. The pair illustrated their book with Nightingale’s ‘Rose Diagram’, a statistical graphic which simply illustrated the rate of mortality.

  17. Modelling university human capital formation and measuring its efficiency: evidence from Florence University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ferrari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis of the technical efficiency in the formation of 2,236 graduates in 1998 in the University of Florence, that is, in the university human capital formation, is performed, by modelling the production process as one in which the student produces himself as a graduate. The tool utilized is the DEA methodology, under the hypothesis of variable returns to scale. The production factors are represented by a set of human and capital resources provided by the faculties, along with individual factors represented by secondary school diploma score and by the length of university study. The analysis is conducted both for the overall graduates, and at a faculty level, in order to emphasize the contribution provided by the latter to efficiency. There is evidence that the students graduated with an average efficiency greater than 90% and therefore with an unexploited productive capacity lower than 10%. At a faculty level, Formation Science appears to be the most efficient, whereas Economics is the less efficient one. By and large, the contribution to efficiency provided by faculties is greater than that brought by students individual characteristics.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Florence CyberBullying-CyberVictimization Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Benedetta Emanuela; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2015-02-01

    The present study tried to answer the research need for empirically validated and theoretically based instruments to assess cyberbullying and cybervictimization. The psychometric properties of the Florence CyberBullying-CyberVictimization Scales (FCBVSs) were analyzed in a sample of 1,142 adolescents (Mage=15.18 years; SD=1.12 years; 54.5% male). For both cybervictimization and cyberbullying, results support a gender invariant model involving 14 items and four factors covering four types of behaviors (written-verbal, visual, impersonation, and exclusion). The second-order confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that a "global," second-order measure of cyberbullying and cybervictimization fits the data well. Overall, the scales showed good validity (construct, concurrent, and convergent) and reliability (internal consistency and test-retest). In addition, using the global key question measure as a criterion, ROC analyses, determining the ability of a test to discriminate between groups, allowed us to identify cutoff points to classify respondents as involved/not involved starting from the continuum measure derived from the scales.

  19. The Sacromonte and the Geography of the Sacred in Early Modern Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris, A. Katie

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades of the sixteenth century, a series of forged documents and supposed saints' relics were discovered in the Spanish city of Granada. This article examines how the Sacromonte, the site of the most prominent of the finds, became the symbolic landscape of Granadino spiritual identity. The relics and the miraculous events associated with them reconfigured the city's sacred geography, transforming a morisco holy site into a center of Christian holiness and a principal symbol of the religious aspects of early modem Granadino civic identity. This article also considers how this new sacred landscape found graphic expression in contemporary cartographic representations of Granada.

    En las últimas décadas del siglo XVI, se hallaron en la ciudad de Granada una serie de documentos falsificados y unas supuestas reliquias. Este artículo examina cómo el Sacromonte, el sitio de los hallazgos más destacados, fue convertido en el paisaje simbólico de la identidad espiritual granadina. Las reliquias y las circunstancias milagrosas con las cuales estaban relacionadas efectuaron una reconfiguración de la geografía sagrada de la ciudad, transformando un sitio sagrado de los moriscos en un centro de la santidad cristiana y un símbolo principal de los aspectos religiosos de la identidad cívica de la Granada moderna. Este artículo también considera cómo este paisaje sagrado fue expresado gráficamente por medio de representaciones cartográficas de Granada.

  20. Artist as Educator? Assessing the Pedagogic Role of Folly in the Early Work of the Anglo-Swiss Artist Henry Fuseli (1741-1825)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hester Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article examines a group of five ink, pen and wash drawings produced by the Anglo-Swiss artist Henry Fuseli in the mid-eighteenth century in Zurich. The drawings were produced for a "Narrenbuch" (Book of Fools) uniting visual images of folly with humorous slogans. The drawings are significant in that they imitate sixteenth-century print…

  1. RICKETS AT THE MEDICI COURT OF FLORENCE: THE CASE OF DON FILIPPINO (1577-1582).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Maura; Giuffra, Valentina; Fattori, Silvia; Vitiello, Angelica; Caramella, Davide; Giustini, Davide; Fornaciari, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Among the children found in the crypt of the Grand Duke Giangastone in S. Lorenzo Basilica (Florence), the skeletal remains of a 5-year-old child still wearing his fine high social status clothing were recovered. This child of the Medici family was identified as Don Filippino (1577-1582), son of the Grand Duke Francesco I (1541-1587) and Giovanna from Austria (1547 - 1578). The prince showed several pathological deformities of the cranial and post-cranial skeleton, including enlargement of the cranium, thinning of the cranial vault bones (craniotabes), platybasia and marked bending of femora, tibiae and fibulae. Differential diagnosis suggests that Don Filippino was affected by rickets. The occurrence of this metabolic disease related to vitamin D deficiency in a Renaissance high social class individual can be explained by the practice of very prolonged breast-feeding, up until two years of age. Maternal milk contains insufficient vitamin D ratios and retarded weaning severely exposes children to a higher risk of developing rickets, especially if dietary habits are combined with inadequate exposure to sunlight. Historical sources describe Don Filippino as frail and sickly, with frequent illnesses and persistent slight fevers, and it can be supposed that the child was frequently confined indoors, especially in the cold season. Integration of osteoarchaeological evidence with historical documentation suggests that bone lesions observed in the skeletal remains of Don Filippino are compatible with a diagnosis of rickets, caused by the custom of prolonged breast-feeding associated with inadequate sunlight exposure to sunlight. Historical sources describe Don Filippino as frail and sickly, with frequent illnesses and persistent slight fevers, and it can be supposed that the child was frequently confined indoors, especially in the cold season. Integration of osteoarchaeological evidence with historical documentation suggests that bone lesions observed in the skeletal

  2. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Masala

    Full Text Available A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83% and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories with those with low MBD (N1+P1 through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048 while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further

  3. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Ermini, Ilaria; Occhini, Daniela; Sieri, Sabina; Brighenti, Furio; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Ambrogetti, Daniela; Palli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD) and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83%) and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories) with those with low MBD (N1+P1) through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048) while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further investigations.

  4. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel [Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell.] against foodborne microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Bülent; Ozer, Hakan; Cakir, Ahmet; Polat, Taşkin; Dursun, Atilla; Mete, Ebru; Oztürk, Erdoğan; Ekinci, Melek

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical compositions of the essential oil and hexane extract isolated from the inflorescence, leaf stems, and aerial parts of Florence fennel and the antimicrobial activities of the essential oil, hexane extract, and their major component, anethole, against a large variety of foodborne microorganisms. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the essential oils obtained from inflorescence, leaf stems, and whole aerial parts contained (E)-anethole (59.28-71.69%), limonene (8.30-10.73%), apiole (trace to 9.23%), beta-fenchyl acetate (3.02-4.80%), and perillene (2.16-3.29%) as the main components. Likewise, the hexane extract of the plant sample exhibited a similar chemical composition, and it contained (E)-anethole (53.00%), limonene (27.16%), gamma-terpinene (4.09%), and perillene (3.78%). However, the hexane extract also contained less volatile components such as n-hexadecanoic acid (1.62%), methyl palmitate (1.17%), and linoleic acid (1.15%). The in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that the essential oil, anethole, and hexane extract were effective against most of the foodborne pathogenic, saprophytic, probiotic, and mycotoxigenic microorganisms tested. The results of the present study revealed that (E)-anethole, the main component of Florence fennel essential oil, is responsible for the antimicrobial activity and that the essential oils as well as the hexane extract can be used as a food preservative. This study is the first report showing the antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel against probiotic bacteria.

  5. Pot Luck: Adventures in Archaeology, by Florence C. Lister. Foreword by R. Gwinn Vivian. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard L. Fontana

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of nearly five decades, Florence Cline Lister and her husband, the late Robert Hill Lister, were a team whose light shown brightly over the ramparts of Southwest archaeology. Almost always referred to by others as "Bob and Florence," "Florence and Bob," or, simply, as "the Listers," their efforts toward unravelling mysteries of the region's prehistoric and colonial period past, in writing such historic accounts as that of the Mexican state of Chihua­hua, or in chronicling the lives of such Southwestern archaeologists as Earl Morris were nearly always a joint enter­prise. As with Hattie and Comelius "Burt" Cosgrove before them, and, further afield, Will and Ariel Durant, their names, like their shared interests, became melded into one.

  6. Florence Nightingale y Federico Rubio: reformadores de la Enfermería moderna española

    OpenAIRE

    Santainés Borredá, Elena; Faus Gabandé, Francisco; Camaño Puig, Ramón; Sarturi, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    En diferentes bases de datos aparecen publicaciones donde se menciona al cirujano Federico Rubio en relación con la enfermera Florence Nightingale, otorgándole un protagonismo en la enfermería moderna española. Mediante este trabajo proponemos analizar la influencia que Nightingale pudo haber tenido en Rubio. Partiendo de la vida y obra del fundador de la Escuela de Enfermeras de Santa Isabel de Hungría, valoraremos las coincidencias temporo-espaciales con la Dama de la Lámpara. Nuestros obje...

  7. Florence Nightingale. Profesionalización de los cuidados desde una perspectiva de la antropología feminista

    OpenAIRE

    González Gil, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Numerosas críticas se han hecho sobre el peso del género en la profesión enfermera y la institucionalización del mismo desde la reforma enfermera y profesionalización de los cuidados a mediados del siglo XIX con Florence Nightingale. El siguiente trabajo, no pretende ser más que una reflexión sobre esta crítica desde un punto de vista antropológico tomando como eje de reflexión las aportaciones hechas desde el feminismo de la diferencia. Se utilizará la antrop...

  8. Saúde e meio ambiente na contemporaneidade: o necessário resgate do legado de Florence Nightingale Salud y medio ambiente en la contemporaneidad: el necesario rescate del legado de Florence Nightingale Health and environment in contemporaneity: the essential review of Florence Nightingale's legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviamar Camponogara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As evidências de que a sociedade contemporânea vivencia uma intensa crise ambiental são cada vez mais contundentes. Na condição de sujeitos contemporâneos, sofremos o impacto de tais problemas ambientais, mas não necessariamente desenvolvemos ações de minimização do impacto ambiental. O texto busca problematizar a relação entre as questões ambientais e o campo da saúde, resgatando bases conceituais que possibilitem, aos profissionais de enfermagem e saúde, refletir sobre o tema e seu papel no processo de preservação ambiental, especialmente visando destacar o legado deixado por Florence Nightingale. Conclui-se que é necessária uma retomada do legado de Florence Nightingale, de forma a valorizar a dimensão ambiental como indispensável para o processo de assistência a saúde, tanto no que se refere à promoção da saúde e da qualidade de vida, como a minimização do impacto ambiental advindo do processo de trabalho em saúde. A reflexão ética e a abordagem educativa são fundamentais nesse processo.Las evidencias de que la sociedad contemporánea vivencia una intensa crisis ambiental son cada vez más contundentes. En la condición de sujetos contemporáneos sufrimos el impacto de tales problemas ambientales, pero no necesariamente desarrollamos acciones de minimización del impacto ambiental. El texto busca problematizar la relación entre las cuestiones ambientales y el campo de la salud, rescatando bases conceptuales que posibiliten a los profesionales de enfermería y salud reflexionar sobre el tema y su papel en el proceso de preservación ambiental, especialmente destacando el legado dejado por Florence Nightingale. Es necesaria la retomada del legado de Florence Nightingale como forma de valorizar la dimensión ambiental como indispensable para el proceso de asistencia a la salud, tanto en lo que se refiere a la promoción de la salud y de la calidad de vida, como la minimización del impacto ambiental

  9. Applications of radiocarbon measurements in environmental studies at INFN-LABEC, Florence

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    Chiari M.

    2012-04-01

    : foraminifera can be contaminated by heterogeneous materials, including organic matter too. Pre-treatment should thus remove all the possible contaminations without losing too much mass of the samples. Here we present an overview of the environmental radiocarbon applications the INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence is involved in. 14C is measured by AMS, using the dedicated beam line installed at the 3 MV Tandem accelerator. In particular, details about the hardware and the experimental procedures are given.

  10. Digitization of Cultural Heritage and Business Model Innovation: The Case of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lazzeretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, digitization has attracted increasing interest not only in museology and computer science, but also in economics and managerial literature. Scholars have tried to analyse how technological innovation is reshaping the role and mission of museums as producers and distributors of cultural content and investigate the new business model that emerges. The present work aims to investigate the adoption of ICT and innovation processes in museums, and their interaction dynamics between curators and technology developers. We analyse an Italian successful museum case study, the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, where digitization has been developed through a long-term partnership among the local University, a creative ICT enterprise and other technical partners. Data collection integrates some semi-structured interviews with information from websites, documents, publications, and the museum’s institutional communication. The main results show that this case can be defined as a Virtual Value Chain Model according to a curatorial approach at European level. Reecentemente, la digitalizzazione ha attratto un interesse crescente non solo nelle discipline museologiche e informatiche, ma anche nella letteratura economica e manageriale. Gli studiosi hanno provato ad analizzare quanto  l’innovazione tecnologica stia ridisegnando il ruolo e la mission dei musei come produttori e distributori di contenuti culturali, analizzando nel contempo  i nuovi modelli imprenditoriali che emergono. Questo contributo intende investigare l’adozione delle tecnologie dell’informazione e di nuovi processi nei musei, e le dinamiche di interazione tra curatori e sviluppatori di tecnologie. Si analizza un caso di successo italiano, la galleria degli Uffizi di Firenze, dove la digitalizzazione è stata sviluppata nell’ambito di una lunga collaborazione con la locale Università, un’impresa creativa e altri partner tecnici. La raccolta di dati integra le interviste semi

  11. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual

  12. Digital Workflow for the Acquisition and Elaboration of 3d Data in a Monumental Complex: the Fortress of Saint John the Baptist in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the GeCo Laboratory has undertaken numerous projects to digitalize vast and complex buildings; the specific nature of the different projects has resulted in a case-by-case approach, each time working on past experiences and updating not only the hardware and software tools but also the management and processing methods. This paper presents the workflow followed for the survey of the Fortress of Saint John the Baptist in Florence, an on-going interdisciplinary project. Presently Florence's main trade fair congress centre, at the same time it hosts various buildings that bear witness to the fortress's life-history, combining constructions from the Medici and Lorraine eras with recently built exhibition facilities. Now new research has been required due to the realization of new pavilions and the regeneration of the whole complex. This has included a critical survey, material testing, diagnostic investigations and stratigraphic analyses to define the building's state of preservation. The working group comprises specialists from different institutions, amongst which the Italian Military Geographic Institute, the University of Florence, the National Research Council Institute for the Preservation and Enhancement of the Cultural Heritage, and the Florence City Council.

  13. An Exchange of Paintings between the Courts of Vienna and Florence in 1792-1793: a Logical Step Taken at the Right Moment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    It may come as a surprise that in the turbulent political period of spring 1792 a decision was taken at the courts of Vienna and Florence to carry out an exchange of paintings, the aim of which was ‘to complete’ the collections of the Emperor and the Grand Duke, each ‘with the profusion of the

  14. 'Per incitamento a virtu' : Ludovico Capponi (1534-1614) en de schilderingen in zijn palazzo te Florence als aansporing tot deugd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botke, Klazina Dieuwke

    Ludovico Capponi (1534-1614) commissioned the painter Bernardino Poccetti (1548-1612) to decorate the Sala Grande of his palace in Florence around 1580. The subject of the elaborate programme was the political and military accomplishments of the Capponi family. By means of a text on the wall,

  15. Mosaïques de pierres dures : de la manufacture de Florence aux cours d’Europe

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    Annamaria Giusti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Crée par Ferdinand Ier de Médicis en 1588, l���Opificio delle Pietre Dure a consacré son activité à la production de commessi et de mosaïques de pierres dures. Par leur fantaisie, leur perfection technique et la préciosité de leur matériau, ces œuvres sont particulièrement appréciées au-delà même des frontières du Grand-Duché de Toscane. En effet, les Médicis en ont fait cadeau aux souverains des autres cours d’Europe. Leur politique a provoqué une véritable émulation : Rodolphe II d’Augsbourg, enthousiasmé par les travaux qu’il commanda lui-même à Florence, décida le premier d’appeler des artisans florentins à Prague pour y créer une manufacture. Il est suivi par Louis XIV qui forme un atelier de pierres dures au sein des Gobelins, tandis qu’au xviiie siècle, Charles de Bourbon fonde deux manufactures sur le modèle de Florence, dans le royaume de Naples et en Espagne. Les mosaïques florentines continuent à jouir du prestige international sous le règne des Lorena (1737-1799. Pendant tout le xixe siècle, alors que Florence n’est plus le siège de la cour, l’Opificio compte parmi ses commanditaires Louis II de Bavière et le Tsar de Russie. Ces commandes sont les dernières d’une manufacture royale qui a duré pendant trois siècles. Désormais l’Opificio se consacre à la restauration des œuvres d’art.

  16. Cycling promotion and non-communicable disease prevention: health impact assessment and economic evaluation of cycling to work or school in Florence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Taddei

    Full Text Available To estimate the effects of cycling promotion on major non-communicable diseases (NCDs and costs from the public healthcare payer's perspective.Health impact assessment and economic evaluation using a dynamic model over a ten-year period and according to two cycling promotion scenarios.Cycling to work or school in Florence, Italy.All individuals aged 15 and older commuting to work or school in Florence.The primary outcome measures were changes in NCD incidence and healthcare direct costs for the Tuscany Regional Health Service (SST due to increased cycling. The secondary outcome was change in road traffic accidents.Increasing cycling modal share in Florence from 7.5% to about 17% (Scenario 1 or 27% (Scenario 2 could decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.2% or 2.5%, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke by 0.6% or 1.2%. Within 10 years, the number of cases that can be prevented is 280 or 549 for type 2 diabetes, 51 or 100 for AMI, and 51 or 99 for stroke in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. Average annual discounted savings for the SST are estimated to amount to €400,804 or €771,201 in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. In Florence, due to the high use of vulnerable motorized vehicles (such as scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles, road traffic accidents are expected to decline in both our scenarios. Sensitivity analyses showed that health benefits and savings for the SST are substantial, the most sensitive parameters being the relative risk estimates of NCDs and active commuting.Effective policies and programs to promote a modal shift towards cycling among students and workers in Florence will contribute to reducing the NCD burden and helping long-term economic sustainability of the SST.

  17. Cycling Promotion and Non-Communicable Disease Prevention: Health Impact Assessment and Economic Evaluation of Cycling to Work or School in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Cristina; Gnesotto, Roberto; Forni, Silvia; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Vannucci, Andrea; Garofalo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effects of cycling promotion on major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and costs from the public healthcare payer’s perspective. Design Health impact assessment and economic evaluation using a dynamic model over a ten-year period and according to two cycling promotion scenarios. Setting Cycling to work or school in Florence, Italy. Population All individuals aged 15 and older commuting to work or school in Florence. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were changes in NCD incidence and healthcare direct costs for the Tuscany Regional Health Service (SST) due to increased cycling. The secondary outcome was change in road traffic accidents. Results Increasing cycling modal share in Florence from 7.5% to about 17% (Scenario 1) or 27% (Scenario 2) could decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.2% or 2.5%, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke by 0.6% or 1.2%. Within 10 years, the number of cases that can be prevented is 280 or 549 for type 2 diabetes, 51 or 100 for AMI, and 51 or 99 for stroke in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. Average annual discounted savings for the SST are estimated to amount to €400,804 or €771,201 in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. In Florence, due to the high use of vulnerable motorized vehicles (such as scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles), road traffic accidents are expected to decline in both our scenarios. Sensitivity analyses showed that health benefits and savings for the SST are substantial, the most sensitive parameters being the relative risk estimates of NCDs and active commuting. Conclusions Effective policies and programs to promote a modal shift towards cycling among students and workers in Florence will contribute to reducing the NCD burden and helping long-term economic sustainability of the SST. PMID:25928421

  18. A comparative study on the genesis of North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone Madi (2013) and Atlantic Ocean tropical cyclone Florence (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasree, V. P. M.; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Bhate, Jyoti N.; Singh, Vikas; Umakanth, U.; Varma, T. Harish

    2016-12-01

    A modeling study has been carried out to understand the similarities and differences in the genesis sequence of a Bay of Bengal tropical cyclone Madi (6-13 December 2013) and the Atlantic Ocean tropical cyclone Florence (3-12 September 2006) on the applicability of hypotheses of the marsupial theory of tropical cyclogenesis. We examined the role of the protective pouch and warm core formation during their genesis and intensification phases. We have chosen tropical cyclone Madi and tropical cyclone Florence for our study specifically due to both of these tropical cyclones originated from westward moving parent disturbance embedded in the intertropical convergence zone. Also, the genesis and intensification of tropical cyclone Florence were accompanied by a series of Saharan dust outbreaks. Our results indicated that the dry air intrusion was not a dominant detrimental factor for the genesis of tropical cyclone Madi and showed rapid intensification within the pouch region. However, in the case of the tropical cyclone Florence, the delay in the intensification as a category 1 tropical cyclone from its tropical depression stage was due to entrainment of the dry air into the core of cyclonic vortex up to 700 hPa from above. The results from this study showed that the wave pouch played a most significant role in the vorticity upscale cascade (First hypothesis) and moisture aggregation (Second hypothesis) in pregenesis period of both the tropical cyclones. It also prevented the lateral dry air intrusion (Second hypothesis) from the Saharan Air Layer during the genesis phase of tropical cyclone Florence.

  19. Prehistory in Peril: The Worst and Best of Durango Archaeology, by Florence C. Lister, 1997, University Press of Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Breternitz

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of archaeology in the United States (and elsewhere is fraught with examples of real and imag­ined conflicts of interest between academics, professionals and government officials on the one hand and their local counterparts of amateur archaeologists, newspaper reporters, artifact speculators and just inter­ested citizens. Florence Lister has reconstructed the story (still ongoing by the way of the interplay of opposing schools of thought as it involved archaeology in the Durango, Colorado, vicinity. Given a subject beset with emotions. acquisitions. misrepresentations, rumors, name calling, mistrust, and occasionally, cooperation between the parties involved, the author has presented the fascinating history of Durango archaeology in a documented, readable and unbiased book that derives much of its value by calling forth archival material that has until now been unavailable or has existed as nebulous oral tradition.

  20. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Gelli, N.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Romano, F. P.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm2), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  1. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  2. THE 3rd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 14-18 APRIL 2012, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbs, Brandon; Achalia, Rashmin M; Adelufosi, Adegoke O; Aktener, Ahmet Yiğit; Beveridge, Natalie J; Bhakta, Savita G; Blackman, Rachael K; Bora, Emre; Byun, MS; Cabanis, Maurice; Carrion, Ricardo; Castellani, Christina A; Chow, Tze Jen; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Gomes, Felipe V; Haut, Kristen; Hori, Hiroaki; Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Lee, Frankie HF; Lin, Ashleigh; Palaniyappan, Lena; Quan, Meina; Rubio, Maria D; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Sahoo, Saddichha; Strauss, Gregory P; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Thompson, Andrew D; Trotta, Antonella; Tully, Laura M; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Velthorst, Eva; Young, Jared W; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 14-18, 2012.and this year had as its emphasis, “The Globalization of Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these summaries. We hope that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:22910407

  3. A nondestructive stratigraphic and radiographic neutron study of Lorenzo Ghiberti's reliefs from paradise and north doors of Florence baptistery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Andreani, C.; de Pascale, M. P.; Senesi, R.; Vitali, G.; Porcinai, S.; Giusti, A. M.; Schulze, R.; Canella, L.; Kudejova, P.; Mühlbauer, M.; Schillinger, B.; Ancient Charm Collaboration

    2009-10-01

    A neutron study on two gilded bronze reliefs by Lorenzo Ghiberti is presented. The two reliefs, representing heads of prophets, come from the north and east doors of the Baptistery of Florence. The east door will be permanently located at the Museo dell'Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore museum at the end of its restoration, which is still in progress at the Metals Conservation Department of the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in Florence. The north door is kept in the original site, on the north facade of the Florentine Baptistery. Both reliefs exhibit critical aspects regarding their state of conservation in particular the stability of the gold layer on the bronze surface. Moreover the east head presents a remelting of which extension and composition are still unknown. The present work describes a non-destructive study of the subgilding area and bulk. The two main objectives of such analyses are: (1) to study the manufacturing technique and state of conservation of the reliefs; and (2) to assess the two cleaning techniques (laser cleaning and Rochelle salts chemical cleaning) used by the conservators during the restoration process of the east door. The experiment was carried out using prompt gamma-ray activation imaging combined with neutron radiography and conventional neutron radiography. The former method was applied to map the elemental composition of the two reliefs, while neutron radiography was used to investigate the bulk. The results provide significant information about subsuperficial areas, elemental composition of the objects from the surface down to a depth of 1 mm below gilding, and bulk structure of the remelting. Such information will guide the curators in the selection of the most suitable microclimatic conditions for the exhibition of the east door and for future conservation work on the north door.

  4. The Renaissance. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.8. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.8 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and diffusion of the Renaissance," in terms of the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts affected a new interest in humanism; the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the…

  5. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  6. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  7. A teoria ambientalista de florence nightingale no ensino da escola de enfermagem Anna Nery (1962 - 1968 La teoría ambientalista de florence nightingale en la enseñanza de la escola de enfermagem Anna Nery (1962 - 1968 The environmental theory by florence nightingale in the teaching of the nursing school Anna Nery (1962 - 1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Cristin do Nascimento Haddad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo histórico-social. Objetivos: caracterizar a Teoria Ambientalista de Florence Nightingale e analisar a aplicação dos conceitos dessa teoria no ensino da disciplina "fundamentos de enfermagem" na EEAN. Fontes: quarta edição do "Novo Manual de Técnica de Enfermagem" de Elvira de Felice Souza, livros, leis, teses, dissertações, trabalhos científicos. O Manual apresenta princípios para a boa execução da assistência de enfermagem, citando ações que proporcionam ao doente bem-estar físico, mental e espiritual. Estes princípios corroboram os pensamentos de Florence Nightingale que denotam a importância da implementação de uma assistência caracterizada por condições de recuperação, cura e reabilitação relacionadas com a qualidade do ambiente. Conclusão: constatação de que o ensino na época focalizava não somente o desenvolvimento das técnicas de enfermagem de forma correta, mas também a prática de ações que garantissem o cuidado holístico através de uma assistência pautada nos valores morais da sociedade e pelos princípios éticos da profissão.Estudio histórico y social. Objetivos: Caracterizar la Teoría Ambientalista de Florence Nightingale y analizar la aplicación de sus conceptos en la enseñanza de la asignatura "Fundamentos de Enfermería" en EEAN. Fuentes: 4ª edición del "Nuevo Manual de Enfermería Técnica", de Elvira de Felice Souza, libros, leyes, tesis, disertaciones y trabajos científicos. El manual establece los principios para el buen desarrollo de los cuidados de enfermería, citando las acciones que le dan al paciente el bienestar físico, mental y espiritual. Estos principios están de acuerdo con el pensamiento de Florence Nightingale, que denota la importancia de implementar un servicio caracterizado por las condiciones de la recuperación, curación y rehabilitación relacionadas con la calidad del medio ambiente. Conclusión: la constatación de que la enseñanza de la

  8. The artisans of ‘Plus Ultra’: Pilots, cartographers and cosmographers in the House of Trade in Seville during the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates how the institutionalization of cosmography and navigation ended with the slogan Non Terrae Plus Ultra, and led to the emergence of imperial heading Plus Ultra helped by the navigation of a Mare Tenebrosum (the Atlantic Ocean, and the delineation of the contours of a new world that began beyond the Columns of Hercules. This process was made possible by the establishment in Seville of the House of Trade in 1503 and the creation of scientific offices such as Pilot Major, master of making nautical charts or cosmographer. The ship appears on the cover of the Regimiento de navegación (1606 by Andres García de Céspedes across the pillars of the hero of Greek mythology highlights the Baconian premise of man's dominion over nature, the knowledge gained through the conquest of the West Indies, and also the wishes of the Spanish monarchy by taking advantage of the usefulness of scientific knowledge by joining the nautical experience and cosmographical theory.

  9. The “Hospital Real de San Josef de los Naturales” and the rheumatic conditions found in New Spain during sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramos-Remus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatology has come a long way since its origins. Rheumatic conditions are some of the oldest recognized conditions in human and animal remains all around the world. They have been recognized and managed by all medical traditions, even before Hippocrates. Hippocrates wrote on gout and other ill-defined rheumatic conditions, and mentioned for the first time the existence of synovial fluid...

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF SONG-TEXT COLLECTION BELONGS TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY: Bodleian Library of Oxford University With The Number of 127 and 128

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri Parmaksiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The song-text collections have great significance in consequence of their tasks in Turkish Music. The music performers have received support from song-text collections in remembering the modes, rhythms, the composers and especially the lyrics consisting short or long poems related to the each of the songs which they intend to keep in their minds.Today, those collections demonstrate the researchers employing modes, composers, forms and rhythms the musical works recorded in their contents and the transformation which Turkish Music has experienced throughout centuries.In this study, a song-text collection of the 16th century recorded in the Bodleian Library of Oxford University with the number of 127 and 128 was analyzed. The finding which obtain from song-text collection which analyzed with systematic musicology and historical methodology is expected to contribute importantly. Keywords: XVI. century, Turkish Music, song-text collection, Bodleian Library

  11. Moneychanging and Urban Elites: the Rise of Antonio de Paredes and his Family in Valladolid at the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David CARVAJAL DE LA VEGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 15th century, Valladolid went through a period of prosperity that strengthened its position as one of the most significant towns in the Crown of Castile during the 16th century. This propitious context, favouring the development of commercial and financial businesses, prompted the appearance of individuals who, alongside their families, began to increase their economic power and to reinforce their social links, leading them to occupy a position among the urban elite. The aim of this paper is to trace the figure of Antonio de Paredes, a moneychanger, considering both his financial activities and his growing presence among Valladolid’s urban elite. This greater presence, along with his economic status and his well-earned reputation, paved the road for his sons to become part of the town’s local council.

  12. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program.

  13. La Chanson de Florence de Rome y Otas de Roma: Algunas consideraciones sobre traducción en la Edad Medi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Carolina Rodas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El cotejo de la construcción de los personajes y de los espacios en La Chanson de Florence de Rome con su variante castellana, Otas de Roma , permite establecer lineamientos referidos a las particularidades de la traducción medieval. En esta circunstancia de traspaso, el material sufre lógicas transformaciones debido a su recontextualización.

  14. 'A model for the country': letters from Florence Nightingale to the architect, Thomas Worthington, on hospitals and other matters 1865-1868.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stella Vera F

    2013-12-01

    Between 1865 and 1868 the Manchester architect, Thomas Worthington and Florence Nightingale corresponded about hospital design. Worthington was involved in building hospitals for two Poor Law Unions in Manchester. The designs of both hospitals were based on the 'pavilion' principle of which Nightingale became a vocal national champion. Through five letters written by Nightingale to Worthington, the paper explores Nightingale's views focussing on her admiration for the designs, and examines the importance of these commissions for Worthington's career as a hospital architect.

  15. THE TOMB OF SETI I (KV17 IN THE FLORENCE EGYPTIAN MUSEUM. INTEGRATED NON-INVASIVE METHODS FOR DOCUMENTATION, MATERIAL HISTORY AND DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Coppola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tomb of Seti I (KV17 is a magnificent example of New Kingdom funerary architecture, among the longest tombs in the Valley of the Kings. As part of a collaboration between the Egyptian Museum in Florence, the University of Florence and CNR, a survey project was launched, with non-invasive methods, on the fragments from the Seti I tomb, in Florence, coming from a gate jamb connecting the chamber F to the corridor G, taken by the franco-tuscan expedition in 1829. The primary goal is to achieve the best level of documentation, knowledge of the material history and conservation assessment. Preliminary results allowed to focus some steps of the history of this fragment, from its realization to the present. The digital documentation created an excellent support for the mapping and management of the collected information. Even if still on a preliminary phase, this study shows how the combination of imaging and spectroscopic techniques allowed the characterization of many materials and the mapping of their distribution on the surface. Several original pigments have been identified as well as many anomalies due to subsequent interventions.

  16. The Tomb of SETI i (KV17) in the Florence Egyptian Museum. Integrated Non-Invasive Methods for Documentation, Material History and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, M.; Bracci, S.; Cantisani, E.; Magrini, D.

    2017-05-01

    The tomb of Seti I (KV17) is a magnificent example of New Kingdom funerary architecture, among the longest tombs in the Valley of the Kings. As part of a collaboration between the Egyptian Museum in Florence, the University of Florence and CNR, a survey project was launched, with non-invasive methods, on the fragments from the Seti I tomb, in Florence, coming from a gate jamb connecting the chamber F to the corridor G, taken by the franco-tuscan expedition in 1829. The primary goal is to achieve the best level of documentation, knowledge of the material history and conservation assessment. Preliminary results allowed to focus some steps of the history of this fragment, from its realization to the present. The digital documentation created an excellent support for the mapping and management of the collected information. Even if still on a preliminary phase, this study shows how the combination of imaging and spectroscopic techniques allowed the characterization of many materials and the mapping of their distribution on the surface. Several original pigments have been identified as well as many anomalies due to subsequent interventions.

  17. Interpretation of“Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection - the Maastricht Ⅴ/Florence Consensus Report”%《幽门螺杆菌感染的处理:Maastricht Ⅴ/Florence 共识报告》解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文忠

    2016-01-01

    “Management of Helicobacter pylori infection — the Maastricht Ⅴ Consensus Conference”held in Florence, Italy,October 8-9th,2015 was convened for developing a new consensus on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection in following aspects:1. Indication/ Associations,2. Diagnosis,3. Treatment,4. Prevention/ Public Health,5. Helicobacter pylori and the Gastric Microbiota. A detailed interpretation of these contents was made in this paper.%2015年10月8—9日,“幽门螺杆菌感染的处理:Maastricht V 共识会议”在意大利佛罗伦萨举行。会议达成了下列幽门螺杆菌感染处理方面的新共识:①指征/相关性;②诊断;③治疗;④预防/公共卫生;⑤幽门螺杆菌和胃微生物群。本文对这些内容进行详细解读。

  18. As tecnologias de cuidado de enfermagem obstétrica fundamentas pela teoria ambientalista de Florence Nightingale Las tecnologías de cuidado de enfermería obstétrica basadas en la teoría ambientalista de Florence Nightingale The care technologies of obstetrical nursing based in the environmental theories of Florence Nightingale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira Macedo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo reflexivo que teve como objetivo discutir o conceito Tecnologia de Cuidado de Enfermagem aplicada à saúde da mulher à luz da Teoria Ambientalista de Florence Nightingale. O estudo permitiu identificar e discutir os seguintes aspectos: o ambiente e o parto, o acompanhante durante o trabalho de parto e parto, a privacidade, o cuidado de enfermagem à mulher durante as modificações fisiológicas, a mulher como protagonista do trabalho de parto e parto, a presença atenciosa da enfermeira no ambiente da mulher, o respeito à individualidade, o ambiente acolhedor, sons e iluminação, a dieta líquida durante o trabalho de parto e parto, a deambulação e movimentação livre durante o trabalho de parto e parto, higiene e conforto, a intersubjetividade na relação enfermeira-usuária e o resgate do saber feminino popular. Concluiu-se que é possível a apropriação dos conceitos da Teoria Ambientalista para fundamentar as Tecnologias de Cuidado aplicadas no cotidiano da Enfermagem Obstétrica.Estudio reflexivo que tuvo como objetivo discutir el concepto Tecnología de Cuidado de Enfermería aplicada a la salud de la mujer a la luz de la Teoría Ambientalista de Florence Nightingale. El estudio permitió identificar y discutir los siguientes aspectos: el ambiente y el parto, el acompañante durante el trabajo de parto y parto, la privacidad, el cuidado de la enfermería a la mujer en las modificaciones fisiológicas, la mujer como personaje principal de su trabajo de parto y parto, la presencia atenta de la enfermera en el ambiente de la mujer, el respeto a la individualidad, el ambiente acogedor, sonidos y iluminación, la dieta líquida mientras el trabajo de parto y parto, la caminata y movimiento libre mientras el trabajo de parto y parto, limpieza y confort, la intersubjetividad en la relación enfermerausuaria, y el rescate del conocer femenino estimado por el pueblo. Se concluyó que es posible adecuar los conceptos de la Teor

  19. Saga of American Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A.; Smith, Ronald A.

    This history of sports and athletic activities in America covers a time span from the close of the sixteenth century to the present time. It is divided into three major sections. The first, "Colonial and Early American Sport," narrates the early moral and ethical attitudes of the Puritans and follows the changes in attitudes and introduction of…

  20. Optimal and Sustainable Plant Refurbishment in Historical Buildings: A Study of an Ancient Monastery Converted into a Showroom in Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Balocco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the possibility and sustainability of retrofit and refurbishment design solutions on historical buildings converted to different uses and often clashing with their original purpose and architectural features. The building studied is an ancient monastery located in the historical center of Florence (Italy. Today the original cloister is covered over by a single glazed pitched roof and used as a fashion showroom. Our proposed solution concerns a reversible and sustainable plant design integrated with an active transparent building casing. The existing glazed pitched roof was reconsidered and re-designed as part of the existing heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC plant system, based on the functioning of an active thermal buffer to control the high heat flow rates and external thermal loads due to solar radiation. Hourly whole building energy analysis was carried out to check the effectiveness and energy sustainability of our proposed solution. Results obtained showed, from the historical-architectural, energy and environmental points of view, its sustainability due to the building-plant system integration and interaction with its location, the external climatic conditions and defined expected uses, in particular with reference to indoor thermal comfort.

  1. «Possino tante belle curiosità vedersi, prima che in Torino, in Firenze»: relazioni tra Medici e Savoia nel secondo Seicento attraverso Donato Rossetti / «Possino tante belle curiosità vedersi, prima che in Torino, in Firenze» (Could such a lot of beautiful curiosities be seen in Turin earlier than in Florence : relationships between the Medici and the Savoia during the second half of the 17th Century through Donato Rossetti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Piccinelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio presenta alcuni risultati dell’indagine archivistica condotta sulle filze Savoia del fondo Mediceo del Principato dell’Archivio di Stato di Firenze. I documenti, letti criticamente e selezionati attraverso una prospettiva storico artistica, permettono di mettere in luce nuovi aspetti della figura dell’ingegnere livornese Donato Rossetti, il quale svolge il ruolo di intermediario informativo artistico tra Torino e Firenze. Attraverso suoi dispacci da Torino e missive inviate da Francesco Bondicchi da Milano a Firenze emergono sia alcuni aspetti inediti delle relazioni tra le due corti, sia il rapporto biunivoco tra centri e periferie che si precisa nel corso del Seicento. A metà secolo il ruolo di modello svolto da Firenze fa sentire ancora la propria influenza al di fuori dei confini del granducato e contemporaneamente Firenze guarda con vivo interesse alla scena artistica e urbanistica torinese. Relations between the Savoia and the Florentine court were very intense during the early modern age. Almost every day, diplomatics and residents in the Savoia court sent letters and avvisi to Florence by revealing interesting details on the everyday life and by shedding light on a range of relevant political, diplomatic, familiar and artistic dynamics. Florentine ambassadors’ or intermediaries’ reports - such as Donato Rossetti’s letters - focus on the first concern of the Savoia court, after settling in Turin, that was to build a fortified citadel and to redraw the plan of the city. During my systematic analysis of Florentine court documents at the Florence State Archive, I uncovered compelling evidence of these intricate affairs regarding the rebuilding of Turin, and these unpublished documents shed new light both on the expansion of the city and on relations between Savoia and Medici courts. This paper provide evidence to suggest that Florence was considered by the Savoy Court as the leading innovator in visual arts and

  2. The Balletto suites in the choreographic manuals of Fabritio Caroso and Cesare Negri: a study of danced suites in Italy during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Monahin, Nona

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the danced suites described in the manuals of two prominent sixteenth-century Italian dancing masters, Fabritio Caroso and Cesare Negri. Caroso produced two manuals: Il Ballarino (Venice, 1581) and La Nobiltà di Dame (Venice, 1600, 1605). Negri wrote one, Le Gratie d’Amore (Milan, 1602; reissued as Nuove Inventioni di balli in 1604). Together, these three dance manuals contain choreographic instructions and music for a total of one hundred and seventy-two compositions, s...

  3. Open elite? Social mobility, marriage, and family in Florence, 1282-1494.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, John F

    2010-01-01

    This article statistically analyzes quantitative data from numerous sources in order to assess changes in marriage patterns, family structure, and rates of social mobility during the period from 1282 to 1494. During this period, three systems of social stratification coexisted -- wealth, political office, and age of family -- but these contending status systems were not consistent in their rankings of families. Each status system was conservative in the sense that elite families at the top of that hierarchy married each other in order to stabilize their position. But because of inconsistency in rankings, contradiction within the elite opened up the Florentine marriage system to widespread upward social mobility by new men. In their own families, successful new men aggressively imitated their economically and politically declining status superiors. Sharp class divisions thereby blurred into continuous and negotiable status gradients. These open-elite patterns of social mobility, present throughout the early Florentine Renaissance, were most extreme during the Albizzi regime, immediately following the Ciompi Revolt.

  4. The Florence Nightingale Effect: Organizational Identification Explains the Peculiar Link Between Others' Suffering and Workplace Functioning in the Homelessness Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Laura J; Jetten, Jolanda; Johnstone, Melissa; Girdham, Elise; Parsell, Cameron; Walter, Zoe C

    2016-01-01

    Frontline employees in the helping professions often perform their duties against a difficult backdrop, including a complex client base and ongoing themes of crisis, suffering, and distress. These factors combine to create an environment in which workers are vulnerable to workplace stress and burnout. The present study tested two models to understand how frontline workers in the homelessness sector deal with the suffering of their clients. First, we examined whether relationships between suffering and workplace functioning (job satisfaction and burnout) would be mediated by organizational identification. Second, we examined whether emotional distance from clients (i.e., infrahumanization, measured as reduced attribution of secondary emotions) would predict improved workplace functioning (less burnout and greater job satisfaction), particularly when client contact is high. The study involved a mixed-methods design comprising interview (N = 26) and cross-sectional survey data (N = 60) with a sample of frontline staff working in the homelessness sector. Participants were asked to rate the level of client suffering and attribute emotions in a hypothetical client task, and to complete questionnaire measures of burnout, job satisfaction, and organizational identification. We found no relationships between secondary emotion attribution and burnout or satisfaction. Instead, we found that perceiving higher client suffering was linked with higher job satisfaction and lower burnout. Mediation analyses revealed a mediating role for identification, such that recognizing suffering predicted greater identification with the organization, which fully mediated the relationship between suffering and job satisfaction, and also between suffering and burnout. Qualitative analysis of interview data also resonated with this conceptualization. We introduce this novel finding as the 'Florence Nightingale effect'. With this sample drawn from the homelessness sector, we provide preliminary

  5. The Florence Nightingale Effect: Organizational Identification Explains the Peculiar Link Between Others’ Suffering and Workplace Functioning in the Homelessness Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Laura J.; Jetten, Jolanda; Johnstone, Melissa; Girdham, Elise; Parsell, Cameron; Walter, Zoe C.

    2016-01-01

    Frontline employees in the helping professions often perform their duties against a difficult backdrop, including a complex client base and ongoing themes of crisis, suffering, and distress. These factors combine to create an environment in which workers are vulnerable to workplace stress and burnout. The present study tested two models to understand how frontline workers in the homelessness sector deal with the suffering of their clients. First, we examined whether relationships between suffering and workplace functioning (job satisfaction and burnout) would be mediated by organizational identification. Second, we examined whether emotional distance from clients (i.e., infrahumanization, measured as reduced attribution of secondary emotions) would predict improved workplace functioning (less burnout and greater job satisfaction), particularly when client contact is high. The study involved a mixed-methods design comprising interview (N = 26) and cross-sectional survey data (N = 60) with a sample of frontline staff working in the homelessness sector. Participants were asked to rate the level of client suffering and attribute emotions in a hypothetical client task, and to complete questionnaire measures of burnout, job satisfaction, and organizational identification. We found no relationships between secondary emotion attribution and burnout or satisfaction. Instead, we found that perceiving higher client suffering was linked with higher job satisfaction and lower burnout. Mediation analyses revealed a mediating role for identification, such that recognizing suffering predicted greater identification with the organization, which fully mediated the relationship between suffering and job satisfaction, and also between suffering and burnout. Qualitative analysis of interview data also resonated with this conceptualization. We introduce this novel finding as the ‘Florence Nightingale effect’. With this sample drawn from the homelessness sector, we provide

  6. The Florence Nightingale effect: Organizational identification explains the peculiar link between others’ suffering and workplace functioning in the homelessness sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Ferris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontline employees in the helping professions often perform their duties against a difficult backdrop, including a complex client base and ongoing themes of crisis, suffering, and distress. These factors combine to create an environment in which workers are vulnerable to workplace stress and burnout. The present study tested two models to understand how frontline workers in the homelessness sector deal with the suffering of their clients. First, we examined whether relationships between suffering and workplace functioning (job satisfaction and burnout would be mediated by organizational identification. Second, we examined whether emotional distance from clients (i.e. infrahumanization, measured as reduced attribution of secondary emotions would predict improved workplace functioning (less burnout and greater job satisfaction, particularly when client contact is high. The study involved a mixed-methods design comprising interview (N = 26 and cross-sectional survey data (N = 60 with a sample of frontline staff working in the homelessness sector. Participants were asked to rate the level of client suffering and attribute emotions in a hypothetical client task, and to complete questionnaire measures of burnout, job satisfaction, and organizational identification. We found no relationships between secondary emotion attribution and burnout or satisfaction. Instead, we found that perceiving higher client suffering was linked with higher job satisfaction and lower burnout. Mediation analyses revealed a mediating role for identification, such that recognizing suffering predicted greater identification with the organization, which fully mediated the relationship between suffering and job satisfaction, and also between suffering and burnout. Qualitative analysis of interview data also resonated with this conceptualization. We introduce this novel finding as the ‘Florence Nightingale effect’. With this sample drawn from the homelessness sector, we

  7. The pulsed beam facility at the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in Florence: Overview and examples of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccetti, N.; Giuntini, L.; Casini, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Chiari, M.; Fedi, M. E.; Mandò, P. A.

    2002-04-01

    An electrostatic chopper has been installed at the KN 3000 accelerator in Florence to obtain short beam pulses with a number of particles per pulse whose average value can be chosen by varying the current intensity at the deflector plates input. Beam pulses can be obtained containing an average number of particles per pulse from less than one to thousands. The transmitted beam pulses can be as short as 200 ps FWHM, at a repetition rate up to about 100 kHz. Among the many applications of the facility, the direct measurement of energy loss and straggling of protons in Kapton and aluminium is reported. In this measurement, the facility has been tuned for transmission of mainly single-proton pulses; the beam energy is directly measured downstream with a good energy-resolution detector, without and with absorbers in front. In general, measurements of this kind can be directed both to study the basic processes of charged particles interactions in materials, or more practically to obtain the effective values of energy parameters useful in many IBA applications, avoiding the need to rely on simulations or theoretical estimates. Also briefly described is an application to Si-detector testing. In this case, the facility has been tuned for transmission of pulses containing many hundreds of protons of energy Ep=2.5 MeV and the detector is directly exposed to the pulses. Spectra containing equally spaced peaks at energies multiple of Ep are obtained and the response linearity of the detector plus electronics system can thus be checked.

  8. The pulsed beam facility at the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in Florence: Overview and examples of applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccetti, N.; Giuntini, L. E-mail: giuntini@fi.infn.it; Casini, G.; Stefanini, A.A.; Chiari, M.; Fedi, M.E.; Mando, P.A

    2002-04-01

    An electrostatic chopper has been installed at the KN 3000 accelerator in Florence to obtain short beam pulses with a number of particles per pulse whose average value can be chosen by varying the current intensity at the deflector plates input. Beam pulses can be obtained containing an average number of particles per pulse from less than one to thousands. The transmitted beam pulses can be as short as 200 ps FWHM, at a repetition rate up to about 100 kHz. Among the many applications of the facility, the direct measurement of energy loss and straggling of protons in Kapton and aluminium is reported. In this measurement, the facility has been tuned for transmission of mainly single-proton pulses; the beam energy is directly measured downstream with a good energy-resolution detector, without and with absorbers in front. In general, measurements of this kind can be directed both to study the basic processes of charged particles interactions in materials, or more practically to obtain the effective values of energy parameters useful in many IBA applications, avoiding the need to rely on simulations or theoretical estimates. Also briefly described is an application to Si-detector testing. In this case, the facility has been tuned for transmission of pulses containing many hundreds of protons of energy E{sub p}=2.5 MeV and the detector is directly exposed to the pulses. Spectra containing equally spaced peaks at energies multiple of E{sub p} are obtained and the response linearity of the detector plus electronics system can thus be checked.

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Constructing Early Modern Empires: Proprietary Ventures in the Atlantic World, 1500-1750, edited by L.H. Roper & B. Van Ruymbeke (Elizabeth Mancke Havana and the Atlantic in the Sixteenth Century, by Alejandro de la Fuente with the collaboration of C

  10. The Myth of a Feminist Humanism: Thomas Salter's "The Mirrhor of Modestie".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Janis Butler

    1985-01-01

    A late sixteenth century work articulates one of the most conservative of Early Modern positions on women's education. It is found to contradict the commonly-held idea that a feminist humanism encouraging women to enter the sphere of arts and letters persisted in this period. (MSE)

  11. Valentijn ende Oursson: Auteur, vertaler, censor en doelgroep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Kuiper

    2012-01-01

    In the 2010 issue of this yearbook Voortgang I have explained why and how I got involved in the late medieval French Histoire de Valentin et Orson and its early sixteenth century translation into Dutch: Die historie van Valentijn ende Oursson. Since then a lot of ‘progress’ had been made. Editions o

  12. "The field of finance": war and taxation in Holland, Flanders and Brabant, 1572-85

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch province of Holland has solicited much research in the context of the link between war and political development, an important theme in early modern historiography. During the Dutch Revolt in the late sixteenth century it became the core and financial bedrock of a new, powerful, and very p

  13. Cuius regio, eius religio: The ambivalent meanings of state-building in Protestant Germany, 1555-1655

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C.F. von Friedeburg (Robert)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCentral Europe at the turn of the sixteenth century may best be understood as a collection of three supra-national polities: the Hungarian Kingdom, the Polish-Lithuanian Confederation and the Empire of the German Nation.1 None of these Empires survived the early modern period. The kingdo

  14. Protego-proterreo. Making an Amulet by Mutilating a Manuscript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, D.E.H.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution describes the way in which amulets functioned in the medieval Latin West at the intersection of magic, medicine and religion and the way in which they were made. A Pantaleon amulet from the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century serves as an example. This amulet has been cut out

  15. Tycho Brahe and Egnazio Danti. Observations and astronomical research at Prague and Florence at the end of the 16th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarico, Carlo

    The paper aims at pointing out the similarities between the astronomical research of Tycho Brahe and Egnazio Danti. The main issue is the comparison between the researches of the two astronomers about the measurement of the ecliptic's obliquity and its possible variation. The books published by the two scientists about the use and building up of the astronomical instruments will be also compared. Finally, will be given some examples of instruments of the Medici Family collection in the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza in Florence, which come from Praha and were built by the technicians who worked for Tycho.

  16. The diaspora of inhabitants from Lucca in the 14th century and the first developments of the silk industry in Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tognetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay aims to analyse a key phenomenon in 14th Florence economic history: the first development of silk industry. This manufacture owes its start-up to the immigration of entrepreneurs, craftsmen and workers from Lucca, as in the well-studied Venetian case. The Lucchese contribution, due to many political exiles of Guelph tendency, is examined through an exceptional and practically unknown Florentine notarial source: the countless deeds of Michele di Salvestro Contadini, notary working from 1324 to 1381, for many years on duty with the silk guild of Por Santa Maria.

  17. Florence Nightingale murió hace cien años... pero sus ideales y su obra aún perduran

    OpenAIRE

    ALARCÓN NELLY GARZÓN

    2010-01-01

    El año 2010 se consagró en el mundo como el Año Internacional de la Enfermera (AI-Enfermera), con el fin de conmemorar el primer centenario de la muerte de Florence Nightingale, que ocurrió el 13 de agosto de 1910, como se evidencia en su tumba, en el jardín de la Iglesia de Santa Margarita en East Wellow, Inglaterra.

    Esta celebración global del Año Internacional de la Enfermera es una actividad colaborativa que obedece a una política y una iniciativa mundiales orie...

  18. Trabajo, estética de la producción y escenas sociales. Etnografías multi-integradas de Florence Weber

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Assusa

    2014-01-01

    Trabalho fora do trabalho (2009) fue por primera vez publicado en 1989 en idioma francés, con el título Le travail à côté. Etude d'ethnographie ouvrière. Esta obra de Florence Weber es resultado de una investigación etnográfica realizada durante finales de la década de 1970 y principios de la de 1980, en la villa industrial de Montbard, en el medio rural francés. El libro se organiza en tres partes. La primera presenta los principios metodológicos que informaron esta etnografía, la reflexivid...

  19. The set-up for forward scattered particle detection at the external microbeam facility of the INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Gelli, N.; Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L.; Czelusniak, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Gueli, A.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years some new implementations and upgrades have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence, enriching the existing PIXE, PIGE, BS, IBIL set-up with complementary techniques, when possible allowing for simultaneous multi-technique analyses. We developed a system, compatible with the existing set-up, for the out-of-vacuum detection of the forward scattered particles. This system makes feasible the external-STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) and external-FS (Forward Scattering), now both available at our beamline. Test measurements are shortly presented.

  20. Report on the 2nd Florence International Symposium on Advances in Cardiomyopathies: 9th meeting of the European Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases WG of the ESC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cecchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A bridge between clinical and basic science aiming at cross fertilization, with leading experts presenting alongside junior investigators, is the key feature of the “2nd Florence International Symposium on Advances in Cardiomyopathies” , 9th Meeting of the Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases Working Group of the European Society of Cardiology, which was held in Florence, Italy on 26-­-28th September 2012. Patients with cardiomyopathies, with an estimated 3 per thousand prevalence in the general population, constitute an increasingly large proportion of patients seen by most cardiologists. This class of diseases, which are mostly genetically determined with different transmission modalities, can cause important and often unsolved management problems, despite rapid advances in the field. On the other hand, few other areas of cardiology have seen such an impressive contribution from basic science and translational research to the understanding of their pathophysiology and clinical management. The course was designed to constantly promote close interaction between basic science and clinical practice and highlight the top scientific and translational discoveries in this field in 10 scientific sessions. It was preceded by two mini-­-courses, which included the basic concepts of cardiomyocyte mechanical and electrophysiological properties and mechanisms, how-­-to sessions for clinical diagnosis and management and illustrative case study presentations of different cardiomyopathies.

  1. The use of tropical bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. for monitoring atmospheric pollution in the town of Florence, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Brighigna

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experiment with two species of epiphytic angiosperms (Tillandsia caput-medusae and T. bulbosa for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air of Florence, Italy, are presented. PAHs are compounds known to be dangerous because of their carcinogenic potential, and among cormophytes, tillands (monocotyledons equipped with peculiar, specialised, epidermal trichomes are considered promising for air pollution biomonitoring. PAHs data were obtained using GC/MS analysis of plant extracts. Analytical data indicated an increasing trend in time of PAHs bioaccumulation. This result was compared with instrumentally recorded parameters such as meteorological (rain and environmental ones (PM10, indicating that trichome-operated physical capture of aerial particles was prominent in PAHs bioaccumulation on tillands. SEM (scanning electron microscope observations confirmed the role of the trichomes. This work indicates that tillands are particularly useful, low-cost, biomonitoring organisms inside their area of distribution (all Latin American countries and southern USA where these plants are easily available, but also wherever the climate allows them to surviveSe presentan los resultados de un experimento con dos especies de angiospermas epífitas (Tillandsia caput-medusae y T. bulbosa para monitorear hidrocarbonos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs en el aire de Florencia, Italia. Los PAHs son compuestos que se sabe son peligrosos por su potencial carcinogénico, y, entre las cormófitas, las tilandsias (monocotiledóneas equipadas con tricomas epidérmicos, especializados y peculiares son consideradas promisorias para el biomonitoreo de la contaminación del aire. Se obtuvieron datos de PAHs usando el análisis de GC/MS de extractos de plantas. Los datos analíticos indicaron una tendencia creciente de la bioacumulación de PAH’s en el tiempo. Este resultado se comparó con los parámetros registrados instrumentalmente como

  2. Machiavelli plautino. Qualche scheda teatrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Figorilli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After describing the success that Plautus enjoyed in fifteenth - and sixteenth-century Florence, I will concentrate on the relationship between Machiavelli’s plays and Plautus’ works. On the one hand, I will focus on citations and echoes from Plautus in the Mandragola; on the other, I will suggest that in his Clizia Machiavelli reused other Plautus plays, particularly Asinaria and Mercator. Finally, I will focus my attention on the relationship between Clizia and Casina in order to show how Machiavelli’s rewriting has a moral connotation.

  3. Florence Nightingale: passionate statistician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn

    2010-03-01

    Nightingale's passionate commitment to statistics was based on her faith in a god of order, who created a world that ran by law. God's laws could be known through research, as a result of which suitable interventions to better the world could be applied. Statistics were a vital component in her holistic approach to health care as a system. They served both to indicate serious problems and to assist in policy making, and then again to monitor the effects of the new policies. She pioneered the use of evaluative statistics and saw reforms achieved as a result of her advocacy. This article explores three key aspects selected from Nightingale's more than 40 years of applied statistical work: her adaptation of Quetelet's methodological foundations, the use of statistics in monitoring public health care systems, and her pioneering study of maternal mortality in childbirth.

  4. Hydraulics, FLORENCE COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  5. New Systems for the Management of Data. The Case Study of the Chapter House of Santa Maria Novella in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, C.

    2013-02-01

    analysis of data collected and, at the same time, also creates the possibility of access to users not experts in the field of 3D graphics; this has been made possible through the development the project "3DWS" (3D | WEB | SURVEY). The project involved the creation of a container structured as a web site, in which were placed the materials collected and processed including sketches, photographs, vector data, three-dimensional models and analysis issues. Within this system, three-dimensional models developed were then used as a communication tool with immediate visual link to sub-pages with a greater degree of definition. It is a simple and intuitive tree structure that allows both the visitor to the specialist scholar to focus on portions too small and detail of the product, without losing sight of the general configuration of departure. To make feasible a further degree of usability of information, the system has been implemented with image viewers metrics in high definition. The images produced are a fundamental basis, strictly from the point of view of science and technology, for the conservation, management and enhancement of the historical and artistic heritage. The case study investigated is the Chapter House of Santa Maria Novella in Florence.

  6. A low cost Mobile Network System for monitoring climate and air quality of urban areas at high resolution: a preliminary application in Florence (IT) metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibari, Camilla; Moriondo, Marco; Matese, Alessandro; Sabatini, Francesco; Trombi, Giacomo; Zaldei, Alessandro; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The combination of the "Heat island effect" coupled with higher frequencies of extreme events (e.g. heat waves) due to climate change is of great concern for human health in urban areas. Anomalies of summer 2003, mentioned as possible typical climate for the near future summers (Schär et al., 2004), caused about 7,000 deaths in Italy and over 35,000 in the whole Europe. Furthermore, more than 50% of world's population is living in urban areas and, given the unprecedented urbanization rate that is expected in the next future, cities will likely be exposed to a growing environmental pressure in the following decades. Accordingly, climate monitoring of urban areas is gradually becoming a key element of planning that cannot be disregarded for an efficient public health management and for the development of a city scale Heat Waves Warning System tool, which is based on meteorological forecast of both air temperatures and humidity at a synoptic scale (Pascal et al., 2006). Building on these premises, a low cost Mobile Weather Station (MWS), to be placed on urban public transport, has been assembled. This mobile station logs every minute both meteorological variables (i.e. temperature and air humidity) and air quality parameters (i.e. atmospheric CO2 concentration and noise detection); the geographical position of each MWS's measurement is also recorded thanks to the built-in GPS antenna. The system, equipped with a data logger for data storage based on the open-source hardware platform Arduino, can also transmit data in real time via GPRS. The quality of meteorological and environmental data acquired by MWS was evaluated both on pre-existing steady meteorological stations of the metropolitan area of Florence (Petralli et al., 2010), and on professional research-grade data logger (Campbell CR800), logging air temperature in a non-aspirated shield by means of sensors at fast (thermocouple) and slower (digital) time response. Two prototypes of stations were thus designed

  7. Bathymetric, Velocity, Streamflow, and Dissolved Oxygen Data on the Pee Dee River near Bostick Boat Landing, Florence County, South Carolina, May-August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Santee Cooper is planning to construct an electricity generating station in southeastern Florence County near the Kingsburg community. As part of this project, a water-intake structure will be constructed on the Pee Dee River near the Bostick Boat Landing, which is located east of the intersection of State secondary roads S-21-57 and S-21-66. Velocity, bathymetric, and dissolved oxygen data are needed to help determine the location for the water-intake structure. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Santee Cooper, collected these data at three different flow regimes during the period of May through August 2007. Data were collected along 15 transects located at 50-foot intervals starting 400 feet upstream from the boat landing and continuing to 300 feet downstream from the boat landing. All data were geographically referenced using a differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS).

  8. An integrated approach to assess air pollution threats to cultural heritage in a semi-confined environment: the case study of Michelozzo's Courtyard in Florence (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Becherini, F; Bernardi, A; Bonazza, A; Chiari, M; García-Orellana, I; Lucarelli, F; Ludwig, N; Migliori, A; Sabbioni, C; Udisti, R; Valli, G; Vecchi, R

    2010-02-15

    An example of an integrated approach to assess air pollution threats to cultural heritage in a semi-confined environment is presented in this work, where the monitoring campaign carried out at the Michelozzo's Courtyard (in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy) is used as a case study. A wide research project was carried out, with the main aim of obtaining the first quantitative data on air quality and microclimate conditions inside the Courtyard, and, if possible, identifying the main causes of degradation and suggesting appropriate conservation strategies. The investigation adopted a holistic approach involving thermographic measurements on the wall paintings, microclimatic analysis, gaseous pollutant monitoring, atmospheric particles characterisation and dry deposition compositional analysis. Attention was focused on the wall painting depicting the city of Hall because of its anomalous and critical conservation conditions, which are visible at a glance, due to the contrast between a wide darker zone around the central subject of the painting and external lighter areas.

  9. THE 4th SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 5–9 APRIL 2014, FLORENCE, ITALY: A summary of topics and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayomi, Olukayode; Amato, Davide; Bailey, Candace; Bitanihirwe, Byron; Bowen, Lynneice; Burshtein, Shimon; Cullen, Alexis; Fusté, Montserrat; Herrmann, Ana P; Khodaie, Babak; Kilian, Sanja; Lang, Qortni A; Manning, Elizabeth E; Massuda, Raffael; Nurjono, Milawaty; Sadiq, Sarosh; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Simon, Nicholas; Spiteri-Staines, Anneliese; Sirijit, Suttajit; Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Wadehra, Sunali; Wang, Yi; Wigton, Rebekah; Wright, Susan; Yagoda, Sergey; Zaytseva, Yuliya; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2015-01-01

    The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 5–9, 2014.and this year had as its emphasis, “Fostering Collaboration in Schizophrenia Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session, summarized the important contributions of each session and then each report was integrated into a final summary of data discussed at the entire conference by topic. It is hoped that by combining data from different presentations, patterns of interest will emerge and thus lead to new progress for the future. In addition, the following report provides an overview of the conference for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:25306204

  10. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  11. Florence Nightingale murió hace cien años... pero sus ideales y su obra aún perduran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALARCÓN NELLY GARZÓN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El año 2010 se consagró en el mundo como el Año Internacional de la Enfermera (AI-Enfermera, con el fin de conmemorar el primer centenario de la muerte de Florence Nightingale, que ocurrió el 13 de agosto de 1910, como se evidencia en su tumba, en el jardín de la Iglesia de Santa Margarita en East Wellow, Inglaterra.

    Esta celebración global del Año Internacional de la Enfermera es una actividad colaborativa que obedece a una política y una iniciativa mundiales orientadas a honrar las voces, los valores y la sabiduría de los líderes de enfermería del mundo, que actúan continuamente por mejorar el cuidado de la salud de las personas.

    Muchas celebraciones se llevaron a cabo con este motivo tan especial, en todos los países y ciudades del mundo, bajo el liderazgo de diferentes asociaciones, fundaciones, academias, sociedades e instituciones de enfermería de carácter científico, académico, gremial, que funcionan en los ámbitos  nacional e internacional.

    Además de esta celebración tan especial, este año también se desarrollaron los festejos que tradicionalmente tienen lugar el 12 de mayo, fecha del natalicio de Nightingale que se ha proclamado mundialmente como el Día Internacional de la Enfermera. El 12 de mayo de 1825 nació Florence Nightingale en Florencia, Italia, cuando sus padres pasaban una temporada en ese país, y de esa ciudad tomaron su nombre.

  12. DNA adducts and PM(10) exposure in traffic-exposed workers and urban residents from the EPIC-Florence City study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palli, Domenico; Saieva, Calogero; Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco; Grechi, Daniele; Zanna, Ines; Caini, Saverio; Decarli, Adriano; Sera, Francesco; Masala, Giovanna

    2008-09-15

    Air pollution and particulate matter in urban areas have been associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and increased cancer risk. Carcinogenic effects of particulate matter have been related to the contents of specific compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The latter may form bulky DNA adducts, that may be considered as candidate markers of cancer risk. We have recently shown that traffic-exposed workers and the general population in Florence have divergent levels of DNA adducts, possibly related to different levels of exposure to genotoxic agents from vehicle emissions. In the current study, in a series of 214 Florence City healthy adults enrolled in a prospective study in the period 1993-1998 (152 residents / 62 traffic-exposed workers), we investigated the correlation between individual levels of DNA bulky adducts and PM(10) exposure scores based on daily environmental measures provided by the local Environmental Protection Agency for the whole study period, by two types of urban monitoring stations (high- and low-traffic). We found that PM(10) cumulative scores from high-traffic stations over the last 1-2 weeks prior to blood drawing significantly correlated (r=0.58, p=0.02) with DNA adduct levels among non-smoking traffic-exposed workers (but not among residents with no occupational exposure to vehicle emissions). A multivariate regression analysis adjusted for possible confounders confirmed these findings. PM(10) scores from low-traffic stations did not show any correlation. These results show that DNA adduct levels in non-smoking workers reflect the average levels of exposure to PM(10) in high-traffic urban areas experienced over a time period of 1-2 weeks. Since DNA adduct levels have been found predictive of lung cancer risk, our findings provide clues relevant to the reduction of genotoxic damage and possibly cancer risk among traffic-exposed urban workers.

  13. De Florence Nightingale às perspectivas atuais sobre o cuidado de enfermagem: a evolução de um saber/fazer Desde Florence Nightingale a las perspectivas actuales sobre el cuidado en enfermería: la evolución del saber/hacer From Florence Nightingale to the current perspectives about nursing care: the evolution of a know-how

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Helena do Espírito Santo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta uma reflexão teórica sobre a evolução do cuidado de enfermagem a partir dos princípios nightingaleanos confrontados com as perspectivas atuais de alguns autores que vem abordando essa temática. Concluímos que as bases sólidas fincadas por Florence Nightingale estão permitindo à Enfermagem avançar em estudos que legitimam e fundamentam o cuidado enquanto essência do saber e fazer de enfermeiras e enfermeiros nos seus vários campos de atuação. Atualmente esses estudos apontam o cuidado como objeto de teorização em dimensões que aliam aspectos internos e externos à profissão, inserindo e explorando temas que antes eram velados, embora presentes no cotidiano da nossa prática, como o significado do corpo e suas formas de expressão na interação entre quem cuida e é cuidado.El trabajo presenta una reflexión teórica sobre la evolución del cuidado en el oficio de enfermeros a partir de los principios Nightingaleanos confrontados con las perspectivas actuales de algunos autores que vienen abordando esa temática. Concluimos que las bases sólidas lanzadas por Florence Nightingale están permitiendo al oficio de enfermeros avanzar en estudios que legitiman y fundamentan el cuidado en cuanto esencia del saber y hacer de las enfermeras y enfermeros en sus variados campos de actuación. Actualmente eses estudios indican el cuidado como objeto de teoría en dimensiones que alían aspectos internos y externos a la profesión, proponiendo y explorando temas que antes eran velados aunque presentes en el cotidiano de nuestra práctica como el significado del cuerpo y sus formas de expresión en la interacción entre quien cuida y quien es cuidado.The work presents a theoretical observation on the evolution of the nursing care from the Nightingalean principles faced to the current perspectives of some authors that approach this subject. We concluded that the solid base proposed by Florence Nightingale allow to

  14. Post-traumatic stress reactions before the advent of post-traumatic stress disorder: potential effects on the lives and legacies of Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, Philip A; Batten, Sonja V

    2008-12-01

    Evidence is presented that Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale each developed symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of repeated potentially traumatizing events of differing character. Their case histories also varied with respect to background, premorbid personality style, risk factors, clinical presentation, and course of the illness, illustrating the pleomorphic character of the disorder, as well as the special problems in diagnosing it in historical figures.

  15. Geomatic 3d Modeling of a Statue (also) for Structural Analysis and Risk Evaluation: the Example of San Giovannino Martelli in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangher, A.; Visintini, D.; Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.

    2017-05-01

    This work has been developed among the researches of a PhD thesis in Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture of the University of Udine in cooperation with the GECO Laboratory of the University of Florence. It focuses on the interaction between Geomatics and Structural Analysis, both applied to cultural heritage, and expressly to artefacts and structures in stone materials, like the case study of this paper, the marble statue called "San Giovannino Martelli" (Saint John the Baptist) conserved in Florence. At the beginning, some interesting examples of surveying and structural analyses on statues are reported, in order to remind the complementary tasks and requirements of geomatics and structural analysis. Current laser scanning systems can accurately survey the geometry of a statue or any cultural heritage artefact, essential to understand their structural behaviour and resilience capability. Afterwards, following the few Italian regulations in this field, the possible risks of museum goods are described: topics of this part are more familiar for structural engineers as object classification, seismic reactions, damage mechanisms, possible movements (adherent, slipping and oscillation), dynamic domains, anyway necessary steps to evaluate the risk and so to define eventual interventions. The artistic description of the statue, its debated attribution to Donatello or/and to Desiderio da Settignano and its history is later recalled, remembering that the surveying has been done for the idea to 3D print a replica and to place it in the original place. Having used a close range laser scanner, the obtained 3D model has an impressive geometrical Level of Detail (LoD), whose geometric features are explained in the paper, underlying that such extremely detailed mesh is directly given as output from the laser scanner software. The model simplifications by four decimation are therefore explained and also changes to geometry, like shifts on centre of the mass or

  16. GEOMATIC 3D MODELING OF A STATUE (ALSO FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND RISK EVALUATION: THE EXAMPLE OF SAN GIOVANNINO MARTELLI IN FLORENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spangher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work has been developed among the researches of a PhD thesis in Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture of the University of Udine in cooperation with the GECO Laboratory of the University of Florence. It focuses on the interaction between Geomatics and Structural Analysis, both applied to cultural heritage, and expressly to artefacts and structures in stone materials, like the case study of this paper, the marble statue called “San Giovannino Martelli” (Saint John the Baptist conserved in Florence. At the beginning, some interesting examples of surveying and structural analyses on statues are reported, in order to remind the complementary tasks and requirements of geomatics and structural analysis. Current laser scanning systems can accurately survey the geometry of a statue or any cultural heritage artefact, essential to understand their structural behaviour and resilience capability. Afterwards, following the few Italian regulations in this field, the possible risks of museum goods are described: topics of this part are more familiar for structural engineers as object classification, seismic reactions, damage mechanisms, possible movements (adherent, slipping and oscillation, dynamic domains, anyway necessary steps to evaluate the risk and so to define eventual interventions. The artistic description of the statue, its debated attribution to Donatello or/and to Desiderio da Settignano and its history is later recalled, remembering that the surveying has been done for the idea to 3D print a replica and to place it in the original place. Having used a close range laser scanner, the obtained 3D model has an impressive geometrical Level of Detail (LoD, whose geometric features are explained in the paper, underlying that such extremely detailed mesh is directly given as output from the laser scanner software. The model simplifications by four decimation are therefore explained and also changes to geometry, like shifts on

  17. Literature as Enchantment or the Regained Grandeur of the Novel: An Essay on Salman Rushdie’s Novel The Enchantress of Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriescu Garcia Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available My essay intends to analyze the dialectic relationship between historical reality and fiction in the novel The Enchantress of Florence by Salman Rushdie. I will point out a sophisticated and playful story in which the author interweaves elements of history and literature, a game-story that transcends the canonical limits of postmodernism where the novel has constantly been placed by the critical establishment, and goes back to the beginnings, to the anthropological function of play as an essential human activity that was once defined by Johan Huizinga in Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-element in Culture. Moreover, my paper will explore how this play becomes Rushdie’s attempt to return to the original function of literature which used to enchant and inform at the same time. Once these roots have been reached, however, and the secondary reality of the literary game is well-established, Rushdie manages to break the barriers between reality and fiction, and through versatile textual mechanisms, to intermingle history and reality in a way that makes them merge. Consequently, he composes a play within fiction that is just as powerful as reality itself and suggests the fact that representation has more ontological consistency than the represented body or event itself. We exist as long as we are written and talked about, and nothing in the order of reality can be as powerful as the reality of language.

  18. Drug Cartels and Gangs in Mexico and Central America: A View through the Lens of Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    South America to the U.S.. Since Spanish colonization in the early sixteenth century, Central America and Mexico have endured civil wars, political...fundamental knowledge of the cultural and revolutionary events that shaped socio–political terrain in the region. From as early as the days of the Mayan ...empire, violence and conflict marked the Mesoamerican landscape. The Mayans , a conquering nation in their own right, imposed their rule of law on

  19. The experiments of Ramón M. Termeyer SJ on the electric eel in the River Plate region (c. 1760) and other early accounts of Electrophorus electricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Asúa, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Ramón M. Termeyer SJ (1737-1814?), a naturalist who experimented with the electric eel in the River Plate region during the 1760s. After going through an enumeration of the chroniclers that since the sixteenth century noticed the benumbing discharge of Electrophorus electricus, the article summarizes the work that immediately preceded Termeyer's and considers as a term of comparison the experiments on the electric eel performed by Bertrand Bajon (fl. 1751-1778) in the French Guyanne. It ends by discussing the meaning of Termeyer's 1781 and 1810 articles in the light of contemporary ideas of animal electricity.

  20. HTA decision support system for sustainable business continuity management in hospitals. The case of surgical activity at the University Hospital in Florence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Roberto; Dori, Fabrizio; Cecconi, Giulio; Gusinu, Roberto; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Gentili, Guido Biffi

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental element of the social and safety function of a health structure is the need to guarantee continuity of clinical activity through the continuity of technology. This paper aims to design a Decision Support System (DSS) for medical technology evaluations based on the use of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in order to provide a multi-disciplinary valuation of a technology in a health structure. The methodology used in planning the DSS followed the following key steps: the definition of relevant KPIs, the development of a database to calculate the KPIs, the calculation of the defined KPIs and the resulting study report. Finally, the clinical and economic validation of the system was conducted though a case study of Business Continuity applied in the operating department of the Florence University Hospital AOU Careggi in Italy. A web-based support system was designed for HTA in health structures. The case study enabled Business Continuity Management (BCM) to be implemented in a hospital department in relation to aspects of a single technology and the specific clinical process. Finally, an economic analysis of the procedure was carried out. The system is useful for decision makers in that it precisely defines which equipment to include in the BCM procedure, using a scale analysis of the specific clinical process in which the equipment is used. In addition, the economic analysis shows how the cost of the procedure is completely covered by the indirect costs which would result from the expenses incurred from a broken device, hence showing the complete auto-sustainability of the methodology.

  1. Solar radiation exposure of shielded air temperature sensors and measurement error evaluation in an urban environment: a preliminary study in Florence, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petralli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Particularly in summer, thermal conditions in urban areas are influenced by solar radiation and human health can be strongly affected by the higher temperature regime increased by the Urban Heat Island effect (UHI. Many studies have been carried out to estimate the temperature distribution in urban areas and some of these use or are based on data collected by meteorological instruments placed within the cities. At microscale, temperature collected by sensors can be influenced by the underlying surface characteristics and the closeness to warm surfaces. The aim of this study is to investigate how different exposure to solar radiation can affect air temperature measurement in streets and gardens. The study was carried out on two different areas in Florence during summer 2007. Shielded air temperature sensors were placed in a street of a high density built-up area and in a green area. Each area was monitored by two sensors, sited in different solar radiation exposure: one in a sunny area and the other in a shaded one. A preliminary data analysis showed a difference in every site between the air temperature values collected by the two sensors especially from the morning to the afternoon. The relationship between air temperature differences and synoptic meteorological conditions were also analyzed. In conclusion, the solar radiation exposure of a monitoring station is an important parameter that must be considered both during the instruments siting and the analysis of data collected by sensors previously placed. The result of this study shows that during particular synoptic conditions, data collected by the two sensors of the same area can be different.

  2. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques applied to the noninvasive investigation of mural paintings: a feasibility study carried out on a wall painting by Beato Angelico in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucci, Costanza; Picollo, Marcello; Chiarantini, Leandro; Sereni, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays hyperspectral imaging is a well-established methodology for the non-invasive diagnostics of polychrome surfaces, and is increasingly utilized in museums and conservation laboratories for documentation purposes and in support of restoration procedures. However, so far the applications of hyperspectral imaging have been mainly limited to easel paintings or paper-based artifacts. Indeed, specifically designed hyperspectral imagers, are usually used for applications in museum context. These devices work at short-distances from the targets and cover limited size surfaces. Instead, almost still unexplored remain the applications of hyperspectral imaging to the investigations of frescoes and large size mural paintings. For this type of artworks a remote sensing approach, based on sensors capable of acquiring hyperspectral data from distances of the order of tens of meters, is needed. This paper illustrates an application of hyperspectral remote sensing to an important wall-painting by Beato Angelico, located in the San Marco Museum in Florence. Measurements were carried out using a re-adapted version of the Galileo Avionica Multisensor Hyperspectral System (SIM-GA), an avionic hyperspectral imager originally designed for applications from mobile platforms. This system operates in the 400-2500 nm range with over 700 channels, thus guaranteeing acquisition of high resolution hyperspectral data exploitable for materials identification and mapping. In the present application, the SIM-GA device was mounted on a static scanning platform for ground-based applications. The preliminary results obtained on the Angelico's wall-painting are discussed, with highlights on the main technical issues addressed to optimize the SIM-GA system for new applications on cultural assets.

  3. A retrospective analysis of hospital discharge records for S. pneumoniae diseases in the elderly population of Florence, Italy, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Taddei, Cristina; Barchielli, Alessandro; Levi, Miriam; Tiscione, Emilia; Santini, Maria Grazia; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Azzari, Chiara; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP) represent two of the major causes of out-patient visits, hospital admissions and deaths in the elderly. In Tuscany (Italy), in the Local Health Unit of Florence, a project aimed at implementing an active surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in the hospitalized elderly population started in 2013. The aim of this study is to show the results of the retrospective analysis (2010–2012) on hospital discharge records (HDRs) related to diseases potentially due to S. pneumoniae, using a selection of ICD9-CM codes. All ordinary hospitalizations (primary and secondary diagnoses) of the elderly population were included (11 245 HDRs). Among a population of about 200 000 inhabitants ≥65 y, the hospitalization rate (HR) increased with increasing age and was higher in males in all age groups. Almost all hospitalizations (95%) were due to CAP, only 5% were invasive diseases. Only few cases of CAP were specified as related to S. pneumoniae, the percentage was higher in case of meningitis (100%) or septicemia (22%). In-hospital deaths over the three-year period were 1703 (case fatality rate: 15%). The risk of dying, being hospitalized for a disease potentially attributable to pneumococcus (as primary diagnosis) increased significantly with age (P < 0.001), the odds ratio (OR) per increasing age year was 1.06 (95% CI 1.05–1.07) and was higher in patients with co-existing medical conditions with respect to patients without comorbidities. Currently, an active surveillance system on S. pneumoniae diseases with the inclusion of bio-molecular tests (RT-PCR), is a key step to assess the effectiveness of the PCV13 vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) in the elderly population after implementation of vaccination policies. The results of this study will provide the comparator baseline data for the evaluation of a possible immunization programme involving one or more cohorts of the elderly in

  4. A retrospective analysis of hospital discharge records for S. pneumoniae diseases in the elderly population of Florence, Italy, 2010-2012: Implications for immunization policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Taddei, Cristina; Barchielli, Alessandro; Levi, Miriam; Tiscione, Emilia; Santini, Maria Grazia; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Azzari, Chiara; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara

    2014-08-19

    Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP) represent two of the major causes of out-patient visits, hospital admissions and deaths in the elderly. In Tuscany (Italy), in the Local Health Unit of Florence, a project aimed at implementing an active surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in the hospitalized elderly population started in 2013. The aim of this study is to show the results of the retrospective analysis (2010-2012) on hospital discharge records (HDRs) related to diseases potentially due to S. pneumoniae, using a selection of ICD9-CM codes. All ordinary hospitalizations (primary and secondary diagnoses) of the elderly population were included (11 245 HDRs). Among a population of about 200 000 inhabitants ≥65 y, the hospitalization rate (HR) increased with increasing age and was higher in males in all age groups. Almost all hospitalizations (95%) were due to CAP, only 5% were invasive diseases. Only few cases of CAP were specified as related to S. pneumoniae, the percentage was higher in case of meningitis (100%) or septicemia (22%). In-hospital deaths over the three-year period were 1703 (case fatality rate: 15%). The risk of dying, being hospitalized for a disease potentially attributable to pneumococcus (as primary diagnosis) increased significantly with age (P<0.001), the odds ratio (OR) per increasing age year was 1.06 (95% CI 1.05-1.07) and was higher in patients with a co-existing medical conditions with respect to patients without comorbidities. Currently, an active surveillance system on S. pneumoniae diseases with the inclusion of bio-molecular tests, (RT-PCR), is a key step to assess, the effectiveness of the PCV13 vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) in the elderly population after implementation of vaccination policies. The results of this study will provide the comparator baseline data for the evaluation of a possible immunization programme involving one or more cohorts of the elderly in

  5. A retrospective analysis of hospital discharge records for S. pneumoniae diseases in the elderly population of Florence, Italy, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Taddei, Cristina; Barchielli, Alessandro; Levi, Miriam; Tiscione, Emilia; Santini, Maria Grazia; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Azzari, Chiara; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP) represent two of the major causes of out-patient visits, hospital admissions and deaths in the elderly. In Tuscany (Italy), in the Local Health Unit of Florence, a project aimed at implementing an active surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in the hospitalized elderly population started in 2013. The aim of this study is to show the results of the retrospective analysis (2010-2012) on hospital discharge records (HDRs) related to diseases potentially due to S. pneumoniae, using a selection of ICD9-CM codes. All ordinary hospitalizations (primary and secondary diagnoses) of the elderly population were included (11 245 HDRs). Among a population of about 200 000 inhabitants ≥65 y, the hospitalization rate (HR) increased with increasing age and was higher in males in all age groups. Almost all hospitalizations (95%) were due to CAP, only 5% were invasive diseases. Only few cases of CAP were specified as related to S. pneumoniae, the percentage was higher in case of meningitis (100%) or septicemia (22%). In-hospital deaths over the three-year period were 1703 (case fatality rate: 15%). The risk of dying, being hospitalized for a disease potentially attributable to pneumococcus (as primary diagnosis) increased significantly with age (P < 0.001), the odds ratio (OR) per increasing age year was 1.06 (95% CI 1.05-1.07) and was higher in patients with co-existing medical conditions with respect to patients without comorbidities. Currently, an active surveillance system on S. pneumoniae diseases with the inclusion of bio-molecular tests (RT-PCR), is a key step to assess the effectiveness of the PCV13 vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) in the elderly population after implementation of vaccination policies. The results of this study will provide the comparator baseline data for the evaluation of a possible immunization programme involving one or more cohorts of the elderly in

  6. Rhazes in the Renaissance of Andreas Vesalius

    OpenAIRE

    Compier, Abdul Haq

    2012-01-01

    Andreas Vesalius' (1514–64) first publication was a Paraphrasis of the ninth book of the Liber ad Almansorem, written by the Arab–Persian physician and alchemist Rhazes (854–925). The role of Rhazes in Vesalius' oeuvre has thus far been much disregarded. The different ways Rhazes recurs reveal an intellectual evolution in Vesalius' work. In the Paraphrasis, Vesalius subjects Rhazes to the authority of Galen in the context of the early sixteenth-century humanist campaign for the substitution o...

  7. XVI. Yüzyılda Aclun Şehri Ve Kasabalarının Nüfusu The Population Of Ajlun And Ajlun’s Township In The Sixteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal TAŞKIN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Locating in the borders of Jordan today, Ajlun is a city which hasan altitude of 1000 meters. Geographically it is surrounded with Gavrin the West, Syria desert (Hamad in the east, Yermuk in the North andVadi-i Zerka in the South. Today it is an accomodation unit connectedto the city of Irbit of Jordan.Ajlun came under the rule of Ottoman as a result of Egyptexpedition and was rationalized as a sanjak connected to province ofDamascus. As it was considered as a defence line against crusaders, acastle was built there in the era of Ayyubids and because of this reasonit was also called Kalatu’l-Aclun. Used as a detention colony in the eraof Mamelukes, Ajlun became one of the important transition point inthe route of Damascus and Iraq by developing in time. It was a route forDamascus pilgrims in the era of Ottoman. Even in that era the governerof sanjak had the responsibility of maintaining the road safety of thosepilgrims. In Ajlun several economic activities were carried out. In thecity open bazaar was set up and the goods were presented there.Several properties in the city were allocated to Sultan Berkukfoundation.Being one one of the small cities of the area in the 16th century,Aclun was constituted of 8 nahiye. Lacking of the feature of beingcrowded in terms of population, Ajlun hosted Muslims generally while itwas also possible to mention a small community of Christians.In this work township, disctricts and population of the city in the16th century are tried to be detected according to the Tahrir defters. Bugün Ürdün devleti sınırları içerinde yer alan Aclun, denizden yüksekliği 1000 m olan bir yerleşim yeridir. Coğrafi olarak batıda Gavr, doğuda Suriye Çölü (Hamad kuzeyde Yermuk ve güneyde ise Vadi-i Zerka ile çevrilidir. Bugün Ürdün’ün İrbit iline bağlı bir yerleşim yeridir. Aclun, Yavuz Sultan Selim’in Mısır seferi sonucu Osmanlı topraklarına katılmış ve Şam eyaletine bağlı bir sancak olarak teşkilatlandırılmıştır. Özelikle haçlılara karşı savunma hatlarından biri olarak düşünüldüğünden, Eyyubiler devrinde burada bir kale inşa edilmiş ve bu sebepten Kalatü’l-Aclun olarak da anılmıştır. Memluklular devrinde bir sürgün yeri olarak kullanılan Aclun, zamanla gelişerek, Şam ve Irak güzergâhında önemli geçiş noktalarından biri haline gelmiştir. Osmanlılar devrinde ise Şam hacılarının kullandığı yollardan biridir. Hatta o devirde bölgenin sancakbeyinin, bu hacıların yol güvenliğini sağlamak gibi bir sorumluluğu da bulunmaktadır. Aclun şehrinde birtakım ekonomik faaliyetler yapılmaktaydı. Şehirde pazar kuruluyor ve ürünler burada sunuluyordu. Şehirdeki birtakım emlak ise Mısır’daki Sultan Berkuk vakfına tahsis edilmişti. XVI. Yüzyılda bölgenin küçük şehirlerinden biri olan Aclun, idari bakımdan 8 nahiyeden oluşmaktaydı. Nüfus olarak da kalabalık bir merkez olma özelliğinden yoksun olan Aclun şehrinde, genel itibariyle Müslümanlar meskûn iken az da olsa bir Hıristiyan cemaatinden bahsetmek mümkündür. Bu çalışmada tahrir defterlerine göre XVI. yüzyılda Aclun şehrinin kasabaları, mahalleleri ve nüfusu tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır.

  8. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  9. Paracelsianism and the orthodox lutheran rejection of vital philosophy in early seventeenth-century Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Jole

    2003-01-01

    Paracelsian medicine and natural philosophy was formed during the Radical Reformation and incorporated metaphysical propositions that were incompatible with the Lutheran confession as codified in the Confessio Augustana and elaborated in the ultra-orthodox Formula of Concord. Although Paracelsian ideas and practices were endorsed by important philosophers and physicians in late-sixteenth century Denmark without raising serious alarm, the imposition of strict Lutheran orthodoxy in the Danish Church and a concomitant resurgence of Aristotelian philosophy drew attention to the religious heterodoxies inherent in Paracelsianism. Unacceptable theological and religious propositions, which reached Denmark in Rosicrucian texts and were implicit in certain medical and philosophical treatises, were in many cases inseparable from core Paracelsian concepts, with the result that Danish academic philosophers, physicians, and theologians rejected Paracelsian ideas except where they could be accommodated to acceptable Galenic and Aristotelian interpretations. When this was done, such ideas are arguably no longer Paracelsian in any meaningful way.

  10. Once a physicist: David Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, David

    2009-03-01

    I did mathematical physics because it was just what I was best at. I enjoyed it at school, so I applied to do it at Nottingham University. I fell into it, to be quite honest. Once at university, I struggled at first, partly because I found it quite difficult to combine studying with competing and training in sport, which is pretty much full time as well. But by the end of my university career, I had learned to be organized, and to manage my time pretty effectively, so I enjoyed it a lot more.

  11. Seismic response monitoring of the Arno river masonry embankment during the conservation works after the Lungarno Torrigiani riverbank landslide (Florence - May 25, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Alessia; Pazzi, Veronica; Chiara, Paolo; Lombardi, Luca; Nocentini, Massimiliano; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Geohazards are the most relevant processes that can damage or increase the risk of human beings, properties, critical and transport infrastructures, and environment itself. They also could involve the interruption of human activities. The concepts of disaster risk reduction and disaster risk management involve the development, improvement, and application of policies, strategies, and practices to minimize disaster risks throughout society. Since 1972 (UNESCO Convention) the identification, protection, and preservation of cultural and natural heritage has been recognized to be of outstanding value to humanity, and a key resource to build resilient societies. Nevertheless, world architectural wealth is accumulating damages and heavy losses because of both materials deterioration and exceptional natural or man-made events. The "health" of buildings/structures/infrastructures may be evaluate by its deterioration or damage level. Thus, structure dynamic characterization and microtremor analysis are considered powerful techniques, even thought seismic noise techniques in densely populated area are hardly to carry out because of the background noise due to the human activities. A wide bibliography about buildings/structures/infrastructures seismic dynamic characterization is counterposed to a missing one about their seismic response during conservation/safety works, even thought the seismic vibration monitoring (SVM) is widely used. On May 25, 2016 a riverbank landslide seriously damaged a portion roughly 100 m long of the Lungarno Torrigiani historical masonry embankment wall (left river bank of the Florence urban stretch of the Arno river, between Ponte alle Grazie e Ponte Vecchio). The street next to the embankment wall collapsed, and the earth fill material was fully retained by the embankment wall that did not collapse but seriously deformed towards the Arno river, fracturing itself in three main areas (a cusp roughly in the middle of the damaged wall, where is also

  12. Documenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Corazzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the recent acti vities of the Structure from Moti on photogrammetricsurvey (SFM for the accurate documentati onof the intrados surface of Brunelleschi’s Dome inthe church of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence,decorated with the late-sixteenth century LastJudgement, by the painters G. Vasari and F. Zuccari.Starti ng from the constructi on of a 3D digitalmodel, mapped with a photorealisti c high detailedtexture, in this paper we propose the processingof the three-dimensional data of the casestudy aimed at the preparati on of drawings andthe development of some of the sectors as a supportfor the quanti tati ve determinati on of intervention for maintenance and restorati on.

  13. The Exploration of the Chinese Enterprises Oversea Based on the Enterprises Owned by Wenzhounese in Florence%海外华人企业探究——以佛罗伦萨的温商企业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周欢怀

    2012-01-01

    The protlem of entrepreneurship and social inclusion of overseas Chinese is always concerned by the domestic scholars. There are more than 10 thousand Wenzhounese living in Florence, Italy. They have become the main force of the local leather cluster. They decreased the labor costs by their hard-working spirits and the social network provide the important resources for them. But the living environment and the tendency of the future is not optimistic. So we should think about and explore the future way out for them.%海外华人的创业问题和社会融入问题一直是国内学者所关注的。在意大利的佛罗伦萨,生活着1万多温州人。他们已经成为当地皮具产业集群的主力军。温商们靠着吃苦耐劳精神降低了劳动力成本,同时在佛形成的社会网络为他们提供了生存和发展的重要资源。但这些温商企业的生存环境及其未来发展趋势并不乐观。因此,他们的未来出路值得我们思考和探索。

  14. From conception to birth: ancient library sources of embryology and women anatomy kept in the Biblioteca Biomedica of the Università degli Studi di Firenze (Biomedical Library of Florence University).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Laura; Frigenti, Lucia; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

    2011-01-01

    The Biomedical Library of the University of Florence boasts a prestigious group of books collected at first in 1679 at the hospital "Santa Maria Nuova" and then continuously enriched in the course of time up today. The "Antique Collection" consists of 13 incunabola, hundreds of 16th-century books, more than one thousand books on medical subject from the 1600's, about six thousand 18th-century volumes and several large, valuable anatomical atlases. In this paper the most important, curious and fascinating books dealing with human ontogeny (from embryo generation to birth) and with female anatomy (mostly concerning pregnancy and childbirth) are reported in chronological order starting from the work of Hippocrates. Among the ancient sources useful for the reconstruction of the opinions about obstetrics there are also outstanding handbooks specifically edited for midwives. Many of these antique books are especially precious because they embed a great number of didactic pictures, some of which may compete against any modern book of anatomy, embryology and obstetric. Selected images from these books are shown.

  15. Manuel Chrysoloras and the Early Italian Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Thomson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several of the major figures in the Renaissance reckoned Chrysoloras’ teaching in Florence (1397-1400 as the decisive step in the rebirth of learning; but he was there probably also as a diplomat, to encourage western support for the defense of the east.

  16. Bioelectrical impedance for detecting and monitoring lymphedema in patients with breast cancer. Preliminary results of the florence nightingale breast study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan Iyigun, Zeynep; Selamoglu, Derya; Alco, Gul; Pilancı, Kezban Nur; Ordu, Cetin; Agacayak, Filiz; Elbüken, Filiz; Bozdogan, Atilla; Ilgun, Serkan; Guler Uysal, Fusun; Ozmen, Vahit

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bioimpedance spectroscopy for the follow-up of patients with lymphedema in Turkey and its benefits in the diagnosis of stage 0, 1, and 2 lymphedema in patients who are under treatment for breast cancer. Thirty-seven female patients with breast cancer who underwent surgical procedures in our Breast Health Centre were followed up for lymphedema using bioimpedance, and clinical measurements were taken for a minimum period of 1 year at 3-month intervals. Patients who had been monitored regularly between November, 2011, and September, 2013, were enrolled to the study. In total, 8 patients developed lymphedema with an overall rate of 21.6%. Among the 8 patients who developed lymphedema, 4 had Stage 2, 1 had Stage 1, and 3 had Stage 0 lymphedema. Stage 0 lymphedema could not be detected with clinical measurements. During the patients' 1-year follow-up period using measurements of bioimpedance, a statistically significant relationship was observed between the occurrence of lymphedema and the disease characteristics. including the number of the extracted and remaining lymph nodes and the region of radiotherapy (p=0.042, p=0.024, p=0.040). Bioimpedance analysis seems to be a practical and reliable method for the early diagnosis of lymphedema. It is believed that regular monitoring of patients in the high-risk group using bioimpedance analyses increases the ability to treat lymphedema.

  17. The people of Calicut: objects, texts, and images in the Age of Proto-Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Feest

    Full Text Available Some early sixteenth-century works by artists from southern Germany (Albrecht Dürer, Hans Burgkmair, Albrecht Altdorfer, Jörg Breu representing the 'people of Calicut' (which was then supposed to be accessible from Europe both in an eastward and westward direction are explored in terms of their combination of images from South Asia and artifacts from Brazil. This is placed in the context of the methodologies developed during this period for collecting and processing data in the form of texts, images, and collections of material objects, which are considered to have been the antecedents of modern ethnography and anthropology.

  18. The Early Rise of Taiwan in the International Trade of Maritime East Asia:A Path-Dependence Perspective%臺灣早期海貿地位的興起與路徑依賴(path dependence)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    張彬村

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan began to emerge in the international trade of maritime East Asia in the 1560s. This is a path-dependent outcome of the restrictive maritime policy designed by Zhu Yuan-zhang, the first emperor of Ming Dynasty. Domestic and foreign market demand was persistently magnetic to the development of maritime trade in Minnan ( Southern Fujian) . Banned by the Ming policy in private undertaking, the maritime traders of Minnan carried on with their business by operating in the formal economy of tribute trade, as well as in the informal economy of smuggling. When they were legal-ly allowed to trade privately with foreigners, they were nonetheless forced to have their job done only in overseas countries. Taiwan happened to be an optimal rendezvous for Minnanese and other international traders to meet and exchange commodities after the mid-sixteenth century. As a result there appeared on the island vigorous international trade which was set to last thereafter.

  19. Early clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamalski, Digna M. A.; Ter Braak, Edith W. M. T.; Ten Cate, Olle Th. J.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Early clinical experience is being introduced in innovative, vertically integrated undergraduate medical curricula. While in many cases, this early clinical experience is limited to the presence of patients during lectures, in Utrecht students gain 'hands on' experience of daily clinical

  20. The Impact of Savonarola’s Reform on the Thoughts and Culture in Florence%萨沃纳罗拉改革对佛罗伦萨思想文化的冲击

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜佳峰

    2013-01-01

    From 1494 to 1498 ,Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) led the reform of reconstruction of the popular government .It liked a storm which swept Florence .This made a huge change in the political cul-ture and art ideology .It revived the ideal of republic and liberty ,and stamped the value of republic in minds of Machiavelli and Guicciardini .In the realm of art ,Savonarola proclaimed that returning to sim-plicity .Combining with Christian faith ,he created a new concept that simplicity is beauty .This was not only to enlighten the advancement of Neo -Platonism ,but also forced Michelangelo and Botticelli to dis-cover the inner world of human soul ,and then changed their art style from pleasure to solemn .%1494年至1498年间,吉罗拉莫·萨沃纳罗拉领导的重建民主政府的改革运动像一场风暴席卷了整个佛罗伦萨,它给佛罗伦萨的政治文化和艺术思想带来了巨大变化。在政治文化上复兴了共和自由的理想,并把共和价值深深地印在马基雅维利和圭恰迪尼等政治思想家的心中。在艺术思想上,萨沃纳罗拉提出了返璞归真的思想,并将其与基督教信仰结合,产生了以纯朴为美的新观念,不仅启示了新柏拉图主义的发展,还促进了米开朗基罗和波提切利等艺术家去探索人类心灵的归宿和寄托,使他们的艺术风格由快乐活泼向深沉悲壮转变。

  1. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  2. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  3. Michelangelo in Florence, Leonardo in Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on the lives and works of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. Focuses on the artwork of the artists and the museums where their work is displayed. Includes museum photographs of their work. (CMK)

  4. Floodplain Mapping for Florence County, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  5. Exploring the emotional intelligence of Florence Nightingale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ruiz Magpantay-Monroe

    2015-01-01

    "The voice of a leader. It is as resounding as the heart it encourages, as far-reaching as the change it invokes. It is tuned by its keen sense of the voices around it and speaks back in a language they can understand. Its breath enters all that truly hear it, and when it no longer speaks, it can still be heard." Mae Taylor Moss

  6. 1148-IJBCS-Article-Florence Tarfa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, NIPRD, Abuja, Nigeria. 3Division of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, University of Papua New Guinea. ... hyperglycemic rabbits, and glucose uptake studies were done using the isolated intestine of ..... The authors appreciate the technical assistance.

  7. Nosocomios higienistas: el caso Florence Nightingale

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Molina, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Los impresionantes cambios surgidos tras el inicio de la Revolución Industrial ayudaron a que de manera reiterada se buscaran soluciones a los diferentes problemas que se sucedían, uno tras de otro, como resultado del hacinamiento y las modificaciones sociopolíticas y económicas. Los avances en el campo de la ciencia, y en particular en las ciencias de la salud, fueron innumerables, estableciéndose en la sociedad una preocupación marcada por solucionar los problemas de las clases más desfavor...

  8. Medical topics in the De anima commentary of Coimbra (1598) and the Jesuits' attitude towards medicine in education and natural philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Early-modern Jesuit universities did not offer studies in medicine, and from 1586 onwards, the Jesuit Ratio studiorum prohibited digressions on medical topics in the Aristotelian curriculum. However, some sixteenth-century Jesuit text books used in philosophy classes provided detailed accounts on physiological issues such as sense perception and its organic location as discussed in Aristotle's De anima II, 7-11. This seeming contradiction needs to be explained. In this paper, I focus on the interst in medical topics manifested in a commentary by the Jesuits of Coimbra. Admittedly, the Coimbra commentary constituted an exception, as the Jesuit college that produced it was integrated in a royal university which had a strong interest in educating physicians. It will be claimed that the exclusion of medicine at Jesuit universities and colleges had its origin in rather incidental events in the course of the foundation of the first Jesuit university in Sicily. There, the lay professors of law and medicine intended to avoid subordination to the Jesuits and thereby provoked a conflict which finally led the Jesuit administration to refrain from including faculties of medicine and law in Jesuit universities. Towards the end of the sixteenth century, a veritable Jesuit animosity towards medicine emerged for philosophical and pedagogical reasons. This development reflects educational concerns within the Society as well as the role of commentaries on Aristotle for early-modern learning.

  9. POLÍTICA PÚBLICA Y PROTECCIONISMO CORPORATIVO: INSTITUCIONES REGIONALES Y GREMIOS TEXTILES EN ARAGÓN DURANTE EL SIGLO XVII 1/Public Policy and Corporate Protectionism: Regional Institutions and Textile Guilds in Seventeenth Century Aragon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Antonio Mateos Royo

    2015-01-01

    .... Having contributed to economic growth in the sixteenth century, the Aragonese textile guilds fell prey to technological stagnation in the seventeenth, while restricting competition in urban product...

  10. Convenciones y estrategias en la iconografía del rango de la nobleza indígena del centro de México en el siglo XVI/Conventions and Strategies in the Iconography of Rank of the Sixteenth-Century Native Nobility of Central Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justyna Olko

    2008-01-01

      The extant corpus of 16th-century pictorial manuscripts from Central Mexico has great potential for various lines of research on the images of native nobility that they contain, with implications for...

  11. ‘Getting’ the Pox: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, “getting the pox” is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  12. Visualizando lo invisible. Las redes de misioneros y probabilistas en el siglo XVI y primeros años del XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Leticia Mayer Celis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The network model used it as a methodological approach to understand social reality: the movement of characters and knowledge in the sixteenth century and early seventeenth centuries. The hypothesis guiding this discussion is that the contact with otherness missionaries introduced European theological thought in the sense of uncertainty and moral hazard that gave rise to a school of thought called: probabilism, history of ideas of probability. The American experience opened the limits of the European world by exposing a new western continent. The first missionaries in New Spain opened the process of uncertainty and questions to otherness. East missions had already passed through the sieve of American missionary discussions, and were able to adapt to the cultures of others. Indeed, the idea of ​​chance-so important to modern science-has many causes, as most of the major currents of thought. In this case, the likelihood, it is necessary to use a very particular socio-cultural context: what happened in the sixteenth century with European expansion, both the Americas and the Far East. The problem of face, try and live with the Other.

  13. [Two comments on “Historic cartographic evidence for Holocene changes in the Antarctic ice cover”] Antarctic ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Daniel J.; Lliboutry, Louis

    1984-04-01

    Readers of John G. Weihaupt's “Historic Cartographic Evidence for Holocene Changes in the Antarctic Ice Cover” (Eos, August 28, 1984, p. 493) may wish to consult Charles H. Hapgood, Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, Evidence of Advanced Civilization in the Ice Ages (Chilton, Radnor, Penn., 1966). The major part of this book is a presentation of the thesis that Weihaupt has independently developed: that early sixteenth century maps portray Antarctica, and in particular an ice-free Ross Sea, and that such knowledge must have been obtained and transmitted from a remote, perhaps prehistoric, epoch. Hapgood is perhaps better known to the geophysical community for his earlier book, Earth's Shifting Crust (Pantheon, New York, 1958), which proposed that the growth of ice caps unbalances the crust so that it can, and during the Pleistocene frequently did, slide over the interior, displacing the poles several thousand kilometers.The more conservative literature on Terra Australis of the sixteenth century cartographers is extensive; Acta Cartographica, a collection of reprinted papers on historical cartography, has over two dozen references in its indexes. A plausible hypothesis by J. Enterline (Imago Mundi, 26, pp. 48-58, 1972) is that it reflects Portugese acquisition of Indonesian knowledge of Australia, the prominent embayment (Hapgood's and Weihaupt's ice-free Ross Sea) being the Gulf of Carpentaria. Underestimation of the size of the globe forced Australia to extend over the pole, just as it forced newly discovered America to lie close to Japan.

  14. Early Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Hugh

    The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and the astronomy of the Mayas was by no means negligible. Greek astronomy, as developed by the medieval Arab philosophers, evolved into the astronomy of Copernicus. This displaced the earth from the central stationary position that almost all earlier astronomies had assumed. Soon thereafter, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, Kepler found the true shape of the planetary orbits and Galileo introduced the telescope for astronomical observations.

  15. On the Time of the Intellect: The Interpretation of De Anima 3.6 (43ob 7-20) in Renaissance and Early Modern Italian Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubouclez, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that an original debate over the relationship between time and the intellect took place in Northern Italy in the second half of the sixteenth century, which was part of a broader reflection on the temporality of human mental acts. While human intellectual activity was said to be 'above time' during the Middle Ages, Renaissance scholars such as Marcantonio Genua (1491-1563), Giulio Castellani (1528-1586), Antonio Montecatini (1537-1599) and Francesco Piccolomini (1520-1604), greatly influenced by the Simplician and Alexandrist interpretations of Aristotle's works, proposed alterna- tive conceptions based on the interpretation of De anima 3.6 (430b 7-20) according to which intellectual acts happen in a both 'undivided' and 'divisible time'. In order to explain Aristotle's puzzling claim, they were led to conceive of intellectual activity as a process similar to sensation, corresponding to a certain lapse of time (Castellani), an instant (Montecatini), or a mix of instantaneousness and concrete duration (Piccolomini), depending on their theoretical options.

  16. The invention of borders. Documentary falsification and community identity in the mountains of the Veneto in the late medieval and early modern period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Varanini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the fifteenth century and in the sixteenth century the non-Italian speaking communes of the Veronese mountains (later called «Tredici Comuni» and of the Vicentine mountains (later called «Sette Comuni» made up a large number of faked documents, dating at the age of Cangrande della Scala (the 20s of the fourteenth century with the aim of establishing the boundaries of their territory, usurping pastures and forests belonging to institutions and citizens of Verona and Vicenza, or to the lords and the communities of the Vallagarina and the Valsugana subject to the Habsburg Empire. The research carries out a comparative analysis of these two largely different cases. In the Veronese mountains, in fact, human settlings and the creation of organized communities date only from the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries, while the rural communities of the Vicentine mountains had long since established; in the case we analyze here, of particular importance is the ‘inter-state’ boundary between the territory of Vicenza and the territory of Feltre, and later between the territory of Vicenza and the Habsburg Empire, whose rule upon the Valsugana dates from the beginning of the fifteenth century. The research also discusses the attitude of the Venetian government, and its purposely acceptance, owing to political-strategic reasons, of these ‘invented boundaries’.

  17. The bottom of the universe: Flat earth science in the Age of Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegro, James J

    2017-03-01

    This essay challenges the dominance of the spherical earth model in fifteenth- and early-sixteenth-century Western European thought. It examines parallel strains of Latin and vernacular writing that cast doubt on the existence of the southern hemisphere. Three factors shaped the alternate accounts of the earth as a plane and disk put forward by these sources: (1) the unsettling effects of maritime expansion on scientific thought; (2) the revival of interest in early Christian criticism of the spherical earth; and (3) a rigid empirical stance toward entities too large to observe in their entirety, including the earth. Criticism of the spherical earth model faded in the decades after Magellan's crew returned from circuiting the earth in 1522.

  18. Philosophers and physicians on the scientific validity of Latin physiognomy, 1200-1500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The article surveys and contextualizes the main arguments among philosophers and academic physicians surrounding the status of physiognomy as a valid science from the thirteenth to the early sixteenth centuries. It suggests that despite constant doubts, learned Latin physiognomy in the later Middle Ages was recognized by natural philosophers (William of Spain, Jean Buridan, William of Mirica) and academic physicians (Rolandus Scriptor, Michele Savonarola, Bartolomeo della Rocca [Cocles]) as a body of knowledge rooted in a sound theoretical basis. Physiognomy was characterized by stability and certainty. As a demonstrative science it was expected to provide rational explanation for every bodily sign. In this respect, learned physiognomy in the Middle Ages was dramatically different from its classical sources, from Islamic and possibly from early-modern physiognomy as well.

  19. Autism: Why Act Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  20. Cancer treatment -- early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000912.htm Cancer treatment - early menopause To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain types of cancer treatments can cause women to have early menopause. This ...

  1. Overview of Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant or toddler for early intervention (e.g., Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome). Determining eligibility | The results of the evaluation will be used to determine your child’s eligibility for early intervention services. You and a ...

  2. Early Retirement Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Peter W.

    1984-01-01

    Early retirement programs offer individuals an alternative to the work ethic while allowing them to maintain job security. Examples are given of several early, partial, and phased retirement programs currently being used in universities and public school systems. (DF)

  3. [Anatomia practica: features from the history of early patho-anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Olaf Myhre

    2002-01-01

    Since the anatomy school of Alexandria during the fourth og third century before Christ dissection of the human body seems not to have been practiced until late Medieval or early Renaissance period, undoubtedly due to ethical and religious aversions. The teaching of anatomy was based on Galen using animal dissection. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, however, anatomical examinations of the human body slowly began, seemingly for the purpose of describing both the normal structure and the abnormal structure caused by diseases, maldevelopment or trauma. This latter branch of anatomy was called practical, medical or correlative anatomy and corresponds to what we today name as patho-anatomy. Antonio Benivieni of Florence (1442-1502) is the first one to collect (and publish) a series of clinical observations some of which could be correlated to post mortem findings. It is unknown, however, whether the autopsies were performed by himself; and there is no mentioning of technique or circumstances for sectioning. Studies of the dead body by incision for the purpose of displaying diseased organs (autopsy) seem to have been an accepted practice for which relatives consented in those days. Other medical doctors in the years to follow, as for instance Fernel (1485-1558) in Paris, Eustachius (1524-1574) in Rome, Felix Plater (1536-1614) in Basle and Th. Bartholin (1616-1680) in Copenhagen have used the anatomical method for the study of diseases. Further, Schenck (1530-1598) in Freiburg and Bonet (1620-1689) in Genéva collected and published large series of clinical symptoms which had been related to post mortem findings dating back to ancient observers. This is the scientific background for anatomists as Morgagni, Lieutaud, Baillie, Bichât and others who founded the morbid anatomy on which the study of disease flourished in the classical patho-anatomical era of the nineteenth century with names as Rokitanski and Virchow.

  4. Conceptions of Educational Practices Among the Nahuas of Mexico: Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, Marie-Noëlle

    2015-01-01

    Historical documents and recent fieldwork indicate that, since the sixteenth century, there is robust continuity in central beliefs about learning among Nahuatl families. Nahuatl documents from nearly five centuries ago and current Nahuatl adults consider guidance and teaching to be accompaniment of the learner, more than direct action, because nobody can enter the minds and personalities of others. Learning by observing and pitching in is valued: The adults can organize good conditions of apprenticeship, they can indicate the good direction and the goal, serve as examples, and protect the learner. Across centuries, Nahuatl educational practices consist of facilitating observation by copresence, early training for attentive engagement, hiding nothing, and not preventing children from trying, as well as persuading children to be responsible, to work, and to adopt a calm attitude for paying close attention.

  5. Pirate Alterity and Mimesis in Colonial Epic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Navascués

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pirate representation is studied in a series of Epic poems in the late sixteenth century and early seventeenth century. The ambiguous image of the English enemy is read in texts by Juan de Miramontes, Pedro de Oña, Martín del Barco Centenera and Juan de Castellanos, among others. On the one hand, Colonial Epic ignores some important differences between privateers and pirates since the privateering had been legally accepted by all European nations, including Spain. Besides, Pirate is always called «Lutheran» and revealing its absolute otherness with respect to the Catholic model. On the other hand, it proposes a laudatory epics enemy painting from the imitation of the values accepted by the colonial society. The relationship between the Spanish hero and the privateer is represented not in a vertical direction, as could happen between colonizer and colonized subject, but on a level of rivalry.

  6. Empresas o divisas de Isabel de Castilla y Fernando de Aragón (los Reyes Católicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagrario López Poza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The kings Isabel I of Castile (1451-1504 and Fernando II of Aragon (1452-1516, well-known with Catholic Monarchs title, granted by Pope Alexander VI in 1496, made wide use of devises or imprese as a personal way of representation. Some of them were incorporated to the coat of arms of Spain during their reign, and today we can still see them sculptured in the stone of buildings of 15th and 16th centuries, painted in walls or ceilings or embroidered in flags. Several historians and philologists have tried to make sense of the main imprese used by these kings, but they have succeeded only partially. Emblems provide important information in order to understand the meaning (as it was in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries of the imprese with the motto TANTO MONTA. Besides that well-known devise, the Catholic Monarchs used others to which little attention has been paid till now.

  7. The Prefatory/Postscript Letters to St. Thomas More’s Utopia: The Culture of ‘Seeing’ as a Reality-Conferring Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Aretoulakis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the significance of on-the-spot observation and eye witnessing as powerful scientific tools for establishing the real in the early sixteenth century. In particular, I argue that the simulation of such tools in the paratextual material to Utopia, especially the prefatory/postscript letters, enhance, preemptively, the verisimilitude of the Utopian society as well as the materiality of the island at hand. If eye witnessing is reality-conferring, then, the powerful Renaissance act of reading a text as a simulation of eye witnessing is reality-conferring too. In this light, to read Utopia through the paratextual letters is to place one’s trust in the literal existence of Utopia insofar as reading simulates the act of seeing with one’s own eyes and bearing witness to a palpable reality.

  8. Cases of ergotism in livestock and associated ergot alkaloid concentrations in feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A.; Klotz, James; Duringer, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Ergot-induced disease was known long before Biblical times and has been the root cause for countless human epidemics spanning from the early fourteenth century to the late sixteenth century. In contrast, many of these same ergot alkaloids have been utilized for their medicinal properties to mitigate migraine headaches and have had indications as anticarcinogens. Although ergot alkaloids have been used for centuries, basic pharmacokinetic data has not been documented for clinical disease. Consequently, a threshold dose and accurate dose-response data have yet to be established. Throughout the past several years, new detection techniques have emerged to detect these alkaloids at the parts per billion which have allowed for new efforts to be made with respect to determining threshold levels and making accurate clinical diagnoses. This perspectives article provides a critical initial step for establishing a uniform interpretation of ergot toxicosis from limited existing data.

  9. Zaccaria Lilio and the shape of the earth: A brief response to Allegro's "Flat earth science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothaft, C Philipp E

    2017-06-01

    This is a response to James J. Allegro's article "The Bottom of the Universe: Flat Earth Science in the Age of Encounter," published in Volume 55, Number 1, of this journal. Against the solid consensus of modern scholars, Allegro contends that the decades around 1500 saw a resurgence of popular and learned doubts about the existence of a southern hemisphere and the concept of a spherical earth more generally. It can be shown that a substantial part of Allegro's argument rests on an erroneous reading of his main textual witness, Zaccaria Lilio's Contra Antipodes (1496), and on a failure adequately to place this source in the context of the cosmographical debate of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Once this context is taken into account, the notion that Lilio was a flat-earther falls flat.

  10. The Imaginary of Resettlement of Ávila: the Crónica de la Población, the Epílogo and the Segunda Leyenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Monsalvo Antón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show and interpret the image that the historical chronicles of Ávila offered of the city and its people during the key moments of its settlement by Alfonso VI and Raymond of Burgundy in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries. Specifically of interest is the focus on the settlement of colonists. Three texts are analysed: the Crónica de la Población de Ávila, written in the thirteenth century; Gonzalo de Ayora’s Epílogo, written in the second decade of the sixteenth century; and the later Segunda Leyenda. The texts make it possible to decipher the different discourses on the organization of pioneering society, the leadership of certain social groups and their geographic origins, as well as assessing the ideological orientation of the sources or the impact of the changes resulting from the incorporation of new narrative resources.

  11. In fencing, what gives left-handers the edge? Views from the present and the distant past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren Julius

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies show that in the sport of fencing left-handers have an advantage over right-handers. This was recognised by fencing masters as early as the sixteenth century. They also agreed that the advantage was due to left-handers' numbers-that being a minority gave them more opportunities to compete against right-handers than right-handers had against them. Fencing masters today have reached the same conclusion, as have laterality researchers, who see the advantage as an example of what is now called a "frequency-dependent" effect. However, some researchers have also suggested other possibilities that relate the advantage to natural differences in ability. This article presents a sampling of views of fencing masters from the past, along with a summary and analysis of explanations, old and new.

  12. Ignacio de Loyola y Teresa de Ávila. Inspectores de Espíritus : Institución y Carisma en los albores da la Era confesional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Alejandro Campagne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After During the late Middle Ages, the discernment of spirits went through a revolutionary transformation: from a wonderful charism invested by the Holy Ghost, it became a human science, based upon probabilities and conjectures, and under the tight control of the theological corporation. This new discretio spirituum paradigm is known as «gersonian revolution» (because of Jean Gerson’s role in its propagation. Were the great Sixteenth Century charismatic saints enemies or supporters of this process of clericalization of religious enthusiasm? The aim of this paper is to offer some clues to the resolution of this dilemma, using as a test-case the figures of Ignatius Loyola and Teresa of Avila, two of the major references of early Counter-Reformation

  13. What is “colonial” about medieval colonial medicine? Iberian health in global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Iona

    2015-01-01

    Colonial medicine is a thriving field of study in the history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century medicine. Medicine can be used as a lens to view colonialism in action and as a way to critique colonialism. This article argues that key debates and ideas from that modern field can fruitfully be applied to the Middle Ages, especially for the early empires of Spain and Portugal (mid-fourteenth to mid-sixteenth centuries). The article identifies key modern debates, explores approaches to colonization and colonialism in the Middle Ages and discusses how medieval and modern medicine and healthcare could be compared using colonial and postcolonial discourses. The article ends with three case studies of healthcare encounters in Madeira, Granada and Hispaniola at the end of the fifteenth century. PMID:26550030

  14. Optimizing Early Retirement Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the military. The U.S. Army’s early retirement program is a temporary one designed to allow some soldiers to leave the service prior to 20 years of...whether it makes financial sense for an officer to select early retirement . A spreadsheet formulation is developed and used to indicate if and when...an officer should select early retirement . The program investigates the decision that various civilian salary levels and various assumed discount rates.

  15. Participar sin pertenecer. La participación política de los ciudadanos no nacionales en dos áreas urbanas: Alicante y Florencia (Take part without belonging. The political participation of non-national citizens in two urban areas: Alicante and Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Santoni

    2013-01-01

    urban contexts of the Mediterranean Eurozone, Alicante (Spain and Florence (Italy, which could be considered “most similar cases” for their history of migration.

  16. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  17. Early Retirement Payoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  18. The Ottoman Conquest of Egypt (1517) and the Beginning of the Sixteenth-Century World War الفتح العثماني لمصر 1517م وبداية الحرب العالمية للقرن السادس عشر

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmed Salem

    2013-01-01

    ... هذا الفتح أن تلعب دورًا أكثر نشاطًا في تاريخ أوروبا أكثر من أي وقت مضى؟ من الواضح أن الجواب على هذا السؤال ينطوي على عقد المقارنة بين تاريخ الإمبريالية الأوروبية والشرق...

  19. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  20. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  1. The Baltic and the birth of a modern English maritime community: the Muscovy Company and nautical cartography, 1553-1665

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Maeer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available English merchants and navigators began developing their skills in the late sixteenth century to reach Baltic shores and in the process birthed a distinct English nautical charting tradition which continued to service and reflect English interests for over a century. Specifically, the efforts of the Muscovy Company and the emergence of a distinct master-apprentice relationship of chart makers within the Drapers’ Company instigated the emergence of a modern maritime community in England replete with the financial structures, ships, and skills necessary to encompass the globe. As a result of various setbacks in the late-sixteenth century, English merchants and mariners shifted from coastal trading ventures to direct long-distance overseas commerce. This transformation was initiated through the efforts of the Muscovy Company and its accompanying introduction of marine charts for navigating distant shores. The introduction and expansion of direct long-distance overseas trade and modern navigational techniques then spurred the creation of a domestic charting industry to service these English navigational needs, the Thames School of English marine charting. Born out of a close association with English commerce to the Baltic, members of the Thames School continued to produce nautical charts of the globe that reflected ever-expanding English interests until the early-eighteenth century. This paper argues that trade to and from the Baltic acted as a proving ground, the venue, within which both the origins of English long-distant overseas trade and nautical cartography emerged—two fundamentally necessary components for the Empire which followed.

  2. Reconstructing 800 years of summer temperatures in Scotland from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydval, Miloš; Loader, Neil J.; Gunnarson, Björn E.; Druckenbrod, Daniel L.; Linderholm, Hans W.; Moreton, Steven G.; Wood, Cheryl V.; Wilson, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a summer temperature reconstruction using Scots pine tree-ring chronologies for Scotland allowing the placement of current regional temperature changes in a longer-term context. `Living-tree' chronologies were extended using `subfossil' samples extracted from nearshore lake sediments resulting in a composite chronology >800 years in length. The North Cairngorms (NCAIRN) reconstruction was developed from a set of composite blue intensity high-pass and ring-width low-pass filtered chronologies with a range of detrending and disturbance correction procedures. Calibration against July-August mean temperature explains 56.4% of the instrumental data variance over 1866-2009 and is well verified. Spatial correlations reveal strong coherence with temperatures over the British Isles, parts of western Europe, southern Scandinavia and northern parts of the Iberian Peninsula. NCAIRN suggests that the recent summer-time warming in Scotland is likely not unique when compared to multi-decadal warm periods observed in the 1300s, 1500s, and 1730s, although trends before the mid-sixteenth century should be interpreted with some caution due to greater uncertainty. Prominent cold periods were identified from the sixteenth century until the early 1800s—agreeing with the so-called Little Ice Age observed in other tree-ring reconstructions from Europe—with the 1690s identified as the coldest decade in the record. The reconstruction shows a significant cooling response 1 year following volcanic eruptions although this result is sensitive to the datasets used to identify such events. In fact, the extreme cold (and warm) years observed in NCAIRN appear more related to internal forcing of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation.

  3. Early insulin resistance in severe trauma without head injury as outcome predictor? A prospective, monocentric pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonizzoli Manuela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia following major trauma is a well know phenomenon related to stress-induced systemic reaction. Reports on glucose level management in patients with head trauma have been published, but the development of insulin resistance in trauma patients without head injury has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the prognostic role of acute insulin-resistance, assessed by the HOMA model, in patients with severe trauma without head injury. Methods All patients consecutively admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a tertiary referral center (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, IT for major trauma without head injury (Jan-Dec 2010 were enrolled. Patients with a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy or metabolism alteration were excluded from the analysis. Patients were divided into “insulin resistant” and “non-insulin resistant” based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA IR. Results are expressed as medians. Results Out of 175 trauma patients admitted to the ICU during the study period, a total of 54 patients without head trauma were considered for the study, 37 of whom met the inclusion criteria. In total, 23 patients (62.2% resulted insulin resistant, whereas 14 patients (37.8% were non-insulin resistant. Groups were comparable in demographic, clinical/laboratory characteristics, and severity of injury. Insulin resistant patients had a significantly higher BMI (P=0.0416, C-reactive protein (P=0.0265, and leukocytes count (0.0301, compared to non-insulin resistant patients. Also ICU length of stay was longer in insulin resistant patients (P=0.0381. Conclusions Our data suggest that admission insulin resistance might be used as an early outcome predictor.

  4. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  5. Earth's early biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  6. (Reconceptualizing Early Childhood Education)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Second, I must stress the immensely precious and ..... 'useless' subjects such as emotions, sensitivity, .... a range of different sociological fields including early childhood, gender, .... The origins of intelligence in children (M. Cook, Trans.).

  7. Biogeochemistry: Early phosphorus redigested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Simon W.

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric oxygen was maintained at low levels throughout huge swathes of Earth's early history. Estimates of phosphorus availability through time suggest that scavenging from anoxic, iron-rich oceans stabilized this low-oxygen world.

  8. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  9. Early Prediction of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leona C. Poon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective screening for the development of early onset preeclampsia (PE can be provided in the first-trimester of pregnancy. Screening by a combination of maternal risk factors, uterine artery Doppler, mean arterial pressure, maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, and placental growth factor can identify about 95% of cases of early onset PE for a false-positive rate of 10%.

  10. Early Mover Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Bijwaard, Govert; Janssen, Maarten; Maasland, Emiel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes empirically whether and if so to what extent later entrants in the European mobile telephony industry have a disadvantage vis-à-vis incumbents and early mover entrants. To analyze this question a dynamic model of market share development and a series of static models are considered. There is clear evidence of early mover advantage, mainly caused by the influence of the penetration rate: it pays to enter when still few people have acquired a mobile telephone. Another import...

  11. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  12. Finding Florence: Shedding Light on Nurse Practitioners' Professional Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. ter Maten-Speksnijder (Ada)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe new professional role ‘nurse practitioner’ (in Dutch: verpleegkundig specialist) challenges nurses to distuinguish themselves from nurses educated at the Bacher level by the criteria: independency, expertise, and an active attitude to role development. A crucial aspect of their r

  13. 515-IJBCS-Article-Dr Enoche Florence Oga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    1 Medicinal Chemistry & Quality Control Department,National Institute for ... tests, as well as falling within the Rf range on TLC spotting in comparison with the reference ... cold and flu remedies. .... packaging is usually an initial indication of.

  14. Our leaders would do well to emulate Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Michael

    2011-09-28

    There may be few nurses in parliament ( editorial September 7 ), but there are many non-nurses in the Commons and the Lords fighting our cause and, more importantly, trying to reverse the damage of NHS 'reforms'.

  15. Beyond Florence Nightingale: The General Professional Education of the Nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Lois A.

    1989-01-01

    Nurses must leave nursing to advance their careers. A rigorous preprofessional science preparation and nursing education at the baccalaureate level followed by a clinical internship is proposed. Nurses would be able to achieve specialty education either by graduate education or through experience and continuing nursing education. (Author/MLW)

  16. Marriage and elite structure in Reinassance Florence; 1282-1500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Padgett

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This conference paper is an interim report from a large-scale project to trace transformations in Florentine elite network structures over two centuries. In this paper, I confine myself solely to a description of previously unknown trends in broad patterns of Florentine inter-marriage. Knowledgeable readers will immediately see that these trends have important implications for debates in Florentine historiography (which I will develop in the future. Ultimately, I am primarily interested in the political implications of the trends I herein describe. But for now I do not engage in interpretation, explanation, or argumentation. I intend simply to lay out some new facts.

  17. DCS Hydraulics Submission for Akansas River in Florence CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  18. The Road Inventory of Florence Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine the relative needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) was asked to inventory all public access and...

  19. Florence, Italy : City of Art, Culture and Soccer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brandon; Edwards

    2007-01-01

    I guess you could say my life began pretty normally. I was born in Indianapolis, Indiana on September 24th, 1982. No big thing at all except for the fact that I was the first son of Terry and Kim Edwards and the first grandson for both sets of grandparents. My life was about to get interesting, and for the next few years it wouldn’t stop spinning.

  20. Florence, Italy : City of Art, Culture and Soccer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brandon; Edwards

    2007-01-01

    I guess you could say my life began pretty normally. I was born in Indianapolis, Indiana on September 24th, 1982. No big thing at all except for the fact that I was the first son of Terry and Kim Edwards and the first grandson for both sets of grandparents.

  1. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Adrenal Gland Metastases: University of Florence Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casamassima, Franco, E-mail: f.casamassima@dfc.unifi.it [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Masciullo, Stefano; Menichelli, Claudia; Masi, Laura [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Meattini, Icro [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bonucci, Ivano [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Agresti, Benedetta; Simontacchi, Gabriele [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Doro, Raffaela [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a retrospective single-institution outcome after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and December 2009, we treated 48 patients with SBRT for adrenal metastases. The median age of the patient population was 62.7 years (range, 43-77 years). In the majority of patients, the prescription dose was 36 Gy in 3 fractions (70% isodose, 17.14 Gy per fraction at the isocenter). Eight patients were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery and forty patients with multi-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy. Results: Overall, the series of patients was followed up for a median of 16.2 months (range, 3-63 months). At the time of analysis, 20 patients were alive and 28 patients were dead. The 1- and 2-year actuarial overall survival rates were 39.7% and 14.5%, respectively. We recorded 48 distant failures and 2 local failures, with a median interval to local failure of 4.9 months. The actuarial 1-year disease control rate was 9%; the actuarial 1- and 2-year local control rate was 90%. Conclusion: Our retrospective study indicated that SBRT for the treatment of adrenal metastases represents a safe and effective option with a control rate of 90% at 2 years.

  2. Wood Science for Conservation of Cultural Heritage – Florence 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Uzielli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    COST Action IE0601 "Wood Science for Conservation of Cultural Heritage" (www.woodculther.org) aims to improve the conservation (including study, preventive conservation and restoration) of European Wooden Cultural Heritage Objects (WCHOs), by fostering targeted research and multidisciplinary interaction between Researchers in various fields of Wood Science, Conservators of wooden artworks, other Scientists from related fields. This book of Proceedings contains most of the papers presented in ...

  3. Finding Florence: Shedding Light on Nurse Practitioners' Professional Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. ter Maten-Speksnijder (Ada)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe new professional role ‘nurse practitioner’ (in Dutch: verpleegkundig specialist) challenges nurses to distuinguish themselves from nurses educated at the Bacher level by the criteria: independency, expertise, and an active attitude to role development. A crucial aspect of their r

  4. Finding Florence: Shedding Light on Nurse Practitioners' Professional Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. ter Maten-Speksnijder (Ada)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe new professional role ‘nurse practitioner’ (in Dutch: verpleegkundig specialist) challenges nurses to distuinguish themselves from nurses educated at the Bacher level by the criteria: independency, expertise, and an active attitude to role development. A crucial aspect of their

  5. How early is early dark energy?

    CERN Document Server

    Pettorino, Valeria; Wetterich, Christof

    2013-01-01

    We investigate constraints on early dark energy (EDE) from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy, taking into account data from WMAP9 combined with latest small scale measurements from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). For a constant EDE fraction we propose a new parametrization with one less parameter but still enough to provide similar results to the ones previously studied in literature. The main emphasis of our analysis, however, compares a new set of different EDE parametrizations that reveal how CMB constraints depend on the redshift epoch at which Dark Energy was non negligible. We find that bounds on EDE get substantially weaker if dark energy starts to be non-negligible later, with early dark energy fraction Omega_e free to go up to about 5% at 2 sigma if the onset of EDE happens at z < 100. Tight bounds around 1-2% are obtained whenever dark energy is present at last scattering, even if its effects switch off afterwards. We show that the CMB mainly constrains the presence of Dark Energy ...

  6. Early bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Myung Cha; Myung-Hwan Kim; Se Jin Jang

    2007-01-01

    Bile duct cancers are frequently diagnosed as advanced diseases. Over half of patients with advanced bile duct cancer present with unresectable malignancies and their prognosis has been very poor even after curative resections. Although there has been a need to diagnose bile duct cancer at its early stage, it has been a difficult goal to achieve due to our lack of knowledge regarding this disease entity. Early bile duct cancer may be defined as a carcinoma whose invasion is confined within the fibromuscular layer of the extrahepatic bile duct or intrahepatic large bile duct without distant metastasis irrespective of lymph node involvement. Approximately 3%-10% of resected bile duct cancers have been reported to be early cancers in the literature. The clinicopathological features of patients with early bile duct cancer differ from those of patients with advanced bile duct cancer, with more frequent asymptomatic presentation, characteristic histopathological findings,and excellent prognosis. This manuscript is organized to emphasize the need for convening an international consensus to develop the concept of early bile duct cancer.

  7. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  8. Early Reionization in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, R

    1993-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies have turned out to represent one of the most stringent 'bottle necks' for scenarios of large scale structure formation. As a possibility to relax this constraint, it has been proposed that early reionization can damp CMB fluctuations on small scales due to photon diffusion in the ionized plasma. As an example, I investigate the recently proposed scenario with cold dark matter (CDM) and texture seeds. There, an analysis of CMB anisotropies shows that early reionization is a crucial ingredient for this scenario. Without damping, the small scale anisotropies would dominate and exceed observed limits. In this paper I present analytical and numerical results for the amount of damping due to early reionization for CMB perturbations induced by a collapsing texture. Furthermore, the spectral distortion of the CMB due to Compton scattering of the hotter plasma electrons is calculated. Next I discuss the physical processes which lead to a system of coupled ordinary dif...

  9. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T. K.; Melle, I.; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome.Method During 1997â€"2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... with public information campaigns and low-threshold psychosis detection teams was established in one healthcare area (ED-area), but not in a comparable area (no-ED area). Both areas ran equivalent treatment programmes during the first 2 years and need-adapted treatment thereafter.Results At the start...

  10. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria...... for considerable cultural and economic continuity rather than devastation and unrelenting decline. Much new, and increasingly non-elite, architectural evidence and an ever-growing corpus of material culture indicate that Syria-Palestine entered a new age of social richness in the early Islamic period, even...

  11. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  12. The Earth's early evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, S A; Housh, T

    1995-09-15

    The Archean crust contains direct geochemical information of the Earth's early planetary differentiation. A major outstanding question in the Earth sciences is whether the volume of continental crust today represents nearly all that formed over Earth's history or whether its rates of creation and destruction have been approximately balanced since the Archean. Analysis of neodymium isotopic data from the oldest remnants of Archean crust suggests that crustal recycling is important and that preserved continental crust comprises fragments of crust that escaped recycling. Furthermore, the data suggest that the isotopic evolution of Earth's mantle reflects progressive eradication of primordial heterogeneities related to early differentiation.

  13. Early Cosmology Constrained

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Pigozzo, Cassio; Heavens, Alan F; Jimenez, Raul

    2016-01-01

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the $\\Lambda$CDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95\\% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter $\\Omega_{\\rm MR} < 0.006$ and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species $2.3 < N_{\\rm eff} < 3.2$ when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond $\\Lambda$CDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way ...

  14. Early Learning in CRESPAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Karweit, Nancy; Bond, Mary Alice; Woodruff, Lannette Burns; Jaeger, Gary; Adee, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes research conducted by the Early Learning Program during the first 5 years of operation of the Center for Research on the Education of Children Placed At Risk (CRESPAR). Describes two integrated areas of research: practices that promote the development of language and literacy skills and systemic issues of school policy and teacher…

  15. Introduction to "Early psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick; Nordentoft, Merete; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    warrants careful analysis. The Third International Early Psychosis Conference proved to be a watershed and was the largest and most vibrant meeting to that point. This preface aims to set the scene for a selection of contributions, derived from the array of new evidence reported in Copenhagen, and recently...

  16. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  17. Early Mover Advantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); E. Maasland (Emiel)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze empirically whether and if so to what extent later entrants in the European mobile telephony industry have a disadvantage vis-à-vis incumbents and early mover entrants. To analyze this question we consider a series of static models and a dynamic model of market s

  18. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants an oppo...

  19. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  20. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  1. Early malignant syphilis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigosa, Yara Martins; Bendazzoli, Paulo Salomão; Barbosa, Angela Marques; Ortigosa, Luciena Cegatto Martins

    2016-01-01

    Early malignant syphilis is a rare and severe variant of secondary syphilis. It is clinically characterized by lesions, which can suppurate and be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as high fever, asthenia, myalgia, and torpor state. We report a diabetic patient with characteristic features of the disease showing favorable evolution of the lesions after appropriate treatment. PMID:28300925

  2. Early Developments, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Pam, Ed.; Buysse, Virginia, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the three 2002 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center (FPG) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Articles in the Winter 2002 issue highlight some current work at FPG on factors that enhance or inhibit social and…

  3. Creativity: The Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Rick; Shade, Patti Garrett

    2016-01-01

    There is a myth that some people are creative and others are not. However, all children are born creative. They love to explore, ask questions, and are incredibly imaginative. Parents are key in nurturing their child's creativity in the early years. This article offers resources and strategies parents can use at different ages and stages (newborn,…

  4. Music in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, John

    1990-01-01

    Argues that music activities in early childhood education foster a variety of developmental skills. Analyzes Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, contending that music intelligence is a separate intelligence. Provides ways to identify and promote musical intelligence. Suggests methods for encouraging musical development. Using songs…

  5. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...

  6. Comets, meteors, and eclipses: Art and science in early Renaissance Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    2002-11-01

    We discuss eight trecento (fourteenth century) paintings containing depictions of astronomical events to reveal the revolutionary advances made in both astronomy and naturalistic painting in early Renaissance Italy, noting that an artistic interest in naturalism predisposed these pioneering painters to make their scientific observations. In turn, the convincing representations of their observations of astronomical phenomena in works of art rendered their paintings more believable, convincing. Padua was already a renowned center for mathematics and nascent astronomy (which was separating from astrology) when Enrico Scrovegni commissioned the famous Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone to decorate his lavish family chapel (circa 1301-1303). Giotto painted a flaming comet in lieu of the traditional Star of Bethlehem in the Adoration of the Magi scene. Moreover, he painted a historical apparition that he recently had observed with a great accuracy even by modern standards. Halley's Comet of 1301 (Olson, 1979). While we do not know the identity of the artist's theological advisor, we discuss the possibility that Pietro d'Abano, the Paduan medical doctor and "astronomer" who wrote on comets, might have been influential. We also compare Giotto's blazing comet with two others painted by the artist's shop in San Francesco at Assisi (before 1316) and account for the differences. In addition, we discuss Giotto's pupil, Taddeo Gaddi, reputed to have been partially blinded by a solar eclipse, whose calamity may find expression in his frescoes in Santa Croce, Florence (1328-30; 1338?). Giotto also influenced the Sienese painter Pietro Lorenzetti, two of whose Passion cycle frescoes at Assisi (1316-20) contain dazzling meteor showers that reveal the artist's observed astronomical phenomena, such as the "radiant" effect of meteor showers, first recorded by Alexander von Humboldt in 1799 and only accepted in the nineteenth century. Lorenzetti also painted sporadic, independent

  7. Comets, Meteors, and Eclipses: Art and Science in Early Renaissance Italy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    1999-09-01

    We discuss several topics relating artists and their works with actual astronomical events in early Renaissance Italy to reveal the revolutionary advances made in both astronomy and naturalistic painting. Padua, where Galileo would eventually hold a chair at the University, was already by the fourteenth century (trecento) a renowned center for mathematics and nascent astronomy (which was separating from astrology). It is no wonder that when Enrico Scrovegni commissioned the famous Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone to decorate his lavish family chapel (c. 1303) that in the scene of the Adoration of the Magi Giotto painted a flaming comet in lieu of the traditional Star of Bethlehem. Moreover, he painted an historical apparition he recently had observed with a great understanding of its scientific structure: Halley's Comet of 1301 (since Olson's first publication of this idea in Scientific American we have expanded the argument in several articles and talks). While we do not know the identity of the artist's theological advisor, we discuss the possibility that Pietro d'Abano, the Paduan medical doctor and ``astronomer" who wrote on comets, might have been influential. We also compare Giotto's blazing comet with two others painted by the artist's shop in San Francesco at Assisi (before 1316) and account for the differences. In addition, we tackle the question how Giotto's pupil, Taddeo Gaddi, who is documented as having been partially blinded by lengthy unprotected observation of the partial phase of an annular solar eclipse, reflects his observations in his frescoes in Santa Croce, Florence (1328-30). Giotto also influenced the Sienese painter Pietro Lorenzetti, two of whose Passion cycle frescoes at Assisi (1316-20), contain dazzling meteor showers that hold important symbolic meanings in the cyle's argument but more importantly reveal that the artist observed astronomical phenomena, such as the ``radiant" effect, which was first recorded by Alexander von Humboldt

  8. Astronomy: Tycho's mystery companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, David

    2004-10-01

    A famous sixteenth century supernova, seen by Tycho Brahe, is still a hot topic. The stellar explosion might have been initiated by a companion star -- and modern astronomers have at last identified it.

  9. 458 An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia Vol. 3 (5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    carried this principle a stage further in the sixteenth century and showed how a greatly ... Various types of camera Obscura were in use by artists in the seventeenth .... particularly in the natural and biomedical sciences which requires abundant.

  10. Actitudes homofóbicas entre los indígenas del Nuevo Mundo: los casos azteca, inca y mapuche en fuentes de los siglos XVI y XVII/Homophobic Attitudes Among Indigenous People in the New World: Aztecs, Incas and Mapuches Through 16th and 17th Century Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauricio González Arenas; César Gamboa

    2015-01-01

    ... toward homosexual behavior. It argues, analyzing Aztec, Inca and Mapuche attitudes from sixteenth-century and seventeenth-century sources, that America was not at all the gay paradise that many have wanted to see and publicize...

  11. Precision engineering for astronomy: historical origins and the future revolution in ground-based astronomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colin Cunningham; Adrian Russell

    2012-01-01

    .... As astronomical instruments have evolved from those built by Tycho Brahe in the sixteenth century, through Galileo and Newton in the seventeenth, to the present day, astronomers have made ever more precise measurements...

  12. Calligraphy--An Aid to Cartography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osley, A. S.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews the life and career of sixteenth century cartographer Gerardus Mercator and, through samples of his work, isolates characteristics of his personal script to give calligraphic evidence of his authorship. (MB)

  13. Cardano v Tartaglia: The Great Feud Goes Supernatural

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Many of the stories surrounding the famous sixteenth century feud between Girolamo Cardano and Niccolo Tartaglia are completely unsupported by the historical record. In particular, stories that have Tartaglia aiding and abetting Cardano's arrest for heresy are chronologically impossible.

  14. Cardano v Tartaglia: The Great Feud Out of Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Many of the stories surrounding the famous sixteenth century feud between Girolamo Cardano and Niccolo Tartaglia are completely unsupported by the historical record. In particular, stories that have Tartaglia aiding and abetting Cardano's arrest for heresy are chronologically impossible.

  15. Coping Strategies and Perceived Social Support of Primiparous Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    early as the mid-nineteenth century when Florence Nightingale referred to environmental factors that affected the patients’ healing process and health...8217 interaction with the environment was first demonstrated by Florence Nightingale when she described the environment as "those elements external to, and which

  16. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  17. The Early Sarmatian Knight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yablonsky Leonid T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the study of the Early Sarmatian burials in the burial mounds near Filippovka village (Ilek district, Orenburg oblast, a large quantity of weapons and accessories were found, which make it possible to reconstruct the military costume. All the armament items from the burial can be divided into two major groups: offensive and defensive. The former includes bows and arrows, slingshots, spears, stilettos and war hammers (“bec de corbin” type; the latter is represented by a helmet and two varieties of scaly armor, made of iron and bone or horn. The accessories of the military costume found include sword-belt buckles with zoomorphic images, as well as a torque and a bracelet, which apparently served as insignia. The reconstructed image of an elite Early Sarmatian warrior is somewhat similar to the appearance of a Western European knight, but the Sarmatian knight was about 2000 years older.

  18. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria;

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... priming. Replication deficient adenoviral vectors have been demonstrated to induce potent CD8+ T-cell response in mice, primates and humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether replication-deficient adenovectors could overcome the risk of overwhelming antigen stimulation during...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...

  19. Samuel Goudsmit - Early Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudsmit, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Samuel Goudsmit, born in 1902 in The Hague, Netherlands, earned his Ph.D. at the University of Leiden in 1926 with Paul Ehrenfest. The present talk will describe some aspects of his background and early formative years in order to provide context for the broad range of his professional life. Sam belonged to a large tribe of paternal and maternal uncles, aunts and first cousins; including his parents, grandparents and sister Ro, they numbered forty. Sam was the first of the tribe to be educated beyond high school. Early interests as a child and later as a university student in the Netherlands prefigured his significant and diverse contributions in several realms including not only physics but also teaching, Egyptology and scientific Intelligence. Bibliographic sources will include: The American Institute of Physics' Oral History Transcripts and photographs from the Emilio Segre visual archives, memoirs and conversations of those who knew Sam and also letters to his daughter, Esther.

  20. Early Permian bipedal reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, D S; Reisz, R R; Scott, D; Henrici, A C; Sumida, S S; Martens, T

    2000-11-03

    A 290-million-year-old reptilian skeleton from the Lower Permian (Asselian) of Germany provides evidence of abilities for cursorial bipedal locomotion, employing a parasagittal digitigrade posture. The skeleton is of a small bolosaurid, Eudibamus cursoris, gen. et sp. nov. and confirms the widespread distribution of Bolosauridae across Laurasia during this early stage of amniote evolution. E. cursoris is the oldest known representative of Parareptilia, a major clade of reptiles.

  1. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  2. Early bioenergetic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Thiergart, Thorsten; Landan, Giddy; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Pereira, Inês A. C.; Allen, John F.; Lane, Nick; Martin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Life is the harnessing of chemical energy in such a way that the energy-harnessing device makes a copy of itself. This paper outlines an energetically feasible path from a particular inorganic setting for the origin of life to the first free-living cells. The sources of energy available to early organic synthesis, early evolving systems and early cells stand in the foreground, as do the possible mechanisms of their conversion into harnessable chemical energy for synthetic reactions. With regard to the possible temporal sequence of events, we focus on: (i) alkaline hydrothermal vents as the far-from-equilibrium setting, (ii) the Wood–Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA) pathway as the route that could have underpinned carbon assimilation for these processes, (iii) biochemical divergence, within the naturally formed inorganic compartments at a hydrothermal mound, of geochemically confined replicating entities with a complexity below that of free-living prokaryotes, and (iv) acetogenesis and methanogenesis as the ancestral forms of carbon and energy metabolism in the first free-living ancestors of the eubacteria and archaebacteria, respectively. In terms of the main evolutionary transitions in early bioenergetic evolution, we focus on: (i) thioester-dependent substrate-level phosphorylations, (ii) harnessing of naturally existing proton gradients at the vent–ocean interface via the ATP synthase, (iii) harnessing of Na+ gradients generated by H+/Na+ antiporters, (iv) flavin-based bifurcation-dependent gradient generation, and finally (v) quinone-based (and Q-cycle-dependent) proton gradient generation. Of those five transitions, the first four are posited to have taken place at the vent. Ultimately, all of these bioenergetic processes depend, even today, upon CO2 reduction with low-potential ferredoxin (Fd), generated either chemosynthetically or photosynthetically, suggesting a reaction of the type ‘reduced iron → reduced carbon’ at the beginning of bioenergetic evolution

  3. Early modern sport

    OpenAIRE

    Huggins, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The "early modern" has always suffered problems of periodization. Its beginnings overlap with the Late Middle Ages when sport and athletic exercise were moving away from military training. It encompasses the Renaissance, Reformation, and Counter-Reformation and the scientific shifts of the Age of Enlightenment, movements that were diverse chronologically, geographically, culturally and intellectually. Some historians link its beginnings to block-printing, the beginning of the Tudor period, or...

  4. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced.Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly.Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  5. History of early atomic clocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, N.F. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Lyman Lab. of Physics

    2005-06-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  6. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  7. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  8. Early Onset Werner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a rare autosomal recessive adult-onset progeroid disorder characterized by the early onset of aged-appearance and age-related metabolic disorders. Symptoms of premature aging usually first develop in the second-third decades of life. We report a 27-year-old female who was admitted to our clinic at the age of eighteen with hyperglycemia. She was diagnosed with diabetes and type 4 dyslipidemia at the age of seven. In her family history, her parents were first cousins and she had three healthy brothers. On her first physical examination; she had bird-like face appearance, global hair loss, beaked nose, short stature and she was overweight. She had global hair loss with gray and thin hair. Hoarseness of voice and hyperkeratosis of skin were observed. She had bilateral cataracts and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. On psychiatric examination, borderline mental retardation was detected. She had severe insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia despite levothyroxine, gemfibrozil, omega-3 and intensive insulin treatment. Routine lipid apheresis was performed to lower the triglyceride levels reaching 5256 mg/dL. She also had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hepatosteatosis, osteoporosis and epilepsy. Disease was accompanied by several congenital deformities, such as Rathke’s cleft cyst, angiomyolipoma and femoral neck hypoplasia. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple endocrine manifestations as well as soft tissue changes. We present a case of early disturbances that were diagnosed before typical clinical signs and symptoms. We propose that WS should be kept in mind when type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia are diagnosed early in childhood. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 99-104

  9. Early Childhood Special Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2011-01-01

    The process of early intervention is a critical component of Early Childhood Special Music Education. Early intervention is the process of providing services, education, and support to young children who have disabilities or to children who are at-risk of developing needs that may affect their physical, cognitive, or emotional development. The…

  10. Expenditures for Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Levin, Jesse; Perez, Maria; Lam, Irene; Chambers, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    What does it cost to provide early intervention services? Data collected as part of the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study were used to determine expenditures for infants, toddlers, and their families receiving services through Part C programs. The study found that the national average total expenditure for early intervention services…

  11. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  12. Giovanni Battista Adriani and the drafting of the second edition of the Vite: the unpublished manuscript of the Lettera a Messer Giorgio Vasari in the Archivio Borromeo (Stresa, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Carrara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay will focus its attention on the second edition of Vasari’s Lives (Giunti, 1568 that took advantage of the constant collaboration of Vincenzio Borghini (1515-1580, and, secondly, that of Giovanni Battista Adriani (1511-1579. The fortunate rediscovery of the autograph manuscript of the Lettera sull’arte degli Antichi by Giovanni Battista Adriani (Letter on the ancients’ art, inserted in the second edition of Vasari’s Lives (compare Vasari, Vite, ed. by Bettarini-Barocchi, I, 176-227, allows us to reconsider the sources used by the prestigious member of the Medici court to write this section, in primis Pliny. Just from a review of the editions on the market in Florence in the sixties of the sixteenth century, an analysis can begin of the diffusion of the Plinian text both printed and in manuscript form, in order to highlight its continuing transmission from one cultural milieu to another, in an unbroken succession going from Landino’s ‘volgarizzamento’ (1476 to the Italian version of Brucioli (1543 and finally at Domenichi’s translation. Each attempt at an understanding of the Letter should in the future, certainly, start from this manuscript, which shows in a tangible way the collaboration of the Florentine historical writer with Vasari: by documenting the drafting stage with modifications and additions to his text made by Adriani, I think it could also be a useful way to approach the methods used by Vasari to create the Lives, one of the masterpieces of Italian Renaissance literature.

  13. Raman spectroscopic analysis of a `noli me tangere' painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberts, Stephen; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Abdel-Ghani, Mona; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The discovery of an oil painting in seriously damaged condition with an important historical and a heterodox detail with possible origins in the late fifteenth century has afforded the opportunity for Raman microscopic analysis prior to its restoration being undertaken. The painting depicts a risen Christ following His crucifixion in a `noli me tangere' pose with three women in an Italian terrace garden with a stone balustrade overlooking a rural landscape and an undoubted view of late-medieval Florence. The picture has suffered much abuse and is in very poor condition, which is possibly attributable to its controversial portrayal of a polydactylic Christ with six toes on His right foot. By the late sixteenth century, after the Council of Trent, this portrayal would almost certainly have been frowned upon by the Church authorities or more controversially as a depiction of the holy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments places the painting as being consistent chronologically with the Renaissance period following the identification of cinnabar, haematite, red lead, lead white, goethite, verdigris, caput mortuum and azurite with no evidence of more modern synthetic pigments or of modern restoration having been carried out. An interesting pigment mixture found here is that of the organic dye carmine and cinnabar to produce a particular bright red pigment coloration. Stratigraphic examination of the paint fragments has demonstrated the presence of an orange resin layer immediately on top of the canvas substrate, effectively rendering the pigment as a sandwich between this substratal resin and the overlying varnish. The Raman spectroscopic evidence clearly indicates that an attribution of the artwork to the Renaissance is consistent with the scientific analysis of the pigment composition. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  14. Raman spectroscopic analysis of a 'noli me tangere' painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberts, Stephen; Edwards, Howell G M; Abdel-Ghani, Mona; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-13

    The discovery of an oil painting in seriously damaged condition with an important historical and a heterodox detail with possible origins in the late fifteenth century has afforded the opportunity for Raman microscopic analysis prior to its restoration being undertaken. The painting depicts a risen Christ following His crucifixion in a 'noli me tangere' pose with three women in an Italian terrace garden with a stone balustrade overlooking a rural landscape and an undoubted view of late-medieval Florence. The picture has suffered much abuse and is in very poor condition, which is possibly attributable to its controversial portrayal of a polydactylic Christ with six toes on His right foot. By the late sixteenth century, after the Council of Trent, this portrayal would almost certainly have been frowned upon by the Church authorities or more controversially as a depiction of the holy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments places the painting as being consistent chronologically with the Renaissance period following the identification of cinnabar, haematite, red lead, lead white, goethite, verdigris, caput mortuum and azurite with no evidence of more modern synthetic pigments or of modern restoration having been carried out. An interesting pigment mixture found here is that of the organic dye carmine and cinnabar to produce a particular bright red pigment coloration. Stratigraphic examination of the paint fragments has demonstrated the presence of an orange resin layer immediately on top of the canvas substrate, effectively rendering the pigment as a sandwich between this substratal resin and the overlying varnish. The Raman spectroscopic evidence clearly indicates that an attribution of the artwork to the Renaissance is consistent with the scientific analysis of the pigment composition.This article is part of the themed issue 'Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  16. Supermodels for early LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Christian W. [Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ligeti, Zoltan, E-mail: zligeti@lbl.go [Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schmaltz, Martin [Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Thaler, Jesse [Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Walker, Devin G.E. [Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-06-21

    We investigate which new physics signatures could be discovered in the first year of the LHC, beyond the expected sensitivity of the Tevatron data by the end of 2010. We construct 'supermodels', for which the LHC sensitivity even with only 10 pb{sup -1} useful luminosity is greater than that of the Tevatron with 10 fb{sup -1}. The simplest supermodels involve s-channel resonances in the quark-antiquark and especially in the quark-quark channels. We concentrate on easily visible final states with small standard model backgrounds, and find that there are simple searches, besides those for Z{sup '} states, which could discover new physics in early LHC data. Many of these are well-suited to test searches for 'more conventional' models, often discussed for multi-fb{sup -1} data sets.

  17. Early times in tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    García-Calderón, G; Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Villavicencio, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    Exact analytical solutions of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation with the initial condition of an incident cutoff wave are used to investigate the traversal time for tunneling. The probability density starts from a vanishing value along the tunneling and transmitted regions of the potential. At the barrier width it exhibits, at early times, a distribution of traversal times that typically has a peak $\\tau_p$ and a width $\\Delta \\tau$. Numerical results for other tunneling times, as the phase-delay time, fall within $\\Delta \\tau$. The B\\"uttiker traversal time is the closest to $\\tau_p$. Our results resemble calculations based on Feynman paths if its noisy behaviour is ignored.

  18. [Early cardiotoxicity of Hydroxychloroquine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbib, Y; Guillaumont, M P; Touati, G; Duhaut, P; Schmidt, J

    2016-03-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is most frequently used in the treatment of systemic inflammatory diseases. Cardiac complications of anti-malarial drugs are uncommon, and most of the time are the result of a long-term exposition. In this case, cardiotoxicity is the consequence of the lysosomal dysfunction and the result of intracytoplasmic granular material inclusions. We report a 77-year-old woman who presented a very early and reversible cardiotoxicity, probably related to the quinidine like effect of the HCQ, 10 days after initiation of therapy for Whipple endocarditis. We discuss the different mechanisms of cardiotoxicity of anti-malarial drugs and their clinical manifestations. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Artritis Temprana Early Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hasta la década de los años ochenta se consideraba a la artritis reumatoide (AR como una enfermedad poco frecuente, de gravedad leve a moderada, que tenía una evolución lentamente, progresiva hacia el daño articular y la incapacidad. El aborde terapéutico convencional hasta ese momento, era el tratamiento clásico de la pirámide.Until the early the eighties was considered rheumatoid arthritis to (RA as a rare disease of mild to moderate severity, which had a slowly evolution towards joint damage and disability. The conventional therapeutic option until then, was the classic treatment of the pyramid.

  20. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable...... structure; and as the theoretical basis for our analyses related to sonority we present Basbøll’s Sonority Syllable Model for phonotactics, which is based upon a non-circular version of a sonority hierarchy. We investigate spontaneous child language output in a longitudinal corpus with two children aged 9......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...

  1. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  2. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Hatice; DİNÇER, Çağlayan

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  3. Icebergs on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uceda, E.; Fairen, A.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.; Palmero Rodriguez, A.

    2015-12-01

    The smooth topography of the Martian northern lowlands has been classically equated to an ancient ocean basin. The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is providing unprecedented images of the Martian surface at scales of 25 to 32 cm per pixel. The analysis of this high-resolution imaging reveals the presence of three differentiated geomorphologies throughout the northern lowlands of Mars and the Hellas basin, which are informative of the presence of icebergs floating in ancient oceans and/or seas. These morphologies are: (i) scattered scour marks, including curvilinear furrows several km long and some meters deep; (ii) boulders ranging in size from 0.5 m to ~2 m in diameter, distributed forming clusters with sizes from several hundred meters to 1-2 km; and (iii) flat-topped and conical circular fractured mounds. The association of plough marks, clusters of boulders and mounds on the northern plains of Mars can be related to the dual processes of ice keel scouring and ice rafting of both glacial and non-glacial detritus by a floating ice canopy and icebergs. These processes are well documented on Earth and result in distinct morphologies on the ocean floor, which are analogous to features observed in the Martian basins. Importantly, the features are located in elevated areas of the northern plains and Hellas, near the dichotomy boundary and on local topographic highs. Such distribution is expected, as these relatively shoal areas are where the iceberg-related features should occur on Mars: these areas had shallow water depths, less than the iceberg's keel depth, and therefore keels reached through the full depth of the water column to impinge on the sediments below. The presence of icebergs floating in cold oceans early in Mars' history imply the occurrence of continental glaciers forming in the highlands and streaming northward towards the lowlands, and towards the Hellas and Argyre Basins. Glacier

  4. Early Attachment Relationships and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…

  5. Critical Questions about Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Abby; Hebbeler, Kathy; Nelson, Robin; Gundler, Darla; Cate, Debbie; Hudson, Laura; Taylor, Cornelia; Peters, Mary Louise

    2015-01-01

    What is a high-quality statewide data system? One characteristic is that it provides the information needed to address important questions about early intervention and early childhood special education. But what are those questions? What questions should data users, such as program directors, advocates, and policymakers, be asking? The Center for…

  6. Early reionization by miniquasars

    CERN Document Server

    Madau, P; Oh, S P; Rees, Martin J; Volonteri, M; Madau, Piero; Rees, Martin J.; Volonteri, Marta; Haardt, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the recent detection by WMAP of a large optical depth to Thomson scattering -- implying a very early reionization epoch -- we assess a scenario where the universe was reionized by `miniquasars' powered by intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), the remnants of the first generation of massive stars. Pregalactic IMBHs form within minihalos above the cosmological Jeans mass collapsing at z=24, get incorporated through mergers into larger and larger systems, sink to the center owing to dynamical friction, and accrete cold material. The merger history of dark halos and associated IMBHs is followed by Monte Carlo realizations of the merger hierarchy in a LCDM cosmology. While seed IMBHs that are as rare as the 3.5-sigma peaks of the primordial density field evolve largely in isolation, a significant number of black hole binary systems will form if IMBHs populate the more numerous 3-sigma peaks instead. In the case of rapid binary coalescence a fraction of IMBHs will be displaced from galaxy centers and ...

  7. Early Repolarization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Sacher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiographic pattern of early repolarization (ER is common, with a particularly high prevalence reported amongst athletes and adolescents. It has long been associated with benign outcome [1-3]. Recently, an association between inferolateral ER pattern and sudden cardiac death (SCD has been established by different groups [4-7]. Population-based studies have also reported an increased mortality rate among patients with inferolateral ER pattern compared to controls [7-9]. To bring back together these differences, it is important to focus on the definition of ER pattern used in these different studies as well as the population included. The definition of ER pattern associated with sudden cardiac death was the presence of J point elevation more than or equal to 0.1mV in at least 2 contiguous inferior and/or lateral leads of a standard 12-lead ECG and not ST elevation as it was often the case in the studies with benign outcome. Any study dealing with ER should clearly indicate the definition used. Otherwise it cannot be interpreted. Talking about definition, ER syndrome is an ER pattern (as defined above associated with symptoms (syncope or aborted SCD and/or familial history of SCD as mentioned in the last HRS/EHRA/APHRS Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Inherited Primary Arrhythmia Syndromes [10]. It is important to recognise that having only an ER pattern is not a disease.

  8. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Fred Brent; Belma Demirel; Ming He; Troy Raybold; Manuel E. Quintana; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2003-06-09

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  10. Freud's early clinical work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, L Z

    1994-01-01

    Freud became a medical practitioner because it was impossible for him to pursue the desired career of a microscopic researcher. His education and training had not prepared him for the task of being a practicing physician. In his private practice he began treating some very intelligent, chaotic, demanding, volatile and disturbed patients. Anna von Lieben was one of these patients whom Freud treated very intensively for a long period of time. Elise Gomperz was another talented and severely pained early patient of Freud. Over a number of years, Freud was her psychiatrist and provided her with attentive care using a variety of treatment methods that were available to him at that time. Emmy von N.'s condition was also fluctuating and very demanding. The dramatic sense and chronic clinical course of these patients is compatible with the contemporary diagnostic category of Borderline Personality Disorder. Freud provided these patients with long-term supportive care while he attempted to cure them. At the same time, Freud committed himself to the theory of radical cure and downplayed the supportive, draining and difficult clinical work that he was doing.

  11. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; Jimmy O. Ong; Sarah J. Patel; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2000-10-26

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to implement the RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  12. Is credit for early action credible early action?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, C. [West Coast Environmental Law Research Foundation, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Michaelowa, A.; Dutschke, M. [Hamburg Institute for Economic Research, Hamburg, (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Credit for early action as a tool for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is compared with various market instruments as a means of narrowing the gap between projected emssions and those of the Kyoto Protocol. Market instruments work by creating a market price for emissions and use the market to encourage reductions at the lowest price, which is done by placing limits on greenhouse gas emissions and allowing the market to decide where reductions occur, or by imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge. While they can be applied within a sector, they are usually used to encourage reductions throughout the economy or across large sectors. Credit for early action also creates an incentive for emissions reductions throughout the economy or at least across many sectors. Credit for early action tools do not work by either imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge or placing limits on emissions, rather they promise that entities that take action against greenhouse gases prior to the imposition of a carbon tax or emissions limits will receive a credit against future taxes or limits. An overview is provided of the Kyoto Protocol and the rationale for taking early action, and a review is included of the theory and specific proposals for market instruments and credit for early action. A comparative analysis is provided of these approaches by examining their relative efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and impacts on the redistribution of wealth. Credit for early action is viewed as problematic on a number of counts and is seen as an interim strategy for imposition while political support for market instruments develop. The environmental effectiveness of credit for early action is very difficult to predict, and credit for early action programs do not yield the lowest cost emissions reductions. Credit for early action programs will not achieve compliance with the Kyoto Protocol at the lowest cost, and credits for early action will increase the compliance costs for those who

  13. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltreider Sara A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  14. Expertise of Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Iiris; Määttä, Kaarina

    2011-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators' stories of their growth towards expertise.…

  15. Early intervention services in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention (EI) in psychosis is a comprehensive and evidence-based approach aimed at detection and treatment of psychotic symptoms in their early stages. This paper presents core features and noteworthy aspects of the evidence basis and limitations of EI, the importance of programme...

  16. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...

  17. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  18. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  19. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  20. Voluntary Incentive Early Retirement Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Dialogues, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Arrangements in educational institutions for voluntary early retirement programs are discussed. Retirement at any age can be a profound and stressful lifetime change; and it can also represent a welcome transition into newly satisfying and rewarding opportunities. The focus is on: mandatory retirement (exceptions and the new meaning of "early");…

  1. Data Systems in Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen

    This study compiled descriptive information about what states are doing or planning to do with early intervention data systems, a component of early intervention systems as specified in Part H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The study examined the uses of data systems in eight states: Colorado, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,…

  2. Early sound distribution in auditorium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Guorong; WANG Jiqing

    2000-01-01

    The importance of early sound, i.e., the direct sound and the first reflections, has long been recognized in auditorium design, but the distributions of early sound in auditorium received less investigation in the past. As we know, the early sound level in the audience area varies not only with the source/receiver distance and room constant, but also related with the room geometry, the absorption arrangement and the location of the source and receiver. The early reflections are of discrete components, so it can not be predicted by the diffused field theory. This paper presents the results of measurement in four halls showing the attenuation rates of early sound level with the source/receiver distance are often much larger than the theoretical predictions. Therefore, they may give overestimated results in acoustical design.

  3. Early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijna eHadders-Algra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP. CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions, but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuro-imaging techniques and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuro-imaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high risk infants without CP. In these infants early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is

  4. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Anderson; Charles Schrader

    2004-01-26

    In 1999, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Cooperative Agreement to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. to provide a preliminary engineering design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award, continuous and diligent work has been undertaken to achieve the design of an economical facility that makes strides toward attaining the goal of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to power while coproducing transportation fuels, chemicals, and useful utilities such as steam. This objective is being pursued in a three-phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems, LLC. (TES), the successor to Texaco Energy Systems, Inc. The key subcontractors to TES include General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root. ChevronTexaco provided gasification technology and Rentech Inc.'s Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology that has been developed for non-natural gas sources. GE provided gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair provided air separation technology and KBR provided engineering to integrate the facility. A conceptual design was completed in Phase I and the report was accepted by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of technical success of the EECP. The objective of Phase II was to mitigate the risks by executing research, development, and testing. Results from the Phase II work are the subject of this report. As the work of Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Preliminary Engineering Design. Work in Phase II requires additional technical development work to correctly apply technology at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and

  5. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Storm; Govanon Nongbri; Steve Decanio; Ming He; Lalit Shah; Charles Schrader; Earl Berry; Peter Ricci; Belma Demirel; Charles Benham; Mark Bohn

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc., GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I, a design basis for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis section was developed based on limited experience with the specified feed gas and operating conditions. The objective of this Task in Phase II RD&T work was to confirm the performance of the F-T reactor at the set design conditions. Although much of the research, development, and testing work were done by TES outside of this project, several

  6. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study examined in this quick review concerns whether attending Early College High Schools increased postsecondary outcomes. This study is a randomized experiment examining the impact of Early Colleges on a number of outcomes. The study had relatively low attrition rates (approximately 7% in the intervention group and 13% in the comparison…

  7. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  8. Early traumatic events in psychopaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Karina; Ostrosky, Feggy

    2013-07-01

    The relationship between diverse early traumatic events and psychopathy was studied in 194 male inmates. Criminal history transcripts were revised, and clinical interviews were conducted to determine the level of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Form, and the Early Trauma Inventory was applied to assess the incidence of abuse before 18 years of age. Psychopathic inmates presented a higher victimization level and were more exposed to certain types of intended abuse than sociopathic inmates, while the sum of events and emotional abuse were associated with the PCL-R score. Our studies support the influence of early adverse events in the development of psychopathic offenders.

  9. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  10. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  11. Early eruption of permanent canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, S

    2012-01-01

    Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  12. Early eruption of permanent canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Benham; Mark Bohn; John Anderson; Earl Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Randy Roberts; Lalit Shah; Marjan Roos

    2003-09-15

    The 1999 U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) award to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. (presently Texaco Energy Systems LLC, a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco) was made to provide a Preliminary Engineering Design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award presentation, work has been undertaken to achieve an economical concept design that makes strides toward the DOE Vision 21 goal. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to electric power plus transportation fuels, chemicals and useful utilities such as steam. The use of petroleum coke was added as a fuel to reduce the cost of feedstock and also to increase the probability of commercial implementation of the EECP concept. This objective has been pursued in a three phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems LLC and subcontractors General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR). ChevronTexaco is providing gasification technology and Rentech's Fischer-Tropsch technology that has been developed for non-natural gas feed sources. GE is providing gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering to integrate the facility. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was completed in 2000. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was prepared based on making

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Roko Bujas; Ming He; Ken Kwik; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Dennis Slater; Donald Todd; Don Wall

    2003-08-21

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES), a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco, General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc. GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP, Phase II RD&T included tests of an alternative (to Rentech's Dynamic Settler) primary catalyst

  15. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the

  16. Early Retiree Reinsurance Program Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) was established by section 1102 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) enacted on...

  17. Early Retiree Reinsurance Program Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) was established by section 1102 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) enacted on...

  18. NGIPS Early Design Space Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-17

    cycles). The results of this case are shown in Fig. 4. It can be seen that the fault causes a momentary outage of some loads and that the system...perform shipboard power system performance metric refinements, early- stage assessment computational tool investigation, and the application of these...early-stage design space exploration methods and tools were pursued in support of the Navy’s Next Generation Integrated Power Systems (NGIPS

  19. Axions in the early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Peter; Steffen, Frank Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The smallness of the CP violating term in the QCD Lagrangian is the well known strong CP problem. If it is solved via the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism, the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson associated with the spontaneous breaking of the new chiral U(1){sub PQ} symmetry is the axion. We study the behavior of axions in the early Universe and calculate the temperature at which the axion decouples from the early QCD plasma.

  20. NASA Early Career Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Career Fellowship program was established in 2005 to facilitate the integration of outstanding early career planetary science researchers into established research funding programs by providing tools and experience useful to maintain a successful research program. Executing a successful research program requires a few key elements such as: successful proposal writing; adequate (paid) research time; management of a laboratory; collaboration and networking; frequent and high-quality publications; and adequate start-up equipment funds. These elements may be particularly critical for early career researchers searching for a tenure- track or equivalent position. The Early Career Fellowship program recognizes the importance of these skills and provides extra funding and resources to begin a successful research program. For consideration into The Early Career Fellowship program, the candidate needs to be the P. I. or Science P.I. of a funded research proposal from one of the participating R&A program areas, be within 7 years of earning a PhD, hold a non-tenure track position, and indicate the early career candidacy when submitting the research proposal. If the research proposal is funded and the discipline scientist nominates the candidate as an early career fellow, the candidate is then considered a Fellow and eligible to propose for Step 2. Upon obtaining a tenure-track equivalent position the Fellow submits a Step 2 proposal for up to one hundred thousand dollars in start-up funds. Start-up funds may be used for salary; undergraduate and/or graduate research assistants; supplies and instrument upgrades; travel to conferences, meetings, and advisory groups; time and travel for learning new skills; publication page charges; books and journal subscriptions; computer time and/or specialized software; and other justified research-specific needs. The early career fellowship program provides resources that a more established scientist would have acquired allowing

  1. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  2. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  3. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2017-02-27

    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation.

  4. Early Learner Engagement in the Clinical Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent calls for medical education reform advocate for the integration of knowledge with clinical experience through early clinical immersion. Yet, early learners rarely are invited to participate in workplace activities and early clinical experiences remain largely observational.

  5. Early Learner Engagement in the Clinical Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent calls for medical education reform advocate for the integration of knowledge with clinical experience through early clinical immersion. Yet, early learners rarely are invited to participate in workplace activities and early clinical experiences remain largely observational. We

  6. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early? About 20% of ovarian cancers ... cancer in its earliest stage. Ways to find ovarian cancer early Regular women's health exams During a pelvic ...

  7. History of the early dipteran systematics in Italy: from Lyncei to Battista Grassi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, B

    2008-12-01

    This presentation starts with Galileo's discovery of the microscope and the first Lyncei. Giovanni Heckius and Francesco Stelluti demonstrated different kinds of mosquitoes. Later, in Florence, the Academy of Cimento solved the problem of mosquito reproduction with the discoveries of Francesco Redi, Pietro Paolo da Sangallo, Giuseppe Del Papa and Giovanni Maria Lancisi in the 18th century. In 19th century Eugenio Ficalbi reviewed the Italian Culicids. Once Battista Grassi solved the cycle of Anopheles and Plasmodia, further researches followed by Golgi, Celli, Marchiafava, Bastianelli and Bignami, as well as by Roland Ross.

  8. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans...

  9. Macro finance early warning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihuan ZHENG; Xun ZHANG; Wei SHANG; Shanying XU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a financial early warning informa-tion system is developed based on the multi-dimensional cli-mate approach that is featured with a multi-dimensional in-dex construction and the relevant multi-dimensional analy-sis. Requirement analysis and design issues of building an information system supporting this multi-dimensional cli-mate approach are discussed in detail. And a case using this system to study the macro financial issues is presented to illustrate how the proposed multi-dimensional approach works in the information system we design. This research is an interdisciplinary work of economic theories, macro finan-cial empirical studies, and software engineering. With ad-vanced macro financial early warning theories implemented in a web application, the Macro Financial Early Warning System (FEWS) developed in this research has been proved to be effective in a trial running in the Forecasting research institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  11. Do Early Outs Work Out? Teacher Early Retirement Incentive Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Herb R.; Repa, J. Theodore

    1993-01-01

    School districts offer teacher early retirement incentive plans (TERIPs) as an opportunity to hire less expensive teachers, reduce fringe benefits costs, and eliminate teaching positions. Discusses reasons for teachers to accept TERIP, and describes a computer model that allows school officials to calculate and compare costs incurred if an…

  12. Early exit: Estimating and explaining early exit from drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Melony

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early exit (drop-out from drug treatment can mean that drug users do not derive the full benefits that treatment potentially offers. Additionally, it may mean that scarce treatment resources are used inefficiently. Understanding the factors that lead to early exit from treatment should enable services to operate more effectively and better reduce drug related harm. To date, few studies have focused on drop-out during the initial, engagement phase of treatment. This paper describes a mixed method study of early exit from English drug treatment services. Methods Quantitative data (n = 2,624 was derived from three English drug action team areas; two metropolitan and one provincial. Hierarchical linear modelling (HLM was used to investigate predictors of early-exit while controlling for differences between agencies. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 53 ex-clients and 16 members of staff from 10 agencies in these areas to explore their perspectives on early exit, its determinants and, how services could be improved. Results Almost a quarter of the quantitative sample (24.5% dropped out between assessment and 30 days in treatment. Predictors of early exit were: being younger; being homeless; and not being a current injector. Age and injection status were both consistently associated with exit between assessment and treatment entry. Those who were not in substitution treatment were significantly more likely to leave treatment at this stage. There were substantial variations between agencies, which point to the importance of system factors. Qualitative analysis identified several potential ways to improve services. Perceived problems included: opening hours; the service setting; under-utilisation of motivational enhancement techniques; lack of clarity about expectations; lengthy, repetitive assessment procedures; constrained treatment choices; low initial dosing of opioid substitution treatment; and the routine requirement

  13. Gesturing in the early universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, C

    2000-01-01

    Research into the oral and literary traditions of scholastic education usually emphasizes the significance of the world in late medieval pedagogy. This paper suggests that coded hand signals provided early university scholars with an important non-verbal means of communication too. Using illustrations of classroom scenes from early university manuscripts, this paper analyzes the artistic conventions for representating gestures that these images embody. By building up a typology of these gesticulations, it demonstrates that the producers of these images and their audience shared a perception of scholastic education that embraced a sophisticated understanding of the activities associated with university education.

  14. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  15. Early Complications of Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, Mark

    1987-01-01

    In cyclosporine-treated cardiac allograft recipients, rejection and infection are two principal early complications. The following report describes our approach to the diagnosis and management of rejection. Infectious complications are discussed elsewhere in this journal. Lymphoproliferative disorders have not been reported in our series of transplant recipients. Other early complications particularly related to cyclosporine immuno-suppressive therapy include systemic hypertension, renal insufficiency, hepatic toxicity, and pancreatitis. Each of these is illustrated by a representative group or patient profile. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:257-261) Images PMID:15227308

  16. Early Modern English:Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    By the end of the Middle English period there is already considerable loss of inflectional morphology, and in Early Modern English we see the last reflexes of a shift from synthetic Old English to analytic Modern English (Lass 1999: 139). In fact, the inflectional system of Early Modern English is not very different from what we have today (Go¨rlach 1991: 79). The changes in inflection which do take place between 1500 and 1700 show marked sociolinguistic differentiation and are the subject of...

  17. Early life origins of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Rampono, Jonathan; Challis, John R G

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity has its origins in early life. Predisposition is based on interactions between the genome and environmental influences acting through epigenetic modifications. Individuals most at risk are those whose ancestral line has made a rapid transition from a traditional to a Westernized style of life. The process involves not only metabolism, but also behavior. As a result, those people who are most at risk of obesity may be those least likely to respond to educational programs based on lifestyle modification. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that underpin the early origins of obesity is vital if we are to make progress in addressing this major problem of modern life.

  18. Early Planetary Differentiation: Comparative Planetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John H.

    2006-01-01

    We currently have extensive data for four different terrestrial bodies of the inner solar system: Earth, the Moon, Mars, and the Eucrite Parent Body [EPB]. All formed early cores; but all(?) have mantles with elevated concentrations of highly sidero-phile elements, suggestive of the addition of a late "veneer". Two appear to have undergone extensive differentiation consistent with a global magma ocean. One appears to be inconsistent with a simple model of "low-pressure" chondritic differentiation. Thus, there seems to be no single, simple paradigm for understand-ing early differentiation.

  19. Pre-colombian mercury pollution associated with the smelting of argentiferous ores in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A; Balcom, Prentiss H; Kerfoot, Charles; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P

    2011-02-01

    The development of the mercury (Hg) amalgamation process in the mid-sixteenth century triggered the onset of large-scale Hg mining in both the Old and New Worlds. However, ancient Hg emissions associated with amalgamation and earlier mining efforts remain poorly constrained. Using a geochemical time-series generated from lake sediments near Cerro Rico de Potosí, once the world's largest silver deposit, we demonstrate that pre-Colonial smelting of Andean silver ores generated substantial Hg emissions as early as the twelfth century. Peak sediment Hg concentrations and fluxes are associated with smelting and exceed background values by approximately 20-fold and 22-fold, respectively. The sediment inventory of this early Hg pollution more than doubles that associated with extensive amalgamation following Spanish control of the mine (1574-1900 AD). Global measurements of [Hg] from economic ores sampled world-wide indicate that the phenomenon of Hg enrichment in non-ferrous ores is widespread. The results presented here imply that indigenous smelting constitutes a previously unrecognized source of early Hg pollution, given naturally elevated [Hg] in economic silver deposits.

  20. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality as ...

  1. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Niehof, J; Flinn, P. A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for resistance decay (during recovery).

  2. The Climate of Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordsworth, Robin D.

    2016-06-01

    The nature of the early martian climate is one of the major unanswered questions of planetary science. Key challenges remain, but a new wave of orbital and in situ observations and improvements in climate modeling have led to significant advances over the past decade. Multiple lines of geologic evidence now point to an episodically warm surface during the late Noachian and early Hesperian periods 3-4 Ga. The low solar flux received by Mars in its first billion years and inefficiency of plausible greenhouse gases such as CO2 mean that the steady-state early martian climate was likely cold. A denser CO2 atmosphere would have caused adiabatic cooling of the surface and hence migration of water ice to the higher-altitude equatorial and southern regions of the planet. Transient warming caused melting of snow and ice deposits and a temporarily active hydrological cycle, leading to erosion of the valley networks and other fluvial features. Precise details of the warming mechanisms remain unclear, but impacts, volcanism, and orbital forcing all likely played an important role. The lack of evidence for glaciation across much of Mars's ancient terrain suggests the late Noachian surface water inventory was not sufficient to sustain a northern ocean. Though mainly inhospitable on the surface, early Mars may nonetheless have presented significant opportunities for the development of microbial life.

  3. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  4. The Early Years: Mixing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Engaging children's interest, inspiring active exploration of materials, and fostering cooperation between children and adults is the best way to promote the construction of knowledge. Some popular early childhood activities can be expanded to provide experiences and time for children to build on their prior knowledge. This column discusses…

  5. Early Signs of Entrepreneurial Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Although successful entrepreneurship is important for the economic prosperity of any society, one should acknowledge that entrepreneurial giftedness is terra incognita from a research viewpoint. This article analyzes early manifestations of entrepreneurial giftedness in the cases of Richard Branson, Michael Dell, and Bill Gates and thus opens a…

  6. Choreography of early thalamocortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Zoltán; Higashi, Shuji; López-Bendito, Guillermina

    2003-06-01

    Thalamic axons, which carry most of the information from the sensory environment, are amongst the first projections to reach the cerebral cortex during embryonic development. It has been proposed that the scaffold of early generated cells in the ventral thalamus, internal capsule and preplate play a pivotal role in their deployment through sharp gene expression boundaries. These ideas were recently evaluated in various strains of mutant mice. In Tbr1, Gbx2, Pax6 KO both thalamic and corticofugal projections fail to traverse the striatocortical junction. In both Emx2 and Pax6 KO brains, the misrouted thalamic afferents are accompanied by displacements of the pioneering projections from the internal capsule. Regardless of their altered route, thalamic afferents in the reeler and L1 KO mice seem to be able to redistribute themselves on the cortical sheet and establish normal periphery-related representation in the somatosensory cortex. Early neural activity delivered through the thalamic projections is thought to be involved in the realignment process of thalamic axons at the time of their accumulation in the subplate layer. However, axonal growth and the early topographic arrangement of thalamocortical fiber pathways appear normal in the Snap25 KO, where action potential mediated synaptic vesicle release is disrupted. We therefore suggest that intercellular communication mediated by constitutive secretion of transmitters or growth factors might play a dominant role during early thalamocortical development.

  7. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  8. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ..., and other members of the public regarding several important topics relating to early learning for... Assessments Tuesday, May 11, 2010, in Chicago, Illinois; at the Polk Bros. Lecture Hall at the Erikson...-Site Attendance: Anyone who would like to attend or speak at a meeting must register at http://www...

  9. Sustainable early-career networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauser, Florian; Schemann, Vera; Sonntag, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    A truly global science community for the next generation of researchers will be essential if we are to tackle Earth system sustainability. Top-down support from funders should meet bottom-up initiatives -- at a pace fast enough to meet that of early-career progress.

  10. Early School Leaving in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Bäckman, Olof; Lorentzen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational...

  11. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  12. The early days of metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, William J.

    2017-08-01

    This is a personal recollection of the early development of modern metamaterials as seen from the perspective of my GEC-Marconi team and collaborators, listed in the references Pendry et al 1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 4773, Pendry et al 1998 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 10 4785.

  13. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  14. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  15. Early Signs of Entrepreneurial Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Although successful entrepreneurship is important for the economic prosperity of any society, one should acknowledge that entrepreneurial giftedness is terra incognita from a research viewpoint. This article analyzes early manifestations of entrepreneurial giftedness in the cases of Richard Branson, Michael Dell, and Bill Gates and thus opens a…

  16. Glucocorticoids in early rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everdingen, Amalia A. van

    2002-01-01

    For 50 years, glucocorticoids (GC) are used for symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the last decade, results from clinical studies of treatment with GC as additional therapy to long-acting antirheumatic drugs in patients with early RA suggested also disease-modifying properties of

  17. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  18. SEL Interventions in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Megan M.; Tominey, Shauna L.; Schmitt, Sara A.; Duncan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Young children who enter school without sufficient social and emotional learning (SEL) skills may have a hard time learning. Yet early childhood educators say they do not get enough training to effectively help children develop such skills. In this article, Megan McClelland, Shauna Tominey, Sara Schmitt, and Robert Duncan examine the theory and…

  19. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...

  20. Early Intervention Approaches. Chapter 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on early intervention approaches. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Child Maltreatment and Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Other Drugs: Some Preliminary Findings" (Patrick A. Curtis and Mary Wood Schneider); (2) "Evaluation…

  1. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be harmful. It can lead to:Skin changes. Some skin cells with melanin can form a clump. This creates freckles and moles. Over time, these can develop cancer.Early aging. Time spent in the sun makes your skin age faster than normal. Signs of this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery ...

  2. Bullying in Early Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirves, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of bullying in early educational settings in Finnish kindergartens. In addition, the study investigated whether bullying in kindergartens differs from school bullying and what forms bullying takes among under-school-age children. Two kinds of data were collected for the study: data from a survey…

  3. Intraovarian Control of Early Folliculogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsueh, Aaron J. W.; Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Cheng, Yuan; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although hormonal regulation of ovarian follicle development has been extensively investigated, most studies concentrate on the development of early antral follicles to the preovulatory stage, leading to the successful use of exogenous FSH for infertility treatment. Accumulating data indicate that p

  4. Early Writing: A Developmental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Elizabeth; And Others

    This document consists of four papers on the acquisition of writing skills by young children. The first paper provides a historical and developmental perspective on early writing. Children's development of manual dexterity is briefly overviewed and aspects of the educational approaches of Pestalozzi, Montessori, Chomsky, Rogers and Ashton-Warner…

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  6. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  7. Bullying in Early Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirves, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of bullying in early educational settings in Finnish kindergartens. In addition, the study investigated whether bullying in kindergartens differs from school bullying and what forms bullying takes among under-school-age children. Two kinds of data were collected for the study: data from a survey…

  8. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  9. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  10. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  11. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  12. LA LOCALIDAD HISTÓRICO ARQUEOLÓGICA DEL RÍO SAN SALVADOR (SORIANO, URUGUAY The historical archaeological town of Rio San Salvador (Soriano, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José López Mazz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros cronistas de la conquista del Río de la Plata expusieron la diversidad cultural reinante en el área en el siglo XVI. Las investigaciones arqueológicas de los años 60 y 70 confirman, a nivel arqueológico, la intensa ocupación de la que fue objeto esta zona próxima a la confluencia del río Paraná con el río Uruguay. Este trabajo presenta información producida durante un trabajo de diagnóstico realizado en el marco de la llamada Arqueología Pública, en un sitio de ocupación española del siglo XVI ubicado al oriente de dicha confluencia. Los resultados muestran que la ocupación del sitio desde el año 1000 AP está caracterizada por una amplia diversidad de estilos cerámicos. El área constituyó un lugar estratégico para los asentamientos europeos en función de la presencia de redes de intercambio pre existente. La información producida permite afinar la secuencia cronológica prehistórica para el bajo río Uruguay, al tiempo que abre el debate  respecto de la dinámica etnohistórica regional y del rol jugado por este particular asentamiento humano.   Palabras claves: asentamientos europeos, Uruguay, río San Salvador, siglo XVI.    Abstract Early chroniclers of the conquest of the Río de la Plata exposed the cultural diversity prevailing in the area in the sixteenth century. Archaeological research during the 60’s and 70’s confirm an intense occupation of the confluence of the Paraná river and the Uruguay river area. This paper presents information recovered during a diagnostic fieldwork developed on a Spanish settlement from the sixteenth century. The results show an intense occupation of the site since 1000 AP, characterized by a wide variety of ceramic styles. The area was a strategic location for European occupation due to the presence of preexisting exchange networks. Information produced refines prehistoric chronological sequence for lower Uruguay river while opening the discussion about regional

  13. Pompe disease: early diagnosis and early treatment make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lee, Ni-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II or acid maltase deficiency) is a lysosomal disorder in which acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiencies lead to intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen in all tissues; most notably in skeletal muscles. Both the patient's age at the onset of Pompe disease symptoms and the rate of deterioration caused by the disease can vary considerably. In classical infant-onset Pompe disease (IOPD), symptoms start very early in life, and death occurs soon afterward if the disease remains untreated. In later-onset Pompe disease, symptoms are slower to appear, and patients often progress to wheelchair confinement and eventual respiratory failure. A diagnosis can be made by screening for GAA in dried blood samples, followed either by GAA assessment in lymphocytes or in fibroblasts or by the genetic analysis of mutations. Treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa was approved for human use in 2006. In classical IOPD, treatment significantly lengthens survival and improves motor development and cardiac function. The sooner ERT begins, the better are the results. Newborn screening aims to take advantage of different technologies for diagnosing and treating newborns early on and it yields better outcomes. However, newborns diagnosed early and other long-term survivors may encounter fresh problems, making up a new phenotype of IOPD patients. Further modifications of the treatment, such as a decrease in immune responses to ERT, a higher dosage, a better uptake formulation, and gene therapy delivered locally or systemically are being explored.

  14. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  15. Planck Early Results: The Early Release Compact Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cabella, P; Cantalupo, C M; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; En\\sslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Fosalba, P; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Haissinski, J; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Hoyland, R J; Huffenberger, K M; Huynh, M; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Leroy, C; Lilje, P B; Linden-V\\ornle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Maris, M; Marleau, F; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Piffaretti, R; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubi\; Rusholme, B; Sajina, A; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, P; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Torre, J -P; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2011-01-01

    A brief description of the methodology of construction, contents and usage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC), including the Early Cold Cores (ECC) and the Early Sunyaev-Zeldovich (ESZ) cluster catalogue is provided. The catalogue is based on data that consists of mapping the entire sky once and 60% of the sky a second time by Planck. A Monte-Carlo algorithm based on the injection and extraction of artificial sources into the Planck maps was implemented to select reliable sources among all extracted candidates such that the cumulative reliability of the catalogue is >=90%. As a result of the Monte-Carlo assessment of the reliability of sources from different techniques, the PowellSnakes source extraction technique was used at the 5 frequencies between 30 and 143 GHz while the SExtractor technique was used between 217 and 857 GHz. The 10 sigma photometric flux density limit of the catalogue at |b|>30 deg is 0.49, 1.0, 0.67, 0.5, 0.33, 0.28, 0.25, 0.47 and 0.82 Jy at each of the nine f...

  16. Pompe Disease: Early Diagnosis and Early Treatment Make a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hsiu Chien

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II or acid maltase deficiency is a lysosomal disorder in which acid α-glucosidase (GAA deficiencies lead to intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen in all tissues; most notably in skeletal muscles. Both the patient's age at the onset of Pompe disease symptoms and the rate of deterioration caused by the disease can vary considerably. In classical infant-onset Pompe disease (IOPD, symptoms start very early in life, and death occurs soon afterward if the disease remains untreated. In later-onset Pompe disease, symptoms are slower to appear, and patients often progress to wheelchair confinement and eventual respiratory failure. A diagnosis can be made by screening for GAA in dried blood samples, followed either by GAA assessment in lymphocytes or in fibroblasts or by the genetic analysis of mutations. Treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with alglucosidase alfa was approved for human use in 2006. In classical IOPD, treatment significantly lengthens survival and improves motor development and cardiac function. The sooner ERT begins, the better are the results. Newborn screening aims to take advantage of different technologies for diagnosing and treating newborns early on and it yields better outcomes. However, newborns diagnosed early and other long-term survivors may encounter fresh problems, making up a new phenotype of IOPD patients. Further modifications of the treatment, such as a decrease in immune responses to ERT, a higher dosage, a better uptake formulation, and gene therapy delivered locally or systemically are being explored.

  17. Epidemiology of early neonatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, N K; Bharambe, M S; Garg, B S; Mathur, J S; Goswami, K

    1994-01-01

    During 1981-1991 at a rural teaching hospital (Kasturba Hospital) of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences in Sevagram, Wardha, India, 454 of 13,939 newborns died during the early neonatal period for an early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR) of 33.7/1000 live births. The ENMR for boys was not significantly different from that for girls (36.1 vs. 28.6). Community medicine specialists analyzed data on these early neonatal deaths to examine distribution of early neonatal mortality, especially its relationship with prematurity, low birth weight, birth order, and by sex. They calculated average percent deaths (APD) per hour to examine the dynamics in early neonatal mortality. The mean age at death was lower among newborns of birth order greater than 2 than those of birth order less than 2 (23.47 vs. 26.85 hours; p 0.001). ENMR was higher for newborns of birth order greater than 2 than those of birth order less than 2 (41.74% vs. 27.35%; P 0.001). The mean age at death increased as gestation increased (10.34 for 28 weeks; 24.27 for 28-33 weeks, 31.53 for 33-37 weeks, and 34.43 for 37 weeks; p 0.001). ENMR decreased as gestation increased (850 for 28 weeks; 375 for 28-33 weeks, 147.02 for 33-37 weeks, and 8.77 for 37 weeks; p 0.001). The mean age at death increased as birth weight increased for newborns weighing less than 1500 gms through 2000-2500 gms (23.36-37.13 hours; p 0.001). It was lowest among those weighing more 3000 gms (11.55 gms). ENMR fell as birth weight increased (614.33 for 1500 gms, 116.19 for 1500-2000 gms, 19.38 for 2000-2500 gms, 10.99 for 2500-3000 gms, and 5.41 for 3000 gms; p 0.001). The APD/hour for the first hour of life was 3.74% for a relative risk of 12.9. It decreased steadily as the hours of life increased (3.08% for 1-6 hours, 1.19% for 6-24 hours, 0.67% for 24-72 hours, and 0.29% for 72-168 hours). Knowledge of time of likely death can help providers know where they need to focus their attention to prevent early neonatal deaths.

  18. Early Management and Fluid Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Yorgancı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Initial management of severely burned patient is similar with a trauma victim. Determination of airway patency, evaluation of respiration and circulation, early recognition of concomitant trauma has vital importance in burn patients. In the early phase, mortality mainly depends on missed or un-treated severe injuries or pathologies, but not burn injury itself.In patients that have TBSA greater than 15 %, fluid resuscitation should be started. In the first 24 hours, crystalloid solutions should be preferred. .Several formulas can guide fluid resuscitation; however the amount of fluid that is given to the patient should be individualized according to the patient’s need. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 7-10

  19. Shocks in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pen, Ue-Li

    2015-01-01

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations, of the kind observed in great detail on large scales today, it also leads to the production of shock waves in the radiation fluid of the very early universe. At very early epochs, $1$ GeV$

  20. Proteomics of early zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heisenberg Carl-Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish (D. rerio has become a powerful and widely used model system for the analysis of vertebrate embryogenesis and organ development. While genetic methods are readily available in zebrafish, protocols for two dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis and proteomics have yet to be developed. Results As a prerequisite to carry out proteomic experiments with early zebrafish embryos, we developed a method to efficiently remove the yolk from large batches of embryos. This method enabled high resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and improved Western blotting considerably. Here, we provide detailed protocols for proteomics in zebrafish from sample preparation to mass spectrometry (MS, including a comparison of databases for MS identification of zebrafish proteins. Conclusion The provided protocols for proteomic analysis of early embryos enable research to be taken in novel directions in embryogenesis.