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Sample records for early sixteenth-century florence

  1. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  2. The Gondi family : strategy and survival in late sixteenth-century France

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    Milstein, Joanna M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis details the rise to power of one of the great families of late sixteenth-century France, the Gondi. Antoine de Gondi, the last of fifteen children, left his native Florence to settle permanently in France in the first decade of the sixteenth century. Like many other Italian immigrants of his time, he established himself in Lyon as a merchant and banker. He later bought the Seigneurie du Perron, and married a woman of Piedmontese origin, Marie-Catherine de Pierrevive. Catherine de’...

  3. A sixteenth century Portuguese report concerning an early Javanese world map Relatório português do século XVI descreve mapa-múndi antigo de origem javanesa

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    Benjamin B. Olshin

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available In the sixteenth century, there were numerous voyages of discovery in the oceans of the world, expanding European understanding and influence. These explorations, and in particular the knowledge they created, have tended to overshadow other ventures into the unknown. Not just the Europeans, but other cultures as well, navigated the seas and accumulated geographical information, putting together their own ideas about the distribution of the lands and seas around the globe. Arab and Asian seafarers plied the oceans in trade and exploration, and created maps and geographical texts. These maps and texts, however, are not as numerous as a scholar might wish. The Asian maps, particularly early ones, are few in number, and these are virtually all Chinese and Korean creations, world maps based on traditional religious concepts of a circular landmass. There are few maps based on actual navigation. But an early sixteenth-century Portuguese document gives a brief description of a Javanese map, which apparently showed much of the world. It also depicted the routes of the navigations of the Chinese and other Pacific peoples. The map itself has been lost, but we read of it in a letter from the Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque to his king, Dom Manuel, dated 1 April 1512.No século XVI, várias viagens de descobrimento expandiram a influência e o reconhecimento europeus. Essas expedições marítimas, e em particular o conhecimento que geraram, ofuscaram outras aventuras pelo desconhecido. Outros povos navegaram pelos oceanos, acumularam informações e organizaram suas próprias idéias sobre a distribuição de terras e mares. Navegadores árabes e asiáticos criaram mapas, cartas náuticas e textos geográficos expondo suas descobertas. Esses mapas, no entanto, não são tão numerosos. Os asiáticos, particularmente os mais antigos, são poucos e quase todos originários da China e Coréia, e baseavam-se em conceitos religiosos tradicionais e na id

  4. "What shall I do? The more I kill the greater becomes their number!": the suppression of Anabaptism in early sixteenth century

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    Margot Kottelin-Longley

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Anabaptist movement was a ‘common man’s reform movement’ in Luther’s Europe. The Anabaptists wanted to reform the church according to New Testament guidelines more radically than either Luther or Zwingli were ready to do. For example, they baptised adults instead of infants, because they had observed that only adults were baptised in the Gospels, including the baptism of Jesus. In reformation Europe any adults baptised by these reformers would have already received baptism as infants. It was this practise of re-baptising members of the Catholic Church that gave them the name ‘Anabaptists’. ‘Re-baptism’ was a heresy deserving death, and to classify these radical reformers thus made them legally subject to execution. In this article the author first explains what she means by the ‘Anabaptist movement’. This includes an introduction to early Swiss Anabaptism and to the way in which it was speedily persecuted by the religious authorities. This persecution caused flight and that in turn caused the movement to spread. As the number of Anabaptists increased to thousands, so did the persecution by torture and death. Stories of some Anabaptist martyrs are recounted during the course of this article. The author also looks at the various justifications for the burning of heretics, as well as at the corresponding theological understanding by those who were burned.

  5. The Incidence of Sixteenth Century Cosmic Models in Modern Texts

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    Maene, S. A.; Best, J. S.; Usher, P. D.

    1999-12-01

    In the sixteenth century, the bounded cosmological models of Copernicus (1543) and Tycho Brahe (1588), and the unbounded model of Thomas Digges (1576), vied with the bounded geocentric model of Ptolemy (c. 140 AD). The work of the philosopher Giordano Bruno in 1584 lent further support to the Digges model. Despite the eventual acceptance of the unbounded universe, analysis of over 100 modern introductory astronomy texts reveals that these early unbounded models are mentioned infrequently. The ratio of mentions of Digges' model to Copernicus' model has the surprisingly low value of R = 0.08. The philosophical speculation of Bruno receives mention more than twice as often (R = 0.17). The expectation that these early unbounded models warrant inclusion in astronomy texts is supported both by modern hindsight and by the literature of the time. In Shakespeare's "Hamlet" of c. 1601, Prince Hamlet suffers from two transformations. According to the cosmic allegorical model, one transformation changes the bounded geocentricism of Ptolemy to the bounded heliocentricism of Copernicus, while the other completes the change to Digges' model of the infinite universe of suns. This interpretation and the modern world view suggest that both transformations should receive equal mention and thus that the ratio R in introductory texts should be close to unity. This work was supported in part by the NASA West Virginia Space Grant Consortium.

  6. On Crimes and Punishments in the Utopias of Sixteenth Century

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    Philippe Oliveira de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to analyse the crimes and punishments in the utopian literature of the sixteenth century. Initialy, it is necessary to desconstruct the idea that utopia is a platonizing archaism. As the political writings of Machiavelli, the utopian literature is an attempt to intervene in legal and social issues of their time. It must also refute the argument that utopia is a disciplinary society, an ancestor of modern totalitarian regimes. Authors such as Morus and Rabelais have become seasoned defenders of the freedoms of civil society against arbitrary interference of State power. But it is also necessary to question the myth that utopia would be a model of stateless community. Morus, Campanella and Shakespeare recognize the importance of criminal sanctions for the preservation of political order.

  7. The Great Pox and the Surgeon's Role in the Sixteenth Century.

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    Allen Shotwell, R

    2017-01-01

    The sixteenth century saw a shift in perceptions of the scope of surgery. The medieval focus on elevating the status of surgery had been accompanied by a certain distancing of surgery from manual operations, but the medical humanism of the sixteenth century embraced manual skills as an important part of medicine, most noticeably in the case of anatomy. In the first part of this paper I use accounts of the treatment of ulcers as a way of exploring these changes in perceptions. Ulcers were a well-known surgical ailment in medieval medicine, but in the sixteenth century they were also associated with the Great Pox. This made their treatment an important test case for establishing the scope of surgery and ultimately led Gabriele Falloppio to claim that ulcers from the Pox were not a part of surgery at all. In the second half of the paper, I look at sixteenth-century descriptions of surgery found in works on surgery and anatomy and note how important the idea of the efficacy of surgical treatment was in them. I conclude by suggesting that the concern with efficacy was itself another aspect of the arrival of the Pox.

  8. Publishing procedures and cost of books at Ferrara in late sixteenth century

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    Valentina Sonzini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to some unpublished archival documents – now published in the appendix – it is possible to analyze the issues of Consiliorum by Giovanni Battista Laderchi and of De principibus Atestinis by Giovanni Battista Pigna, both published in Ferrara by Vittorio Baldini. The aim of the writing is to define the cost of the book in Ferrara at the end of the sixteenth century, and to highlight some publishing procedures both in the package of the books, and in the relationship between author and printer.

  9. The sixteenth-century altar painting of the Cattaran (Kotor fraternity of leather-makers

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    Živković Valentina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The altar painting that the Cattaran Fraternity of Leather-makers commissioned from the Venetian painter Girolamo da Santa Croce in the first half of the sixteenth century contains the images of Sts Bartholomew, George and Antoninus. The presence of the first two saints is looked at from the perspective of a long-established religious tradition, while the reasons for depicting the archbishop Antoninus giving alms to the poor appear to reside in the then prevailing religious policy and the local social situation.

  10. The Public Defenders of Indians in Tabasco during the Sixteenth Century

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    Caroline Cunill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the sixteenth century, the post of public defender of Indians spread throughout Spanish America, and its missions became more precisely defined, contributing to this effect both the way in which these officers executed their tasks and the publication of legal texts on the matter, conceived by local or metropolitan authorities. By 1591, the protector and defender of Indians or naturales became the essential piece of the recently-created Juzgado General de Indios, an authentic Indian institution that would last until the late colonial period. In order to understand the process, this work analyzes the peculiar evolution of the post of public defender in the Alcaldía Mayor de Tabasco, Gobernación de Yucatán, during the second half of the sixteenth century. Besides revealing the public defenders' identities, status, and wages, the author analyzes their dealings with colonial authorities —the governors of Yucatan, the Royal Audiencias, and the Consejo de Indias–, as well as the Tabaso Indians. All this allows us to understand the central importance this post acquired, not only in the colonial judicial system, but also in the Spanish American government.

  11. From the ground up: Surface and sub-surface effects in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Netherlandish paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandivere, A.L.S.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation explores the techniques that were used to build up fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Netherlandish oil paintings, from the ground up. Paintings are more than two-dimensional images; they are physical objects composed of several layers, usually: the support, ground,

  12. Deviance and Morals: a study of sixteenth-century Crete under Venetian rule: A first approach

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    Romina N. Tsakiri

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines indicatively offences such as blasphemy, sodomy, adultery and bigamy and the penalties imposed by the Venetian authorities on the island of Crete in sixteenth century. As the sixteenth century was characterised by a strong tendency towards the moralisation of life in the states of Western Europe, State and Church focused on all forms of deviance from the Christian order: issues related to faith, individual behaviour, family life and sexuality, all became objects of discipline. The Venetian state, in collaboration with the church, also penalised offences related to Christian morality, in the island of Crete as well as elsewhere in the Venetian state. The attitude of the Venetian state towards Crete, differences between the city of Venice and the island in the administration of rules governing deviance and promoting moral standards were slight, despite the presence of a substantial Orthodox community. Although, in some offences related to family life Venetian law respected the customs of the Orthodox church. Furthermore, in some cases the treatment of Jews was stricter, as Jews were considered as a possible threat to Christianity and the social structure of the Venetian state. A more significant factor than religious difference on the treatment of these offences was class and economic status and gender. Finally, the moral discipline and strict control over aspects of community life was intended not only to promote the well-being of subjects, and therefore the administration of the state, but also the protection of the prestige, identity and financial interests of the ruling class of nobility.

  13. Tartaglia’s science of weights and mechanics in the sixteenth century selections from quesiti et inventioni diverse books VII–VIII

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    Pisano, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a historical and scientific analysis as historical epistemology of the science of weights and mechanics in the sixteenth century, particularly as developed by Tartaglia in his Quesiti et inventioni diverse, Book VII and Book VIII (1546; 1554). In the early 16th century mechanics was concerned mainly with what is now called statics and was referred to as the Scientia de ponderibus, generally pursued by two very different approaches. The first was usually referred to as Aristotelian, where the equilibrium of bodies was set as a balance of opposite tendencies to motion. The second, usually referred to as Archimedean, identified statics with centrobarica, the theory of centres of gravity based on symmetry considerations. In between the two traditions the Italian scholar Niccolò Fontana, better known as Tartaglia (1500?–1557), wrote the treatise Quesiti et inventioni diverse (1546). This volume consists of three main parts. In the first, a historical excursus regarding Tartaglia’s lifetime,...

  14. "You have no good blood in your body". Oral communication in sixteenth-century physicians' medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In his personal notebooks, the little known Bohemian physician Georg Handsch (1529-c. 1578) recorded, among other things, hundreds of vernacular phrases and expressions he and other physicians used in their oral interaction with patients and families. Based primarily on this extraordinary source, this paper traces the terms, concepts and images to which sixteenth-century physicians resorted when they explained the nature of a patient's disease and justified their treatment. At the bedside and in the consultation room, Handsch and his fellow physicians attributed most diseases to a local accumulation of impure, putrid or otherwise pathological humours. The latter were commonly said to result, in turn, from an insufficient concoction and assimilation of food and drink in the stomach and the liver or from an obstruction of the humoral flow inside the body and across its borders. By contrast, other notions and explanatory models, which had a prominent place in contemporary learned medical writing, hardly played a role at all in the physicians' oral communication. Specific disease terms were rarely used, a mere imbalance of the four natural humours in the body was almost never inculpated, and the patient's personal life-style and other non-naturals did not attract much attention either. These striking differences between the ways in which physicians explained the patients' diseases in their daily practice and the explanatory models we find in contemporary textbooks, are attributed, above all, to the physicians' precarious situation in the early modern medical marketplace. Since dissatisfied patients were quick to turn to another healer, physicians had to explain the disease and justify their treatment in a manner that was comprehensible to ordinary lay people and in line with their expectations and beliefs, which, at the time, revolved almost entirely around notions of impurity and evacuation.

  15. Ethics and Utopia: public health theory and practice in the sixteenth century. An essay comparing the Henrician Medical Act of 1540 and More's 1530 Ordinances, with Thomas More's novel 'Utopia' of 1516.

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    Bishop, M G H; Gelbier, S

    2003-09-13

    This essay places the early modern origins of the ethico-legal structure of medicine, in which eventually by exclusion or inclusion, dental activity shared, in the Humanist environment of the Italian Renaissance as it was imported into England in the first years of the sixteenth century. There were two linked stages to this, the first supported by the genius of Thomas Linacre (1460-1524), and the second by the administrative ability of Sir Thomas More (1478-1535). This paper concentrates on the evidence for the intellectual basis of More's medical legislation, and that which was made shortly after his death.

  16. Oral history of Florence Downs; the early years.

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    Fairman, J; Mahon, M M

    2001-01-01

    Florence Downs is a well-recognized nursing leader, educator, editor, and scholar who helped shape nursing as an intellectual discipline, and wrote extensively about the importance of links between research and practice. Through the use of oral history data garnered over 15 hours of interviews, we constructed a narrative that describes some of Downs' formative experiences. Oral history is used to place the "stories" of an individual into a social and cultural context, in this case, the development of the profession of nursing. From the interviews, several strands emerged that defined Downs' extended career, including the importance of developing a community of scholars both in and outside of nursing, the dangers of parochialism, and the necessity of a perspective on life that melded a keen sense of humor. Factors that affected Downs' style and choice, especially her mother, and her educational experiences, were revealed. From the interviews we gained a sense of how Downs constructed her conceptual universe of nursing, as well as the language and political effectiveness to overcome barriers confronting the intellectual growth of nursing mounted by other nursing leaders as well as traditional academic disciplines.

  17. Muslim and European Perceptions of Oceanic "Trade" in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries and their Implications for International Politics

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    Abdullah al-Ahsan

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Muslim and European powers perceived the importance of oceanic trade routes differently. During this earliest phase of European colonial expansion, Muslim powers, particularly the Osmanlis who claimed to be the champion of Islam, did not consider the loss of oceanic trade routes to Europeans a serious threat to Muslim interests. However, this gradually led not only to the loss of trade which was once dominated by Mus1im merchants, but might have contributed to the total disappearance of Muslim powers from their supremacy of world politics later in history.

  18. Winning Hearts and Minds: Multimedia Events, Religious Communication and the Urban Context in the Long Sixteenth Century (1450-1650)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robbe, Joost Roger

    practices, were not only responsible for the wide and varied dissemination of opinions and ideas, but also had an impact on how these opinions and ideas were interpreted by various media consumers and thus shaped new communities of interpretation in the “long sixteenth century” – that is, from the invention...... of printing to the mid seventeenth century crisis. During the long sixteenth century, a media revolution took place that offered unprecedented possibilities to adopt, express and exchange ideas and opinions, often of a religious nature. Many studies have revealed the importance of media such as script, print......This volume will proceed from and expand on the WG2 meeting held in Ghent, June 1-2, 2017. The meeting succeeded remarkably in its aim, which was to bring medievalist and modernist specialists together in order to demonstrate that the combination and interaction of various media, i.e. multimedia...

  19. Two large earthquakes in western Switzerland in the sixteenth century: 1524 in Ardon (VS) and 1584 in Aigle (VD)

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    Schwarz-Zanetti, Gabriela; Fäh, Donat; Gache, Sylvain; Kästli, Philipp; Loizeau, Jeanluc; Masciadri, Virgilio; Zenhäusern, Gregor

    2018-03-01

    The Valais is the most seismically active region of Switzerland. Strong damaging events occurred in 1755, 1855, and 1946. Based on historical documents, we discuss two known damaging events in the sixteenth century: the 1524 Ardon and the 1584 Aigle earthquakes. For the 1524, a document describes damage in Ardon, Plan-Conthey, and Savièse, and a stone tablet at the new bell tower of the Ardon church confirms the reconstruction of the bell tower after the earthquake. Additionally, a significant construction activity in the Upper Valais churches during the second quarter of the sixteenth century is discussed that however cannot be clearly related to this event. The assessed moment magnitude Mw of the 1524 event is 5.8, with an error of about 0.5 units corresponding to one standard deviation. The epicenter is at 46.27 N, 7.27 E with a high uncertainty of about 50 km corresponding to one standard deviation. The assessed moment magnitude Mw of the 1584 main shock is 5.9, with an error of about 0.25 units corresponding to one standard deviation. The epicenter is at 46.33 N and 6.97 E with an uncertainty of about 25 km corresponding to one standard deviation. Exceptional movements in the Lake Geneva wreaked havoc along the shore of the Rhone delta. The large dimension of the induced damage can be explained by an expanded subaquatic slide with resultant tsunami and seiche in Lake Geneva. The strongest of the aftershocks occurred on March 14 with magnitude 5.4 and triggered a destructive landslide covering the villages Corbeyrier and Yvorne, VD.

  20. Winter temperatures in the second half of the sixteenth century in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula

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    T. Bullón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the winter temperatures of the second part of the sixteenth century in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula. A large number of historical documents that are stored in many different Spanish archives were consulted in order to carry out this research. The data was first arranged and weighted according to the intensity and significance of the meteorological phenomena described and, subsequently, these values were assigned an ordinal index ranging from +4 to −4. The statistical treatment applied is based on the reconstruction of temperatures equivalent to this ordinal index, expressed as anomalies of the 1961–1990 period, belonging to a reference station located at the approximate geographical center of the area under study. The results show winter thermal conditions different from current ones that, for the most part, stay below the reference average and that occurred with a wide range of variability. The influence that thermal conditions had on the evolution of some environmental aspects are considered based on the forest exploitation problem information and on the wine harvest production.

  1. Inter-ethnic marriage patterns in late sixteenth-century Shetland.

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    Knooihuizen, Remco

    2008-01-01

    Remco Knooihuizen is a postgraduate student in Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh, focusing on the sociolinguistics of minority languages in Early Modern Europe. As such he has a keen interest in the (population) history of this period, which can be extremely relevant to linguistic developments.

  2. Introduction. The development of the book market and book collecting in the sixteenth century

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    Giovanna Granata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Il convegno “Selling and collecting: printed book sale catalogues and private libraries in early modern Europe”, tenutosi a Cagliari nel settembre 2017, ha costituito l’occasione per presentare a livello internazionale alcuni tra i più rilevanti progetti e ricerche inerenti le modalità di vendita e acquisto, di collezione e circolazione del libro nel corso del XVI secolo. L’articolo espone brevemente le tematiche maggiormente rilevanti del convegno, riconducibili a due grandi ambiti: il commercio librario, indagato nei suoi aspetti più prettamente economici, e il collezionismo privato, inteso sia come espressione degli interessi culturali dell’epoca sia come elemento indicativo degli intensi rapporti tra acquirenti e venditori.

  3. Dress as Civic Celebration in Late Sixteenth-Century Venice: The Woodcuts of Cesare Vecellio’s Habiti antichi et moderni and the Paintings of Paolo Veronese

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    Jones, Ann; Rosenthal, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, we discuss words and images in sixteenth-century Venice in two forms: the prose commentary and woodcuts in Cesare Vecellio's Degli habiti antichi et moderni di diverse parti del mondo (Venice, 1590), and the paintings of Paulo Veronese from 1550 to 1578. Our theoretical framework is the analysis of ideology as it is materialized in the making, wearing and representation of clothing. We study three kinds of dress in Venice: the red silks worn by wealthy merchants, the black wool...

  4. Tridentine renewal and spiritual education of women in the experience of female monasticism. The case of Verona in the sixteenth century

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    Elisabetta Patrizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catholic world of the Sixteenth century, especially after the Council of Trent, exalted the condition of monastic life as the most perfect and noblest of the conditions of life traditionally reserved for women. The monastic state became the model to which the educational path of every woman had to conform to, even if she was destined to live in the world (as mother, virgin, widow, or married woman. The strong paradigmatic value exerted by the monastic condition of life is clear from the analysis of the pedagogical literature devoted to women published in this period.The present article focuses on two relevant examples of this literature: the Costituzioni per le monache (Constitutions for Nuns, 1539 by Gian Matteo Giberti and the Ricordi lasciati alle monache (Recollections left to nuns, 1575 by Agostino Valier. The two texts contain very interesting reasons for understanding the pedagogical directions of the time, which are highlighted by the author with specific references to the historical context and thanks to the support of documentary and published sources. These two works were written by two great reformer bishops, and are highly meaningful not only because they complement each other, since both were prepared for the religious women of the diocese of Verona, but mainly because they offer one very vivid insight into the growing importance assigned to the monastic modus vivendi in Sixteenth century Catholic society.

  5. Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni: his early education among Florence, Rome and London

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    Francesco Guidoboni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work – part of a phd thesis in co-supervision between the " Sapienza " University of Rome and the University of Paris 1 “Panthéon- Sorbonne” - has the objective of investigating the lesser-known aspects of the life of architect Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, especially the period of his training in Florence and Rome, and the years when he lived in England before his arrival in Paris in 1724. At the same time he was painter, architect and decorator and his name was famous thanks to a large number of sets made for the Opéra and to the design of the façade of the church of Saint- Sulpice in Paris. During his life, Servandoni had the opportunity to travel throughout Europe, where he worked for the major courts of that time, from Paris to London, from Lisbon to Brussels, Vienna, Dresden and Stuttgart. The archival research allowed to make the major breakthroughs, such as the discovery of  the Servandoni stay in Rome between 1719 and 1720, in the Prince Vaini's palace, a man “entiérement attaché à la France” and related to the environment of the Capranica and d'Alibert theaters. This find let us to make some assumptions about his life and his contacts in the papal city. And yet, the study highlighted the strong relationship that he had with the english cultural environment during  his early stay in Rome, that convinced him to take the trip to London. Thanks to this research, Servandoni's complete work - so vaguely interpreted as an anticipation of the “goût à la grecque” and the revival of classicism of the late eighteenth century - is reinterpreted as the result of his training in Italy and England. It is indebted, in fact, that as well the classicism that characterized the Florentine architecture of that period as his close contact with the English Palladian circle and with the Wren, Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor works, exercised a great influence on him.

  6. Luther in the «Cortes de la Muerte»: Representing Heresy in the Spanish Theatre of the Sixteenth Century

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    Jimena Gamba Corradine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the presence of Luther and Lutherans in the Cortes de la Muerte, the Farsa militar by Diego Sánchez de Badajoz and some plays from the Códice de autos viejos, we analize the figure of the heresiarch and the heretic in the Spanish theatre of the mid-sixteenth century. This issue brings us to the question of the origin of the sacramental drama as an antiprotestant reaction. In the second half of this article we present a hypothesis about the extend of participation in the Cortes of the two writers  (Miguel de Carvajal and Hurtado de Toledo, based on the different spiritual traditions found in the text.

  7. Beyond the chalice: monuments manifesting utraquist religious identity in the Bohemian urban context in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horníčková, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 137-152 ISSN 1350-7486 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : utraquism * Bohemia * religious history * religious symbolism * denominational culture * denominational monuments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  8. Evidence for the Continued Use of Medieval Medical Prescriptions in the Sixteenth Century: A Fifteenth-Century Remedy Book and its Later Owner.

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    Connolly, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    This article examines a fifteenth-century remedy book, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson c. 299, and describes its collection of 314 medieval medical prescriptions. The recipes are organised broadly from head to toe, and often several remedies are offered for the same complaint. Some individual recipes are transcribed with modern English translations. The few non-recipe texts are also noted. The difference between a remedy book and a leechbook is explained, and this manuscript is situated in relation to other known examples of late medieval medical anthologies. The particular feature that distinguishes Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson c. 299 from other similar volumes is the evidence that it continued to be used during the sixteenth century. This usage was of two kinds. Firstly, the London lawyer who owned it not only inscribed his name but annotated the original recipe collection in various ways, providing finding-aids that made it much more user-friendly. Secondly, he, and other members of his family, added another forty-three recipes to the original collection (some examples of these are also transcribed). These two layers of engagement with the manuscript are interrogated in detail in order to reveal what ailments may have troubled this family most, and to judge how much faith they placed in the old remedies contained in this old book. It is argued that the knowledge preserved in medieval books enjoyed a longevity that extended beyond the period of the manuscript book, and that manuscripts were read and valued long after the advent of printing.

  9. "Those Who Give Are Not All Generous": Tips and bribes at the sixteenth-century papal court

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    FLETCHER, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Ambassadors in early modern Europe were frequent disbursers of tips, rewards and bribes, and usually expected something in return for their liberality. This paper considers the conventions, both written and unwritten, that governed such activities in Renaissance Rome, setting them in the context of the extensive literature on gift-giving. While official, ceremonial gifts were often recorded in writing, the less licit payments with which this article is concerned were often not. However, there...

  10. The Republic of the Refugees : Early Modern Migrations and the Dutch Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.H.

    This essay surveys the wave of new literature on early modern migration and assesses its impact on the Dutch golden age. From the late sixteenth century, the Netherlands developed into an international hub of religious refugees, displaced minorities, and labour migrants. While migration to the Dutch

  11. Florence Nightingale and Irish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn

    2014-09-01

    To challenge statements made about 'Careful Nursing' as a 'distinctive system' of nursing established by the Irish Sisters of Mercy, prior to Florence Nightingale, and which is said to have influenced her. Numerous publications have appeared claiming the emergence of a 'distinctive system' of nursing as 'Ireland's legacy to nursing', which, it is claimed, influenced Nightingale's system. One paper argues that the Irish system has its philosophical roots in Thomist philosophy. Several papers argue the ongoing relevance of the Irish system, not Nightingale's, for contemporary nursing theory and practice. Nightingale's influence on and legacy to Irish nursing are not acknowledged. A Discursive paper. Archival and published sources were used to compare the nursing systems of Florence Nightingale and the Irish Sisters of Mercy, with particular attention to nursing during the Crimean War. Claims were challenged of a 'distinctive system' of nursing established by the Irish Sisters of Mercy in the early nineteenth century, and of its stated influence on the nursing system of Florence Nightingale. The contention of great medical satisfaction with the 'distinctive' system is refuted with data showing that the death rate at the Koulali Hospital, where the Irish sisters nursed, was the highest of all the British war hospitals during the Crimean War. Profound differences between the two systems are outlined. Claims for a 'distinctive' Irish system of nursing fail for lack of evidence. Nightingale's principles and methods, as they evolved over the first decade of her school's work, remain central to nursing theory and practice. Nightingale's insistence on respect for patients and high ethical standards remains relevant to practice no less so as specific practices change with advances in medical knowledge and practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Florence Jessie Mac Williams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CPMGIKAlBGE-340/2003-05. Resonance - January 2005. Licenced to post WPP No.6 RT Nagar Postoffice. Florence Jessie Mac Williams. (1917 - 1990). Registered with Registrar of Newspapers in India vide Regn. No. 66273/96. ISSN 0971-8044. Price per copy: Rs 40.

  13. [Postmodernity for Florence Nightingale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapico Yáñez, Florentina

    2010-04-01

    The author analyzes the influence of the environmental paradigm presented by Hippocrates, the maieutics of Socrates, the role of religious orders in the overall nursing conception Florence Nightingale had by which the observation of social phenomena, both at an individual level as well as a systematic level, comprise the basis of her works.

  14. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital.

  15. Florence Kelley and the radium dial painters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutier, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    All health physicists are familiar with the radium dial painter episode of the early 1900s and how one of today's primary radiation limits was set after studying both the health effects of these workers. The social history of this event is not as well known to health physicists. This paper tells of the efforts by Florence Kelley of the National Consumers League and others on behalf of the dial painters and of the events that led to Kelley's interest in the problem. Known as the 'Impatient Crusader', Florence Kelley worked to have legislation passed that would eliminate the radiation hazards of dial painting and to obtain compensation for those who were injured. (author)

  16. Biogeography of the Oceans: a Review of Development of Knowledge of Currents, Fronts and Regional Boundaries from Sailing Ships in the Sixteenth Century to Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.

    2014-06-01

    The development of knowledge of global biogeography of the oceans from sixteenthcentury European voyages of exploration to present-day use of satellite remote sensing is reviewed in three parts; the pre-satellite era (1513-1977), the satellite era leading to a first global synthesis (1978-1998), and more recent studies since 1998. The Gulf Stream was first identified as a strong open-ocean feature in 1513 and by the eighteenth century, regular transatlantic voyages by sailing ships had established the general patterns of winds and circulation, enabling optimisation of passage times. Differences in water temperature, water colour and species of animals were recognised as important cues for navigation. Systematic collection of information from ships' logs enabled Maury (The Physical Geography of the Sea Harper and Bros. New York 1855) to produce a chart of prevailing winds across the entire world's oceans, and by the early twentieth century the global surface ocean circulation that defines the major biogeographic regions was well-known. This information was further supplemented by data from large-scale plankton surveys. The launch of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, specifically designed to study living marine resources on board the Nimbus 7 polar orbiting satellite in 1978, marked the advent of the satellite era. Over subsequent decades, correlation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll data with in situ measurements enabled Longhurst (Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press, New York 1998) to divide the global ocean into 51 ecological provinces with Polar, Westerly Wind, Trade Wind and Coastal Biomes clearly recognisable from earlier subdivisions of the oceans. Satellite imagery with semi-synoptic images of large areas of the oceans greatly aided definition of boundaries between provinces. However, ocean boundaries are dynamic, varying from season to season and year to year. More recent work has focused on the study of variability of

  17. 2009 SCDRN Lidar: Florence County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for Florence County, SC. Utilizing multi-return...

  18. Peace, love and Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Country Joe

    Legendary Woodstock music festival star Country Joe McDonald has a fascination with Florence Nightingale, dating from his work with Vietnam war veterans. Although her theories have diminished in popularity, he believes her life has lessons for modern nurses.

  19. Florence Nightingale: Appreciating our legacy, envisioning our future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    "If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music that he hears, however measured or far away." This quote is attributed to Henry David Thoreau, (Walden, 1854) not Florence Nightingale, but it certainly can describe Florence, particularly in early life. Florence, you can say, "had it all": wealth, education, a doting extended family, and a life of leisure, which included the opportunity to travel anywhere in the world. Even her name was given because she was born in Florence, Italy, during her parents' 3-year honeymoon tour of Europe. But inside Florence, "the different drummer" quietly but steadily beat, and her life was compelled to seek until she could find or, in her case, create the music she heard. After years of searching, Florence determined that "nursing," a practice every woman engaged in, was not simply a matter of kindness and care, but rather a body of knowledge, an art and a science. She never lost sight of her goal that nursing should become a profession in its own right, and not a branch of medicine. Nursing at that time was reserved for nuns in Germany, Ireland, and France, or for family and friends caring for relatives who were ill. Florence felt nursing was her "calling" and her mission. Once she discovered nursing, she pursued it for more than 50 years until the last moment of her life. Her dedication has a good deal to do with how and why we are nursing today.

  20. Urban Transformations in the After-Unity Capitals: Turin, Florence, Rome Trasformazioni urbane nelle capitali post-unitarie: Torino, Firenze, Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The Italian political unification is a process starting in 1861. The next ten years, until the freeing of Rome, are a period of strong changes because the the new nation starts by heavier backwardness conditions compared to other European nations.

    The basic conditionings that bound the new nation are summarized in some causes: an underdeveloped economic system where there are areas of industrial development; a significant shortage of mineral and energy resources; and an urban structure that is still that of the sixteenth century, the last brightness period of the Italian cities. The same internal communication system is composed of a basic road network which is still one of Roman origin and of isolated sections of rail network, with few links among the pre-unity nations.

    Particular attention should be paid on the impact of the economic processes on the cities: they have a strong impact on European cities since the early nineteenth century, but their impact on Italian cities (beginning from the main northern cities, Milan and Turin is more limited, if compared with the transformations concerning other continental cities.

    The unification starting from 1861 imposes additional critical elements, because the Italian urban structure is not ready to the event, particularly for the choice of the capital city. A city that can rightfully define itself as capital exists, and it is Turin; but it is peripheral to the rest of the Italian territory. Furthermore there is an in pectore capital city, Rome, that is the symbolic centre of the Italian history. But the city has to wait another ten years to join to the rest of Italy. The solution is to temporarily move the capitol to Florence, even if nobody explicitly says it to Florentines! The step from Turin to Florence, and from Florence to Rome sets in motion a complex organizational mechanism and a significant money‘s amount, invested in the effort to bring the two cities to the new role

  1. The voice of Florence Nightingale on advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Crane, Patrick C

    2012-01-31

    Modern nursing is complex, ever changing, and multi focused. Since the time of Florence Nightingale, however, the goal of nursing has remained unchanged, namely to provide a safe and caring environment that promotes patient health and well being. Effective use of an interpersonal tool, such as advocacy, enhances the care-giving environment. Nightingale used advocacy early and often in the development of modern nursing. By reading her many letters and publications that have survived, it is possible to identify her professional goals and techniques. Specifically, Nightingale valued egalitarian human rights and developed leadership principles and practices that provide useful advocacy techniques for nurses practicing in the 21st century. In this article we will review the accomplishments of Florence Nightingale, discuss advocacy in nursing and show how Nightingale used advocacy through promoting both egalitarian human rights and leadership activities. We will conclude by exploring how Nightingale's advocacy is as relevant for the 21st century as it was for the 19th century.

  2. Study of the Asteroid Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodniza, Alberto; Pereira, Mario

    2018-06-01

    Asteroid Florence was discovered at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia (March 1981). Paul Chodas, manager of CNEOS-JPL said: “Florence is the largest asteroid to pass by our planet this close since the NASA program to detect and track near-Earth asteroids began” [1]. The asteroid passed 7.1 million kilometers away from the earth [2]. The GDSCC-NASA discovered that the asteroid has two small moons. The diameter of Florence is 4.5 kilometers, and the sizes of the two moons are probably between 100 – 300 meters across. The inner moon has a rotation period around Florence of about 8 hours, and the outer moon has a period of about 25 hours [3]. From our Observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we captured several pictures, videos and astrometry data during several hours during three days. Our data was published by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) and also appears at the web page of NEODyS [4]. The pictures were captured with the following equipment: CGE PRO 1400 CELESTRON and STL-1001 SBIG camera. Astrometry and photometry was carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements and the rotation period. Summary and conclusions: We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity = 0.422548 +/- 0.000994, semi-major axis = 1.76675 +/- 0.00313 A.U, orbital inclination = 22.128 +/- 0.029 deg, longitude of the ascending node = 336.0960 +/- 0.0013 deg, argument of perihelion = 27.861 +/- 0.016, mean motion = 0.41970 +/- 0.00112 deg/d, perihelion distance = 1.0202151 +/- 5.27e-5 A.U, aphelion distance = 2.51329 +/- 0.00625 A.U, absolute magnitude = 14.4. The parameters were calculated based on 281 observations. Dates: 2017 September 01 to 05 with mean residual = 0.19 arcseconds. The asteroid has an orbital period of 2.35 years (857.74 days). The rotation period of the asteroid is 2.3 hours. Note: Spaceweather published our video on September 1-2017 [5].[1] https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/large-asteroid-to-safely-pass-earth-on-sept-1[2] http

  3. Florence Nightingale: her personality type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    This article casts new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  4. Florence Nightingale and healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudzma, Elizabeth Connelly

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the work of Florence Nightingale in light of her collaboration with William Farr, the eminent medical statistician. Nightingale's epidemiological investigations supported by Farr illustrated that attention to environmental cleanliness was an important factor in preventing spread of disease. Nightingale channeled her investigations to support hospital reforms and the need for an educated nurse who could provide better management of the hospital environment. Statistical support and solicited criticism allowed Nightingale to argue more forcefully for her reforms.

  5. [Florence Nightingale: an Italian portrait.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Florence Nightingale was the pioneer of modern nursing. The aim of this article is to give a brief review of her character. Her Christian name derives from her birthplace, albeit her English nationality. She was trained in England, save for a brief spell in Germany. The nursing profession of her time left much to desire; competent nurses were hard to find, their preparation was poor, and so was availability. In Paris, she first encountered real issues related to nursing and sanitation, but did not tarry a moment to get to grips with them. She did not hide her organisational skills and humanitarian outlook, and the occasion to put them to good use presented itself with the Crimean War, where the opposition of army officers only aggravated the arduous process of putting local hygienic conditions under control. Invariably, Florence Nightingale was perceived by soldiers as an almost mythical mother figure, gentle and authoritative, a single firm point in moments of physical or moral decline. She did her best to help improve conditions in India, despite the odds. She died in London in 1910.

  6. The Execution of the Miners of Kutná Hora at Poděbrady and in Křivoklát in 1496. On the Veneration of the Miners of Poděbrady in the Sixteenth Century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárovcová, Martina

    Suppl., č. 2 (2015), s. 259-278 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : music manuscripts * Utraquism * Bohemian Reformation * illuminated fragments * Jan Hus * Fabián Puléř * early modern illuminated manuscripts Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  7. High prevalence of clustered tuberculosis cases in Peruvian migrants in Florence, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zammarchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a leading cause of morbidity for Peruvian migrants in Florence, Italy, where they account for about 20% of yearly diagnosed cases. A retrospective study on cases notified in Peruvian residents in Florence in the period 2001-2010 was carried out and available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were genotyped (MIRU-VNTR-24 and Spoligotyping. One hundred thirty eight cases were retrieved. Genotyping performed in 87 strains revealed that 39 (44.8% belonged to 12 clusters. Assuming that in each cluster the transmission of tuberculosis from the index case took place in Florence, a large proportion of cases could be preventable by improving early diagnosis of contagious cases and contact tracing.

  8. This Passionate Study: A Dialogue with Florence Nightingale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maindonald, John; Richardson, Alice M.

    2004-01-01

    On her death in 1910, Florence Nightingale left a vast collection of reports, letters, notes and other written material. There are numerous publications that make use of this material, often highlighting Florence's attitude to a particular issue. In this paper we gather a set of quotations and construct a dialogue with Florence Nightingale on the…

  9. Il Doge and Easter Processions at San Marco in Early Modern Venice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    –1800. Traditional representational features – from the early Middle Ages – e.g. of the women at Christ’s grave had been incorporated into these ducal processions during the sixteenth century with special roles for the doge. The complex of solemn processions from the ducal palace around the San Marco piazza...... and into the basilica emphasizing political hierarchy on the one hand and combined with medieval representational liturgical traditions on the other provided a unique ceremonial which can be read as ritually manifesting several – intertwined yet different – kinds of sacrosanctity: sacred church spaces and objects...

  10. "Glory Catalogued": The Libraries of Florence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Wendy

    1983-01-01

    Narration of author's visit to the libraries of Florence, Italy, focuses on city, provincial, and national libraries, including the Laurentian Library, Biblioteca Communale Centrale (city), Biblioteca Marucelliana (regional), and Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale (national). Conversations with the directors of each library are highlighted. (EJS)

  11. Florence Jessie Mac Williams (1917-1990)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Florence Jessie Mac Williams (1917-1990). Featured Scientist Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 98-98. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/01/0098-0098. Resonance ...

  12. Florence voorbij? : over verplegen, passie & wetenschappelijk onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Honderd jaar geleden overleed Florence Nightingale, zonder twijfel de bekendste verpleegkundige ooit. Nightingale wordt vaak geassocieerd met haar roeping voor de zorg. Haar werk in de Krimoorlog leverde haar de bijnaam ‘the lady with the lamp’ op. In verpleegkundige kringen wordt Nightingale tot op

  13. The life and impact of Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle, Vickie A

    2008-01-01

    All nurses learn about Florence Nightingale sometime during their academic studies. Miss Nightingale, even though she lived over a century ago, still impacts current nursing care. This article provides a brief biographical review of her life and her impact on present day patient care.

  14. The anti-semitic conspiracy theory in sixteenth-century Spain and Portugal and the origins of the Carta de los Judíos de Constantinopla: new evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyer, Francois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a largely unknown document preserved in the archives of the Instituto Valencia de Don Juan in Madrid. This rare document –a short memorandum written by the Portuguese Bishop Andrés de Noronha in the 1580s and probably intended for one of the high-ranking royal secretaries or even King Philip II himself– reveals new information regarding the belief that the Jews or judaizing conversos in the Iberian Peninsula were communicating with their coreligionists in the Ottoman Empire and plotting to destroy the Iberian monarchies by infiltrating Christian society. Reporting a conversation between the bishop and a Spanish inquisitor that took place in 1566 or 1567, the memorandum refers to the Carta de los judíos de Constantinopla, an infamous forgery that became the keystone of this powerful anti-Semitic conspiracy theory. Through an analysis of the text, this article sheds light upon the early circulation and dissemination of the Carta de los judíos de Constantinopla in both Spain and Portugal as well as its role in the creation in 1568 of discriminatory bursaries reserved for Old Christians wishing to study medicine at the University of Coimbra.Este artículo examina un documento en gran parte desconocido y conservado en los archivos del Instituto Valencia de Don Juan en Madrid. Este documento –un breve memorial escrito por el obispo portugués Andrés de Noronha en la década de 1580 y probablemente destinado a uno de los secretarios reales o tal vez el propio Felipe II– revela nueva información acerca de la creencia de que los judíos o conversos judaizantes en la Península Ibérica comunicaban con sus correligionarios en el Imperio otomano y conspiraban con el objetivo de infiltrar la sociedad cristiana y destruir a las monarquías ibéricas. Dando un informe de una conversación entre el obispo y un inquisidor español que habría tenido lugar en 1566 o 1567, el memorial se refiere a la Carta de los judíos de

  15. New radiocarbon data to study the history of roman and medieval Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldus-Huyzendveld, A.; Fedi, M.E.; Cantini, F.; Bruttini, J.; Cartocci, A.; Calabrisotto, C. Scire

    2010-01-01

    Florence is a town worldwide known for its Renaissance masterpieces. It is often forgotten that it was founded during Roman times and remained a small village until the end of the early Middle Ages, practically confined within the ancient Roman boundaries. Since 2003, an extended archaeological research executed by the University of Sienna has studied the most ancient layers in the centre of Florence with the aim to enhance both the archaeological and paleo-environmental reconstruction of this area. One of the peculiarities of these excavations is that the early medieval layers were poor in datable ceramics, thus charcoals were sampled from different stratigraphic layers in order to contribute to the dating. Several data have already been published; here we focus on the excavation site of Palazzo Vecchio, now the seat of the municipality of Florence. This area is located close to the Arno river, along the eastern margin of the slightly elevated height upon which the Roman town was founded; actually, in the layers beneath the surface, the Roman theatre is still preserved. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals was performed in the LABEC laboratory in Florence, at the AMS beam line of the AMS-IBA 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. Comparison of these new data with the former ones and with the archaeological and geological data adds new information especially on natural phenomena like floods and on the human occupation of this area in the past.

  16. Interface entre história da matemática e ensino: uma atividade desenvolvida com base num documento do século XVI An interface between the history of mathematics and education: an activity based on a sixteenth-century document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikazu Saito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe a construção de uma interface entre história e ensino de matemática a partir de um diálogo entre historiadores e educadores da matemática. Para tanto, consideramos aspectos epistemológicos e metodológicos ligados à história da matemática, pautada em tendências historiográficas atuais, juntamente com a metodologia baseada no movimento lógico-histórico. A interface contemplou o movimento do pensamento na formação dos conceitos e o contexto no qual tais conceitos foram desenvolvidos, de modo a conduzir à reflexão sobre o processo histórico da construção do conhecimento para a elaboração de atividade didática. Esta atividade teve por base um documento do século XVI dedicado à construção e uso de "instrumentos matemáticos", e sua elaboração levou em consideração uma intencionalidade e um plano de ação que viabilizaram o seu desenvolvimento. A organização do ensino articulou as conexões internas e externas trazidas pela análise do documento e a forma do pensamento do desenvolvimento do conceito.This paper proposes to devise an interface between history and mathematics education based on a dialogue between historians of mathematics and educators. Regarding this, we have considered epistemological and methodological aspects of the history of mathematics based on current trends in historiography along with the methodology based on the logic-historical approach. The interface sought to envisage the movement in thought in the context in which these very concepts were conceived and the context in which mathematical concepts were developed. This interface led us to reflect on the historical process of development of knowledge by which a didactic activity could be devised. This activity was based on a sixteenth century document devoted to the construction and use of "mathematical instruments". Activity elaboration took into account an intention and a plan of action through which its application was

  17. Florence Nightingale: The queen of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha P Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Florence Nightingale, who was called as “the lady with the lamp,” by the sick and injured at Crimean war, has laid down strong foundational principles in nursing. Her multitasked role contributed significantly toward the development of nursing profession into structured institution. As an administrator, educator, researcher Nightingale's contributions moved nursing from disrespectable profession into replacing more of autonomy and evidence-based practice.

  18. Florence Nightingale: The queen of nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Asha P Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Florence Nightingale, who was called as “the lady with the lamp,” by the sick and injured at Crimean war, has laid down strong foundational principles in nursing. Her multitasked role contributed significantly toward the development of nursing profession into structured institution. As an administrator, educator, researcher Nightingale's contributions moved nursing from disrespectable profession into replacing more of autonomy and evidence-based practice.

  19. Florence Nightingale: on feeding an army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, B M

    1989-12-01

    Florence Nightingale's work for the British Army during the Crimean War earned her the well-deserved honor of being considered the mother of modern nursing. Less well recognized is her involvement with the development of nutritional services for the military. A nutrient-intake analysis is developed here based on her recommendations and recipes for army troops. The intake profile is compared with modern recommendations for dietary intake for adequacy of the diet.

  20. Cardiovascular Nursing: From Florence to Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R

    2016-08-01

    This paper, based on the 2015 CSANZ Cardiovascular Nursing Lecture, takes its title from the invitation to give this lecture in Melbourne being received when the author was visiting Florence, after whom Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing, is named. Her work has indirectly shaped and influenced cardiovascular nursing, which has developed over the past 50 years. Despite its relatively short history, cardiovascular nursing has made a major contribution to improving the cardiovascular health and well-being of patients and families through health promotion, risk reduction and disease prevention. Examples include cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention and chronic heart failure disease management. Challenges, however, remain, including nurses practising to the full extent of their education and training, working as full partners with physicians and other health professionals in redesigning healthcare, ensuring better data collection and being more active in advocacy and policy initiatives. Cardiovascular nursing has a strong record of innovation but should always remember that it is there to serve the public and, bearing in mind the risk of potential harm versus benefit, be mindful of Florence Nightingale's wise counsel, "First, do no harm". Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Florence Nightingale, Statistician: Implications for Teachers of Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marti H.; Stallings, William M.

    This paper presents an overview of Florence Nightingale's statistical background and accomplishments; discusses Victorian statistics, Nightingale's education and statistical contributions; and concludes with implications for professors and students of educational research. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), the first woman elected as a fellow of…

  2. Florence Nightingale: nurse and public health pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    August 2010 marks the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale, who must be, without doubt, the most famous name in nursing. Most people, even those in the health professions, think of her as 'The Lady with the Lamp'; the heroine of the Crimean War, who tended the sick and wounded soldiers at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution, which continued long after Crimea, was in the organization of nursing training, in hospital planning, public and military health, and in effective collection of medical statistics.

  3. Florence Nightingale and the India sanitary reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J C

    1989-09-01

    After the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale persisted in researching the health conditions of British troops throughout the Empire. Undaunted by geographic limitations, she surveyed and publicized data that documented the mismanagement of living conditions and health care among the occupational forces on the Indian continent. Nightingale proposed widespread changes in the reporting of military health status and biostatistics, in sanitary engineering, and in self-care activities. With dogged persistence, she continued to gather follow-up data to measure the changing health status of soldiers in a land she never saw.

  4. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  5. Observations on sustainable and ubiquitous healthcare informatics from Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Helen J; Wright, Graham

    2009-01-01

    As nurses around the world prepare to celebrate the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale in 2010 this paper reviews her work on using information, especially statistics, to analyze and manage patient care and links that to current developments in informatics. It then examines assistive technologies and how they may impact on nursing practice in the future and links these developments to the writings of Florence Nightingale. The paper concludes by suggesting that in progressing towards sustainable and ubiquitous healthcare informatics we need to study history in order to learn from the lessons of Florence Nightingale and other healthcare pioneers.

  6. Florence, Oregon Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florence, Oregon Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  7. Exploring the emotional intelligence of Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magpantay-Monroe, Edna Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) within nursing appears to be a growing interest as evidenced by the expanding number of literature reviews conducted on the subject. The inquiry for this historical research is to understand the work and characteristics of Florence Nightingale and EI. The assumption is that nurses who are emotionally intelligent are the most likely to not only survive the nursing profession but to thrive and make compassionate future leaders. Nightingale's letters, pictures and other writings were used to evaluate her viewpoints as an inspirational nurse and leader. Nightingale was a catalyst for change; internally motivated to be a great nurse and had the zeal to develop others as well. Exploring Nightingale's characteristics of EI such her confidence, determination, integrity and compassion, her teachings and beliefs can transcend time to mold successful nurses more than a century later. "The voice of a leader. It is as resounding as the heart it encourages, as far-reaching as the change it invokes. It is tuned by its keen sense of the voices around it and speaks back in a language they can understand. Its breath enters all that truly hear it, and when it no longer speaks, it can still be heard."-Mae Taylor Moss.

  8. Florence Nightingale and the Salisbury incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, I S

    1976-01-01

    Florence Nightingale's astute handling of mismanagement in Free Gifts Stores during the Crimean War underscored her administrative ability. Miss Nightingale went to Scutari ostensibly to nurse the British soldiers, and while there encountered innumerable instances of administrative and managerial ineffectiveness and difficulties. Among these were the problems in the accountability and deployment of supplies as well as the assignment and supervision of female personnel-an untried situation. The article identifies the misdirected organizational management which occasioned the introduction of women into British war nursing and the voluntary participation of the British citizenry in providing supplies and comfort for the Army. Through analysis of Miss Nightingale's and others' private correspondence, the problems of personnel management and supply distribution are brought into sharp focus. The interplay of policies and principles to which Miss Nightingale subscribed, the human frailty of one of her women, Miss Nightingale's illness, and the confusion and stress which characterized the Crimean War are discussed. The compassion, understanding, and rectitude as well as the human values to which Miss Nightingale subscribed in protecting a woman guilty of a breach of trust and felony and the troublesome slanderous attack to which Miss Nightingale was subjected at the instigation of her foes on the home front provide a background for the presentation of the Salisbury affair as an interesting aspect of historical research into the life of the Victorian heroine.

  9. Addressing the Addressee: Shakespeare and Early Modern Epistolary Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Gilbert-Cooke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the emergence of epistolary theory in mid-sixteenth-century England, its value and function, the article attempts to show how these theories helped to construct, in contemporary correspondence, the addressee’s identity. One of the most important precepts was, as Angel Day states in his manual The English Secretorie, that, when composing a letter, writers tailored their text to the addressee. Even invented letters in Shakespeare’s plays reveal that, while correctly addressing the addressee does not necessarily guarantee success, address was considered the most important tool at the writer’s disposal when attempting to secure the addressee’s good will. Importantly, the observance of this precept even in drama indicates that epistolary theory had a more pervasive influence in early modern England than previously thought.

  10. The Church of San Miniato al Monte, Florence: Astronomical and Astrological Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimplin, V.

    2011-06-01

    The church of San Miniato al Monte is examined in the context of interest in astrology and astronomy in early Renaissance Florence. Vitruvius emphasised the need for architects to "be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens" in his famous Ten Books of Architecture and, at San Miniato, astronomical and astrological features are combined in order to link humanity with the celestial or spiritual realm. The particular significance of Pisces and Taurus is explored in relation to Christian symbolism, raising questions about the role of astronomy and astrology in art and architecture.

  11. O legado de Florence Nightingale: uma viagem no tempo

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Roberta; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Amante, Lúcia Nazareth; Costa, Eliani; Bock, Lisnéia Fabiani

    2009-01-01

    É um estudo descritivo qualitativo com perspectiva histórica com o objetivo de refletir sobre os modos pelos quais Florence Nightingale é representada na produção científica de Enfermagem no período de 1950 a 2008. A fonte de pesquisa foi a base de dados PubMed e foram selecionados para análise 79 resumos destas publicações. Após análise chegou-se as categorias - A história de Florence: o olhar do autor; Saberes e práticas instituídas por Florence Nightingale: das Irmãs de Caridade à Guerra d...

  12. 40 CFR 81.109 - Florence Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.109 Florence Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Florence Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (South Carolina) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Florence Intrastate Air Quality...

  13. [Florence Nightingale and charity sisters: revisiting the history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; Mancia, Joel Rolim

    2005-01-01

    This study presents an historical analysis on the links between the nursing practice and the influence received from various religious orders/associations along the times, especially from Saint Vincent Paul's charity sisters. The professional nursing which was pioneered by Florence Nightingale in the XlXth century, was directly influenced by the teachings of love and fraternity. In addition, other contributions from the religious orders/associations were the concepts of altruism, valorization of an adequate environment for the care of patients, and the division of work in nursing. The study shows the influence of Charity Sisters on Florence Nightingale.

  14. Les couleurs de Rome et de Florence The colours of Rome and Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Lolli Ghetti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La couleur est un sujet d’actualité en Italie, en raison des intérêts économiques liés à la réutilisation, précédée de la restauration, des bâtiments des centres historiques, et aux phénomènes de dégradation des matériaux de construction des façades. Certaines interventions sur des monuments célèbres ont fait l’objet d'une importante couverture médiatique et ont déclenché un phénomène en chaîne dont les conséquences sont très surprenantes. La couleur chaude de Rome et celle, bien plus froide, de Florence sont modifiées de manière très sensible. À Rome, on assiste à un éclaircissement général de la couleur vers les tons du travertin ou de la couleur de l’air, au détriment des rouges et des jaunes ocres habituels. À Florence, on commence à voir des couleurs vives sur les façades des bâtiments, caractéristiques du xixe siècle ou bien des verts et des azurs plus typiques du xviie siècle, qui viennent de remplacer la bichromie traditionnelle du blanc de l'enduit et du gris de la pierre serena. Le rôle de l'architecte chargé de la conservation de ces monuments est le contrôle et la juste orientation de ces changements du goût.Colour is an ongoing concern in Italy due to the economic benefits that can be obtained from the restoration and re-use of buildings at historical sites, and because of the deterioration of the construction materials used in facades. Some of the work carried out on famous monuments has received considerable media attention and triggered a chain reaction, the consequences of which are very surprising. The warm colours of Rome and the colder tones of Florence have been modified to a considerable degree. In Rome, colours have been generally lightened towards that of travertine, or that of the air, to the detriment of the usual reds and yellow ochres. In Florence, bright colours are appearing on facades, either those characteristic of the nineteenth century or else greens and blues

  15. O legado de Florence Nightingale: uma viagem no tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio histórico, descriptivo, de carácter cualitativo, con el objetivo de reflexionar sobre las maneras como Florence Nightingale es representada en la producción científica de Enfermería en el período de 1950 a 2008. Se analizaron 79 estudios de la base de datos PubMed que contenían resúmenes de estas publicaciones. Después del análisis surgieron las siguientes categorías - La historia de Florence: la mirada del autor; Saberes y prácticas establecidas por Florence Nightingale: de las hermanas de la Caridad a la Guerra de Crimea; La educación y los puentes para la enfermería profesional; y Florence Nightingale: ¿feminista, reaccionaria y administradora? Se destaca su papel como administradora, educadora, estadística, y su acción feminista contradictoria. Se concluye que la vida de Nightingale y su papel como creadora de la enfermería moderna en el mundo es destacado como positivo, una mujer que dedicó su vida al cuidado de los otros y a la profesionalización de la enfermería.

  16. Florence Nightingale'i medal / tõlk. Tiina Vilberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Medal on asutatud 16. mail 1912 inglise halastajaõe Florence Nightingale'i mälestuseks, kelle omakasupüüdmatu töö haavatute eest hoolitsemisel Krimmi sõjas juhtis haigeravi täiesti uutele radadele

  17. Paying tribute to florence nightingale and Mary Seacole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Angela

    2012-05-30

    Lynn McDonald (letters May 16) says the grounds of St Thomas' Hospital in London are the wrong place for the proposed memorial statue to Mary Seacole, pointing out that the hospital is more associated with Florence Nightingale and her work.

  18. Lamp light on leadership: clinical leadership and Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, David; Sherratt, Amanda

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to use the example of Florence Nightingales' nursing experience to highlight the differences between nursing leadership and clinical leadership with a focus on Miss Nightingales' clinical leadership attributes. 2010 marks the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale. As this significant date approaches this paper reflects on her contribution to nursing in relation to more recent insights into clinical leadership. Literature has been used to explore issues related to nursing leadership, clinical leadership and the life and characteristics of Florence Nightingale. There are a few parts of Florence's character which fit the profile of a clinical leader. However, Miss Nightingale was not a clinical leader she was a powerful and successful role model for the academic, political and managerial domains of nursing. There are other ways to lead and other types of leaders and leadership that nursing and the health service needs to foster, discover and recognize. Clinical leaders should be celebrated and recognized in their own right. Both clinical leaders and nursing leaders are important and need to work collaboratively to enhance patient care and to positively enhance the profession of nursing.

  19. Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Laura J

    2006-01-01

    In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data.

  20. Elemental composition of urban aerosol collected in Florence, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Mando, P.A.; Nava, S.; Prati, P.; Zucchiatti, A.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive investigation is in progress aiming at the characterisation of the air particulate composition in Florence. The aim is to determine the aerosol elemental concentrations as well to identify pollution sources. For our investigation, we use the external PIXE-PIGE beam facility of the Van de Graaff accelerator of INFN at the Physics Department of the Florence University. We report here an overview of the results of the PIXE analysis of a long temporal series (about 1 yr) of PM 10 particulate collected on Millipore filters on a daily basis in three different sites (characterised by different urban settings). Daily concentrations of more than 20 elements have been obtained. From the observed elemental concentrations seasonal variation were found. A relevant decrease of S, Pb and Br levels has been found with respect to 10 yr ago. Four main sources (traffic, sulphates, soil-dust and wind-transported sea-salt) have been extracted with the help of factor analysis

  1. Florence and Pistoia: Territorial Government and City Factions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vannini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the process of its territorial dominion’s building, Florence faced the peculiarities of each subject town by implementing different strategic choices. In the case of the city of Pistoia the Florentine authorities were able to modulate specific interventions over time in order to manage and govern the territory. After a first period (1329-1376 in which a sort of political and military ‘protection’ was offered to the community of Pistoia —soon turned into a gradual erosion of political sovereignty— the formal institutionalization of city bipartisanship followed and helped to freeze the conflict between the factions, giving to Florence an easier control over city's political life. After the advent of the Medici regime the political dynamics of the parts of Pistoia were managed by the powerful Florentine family almost exclusively, so that after 1458 the bipartisan regime could in fact be abolished, coming finally in the Laurentian age to a real 'monopoly' of patronage. This third phase of the relationships between Florence and Pistoia, which ended at the dawn of the collapse of the Medici regime in 1494, left in Pistoia such a power void that the factional struggle broke out again even more bloody at the end of the century.

  2. Contribuicoes de florence nightingale: uma revisao integrativa da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Thaise Frello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Florence Nightingale é fonte de inspiração e alvo de pesquisa para estudiosos em todo o mundo. Este artigo teve como objetivo identificar a contribuição dos feitos e escritos de Florence Nightingale nos artigos publicados entre os anos de 2004 e 2011, na percepção de seus autores. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura exposta em artigos que continham, em seus títulos e/ou resumos, as palavras Florence Nightingale, realizada em bases de dados entre os anos de 2004 e 2011, totalizando 33 artigos. A análise ocorreu com base em um quadro com o objetivo e a sumarização dos pontos principais expostos nos artigos. Os resultados indicam que Nightingale, como uma pessoa pública, é alvo de comentários controversos sobre sua vida e profissão. Conclui-se que seus feitos e escritos influenciaram diversas áreas além da enfermagem, a exemplo da estatística, administração em saúde, saúde pública, fisioterapia e espiritualidade.

  3. Revisitando a Florence Nightingale desde una perspectiva de género Revisiting Florence Nightingale from a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Narváez-Traverso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 2010 conmemoramos el centenario de la muerte de Florence Nightingale. En la época en la que vivió, la situación de la mujer era difícil con un ideal de feminidad que imponía su exclusión de la vida pública y laboral, reservada al varón; a pesar de esta situación social Nightingale fue una figura destacada, entre sus méritos destacan la demostración de la importancia que otras ciencias, como la estadística, proporcionaban para controlar, aprender y mejorar la asistencia hospitalaria. Fue pionera en la recogida, almacenamiento y uso de la información para analizar y gestionar la atención al paciente; precursora de una informática sanitaria sostenible y ubicua. Florence modeló una nueva profesión para las mujeres extraída de siglos de ignorancia y superstición.In 2010 we commemorated the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale. By the time he lived the situation of women was difficult with an ideal of femininity which imposed the exclusion of women from public life and work, restricted to men, despite the social situation Nightingale was a leading figure among merit include the demonstration of the importance of other sciences, such as statistics, provided to monitor, learn and improve hospital care. Pioneered the collection, storage and use of information for analyzing and managing patient care; harbinger of a sustainable health and ubiquitous computing. Florence shaped a new profession for women drawn from centuries of ignorance and superstition.

  4. The empty carriage: lessons in leadership from Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Marge

    2011-01-01

    Florence Nightingale made a profound statement about leadership when she returned from the Crimean War without the fanfare offered to her. Promoters paraded her empty carriage around the city of Southampton England to applaud her accomplishments in the war. Her absence signaled a new leadership, one of quiet determination, humility, and political strategy to improve quality of life. The lessons to be learned for today's nurse leaders revolve around mindfulness, clarity of purpose, reverence for human life, collaborative partnerships, co-evolution, engagement, keeping up with a world in motion, and making meaning.

  5. Florence Nightingale: her Crimean fever and chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale's Crimean fever and chronic illness have intrigued historians for more than a century and a half. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to discuss the facts that point to the cause of Nightingale's Crimean fever as brucellosis, (b) to show that her debilitating illness for 32 years (1855-1887) was compatible with the specific form of chronic brucellosis, and (c) to present new evidence that she was still having severe symptoms in December 1887, when it was previously felt that she had no severe symptoms after 1870.

  6. The death of Florence Nightingale: BJN 100 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, Sir George

    This August marks the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale, who died at 2 o'clock on Saturday 13 August 1910 at her home, 10 South Street, Park Lane, London. The following are some snippets which appeared in the BJN of the 20 and 27 August 1910. It was not until the announcement of her death in the morning papers of Monday 15 August that the country heard about Nightingale's death. In her last hours she was attended by Sir Thomas Barlow and two nurses from the Nursing Sisters' Institution, Devonshire Square, founded by Mrs Elizabeth Fry in 1840.

  7. 75 FR 55613 - Dupont Teijin Films Including On-Site Leased Workers From Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, SC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, SC; Amended Certification... Teijin Films, including on-site leased workers from Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, South Carolina... leased workers of Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, South Carolina, who became totally or partially...

  8. The Florence Baptistery: 3-D Survey as a Knowledge Tool for Historical and Structural Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Fiorini, L.; Conti, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Baptistery of San Giovanni is one of the most important pieces of architecture in Florence. It is an octagonal building, encrusted with marble both internally and externally (including the pyramidal roof) and covered inside by a magnificent dome with sparkling gold mosaics. During Dante's time, it appeared much older than the other monuments, so its origins were considered as hailing straight from Florence's most remote and mythical history. Even though we have much more data now, scholars still disagree over the interpretations on the origin and construction sequence of the monument. Survey has always been considered a main instrument for understanding historical architecture, mostly from constructional and structural points of view. During the last century, the Baptistery was surveyed using both traditional techniques and the most up-to-date instruments available at the time, such as topography, close-range photogrammetry and laser scanning. So, a review of those early applications, even if partial or isolated, can significantly attest to the state of the art and evolution of survey techniques. During recent years, the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore promoted new research and a wide range of diagnostic investigations aimed at acquiring greater knowledge of the monument in anticipation of the cleaning and restoration of the outer wall surfaces during 2015. Among this research, GeCo Lab carried out a new systematic and complete laser scanner survey of the whole Baptistery, acquiring data for the more inaccessible parts that were given little attention during other survey campaigns. First of all, the paper analyses recent contributions given by instrumental surveys in advancing knowledge of the building, with references to the cutting-edge techniques and measurement tools used at the time. Then, it describes the new survey campaign, illustrating the approach followed in the planning, data acquisition and data elaboration phases; finally, it gives examples of some

  9. Florence Nightingale: a 19th-century mystic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) received a clear and profoundly moving Call to serve God at the age of 16. Through a lifetime of hard work and discipline, she became a practicing mystic in the Western tradition, thereby becoming an instrument of God's love, which was the primarily source of her great energy and the fabled "Nightingale power." To understand the life and work of this legendary healer, who forever changed human consciousness, the role of women, and nursing and public health systems in the middle of the 19th century, it is necessary to understand her motivation and inspiration. This article will discuss her life and work in the context of her mystical practice and to show the parallels between her life and the lives of three recognized women mystics. In her epic Crimean war mission (1854-1856) of leading and directing women nurses in the army hospital at Scutari, Turkey, Florence Nightingale burst into world consciousness as a spiritual beacon of hope and compassion for all who suffered. Her historic breakthrough achievement--pioneering the modern administrative role of nurse superintendent with measurable outcomes supported by irrefutable data--in the face of incredible adversity was merely the cornerstone of her life work.

  10. Florence Nightingale: creator of modern nursing and public health pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2008-09-01

    In starting this series of articles on distinguished women in nursing, medicine and the related healthcare professions, the choice of the first name is obvious. Florence Nightingale is, I suggest, the most famous female in the long history of medicine and is a name that is known and revered throughout the world. Most people--even those in 'the trade'--think of her as 'the lady with the lamp', the heroine who went out to the Crimean War and nursed the sick and wounded at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution was her continued work, long after the war, in nursing organisation and training, hospital planning, public and military health and her pioneering work in the efficient gathering of medical statistics.

  11. Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole on nursing and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to correct inaccurate information about both Mary Seacole and Florence Nightingale, material that promotes Seacole as a pioneer nurse and heroine, while either ignoring Nightingale or trivializing her contribution. Nursing journals have been prominent in promoting inaccurate accounts of the contribution of Seacole to nursing. Some have intermittently published positive material about Nightingale, but none has published redress. Discussion paper. Primary sources from 1855-2012 were found, which contradict some key claims made about Seacole. Further sources - not included here - are identified, with a website reference. It is argued that Nightingale remains relevant as a model for nurses, with the many crises in patient care and continuing challenges of hospital safety. Greater accuracy and honesty are required in reporting about nursing heroes. Without these, great ideas and examples can be lost to nursing and health care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Florence Nightingale in absentia: nursing and the 1893 Columbian Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Crane, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    In 1893, Chicago hosted the Columbian Exposition. This event showcased America's social, cultural, and scientific advances and its growing cultural parity with Western Europe. This was the first major exposition in which women played a prominent role. Integral to the fair was a series of Congresses that provided an international platform for discussion of social issues. The Congress on Hospitals, Dispensaries, and Nursing, a section of the International Congress of Charities, Correction, and Philanthropy, particularly focused on health care issues. Nursing leaders from Europe and North America participated. Although Florence Nightingale provided a major paper that was read at the Congress, she was unable to attend the event. The intent of this article is to examine the issues and themes debated at the 1893 Congress and identify how the influence of Nightingale effected these discussions and the development of Western nursing for the next half-century.

  13. An evaluation of the Florence Nightingale Foundation scholarships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Matthew; Tod, Angela; McCabe, Candy; Giordano, Richard

    2017-01-18

    The Florence Nightingale Foundation (FNF) is a charity that awards scholarships in leadership, travel and research to nurses, midwives and other healthcare professionals to promote excellence in practice. The FNF offers mentoring support to scholars, and provides support with career development and writing articles for publication, in addition to the financial award. The leadership scholarships are bespoke: leadership scholars can access a range of development opportunities that are specially commissioned for them, and select their programme of study and experiences, based on their individual needs. All scholarships provide opportunities to represent the FNF and to meet other scholars at the FNF annual conference. This article provides an overview of the FNF scholarships, based on the findings of two evaluations that demonstrated the value of these scholarships in improving services for patients and carers, as well as enhancing the careers of individual scholars.

  14. [Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), 101 years after her death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Pablo; Hortis De Smith, Verónica; Chambi, María C; Finn, Bárbara C

    2011-06-01

    We herein describe Florence Nightingale's life and work. She is considered one of the pioneers in nursing practice. Her greatest success was during the Crimean war when, along with 38 voluntary nurses, she cleaned and refurbished the hospital in Scutari and reduced the mortality rate from 40 to 2%. She used to make rounds at night in the wards under the light of a lamp, and therefore she was named "The Lady with the Lamp". Queen Victory gave her the Royal Red Cross and she was the first woman who was honored with the Order of Merit in 1907. She had solid knowledge on Statistics and Mathematics which were useful for her nursing job.

  15. Pieter Bruegel the Elder : art discourse in the sixteenth-century Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Todd Marlin

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s later depictions of peasants and festivities—the Peasant Wedding Banquet, Peasant Dance, Peasant and Nest Robber and the Festival of Fools—both of the pictures and their viewing context. The study reconstructs two parallel conversations: first, a visual

  16. The Renaissance Kidney-Nephrology in and about the Sixteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-07-01

    The endeavor to understand the workings of the human body is as old as civilization; but it is in the intellectual movement of the Renaissance that its actual scientific study began in earnest and has not ceased growing since then. It was in the 16th century that the study of organs was launched and with it that of the kidney, which was then conceived as an accessory organ to clear the excess water ingested with food. The study of the structural basis of kidney function was launched by Bartolomeo Eustachio (1514-1574); the elements of its physiology and pathology were promulgated by Jean Fernel (1497-1558), and that of the chemical study of urine and of the principal cause of kidney disease then, calculi, instigated by Joan Baptista Van Helmont (1577-1644). The methodological approaches of these and their contemporary investigators, which were crystallized and formulated by Francis Bacon (1561-1626), opened the gates of the Scientific Revolution that followed in the 17th century, beginning with that of describing the circulation in 1628 by William Harvey (1564-1657) that would finally free the kidney from the shackles imposed on it as a mere accessory organ to the liver in Galen's physiology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Coronado and Aesop: Fable and Violence on the Sixteenth-Century Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Daryl W.

    2009-01-01

    In the spring of 1540, Francisco Vazquez de Coronado led an "entrada" from present-day Mexico into the region we call New Mexico, where the expedition spent a violent winter among pueblo peoples. The following year, after a long march across the Great Plains, Coronado led an elite group of his men north into present-day Kansas where,…

  18. Brazilian Cannibals in Sixteenth-Century Europe and Seventeenth-Century Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leca, R.

    2014-01-01

    This article follows the transmission of a visual trope depicting Brazilian cannibals from accounts of travelers to Brazil in the 16th century to world maps and popular tales in 17th century Japan. The image of tribesmen roasting human limbs over a fire in woodcut illustrations (such as Theodore de

  19. Crossing boundaries: women's gossip, insults and violence in sixteenth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Suzannah

    2011-01-01

    Using evidence from cases recorded in the registers of the consistories of southern France, the author investigates the way in which Languedocian women policed each other's behaviour, enforcing a collective morality through gossip, sexual insult and physical confrontation. In contrast to case studies by other historians, it is argued here that gossip does appear to have been a peculiarly female activity, but far more than simply being an outlet for malice or prurience, it gave women a distinctive social role in the town. No less evident is the involvement of women in physical violence both against each other and against men, violence which, though less extreme than its male counterpart, nonetheless occupies a significant role in the proceedings of the consistories.

  20. Writing on Pigments in Natural History and Art Technology in Sixteenth-Century Germany and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltrogge, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Renaissance painters used a number of inorganic color materials. The development of mineralogy as a discipline opened a new discourse on mineral pigments. Agricola and other naturalists were familiar with the contemporary writings on art technology, but their focus was different. Therefore, the exchange of knowledge between these two color worlds remained selective. One possible meeting point was the Kunstkammer where the study of natural objects and materials was combined with an interest in the manual execution of a painting.

  1. A Call for Sobriety: Sixteenth-Century Educationalists and Humanist Conviviality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Demmy

    2013-01-01

    Michel Jeanneret's "A Feast of Words. Banquets and Table Talk in the Renaissance" (1987; English translation published in 1991) highlighted the celebration by Renaissance humanists of food and drink as catalysts of intellectual exchange. The author convincingly argued that Renaissance banquets served as a paradigm for the humanist body…

  2. The Utraquist Sanctoral in Sixteenth-Century Czech-Language Gradual

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žůrek, Jiří

    Suppl., č. 2 (2015), s. 279-307 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Utraquism * (Roman) Liturgy * Liturgical Calendar * Plainchant * Veneration of Saints Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  3. A Historical Survey of Military Health Services: The Crimean War and Florence Nigtingale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Demirtas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Crimean War freezing cold and contagious diseases was more important than the Russian soldiers for the allied armies. Typhus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepare the dead of a large number of soldiers. According to the resources, the contagious diseases led to death more than ten times of the military actions. That and #8217;s why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and the Crimean War became the beginning point in military health concept development. Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 volunteers provide clean bedding, improve ventilation and sewage disposal, and reorganize everyday sanitary procedures at British barracks in Istanbul. She was an early theorist of sanitation and one of the founders of the modern nursing profession. Nightingale worked to improve sanitation, nutrition, and activity of patients at hospitals. Death rates were reduced dramatically with the introduction of such measures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 1-6

  4. Florence Nightingale at First Hand Lynn McDonald Florence Nightingale at First Hand Continuum UK £14.99 224pp 9781441132550 9781441132550 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    WRITINGS ON Florence nightingale offer two contrasting views of her life. the first is that she was a formidable and highly influential woman, with enlightened views about disease prevention, the care of sick people and the role of professionally trained nurses. the alternative view is that she was a flawed Victorian hero, who enjoyed celebrity status in her lifetime but whose achievements were overestimated.

  5. Florence Nightingale e as irmãs de caridade: revisitando a história Florence Nightingale y las hermanas de caridad: revisitando la historia Florence Nightingale and charity sisters: revisiting the history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza Padilha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo trata de uma reflexão historiográfica acerca dos elos de ligação entre a prática de enfermagem e a influência recebida das ordens/associações religiosas, que marcam o ideário de enfermagem até os dias de hoje, especialmente das Irmãs de Caridade de São Vicente de Paulo. A enfermagem profissional, que só ocorreria no século XIX na Inglaterra, erigida por Florence Nightingale sofreria influência direta dos ensinamentos de amor e fraternidade traduzidos pelo conceito de altruísmo, da valorização do ambiente adequado para o cuidado e a divisão social do trabalho em enfermagem. O estudo mostra também a influência sofrida por Florence Nightingale pelo trabalho exercido pelas Irmãs de Caridade.El estudio trata de una reflexión historiográfica acerca de los eslabones de conexión entre la práctica de enfermería y la influencia recibida de las órdenes/asociaciones religiosas, que marcan el ideario de enfermería hasta los días de hoy, especialmente de las Hermanas de la Caridad de San Vicente de Pablo. La enfermería profesional, que sólo se llevaría a cabo en el siglo XIX en Inglaterra, erigida por Florence Nightingale sufriría influencia directa de las enseñanzas de amor y fraternidad traducidos por el concepto de altruismo, de la valorización del ambiente adecuado para el cuidado y la división social del trabajo en enfermería. El estudio mostra también la influencia sufrida por Florence Nightingale por el trabajo ejercido por las hermanas de la Caridad.This study presents an historical analysis on the links betwen the nursing practice and the influence received from various religious orders/associations along the times, especially from Saint Vincent Paul's charity sisters. The professional nursing which was pioneered by Florence Nightingale in the XIXth century, was directly influenced by the teachings of love and fraternity. In addition, other contributions from the religious orders/associations were the

  6. Mortality among discharged psychiatric patients in Florence, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Debora; Miccinesi, Guido; Bencini, Andrea; Conte, Michele; Crocetti, Emanuele; Zappa, Marco; Ferrara, Maurizio

    2006-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders involve an increased risk of mortality. In Italy psychiatric services are community based, and hospitalization is mostly reserved for patients with acute illness. This study examined mortality risk in a cohort of psychiatric inpatients for 16 years after hospital discharge to assess the association of excess mortality from natural or unnatural causes with clinical and sociodemographic variables and time from first admission. At the end of 2002 mortality and cause of death were determined for all patients (N=845) who were admitted during 1987 to the eight psychiatric units active in Florence. The mortality risk of psychiatric patients was compared with that of the general population of the region of Tuscany by calculating standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Poisson multivariate analyses of the observed-to-expected ratio for natural and unnatural deaths were conducted. The SMR for the sample of psychiatric patients was threefold higher than that for the general population (SMR=3.0; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=2.7-3.4). Individuals younger than 45 years were at higher risk (SMR=11.0; 95 percent CI 8.0-14.9). The SMR for deaths from natural causes was 2.6 (95 percent CI=2.3-2.9), and for deaths from unnatural causes it was 13.0 (95 percent CI=10.1-13.6). For deaths from unnatural causes, the mortality excess was primarily limited to the first years after the first admission. For deaths from natural causes, excess mortality was more stable during the follow-up period. Prevention of deaths from unnatural causes among psychiatric patients may require promotion of earlier follow-up after discharge. Improving prevention and treatment of somatic diseases of psychiatric patients is important to reduce excess mortality from natural causes.

  7. Florence Nightingale a Hundred Years on: who she was and what she was not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews Florence Nightingale's work 100 years after her death, based on surviving writing compiled for The Collected Works of Florence Nightingale. Described are her founding of a new profession for women, based on patient care, her pioneering work in statistics and data analysis and her bold reform of the workhouse infirmaries. A section on historiography focuses on the negative impact of F. B. Smith's attack on Nightingale in 1982 and Monica Baly's progressively more negative interpretations from the 1970s to her death in 1998. Note is made of future research opportunities .

  8. THE FLORENCE BAPTISTERY: 3-D SURVEY AS A KNOWLEDGE TOOL FOR HISTORICAL AND STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tucci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Baptistery of San Giovanni is one of the most important pieces of architecture in Florence. It is an octagonal building, encrusted with marble both internally and externally (including the pyramidal roof and covered inside by a magnificent dome with sparkling gold mosaics. During Dante’s time, it appeared much older than the other monuments, so its origins were considered as hailing straight from Florence’s most remote and mythical history. Even though we have much more data now, scholars still disagree over the interpretations on the origin and construction sequence of the monument. Survey has always been considered a main instrument for understanding historical architecture, mostly from constructional and structural points of view. During the last century, the Baptistery was surveyed using both traditional techniques and the most up-to-date instruments available at the time, such as topography, close-range photogrammetry and laser scanning. So, a review of those early applications, even if partial or isolated, can significantly attest to the state of the art and evolution of survey techniques. During recent years, the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore promoted new research and a wide range of diagnostic investigations aimed at acquiring greater knowledge of the monument in anticipation of the cleaning and restoration of the outer wall surfaces during 2015. Among this research, GeCo Lab carried out a new systematic and complete laser scanner survey of the whole Baptistery, acquiring data for the more inaccessible parts that were given little attention during other survey campaigns. First of all, the paper analyses recent contributions given by instrumental surveys in advancing knowledge of the building, with references to the cutting-edge techniques and measurement tools used at the time. Then, it describes the new survey campaign, illustrating the approach followed in the planning, data acquisition and data elaboration phases; finally, it

  9. Remembering Florence Nightingale's panorama: 21st-century nursing--at a critical crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Deva-Marie

    2010-12-01

    Florence Nightingale lived and worked in response to her times--yet also ahead of her time. She insisted on pursuing a career even though her wealthy family could have provided her with a lifetime of leisure. Because she was a woman, this choice to work outside her home was all the more unusual. Nightingale was also a vanguard woman because she chose nursing, a role that was considered the work of desperate, impoverished women who lived on the street like prostitutes. In addition to these unusual choices, Nightingale's career was unique beyond anyone in her time. She was one of the most prolific authors of the 19th century. In addition to being an early role model for nursing, Nightingale was also a leader in several other fields emerging in her time, including social work, statistical analysis, and print journalism. As a global thinker, Nightingale would have loved 21st century. She noted cultural, social, and economic concerns, particularly in relation to health and to the discipline of nursing. She urged nurses to progress in their practice and to think outside their official domains. She responded to the culture of the 19th century by envisioning what could be changed. Working with her talents and available resources, she evolved the health care culture of the 20th century and beyond. She called all of this work "Health-Nursing." As we remember and further study the extraordinary panorama that is our Nightingale legacy, we are creating and shaping our relevant, emerging 21st century nursing practice.

  10. Nos confins da civilização: Algumas histórias brasileiras de Hercule Florence At the edges of civilization: Some Brazilian stories, by Hercule Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Foot Hardman

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o texto Quelques anecdotes brésiliennes, redigido pelo viajante Hercule Florence entre 1829 e 1830, anexo ao relatório Continuation de l'esquisse du voyage de M. de Langsdorff... O documento foi por nós transcrito e traduzido sob o título Algumas histórias brasileiras. O manuscrito, publicado pela primeira vez aqui, é um registro de sete narrativas ouvidas provavelmente ao longo da expedição Langsdorff. Foram recolhidas, ao que consta, na tradição oral e anotadas ali como materiais específicos e passíveis de futuros estudos e pesquisas. Florence esboça a crítica da precariedade da organização da sociedade nacional nos confins da civilização, ao inaugurar-se a autonomia político-administrativa do Brasil.The article presents the text 'Quelques anecdotes brésiliennes', written between 1829 and 1830 by the voyager Hercule Florence and attached to the account entitled 'Continuation de l'esquisse du voyage de M. de Langsdorff...,'. We have transcribed and translated the text into Portuguese under the title Algumas histórias brasileiras. Published here for the first time, this manuscript offers an initial synthetic record of seven narratives most likely heard during the Langsdorff expedition. They apparently were gathered in the oral tradition. Annotated here, they may now be used in future studies and research. Florence drafts a criticism of the precarious organization of national society at the edges of civilization, at a moment when Brazil was inaugurating its political and administrative autonomy.

  11. Public health evaluation of waste management plan of urban areas of Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corti, Andrea; Lombardi, Lidia; Carpentieri, Matteo; Buiatti, Eva; Bartolacci, Simone; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Linzalone, Nunzia; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Public health evaluation impact for solid municipal waste management of Florence urban areas is considered. In this case study the evaluation step of screening show the environmental analysis of pollutants in the urban areas and epidemiologic study of exposed population in the area

  12. [Personality and work of Florence Nightingale--creator of modern nursing and public health pioneer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Dragana; Sumonja, Sanja; Maksimović, Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Through her "calling to service", Florence Nightingale worked as a nurse, manager, researcher, reformer, writer and teacher. The aim of this study is to present Florence Nightingale in all these roles, pointing out all complexity and multidimensionality of nursing profession. Having come from an aristocratic English family, Florence Nightingale was very educated She considered knowledge as a way, and statistical method as an instrument for discovering the rules of the world. Her work during the Crimean War was one of her most important deeds and made her a national hero. After the war, she devoted herself to reforming nursing and public health in Britain and in the world. Since she was bedbound after the Crimean War due to her illness, writing became the most powerful tool she had in achieving her goals. Florence Nightingale wrote many letters to politicians and statesmen, many newspaper and scientific articles. One of her greatest works "Notes on Nursing" was not written only for nurses, but for all women. By founding Nursing school at St. Thomas Hospital in 1860 she aspired to train and educate nurses. Her complete and lifelong devotion to the ,,calling" directed all her activities, contributions and achievements, not only towards nursing but also towards statistics, epidemiology, public health and social sciences.

  13. The decline of uroscopy in early modern learned medicine (1500-1650).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    From the early sixteenth century, uroscopy lost much of the great appeal it had possessed among medieval physicians. Once valued as an outstanding diagnostic tool which ensured authority and fame, it became an object of massive criticism if not derision. As this paper shows, growing awareness of theoretical inconsistencies, the new medical empiricism and humanistic opposition against Arabic and medieval predecessors can explain this drastic revaluation only in part. Uroscopy, it is argued here, came to be perceived above all as a threat to the physicians' professional authority. Faced with persistent demands that they diagnose diseases primarily if not exclusively from urine, they were left with an awkward choice. They risked making fools of themselves by blatant misdiagnosis, but if they rejected the patients' demands people would deem them incapable of a task which many of their less educated competitors were perfectly happy to perform. In the end, in spite of the physicians' massive campaign against it, uroscopy remained very much alive. On the highly competitive early modern medical market patient power had once more prevailed.

  14. Aldo Castellani, ed. Nuovi canti carnascialeschi di Firenze. Le “canzone” e mascherate di Alfonso de’ Pazzi. Firenze: Olschki Editore, 2006. Pp. 295.`(Bookreview)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Alfonso de’ Pazzi (1509-55) was one of the members of the Accademia Fiorentina and the literary scene of sixteenth-century Florence who has remained virtually neglected during the twentieth century. When scholars did refer to him, it was mainly because of his fame as a prolific writer of poems

  15. Florence Nightingale: Apontamentos sobre a fundadora da Enfermagem Moderna Florence Nightingale: Apuntes sobre la fundadora de la Enfermería Moderna Florence Nightingale: Notes on the founder of Modern Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Marlene Macário Lopes; Sandra Maria Pereira dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Avançada para a sua época, mas ao mesmo tempo conservadora, Florence Nightingale popularizou o exercício da Enfermagem, permitindo o estabelecimento de uma nova profissão para a mulher. Mulher bem formada e culta, recorreu aos seus conhecimentos e estatuto social para influenciar a política de saúde e educação, na sua época. Prestou cuidados de enfermagem aos doentes, durante a Guerra da Crimeia (1854-1856), afirmando a profissão de Enfermagem e dando início à sua caminhada para o estatuto de...

  16. Glocalization and the Marketing of Christianity in Early Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Watson Andaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of European commercial interests into Southeast Asia during the early modern period was commonly justified by the biblical injunction to spread Christian teachings, and by the “civilizing” influences it was said to foster. In focusing on areas where Christianity gained a foothold or, in the Philippines and Timor Leste, became the dominant faith, this article invokes the marketing concept of “glocalization”, frequently applied to the sociology of religion. It argues that the historical beginnings of the processes associated with the global/local interface of Christianity are situated in the sixteenth century, when Europe, Asia and the Americas were finally linked through maritime connections. Christian missionizing was undertaken with the assumption that the European-based “brand” of beliefs and practices could be successfully transported to a very different environment. However, the application of these ideas was complicated by the goal of imposing European economic control, by the local resistance thus generated, and by competition with other religions and among Christians themselves. In this often antagonistic environment, the degree to which a global product could be “repackaged” and “glocalized” so that it was appealing to consumers in different cultural environments was always constrained, even among the most sympathetic purveyors. As a result, the glocalization of Christianity set up “power-laden tensions” which both global institutions and dispersed consumers continue to negotiate.

  17. Dying with dignity in America: the transformational leadership of Florence Wald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    The aims of this study are to examine the constructs of transformational leadership as they played out for one nurse who steered significant change in the care of the dying in the United States and to provide deeper insights into how nursing leaders can design and direct meaningful changes in the delivery of health care in turbulent times. A significant problem was identified in how the terminally ill were treated in this country post World War II. The introduction of hospice care in the United States represented a paradigm shift in how the health care community viewed and treated dying patients. Critical to this transformation was the work of Florence Wald, who organized with community leaders, clergy, and other health care providers to create a vision and synergy around palliative care. She was instrumental in opening the first American hospice in 1971 in Connecticut. Within 15 years, there were more than 1,000 hospices in the United States. A single case study design was chosen for this qualitative research grounded in the theory of transformational leadership (J.M. Burns, 1978). The study used narrative inquiry to conduct an in-depth exploration of Florence Wald's transformational leadership and the perceptions of the group of founders she organized to conceptualize, build, and open the first hospice in the United States. The participants chosen for interview were involved directly in the designing, planning, and beginning of the first American hospice. In addition to the seven in-depth interviews conducted in 2007 in Connecticut, this research examined three groups of documents from The Florence and Henry Wald Archives in the Yale University Library. The findings from both interviews and the Yale Archives showed that Florence Wald based her leadership on the strong values of reverence for life and social justice for all. To direct meaningful change, Florence Wald elevated the consciousness of her hospice team by conducting a 2-year research study on the needs

  18. [Florence Nightingale and the Risorgimento: her way of thinking through her correspondence, 1837- 1872].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Anna; Lusignani, Maura

    2012-01-01

    Florence Nightingale was a great admirer of our country. She deeply loved the Italian culture, as demonstrated by her repeated trips in our country and her knowledge of the language and the ancient Roman's culture. The analysis of her letters concerning her journeys in Italy are very interesting because you can find reviews, descriptions and confirmation of her involvement in our Risorgimento, in terms of shared values and support the cause. The correspondence gives an overview of feeling and actions that it shows a sense of justice and freedom, feelings that led to a real participation, although the economic and intellectual, to the cause of the Italians insurgents. The evolution of these values in her life paint a less known side of the thoughts of Florence Nightingale, founder of the nursing profession, but also advocate for universal human rights. Even in this case, she shows the strength of character that has marked much of her work, exposing herself in support of the Risorgimento.

  19. 3122 Florence Lightcurve Analysis at Asteroids Observers (OBAS)- MPPD: 2017 Sep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Onofre; Fornas, Gonzalo; Arce, Enrique; Mas, Vicente; Carreño, Alfonso; Brines, Pedro; Fornas, Alvaro; Herrro, David; Lozano, Juan; Garcia, Faustino

    2018-04-01

    We report on the results of photometric analysis of 3122 Florence, a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) by Asteroids Observers (OBAS). This work is part of the Minor Planet Photometric Database effort that was initiated by a group of Spanish amateur astronomers. We have managed to obtain a number of accurate and complete lightcurves as well as some additional incomplete lightcurves to help analysis at future oppositions.

  20. The Crocodile Pit of Maabdeh, Florence Nightingale, and the British Museum's Acquisition of the Harris Homers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nongbri, Brent

    2017-01-01

    ’s acquisition of the manuscripts and their sale to the British Museum are murky. The earliest relevant sources, which seem to have been lost to scholarship, contradict each other as well as later accounts. This article reviews what can be known about the provenance and collection history of the manuscripts...... and introduces new evidence in the form of unpublished letters of Florence Nightingale that mention the sale of Harris’s collection of Egyptian antiquities....

  1. A statistical campaign: Florence Nightingale and Harriet Martineau’s 'England and her Soldiers'

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Veysey

    2016-01-01

    This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859) by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. Afte...

  2. The Two Nursing Disciplinary Scientific Revolutions: Florence Nightingale and Martha E. Rogers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Kan; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this essay is to share Kan Koffi's ideas about scientific revolutions in the discipline of nursing. Koffi has proposed that the works of Florence Nightingale and Martha E. Rogers represent two scientific revolutions in nursing as a learned discipline. The outcome of these two scientific revolutions is a catalyst for critical disciplinary and paradigmatic debate about the universal conceptualization of nursing's distinctive professional and scientific knowledge. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. ["The grandest hero who has ever lived": an unpublished letter written by Florence Nightingale about Garibaldi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festini, Filippo; Giusti, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    In the year of the 150th anniversary of the Unity of Italy, Italian nurses cannot forget that Florence Nightingale herself, founder of modern Nursing , was a fervid support of the Risorgimento and of Italian unity. An unpublished letter, signed by her and conserved in the State archives of Pistoia, illustrates her feelings about the process of unity under way in the country where she was born.

  4. Louise Penner, Victorian Medicine and Social Reform: Florence Nightingale among the Novelists

    OpenAIRE

    Talairach-Vielmas, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Much social activism went on in the Victorian period, and quite a few social reformers were women. These female social reformers were even fictionalized and satirized, as Mrs Jellyby in Bleak House (1854), Dickens’s obsessive philanthropist who focuses so much on Africa that she forgets to look after her house, children and husband. Florence Nightingale was one of these activists. The nurse who became famous for her involvement in the Crimean War was a highly significant Victorian public figu...

  5. Nursing in Ghana: A Search for Florence Nightingale in an African City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel; Brenya, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Nursing in Ghana is a crucial subject that permeates almost every issue in the society especially the field of hospital care. To a large extent, the frontiers of nursing have expanded since the time of Florence Nightingale. Globally some studies have been done to study nursing icons like her. The values in nursing practice however continue to preoccupy our minds. The need to accentuate the gains made by historical figures in nursing in present times as well as the nature of interactions between practitioners and patients continues to be of paramount concern to many across the globe and Ghana in particular. This study does an analysis of existing literature on Florence Nightingale and the nature of nursing in Ghana from the colonial times. Additionally, it analyzes responses concerning the activities of nurses and their interactions with patients in Kumasi. The varied information has been thematically pieced together to make inferences that are of great interest to nursing practitioners, policy makers, administrators, and educators among others. The findings to the study suggest among other things that the challenges faced by the nursing institution in modern times are similar to those of the earlier period. The study calls for the emulation of the positive ideas of Florence Nightingale to promote the interest of patients, a core objective championed by a revered nurse.

  6. Florence Nightingale: Apontamentos sobre a fundadora da Enfermagem Moderna Florence Nightingale: Apuntes sobre la fundadora de la Enfermería Moderna Florence Nightingale: Notes on the founder of Modern Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Marlene Macário Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avançada para a sua época, mas ao mesmo tempo conservadora, Florence Nightingale popularizou o exercício da Enfermagem, permitindo o estabelecimento de uma nova profissão para a mulher. Mulher bem formada e culta, recorreu aos seus conhecimentos e estatuto social para influenciar a política de saúde e educação, na sua época. Prestou cuidados de enfermagem aos doentes, durante a Guerra da Crimeia (1854-1856, afirmando a profissão de Enfermagem e dando início à sua caminhada para o estatuto de ícone e lenda. Este artigo constitui uma pequena recolha bibliográfica que pretende homenagear e dar a conhecer o percurso daquela que é considerada a fundadora da Enfermagem Moderna. Ao longo de 90 anos de vida, Florence Nightingale escreveu aproximadamente 20 mil cartas a amigos e conhecidos distinguidos e redigiu cerca de 200 obras repartidas entre livros, relatórios e panfletos que tiveram profundo impacto na saúde e na reorganização dos serviços de saúde. A sua obra foi de tal forma revolucionária e avançada que lhe permitiu um alcance mundial considerado, ainda hoje, pedra basilar na profissionalização da Enfermagem.Avanzada para su época, aunque al mismo tiempo conservadora, Florence Nightingale popularizó el ejercicio de la Enfermería, permitiendo el establecimiento de una nueva profesión para la mujer. Mujer bien formada y culta, recurrió a sus conocimientos y estatuto social para influenciar la política de salud y educación, en su época. Prestó cuidados de enfermería a enfermos, durante la Guerra de la Crimea (1854-1856, afirmando la profesión de la Enfermería y dando inicio a su recorrida hacia el estatuto de ícono y leyenda. Este artículo constituye una pequeña recolección bibliográfica que pretende homenajear y dar a conocer el trayecto de aquella que es considerada la fundadora de la Enfermería Moderna. A lo largo de 90 años de vida, Florence Nightingale escribió aproximadamente 20 mil cartas a

  7. Motorways in Metropolitan Areas: The Northwestern Growth of Florence and the Urban Use of Motorway A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Cutini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent urban growth of Florence was mainly oriented northward, thus determining the urbanization of the flatland and the inclusion within a unique conurbation of a number of pre-existing urban nuclei. Over time, the congestion of the inner core has caused more and more prominent activities to shift towards this developing area, which is today one of the most attractive parts of the whole settlement, counterbalancing the representativeness and the touristic attractiveness of the historic center of Florence. This paper is concerned with the use of space syntax in order to reconstruct the genesis of the configurational geography of Florence. Configurational values at different dates will be cross-referenced with vehicular traffic data, so as to pinpoint the actual inclusion of the motorway A1, touching Florence on its western side, within the urban grid of Florence and its influence in the distribution of local traffic flows. Aside from this case study, this method can be extended to the general issue of the management of motorways in metropolitan areas. More in general, this approach is proposed as a suitable tool for interconnecting spatial issues and traffic questions, so as to concur in bridging the gap between urban design, focused on the morphologic features of blocks and buildings, and transport analysis, strictly concerned with the distribution of movement flows on the street network.

  8. The Christianization as the strategy of resistance: the representation of indigenous Christians in the art of the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez Flores

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will discuss the importance for indigenous charged under Spanish rule, represent themselves as Christians. I will show that after the conquest was compelling acquire legitimacy as a devout Christian; for this native attended the images codices and monastic mural painting, I will relate the cultural and political contexts with information from written sources and visual sources contained in tlaxcaltecas codices and the convent wall painting.

  9. Fish abundance, fisheries, fish trade and consumption in sixteenth-century Netherlands as described by Adriaen Coenen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennema, F.P.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Concern about fisheries impact on marine ecosystems has raised the interest in the reconstruction of the state of marine ecosystems and the nature of the human activities in the past. We present late 16th century information on the occurrence and relative abundance of biota in Dutch coastal and

  10. Child of the Reformation. Protestant Spirituality, Young Adult Literature and Confessional Competition in the Late Sixteenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exalto, J.; Groenendijk, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Around 1600, Een testament ofte bekentenis van Abigael Gerbrants dochter was published. This booklet describes the pious deathbed of a young adult girl, Abigael Gerbrants (1582-1600); it was most probably written by her father, Gerbrandus Jansz (1552-1612), a minister in the Dutch Reformed church.

  11. PALEOPATHOLOGY OF PRE-COLUMBIAN MUMMIES AT THE MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY IN FLORENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzini, Andrea; Gaeta, Raffaele; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    We performed a histopathological study on the mummified tissue specimens of seven pre-Columbian mummies which arrived in Italy in the second half of the 19th century and are housed in the Section of Anthropology and Ethnology of the Museum of Natural History of the University of Florence. The results confirm that the modern techniques of pathological anatomy can be successfidly applied on mummifed tissues, so as to perform important paleopathological diagnoses. Among the results obtained from this study there is the only known complete paleopathological study of Chagas' disease (American Trypanosomiasis), comprising macroscopic, microscopic and ultrastructural data, as well as information on atherosclerosis, anthracosis, emphysema and pneumonia.

  12. Remigio de’ Girolami in Dante’s Florence (1293-1302

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    Delphine Carron

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution compares the political engagement of the Dominican Remigio de’ Girolami and Dante Alighieri between 1293 and 1302, concentrating on Remigio. After presenting the political orientations of his original milieu, it examines his participation in Forentine political life in the years 1293-1301, then describes his attitude after the victory of the Black Guelphs in 1302, and finally, compares the political career of Remigio to Dante’s. These parallel lives illuminate certain points of contacts between these two personalities as well as their reactions to the ban of the White Guelphs from Florence.

  13. Una mirada actual del modelo ecológico de Florence Nightingale

    OpenAIRE

    Germán-Bes, Concepción

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La celebración del centenario de Florence Nightingale y la iniciativa de la Fundación Index de la lectura continuada en voz alta, nos ha permitido reflexionar en la obra “Notas de Enfermería”, cuyo objetivo se ha centrado en los contenidos ecológicos de la misma. Método: Realizamos un “análisis de contenido” del texto buscando lo ecológico y ambiental y se han contrastado con las posibles influencias o concordancia con autores de su época y con lo que son hoy los conceptos de sa...

  14. Florence Nightingale: light to illuminate the world from the woman with the lantern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Gulten; Naderi, Sait; Kanpolat, Yücel

    2013-01-01

    The Ottoman-Russian war of 1853 to 1855 was significant not only as a war, but also in response to a reflex from the West brought with itself novel approaches related to care of patients under severe health conditions. Florence Nightingale and her associates assigned at that time to care for soldiers in Istanbul who were severely ailing as a result of battle conditions were instrumental in the emergence of a hitherto unknown profession. This article examines the progress of events in the London-Istanbul axis that led to this development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), a 101 años de su fallecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Young,Pablo; Hortis De Smith,Verónica; Chambi,María C; Finn,Bárbara C

    2011-01-01

    We herein describe Florence Nightingale's life and work. She is considered one of the pioneers in nursing practice. Her greatest success was during the Crimean war when, along with 38 voluntary nurses, she cleaned and refurbished the hospital in Scutari and reduced the mortality rate from 40 to 2%. She used to make rounds at night in the wards under the light of a lamp, and therefore she was named "The Lady with the Lamp". Queen Victory gave her the Royal Red Cross and she was the first woman...

  16. Environmental ozone exposure and oxidative DNA damage in adult residents of Florence, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palli, Domenico, E-mail: d.palli@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Sera, Francesco, E-mail: f.sera@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Giovannelli, Lisa, E-mail: lisag@pharm.unifi.i [Department of Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale G.Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Masala, Giovanna, E-mail: g.masala@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Grechi, Daniele [Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany (ARPAT), Via Porpora 22, 50144 Florence (Italy); Bendinelli, Benedetta, E-mail: b.bendinelli@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Caini, Saverio, E-mail: s.caini@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Dolara, Piero, E-mail: piero.dolara@unifi.i [Department of Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale G.Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Saieva, Calogero, E-mail: c.saieva@ispo.toscana.i [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO), Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    In 71 adults residing in Florence, Italy, enrolled in a prospective study, we investigated the correlation between individual levels of oxidative DNA damage detected by the Comet assay in circulating lymphocytes, and a specific ozone exposure score calculated in 10 different time-windows (0-5 to 0-90 days) before blood drawing, based on daily measurements provided by the local environmental monitoring system. Overall, statistically significant positive correlations between average ozone concentrations and DNA damage emerged in almost all time-windows considered; correlations were more evident among males, non-smokers, and traffic-exposed workers. Multivariate regression analyses taking into account selected individual characteristics, showed an independent effect on DNA damage of average ozone concentrations in the last 60-90 days before blood drawing. Local residents showed a divergent pattern with correlations restricted to shorter time-windows. Our results suggest that ozone concentrations at ground levels modulate oxidative DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes of residents of polluted areas. - Ozone concentrations over the 60-90 days before blood drawing correlated with DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes of adults living in the metropolitan area of Florence, Italy.

  17. The contribution of the Florence Laboratory to the foundation of "scientific" psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Gabriella

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the history of Italian psychology have thoroughly and somewhat systematically analysed the particular characteristics and principal themes that distinguished this discipline in the period between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. With regard to the affirmation of a "scientific" psychology in Italy, these studies have emphasized the importance of the research conducted at the University of Florence in the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, founded in 1903 by Francesco De Sarlo. The results of the activity carried out in this laboratory are collected in the two volumes of Ricerche di Psicologia, published in 1905 and 1907. An analysis of these works clarifies the way in which De Sarlo and his collaborators intervened directly in the experimental activity. Various types of experimentation were conducted in the laboratory, such as those on the measurement of sensations and perceptions. The psychologists made use of adequate instruments, which they themselves often prepared or modified, without however neglecting an attentive survey of the states of consciousness. On the basis of a methodological approach that reconciles the accuracy of the measurements with the verification of the internal dimensions of the mental processes of the subjects undergoing the experimentation, the research carried out in the Florence Laboratory contributes to characterising, in an original way, the foundation of "scientific" psychology in Italy. In particular, by means of the publication of the results of this laboratory's research activity, Italian psychology acquired a new impulse to assert itself as an autonomous science and to promote its accreditation on an institutional level.

  18. Environmental ozone exposure and oxidative DNA damage in adult residents of Florence, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palli, Domenico; Sera, Francesco; Giovannelli, Lisa; Masala, Giovanna; Grechi, Daniele; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Caini, Saverio; Dolara, Piero; Saieva, Calogero

    2009-01-01

    In 71 adults residing in Florence, Italy, enrolled in a prospective study, we investigated the correlation between individual levels of oxidative DNA damage detected by the Comet assay in circulating lymphocytes, and a specific ozone exposure score calculated in 10 different time-windows (0-5 to 0-90 days) before blood drawing, based on daily measurements provided by the local environmental monitoring system. Overall, statistically significant positive correlations between average ozone concentrations and DNA damage emerged in almost all time-windows considered; correlations were more evident among males, non-smokers, and traffic-exposed workers. Multivariate regression analyses taking into account selected individual characteristics, showed an independent effect on DNA damage of average ozone concentrations in the last 60-90 days before blood drawing. Local residents showed a divergent pattern with correlations restricted to shorter time-windows. Our results suggest that ozone concentrations at ground levels modulate oxidative DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes of residents of polluted areas. - Ozone concentrations over the 60-90 days before blood drawing correlated with DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes of adults living in the metropolitan area of Florence, Italy.

  19. Teoria Ambientalista de Florence Nightingale: Uma Análise Crítica

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    Ana Beatriz de Almeida Medeiros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoObjetivo:Analisar a teoria ambientalista de Florence Nightingale com base no modelo proposto por Johnson e Webber.Métodos:Estudo teórico e reflexivo realizado nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 2012. Análise da teoria com base em oito critérios: significado, limites, linguagem, conceitos, formulação de proposições, variáveis e hipóteses, conhecimento teórico ajuda a explanar e predizer o fenômeno e conhecimento teórico influencia a prática de enfermagem.Resultados:A teoria apresenta: clareza de significado de ideias, limites claros, nível de compreensão acima de 90%, os principais conceitos, proposições formuladas com base nos conceitos, variáveis e hipóteses que ajudam a entender e interpretar proposições, influência na prática da enfermagem.Conclusão:Conclui-se que a teoria ambientalista de Florence Nightingale possui conceitos que servem de parâmetro na atualidade, sendo a sua relevância considerada um marco na história da enfermagem.

  20. Assessment of Urban Renenewal Studies in the Context of Florence's Old Industrial Sites

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    Elif Özlem Aydın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the periphery of the historic city center of Florence, which is a settlement in Middle Italy, considered the symbol of Renaissance period train stations, small scale industrial structures were built under the influence of spread of industrialization in Continental Europe in the 19th century. Industrial buildings whose original functions are being lost nowadays are restricted to examples which started being built in the 18 th century, however, shaped in the 19 th century and were being able to brought until today with the increased industrialization activities in the first half of the 20 th century. The necessity of developing new thoughts aiming to revitalize areas around the city center and to reshape Florence, which witnessed a segmented growth due to increased industrialization in the first half of 20 th century, according to urban planning principles from 1990's onwards has been realized. Within the scope of integrated planning developed in the recent years, old industrial areas located in the historical city center peripheries whose functions have been lost are determined as urban renovation sites. In this study, Old Leopolda Train Station, Fiat Belfiore and Fiat Novoli factory sites as well as renovation/transformation work executed in old slaughter house sites, located in the west border of historical city center of Florence, have been studied with the help of technical surveys, personal interviews or published projects. Two approaches have been encountered when urban renovation projects executed in these areas where mixed-use strategies are adopted are examined. These are:  Preservation of some of the historical structures in the area, and demolition of some to create areas for new uses,  Demolition of all structures in the site to create areas for new uses. Not encountered in Florence, but there also exist renovation examples where almost all structures in the area are preserved. The results of research and observations have

  1. Educational Documentation: Present and Future. Proceedings of an International Meeting (Florence, Italy, May 31-June 4, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biblioteca di Documentazione Pedagogica, Florence (Italy).

    The Library of Educational Documentation in Florence, Italy began work in 1980 on the establishment of an educational documentation system for Italy. Recognition of its role in this regard was accorded by the Regional Institutes for Educational Research, Innovation and Teacher Training (IRRSAE) and by the European Centre for Education (CEDE) in…

  2. The Florence Bird Lecture: "From Strength to Strength: The Interrelated Rights of Women and Children over the Life Cycle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Landon

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's Florence Bird lecture, which was delivered at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada on International Women's Day, March 8, 2012. In the lecture, the author focuses on the interrelated rights of women and children over the life cycle. The author explores this linkage and offers a caveat. The author shares a…

  3. Florence Nightingale som symbolsk overgangsfigur i lærebøger for sygeplejersker - et lille stykke sygeplejehistorie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emmy Brandt

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen er et lille indlæg om, hvordan man har anvendt Florence Nightingale i danske lærebøger for sygeplejersker som en legitimeringsfigur i forbindelse med forandringer inden for det danske hospitalsvæsen. Perioden, der behandles, er tiden før og efter skiftet til den kliniske medicin i Danmark...

  4. Economic burden of Clostridium difficile in five hospitals of the Florence health care system in Italy

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    Poli A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anna Poli,1 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Giacomo M Bruno,2 Enrica Fornai,1 Maria Chiara Valentino,2 Giorgio L Colombo2,31Vigilanza e Controllo Infezioni Correlate all'Assistenza, Ospedale Piero Palagi, Azienda Sanitaria di Firenze, Firenze, Italy; 2SAVE Studi – Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, ItalyIntroduction: Despite the awareness about the increasing rates of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI and the economic burden arising from its management (prolonged hospitalization, laboratory tests, visits, surgical treatment, environmental sanitation, few studies are available in Italy on the economic costs directly attributable to the CDI. The Florence health care system has designed a study with the aim of describing the costs attributable to the CDI and defines the incremental economic burden associated with the management of this complication.Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in five hospitals of the Florence health care system. The enrolled population included all patients who were hospitalized during the year 2013 with a diagnosis of CDI. Of the 187 total cases reported in 2013, 69 patients were enrolled, for whom the main cause of hospitalization was directly attributable to CDI.Results: We enrolled 69 patients (19 males and 50 females, with a mean age of 82.16 years (minimum 46 to maximum 98. The total number of hospitalization days observed was 886 (12.8 per patient on average. The data from this study show that the mean total incremental cost for a patient with CDI was €3,270.52 per year. The hospital stay length is the most significant cost parameter, having the largest influence on the overall costs, with an impact of 87% on the total cost. The results confirm the costs for the management of CDI in five hospitals of the Florence health care system are in line with data from the international literature.Conclusion: The economic impact of CDI is most

  5. Edith (1869-1938) and Florence (1870-1932) Stoney, two Irish sisters and their contribution to radiology during the World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Jean M

    2013-05-01

    Edith and Florence Stoney, two sisters born in Dublin and working in London, responded to the summons of suffragists and offered themselves for medical service in World War I. Each had a strong scientific background and experience that they were able to use in setting up and running radiological services in Belgium, France, Serbia and Macedonia. The British War Office was reluctant to employ women doctors but the work Florence and her colleagues achieved persuaded Sir Alfred Keogh that Florence should be the first woman doctor to be employed in a military hospital in England.

  6. A Lady 'in Proper Proportions'? Feminism, Lytton Strachey, and Florence Nightingale's Reputation, 1918-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, James

    2017-03-01

    Lytton Strachey's Eminent Victorians has long been regarded as a watershed in attitudes to Victorian culture, widely seen as having instigated a revolutionary backlash against the values and heroes of the Victorian era in England. Its impact, however, on the reputations of his four subjects-Thomas Arnold, General Gordon, Cardinal Manning and Florence Nightingale-has been subjected to surprisingly little scholarly attention. Drawing on the work of gender historians, this article reassesses Strachey's effect on the reputation of Nightingale, using biographies and contemporary reviews of Eminent Victorians. It argues that, far from 'debunking' the famous nurse as is generally assumed, Strachey in many ways enhanced her reputation and rendered her a plausible icon for English feminists of the 1920s and 1930s. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. European Cosmoscapes. The case of the Festival of Europe in Florence

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    Dario Verderame

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to offer an empirical contribution to the understanding of cosmopolita-nization processes, centred on Europe. Specifically, the subject of my study is the Festival of Europe, an event dedicated to European themes that is held every two years in the city of Florence (Italy. By means of this case study I intend to analyse those elements that enable or constrain the formation of a European cosmopolitan imaginary within a concrete situational context. This analysis will also permit the formulation of some observations with regard to the role that such organizational and social forms – festivals – can play in the construction of a cosmopolitan social space.

  8. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness: the Case Study of Florence

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    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several urban contexts, the definition of a new development process is arising and it is focused on the use and the application of new technologies in different areas of the urban system. Such new development process is aimed at increasing life quality and local communities wellness and at promoting the creation of a more efficient and more sustainable urban system, as well as at making it more competitive. The issue of the reorganization of metropolitan areas is combined with such process, following the recent approval of the Delrio Law that establishes the Metropolitan City in Italy, as government authority of the metropolitan areas. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness are the three topics of this paper, which aim is the description of the most innovative politics and initiatives adopted in the Metropolitan City of Florence that is proposed as a case study where such topics are combined.

  9. The virtues in the moral education of nurses: Florence Nightingale revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, D

    1997-01-01

    The virtues have been a neglected aspect of morality; only recently has reference been made to their place in professional ethics. Unfashionable as Florence Nightingale is, it is nonetheless worth noting that she was instrumental in continuing the Aristotelian tradition of being concerned with the moral character of persons. Nurses who came under Nightingale's sphere of influence were expected to develop certain exemplary habits of behaviour. A corollary can be drawn with the current UK professional body: nurses are expected to behave in certain ways and to display particular kinds of disposition. The difference lies in the fact that, while Nightingale was clear about the need for moral education, current emphasis is placed on ethical theory and ethical decision-making.

  10. Lights in the shadows: Florence Nightingale and others who made their mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, David

    2007-02-01

    Florence Nightingale, the 'lady with the lamp' became the image of 'heroic womanhood' (Bostridge 2004) when she returned from the Crimean War an iconic figure and ever since she has remained fated to wear the mantel of nursings' leading light. But she wasn't the only woman who made their mark or who undertook to risk their live caring for the sick and injured, wounded and dying in the Crimea. Sadly, Nightingale's iconic status has also succeeded in overshadowing the existence and the achievements of the many others who nursed during the Crimean war. These women, nuns, ordinary nurses, lady volunteers and others, working in Nightingale's shadow, contributed much to the comforts of the wounded and dying and this article seeks to illuminate their presence and contribution. It also highlights other aspects of Nightingale's work and in doing so, allows us to look into the shadows and shed more light on the others who were also there.

  11. Evidence-based medicine and hospital reform: tracing origins back to Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Maya; Chung, Kevin C

    2010-01-01

    The use of reliable evidence to evaluate health care interventions has gained strong support within the medical community and in the field of plastic surgery in particular. Evidence-based medicine aims to improve health care and reduce costs through the use of sound clinical evidence in evaluating treatments, procedures, and outcomes. The field is hardly new, however, and most trace its origins back to the work of Cochrane in the 1970s and Sackett in the 1990s. Though she wouldn't know it, Florence Nightingale was applying the concepts of evidence-based reform to the medical profession more than a century before. She used medical statistics to reveal the nature of infection in hospitals and on the battlefield. Moreover, Nightingale marshaled data and evidence to establish guidelines for health care reform. Tracing the origins of evidence-based medicine back to Nightingale underscores how critical this movement is to improving the quality and effectiveness of patient care today.

  12. Florence Nightingale: the evolution and social impact of feminist values in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C

    2010-03-01

    Although generally recognized as the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale has been criticized for her apparent lack of support of women's issues, including suffrage. This article examines the primary and supporting literature surrounding this topic. Findings indicate that Nightingale developed a complex set of beliefs that supported women as individuals rather than from a gender perspective. She did, in fact, support the concept of women's suffrage but did not give it priority. Victorian women suffered from lack of legal status, education, financial independence, and support from either the family or church as social institutions. Therefore, Nightingale's conception of nursing as a secular, educated profession cannot be overemphasized as a benchmark in the developing importance of women in the social system.

  13. An exploration of the nature of caring relationships in the writings of Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Debra J; Whaite, Bonnie

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, historical field study was to identify the nature and attributes of caring relationships as depicted in the writings of Florence Nightingale. Latent content analysis was the methodology used for the discovery and analysis of words, ideas, and themes from selected Nightingale works. Five themes were identified that represented a caring relationship: attend to, attention to, nurture, competent, and genuine. These themes are congruent with Nightingale's threefold concept of nursing. Watson's carative factors were used to cross-validate the results. The findings of this study indicate that the phenomenon of caring relationships in nursing has been a part of our professional language since Victorian times. Historical research provides a sense of connectedness to nursing's past and contributes to the ongoing education of nurses and further development of the nursing profession.

  14. [Socio-economic determinants of cancer survival in the municipality of Florence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco; Marchi, Marco; Caldarella, Adele; Corbinelli, Antonella; Giusti, Francesco; Intrieri, Teresa; Manneschi, Gianfranco; Nemcova, Libuse; Sacchettini, Claudio; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate cancer survival in patients resident in the municipality of Florence according to different deprivation levels. We used data from the Tuscan Cancer Registry and data from the national census 2001. We used a deprivation index, measured as a continue variable, classified in tertiles according to the distribution of the resident population. We compared more deprived patients (category 3) vs less deprived ones (category 1-2). 10-year relative survival has been computed for patients diagnosed with 27 different cancer sites during 1997-2002, for different deprivation categories. Cancer sites were split into three groups of the same dimension, on the basis of 10-year survival (bad, intermediate and good prognosis). For each category the relative excess risk of death (RER) for most deprived patients has been computed using a Generalized Liner Model. We evaluated also the effect of marital status, classified as married and non-married. We analysed 14 549 invasive cancer cases (out of skin epithelioma). Overall bad prognosis cancers did not show any RER of dying for most deprived patients. For intermediate prognosis cancers RER was 1.13 (1.02 ; 1.24). A excess occurs in the most disadvantaged tertile for tumors diagnosed under 50 years. For good prognosis cancers the RER was 1.06 (0.89 ; 1.26). We found a relative excess of mortality for non-married vs married. In the area of Florence there is an effect of deprivation level of survival for median-better prognosis cancers, for tumours diagnosed under 50 years and for unmarried people compared to unmarried ones.

  15. Aplicación de la teoría de Florence Nightingale a un anciano con asma bronquial Application of Florence Nightingale’s theory to an old patient suffering from bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kety Bernardes Carballo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En la historia de la Enfermería, existieron grandes teóricas que aportaron fundamentos para la atención de enfermería a los pacientes con enfermedades crónicas, donde un entorno desfavorable puede constituir un factor de riesgo para desencadenar una crisis de la enfermedad; esto fue descrito por la teoría de Florence Nightingale, que reconocía especial interés al entorno como factor esencial para la salud de las personas. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, con el objetivo de relacionar la teoría de Florence Nightingale a una situación de caso real de un adulto mayor asmático, perteneciente al consultorio #1 del Policlínico Universitario "Pedro Borrás Astorga" de Pinar del Río en enero de 2012. La información fue obtenida a través de la visita domiciliaria. Se interrogó a la paciente, estudió su historia clínica, y realizó un estudio del epistolario de Nightingale, así como han sido revisadas fuentes secundarias de teóricas más recientes, quienes han desarrollado sus propias teorías y modelos a partir de la lógica del pensamiento nightingaleano. En el hogar del paciente se observaron algunas alteraciones del entorno, que fueron identificadas por Florence Nightingale como elementos que inciden en la salud del individuo. Se brindó una educación para la salud a la paciente asmática en aras de mejorar las condiciones ambientales para de esta forma evitar la aparición de próximas crisis de su enfermedad de base.In the history of nursing specialty existed a great number of theories that contributed to the new basics of the nursing care in patients suffering from chronic diseases, where unfavorable environments can constitute a risk factor that can trigger for a disease worsening; this was described by the theory of Florence Nightingale, who recognized the special significance of the environment as an essential factor influencing on people’s health. A descriptive study aimed at relating the theory of Florence Nightingale

  16. Florence Richardson Wyckoff (1905-1997), Fifty Years of Grassroots Social ActivismVolume III: Watsonville Years 1960-1985

    OpenAIRE

    Wyckoff, Florence Richardson; Jarrell, Randall

    1990-01-01

    Florence Wyckoff's three-volume oral history documents her remarkable, lifelong work as a social activist, during which she has become nationally recognized as an advocate of migrant families and children. From the depression years through the 1970s, she pursued grassroots, democratic, community-building efforts in the service of improving public health standards and providing health care, education, and housing for migrant families. Major legislative milestones in her career of advocacy were...

  17. From Odessa to Florence: Elena Comparetti Raffalovich. A Jewish Russian Woman in Nineteenth-Century Italy

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    Asher Salah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century, Italy held a strong appeal for Russian travelers. Several of these Russian émigrés were women of Jewish lineage, who had come with their families or were sent abroad on their own in order to complete their education at one of the newborn kingdom’s prestigious universities. Elena Raffalovich (Odessa 1842 – Florence 1918 is one of the earliest and most intriguing examples of this phenomenon. While her intellectual trajectory, as a pioneer in children’s education and an advocate of women’s rights, is representative of that of many other Russian Jewish women living in Italy at that time, it also challenges a number of historiographic commonplaces about Jewish women and their emancipation process in nineteenth-century Europe. Moreover, through the archives of different prominent members of the Raffalovich dynasty, it is possible to follow its vicissitudes over at least five generations, completing our knowledge of Elena’s biography and reassessing the importance of her intellectual contribution to Italian culture.

  18. Statistical laws in urban mobility from microscopic GPS data in the area of Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzani, Armando; Giorgini, Bruno; Rambaldi, Sandro; Gallotti, Riccardo; Giovannini, Luca

    2010-01-01

    The application of Statistical Physics to social systems is mainly related to the search for macroscopic laws that can be derived from experimental data averaged in time or space, assuming the system in a steady state. One of the major goals would be to find a connection between the statistical laws and the microscopic properties: for example, to understand the nature of the microscopic interactions or to point out the existence of interaction networks. Probability theory suggests the existence of a few classes of stationary distributions in the thermodynamics limit, so that the question is if a statistical physics approach could be able to enroll the complex nature of the social systems. We have analyzed a large GPS database for single-vehicle mobility in the Florence urban area, obtaining statistical laws for path lengths, for activity downtimes and for activity degrees. We show also that simple generic assumptions on the microscopic behavior could explain the existence of stationary macroscopic laws, with a universal function describing the distribution. Our conclusion is that understanding the system complexity requires a dynamical database for the microscopic evolution, which allows us to solve both small space and time scales in order to study the transients

  19. Flood risk and cultural heritage: the case study of Florence (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Cultural heritage plays a key role for communities in terms of both identity and economic value. It is often under serious threat by natural hazards, nevertheless, quantitative assessments of risk are quite uncommon. This work addresses the flood risk assessment to cultural heritage in an exemplary art city, which is Florence, Italy. The risk assessment method here adopted borrows the most common definition of flood risk as the product of hazard, vulnerability and exposure, with some necessary adjustments. The risk estimation is carried out at the building scale for the whole UNESCO site, which coincides with the historical centre of the city. A distinction in macro- and micro-damage categories has been made according to the vulnerability of the objects at risk. Two damage macro-categories are selected namely cultural buildings and contents. Cultural buildings are classified in damage micro-categories as churches/religious complexes, libraries/archives and museums. The damages to the contents are estimated for four micro-categories: paintings, sculptures, books/prints and goldsmith's art. Data from hydraulic simulations for different recurrence scenarios, historical reports of the devastating 1966 flood and the cultural heritage recognition sheets allow estimating and mapping the annual expected number of works of art lost in absence of risk mitigation strategies.

  20. A statistical campaign: Florence Nightingale and Harriet Martineau’s 'England and her Soldiers'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Veysey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859 by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. After the war, she launched a campaign to convince the British government to make permanent reforms to military healthcare, compiling a dataset on mortality in the Crimea. She worked with the government’s Royal Commission investigating healthcare during the war, but also worked privately with Martineau to publicise her findings. Martineau and Nightingale grasped that the lay reader was more receptive to statistical information in a literary format than in dense statistical reports. As such, Nightingale’s data was interwoven with Martineau’s text. The pair illustrated their book with Nightingale’s ‘Rose Diagram’, a statistical graphic which simply illustrated the rate of mortality.

  1. Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole: which is the forgotten hero of health care and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, L

    2014-02-01

    This paper aims at correcting misinformation in circulation portraying Mary Seacole as a nurse, Crimean War heroine, and health care pioneer, even, for some, a replacement for Florence Nightingale, who really was a health care pioneer as well as being the major founder of the modern profession of nursing. The article focuses on the claims for Seacole made by C. Short in Scottish Medical Journal, 2011. It reports, using primary sources, on what Seacole actually did--running a business for officers, with kind acts on the side--short of constituting heroism, pioneering health care or nursing. The article concludes with remarks on how Nightingale came to be forgotten as a health care pioneer, with comments on the two major sources that attacked her reputation, F.B. Smith in 1982, and Hugh Small in 1998. Detailed refutations in peer-reviewed sources are referenced. Finally, it is suggested that recent scandals in English hospital care, documented in the Francis Report, may provoke a revival of interest in Nightingale's principles and methods.

  2. Continuous monitoring of sediment and nutrients in the Illinois River at Florence, Illinois, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrio, Paul J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Domanski, Marian M.; Siudyla, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    The Illinois River is the largest river in Illinois and is the primary contributing watershed for nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended-sediment loading to the upper Mississippi River from Illinois. In addition to streamflow, the following water-quality constituents were monitored at the Illinois River at Florence, Illinois (U.S. Geological Survey station number 05586300), during May 2012–October 2013: phosphate, nitrate, turbidity, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen. The objectives of this monitoring were to (1) determine performance capabilities of the in-situ instruments; (2) collect continuous data that would provide an improved understanding of constituent characteristics during normal, low-, and high-flow periods and during different climatic and land-use seasons; (3) evaluate the ability to use continuous turbidity as a surrogate constituent to determine suspended-sediment concentrations; and (4) evaluate the ability to develop a regression model for total phosphorus using phosphate, turbidity, and other measured parameters. Reliable data collection was achieved, following some initial periods of instrument and data-communication difficulties. The resulting regression models for suspended sediment had coefficient of determination (R2) values of about 0.9. Nitrate plus nitrite loads computed using continuous data were found to be approximately 8 percent larger than loads computed using traditional discrete-sampling based models. A regression model for total phosphorus was developed by using historic orthophosphate data (important during periods of low flow and low concentrations) and historic suspended-sediment data (important during periods of high flow and higher concentrations). The R2of the total phosphorus regression model using orthophosphorus and suspended sediment was 0.8. Data collection and refinement of the regression models is ongoing.

  3. RICKETS AT THE MEDICI COURT OF FLORENCE: THE CASE OF DON FILIPPINO (1577-1582).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Maura; Giuffra, Valentina; Fattori, Silvia; Vitiello, Angelica; Caramella, Davide; Giustini, Davide; Fornaciari, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Among the children found in the crypt of the Grand Duke Giangastone in S. Lorenzo Basilica (Florence), the skeletal remains of a 5-year-old child still wearing his fine high social status clothing were recovered. This child of the Medici family was identified as Don Filippino (1577-1582), son of the Grand Duke Francesco I (1541-1587) and Giovanna from Austria (1547 - 1578). The prince showed several pathological deformities of the cranial and post-cranial skeleton, including enlargement of the cranium, thinning of the cranial vault bones (craniotabes), platybasia and marked bending of femora, tibiae and fibulae. Differential diagnosis suggests that Don Filippino was affected by rickets. The occurrence of this metabolic disease related to vitamin D deficiency in a Renaissance high social class individual can be explained by the practice of very prolonged breast-feeding, up until two years of age. Maternal milk contains insufficient vitamin D ratios and retarded weaning severely exposes children to a higher risk of developing rickets, especially if dietary habits are combined with inadequate exposure to sunlight. Historical sources describe Don Filippino as frail and sickly, with frequent illnesses and persistent slight fevers, and it can be supposed that the child was frequently confined indoors, especially in the cold season. Integration of osteoarchaeological evidence with historical documentation suggests that bone lesions observed in the skeletal remains of Don Filippino are compatible with a diagnosis of rickets, caused by the custom of prolonged breast-feeding associated with inadequate sunlight exposure to sunlight. Historical sources describe Don Filippino as frail and sickly, with frequent illnesses and persistent slight fevers, and it can be supposed that the child was frequently confined indoors, especially in the cold season. Integration of osteoarchaeological evidence with historical documentation suggests that bone lesions observed in the skeletal

  4. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Masala

    Full Text Available A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83% and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories with those with low MBD (N1+P1 through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048 while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further

  5. [Use of seat belts and mobile phone while driving in Florence: trend from 2005 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, Chiara; Pellegrino, Elettra; Mannocci, Federico; Allodi, Guendalina; Indiani, Laura; Mersi, Anna; Petrioli, Giuseppe; Santini, Maria Grazia; Garofalo, Giorgio; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the trend over time of the use of seat belts by drivers and passengers of cars and vans and the use of hand held mobile phone while driving in Florence from 2005 to 2009. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: direct observations (58,773 vehicles) have been conducted to detect the use of seat belts by occupants of cars and vans, and the use of mobile phone while driving. It has been carried out correlation analysis between the use of the seat belt by occupants of vehicles and between the simultaneous use of this device and mobile phone while driving.Moreover, it has been carried out time series analysis (ARIMA Box Jenkins) of in the prevalence of the use of seat belts by occupants of vehicles observed, of mobile phone by drivers and the trend of the risk to drive using the mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to drive using the mobile phone with fastened seat belt. seat belts were used on average by 75.7% of drivers, 75.5% of front passengers and 25.1% of rear passengers. The average mobile phone use while driving was 4.5%. Drivers most frequently fasten seat belt if front passengers use it and while they do not use mobile phone. The use of seat belts by drivers and front passengers has not changed over time, whereas the use of mobile phone while driving has significantly increased. The prevalence of using mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to use it with fastened seat belt while driving has significantly decreased over the years, indicating an increase in the use of mobile phone, especially among those who fasten the seat belt. it is necessary to plan and realize stronger interventions in the whole area.

  6. Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes and source partitioning in urban areas: The case study of Florence, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gioli, B.; Toscano, P.; Lugato, E.; Matese, A.; Miglietta, F.; Zaldei, A.; Vaccari, F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term fluxes of CO 2 , and combined short-term fluxes of CH 4 and CO 2 were measured with the eddy covariance technique in the city centre of Florence. CO 2 long-term weekly fluxes exhibit a high seasonality, ranging from 39 to 172% of the mean annual value in summer and winter respectively, while CH 4 fluxes are relevant and don’t exhibit temporal variability. Contribution of road traffic and domestic heating has been estimated through multi-regression models combined with inventorial traffic and CH 4 consumption data, revealing that heating accounts for more than 80% of observed CO 2 fluxes. Those two components are instead responsible for only 14% of observed CH 4 fluxes, while the major residual part is likely dominated by gas network leakages. CH 4 fluxes expressed as CO 2 equivalent represent about 8% of CO 2 emissions, ranging from 16% in summer to 4% in winter, and cannot therefore be neglected when assessing greenhouse impact of cities. - Highlights: ► CH 4 and CO 2 fluxes were measured with eddy covariance in Florence city centre. ► CO 2 fluxes are dominated by winter time domestic heating combustion. ► Natural gas network leakages are responsible for 85% of observed methane emissions. ► Greenhouse impact of CH 4 accounts for 8% of CO 2 emissions. - GHG flux measurements in Florence city revealed that domestic heating and gas network leakages are the predominant contributions to CO 2 and CH 4 emissions, respectively.

  7. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel [Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell.] against foodborne microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Bülent; Ozer, Hakan; Cakir, Ahmet; Polat, Taşkin; Dursun, Atilla; Mete, Ebru; Oztürk, Erdoğan; Ekinci, Melek

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical compositions of the essential oil and hexane extract isolated from the inflorescence, leaf stems, and aerial parts of Florence fennel and the antimicrobial activities of the essential oil, hexane extract, and their major component, anethole, against a large variety of foodborne microorganisms. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the essential oils obtained from inflorescence, leaf stems, and whole aerial parts contained (E)-anethole (59.28-71.69%), limonene (8.30-10.73%), apiole (trace to 9.23%), beta-fenchyl acetate (3.02-4.80%), and perillene (2.16-3.29%) as the main components. Likewise, the hexane extract of the plant sample exhibited a similar chemical composition, and it contained (E)-anethole (53.00%), limonene (27.16%), gamma-terpinene (4.09%), and perillene (3.78%). However, the hexane extract also contained less volatile components such as n-hexadecanoic acid (1.62%), methyl palmitate (1.17%), and linoleic acid (1.15%). The in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that the essential oil, anethole, and hexane extract were effective against most of the foodborne pathogenic, saprophytic, probiotic, and mycotoxigenic microorganisms tested. The results of the present study revealed that (E)-anethole, the main component of Florence fennel essential oil, is responsible for the antimicrobial activity and that the essential oils as well as the hexane extract can be used as a food preservative. This study is the first report showing the antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel against probiotic bacteria.

  8. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) and Sir John Forbes (1787-1861): neighbours in Old Burlington Street, Westminster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Robin

    2015-05-01

    The year 2010 marks the centenary of the birth of Florence Nightingale and will, no doubt, be universally remembered. Her life and nursing career have recently been fully described by Bostridge. It is less well known that her neighbour from November 1856 was the distinguished Scottish physician Sir John Forbes MD Edin FRCP Lond FRS DCL Oxon. Although they never met, they exchanged copies of each other's books and shared a mutual respect. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Florence Nightingale y Federico Rubio: reformadores de la Enfermería moderna española

    OpenAIRE

    Santainés Borredá, Elena; Faus Gabandé, Francisco; Camaño Puig, Ramón; Sarturi, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    En diferentes bases de datos aparecen publicaciones donde se menciona al cirujano Federico Rubio en relación con la enfermera Florence Nightingale, otorgándole un protagonismo en la enfermería moderna española. Mediante este trabajo proponemos analizar la influencia que Nightingale pudo haber tenido en Rubio. Partiendo de la vida y obra del fundador de la Escuela de Enfermeras de Santa Isabel de Hungría, valoraremos las coincidencias temporo-espaciales con la Dama de la Lámpara. Nuestros obje...

  10. Poison, Pregnancy and Protestants: Gossip and Scandal at the Early Modern French Court

    OpenAIRE

    McIlvenna, Una

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the scandalous case of Isabelle de Limeuil, a lady-in-waiting to the sixteenth century French queen mother Catherine de Medici, whose notorious affair with the Protestant Louis de Bourbon, prince of Condé, illegitimate pregnancy, public birth and subsequent imprisonment for attempted poisoning was the stuff of gossip at courts across Europe. Given the multiplicity of scandalous factors in this case, and the historical contingency of many of those factors, the story of Is...

  11. Poder vital e o legado de florence nightingale no processo saúdedoença: revisão integrativa The vital power and the legacy of florence nightingale in the health-disease process: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Aparecida Rocha Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:.Caracterizar as evidências científicas nacionais dos últimos dez anos sobre Florence Nightingale e o poder vital e sua aplicabilidade na enfermagem, além de identificar os conceitos sobre poder vital. Método:.Revisão integrativa da literatura de artigos nacionais completos, por meio de quatro bases de dados. Foram selecionados sete artigos após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Da análise surgiram os temas sobre o legado de Florence e a ação do meio ambiente interno e externo sobre o poder vital. Resultados:.A maioria dos estudos focou o ambiente de inserção do indivíduo como fortalecer do poder vital e esta classificada como força interior. Conclusão:.Os profissionais de enfermagem ocupam um papel imprescindível na observação em manter o ambiente onde o paciente está inserido, favorecendo o fortalecimento do poder vital, destacando a presença do acompanhante como fortalecedor desse poder vital no processo de hospitalização.Descritores: Puerpério, Parto, Enfermagem.

  12. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual presentation, including audio, will follow).

  13. ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013). ‘ELENA goes mobile’: a mobile assisted early language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. In Pixel (Ed.), Proceedings of ICT for Language Learning, Conference Proceedings 2013, 6th Conference edition (pp. xx-xx). November, 14-15, 2013, Florence, Italy: Libreriauniversitaria.it Edizioni.

  14. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual

  15. Prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure after introduction of the Italian smoking ban: the Florence and Belluno survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tamang, Elizabeth; Nebot, Manel; Lopez, Maria José; Albertini, Marco; Marcolina, Daniela; Fernandez, Esteve

    2008-01-01

    A law banning smoking in enclosed public places was implemented in Italy on January 10, 2005. The aim of this paper is to present a cross-sectional survey on two representative samples of non-smokers of two Italian towns (Florence and Belluno), conducted one year after the introduction of the ban, in order to assess prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure, to record the attitudes towards the ban, and the perception about its compliance in a representative sample of non-smokers. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were carried out in March 2006, from a random sample of households from telephone registries. Respondents were 402 non-smokers from Belluno and 1,073 from Florence. About 12% of Florentines and 7% of Belluno respondents were exposed at home; 39% and 19%, respectively, at work; 10% and 5% in hospitality venues; 20% and 10% in cars. The smoke-free law was almost universally supported (about 98%) even if a smaller proportion of people (about 90%) had the perception that the ban was observed. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and in hospitality premises has dropped to hospitality venues.

  16. Groundwaters of Florence (Italy): Trace element distribution and vulnerability of the aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencini, A.; Ercolanelli, R.; Sbaragli, A.; Verrucchi, C.

    1993-11-01

    Geochemical and hydrogeological research has been carried out on 109 wells in the alluvial plain of Florence, in order to evaluate conductivity and main chemistry of ground waters, the pattern of some possible pollutant chemical species (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, NO2, NO3), and the vulnerability of the aquifers. The plain is made up of Plio-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine sediments for a maximum thickness of 600 m. Silts and clays, sometimes with lenses of sandy gravels, are dominant, while considerable deposits of sands, pebbles, and gravels occur along the course of the Arno river and its tributary streams, and represent the most important aquifer of the plain. The groundwaters analyzed belong to this aquifer or to the smaller ones, hosted in the gravel lenses. Most waters show conductivity values around 1000 1200 μS, and almost all of them have an alkaline-earth-bicarbonate chemical character; these features are consistent with the mainly calcareous lithology of the aquifers. In the western areas a higher salt content of the groundwaters is evident, probably related to the presence of industrial activities which use water desalinators. Heavy metal and NO2, NO3 analyses point out that no important pollution phenomena affect the groundwaters; all the mean values of the chemical considered species are below the maximum admissible concentration (MAC) fixed by the European Community for drinkable waters. Nevertheless, some anomalies of NO2, NO3, Fe, Mn, and Zn are present in the plain. Apart from Mn, which seems to be released by certain calcareous gravels, the other anomalies have a local influence, since they disappear even in the nearest wells. The most plausible causes can be recognized in losses of the sewage system (NO2=3 4 mg/t); use of nitrate compounds in agriculture (NO3=60 70 mg/l); oxidation of well pipes (Fe ≈ 20 mg/l; Zn ≈ 6 mg/l). As regards Cr, Cu, and Pb, all the observations are below the MAC; therefore, the median values of bacteria oxidation

  17. Applications of radiocarbon measurements in environmental studies at INFN-LABEC, Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari M.

    2012-04-01

    : foraminifera can be contaminated by heterogeneous materials, including organic matter too. Pre-treatment should thus remove all the possible contaminations without losing too much mass of the samples. Here we present an overview of the environmental radiocarbon applications the INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence is involved in. 14C is measured by AMS, using the dedicated beam line installed at the 3 MV Tandem accelerator. In particular, details about the hardware and the experimental procedures are given.

  18. Groundwaters of Florence (Italy): Trace element distribution and vulnerability of the aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencini, A.; Ercolanelli, R.; Sbaragli, A. [Univ. of Florence (Italy)] [and others

    1993-11-01

    Geochemical and hydrogeological research has been carried out in Florence, to evaluate conductivity and main chemistry of groundwaters, the pattern of some possible pollutant chemical species (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}), and the vulnerability of the aquifers. The plain is made up of Plio-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine sediments for a maximum thickness of 600 m. Silts and clays, sometimes with lenses of sandy gravels, are dominant, while considerable deposits of sands, pebbles, and gravels occur along the course of the Arno river and its tributary streams, and represent the most important aquifer of the plain. Most waters show conductivity values around 1000-1200 {mu}S, and almost all of them have an alkaline-earth-bicarbonate chemical character. In western areas higher salt content of the groundwaters is evident. Heavy metal and NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3} analyses point out that no important pollution phenomena affect the groundwaters; all mean values are below the maximum admissible concentration (MAC) for drinkable waters. Some anomalies of NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}, Fe, Mn, and Zn are present. The most plausible causes can be recognized in losses of the sewage system; use of nitrate compounds in agriculture; oxidation of well pipes. All the observations of Cr, Cu, and Pb are below the MAC; the median values of <3, 3.9, and 1.1 {mu}g/l, respectively, could be considered reference concentrations for groundwaters in calcareous lithotypes, under undisturbed natural conditions. Finally, a map of vulnerability shows that the areas near the Arno river are highly vulnerable, for the minimum thickness (or lacking) of sediments covering the aquifer. On the other hand, in the case of pollution, several factors not considered could significantly increase the self-purification capacity of the aquifer, such asdilution of groundwaters, bacteria oxidation of nitrogenous species, and sorption capacity of clay minerals and organic matter. 31 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. 'Per incitamento a virtu' : Ludovico Capponi (1534-1614) en de schilderingen in zijn palazzo te Florence als aansporing tot deugd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botke, Klazina Dieuwke

    Ludovico Capponi (1534-1614) commissioned the painter Bernardino Poccetti (1548-1612) to decorate the Sala Grande of his palace in Florence around 1580. The subject of the elaborate programme was the political and military accomplishments of the Capponi family. By means of a text on the wall,

  20. Rotational Period Determination of Two Mars-crossing, a Main Belt Asteroid and a PHA: (14309) Defoy, (56116) 1999 CZ7, (5813) Eizaburo and (3122) Florence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Angelo; Scardella, Maurizio; Franceschini, Francesco; Pierri, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The main-belt asteroids (5813) Eizaburo and two Mars crossing minor bodies, (14309) Defoy and (56116) 1999 CZ7, have been observed over several nights throughout 2017 March-September in order to determine their synodic rotational period. We also took the opportunity of the (3122) Florence close passage with the Earth in September-October to find its lightcurve.

  1. Digital Workflow for the Acquisition and Elaboration of 3d Data in a Monumental Complex: the Fortress of Saint John the Baptist in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the GeCo Laboratory has undertaken numerous projects to digitalize vast and complex buildings; the specific nature of the different projects has resulted in a case-by-case approach, each time working on past experiences and updating not only the hardware and software tools but also the management and processing methods. This paper presents the workflow followed for the survey of the Fortress of Saint John the Baptist in Florence, an on-going interdisciplinary project. Presently Florence's main trade fair congress centre, at the same time it hosts various buildings that bear witness to the fortress's life-history, combining constructions from the Medici and Lorraine eras with recently built exhibition facilities. Now new research has been required due to the realization of new pavilions and the regeneration of the whole complex. This has included a critical survey, material testing, diagnostic investigations and stratigraphic analyses to define the building's state of preservation. The working group comprises specialists from different institutions, amongst which the Italian Military Geographic Institute, the University of Florence, the National Research Council Institute for the Preservation and Enhancement of the Cultural Heritage, and the Florence City Council.

  2. THE 3rd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 14-18 APRIL 2012, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbs, Brandon; Achalia, Rashmin M; Adelufosi, Adegoke O; Aktener, Ahmet Yiğit; Beveridge, Natalie J; Bhakta, Savita G; Blackman, Rachael K; Bora, Emre; Byun, MS; Cabanis, Maurice; Carrion, Ricardo; Castellani, Christina A; Chow, Tze Jen; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Gomes, Felipe V; Haut, Kristen; Hori, Hiroaki; Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Lee, Frankie HF; Lin, Ashleigh; Palaniyappan, Lena; Quan, Meina; Rubio, Maria D; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Sahoo, Saddichha; Strauss, Gregory P; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Thompson, Andrew D; Trotta, Antonella; Tully, Laura M; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Velthorst, Eva; Young, Jared W; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 14-18, 2012.and this year had as its emphasis, “The Globalization of Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these summaries. We hope that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:22910407

  3. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  4. Prehistory in Peril: The Worst and Best of Durango Archaeology, by Florence C. Lister, 1997, University Press of Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Breternitz

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of archaeology in the United States (and elsewhere is fraught with examples of real and imag­ined conflicts of interest between academics, professionals and government officials on the one hand and their local counterparts of amateur archaeologists, newspaper reporters, artifact speculators and just inter­ested citizens. Florence Lister has reconstructed the story (still ongoing by the way of the interplay of opposing schools of thought as it involved archaeology in the Durango, Colorado, vicinity. Given a subject beset with emotions. acquisitions. misrepresentations, rumors, name calling, mistrust, and occasionally, cooperation between the parties involved, the author has presented the fascinating history of Durango archaeology in a documented, readable and unbiased book that derives much of its value by calling forth archival material that has until now been unavailable or has existed as nebulous oral tradition.

  5. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Romano, F.P.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm 2 ), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported

  6. The Imperial Colegio de Santa Cruz and its Birds of Prey: A Modest Contribution to the Micro-Physics of Power in the mid-Sixteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Alberro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The brutal decline of the Imperial Colegio de Santa Cruz, after a bright but brief career, has spurred many papers and reflections. This one focuses on the economic factors, frequently ignored, that participated in its ruin. Indeed, the Colegio was stripped of its most precious assets by a few individuals belonging to the rising oligarchy of original settlers and conquerors' descendants, supported in turn by the highest authorities' --Real Audiencia, Real Hacienda, and even the viceroy Luis de Velasco the Elder, with whom they held family ties-- disregard and/or passive, or even active, complicity.

  7. The artisans of ‘Plus Ultra’: Pilots, cartographers and cosmographers in the House of Trade in Seville during the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates how the institutionalization of cosmography and navigation ended with the slogan Non Terrae Plus Ultra, and led to the emergence of imperial heading Plus Ultra helped by the navigation of a Mare Tenebrosum (the Atlantic Ocean, and the delineation of the contours of a new world that began beyond the Columns of Hercules. This process was made possible by the establishment in Seville of the House of Trade in 1503 and the creation of scientific offices such as Pilot Major, master of making nautical charts or cosmographer. The ship appears on the cover of the Regimiento de navegación (1606 by Andres García de Céspedes across the pillars of the hero of Greek mythology highlights the Baconian premise of man's dominion over nature, the knowledge gained through the conquest of the West Indies, and also the wishes of the Spanish monarchy by taking advantage of the usefulness of scientific knowledge by joining the nautical experience and cosmographical theory.

  8. The “Hospital Real de San Josef de los Naturales” and the rheumatic conditions found in New Spain during sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramos-Remus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatology has come a long way since its origins. Rheumatic conditions are some of the oldest recognized conditions in human and animal remains all around the world. They have been recognized and managed by all medical traditions, even before Hippocrates. Hippocrates wrote on gout and other ill-defined rheumatic conditions, and mentioned for the first time the existence of synovial fluid...

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF SONG-TEXT COLLECTION BELONGS TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY: Bodleian Library of Oxford University With The Number of 127 and 128

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri Parmaksiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The song-text collections have great significance in consequence of their tasks in Turkish Music. The music performers have received support from song-text collections in remembering the modes, rhythms, the composers and especially the lyrics consisting short or long poems related to the each of the songs which they intend to keep in their minds.Today, those collections demonstrate the researchers employing modes, composers, forms and rhythms the musical works recorded in their contents and the transformation which Turkish Music has experienced throughout centuries.In this study, a song-text collection of the 16th century recorded in the Bodleian Library of Oxford University with the number of 127 and 128 was analyzed. The finding which obtain from song-text collection which analyzed with systematic musicology and historical methodology is expected to contribute importantly. Keywords: XVI. century, Turkish Music, song-text collection, Bodleian Library

  10. Una storia di Venezia dalle origini al Cinquecento. Problemi e discussioni. (A history of Venice from its origins to the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SAPORI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A review article of Gino Luzzatto’s Storia economica di Venezia dall’XI al XVI secolo, Venice, “Centro internazionale delle arti e del costume”, 1961. Apart from its vividness and fidelity in reconstructing the events which Venice has experienced during the course of several centuries, the fundamental importance of the volume lies in the questions it raises: reticular problems of a city and general problems of time, which are obviously interlinked. Here, the author confines himself to indicating some of those problems.JEL: N13, N43

  11. WITTICISM IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY ACCORDING TO “TEZKIRE”S 16. ASIR ŞU’ARÂ TEZKİRELERİNDE NÜKTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman SOLMAZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For understanding old Turkish Literature, it must be searched with all its instruments. One of the lots of questions is about laughing. What for was old people laughing and how was this situation reflecting in old Turkish literature. We want to find the answer of this question in old Turkish literature, especially in “Tezkire”s. Old Turkish classic writers is used “hezl”, “mesel”, “kıssa”, “mutâyebe”, “mülâtafa”, “ta‘riz”, “nekre” instead of joke, fun, witty and etc… In this work we want to analyze these terms in “Tezkire”s. Eski edebiyatımızın tam anlamıyla ortaya çıkabilmesi için bütün konularının birer birer ele alınıp incelenmesi gerekir. Eski edebiyatın enstrümanları nelerdir? Bu konulardan biri mizahtır, yergidir; yerine göre nüktedir. Eski insanlarımız yüzyıllar önce nelere gülüyorlar, ne ile eğleniyorlardı? Bunları edebiyata nasıl yansıtıyorlardı? Bu çalışmanın omurgasını teşkil eden bu soruların cevabını tezkirelerde bulmaya çalıştık.Gülmek, en tabii ihtiyaçlarımızdan biridir. Bunu adlandırmak da önemli bir iştir. Bu vesile ile şaka, eğlence, latife, nükte, fıkra gibi kavramların eski kültürümüzdeki karşılıkları olan hezl, mesel, kıssa, mutâyebe, mülâtafa, ta‘riz, nekre gibi kelimeleri atalarımız nasıl kullanmış bunu ortaya çıkarmaya çalıştık.

  12. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  13. A teoria ambientalista de florence nightingale no ensino da escola de enfermagem Anna Nery (1962 - 1968 La teoría ambientalista de florence nightingale en la enseñanza de la escola de enfermagem Anna Nery (1962 - 1968 The environmental theory by florence nightingale in the teaching of the nursing school Anna Nery (1962 - 1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Cristin do Nascimento Haddad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo histórico-social. Objetivos: caracterizar a Teoria Ambientalista de Florence Nightingale e analisar a aplicação dos conceitos dessa teoria no ensino da disciplina "fundamentos de enfermagem" na EEAN. Fontes: quarta edição do "Novo Manual de Técnica de Enfermagem" de Elvira de Felice Souza, livros, leis, teses, dissertações, trabalhos científicos. O Manual apresenta princípios para a boa execução da assistência de enfermagem, citando ações que proporcionam ao doente bem-estar físico, mental e espiritual. Estes princípios corroboram os pensamentos de Florence Nightingale que denotam a importância da implementação de uma assistência caracterizada por condições de recuperação, cura e reabilitação relacionadas com a qualidade do ambiente. Conclusão: constatação de que o ensino na época focalizava não somente o desenvolvimento das técnicas de enfermagem de forma correta, mas também a prática de ações que garantissem o cuidado holístico através de uma assistência pautada nos valores morais da sociedade e pelos princípios éticos da profissão.Estudio histórico y social. Objetivos: Caracterizar la Teoría Ambientalista de Florence Nightingale y analizar la aplicación de sus conceptos en la enseñanza de la asignatura "Fundamentos de Enfermería" en EEAN. Fuentes: 4ª edición del "Nuevo Manual de Enfermería Técnica", de Elvira de Felice Souza, libros, leyes, tesis, disertaciones y trabajos científicos. El manual establece los principios para el buen desarrollo de los cuidados de enfermería, citando las acciones que le dan al paciente el bienestar físico, mental y espiritual. Estos principios están de acuerdo con el pensamiento de Florence Nightingale, que denota la importancia de implementar un servicio caracterizado por las condiciones de la recuperación, curación y rehabilitación relacionadas con la calidad del medio ambiente. Conclusión: la constatación de que la enseñanza de la

  14. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using intensity modulated radiotherapy versus whole breast irradiation: Health-related quality of life final analysis from the Florence phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meattini, Icro; Saieva, Calogero; Miccinesi, Guido; Desideri, Isacco; Francolini, Giulio; Scotti, Vieri; Marrazzo, Livia; Pallotta, Stefania; Meacci, Fiammetta; Muntoni, Cristina; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Sanchez, Luis Jose; Bernini, Marco; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Nori, Jacopo; Bianchi, Simonetta; Livi, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) represents a valid option for selected early breast cancer (BC). We recently published the 5-year results of the APBI-IMRT-Florence phase 3 randomised trial (NCT02104895), showing a very low rate of disease failure, with acute and early-late toxicity in favour of APBI. We present the early and 2-year follow-up health-related quality of life (HRQoL) results. Eligible patients were women aged more than 40 years with early BC suitable for breast-conserving surgery. APBI consisted of 30 Gy in five fractions delivered with IMRT technique. Standard whole breast irradiation (WBI) consisted of 50 Gy in 25 fractions plus a 10 Gy in five fractions boost on tumour bed. A total of 520 patients were enrolled in the phase 3 trial. Overall, 205 patients (105 APBI and 100 WBI) fully completed all the given questionnaires and were therefore included in the present analysis. As HRQoL assessment, patients were asked to complete the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, and the BR23 questionnaires at the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) and after 2 years from radiation (T2). No significant difference between the two arms at QLQ-C30 and BR23 scores emerged at T0. Global health status (p = 0.0001), and most scores of the functional and symptom scales of QLQ-C30 at T1 showed significant differences in favour of the APBI arm. Concerning the BR23 functional and symptom scales, the body image perception, future perspective and breast and arm symptoms were significantly better in the APBI group. Similar significant results emerged at T2: significant differences in favour of APBI emerged for GHS (p = 0.0001), and most functional and symptom QLQ-C30 scales. According to QLQ-BR23 module, among the functional scales, the body image perception and the future perspective were significantly better in the APBI group (p = 0.0001), whereas among the symptom scales significant difference emerged by breast and arm

  15. Perfil dos Pacientes com Câncer Gástrico Atendidos no Hospital Municipal Dr. José de Carvalho Florence no Período de 2007 a 2012 / Profile of Gastric Cancer Patients Treated in Hospital Municipal Dr. José de Carvalho Florence Between the Period from 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Mariotto Bitetti da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o perfil dos pacientes com neoplasia maligna de estômago, que receberam atendimento e tratamento no Hospital Municipal Dr. Jose de Carvalho Florence (HMJCF. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo a partir do levantamento de prontuários. Análises foram feitas com uma amostragem e proporções esperadas desiguais e Quadros de contingência. Para se verificar associação entre as variáveis, utilizado o teste Qui–Quadrado de Pearson, considerando-se p ≤ 0,05, em um grau de confiabilidade de 95%. Resultados: O sexo masculino é o com maior número de casos na proporção de 2:1. A idade média ao diagnóstico é 65,16 anos. A queixa mais comum apresentada por estes pacientes foi a epigastralgia seguido pela inapetência. A maioria dos tumores encontrava-se no antro gástrico. Cinquenta e nove destes pacientes foram submetidos a cirurgia sendo 45 com intuito curativo. A sobrevida média foi de 15 meses e a taxa de sobrevida em 5 anos de apenas 6%. Conclusão: O CG é uma doença muito agressiva e de prognóstico ruim. Suas manifestações iniciais são inespecíficas, o que torna seu diagnóstico em fases iniciais muito difícil. Objective: Evaluate the profile of patients with malignant neoplasia of stomach, receiving care and treatment in Hospital Municipal Dr. Jose de Carvalho Florence (HMJCF. Methods: Retrospective study based on a survey of medical records. Analysis were made with a sampling and unequal expected ratios and contingency tables. To assess the association between variables, will be used the chi-square test, considering p ≤ 0.05, at a reliability level of 95%. Results: The largest number of cases are male, ratio of 2:1. The average age at diagnosis is 65.16 years. Caucasians followed by mulatto were the most frequent with Gastric Cancer. The most common complaint presented by these patients was abdominal pain followed by loss of appetite. Most tumors found in the gastric antrum. Fifty-nine of these patients

  16. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

  17. 'A model for the country': letters from Florence Nightingale to the architect, Thomas Worthington, on hospitals and other matters 1865-1868.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stella Vera F

    2013-12-01

    Between 1865 and 1868 the Manchester architect, Thomas Worthington and Florence Nightingale corresponded about hospital design. Worthington was involved in building hospitals for two Poor Law Unions in Manchester. The designs of both hospitals were based on the 'pavilion' principle of which Nightingale became a vocal national champion. Through five letters written by Nightingale to Worthington, the paper explores Nightingale's views focussing on her admiration for the designs, and examines the importance of these commissions for Worthington's career as a hospital architect.

  18. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program.

  19. The Tomb of SETI i (KV17) in the Florence Egyptian Museum. Integrated Non-Invasive Methods for Documentation, Material History and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, M.; Bracci, S.; Cantisani, E.; Magrini, D.

    2017-05-01

    The tomb of Seti I (KV17) is a magnificent example of New Kingdom funerary architecture, among the longest tombs in the Valley of the Kings. As part of a collaboration between the Egyptian Museum in Florence, the University of Florence and CNR, a survey project was launched, with non-invasive methods, on the fragments from the Seti I tomb, in Florence, coming from a gate jamb connecting the chamber F to the corridor G, taken by the franco-tuscan expedition in 1829. The primary goal is to achieve the best level of documentation, knowledge of the material history and conservation assessment. Preliminary results allowed to focus some steps of the history of this fragment, from its realization to the present. The digital documentation created an excellent support for the mapping and management of the collected information. Even if still on a preliminary phase, this study shows how the combination of imaging and spectroscopic techniques allowed the characterization of many materials and the mapping of their distribution on the surface. Several original pigments have been identified as well as many anomalies due to subsequent interventions.

  20. THE TOMB OF SETI I (KV17 IN THE FLORENCE EGYPTIAN MUSEUM. INTEGRATED NON-INVASIVE METHODS FOR DOCUMENTATION, MATERIAL HISTORY AND DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Coppola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tomb of Seti I (KV17 is a magnificent example of New Kingdom funerary architecture, among the longest tombs in the Valley of the Kings. As part of a collaboration between the Egyptian Museum in Florence, the University of Florence and CNR, a survey project was launched, with non-invasive methods, on the fragments from the Seti I tomb, in Florence, coming from a gate jamb connecting the chamber F to the corridor G, taken by the franco-tuscan expedition in 1829. The primary goal is to achieve the best level of documentation, knowledge of the material history and conservation assessment. Preliminary results allowed to focus some steps of the history of this fragment, from its realization to the present. The digital documentation created an excellent support for the mapping and management of the collected information. Even if still on a preliminary phase, this study shows how the combination of imaging and spectroscopic techniques allowed the characterization of many materials and the mapping of their distribution on the surface. Several original pigments have been identified as well as many anomalies due to subsequent interventions.

  1. As tecnologias de cuidado de enfermagem obstétrica fundamentas pela teoria ambientalista de Florence Nightingale Las tecnologías de cuidado de enfermería obstétrica basadas en la teoría ambientalista de Florence Nightingale The care technologies of obstetrical nursing based in the environmental theories of Florence Nightingale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira Macedo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo reflexivo que teve como objetivo discutir o conceito Tecnologia de Cuidado de Enfermagem aplicada à saúde da mulher à luz da Teoria Ambientalista de Florence Nightingale. O estudo permitiu identificar e discutir os seguintes aspectos: o ambiente e o parto, o acompanhante durante o trabalho de parto e parto, a privacidade, o cuidado de enfermagem à mulher durante as modificações fisiológicas, a mulher como protagonista do trabalho de parto e parto, a presença atenciosa da enfermeira no ambiente da mulher, o respeito à individualidade, o ambiente acolhedor, sons e iluminação, a dieta líquida durante o trabalho de parto e parto, a deambulação e movimentação livre durante o trabalho de parto e parto, higiene e conforto, a intersubjetividade na relação enfermeira-usuária e o resgate do saber feminino popular. Concluiu-se que é possível a apropriação dos conceitos da Teoria Ambientalista para fundamentar as Tecnologias de Cuidado aplicadas no cotidiano da Enfermagem Obstétrica.Estudio reflexivo que tuvo como objetivo discutir el concepto Tecnología de Cuidado de Enfermería aplicada a la salud de la mujer a la luz de la Teoría Ambientalista de Florence Nightingale. El estudio permitió identificar y discutir los siguientes aspectos: el ambiente y el parto, el acompañante durante el trabajo de parto y parto, la privacidad, el cuidado de la enfermería a la mujer en las modificaciones fisiológicas, la mujer como personaje principal de su trabajo de parto y parto, la presencia atenta de la enfermera en el ambiente de la mujer, el respeto a la individualidad, el ambiente acogedor, sonidos y iluminación, la dieta líquida mientras el trabajo de parto y parto, la caminata y movimiento libre mientras el trabajo de parto y parto, limpieza y confort, la intersubjetividad en la relación enfermerausuaria, y el rescate del conocer femenino estimado por el pueblo. Se concluyó que es posible adecuar los conceptos de la Teor

  2. Space Junk Norms: US Advantages in Creating a Debris Reducing Outer Space Norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    overfishing concerns related to state interests began as early as the sixteenth century. The second Truman proclamation highlighted how... overfishing just beyond a coastal states territorial sea. Again, coastal states did not reject the US proclamation, but instead moved to clarify it with

  3. Alliances and Legitimacy: Walking the Operational Tightrope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Machiavelli , Niccolò. The Prince . 2nd ed. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1998. Matlary, Janne Haaland. “The Legitimacy of Military Intervention...reflects the realist notions first enunciated by Niccolò Machiavelli in the early sixteenth century and more recently championed by IR theorists and

  4. time and space in the composition of il libro del cortegiano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Il libro del cortegiano was written, revised and augmented over a period of at least fifteen years, during which time many changes occurred in the author's life, in the situation on the Italian peninsula, and in the wider context of the European arena. The story of his life and the history of events in the early sixteenth century are ...

  5. For the Common Good: Dutch Institutions and Western Scholarship on Indonesia around 1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomgaard, P.; Boomgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    From the first arrival of Europeans at Indonesia’s shores, they created and circulated knowledge. The Portuguese, trading with Java and the Moluccas from the early sixteenth century, were the first to publish their travel accounts, and much of our knowledge of the region around that time is based on

  6. Developing methods of determining unknown roational periods of asteroids via observations of (3122) Florence by the Harvard Observing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Natasha Sarah; Bieryla, Allyson; Gomez, Sebastian; Huang, Jane; Lewis, John; Todd, Zoe; Alam, Munazza; Carmichael, Theron; Garrison, Lehman H.; Weaver, Ian; Chen, Chen; McGruder, Chima; Medina, Amber

    2018-06-01

    (3122) Florence is an asteroid that made the headlines with its close approach to Earth in late 2017. It is one of the biggest and brightest near-Earth asteroids that has been discovered and it has recently been found to have two moons. By observing the light reflected off an asteroid, we can measure its brightness over time and determine the rotational period of the asteroid. An asteroid’s rotational period can reveal information about its physical characteristics, such as its shape, and further our knowledge about processes that contribute to asteroid rotation in general. The Harvard Observing Project (HOP) is an initiative that allows undergraduates to learn about observational astronomy and take part in formal data collection and analysis. Over the course of the fall 2017 semester, HOP obtained four multi-hour, continuous observations in the R-band of the asteroid using the Harvard University 16-inch Clay Telescope. In our analysis, we reduced the images and performed astrometry and photometry on the data. The asteroid’s light curve was produced using AstroImageJ and we used the Python package gatspy to determine its rotational period. We found the rotational period to be 2.22 hours +/- 0.25, which agrees with the known rotational period of 2.3580 hours +/- 0.0002. This spring 2018 semester we are applying our methods to data collected on asteroids with unknown rotational periods and plan to present our findings.

  7. The use of tropical bromeliads (Tillandsia spp.) for monitoring atmospheric pollution in the town of Florence, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighigna, Luigi; Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; Cornia, Andrea; Bocchini, Paola; Galletti, Guido

    2002-06-01

    The results of an experiment with two species of epiphytic angiosperms (Tillandsia caput-medusae and T. bulbosa) for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air of Florence, Italy, are presented. PAHs are compounds known to be dangerous because of their carcinogenic potential, and among cormophytes, tillands (monocotyledons equipped with peculiar, specialised, epidermal trichomes) are considered promising for air pollution biomonitoring. PAHs data were obtained using GC/MS analysis of plant extracts. Analytical data indicated an increasing trend in time of PAHs bioaccumulation. This result was compared with instrumentally recorded parameters such as meteorological (rain) and environmental ones (PM10), indicating that trichome-operated physical capture of aerial particles was prominent in PAHs bioaccumulation on tillands. SEM (scanning electron microscope) observations confirmed the role of the trichomes. This work indicates that tillands are particularly useful, low-cost biomonitoring organisms inside their area of distribution (all Latin American countries and southern USA) where these plants are easily available, but also wherever the climate allows them to survive.

  8. Optimal and Sustainable Plant Refurbishment in Historical Buildings: A Study of an Ancient Monastery Converted into a Showroom in Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Balocco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the possibility and sustainability of retrofit and refurbishment design solutions on historical buildings converted to different uses and often clashing with their original purpose and architectural features. The building studied is an ancient monastery located in the historical center of Florence (Italy. Today the original cloister is covered over by a single glazed pitched roof and used as a fashion showroom. Our proposed solution concerns a reversible and sustainable plant design integrated with an active transparent building casing. The existing glazed pitched roof was reconsidered and re-designed as part of the existing heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC plant system, based on the functioning of an active thermal buffer to control the high heat flow rates and external thermal loads due to solar radiation. Hourly whole building energy analysis was carried out to check the effectiveness and energy sustainability of our proposed solution. Results obtained showed, from the historical-architectural, energy and environmental points of view, its sustainability due to the building-plant system integration and interaction with its location, the external climatic conditions and defined expected uses, in particular with reference to indoor thermal comfort.

  9. Teaching Widowed Women, Community, and Devotion in Quattrocento Florence with Lucrezia Tornabuoni and Antonia Tanini Pulci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wainwright

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Middle Ages and the early modern period, a woman’s social identity changed when her husband died. She became both a symbol of his loss, and a living monument to his legacy—an ambassador between the living and the dead. Responsible not only for preserving his memory on earth, a widow was also expected to pray on behalf of her husband’s soul, to work to rescue him from the torments of Purgatory through her dutiful appeals. Widows were at once asked to pray quietly alone, and tasked with work central to society: the salvation of souls after death. This dual identity—sometimes isolated, yet of fundamental importance—makes the widow an opportune subject for students of early modern conceptions of the relationship between religion and gender. In this essay, I look at widows in Lucrezia Tornabuoni’s Judith, Hebrew Widow and Antonia Tanini Pulci’s The Destruction of Saul and the Lament of David. Taught side-by-side, these texts provide students with multiple, interconnected ports of entry into the early modern world, encouraging an investigation of how the two women writers worked to place widows at the center of their respective stories, rather than relegated to the margins.

  10. Florence Hulak. Sociétes et mentalités. La science historique de Marc Bloch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hay obras de análisis histórico (y esta lo es, aunque en el campo de la epistemología de la historia que pueden resumirse fácilmente, bien sea por su contenido renovador, bien sea por sus equívocos y errores, o bien sea por su propio carácter rutinario (una más entre una cadena de libros previsibles en su enfoque y en sus resultados. Hay otras obras que solicitan, de quien se ocupa de ellas y trata de presentarlas ante una comunidad de lectores alejada de su lugar de producción y de recepción iniciales del texto, tan solo un sobrevuelo inicial, una mención de sus temas y propósitos centrales, un énfasis repetido sobre su significado e importancia, para animar a los lectores a que se interesen en el debate planteado por el libro de referencia y, sobre todo, a que no se deje pasar de largo una oportunidad de discusión que puede servir para refinar el planteamiento de problemas de los que se habla de manera repetida con actitud poco reflexiva, repetitiva y rutinaria. Creo que este es el caso del libro reciente de Florence Hulak, Sociétés et mentalités que queremos presentar aquí, a través de una reseña centrada simplemente en sus grandes temas, dejando para otros momentos el debate preciso (textos en mano y con multiplicadas referencias, ejemplos, contra ejemplos y argumentaciones sobre puntos concretos de los planteamientos de la autora.

  11. The Florence Nightingale effect: Organizational identification explains the peculiar link between others’ suffering and workplace functioning in the homelessness sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Ferris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontline employees in the helping professions often perform their duties against a difficult backdrop, including a complex client base and ongoing themes of crisis, suffering, and distress. These factors combine to create an environment in which workers are vulnerable to workplace stress and burnout. The present study tested two models to understand how frontline workers in the homelessness sector deal with the suffering of their clients. First, we examined whether relationships between suffering and workplace functioning (job satisfaction and burnout would be mediated by organizational identification. Second, we examined whether emotional distance from clients (i.e. infrahumanization, measured as reduced attribution of secondary emotions would predict improved workplace functioning (less burnout and greater job satisfaction, particularly when client contact is high. The study involved a mixed-methods design comprising interview (N = 26 and cross-sectional survey data (N = 60 with a sample of frontline staff working in the homelessness sector. Participants were asked to rate the level of client suffering and attribute emotions in a hypothetical client task, and to complete questionnaire measures of burnout, job satisfaction, and organizational identification. We found no relationships between secondary emotion attribution and burnout or satisfaction. Instead, we found that perceiving higher client suffering was linked with higher job satisfaction and lower burnout. Mediation analyses revealed a mediating role for identification, such that recognizing suffering predicted greater identification with the organization, which fully mediated the relationship between suffering and job satisfaction, and also between suffering and burnout. Qualitative analysis of interview data also resonated with this conceptualization. We introduce this novel finding as the ‘Florence Nightingale effect’. With this sample drawn from the homelessness sector, we

  12. The Florence Nightingale Effect: Organizational Identification Explains the Peculiar Link Between Others' Suffering and Workplace Functioning in the Homelessness Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Laura J; Jetten, Jolanda; Johnstone, Melissa; Girdham, Elise; Parsell, Cameron; Walter, Zoe C

    2016-01-01

    Frontline employees in the helping professions often perform their duties against a difficult backdrop, including a complex client base and ongoing themes of crisis, suffering, and distress. These factors combine to create an environment in which workers are vulnerable to workplace stress and burnout. The present study tested two models to understand how frontline workers in the homelessness sector deal with the suffering of their clients. First, we examined whether relationships between suffering and workplace functioning (job satisfaction and burnout) would be mediated by organizational identification. Second, we examined whether emotional distance from clients (i.e., infrahumanization, measured as reduced attribution of secondary emotions) would predict improved workplace functioning (less burnout and greater job satisfaction), particularly when client contact is high. The study involved a mixed-methods design comprising interview (N = 26) and cross-sectional survey data (N = 60) with a sample of frontline staff working in the homelessness sector. Participants were asked to rate the level of client suffering and attribute emotions in a hypothetical client task, and to complete questionnaire measures of burnout, job satisfaction, and organizational identification. We found no relationships between secondary emotion attribution and burnout or satisfaction. Instead, we found that perceiving higher client suffering was linked with higher job satisfaction and lower burnout. Mediation analyses revealed a mediating role for identification, such that recognizing suffering predicted greater identification with the organization, which fully mediated the relationship between suffering and job satisfaction, and also between suffering and burnout. Qualitative analysis of interview data also resonated with this conceptualization. We introduce this novel finding as the 'Florence Nightingale effect'. With this sample drawn from the homelessness sector, we provide preliminary

  13. The Florence Nightingale Effect: Organizational Identification Explains the Peculiar Link Between Others’ Suffering and Workplace Functioning in the Homelessness Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Laura J.; Jetten, Jolanda; Johnstone, Melissa; Girdham, Elise; Parsell, Cameron; Walter, Zoe C.

    2016-01-01

    Frontline employees in the helping professions often perform their duties against a difficult backdrop, including a complex client base and ongoing themes of crisis, suffering, and distress. These factors combine to create an environment in which workers are vulnerable to workplace stress and burnout. The present study tested two models to understand how frontline workers in the homelessness sector deal with the suffering of their clients. First, we examined whether relationships between suffering and workplace functioning (job satisfaction and burnout) would be mediated by organizational identification. Second, we examined whether emotional distance from clients (i.e., infrahumanization, measured as reduced attribution of secondary emotions) would predict improved workplace functioning (less burnout and greater job satisfaction), particularly when client contact is high. The study involved a mixed-methods design comprising interview (N = 26) and cross-sectional survey data (N = 60) with a sample of frontline staff working in the homelessness sector. Participants were asked to rate the level of client suffering and attribute emotions in a hypothetical client task, and to complete questionnaire measures of burnout, job satisfaction, and organizational identification. We found no relationships between secondary emotion attribution and burnout or satisfaction. Instead, we found that perceiving higher client suffering was linked with higher job satisfaction and lower burnout. Mediation analyses revealed a mediating role for identification, such that recognizing suffering predicted greater identification with the organization, which fully mediated the relationship between suffering and job satisfaction, and also between suffering and burnout. Qualitative analysis of interview data also resonated with this conceptualization. We introduce this novel finding as the ‘Florence Nightingale effect’. With this sample drawn from the homelessness sector, we provide

  14. The diaspora of inhabitants from Lucca in the 14th century and the first developments of the silk industry in Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tognetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay aims to analyse a key phenomenon in 14th Florence economic history: the first development of silk industry. This manufacture owes its start-up to the immigration of entrepreneurs, craftsmen and workers from Lucca, as in the well-studied Venetian case. The Lucchese contribution, due to many political exiles of Guelph tendency, is examined through an exceptional and practically unknown Florentine notarial source: the countless deeds of Michele di Salvestro Contadini, notary working from 1324 to 1381, for many years on duty with the silk guild of Por Santa Maria.

  15. The set-up for forward scattered particle detection at the external microbeam facility of the INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Czelusniak, C.; Fedi, M.E.; Gueli, A.M.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years some new implementations and upgrades have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence, enriching the existing PIXE, PIGE, BS, IBIL set-up with complementary techniques, when possible allowing for simultaneous multi-technique analyses. We developed a system, compatible with the existing set-up, for the out-of-vacuum detection of the forward scattered particles. This system makes feasible the external-STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) and external-FS (Forward Scattering), now both available at our beamline. Test measurements are shortly presented

  16. TECMIRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vaucher de la Croix

    2018-03-01

    Starting from two of Carducci’s letters regarding the transfer of the capital of the Kingdom of Italy to Florence, the article retraces the history and outline the luck of the Greek tecmirio ‘sure sign’. Sixteenth Century examples by Bernardo Segni, Annibal Caro and Tasso are illustrated and cited, linked to the earliest translations of Aristotle’s Rhetoric, as well as rarer Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century poetic and technical-scientific occurrences, which illustrate the destiny of this word, now disappeared, which seems to have been emancipated from its status of philosophical technicality.

  17. Machiavelli plautino. Qualche scheda teatrale

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    Maria Cristina Figorilli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After describing the success that Plautus enjoyed in fifteenth - and sixteenth-century Florence, I will concentrate on the relationship between Machiavelli’s plays and Plautus’ works. On the one hand, I will focus on citations and echoes from Plautus in the Mandragola; on the other, I will suggest that in his Clizia Machiavelli reused other Plautus plays, particularly Asinaria and Mercator. Finally, I will focus my attention on the relationship between Clizia and Casina in order to show how Machiavelli’s rewriting has a moral connotation.

  18. Report on the 2nd Florence International Symposium on Advances in Cardiomyopathies: 9th meeting of the European Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases WG of the ESC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cecchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A bridge between clinical and basic science aiming at cross fertilization, with leading experts presenting alongside junior investigators, is the key feature of the “2nd Florence International Symposium on Advances in Cardiomyopathies” , 9th Meeting of the Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases Working Group of the European Society of Cardiology, which was held in Florence, Italy on 26-­-28th September 2012. Patients with cardiomyopathies, with an estimated 3 per thousand prevalence in the general population, constitute an increasingly large proportion of patients seen by most cardiologists. This class of diseases, which are mostly genetically determined with different transmission modalities, can cause important and often unsolved management problems, despite rapid advances in the field. On the other hand, few other areas of cardiology have seen such an impressive contribution from basic science and translational research to the understanding of their pathophysiology and clinical management. The course was designed to constantly promote close interaction between basic science and clinical practice and highlight the top scientific and translational discoveries in this field in 10 scientific sessions. It was preceded by two mini-­-courses, which included the basic concepts of cardiomyocyte mechanical and electrophysiological properties and mechanisms, how-­-to sessions for clinical diagnosis and management and illustrative case study presentations of different cardiomyopathies.

  19. Improved data illustration in complex multi-ligament knee reconstruction surgery: using the historical principles of Florence Nightingale and John Venn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Paul D; McNicholas, Mike J

    2008-04-01

    The collection of multi-ligament knee reconstruction procedure data generates long tabulated lists of featureless abbreviations, which are often difficult to interpret and present. As demonstrated with the launch of the Scandinavian anterior cruciate ligament registries, such data are under increasing scrutiny. When developing a visual tool to improve the interpretation, presentation, and ongoing collection of data within this field, much can be learnt from the historical teachings of Florence Nightingale and John Venn. Unknown to many, Florence Nightingale was a pioneer of graphic data illustration, becoming a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society in 1858. Further advances in the visualization of complex data relations were made by John Venn, who introduced the Venn diagram in 1880. With this background in mind, the present work has been based upon the senior author's case series of 70 patients undergoing complex knee-ligament reconstruction at Warrington Hospital, from 2001 to the present time. Although obviously not negating the need for tabulated data, the graphic representation put forward here successfully supplements featureless tabulated lists of abbreviations and can be updated easily and regularly. Providing a clear, bright illustration that is free from patient identifiers, it can be used in presentations and publications, and freely accessed by a multidisciplinary team. It assists in the identification of injury patterns, can accommodate illustration of associated factors such as meniscal injury, and clearly demonstrates each hospital's multi-ligament knee reconstruction experience. This facilitates comparison and collaboration between hospitals and promotes research.

  20. The use of tropical bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. for monitoring atmospheric pollution in the town of Florence, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Brighigna

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experiment with two species of epiphytic angiosperms (Tillandsia caput-medusae and T. bulbosa for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air of Florence, Italy, are presented. PAHs are compounds known to be dangerous because of their carcinogenic potential, and among cormophytes, tillands (monocotyledons equipped with peculiar, specialised, epidermal trichomes are considered promising for air pollution biomonitoring. PAHs data were obtained using GC/MS analysis of plant extracts. Analytical data indicated an increasing trend in time of PAHs bioaccumulation. This result was compared with instrumentally recorded parameters such as meteorological (rain and environmental ones (PM10, indicating that trichome-operated physical capture of aerial particles was prominent in PAHs bioaccumulation on tillands. SEM (scanning electron microscope observations confirmed the role of the trichomes. This work indicates that tillands are particularly useful, low-cost, biomonitoring organisms inside their area of distribution (all Latin American countries and southern USA where these plants are easily available, but also wherever the climate allows them to surviveSe presentan los resultados de un experimento con dos especies de angiospermas epífitas (Tillandsia caput-medusae y T. bulbosa para monitorear hidrocarbonos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs en el aire de Florencia, Italia. Los PAHs son compuestos que se sabe son peligrosos por su potencial carcinogénico, y, entre las cormófitas, las tilandsias (monocotiledóneas equipadas con tricomas epidérmicos, especializados y peculiares son consideradas promisorias para el biomonitoreo de la contaminación del aire. Se obtuvieron datos de PAHs usando el análisis de GC/MS de extractos de plantas. Los datos analíticos indicaron una tendencia creciente de la bioacumulación de PAH’s en el tiempo. Este resultado se comparó con los parámetros registrados instrumentalmente como

  1. New Systems for the Management of Data. The Case Study of the Chapter House of Santa Maria Novella in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, C.

    2013-02-01

    analysis of data collected and, at the same time, also creates the possibility of access to users not experts in the field of 3D graphics; this has been made possible through the development the project "3DWS" (3D | WEB | SURVEY). The project involved the creation of a container structured as a web site, in which were placed the materials collected and processed including sketches, photographs, vector data, three-dimensional models and analysis issues. Within this system, three-dimensional models developed were then used as a communication tool with immediate visual link to sub-pages with a greater degree of definition. It is a simple and intuitive tree structure that allows both the visitor to the specialist scholar to focus on portions too small and detail of the product, without losing sight of the general configuration of departure. To make feasible a further degree of usability of information, the system has been implemented with image viewers metrics in high definition. The images produced are a fundamental basis, strictly from the point of view of science and technology, for the conservation, management and enhancement of the historical and artistic heritage. The case study investigated is the Chapter House of Santa Maria Novella in Florence.

  2. THE 4th SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 5–9 APRIL 2014, FLORENCE, ITALY: A summary of topics and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayomi, Olukayode; Amato, Davide; Bailey, Candace; Bitanihirwe, Byron; Bowen, Lynneice; Burshtein, Shimon; Cullen, Alexis; Fusté, Montserrat; Herrmann, Ana P; Khodaie, Babak; Kilian, Sanja; Lang, Qortni A; Manning, Elizabeth E; Massuda, Raffael; Nurjono, Milawaty; Sadiq, Sarosh; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Simon, Nicholas; Spiteri-Staines, Anneliese; Sirijit, Suttajit; Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Wadehra, Sunali; Wang, Yi; Wigton, Rebekah; Wright, Susan; Yagoda, Sergey; Zaytseva, Yuliya; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2015-01-01

    The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 5–9, 2014.and this year had as its emphasis, “Fostering Collaboration in Schizophrenia Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session, summarized the important contributions of each session and then each report was integrated into a final summary of data discussed at the entire conference by topic. It is hoped that by combining data from different presentations, patterns of interest will emerge and thus lead to new progress for the future. In addition, the following report provides an overview of the conference for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:25306204

  3. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  4. Florence Nightingale murió hace cien años... pero sus ideales y su obra aún perduran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALARCÓN NELLY GARZÓN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El año 2010 se consagró en el mundo como el Año Internacional de la Enfermera (AI-Enfermera, con el fin de conmemorar el primer centenario de la muerte de Florence Nightingale, que ocurrió el 13 de agosto de 1910, como se evidencia en su tumba, en el jardín de la Iglesia de Santa Margarita en East Wellow, Inglaterra.

    Esta celebración global del Año Internacional de la Enfermera es una actividad colaborativa que obedece a una política y una iniciativa mundiales orientadas a honrar las voces, los valores y la sabiduría de los líderes de enfermería del mundo, que actúan continuamente por mejorar el cuidado de la salud de las personas.

    Muchas celebraciones se llevaron a cabo con este motivo tan especial, en todos los países y ciudades del mundo, bajo el liderazgo de diferentes asociaciones, fundaciones, academias, sociedades e instituciones de enfermería de carácter científico, académico, gremial, que funcionan en los ámbitos  nacional e internacional.

    Además de esta celebración tan especial, este año también se desarrollaron los festejos que tradicionalmente tienen lugar el 12 de mayo, fecha del natalicio de Nightingale que se ha proclamado mundialmente como el Día Internacional de la Enfermera. El 12 de mayo de 1825 nació Florence Nightingale en Florencia, Italia, cuando sus padres pasaban una temporada en ese país, y de esa ciudad tomaron su nombre.

  5. Nature or Artifice? Grafting in Early Modern Surgery and Agronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi published a famous two-volume book on “plastic surgery.” The reconstructive technique he described was based on grafting skin taken from the arm onto the mutilated parts of the patient's damaged face – especially noses. This paper focuses on techniques of grafting, the “culture of grafting,” and the relationships between surgery and plant sciences in the sixteenth century. By describing the fascination with grafting in surgery, natural history, gardening, and agronomy the paper argues that grafting techniques were subject to delicate issues: to what extent it was morally acceptable to deceive the eye with artificial entities? and what was the status of the product of a surgical procedure that challenged the traditional natural/artificial distinction? Finally, this paper shows how in the seventeenth century grafting survived the crisis of Galenism by discussing the role it played in teratology and in controversies on the uses the new mechanistic anatomy.

  6. De Florence Nightingale às perspectivas atuais sobre o cuidado de enfermagem: a evolução de um saber/fazer Desde Florence Nightingale a las perspectivas actuales sobre el cuidado en enfermería: la evolución del saber/hacer From Florence Nightingale to the current perspectives about nursing care: the evolution of a know-how

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Helena do Espírito Santo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta uma reflexão teórica sobre a evolução do cuidado de enfermagem a partir dos princípios nightingaleanos confrontados com as perspectivas atuais de alguns autores que vem abordando essa temática. Concluímos que as bases sólidas fincadas por Florence Nightingale estão permitindo à Enfermagem avançar em estudos que legitimam e fundamentam o cuidado enquanto essência do saber e fazer de enfermeiras e enfermeiros nos seus vários campos de atuação. Atualmente esses estudos apontam o cuidado como objeto de teorização em dimensões que aliam aspectos internos e externos à profissão, inserindo e explorando temas que antes eram velados, embora presentes no cotidiano da nossa prática, como o significado do corpo e suas formas de expressão na interação entre quem cuida e é cuidado.El trabajo presenta una reflexión teórica sobre la evolución del cuidado en el oficio de enfermeros a partir de los principios Nightingaleanos confrontados con las perspectivas actuales de algunos autores que vienen abordando esa temática. Concluimos que las bases sólidas lanzadas por Florence Nightingale están permitiendo al oficio de enfermeros avanzar en estudios que legitiman y fundamentan el cuidado en cuanto esencia del saber y hacer de las enfermeras y enfermeros en sus variados campos de actuación. Actualmente eses estudios indican el cuidado como objeto de teoría en dimensiones que alían aspectos internos y externos a la profesión, proponiendo y explorando temas que antes eran velados aunque presentes en el cotidiano de nuestra práctica como el significado del cuerpo y sus formas de expresión en la interacción entre quien cuida y quien es cuidado.The work presents a theoretical observation on the evolution of the nursing care from the Nightingalean principles faced to the current perspectives of some authors that approach this subject. We concluded that the solid base proposed by Florence Nightingale allow to

  7. Post-traumatic stress reactions before the advent of post-traumatic stress disorder: potential effects on the lives and legacies of Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, Philip A; Batten, Sonja V

    2008-12-01

    Evidence is presented that Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale each developed symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of repeated potentially traumatizing events of differing character. Their case histories also varied with respect to background, premorbid personality style, risk factors, clinical presentation, and course of the illness, illustrating the pleomorphic character of the disorder, as well as the special problems in diagnosing it in historical figures.

  8. The Extractiones de Talmud and their relationship to the hebrew Talmud Manuscripts of the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence (MS Magl. coll. II.I.7, 8 and 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisse Cecini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Talmud manuscripts Magl. coll. II.I.8 and 9 of the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence contain marginal Talmud-translations in Latin which correspond to the 13th century translation Extractiones de Talmud. The two manuscripts are described and their textual evidence is compared both with the Latin manuscript tradition of the Extractiones and with the Hebrew/Aramaic Talmudic text which they contain, trying to answer the question of whether the Florence manuscripts are the Vorlage of the Latin translation of the Talmud. The matter reveals itself as complex: striking analogies seem to suggest an affirmative answer to the question at stake; however, evidence can also be found which rather supports the opposite conclusion. Nevertheless, the Florence manuscripts certainly belong to a Hebrew/Aramaic tradition which is very close to the Vorlage of the Extractiones. Moreover, the Latin text they offer in their magins reflects a prior stage of work in the production of the Extractiones, featuring unique variants and passages, which are corrected or omitted in the rest of the Latin manuscript tradition.

  9. Geomatic 3d Modeling of a Statue (also) for Structural Analysis and Risk Evaluation: the Example of San Giovannino Martelli in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangher, A.; Visintini, D.; Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.

    2017-05-01

    This work has been developed among the researches of a PhD thesis in Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture of the University of Udine in cooperation with the GECO Laboratory of the University of Florence. It focuses on the interaction between Geomatics and Structural Analysis, both applied to cultural heritage, and expressly to artefacts and structures in stone materials, like the case study of this paper, the marble statue called "San Giovannino Martelli" (Saint John the Baptist) conserved in Florence. At the beginning, some interesting examples of surveying and structural analyses on statues are reported, in order to remind the complementary tasks and requirements of geomatics and structural analysis. Current laser scanning systems can accurately survey the geometry of a statue or any cultural heritage artefact, essential to understand their structural behaviour and resilience capability. Afterwards, following the few Italian regulations in this field, the possible risks of museum goods are described: topics of this part are more familiar for structural engineers as object classification, seismic reactions, damage mechanisms, possible movements (adherent, slipping and oscillation), dynamic domains, anyway necessary steps to evaluate the risk and so to define eventual interventions. The artistic description of the statue, its debated attribution to Donatello or/and to Desiderio da Settignano and its history is later recalled, remembering that the surveying has been done for the idea to 3D print a replica and to place it in the original place. Having used a close range laser scanner, the obtained 3D model has an impressive geometrical Level of Detail (LoD), whose geometric features are explained in the paper, underlying that such extremely detailed mesh is directly given as output from the laser scanner software. The model simplifications by four decimation are therefore explained and also changes to geometry, like shifts on centre of the mass or

  10. GEOMATIC 3D MODELING OF A STATUE (ALSO FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND RISK EVALUATION: THE EXAMPLE OF SAN GIOVANNINO MARTELLI IN FLORENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spangher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work has been developed among the researches of a PhD thesis in Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture of the University of Udine in cooperation with the GECO Laboratory of the University of Florence. It focuses on the interaction between Geomatics and Structural Analysis, both applied to cultural heritage, and expressly to artefacts and structures in stone materials, like the case study of this paper, the marble statue called “San Giovannino Martelli” (Saint John the Baptist conserved in Florence. At the beginning, some interesting examples of surveying and structural analyses on statues are reported, in order to remind the complementary tasks and requirements of geomatics and structural analysis. Current laser scanning systems can accurately survey the geometry of a statue or any cultural heritage artefact, essential to understand their structural behaviour and resilience capability. Afterwards, following the few Italian regulations in this field, the possible risks of museum goods are described: topics of this part are more familiar for structural engineers as object classification, seismic reactions, damage mechanisms, possible movements (adherent, slipping and oscillation, dynamic domains, anyway necessary steps to evaluate the risk and so to define eventual interventions. The artistic description of the statue, its debated attribution to Donatello or/and to Desiderio da Settignano and its history is later recalled, remembering that the surveying has been done for the idea to 3D print a replica and to place it in the original place. Having used a close range laser scanner, the obtained 3D model has an impressive geometrical Level of Detail (LoD, whose geometric features are explained in the paper, underlying that such extremely detailed mesh is directly given as output from the laser scanner software. The model simplifications by four decimation are therefore explained and also changes to geometry, like shifts on

  11. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  12. The center for production of single-photon emitters at the electrostatic-deflector line of the Tandem accelerator of LABEC (Florence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Stefano; Sciortino, Silvio; Gelli, Nicla; Flatae, Assegid M.; Gorelli, Federico; Santoro, Mario; Chiari, Massimo; Czelusniac, Caroline; Massi, Mirko; Taccetti, Francesco; Agio, Mario; Giuntini, Lorenzo

    2018-05-01

    The line for the pulsed beam of the 3 MeV Tandetron accelerator at LABEC (Florence) has been upgraded for ion implantation experiments aiming at the fabrication of single-photon emitters in a solid-state matrix. A system based on Al attenuators has been calibrated in order to extend the energy range of the implanted ions from MeV down to the tens of keV. A new motorized XY stage has been installed in the implantation chamber for achieving ultra-fine control on the position of each implanted ion, allowing to reach the scale imposed by lateral straggling. A set-up for the activation of the implanted ions has been developed, based on an annealing furnace operating under controlled high-vacuum conditions. The first experiments have been performed with silicon ions implanted in diamond and the luminescent signal of the silicon-vacancy (SiV) center, peaked at 738 nm, has been observed for a wide range of implantation fluences (108 ÷ 1015 cm-2) and implantation depths (from a few nm to 2.4 μm). Studies on the efficiency of the annealing process have been performed and the activation yield has been measured to range from 1% to 3%. The implantation and annealing facility has thus been tuned for the production of SiV centers in diamond, but is in principle suitable for other ion species and solid-state matrices.

  13. Literature as Enchantment or the Regained Grandeur of the Novel: An Essay on Salman Rushdie’s Novel The Enchantress of Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriescu Garcia Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available My essay intends to analyze the dialectic relationship between historical reality and fiction in the novel The Enchantress of Florence by Salman Rushdie. I will point out a sophisticated and playful story in which the author interweaves elements of history and literature, a game-story that transcends the canonical limits of postmodernism where the novel has constantly been placed by the critical establishment, and goes back to the beginnings, to the anthropological function of play as an essential human activity that was once defined by Johan Huizinga in Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-element in Culture. Moreover, my paper will explore how this play becomes Rushdie’s attempt to return to the original function of literature which used to enchant and inform at the same time. Once these roots have been reached, however, and the secondary reality of the literary game is well-established, Rushdie manages to break the barriers between reality and fiction, and through versatile textual mechanisms, to intermingle history and reality in a way that makes them merge. Consequently, he composes a play within fiction that is just as powerful as reality itself and suggests the fact that representation has more ontological consistency than the represented body or event itself. We exist as long as we are written and talked about, and nothing in the order of reality can be as powerful as the reality of language.

  14. Animals, Pictures, and Skeletons: Andreas Vesalius's Reinvention of the Public Anatomy Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotwell, R Allen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the procedures used by Andreas Vesalius for conducting public dissections in the early sixteenth century. I point out that in order to overcome the limitations of public anatomical demonstration noted by his predecessors, Vesalius employed several innovative strategies, including the use of animals as dissection subjects, the preparation and display of articulated skeletons, and the use of printed and hand-drawn illustrations. I suggest that the examination of these three strategies for resolving the challenges of public anatomical demonstration helps us to reinterpret Vesalius's contributions to sixteenth-century anatomy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. LASER SCANNING AND MODELLING OF BARELY VISIBLE FEATURES: THE SURVEY OF THE GROTTO OF THE ANIMALS AT THE VILLA OF CASTELLO (FLORENCE

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    V. Tesi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The deep fusion of natural and artificial elements typical of Italian Renaissance gardens is particularly evident in the park of Villa di Castello and in the Grotto of the Animals, also called Grotto of the Flood. The soil slope is the essential element of a huge underlying hydraulic machine and it is the result of extensive earthworks which led to the construction of the big retaining wall limiting the grotto and the adjacent fountains. Hence, this grotto represents only the visible part of a mechanism running all around it. It is formed by a single chamber vaulted and covered with sponge-like stones, as well as decorations made of pebbles and shells. The space is divided into three wings, with big marble basins at their end. Over them there are reliefs of animals made of different stones and marbles. Animals recur also in the compositions of fish and shellfish decorating the side basins and in the bronze birds currently kept in the Museo del Bargello. The name “Grotto of the Flood” comes from the water feature that characterised this place: visitors were surprised by tens of jets hidden among the stones in the vault and in the floor. To obtain this effect, the whole grotto is surrounded by multi-storey tunnels, hiding the hydraulic system and people activating the mechanisms. Research agreements were drawn up between the Special Superintendence for the Historical, Artistic and Ethnoanthropological Heritage, the Florence museums group and the GeCO Lab, for the realization of the survey presented in this paper. The task of the GeCO Lab was thus identifying the best solutions to check the spatial relations between the grotto and the area above, as well as the geometric and functional connections between the building and the ancient hydraulic system, composed by pipes and nozzles concealed between the stones. Besides, the overall survey was intended as a documentation of the on-going restoration work.

  16. Laser Scanning and Modelling of Barely Visible Features: the Survey of the Grotto of the Animals at the Villa of Castello (florence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, V.; Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Fiorini, L.; Conti, A.

    2017-05-01

    The deep fusion of natural and artificial elements typical of Italian Renaissance gardens is particularly evident in the park of Villa di Castello and in the Grotto of the Animals, also called Grotto of the Flood. The soil slope is the essential element of a huge underlying hydraulic machine and it is the result of extensive earthworks which led to the construction of the big retaining wall limiting the grotto and the adjacent fountains. Hence, this grotto represents only the visible part of a mechanism running all around it. It is formed by a single chamber vaulted and covered with sponge-like stones, as well as decorations made of pebbles and shells. The space is divided into three wings, with big marble basins at their end. Over them there are reliefs of animals made of different stones and marbles. Animals recur also in the compositions of fish and shellfish decorating the side basins and in the bronze birds currently kept in the Museo del Bargello. The name "Grotto of the Flood" comes from the water feature that characterised this place: visitors were surprised by tens of jets hidden among the stones in the vault and in the floor. To obtain this effect, the whole grotto is surrounded by multi-storey tunnels, hiding the hydraulic system and people activating the mechanisms. Research agreements were drawn up between the Special Superintendence for the Historical, Artistic and Ethnoanthropological Heritage, the Florence museums group and the GeCO Lab, for the realization of the survey presented in this paper. The task of the GeCO Lab was thus identifying the best solutions to check the spatial relations between the grotto and the area above, as well as the geometric and functional connections between the building and the ancient hydraulic system, composed by pipes and nozzles concealed between the stones. Besides, the overall survey was intended as a documentation of the on-going restoration work.

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques applied to the noninvasive investigation of mural paintings: a feasibility study carried out on a wall painting by Beato Angelico in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucci, Costanza; Picollo, Marcello; Chiarantini, Leandro; Sereni, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays hyperspectral imaging is a well-established methodology for the non-invasive diagnostics of polychrome surfaces, and is increasingly utilized in museums and conservation laboratories for documentation purposes and in support of restoration procedures. However, so far the applications of hyperspectral imaging have been mainly limited to easel paintings or paper-based artifacts. Indeed, specifically designed hyperspectral imagers, are usually used for applications in museum context. These devices work at short-distances from the targets and cover limited size surfaces. Instead, almost still unexplored remain the applications of hyperspectral imaging to the investigations of frescoes and large size mural paintings. For this type of artworks a remote sensing approach, based on sensors capable of acquiring hyperspectral data from distances of the order of tens of meters, is needed. This paper illustrates an application of hyperspectral remote sensing to an important wall-painting by Beato Angelico, located in the San Marco Museum in Florence. Measurements were carried out using a re-adapted version of the Galileo Avionica Multisensor Hyperspectral System (SIM-GA), an avionic hyperspectral imager originally designed for applications from mobile platforms. This system operates in the 400-2500 nm range with over 700 channels, thus guaranteeing acquisition of high resolution hyperspectral data exploitable for materials identification and mapping. In the present application, the SIM-GA device was mounted on a static scanning platform for ground-based applications. The preliminary results obtained on the Angelico's wall-painting are discussed, with highlights on the main technical issues addressed to optimize the SIM-GA system for new applications on cultural assets.

  18. HTA decision support system for sustainable business continuity management in hospitals. The case of surgical activity at the University Hospital in Florence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Roberto; Dori, Fabrizio; Cecconi, Giulio; Gusinu, Roberto; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Gentili, Guido Biffi

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental element of the social and safety function of a health structure is the need to guarantee continuity of clinical activity through the continuity of technology. This paper aims to design a Decision Support System (DSS) for medical technology evaluations based on the use of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in order to provide a multi-disciplinary valuation of a technology in a health structure. The methodology used in planning the DSS followed the following key steps: the definition of relevant KPIs, the development of a database to calculate the KPIs, the calculation of the defined KPIs and the resulting study report. Finally, the clinical and economic validation of the system was conducted though a case study of Business Continuity applied in the operating department of the Florence University Hospital AOU Careggi in Italy. A web-based support system was designed for HTA in health structures. The case study enabled Business Continuity Management (BCM) to be implemented in a hospital department in relation to aspects of a single technology and the specific clinical process. Finally, an economic analysis of the procedure was carried out. The system is useful for decision makers in that it precisely defines which equipment to include in the BCM procedure, using a scale analysis of the specific clinical process in which the equipment is used. In addition, the economic analysis shows how the cost of the procedure is completely covered by the indirect costs which would result from the expenses incurred from a broken device, hence showing the complete auto-sustainability of the methodology.

  19. The Anaximander Mountains linkages with the Florence Rise in the east and the Pliny-Strabo Trench in the west, eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Melanie; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; Çifçi, Günay

    2014-05-01

    Interpretation of ~4500 km of high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection profiles and correlation with complex multibeam bathymetric features allows us to assess the Neogene tectonics of this area of the Anaximander Mountains at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs. Three seiusmic stratigraphic units are observed in this region and are correlated with exploration wells drilled onland in the Antalya and Kasaba Basins, and DSDP holes 375 and 376: The uppermost Unit (1, Pliocene-Quaternary) is a strongly reflective laterally continuous package of high frequency reflections which extends from the seabed to the M-reflector. Beneath this, Unit 2 (Messinian) is a weakly reflective package displaying complex internal architecture with weak, discontinuous and often chaotic reflections bounded at their top and base by the M- and N-reflectors, respectively. Unit 3 (pre-Messinian Miocene) is a strongly reverberatory, high reflective package of low amplitude reflections with significant lateral continuity. The structural architecture of the Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato) at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs is characterised by two phases of deformation. A protracted interval of contraction in the Miocene created a series of broadly east-west trending and predominantly south-verging structures across the entire eastern Mediterranean. This phase culminated in the latest Miocene and was followed in the Pliocene-Quaternary by an interval of spatially-partitioned strain which resulted in the development of discrete domains characterized by extensional, contractional, transpressional and transtensional structures. The Anaximenes and Anaxagoras Mountains in the east and southeast exhibit contractional/transpressional deformation and form the linkage with the Florence Rise to the southeast. An arcuate and extensively faulted and folded region immediately northwest of the Anaximenes and Anaxagoras Mountains (i.e., the Sırrı Erinç Plateau) forms a 30-40 km

  20. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  1. Florence (Italy Department of Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Campolmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CO2 laser has been used extensively in dermatological surgery over the past 30 years and is now recognised as the gold standard for soft tissue vaporization. Considering that the continuous wave CO2 laser delivery system and the newer “superpulsed” and scanned CO2 systems have progressively changed our practice and patient satisfaction, a long range documentation can be useful. Our experience has demonstrated that the use of CO2 laser involves a reduced healing time, an infrequent need for anaesthesia, reduced thermal damage, less bleeding, less inflammation, the possibility of intra-operative histologic and/or cytologic examination, and easy access to anatomically difficult areas. Immediate side effects have been pain, erythema, edema, typically see with older methods, using higher power. The percentage of after-treatment keloids and hypertrophic scars observed was very low (~1% especially upon the usage of lower parameters. The recurrence of viral lesions (condylomas and warts have been not more frequent than those due to other techniques. Tumor recurrence is minor compared with radiotherapy or surgery. This method is a valid alternative to surgery and/or diathermocoagulation for microsurgery of soft tissues. Our results are at times not consistent with those published in the literature, stressing the concept that multicentric studies that harmonization methodology and the patient selection are vital.

  2. Once a physicist: David Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, David

    2009-03-01

    I did mathematical physics because it was just what I was best at. I enjoyed it at school, so I applied to do it at Nottingham University. I fell into it, to be quite honest. Once at university, I struggled at first, partly because I found it quite difficult to combine studying with competing and training in sport, which is pretty much full time as well. But by the end of my university career, I had learned to be organized, and to manage my time pretty effectively, so I enjoyed it a lot more.

  3. Seismic response monitoring of the Arno river masonry embankment during the conservation works after the Lungarno Torrigiani riverbank landslide (Florence - May 25, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Alessia; Pazzi, Veronica; Chiara, Paolo; Lombardi, Luca; Nocentini, Massimiliano; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Geohazards are the most relevant processes that can damage or increase the risk of human beings, properties, critical and transport infrastructures, and environment itself. They also could involve the interruption of human activities. The concepts of disaster risk reduction and disaster risk management involve the development, improvement, and application of policies, strategies, and practices to minimize disaster risks throughout society. Since 1972 (UNESCO Convention) the identification, protection, and preservation of cultural and natural heritage has been recognized to be of outstanding value to humanity, and a key resource to build resilient societies. Nevertheless, world architectural wealth is accumulating damages and heavy losses because of both materials deterioration and exceptional natural or man-made events. The "health" of buildings/structures/infrastructures may be evaluate by its deterioration or damage level. Thus, structure dynamic characterization and microtremor analysis are considered powerful techniques, even thought seismic noise techniques in densely populated area are hardly to carry out because of the background noise due to the human activities. A wide bibliography about buildings/structures/infrastructures seismic dynamic characterization is counterposed to a missing one about their seismic response during conservation/safety works, even thought the seismic vibration monitoring (SVM) is widely used. On May 25, 2016 a riverbank landslide seriously damaged a portion roughly 100 m long of the Lungarno Torrigiani historical masonry embankment wall (left river bank of the Florence urban stretch of the Arno river, between Ponte alle Grazie e Ponte Vecchio). The street next to the embankment wall collapsed, and the earth fill material was fully retained by the embankment wall that did not collapse but seriously deformed towards the Arno river, fracturing itself in three main areas (a cusp roughly in the middle of the damaged wall, where is also

  4. From conception to birth: ancient library sources of embryology and women anatomy kept in the Biblioteca Biomedica of the Università degli Studi di Firenze (Biomedical Library of Florence University).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Laura; Frigenti, Lucia; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

    2011-01-01

    The Biomedical Library of the University of Florence boasts a prestigious group of books collected at first in 1679 at the hospital "Santa Maria Nuova" and then continuously enriched in the course of time up today. The "Antique Collection" consists of 13 incunabola, hundreds of 16th-century books, more than one thousand books on medical subject from the 1600's, about six thousand 18th-century volumes and several large, valuable anatomical atlases. In this paper the most important, curious and fascinating books dealing with human ontogeny (from embryo generation to birth) and with female anatomy (mostly concerning pregnancy and childbirth) are reported in chronological order starting from the work of Hippocrates. Among the ancient sources useful for the reconstruction of the opinions about obstetrics there are also outstanding handbooks specifically edited for midwives. Many of these antique books are especially precious because they embed a great number of didactic pictures, some of which may compete against any modern book of anatomy, embryology and obstetric. Selected images from these books are shown.

  5. Is hepatitis B vaccination performed at infant and adolescent age able to provide long-term immunological memory? An observational study on healthcare students and workers in Florence, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Costanza; Grazzini, Maddalena; Chellini, Martina; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio; Tiscione, Emilia; Bonanni, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Universal vaccination programmes against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) have significantly reduced the burden of the disease; nevertheless, HBV infection remains a relevant issue for high-risk subjects, such as healthcare workers (HCWs), who may potentially be exposed to blood or body fluids. Our study evaluates the long-term duration of the immunological memory of HBV vaccination 11-23 years after primary immunization by examining the response to booster doses in HCWs and students of health disciplines at Careggi Teaching Hospital in Florence (Italy). All participants (n = 2,203) had received a complete HBV immunization course in infancy or adolescence. Blood samples were collected to measure antibody levels against the HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs); an anti-HBs titre long-term anti-HBs titres compared to those in case of vaccination performed during adolescence (titre long incubation period of the disease allows the activation of immunologic memory mechanisms, which is also true in case of low anti-HBs level. In conclusion HCWs still represent a high-risk category; it is therefore, necessary to increase efforts to protect and vaccinate these subjects.

  6. Giacomo Zabarella: a critical aristotelian in the age of the scientific revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel García Valverde

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Giacomo Zabarella is considered one of the most prestigious and most influential sixteenth century Aristotelians. His logic work, his writings on physics and his commentaries to Aristotle’s books, published posthumously, had a huge impact especially in the early decades of the seventeenth century, when they became true manuals by which many European students were formed. This article analyzes the figure of Zabarella focusing on his work on physics, the De rebus naturalibus libri XXX, published in 1590, just some days before his death.

  7. Credit and Citizenship: the Sauli, Genoese Bankers in Rome in 15th-16th Century

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    Andrea Fara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify what were the strategies that the Sauli of Genoa – one of the several merchant-banking families who arrived in Rome between late fifteenth and early sixteenth century – implemented to gain visibility, prestige and bona fama to the court of the Pope, to serve as lenders of the Pope and the Church, to profitably expand their investment horizons, to extend their political, economic and social influence, to assert their “citizenship” in the so-called “international republic of money and credit”.

  8. Histoires tragiques et " canards sanglants " : Genre et structure du récit bref épouvantable en France à la fin du XVIe et au début du XVIIe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Combe , Vincent

    2011-01-01

    rédaction: 2007-2011; The politico-religious context particularly virulent in recent decades of the sixteenth century and the early seventeenth century has seen a brief literature entirely unique, enriched by different influences. The tragic stories and news items are bloody two genres that evolve and coexist at the time. The first appears in the new line of Italian Mateo Bandello, and is influenced by all this literature brief ranging from the tragic and the comic in the mid-sixteenth centur...

  9. Human capital formation from occupations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pleijt, Alexandra M.; Weisdorf, Jacob L.

    2017-01-01

    -quality workmen’ deemed necessary by Mokyr and others to facilitate the Industrial Revolution, including machine erectors and operators. But we also find remarkable growth in the share of unskilled workers, rising from 20 % in the late sixteenth century to nearly 40 % in the early nineteenth century, caused...... mainly by falling shares of semi-skilled, blue-collar workers. Close inspection of the occupational structures within the main sectors of production suggests that deskilling occurred in agriculture and industry alike, prompted by land concentration in agriculture and workshop-to-factory changes...... in industry....

  10. Early discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Felde, Lina; Gichangi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    prevalence and rate of early discontinuation of different drugs consisting of, in this study, lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, antidepressants, antidiabetics and drugs against osteoporosis. Material and methods This was a register study based on prescription data covering a 4-year period...... and consisting of 470,000 citizens. For each practice and group of drug, a 1-year prevalence for 2002 and the rate of early discontinuation among new users in 2002-2003 were estimated. Early discontinuation was defined as no prescriptions during the second half-year following the first prescription....... There was a positive association between the prevalence of prescribing for the specific drugs studied (antidepressants, antidiabetics, drugs against osteoporosis and lipid-lowering drugs) and early discontinuation (r = 0.29 -0.44), but not for anti-hypertensive drugs. The analysis of the association between prevalence...

  11. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  12. Bioelectrical impedance for detecting and monitoring lymphedema in patients with breast cancer. Preliminary results of the florence nightingale breast study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan Iyigun, Zeynep; Selamoglu, Derya; Alco, Gul; Pilancı, Kezban Nur; Ordu, Cetin; Agacayak, Filiz; Elbüken, Filiz; Bozdogan, Atilla; Ilgun, Serkan; Guler Uysal, Fusun; Ozmen, Vahit

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bioimpedance spectroscopy for the follow-up of patients with lymphedema in Turkey and its benefits in the diagnosis of stage 0, 1, and 2 lymphedema in patients who are under treatment for breast cancer. Thirty-seven female patients with breast cancer who underwent surgical procedures in our Breast Health Centre were followed up for lymphedema using bioimpedance, and clinical measurements were taken for a minimum period of 1 year at 3-month intervals. Patients who had been monitored regularly between November, 2011, and September, 2013, were enrolled to the study. In total, 8 patients developed lymphedema with an overall rate of 21.6%. Among the 8 patients who developed lymphedema, 4 had Stage 2, 1 had Stage 1, and 3 had Stage 0 lymphedema. Stage 0 lymphedema could not be detected with clinical measurements. During the patients' 1-year follow-up period using measurements of bioimpedance, a statistically significant relationship was observed between the occurrence of lymphedema and the disease characteristics. including the number of the extracted and remaining lymph nodes and the region of radiotherapy (p=0.042, p=0.024, p=0.040). Bioimpedance analysis seems to be a practical and reliable method for the early diagnosis of lymphedema. It is believed that regular monitoring of patients in the high-risk group using bioimpedance analyses increases the ability to treat lymphedema.

  13. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  14. Early Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  15. Tasa y tributo en la temprana colonia: la encomienda de songo, suri y oyuni en las yungas de la paz (1545-1573 Tax and tribute in early colony: songo, suri and oyuni encomienda in the yungas of la paz (1545-1573

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Percovich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de las tres tasas conocidas de la encomienda de Songo, Suri y Oyuni del siglo XVI. Estos tres repartimientos se ubicaban en los valles orientales de La Paz y su principal riqueza la constituía su producción de coca. A lo largo de este estudio exploramos las particularidades de cada una de las tasaciones, las características de la tributación y su impacto en la población nativa.This paper deals with three sixteenth century's tax surveys from the encomienda of Songo, Suri and Oyuni. These three repartimientos were located in the eastern valleys of La Paz, and their main wealth was their coca production. Throughout this study we explore the peculiarities of each tax survey, the characteristics of tribute, and their impact on the native population.

  16. Medical topics in the De anima commentary of Coimbra (1598) and the Jesuits' attitude towards medicine in education and natural philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Early-modern Jesuit universities did not offer studies in medicine, and from 1586 onwards, the Jesuit Ratio studiorum prohibited digressions on medical topics in the Aristotelian curriculum. However, some sixteenth-century Jesuit text books used in philosophy classes provided detailed accounts on physiological issues such as sense perception and its organic location as discussed in Aristotle's De anima II, 7-11. This seeming contradiction needs to be explained. In this paper, I focus on the interst in medical topics manifested in a commentary by the Jesuits of Coimbra. Admittedly, the Coimbra commentary constituted an exception, as the Jesuit college that produced it was integrated in a royal university which had a strong interest in educating physicians. It will be claimed that the exclusion of medicine at Jesuit universities and colleges had its origin in rather incidental events in the course of the foundation of the first Jesuit university in Sicily. There, the lay professors of law and medicine intended to avoid subordination to the Jesuits and thereby provoked a conflict which finally led the Jesuit administration to refrain from including faculties of medicine and law in Jesuit universities. Towards the end of the sixteenth century, a veritable Jesuit animosity towards medicine emerged for philosophical and pedagogical reasons. This development reflects educational concerns within the Society as well as the role of commentaries on Aristotle for early-modern learning.

  17. Nosocomios higienistas: el caso Florence Nightingale

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Molina, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Los impresionantes cambios surgidos tras el inicio de la Revolución Industrial ayudaron a que de manera reiterada se buscaran soluciones a los diferentes problemas que se sucedían, uno tras de otro, como resultado del hacinamiento y las modificaciones sociopolíticas y económicas. Los avances en el campo de la ciencia, y en particular en las ciencias de la salud, fueron innumerables, estableciéndose en la sociedad una preocupación marcada por solucionar los problemas de las clases más desfavor...

  18. Exploring the emotional intelligence of Florence Nightingale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ruiz Magpantay-Monroe

    2015-01-01

    "The voice of a leader. It is as resounding as the heart it encourages, as far-reaching as the change it invokes. It is tuned by its keen sense of the voices around it and speaks back in a language they can understand. Its breath enters all that truly hear it, and when it no longer speaks, it can still be heard." Mae Taylor Moss

  19. 'GETTING' THE POX: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia

    This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, "getting the pox" is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  20. ‘Getting’ the Pox: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, “getting the pox” is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  1. Early or Premature Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email updates Enter email Submit Early or premature menopause Menopause that happens before age 40 is called ... What is the difference between early and premature menopause? Early or premature menopause happens when ovaries stop ...

  2. Early hospital discharge and early puerperal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Salinas, Aarón; González, Dolores; Walker, Dilys; Rojo-Herrera, Guadalupe; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between time of postpartum discharge and symptoms indicative of complications during the first postpartum week. Women with vaginal delivery at a Mexico City public hospital, without complications before the hospital discharge, were interviewed seven days after delivery. Time of postpartum discharge was classified as early (25 hours). The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence and severity of puerperal complication symptoms. Out of 303 women, 208 (68%) were discharged early. However, women with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care had lower odds of presenting symptoms in early puerperium than women without early discharge and inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.36; 95% confidence intervals = 0.17-0.76). There was no association between early discharge and symptoms of complications during the first postpartum week; the odds of complications were lower for mothers with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care.

  3. On the Time of the Intellect: The Interpretation of De Anima 3.6 (43ob 7-20) in Renaissance and Early Modern Italian Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubouclez, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that an original debate over the relationship between time and the intellect took place in Northern Italy in the second half of the sixteenth century, which was part of a broader reflection on the temporality of human mental acts. While human intellectual activity was said to be 'above time' during the Middle Ages, Renaissance scholars such as Marcantonio Genua (1491-1563), Giulio Castellani (1528-1586), Antonio Montecatini (1537-1599) and Francesco Piccolomini (1520-1604), greatly influenced by the Simplician and Alexandrist interpretations of Aristotle's works, proposed alterna- tive conceptions based on the interpretation of De anima 3.6 (430b 7-20) according to which intellectual acts happen in a both 'undivided' and 'divisible time'. In order to explain Aristotle's puzzling claim, they were led to conceive of intellectual activity as a process similar to sensation, corresponding to a certain lapse of time (Castellani), an instant (Montecatini), or a mix of instantaneousness and concrete duration (Piccolomini), depending on their theoretical options.

  4. Nuclear non-proliferation: The security context, 5 October 2007, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, stated that nuclear threats have become more dangerous and more complex. We have witnessed the emergence of illicit trade in nuclear technology. Countries have managed to develop clandestine nuclear programmes. Sophisticated extremist groups have shown keen interest in acquiring nuclear weapons. n parallel, nuclear material and nuclear material production have become more difficult to control. Energy security concerns and fears of climate change are prompting many countries to revisit the nuclear power option. And to ensure a supply of reactor fuel, more countries have shown interest in mastering the nuclear fuel cycle - a step that brings them quite close to nuclear weapons capability. Add to this the 27 000 nuclear warheads that already exist in the arsenals of nine countries, and the hair trigger alert deployment level of some of these weapons. And as if these stockpiles and their deployment were not threat enough, most of these countries continue to repeat two inherently contradictory mantras: first, that it is important for them to continue to rely on nuclear weapons for their security; and second, that no one else should have them. 'Do as I say, not as I do'. Against this backdrop, there are four critical aspects of the nuclear non-proliferation regime that we must strengthen - addressing both symptoms and root causes - if we are to avoid a cascade of nuclear proliferation, and our ultimate self-destruction. First, we must develop a more effective approach for dealing with proliferation threats. Second, we must secure existing nuclear material stockpiles and tighten controls over the transfer and production of nuclear material. Third, we must strengthen the verification authority and capability of the IAEA. Fourth, we urgently need to find a way for disarmament to be given the prominence and priority it deserves. In conclusion, it is clear that a security strategy rooted in 'Us versus Them' is no longer viable. Every country, irrespective of its ideology or worldview, will do what it takes to feel secure, including if necessary seeking to acquire nuclear weapons. This is, sadly, the stark reality. What makes this more dangerous is that, in an era of globalization and interdependence, the insecurity of some will inevitably lead to the insecurity of all. And with more countries acquiring such weapons, the odds of use of such a weapon - either intentionally or accidentally - become higher. The prospects for progress will remain grim unless we have a complete change of mindset and begin to work on a new security paradigm. A security paradigm in which no country relies on nuclear weapons for its security. A system with effective mechanisms for resolving conflicts. A system in which longstanding regional conflicts, like those in the Middle East, are given the priority and attention they deserve. A system that is not perceived as a zero sum game, but rather a system that is equitable, inclusive and effective. And last but not least, a system that is centered on human security and the freedom and dignity of the individual. A world in which every individual lives in freedom and dignity is a world at peace

  5. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  6. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  7. Fortissimus robore: Martin Krpan as a case of biblical reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Movrin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Martin Krpan z Vrha, written by Fran Levstik as a conscious experiment in prose-writing, has been interpreted variously during the last century and a half. The duel between a Slovenian peasant and a giant who comes to terrorise Vienna was in turn read by scholars as a political satire, the realisation of a literary and linguistic programme, a literary parody etc. Its motif was mostly interpreted with reference to Slavic folklore characters (Pegam and Lambergar, Prince Marko,peter Klepec etc.. The analysis according to the model devised by Vladimir Propp, however, shows striking similarities with Biblical story of David and Goliath (1 Sm 17. The reception of this motif is marked by significant political overtones, already present in antiquity and then interest­ ingly developed in places as diverse as sixteenth-century Florence, Prague, and the Netherlands. As attested by the sources, Levstik used this motif several limes; to a certain extent he even identi­ fied with its hero.

  8. Cervantes and Literary Preceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Garrido Gallardo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of literary culture often links the Quixote and, by extension, the work of Cervantes with the Preceptive, a theme that perseveringly appears in the curricular studies from the late seventeenth century to the early twentieth century. Not being literary Preceptive more than a normative version of the Poetics and Rhetoric, this paper examines the possible relationship of Cervantes’ work with the normative aspect of both disciplines, such as they flourished in the sixteenth century and early seventeenth century. The symptomatic example of Juan de la Cueva’s El Ejemplar poético (1606 is explored and the itinerary of three possible relationships is followed: the acceptance or rejection of the current preceptive by the author, the presumed adoption of the preceptive as a set of generative rules of its own creation and the use of Cervantes’ production as an example and lesson for the future preceptive.

  9. The bottom of the universe: Flat earth science in the Age of Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegro, James J

    2017-03-01

    This essay challenges the dominance of the spherical earth model in fifteenth- and early-sixteenth-century Western European thought. It examines parallel strains of Latin and vernacular writing that cast doubt on the existence of the southern hemisphere. Three factors shaped the alternate accounts of the earth as a plane and disk put forward by these sources: (1) the unsettling effects of maritime expansion on scientific thought; (2) the revival of interest in early Christian criticism of the spherical earth; and (3) a rigid empirical stance toward entities too large to observe in their entirety, including the earth. Criticism of the spherical earth model faded in the decades after Magellan's crew returned from circuiting the earth in 1522.

  10. Balancing life and work by unbending gender: Early American women psychologists' struggles and contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Elizabeth; Johnson, Ann

    2017-07-01

    Women's participation in the work force shifted markedly throughout the twentieth century, from a low of 21 percent in 1900 to 59 percent in 1998. The influx of women into market work, particularly married women with children, put pressure on the ideology of domesticity: an ideal male worker in the outside market married to a woman taking care of children and home (Williams, 2000). Here, we examine some moments in the early-to-mid-twentieth century when female psychologists contested established norms of life-work balance premised on domesticity. In the 1920s, Ethel Puffer Howes, one of the first generation of American women psychologists studied by Scarborough and Furumoto (1987), challenged the waste of women's higher education represented by the denial of their interests outside of the confines of domesticity with pioneering applied research on communitarian solutions to life-work balance. Prominent second-generation psychologists, such as Leta Hollingworth, Lillian Gilbreth, and Florence Goodenough, sounded notes of dissent in a variety of forums in the interwar period. At mid-century, the exclusion of women psychologists from war work galvanized more organized efforts to address their status and life-work balance. Examination of the ensuing uneasy collaboration between psychologist and library scholar Alice Bryan and the influential male gatekeeper E. G. Boring documents gendered disparities in life-work balance and illuminates how the entrenched ideology of domesticity was sustained. We conclude with Jane Loevinger's mid-century challenge to domesticity and mother-blaming through her questioning of Boring's persistent focus on the need for job concentration in professional psychologists and development of a novel research focus on mothering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Anatomia practica: features from the history of early patho-anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Olaf Myhre

    2002-01-01

    Since the anatomy school of Alexandria during the fourth og third century before Christ dissection of the human body seems not to have been practiced until late Medieval or early Renaissance period, undoubtedly due to ethical and religious aversions. The teaching of anatomy was based on Galen using animal dissection. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, however, anatomical examinations of the human body slowly began, seemingly for the purpose of describing both the normal structure and the abnormal structure caused by diseases, maldevelopment or trauma. This latter branch of anatomy was called practical, medical or correlative anatomy and corresponds to what we today name as patho-anatomy. Antonio Benivieni of Florence (1442-1502) is the first one to collect (and publish) a series of clinical observations some of which could be correlated to post mortem findings. It is unknown, however, whether the autopsies were performed by himself; and there is no mentioning of technique or circumstances for sectioning. Studies of the dead body by incision for the purpose of displaying diseased organs (autopsy) seem to have been an accepted practice for which relatives consented in those days. Other medical doctors in the years to follow, as for instance Fernel (1485-1558) in Paris, Eustachius (1524-1574) in Rome, Felix Plater (1536-1614) in Basle and Th. Bartholin (1616-1680) in Copenhagen have used the anatomical method for the study of diseases. Further, Schenck (1530-1598) in Freiburg and Bonet (1620-1689) in Genéva collected and published large series of clinical symptoms which had been related to post mortem findings dating back to ancient observers. This is the scientific background for anatomists as Morgagni, Lieutaud, Baillie, Bichât and others who founded the morbid anatomy on which the study of disease flourished in the classical patho-anatomical era of the nineteenth century with names as Rokitanski and Virchow.

  12. Early Transcendental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cowell, Simon; Poulin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In Early Transcendentals (The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 104, No 7) Steven Weintraub presents a rigorous justifcation of the "early transcendental" calculus textbook approach to the exponential and logarithmic functions. However, he uses tools such as term-by-term differentiation of infinite series. We present a rigorous treatment of the early transcendental approach suitable for a first course in analysis, using mainly the supremum property of the real numbers.

  13. Public Policy and Corporate Protectionism: Regional Institutions and Textile Guilds in Seventeenth Century Aragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio MATEOS ROYO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a regional case study, this article will argue that the craft guilds could respond adaptively to changing economic and institutional factors. This flexibility would limit any independent and regular impact of these guilds on regional or state economies in early modern Europe. Having contributed to economic growth in the sixteenth century, the Aragonese textile guilds fell prey to technological stagnation in the seventeenth, while restricting competition in urban product and labour markets as the region’s economy contracted. Their actions thus undermined quality and raised the cost of domestic manufactures. The regional institutions nevertheless tolerated these strategies within certain limits, because they saw the guilds as necessary to organize urban markets and production.

  14. Pirate Alterity and Mimesis in Colonial Epic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Navascués

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pirate representation is studied in a series of Epic poems in the late sixteenth century and early seventeenth century. The ambiguous image of the English enemy is read in texts by Juan de Miramontes, Pedro de Oña, Martín del Barco Centenera and Juan de Castellanos, among others. On the one hand, Colonial Epic ignores some important differences between privateers and pirates since the privateering had been legally accepted by all European nations, including Spain. Besides, Pirate is always called «Lutheran» and revealing its absolute otherness with respect to the Catholic model. On the other hand, it proposes a laudatory epics enemy painting from the imitation of the values accepted by the colonial society. The relationship between the Spanish hero and the privateer is represented not in a vertical direction, as could happen between colonizer and colonized subject, but on a level of rivalry.

  15. Zaccaria Lilio and the shape of the earth: A brief response to Allegro's "Flat earth science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothaft, C Philipp E

    2017-12-01

    This is a response to James J. Allegro's article "The Bottom of the Universe: Flat Earth Science in the Age of Encounter," published in Volume 55, Number 1, of this journal. Against the solid consensus of modern scholars, Allegro contends that the decades around 1500 saw a resurgence of popular and learned doubts about the existence of a southern hemisphere and the concept of a spherical earth more generally. It can be shown that a substantial part of Allegro's argument rests on an erroneous reading of his main textual witness, Zaccaria Lilio's Contra Antipodes (1496), and on a failure adequately to place this source in the context of the cosmographical debate of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Once this context is taken into account, the notion that Lilio was a flat-earther falls flat.

  16. Early Retirement Payoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  17. Early Modern Philosophical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What

  18. Early Intervention in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallai, Maria; Katona, Ferenc; Balogh, Erzsebet; Schultheisz, Judit; Deveny, Anna; Borbely, Sjoukje

    2000-01-01

    This article presents five models of early intervention used in Budapest. Diagnostic and treatment methods used by the Pediatric Institute and the Conductive Education System are described, along with the Deveny Special Manual Technique and Gymnastic Method, the Gezenguz method and techniques used in the Early Developmental Center. (CR)

  19. The early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the physics of the early universe: the production and survival of relics from the big bang. The author comments on relic WIMPs as the dark matter in the universe. The remainder of this discussion is devoted to a review of the status of the only predictions from the early evolution of the universe that are accessible to astronomical observation: primordial nucleosynthesis

  20. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  1. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  2. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  3. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome. Method During 1997–2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... and cognitive factors and for global assessment of functioning for social functioning at 5-year follow-up. The ED group also had more contacts with friends. Regression analysis did not find that these differences could be explained by confounders. Conclusions Early treatment had positive effects on clinical...

  4. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  5. Guideline for Early Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vries, de, Maaike

    2006-01-01

    .... During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing. International literature has shown that the psychosocial effects of disaster and military deployment may last for years...

  6. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  7. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  8. Early intervention in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges to their implementa......AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges...... benefits alone is not enough to promote implementation, as economic arguments and political and social pressure have shown to be important elements in efforts to achieve implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Users' narratives, close collaboration with community organizations and support from policy-makers and known...

  9. Earth's early biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  10. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  11. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres.......Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  12. Who Gets Early Tracheostomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the benefits of early tracheostomy in patients dependent on ventilators are well established, the reasons for variation in time from intubation to tracheostomy remain unclear. We identified clinical and demographic disparities in time to tracheostomy. METHODS: We performed a level 3 retrospective prognostic study by querying the University HealthSystem Consortium (2007-2010) for adult patients receiving a tracheostomy after initial intubation. Time to tracheostomy was designated early ( 10 days). Cohorts were stratified by time to tracheostomy and compared using univariate tests of association and multivariable adjusted models. RESULTS: A total of 49,191 patients underwent tracheostomy after initial intubation: 42% early (n = 21,029) and 58% late (n = 28,162). On both univariate and multivariable analyses, women, blacks, Hispanics, and patients receiving Medicaid were less likely to receive an early tracheostomy. Patients in the early group also experienced lower rates of mortality (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Early tracheostomy was associated with increased survival. Yet, there were still significant disparities in time to tracheostomy according to sex, race, and type of insurance. Application of evidence-based algorithms for tracheostomy may reduce unequal treatment and improve overall mortality rates. Additional research into this apparent bias in referral/rendering of tracheostomy is needed. PMID:26313324

  13. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  14. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  15. Early cosmology constrained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul [Institute of Cosmos Sciences, University of Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí Franquès, 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bellini, Emilio [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pigozzo, Cassio [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Heavens, Alan F., E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: emilio.bellini@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br, E-mail: a.heavens@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu [Imperial Centre for Inference and Cosmology (ICIC), Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter Ω{sub MR} < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < N {sub eff} < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is r {sub s} = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to r {sub s} = 150 ± 5 Mpc.

  16. Participar sin pertenecer. La participación política de los ciudadanos no nacionales en dos áreas urbanas: Alicante y Florencia (Take part without belonging. The political participation of non-national citizens in two urban areas: Alicante and Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Santoni

    2013-01-01

    urban contexts of the Mediterranean Eurozone, Alicante (Spain and Florence (Italy, which could be considered “most similar cases” for their history of migration.

  17. Early insulin resistance in severe trauma without head injury as outcome predictor? A prospective, monocentric pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonizzoli Manuela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia following major trauma is a well know phenomenon related to stress-induced systemic reaction. Reports on glucose level management in patients with head trauma have been published, but the development of insulin resistance in trauma patients without head injury has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the prognostic role of acute insulin-resistance, assessed by the HOMA model, in patients with severe trauma without head injury. Methods All patients consecutively admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a tertiary referral center (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, IT for major trauma without head injury (Jan-Dec 2010 were enrolled. Patients with a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy or metabolism alteration were excluded from the analysis. Patients were divided into “insulin resistant” and “non-insulin resistant” based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA IR. Results are expressed as medians. Results Out of 175 trauma patients admitted to the ICU during the study period, a total of 54 patients without head trauma were considered for the study, 37 of whom met the inclusion criteria. In total, 23 patients (62.2% resulted insulin resistant, whereas 14 patients (37.8% were non-insulin resistant. Groups were comparable in demographic, clinical/laboratory characteristics, and severity of injury. Insulin resistant patients had a significantly higher BMI (P=0.0416, C-reactive protein (P=0.0265, and leukocytes count (0.0301, compared to non-insulin resistant patients. Also ICU length of stay was longer in insulin resistant patients (P=0.0381. Conclusions Our data suggest that admission insulin resistance might be used as an early outcome predictor.

  18. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine sh......After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria......-Palestine shortly before, and in the two centuries after, the Islamic expansion (the later sixth to the early ninth century AD), drawing on a wide range of new evidence from recent archaeological work. Alan Walmsley challenges conventional explanations for social change with the arrival of Islam, arguing...

  19. Early breastfeeding problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Kirkeby, Mette Jørgine; Thygesen, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding problems are common and associated with early cessation. Stilllength of postpartum hospital stay has been reduced. This leaves new mothers to establish breastfeeding at home with less support from health care professionals. The objective was to explore mothers’ perspectives...... on when breastfeeding problems were the most challenging and prominent early postnatal. The aim was also toidentify possible factors associated with the breastfeeding problems. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a mixed method approach was used to analyse postal survey data from 1437 mothers with full...... term singleton infants. Content analysis was used to analyse mothers’ open text descriptions of their most challenging breastfeeding problem. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for early breastfeeding problems according to sociodemographic- and psychosocial factors. Results...

  20. Early Intervention in Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380

  1. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  2. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  3. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Education... meetings and written submissions, is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and... assistance providers, researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early learning and...

  4. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  5. Introduction to "Early psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick; Nordentoft, Merete; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    warrants careful analysis. The Third International Early Psychosis Conference proved to be a watershed and was the largest and most vibrant meeting to that point. This preface aims to set the scene for a selection of contributions, derived from the array of new evidence reported in Copenhagen, and recently...

  6. Early Functional Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...

  7. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    This book presents a new interpretation of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine in the decades before and during the two centuries after the Islamic expansion into the region (roughly the later 6th to the early 9th century AD). Drawing on a wide range of evidence from recent...

  8. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...

  9. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  10. Characteristics of early psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, P.F.; Emck, C.; van Engeland, H.

    2006-01-01

    There is little research on characteristics related to course and prognosis of early-onset psychosis. The present article aims to advance our knowledge of this disorder for the purpose of proper diagnosis and treatment. It focuses on premorbid and prodromal characteristics, treatment history,

  11. Early practice: neurotology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Joseph T; Vrabec, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Besides technical and surgical proficiency, some of the most important skills for a young Neurotologist to refine include communication and critical thinking abilities. This Early Practice article provides perspectives on common challenges and career development from a current Neurotology fellow and his mentor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Development of a design methodology that can handle the vast design space in early building design. •A global design space is modelled from extensive Monte Carlo simulations. •Sensitivity analysis methods applied to guide decision-makers. •Interactive visualizations help the multi-act...

  13. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  14. Early prenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Rathod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed early periosteal changes in lower end of humerus and lower end of tibia. Diagnosis of early pre-natal syphilis was confirmed by Child′s Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Antibody test [S.RPR] being positive with 1:64 dilution while that of mother was 1:8.

  15. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  16. Mapping the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe

  17. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  18. Coaching in Early Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Carrie; Sarama, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Falling scores in math have prompted a renewed interest in math instruction at early ages. By their own admission, early childhood educators are generally underprepared and not always comfortable teaching math. Professional development (PD) in early mathematics is widely considered a main way to increase teachers' skills and efficacy (e.g., Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Munby, Russell, & Martin, 2001; Piasta, Logan, Pelatti, Capps, & Petrill, 2015; Richardson & Placier, 2001; Sarama, Clements, Wolfe, & Spitler, 2016; Sarama & DiBiase, 2004; Zaslow, 2014). However, it has been documented that stand-alone PD is not as effective in changing practice (e.g., Biancarosa & Bryk, 2011; Garet et al., 2008; Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2015; Joyce & Showers, 2002; Zaslow, 2014). Site-embedded ongoing support in the form of coaching or mentoring has been shown to be critical for successful implementation (Neuman & Cunningham, 2009; Powell, Diamond, Burchinal, & Koehler, 2010). In this chapter, we describe coaching models and abstract characteristics of effective coaching from the research. With this background, we provide an in-depth view of the coaching aspect of two large empirical studies in early mathematics. We introduce the theoretical framework from which the coaching models for these projects were developed and describe the research on which they were based. We then summarize how the planned models were instantiated and challenges to their implementation within each project. In the final section, we summarize what we have learned and described implications and challenges for the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early prevention of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  20. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  1. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced. Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly. Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  2. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  3. Mapping the early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-06-15

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe.

  4. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  5. Early intervention as a catalyst for effective early childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. ... As Ghana strides towards mainstreaming early childhood education in the quest ... an integrated, inclusive and effective early intervention programme becomes ...

  6. Finding Florence: Shedding Light on Nurse Practitioners' Professional Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. ter Maten-Speksnijder (Ada)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe new professional role ‘nurse practitioner’ (in Dutch: verpleegkundig specialist) challenges nurses to distuinguish themselves from nurses educated at the Bacher level by the criteria: independency, expertise, and an active attitude to role development. A crucial aspect of their

  7. Florence Jessie MacWilliams (1917-1990)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preeti Shankar

    Johns Hopkins University, following him to Harvard University to study with him for a year. There was a ... was a student in Harvard at the same time. ... neers. It was one of the major works responsible for laying the foundation for a revolution.

  8. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Adrenal Gland Metastases: University of Florence Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casamassima, Franco; Livi, Lorenzo; Masciullo, Stefano; Menichelli, Claudia; Masi, Laura; Meattini, Icro; Bonucci, Ivano; Agresti, Benedetta; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Doro, Raffaela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a retrospective single-institution outcome after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and December 2009, we treated 48 patients with SBRT for adrenal metastases. The median age of the patient population was 62.7 years (range, 43–77 years). In the majority of patients, the prescription dose was 36 Gy in 3 fractions (70% isodose, 17.14 Gy per fraction at the isocenter). Eight patients were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery and forty patients with multi-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy. Results: Overall, the series of patients was followed up for a median of 16.2 months (range, 3–63 months). At the time of analysis, 20 patients were alive and 28 patients were dead. The 1- and 2-year actuarial overall survival rates were 39.7% and 14.5%, respectively. We recorded 48 distant failures and 2 local failures, with a median interval to local failure of 4.9 months. The actuarial 1-year disease control rate was 9%; the actuarial 1- and 2-year local control rate was 90%. Conclusion: Our retrospective study indicated that SBRT for the treatment of adrenal metastases represents a safe and effective option with a control rate of 90% at 2 years.

  9. Florence Jessie MacWilliams (1917-1990)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    famous mathematician Oscar Zariski, well known for his work in algebraic geometry, at. Johns Hopkins University, following him to Harvard University to study with him for a year. There was a break in her studies for many years following her marriage in 1941 to. W al ter Mac Williams, an engineer, and the birth and raising of ...

  10. Presentation of the Case / Florence G'Sell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    G'Sell, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Töötervishoiust, asbestimürgistusest ja tervisekahjustuste tekkimisest töökohal (alternatiivne põhjuslikkus) Inglise ja Walesi apellatsioonikohtu nn Heneghani lahendis. Samal teemal artiklid lk. 1087-1151 Itaalia, Hollandi, Prantsuse, Hispaania, Saksa ja Belgia õiguse aspektist

  11. Marriage and elite structure in Reinassance Florence; 1282-1500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Padgett

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This conference paper is an interim report from a large-scale project to trace transformations in Florentine elite network structures over two centuries. In this paper, I confine myself solely to a description of previously unknown trends in broad patterns of Florentine inter-marriage. Knowledgeable readers will immediately see that these trends have important implications for debates in Florentine historiography (which I will develop in the future. Ultimately, I am primarily interested in the political implications of the trends I herein describe. But for now I do not engage in interpretation, explanation, or argumentation. I intend simply to lay out some new facts.

  12. Presentation of the Case / Florence G'Sell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    G'Sell, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Seitse artiklit töötaja kokkupuutumisest asbestiga töökohal, seoses sellega tervisekahjustuste tekkimisest sealhulgas ka kopsuvähk ja surm, töötajast kui ohvrist, kaastöötajatest kui süüalustest ning vastavast õiguslikust regulatsioonist erinevates riikides ühe kohtuasja näitel

  13. Modernising patient clothing: a Florence Nightingale Foundation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Christine

    2017-04-27

    Christine Fitzgerald, Matron at The Hillingdon Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (currently on secondment) discusses a project to boost patient self-esteem and dignity through the clothing provided for them to wear.

  14. Beyond Florence Nightingale: The General Professional Education of the Nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Lois A.

    1989-01-01

    Nurses must leave nursing to advance their careers. A rigorous preprofessional science preparation and nursing education at the baccalaureate level followed by a clinical internship is proposed. Nurses would be able to achieve specialty education either by graduate education or through experience and continuing nursing education. (Author/MLW)

  15. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  16. Artillery Through the Ages. A Short Illustrated History of Cannon, Emphasizing Types Used in America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manucy, Albert

    1962-01-01

    .... Section 1 focuses on the Era of Artillery and includes chapters on The Ancient Engines of War, Gunpowder Comes to Europe, The Bombards, Sixteenth Century Cannon, The Seventeenth Century and Gustavus...

  17. Latin American Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Mary A.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the historical development of the press in Latin America from the sixteenth century to the present. Discusses the various pressures that Latin American newspapers are subject to, including political censorship, economic restrictions, and cultural conflicts. (AEA)

  18. Exploration of the Portuguese shipwreck in Goa waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A; Sundaresh

    The history of Portuguese shipwrecks began in Goa water since the first quarter of the sixteenth century. The marine and other related documents state that between sixteenth and eighteenth centuries a number of ships has been wrecked off Goa, Cochin...

  19. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  20. History of early atomic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  1. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  2. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  3. Why Recruits Separate Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    our sample were reportedly unable to adjust to the military environment due to social or emotional immaturity. This problem was especially prevalent...Table 9. Table 9 REASONS FOR EARLY SEPARATION 1. Mental health. Phobias , suicide threats and attempts, emotional immaturity, and personality and...hliurfl’lutf t’ htrtiuug tht .’ plinittol piioL’m.9 evIn’ thfll I b’ r i’lli. vre’.Ilv ifao~ , ýI ll.tv ill it](- rv ’: 111nil tln1 (i~..󈧏 4 P A W4.11

  4. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  5. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  6. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... economic and social gradient for first-time teenage mothers. Teenagers who had experienced family separation or who were formerly in out-of-home care in particular had an increased risk of early childbearing. Results showed that teenage mothers were in every respect in a more disadvantaged position than...

  7. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  8. Early Childhood Workforce Index, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…

  9. ‘A Stable of Whores’? The ‘Flying Squadron’ of Catherine de Medici

    OpenAIRE

    McIlvenna, Una

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines the construction of the myth of the sixteenth-century French queen mother Catherine de Medici's 'flying squadron' through the literature of the sixteenth century, in particular, the defamatory pamphlets and verse libels that portrayed the queen’s household as a site of debauchery and prostitution. Revealing the authors of this satirical literature and their motives, it then traces how their satirical representations came to be treated as genuine descriptions of life at c...

  10. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  11. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  12. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  13. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  14. Raman spectroscopic analysis of a `noli me tangere' painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberts, Stephen; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Abdel-Ghani, Mona; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The discovery of an oil painting in seriously damaged condition with an important historical and a heterodox detail with possible origins in the late fifteenth century has afforded the opportunity for Raman microscopic analysis prior to its restoration being undertaken. The painting depicts a risen Christ following His crucifixion in a `noli me tangere' pose with three women in an Italian terrace garden with a stone balustrade overlooking a rural landscape and an undoubted view of late-medieval Florence. The picture has suffered much abuse and is in very poor condition, which is possibly attributable to its controversial portrayal of a polydactylic Christ with six toes on His right foot. By the late sixteenth century, after the Council of Trent, this portrayal would almost certainly have been frowned upon by the Church authorities or more controversially as a depiction of the holy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments places the painting as being consistent chronologically with the Renaissance period following the identification of cinnabar, haematite, red lead, lead white, goethite, verdigris, caput mortuum and azurite with no evidence of more modern synthetic pigments or of modern restoration having been carried out. An interesting pigment mixture found here is that of the organic dye carmine and cinnabar to produce a particular bright red pigment coloration. Stratigraphic examination of the paint fragments has demonstrated the presence of an orange resin layer immediately on top of the canvas substrate, effectively rendering the pigment as a sandwich between this substratal resin and the overlying varnish. The Raman spectroscopic evidence clearly indicates that an attribution of the artwork to the Renaissance is consistent with the scientific analysis of the pigment composition. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  15. Raman spectroscopic analysis of a 'noli me tangere' painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberts, Stephen; Edwards, Howell G M; Abdel-Ghani, Mona; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-13

    The discovery of an oil painting in seriously damaged condition with an important historical and a heterodox detail with possible origins in the late fifteenth century has afforded the opportunity for Raman microscopic analysis prior to its restoration being undertaken. The painting depicts a risen Christ following His crucifixion in a 'noli me tangere' pose with three women in an Italian terrace garden with a stone balustrade overlooking a rural landscape and an undoubted view of late-medieval Florence. The picture has suffered much abuse and is in very poor condition, which is possibly attributable to its controversial portrayal of a polydactylic Christ with six toes on His right foot. By the late sixteenth century, after the Council of Trent, this portrayal would almost certainly have been frowned upon by the Church authorities or more controversially as a depiction of the holy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments places the painting as being consistent chronologically with the Renaissance period following the identification of cinnabar, haematite, red lead, lead white, goethite, verdigris, caput mortuum and azurite with no evidence of more modern synthetic pigments or of modern restoration having been carried out. An interesting pigment mixture found here is that of the organic dye carmine and cinnabar to produce a particular bright red pigment coloration. Stratigraphic examination of the paint fragments has demonstrated the presence of an orange resin layer immediately on top of the canvas substrate, effectively rendering the pigment as a sandwich between this substratal resin and the overlying varnish. The Raman spectroscopic evidence clearly indicates that an attribution of the artwork to the Renaissance is consistent with the scientific analysis of the pigment composition.This article is part of the themed issue 'Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  17. The Early Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  18. Early diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Babic-Erceg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 25-years old man from Zagreb, Croatia, was admitted to the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases four days after the onset of symptoms such as fever, intense pain in the calves and anuria. The patient owned a rabbit and, before the onset of the disease, repaired some rubber pipes damaged by rodents. At admission, he had a severe clinical picture with fever, hypotension, jaundice, immobility, and pain in leg muscles. Treatment with ceftriaxone was initiated in combination with volume restitution. Renal failure soon ensued. Consequently continuous venovenous hemodiaphiltration therapy was performed. Due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, the patient was mechanically ventilated. The patient’s condition gradually improved and he recovered fully from multi-organ failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by a microscopic agglutination test (MAT covering 15 leptospira serovars and real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR. The first serum sample taken on day 6 tested negative for leptospira, while PCR showed positive results for leptospiral DNA. The second serum sample taken on day 13 tested positive for serovar Canicola serogroup Canicola, serovar Patoc, serovar Grippotyphosa serogroup Grippotyphosa and serovar Tarassovi serogroup Tarassovi (titre 4000, 4000, 1000 and 2000, respectively, while PCR was negative. This report highlights the benefits of combining MAT and PCR methods in early diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William K. Davis

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation

  20. Is credit for early action credible early action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, C.; Michaelowa, A.; Dutschke, M.

    1999-12-01

    Credit for early action as a tool for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is compared with various market instruments as a means of narrowing the gap between projected emissions and those of the Kyoto Protocol. Market instruments work by creating a market price for emissions and use the market to encourage reductions at the lowest price, which is done by placing limits on greenhouse gas emissions and allowing the market to decide where reductions occur, or by imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge. While they can be applied within a sector, they are usually used to encourage reductions throughout the economy or across large sectors. Credit for early action also creates an incentive for emissions reductions throughout the economy or at least across many sectors. Credit for early action tools do not work by either imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge or placing limits on emissions, rather they promise that entities that take action against greenhouse gases prior to the imposition of a carbon tax or emissions limits will receive a credit against future taxes or limits. An overview is provided of the Kyoto Protocol and the rationale for taking early action, and a review is included of the theory and specific proposals for market instruments and credit for early action. A comparative analysis is provided of these approaches by examining their relative efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and impacts on the redistribution of wealth. Credit for early action is viewed as problematic on a number of counts and is seen as an interim strategy for imposition while political support for market instruments develop. The environmental effectiveness of credit for early action is very difficult to predict, and credit for early action programs do not yield the lowest cost emissions reductions. Credit for early action programs will not achieve compliance with the Kyoto Protocol at the lowest cost, and credits for early action will increase the compliance costs for those who

  1. Early tetrapod relationships revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Marcello; Coates, Michael I; Quicke, Donald L J

    2003-05-01

    In an attempt to investigate differences between the most widely discussed hypotheses of early tetrapod relationships, we assembled a new data matrix including 90 taxa coded for 319 cranial and postcranial characters. We have incorporated, where possible, original observations of numerous taxa spread throughout the major tetrapod clades. A stem-based (total-group) definition of Tetrapoda is preferred over apomorphy- and node-based (crown-group) definitions. This definition is operational, since it is based on a formal character analysis. A PAUP* search using a recently implemented version of the parsimony ratchet method yields 64 shortest trees. Differences between these trees concern: (1) the internal relationships of aïstopods, the three selected species of which form a trichotomy; (2) the internal relationships of embolomeres, with Archeria crassidisca and Pholiderpeton scut collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Anthracosaurus russelli and Pholiderpeton attheyi; (3) the internal relationships of derived dissorophoids, with four amphibamid species forming an unresolved node with a clade consisting of micromelerpetontids and branchiosaurids and a clade consisting of albanerpetontids plus basal crown-group lissamphibians; (4) the position of albenerpetontids and Eocaecilia micropoda, which form an unresolved node with a trichotomy subtending Karaurus sharovi, Valdotriton gracilis and Triadobatrachus massinoti; (5) the branching pattern of derived diplocaulid nectrideans, with Batrachiderpeton reticulatum and Diceratosaurus brevirostris collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Diplocaulus magnicornis and Diploceraspis burkei. The results of the original parsimony run--as well as those retrieved from several other treatments of the data set (e.g. exclusion of postcranial and lower jaw data; character reweighting; reverse weighting)--indicate a deep split of early tetrapods between lissamphibian- and amniote-related taxa. Colosteids, Crassigyrinus

  2. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltreider Sara A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  3. Early determinants of mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental adversities in pre- and early postnatal life may have life-long consequences. Based upon a series of epidemiological and clinical studies and natural experiments, this review describes how the early life environment may affect psychological functions and mental disorders later in life.

  4. Early Childhood Education in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)

  5. Cell Analysis and Early Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramaniam, Vinod; Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    In an era of aging populations and rising health-care costs, the shift of medical paradigms towards rapid, accurate, early diagnoses of diseases is inevitable. In addition to further development of ultrasensitive in vitro tests, the focus of attention in both diagnostics and the early drug discovery

  6. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  7. Early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijna eHadders-Algra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP. CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions, but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuro-imaging techniques and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuro-imaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high risk infants without CP. In these infants early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is

  8. Early Maternal Time Investment and Early Child Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Del Bono, Emilia; Francesconi, Marco; Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Using large longitudinal survey data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, this paper estimates the relationship between maternal time inputs and early child development. We find that maternal time is a quantitatively important determinant of skill formation and that its effect declines with child age. There is evidence of long-term effects of early maternal time inputs on later outcomes, especially in the case of cognitive skill development. In the case of non-cognitive development, the evide...

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the

  10. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  11. FAA Loran early implementation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    The Early Implementation Project (EIP), established by FAA Administrator Admiral : Donald C. Engen, was the initial step in the process of Loran integration into the : National Airsace System (NAS). The EIP was designed to give the FAA and the Loran ...

  12. Hypertension presenting early in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin, Audrey; Kinsley, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Paraganglioma in pregnancy is an exceedingly rare and potentially life?threatening diagnosis. It is important that the clinicians consider secondary causes when women present with hypertension in early pregnancy.

  13. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2018-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  14. [Early management of cerebrovascular accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libot, Jérômie; Guillon, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    A cerebrovascular accident requires urgent diagnosis and treatment.The management of a stroke must be early and adapted in order to improve the overall clinical outcome and lower the risk of mortality.

  15. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...

  16. Early Retiree Reinsurance Program Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) was established by section 1102 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) enacted on...

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  18. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  19. Early vision and visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT), based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constru...

  20. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  1. Early presentation of primary glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguer, R; Tanguy, J-Y; Rousseau, A; Clavreul, A; Menei, P

    2014-08-01

    Clinical and neuroimaging findings of glioblastomas (GBM) at an early stage have rarely been described and those tumors are most probably under-diagnosed. Furthermore, their genetic alterations, to our knowledge, have never been previously reported. We report the clinical as well as neuroimaging findings of four early cases of patients with GBM. In our series, early stage GBM occurred at a mean age of 57 years. All patients had seizures as their first symptom. In all early stages, MRI showed a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted sequences and an enhancement on GdE-T1WI sequences. A hyperintense signal on diffusion sequences with a low ADC value was also found. These early observed occurrences of GBM developed rapidly and presented the MRI characteristics of classic GBM within a few weeks. The GBM size was multiplied by 32 in one month. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated the de novo nature of these tumors, i.e. absence of mutant IDH1 R132H protein expression, which is a diagnostic marker of low-grade diffuse glioma and secondary GBM. A better knowledge of early GBM presentation would allow a more suitable management of the patients and may improve their prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2017-04-01

    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Learner Engagement in the Clinical Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent calls for medical education reform advocate for the integration of knowledge with clinical experience through early clinical immersion. Yet, early learners rarely are invited to participate in workplace activities and early clinical experiences remain largely observational.

  4. Telomere lengthening early in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  5. Routine Early Angioplasty after Fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Liang, Bo; Mei, Qibing

    2009-01-01

    patients in the group that underwent routine early PCI than in the group that received standard treatment received clopidogrel (Ppatients who undergo PCI, as well as in those who do not, is well established,1...... with early beta-blocker therapy is taken into consideration.3 The overall benefit of clopidogrel and beta-blocker therapy could have influenced the outcome in patients who underwent early PCI. These facts leave the conclusion of the TRANSFER-AMI trial still highly uncertain.......To the Editor: Cantor et al. report that there is a significantly reduced rate of ischemic complications among patients with myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation who are transferred for PCI within 6 hours after fibrinolysis. However, Table 2 of the article shows that significantly more...

  6. Brachytherapy in early prostate cancer--early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, B O; Bailen, J L; Albrink, F H; Steinbock, G S; Cornett, M S; Benson, D C; Schmied, W K; Medley, R N; Spanos, W J; Paris, K J; Koerner, P D; Gatenby, R A; Wilson, D L; Meyer, R

    1999-01-01

    Use of brachytherapy with radioactive seeds in the management of early prostate cancer is commonly used in the United States. The early experience has been reported from the prostate treatment centers in Seattle for the last 10 years. In this manuscript we are reporting our early experience of 150 radioactive seed implantations in early stage prostate cancer using either Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 seeds. The average age of the patient is 66 years and the median Gleason score is 5.4 with a median PSA of 6. A brief description of the evolution of the treatment of prostate cancer as well as the preparation for the seed implantation using the volume study with ultrasound of the prostate, pubic arch study using CT scan of the pelvis and the complete planning using the treatment planning computers are discussed. We also have described the current technique which is used in our experience based on the Seattle guidelines. We plan a follow-up report with the results of the studies with longer follow-up.

  7. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Unanimity does not exist about the utility and organisation of screening procedures for early diagnosis of lung cancer. We describe a low cost structue of screening, requiring only a minimum of compliance from the elderly smoker and ex-smoker. At 4 months interval, radiographs, sputum cytologies and eventual fiberbronchoscopies are realized in all that elderly smokers and ex-smokers which begin to present one of the first early lung cancer signs or symptoms (loss of weight, hemoptoe, thoracic pain and others). (orig.) [de

  8. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  9. History of the early dipteran systematics in Italy: from Lyncei to Battista Grassi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, B

    2008-12-01

    This presentation starts with Galileo's discovery of the microscope and the first Lyncei. Giovanni Heckius and Francesco Stelluti demonstrated different kinds of mosquitoes. Later, in Florence, the Academy of Cimento solved the problem of mosquito reproduction with the discoveries of Francesco Redi, Pietro Paolo da Sangallo, Giuseppe Del Papa and Giovanni Maria Lancisi in the 18th century. In 19th century Eugenio Ficalbi reviewed the Italian Culicids. Once Battista Grassi solved the cycle of Anopheles and Plasmodia, further researches followed by Golgi, Celli, Marchiafava, Bastianelli and Bignami, as well as by Roland Ross.

  10. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  11. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  12. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  13. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  14. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  15. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  16. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  18. Early Childhood Education in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gilbert R.; Dittman, Laura

    This article discusses the move toward greater equality of educational opportunity in Scandinavia with particular emphasis on early childhood education. The increasing demand for preschool education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden is related to low birth rates together with increased employment of women and the general demand for equality…

  19. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...

  20. Glucocorticoids in early rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everdingen, Amalia A. van

    2002-01-01

    For 50 years, glucocorticoids (GC) are used for symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the last decade, results from clinical studies of treatment with GC as additional therapy to long-acting antirheumatic drugs in patients with early RA suggested also disease-modifying properties of

  1. Internationalism in Early Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Explores the nature and scope of internationalism in early 19th century adult education, using as a context the lyceums and mechanics' institutes of Britain and North America. The contacts involved newspaper and journal accounts, the personal advocacy of former members, written advice from promoters and administrators, and the contributions of…

  2. Management of early pregnancy loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, G. C. M.; Mol, B. W.; Ankum, W. M.; Bruinse, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: In order to assess the available evidence on the management of early pregnancy loss, we performed a meta-analysis on the subject. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for randomized studies reporting on the effectiveness of expectant management, misoprostol treatment or curettage.

  3. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis, the author has assembled his papers on elementary particle physics which are of importance for studying cosmology viz. the physics of the early universe. A rather detailed introduction reviewing basic principles and current trends in the relation particle physics/cosmology precedes the papers. (Auth.)

  4. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  5. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  6. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  7. Early Signs of Entrepreneurial Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Although successful entrepreneurship is important for the economic prosperity of any society, one should acknowledge that entrepreneurial giftedness is terra incognita from a research viewpoint. This article analyzes early manifestations of entrepreneurial giftedness in the cases of Richard Branson, Michael Dell, and Bill Gates and thus opens a…

  8. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  9. IDEA and Early Childhood Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.

    This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…

  10. Melanoma early detection and awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries...

  11. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  12. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  14. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  15. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  16. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  17. The Integrated Early Childhood Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne

    This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…

  18. Natural course of early COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhee CK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chin Kook Rhee,1 Kyungjoo Kim,1 Hyoung Kyu Yoon,2 Jee-Ae Kim,3 Sang Hyun Kim,4 Sang Haak Lee,5 Yong Bum Park,6 Ki-Suck Jung,7 Kwang Ha Yoo,8 Yong Il Hwang7 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Pharmaceutical Policy Evaluation Research Team, Research Institution, 4Big Data Division, Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Wonju, 5Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St Paul’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 6Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, 7Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, 8Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background and objective: Few studies have examined the natural course of early COPD. The aim of this study was to observe the natural course of early COPD patients. We also aimed to analyze medical utilization and costs for early COPD during a 6-year period. Methods: Patients with early COPD were selected from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES data. We linked the KNHANES data of patients with early COPD to National Health Insurance data. Results: A total of 2,397 patients were enrolled between 2007 and 2012. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 was 78.6%, and the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D index value was 0.9. In total, 110 patients utilized health

  19. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  20. Pompe Disease: Early Diagnosis and Early Treatment Make a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hsiu Chien

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II or acid maltase deficiency is a lysosomal disorder in which acid α-glucosidase (GAA deficiencies lead to intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen in all tissues; most notably in skeletal muscles. Both the patient's age at the onset of Pompe disease symptoms and the rate of deterioration caused by the disease can vary considerably. In classical infant-onset Pompe disease (IOPD, symptoms start very early in life, and death occurs soon afterward if the disease remains untreated. In later-onset Pompe disease, symptoms are slower to appear, and patients often progress to wheelchair confinement and eventual respiratory failure. A diagnosis can be made by screening for GAA in dried blood samples, followed either by GAA assessment in lymphocytes or in fibroblasts or by the genetic analysis of mutations. Treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with alglucosidase alfa was approved for human use in 2006. In classical IOPD, treatment significantly lengthens survival and improves motor development and cardiac function. The sooner ERT begins, the better are the results. Newborn screening aims to take advantage of different technologies for diagnosing and treating newborns early on and it yields better outcomes. However, newborns diagnosed early and other long-term survivors may encounter fresh problems, making up a new phenotype of IOPD patients. Further modifications of the treatment, such as a decrease in immune responses to ERT, a higher dosage, a better uptake formulation, and gene therapy delivered locally or systemically are being explored.

  1. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  2. Do schizophrenia patients age early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-08-01

    The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in schizophrenia. These studies include P300 abnormalities & visual motion discrimination, neuroimaging findings, telomere dynamics as well as neuropathology of related brain regions. We also propose a role of vitamin D, neuroimmunological changes and elevated oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to the above factors with 'vitamin-D deficiency' as the central paradox. Put together, the evidence supporting early aging in schizophrenia is compelling and this requires further systematic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  4. Early intervention services in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention (EI) in psychosis is a comprehensive and evidence-based approach aimed at detection and treatment of psychotic symptoms in their early stages. This paper presents core features and noteworthy aspects of the evidence basis and limitations of EI, the importance of programme ....... Wider dissemination of EI services will probably benefit from better integration of potential funders, promotion of joint targets and shared financial or budgetary incentives....... overcome these difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Funding for mental health in general and for EI services appears low relative to need. One key argument for better funding for EI can be found in its favourable cost-effectiveness, but not all stakeholders beyond mental health administrators are aware of this...

  5. Cosmology and the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale

    2018-01-01

    This book discusses cosmology from both an observational and a strong theoretical perspective. The first part focuses on gravitation, notably the expansion of the universe and determination of cosmological parameters, before moving onto the main emphasis of the book, the physics of the early universe, and the connections between cosmological models and particle physics. Readers will gain a comprehensive account of cosmology and the latest observational results, without requiring prior knowledge of relativistic theories, making the text ideal for students.

  6. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... for time on mechanical ventilation. Among pulmonary diseases and demographics of the patients, no other risk factors were identified for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: A1AD was the only significant risk factor identified for gastrointestinal complications that required laparotomy within 3 months after lung...

  7. The early days of incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  8. Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kočevar, Zala

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood, in people aged 25 to 30 vary considerably among individuals. Some place emphasis on partnership, and others on relations with friends. Even the relationship with parents and siblings are experienced by young adults in a variety of ways. Some have frequent and regular contact with their parents while some no longer have any relationship with their parents. These are two frequent situations hiding much more in between. Relationships are complex an...

  9. LA LOCALIDAD HISTÓRICO ARQUEOLÓGICA DEL RÍO SAN SALVADOR (SORIANO, URUGUAY The historical archaeological town of Rio San Salvador (Soriano, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José López Mazz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros cronistas de la conquista del Río de la Plata expusieron la diversidad cultural reinante en el área en el siglo XVI. Las investigaciones arqueológicas de los años 60 y 70 confirman, a nivel arqueológico, la intensa ocupación de la que fue objeto esta zona próxima a la confluencia del río Paraná con el río Uruguay. Este trabajo presenta información producida durante un trabajo de diagnóstico realizado en el marco de la llamada Arqueología Pública, en un sitio de ocupación española del siglo XVI ubicado al oriente de dicha confluencia. Los resultados muestran que la ocupación del sitio desde el año 1000 AP está caracterizada por una amplia diversidad de estilos cerámicos. El área constituyó un lugar estratégico para los asentamientos europeos en función de la presencia de redes de intercambio pre existente. La información producida permite afinar la secuencia cronológica prehistórica para el bajo río Uruguay, al tiempo que abre el debate  respecto de la dinámica etnohistórica regional y del rol jugado por este particular asentamiento humano.   Palabras claves: asentamientos europeos, Uruguay, río San Salvador, siglo XVI.    Abstract Early chroniclers of the conquest of the Río de la Plata exposed the cultural diversity prevailing in the area in the sixteenth century. Archaeological research during the 60’s and 70’s confirm an intense occupation of the confluence of the Paraná river and the Uruguay river area. This paper presents information recovered during a diagnostic fieldwork developed on a Spanish settlement from the sixteenth century. The results show an intense occupation of the site since 1000 AP, characterized by a wide variety of ceramic styles. The area was a strategic location for European occupation due to the presence of preexisting exchange networks. Information produced refines prehistoric chronological sequence for lower Uruguay river while opening the discussion about regional

  10. Supporting Families through Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy McConkey

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationally early intervention programmes for infants and preschoolers with disabilities have proved to be remarkably successful. In many countries, they began with teachers for visually impaired or hearing impaired children visiting the family home to teach parents how they could overcome the child's impairments. The logic of early intervention was inequitable. For example, the sooner children with visual impairments learnt to be independently mobile, then the greater their potential to learn and to kad an ordinary life. In time, this philosophy was extended to children with neurological and developmental delays, such as mental retardation, although success could be variable. In part, many different factors contributed to this variability: the form the interventions took, the extent of family involvement in the intervention and the lack of sensitivity of the measures used to assess a child's progress, to name but three. Perhaps the most extensive and intensive Early intervention schemes have been in the United States with their Head Start programmes. They were aimed at promoting the educational potential of preschoolers from deprived socio - economic backgrounds. Although the first phase of programmes had varying success, those in the second phase yielded impressive results which were mainly attributed to a greater focus on parental participation and links forged with the school system. Recently in developing countries, priority has been given to establishing early intervention as a means of creating new styles of family-based and community-based service in these countries in contrast to the hospital or institutional-services that were a legacy from a previous generation. Although formal evaluations are largely lacking, informal reports have been broadly enthusiastic. In sum, early intervention is no longer a new approach to developmental disabilities. It is an approach of proven effectiveness with children who have different impairments

  11. Radical radiotherapy for early glottic cancer: Results in a series of 1087 patients from two Italian radiation oncology centers. I. The case of T1N0 disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellai, Enrico; Frata, Paolo; Magrini, Stefano M.; Paiar, Fabiola; Barca, Raffaella; Fondelli, Simona; Polli, Caterina; Livi, Lorenzo; Bonetti, Bartolomea; Vitali, Elisabetta; De Stefani, Agostina; Buglione, Michela; Biti, Gianpaolo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate local control rates, late damage incidence, functional results, and second tumor occurrence according to the different patient, tumor, and treatment features in a large bi-institutional series of T1 glottic cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 831 T1 glottic cancer cases treated consecutively with radical intent at the Florence University Radiation Oncology Department (FLO) and at the Radiation Oncology Department of University of Brescia-Istituto del Radio 'O. Alberti' (BS) were studied. Actuarial cumulative local control probability (LC), disease-specific (DSS), and overall survival (OS) rates have been calculated and compared in the different clinical and therapeutic subgroups with both univariate and multivariate analysis. Types of relapse and their surgical salvage have been evaluated, along with the functional results of treatment. Late damage incidence and second tumor cumulative probability (STP) have been also calculated. Results: In the entire series, 3-, 5-, and 10-year OS was equal to 86%, 77%, and 57%, respectively. Corresponding values for LC were 86%, 84%, and 83% and for DSS 96%, 95%, and 93%, taking into account surgical salvage of relapsed cases. Eighty-seven percent of the patients were cured with function preserved. Main determinants of a worse LC at univariate analysis were: male gender, earlier treatment period, larger tumor extent, anterior commissure involvement, and the use of Cobalt 60. At multivariate analysis, only gender, tumor extent, anterior commissure involvement, and beam type retained statistical significance. Higher total doses and larger field sizes are significantly related (logistic regression) with a higher late damage incidence. Scatterplot analysis of various combinations of field dimensions and total dose showed that field dimensions >35 and 2 , together with doses of >65 Gy, offer the best local control results together with an acceptably low late damage incidence. Twenty-year STP

  12. Radical radiotherapy for early glottic cancer: Results in a series of 1087 patients from two Italian radiation oncology centers. II. The case of T2N0 disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frata, Paolo; Cellai, Enrico; Magrini, Stefano M.; Bonetti, Bartolomea; Vitali, Elisabetta; Tonoli, Sandro; Buglione, Michela; Paiar, Fabiola; Barca, Raffaella; Fondelli, Simona; Polli, Caterina; Livi, Lorenzo; Biti, Gianpaolo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate local control rates, late damage incidence, functional results, and second-tumor occurrence according to the different patient, tumor, and treatment features in a large bi-institutional series of T2 glottic cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 256 T2 glottic cancer cases treated consecutively with radical intent at the Florence University Radiation Oncology Department (FLO) and at the Radiation Oncology Department of University of Brescia, Istituto del Radio 'O. Alberti' (BS) were studied. Cumulative probability of local control (LC), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated and compared in the different clinical and therapeutic subgroups by both univariate and multivariate analysis. Types of relapse and their surgical salvage were evaluated, along with the functional results of treatment. Late-damage incidence and second-tumor cumulative probability (STP) were also calculated. Results: In the entire series, 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year OS rates were, respectively, 73%, 59%, and 37%. Corresponding values for cumulative LC probability were 73%, 73%, and 70% and for DSS, 89%, 86%, and 85%, taking into account surgical salvage of relapsed cases. Seventy-three percent of the patients were cured with function preserved. Main determinants of a worse LC at univariate analysis were larger tumor extent and impaired cord mobility. At multivariate analysis, the same factors retained statistical significance. Twenty-year STP was 23%, with second-tumor deaths less frequent than larynx cancer deaths (20 of 256 vs. 30 of 256). Incidence of late damage was higher in the first decade of accrual (22%) than in the last decade (10%, p = 0.03); the same was true for severe late damage (9% vs. 1.8%). Conclusion: Present-day radical radiotherapy can be considered a standard treatment for T2 glottic cancer. Better results are obtained in patients with less extended disease. Late damage is relatively

  13. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  14. Early Identification of Psychosis: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Early Psychosis Initiative of British Columbia

    2000-01-01

    This document is an educational resource concerning the early identification of psychosis. Primary topics addressed include: an outline of the importance of early intervention; signs and symptoms of psychosis; and strategies for recognizing psychosis.  

  15. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen billion years ago, early galaxies ionized the gas around them, producing some of the first light that brought our universe out of its dark ages. Now the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided one of the first detailed looks into the interior of one of these early, distant galaxies.Sources of LightArtists illustration of the reionization of the universe (time progresses left to right), in which ionized bubbles that form around the first sources of light eventually overlap to form the fully ionized universe we observe today. [Avi Loeb/Scientific American]For the first roughly hundred million years of its existence, our universe expanded in relative darkness there were no sources of light at that time besides the cosmic microwave background. But as mass started to condense to form the first objects, these objects eventually shone as the earliest luminous sources, contributing to the reionization of the universe.To learn about the early production of light in the universe, our best bet is to study in detail the earliest luminous sources stars, galaxies, or quasars that we can hunt down. One ideal target is the galaxy COSMOS Redshift 7, known as CR7 for short.Targeting CR7CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known, lying at a redshift of z 6.6. Its discovery in 2015 and subsequent observations of bright, ultraviolet-emitting clumps within it have led to broad speculation about the source of its emission. Does this galaxy host an active nucleus? Or could it perhaps contain the long-theorized first generation of stars, metal-free Population III stars?To determine the nature of CR7 and the other early galaxies that contributed to reionization, we need to explore their gas and dust in detail a daunting task for such distant sources! Conveniently, this is a challenge that is now made possible by ALMAs incredible capabilities. In a new publication led by Jorryt Matthee (Leiden University, the Netherlands), a team of scientists now

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTMENTS IN EARLY EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    DUMITRESCU Alexandra; CONSTANTINESCU Adrian; TACHE Ileana

    2012-01-01

    The early education is analyzed as being the most profitable investment in education (R. Cuhna). early education supports later learning opportunities. The economic dimension of early education takes into account the fact that the necessary investment for a child to benefit from early education services is rather low when looking at the cost (both economic and social) generated by a child who misses this education level, not necessarily because of the late education start but because of the l...

  17. Early diagnosis of the Spondyloarthropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Naranjo, Luis Alonso; Londono, John D; Valle, Rafael Raul

    2005-01-01

    Spondyloarthropathies are a cluster of chronic inflammatory diseases that primarily include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis; arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies. The most common subgroups of spondyloarthropathies are ankylosing spondylitis and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. The diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is mainly based on unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis of at least grade 2 bilaterally or grade 3 unilaterally. How ever, in the early phase of disease, conventional radiographs are often too insensitive to show sacroiliitis and it usually takes several years for definite radiographic sacroiliitis to evolve. Thus, the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is a commonly delayed by 8 to 11 years after the onset of symptoms. As a result, diagnosing axial spondyloarthropathy in the absence of radiographic sacroiliitis is very difficult to rheumatologists. In the early phase of disease, HLA B27 test and magnetic resonance imaging of sacroiliac joints may be helpful to the early diagnosis. In the presence of chronic low back pain the probability of axial spondyloarthropathy is about 5% and is about 14% if the back pain is inflammatory. The presence of = 3 features of spondyloarthropathy (heel pain, uveitis, dactylitis, positive family history, alternating buttock pain, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, asymmetrical arthritis, positive response to anti-inflammatory drugs) increase the probability of axial spondyloarthropathy to 90%. Both, the positive HLA B27 and magnetic resonance imaging with signs of sacroiliitis increase the probability of spondyloarthropathy, particularly in patients without spondyloarthropathies features or with only 1 or 2 features. Since ankylosing spondylitis in association with psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease is often HLA B27 negative, this test is of limited value under theses circumstances. Is important to consider that

  18. Britannia : Grandeur et infortune d’une allégorie nationale dans l’univers du cartoon britannique 1842-1999 Britannia: Greatness and Misfortune of a National Symbol in the World of British Cartoons 1842-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Millat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Britannia, sometimes accompanied by the emblematic British Lion, has long been personifying justice, liberty, and the British Empire on coins and stamps as well as in graphic satire. Originally of Roman origin, she became the visual representation of Britain after being revived in the sixteenth century. This article is based on the analysis of over four hundred cartoons featuring this symbol. It argues that between 1860 and the 1950s, Britannia striking a solemn pose, that of the Græco-Roman goddess created by Tenniel, exalted Victorian greatness and the early twentieth century great power twice victorious in the World Wars. On the other hand, since the inter-war years, Low and his followers had been challenging this supposedly immutable image. They turned her into a definitely helpless and obsolete symbol whose identity was sometimes usurped by such anti-heroes as Colonel Blimp. Finally, from the 1960s, in a context of continuous British decline and growing permissiveness, cartoonists increasingly followed the example of the old masters of 18th century caricature and early Punch cartoonists, even though aggressiveness and vulgarity have remained much less explicit.

  19. Confesionalismo y razón de estado en la Edad Moderna. El caso de la Valtellina (1637-1639

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maffi, Davide

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of the Valtelline passes in the early Seventeenth Century play a relevant role in the Spanish strategy and in the European politic, but the question was no more a mere strategic problem. The religious aspect was also fundamental: the inhabitants of the region were Catholics and the Grisons, with the valley to belong from the early Sixteenth Century, Protestants. In 1637, after the expulsion of the French Army from the valley, a large debate to interest the Spanish Council of State on the possibility, for a catholic State, to sign a formal treaty of alliance with a heretic people.

    El control de los pasos de la Valtellina al principio del siglo XVII jugó un papel llave en la estrategia española y en la política europea, pero el problema no era simplemente de origen estratégico. Sin embargo los aspectos religiosos tuvieron también una importancia fundamental: los vecinos de la valle eran católicos y los Grisones, los dueños de los pasos desde el principio del siglo XVI, protestantes. En 1637, después de la expulsión del ejército francés de la región, un largo debate interesó el Consejo de Estado sobre la posibilidad, por una potencia católica, de poder firmar una alianza formal con un país de herejes.

  20. Observations of Early Optical Afterglows

    OpenAIRE

    Roming, Peter W. A.; Mason, Keith O.

    2006-01-01

    The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) has performed extensive follow-up on 71 Swift Burst Alert Telescope triggered gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first ten months of operations. In this paper, we discuss some of the UV and optical properties of UVOT detected afterglows such as XRF 050406, the bright GRB 050525A, the high redshift GRB 050730, the early flaring GRB 050801, and others. We also discuss some of the implications of why 75% of GRB afterglows observed by UVOT in less than ...

  1. Early discharge hospital at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Iliffe, Steve; Doll, Helen A; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2017-06-26

    Early discharge hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient's home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care. This is an update of a Cochrane review. To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with inpatient hospital care. We searched the following databases to 9 January 2017: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit. We searched clinical trials registries. Randomised trials comparing early discharge hospital at home with acute hospital inpatient care for adults. We excluded obstetric, paediatric and mental health hospital at home schemes.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the body of evidence for the most important outcomes. We included 32 trials (N = 4746), six of them new for this update, mainly conducted in high-income countries. We judged most of the studies to have a low or unclear risk of bias. The intervention was delivered by hospital outreach services (17 trials), community-based services (11 trials), and was co-ordinated by a hospital-based stroke team or physician in conjunction with community-based services in four trials.Studies recruiting people recovering from strokeEarly discharge hospital at home probably makes little or no difference to mortality at three to six months (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.48, N = 1114, 11 trials, moderate-certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the risk of hospital readmission (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66, N = 345, 5 trials, low-certainty evidence). Hospital at home may lower the risk of living in institutional setting at six months (RR 0.63, 96% CI

  2. Early detection of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Chowdhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson′s teeth.

  3. Early history of military radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that soon after Roentgen's discovery, physicians in the armed services of the major powers grasped the importance of x-ray sin military surgery. By May of 1896, radiographic examinations were being performed on Italian soldiers returning from the ill-fated Ethiopian campaign. Initially, radiographs were used for foreign body localization and the detection of fractures; later, a full range of diagnostic services was offered. The early challenges of obtaining x-ray examinations in the field - fragility of tubes and plates, mobility of machines and patients, and unpredictability of radiation dosage - became the basis for innovations that would fundamentally alter the daily practice of radiology in civilian life

  4. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  5. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  6. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within...

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  8. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  9. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  10. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market

  11. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  12. Early occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with health-risk estimates for early and continuing effects of exposure to ionizing radiations that could be associated with light water nuclear power plants accidents. Early and continuing effects considered are nonneoplastic diseases and symptoms that normally occur soon after radiation exposure, but may also occur after years have passed. They are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) doses. For most of the effects considered, there is a practical dose threshold. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or the likelihood of receiving a large radiation dose, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. In utero exposure of the fetus is also considered. New data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400, 1975) were used along with data cited in the Study to develop improved health-risk models for morbidity and mortality. The new models are applicable to a broader range of accident scenarios, provide a more detailed treatment of dose protraction effects, and include morbidity effects not considered in the Reactor Safety Study. 115 references, 20 figures, 19 tables

  13. Cerebrovascular Diseases and Early Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Gündüz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular disease is one of the important causes of seizures and epilepsy among the advanced age group. Seziures are found to be associated with lesion localization and size in previous studies. METHODS: Here, we aimed to detect prevelance of seizure, relation of seizure and lesion localization, and observed seizure types. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy eight patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease or intraparenchymal hemorrhage who were followed in Cerrahpasa IVIedical School clinic were studied retrospectively and probability of seizure occurence within 1 month after stroke was evaluated. CONCLUSION: Among 378 patients hospitalized by acute stroke, 339 were diagnosed as ischemic cerebrovascular disease and 39 (10.3% had primary intraparenchymal hematoma. Seizures were observed in 16 patients (4.2%, 2 (%5.1 in intraparenchymal hematoma group and 14 (%4.1 in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Early seizures were detected in 33% of patients with anterior cerebral artery, in 6.8% of posterior cerebral artery and in 3.3% of middle cerebral artery infarcts and in three patients out of 12 who were known to have epilepsy. Seizure types were secondarily generalised tonic-clonic seizure in nine cases (57%. Among whole group status epilepticus was observed in four patients (1.1%. Conclusion: Early seizure rates are found to be high among patients with anterior cerebral artery infarct and known epilepsy

  14. EGU's Early Career Scientists Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts Artal, L.; Rietbroek, R.

    2017-12-01

    The EGU encourages early career scientists (ECS) to become involved in interdisciplinary research in the Earth, planetary and space sciences, through sessions, social events and short courses at the annual General Assembly in April and throughout the year. Through division-level representatives, all ECS members can have direct input into matters of the division. A Union-wide representative, who sits on the EGU Council, ensures that ECS are heard at a higher level in the Union too. After a brief introduction as to how the network is organised and structured, this presentation will discuss how EGU ECS activities have been tailored to the needs of ECS members and how those needs have been identified. Reaching and communicating opportunities to ECS remains an ongoing challenge; they will be discussed in this presentation too, as well as some thoughts on how to make them more effective. Finally, the service offered to EGU ECS members would certainly benefit from building links and collaboration with other early career networks in the geosciences. This presentation will outline some of our efforts in that direction and the challenges that remain.

  15. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H. Partee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural language semantics in linguistics and in philosophy and logic. With Montague as a central but not solo player in the story, I reflect on crucial developments in the 1960's and 70's in linguistics and philosophy, and the growth of formal semantics and formal pragmatics from there. I discuss innovations, key players, and leading ideas that shaped the development of formal semantics and its relation to syntax, to pragmatics, and to the philosophy of language in its early years, and some central aspects of its early impact on those fields.ReferencesAbbott, B. 1999. ‘The formal approach to meaning: Formal semantics and its recent developments’. Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai119, no. 1: 2–20. https://www.msu.edu/~abbottb/formal.htm.Ajdukiewicz, K. 1960. Je¸zyk i Poznanie (Language and Knowledge. Warsaw.Bach, E. 1968. ‘Nouns and Noun Phrases’. In E. Bach & R.T. Harms (eds. ‘Universals in Linguistic Theory’, 90–122. NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Bach, E. 1989. Informal Lectures on Formal Semantics. New York: State University of New York Press.Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954a. ‘Logical syntax and semantics’. Language 30: 230–237.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/410265Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954b. ‘Indexical Expressions’. Mind 63: 359–379.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mind/LXIII.251.359Bar-Hillel, Y. 1963. ‘Remarks on Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language’. In P. A. Schilpp (ed. ‘The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap’, 519–543. LaSalle, Illinois / London: Open

  16. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  17. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  18. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  19. Early School Leaving in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Bäckman, Olof; Lorentzen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    countries and find the highest vocational track dropout rates in Norway and the lowest in Finland. The results indicate that the relative labour market effect of dropping out from a vocational track is most detrimental in Norway. It is also in Norway that we find the greatest gender differences......The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational...... tracks are organized. Denmark and Norway have dual vocational tracks, that is, they combine school-based education and workplace apprenticeships, whereas in Finland and Sweden they are primarily school based. We analyse administrative longitudinal data from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s in the four...

  20. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...... not have seen the same improvement in life expectancy as the general population during the past decades. Thus, the mortality gap not only persists but may actually have increased. The most urgent research agenda concerns primary candidates for modifiable risk factors contributing to this excess mortality...

  1. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  2. How early and how long?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Løvgren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Day care centres have become a normal part of Norwegian childhood, even among quite small children. In 1970 less than 3 per cent of Norwegian children of pre-school were enrolled. At the end of 2009 as much as 70 per cent of children aged 12 to 24 months were enrolled and for 90 per cent of them a full day stay had been arranged. Norwegian children with small children opt for an early start at a day care centre. However, the day care centre employees do not share the same views as the users of the services they provide. Only one third of them express the opinion that children may start at the age of one and have a full day stay at this age. The article discusses this discrepancy between the users and providers of public financed day care.

  3. LHCb Early Career Scientist Awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrick Koppenburg for the LHCb Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    On 15 September 2016, the LHCb collaboration awarded the first set of prizes for outstanding contributions of early career scientists.   From left to right: Guy Wilkinson (LHCb spokesperson), Sascha Stahl, Kevin Dungs, Tim Head, Roel Aaij, Conor Fitzpatrick, Claire Prouvé, Patrick Koppenburg (chair of committee) and Sean Benson. Twenty-five nominations were submitted and considered by the committee, and 5 prizes were awarded to teams or individuals for works that had a significant impact within the last year. The awardees are: Roel Aaij, Sean Benson, Conor Fitzpatrick, Rosen Matev and Sascha Stahl for having implemented and commissioned the revolutionary changes to the LHC Run-2 high-level-trigger, including the first widespread deployment of real-time analysis techniques in High Energy Physics;   Kevin Dungs and Tim Head for having launched the Starterkit initiative, a new style of software tutorials based on modern programming methods. “Starterkit is a group of ph...

  4. Chandra Early Type Galaxy Atals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2017-08-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion, stripping and star formation and its quenching. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. We produce the uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information and will make them accessible via a public web site. With 2D spectral infomation, we further discuss gas morphology, scaling relations, X-ray based mass profiles and their implications related to various physical mechanisms (e.g., stellar and AGN feedback).

  5. Atypical manifestations of early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Koranne

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 36 untreated patients with early syphilis revealed atypical variations namely; long incubation period of 101 days in I patient, more than 3 chancres in 1, undermined margin of the chancre along with tenderness in 1 and moderate to severe tenderness of the ulcers in 2 cases. In 3 patients there was no indurations of the ulcers. Three patients with primary syphilis had unilateral lymphadenitis, and in I case the lymph nodes were not only tender but showed tendency towardsmatingawell. Insecondarysyphilis, 11 out of 16 patients having condylomata lata had no other muco-cutaneous lesions. Concomitant presence of other venereal disease to account for the atypical manifestations was discounted- by appropriate laboratory tests, response to therapeutic agents and follow up.

  6. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...

  7. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    When studying the evolution of the very early universe it is necessary to use a description of matter which is appropriate at very high energies, namely in terms of quantum fields. In such models there may be a period during which the ratio of pressure and energy density is - 1, an equation of state which leads to an exponential expansion of the universe (inflation). There may also arise stable topological defects similar to vortex lines in condensed matter physics. These defects (cosmic strings) form seeds about which gas can accrete to form galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The author reviews inflation and cosmic strings, emphasizing their role in generating the energy density perturbations which are required in order to explain the existence of structures in the universe

  8. Variação sintática no português quinhentista: a colocação dos pronomes clíticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reexamines in the light of new data a proposal put forward in Martins (2011 concerning the historical development of clitic placement in Portuguese. Prima facie, this syntactic change follows a surprising path apparently involving a sudden reversal in the direction of change after the sixteenth century. It is argued in this paper that previous analyses, including that of the present author, fail to recognise the existence in sixteenth century and later Portuguese of two (social dialects as regards the position of clitic pronouns. A simplistic observation of textual sources masks the complexity of the linguistic situation in the historical period in question, creating an illusion of continuity between different objects. The present study uses the sixteenth century cookbook Livro de Cozinha de um Frade Português do Século XVI, edited by Anabela Leal de Barros (2013, as an especially valuable textual source to help us understand the history of clitic placement in Portuguese.

  9. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  10. A multi-element psychosocial intervention for early psychosis (GET UP PIANO TRIAL) conducted in a catchment area of 10 million inhabitants: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Mirella; Bonetto, Chiara; Lasalvia, Antonio; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Fioritti, Angelo; Rucci, Paola; Santonastaso, Paolo; Neri, Giovanni; Pileggi, Francesca; Ghigi, Daniela; Miceli, Maurizio; Scarone, Silvio; Cocchi, Angelo; Torresani, Stefano; Faravelli, Carlo; Zimmermann, Christa; Meneghelli, Anna; Cremonese, Carla; Scocco, Paolo; Leuci, Emanuela; Mazzi, Fausto; Gennarelli, Massimo; Brambilla, Paolo; Bissoli, Sarah; Bertani, Maria Elena; Tosato, Sarah; De Santi, Katia; Poli, Sara; Cristofalo, Doriana; Tansella, Michele; Ruggeri, Mirella; Mirella, Maria Elena; Bissoli, Sarah; Bonetto, Chiara; Cristofalo, Doriana; De Santi, Katia; Lasalvia, Antonio; Lunardi, Silvia; Negretto, Valentina; Poli, Sara; Tosato, Sarah; Zamboni, Maria Grazia; Ballarin, Mario; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Fioritti, Angelo; Neri, Giovanni; Pileggi, Francesca; Rucci, Paola; Bocchio Chiavetto, Luisella; Scasselatti, Catia; Zanardini, Roberta; Brambilla, Paolo; Bellani, Marcella; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Marinelli, Veronica; Negretto, Valentina; Perlini, Cinzia; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bertani, Mariaelena; Bissoli, Sarah; Lazzarotto, Lorenza; Bardella, Sonia; Gardellin, Francesco; Lamonaca, Dario; Lasalvia, Antonio; Lunardon, Marco; Magnabosco, Renato; Martucci, Marilena; Nicolau, Stylianos; Nifosì, Francesco; Pavanati, Michele; Rossi, Massimo; Piazza, Carlo; Piccione, Gabriella; Sala, Alessandra; Sale, Annalisa; Stefan, Benedetta; Zotos, Spyridon; Balbo, Mirko; Boggian, Ileana; Ceccato, Enrico; Dall'Agnola, Rosa; Gardellin, Francesco; Girotto, Barbara; Goss, Claudia; Lamonaca, Dario; Lasalvia, Antonio; Leoni, Roberta; Mai, Alessia; Pasqualini, Annalisa; Pavanati, Michele; Piazza, Carlo; Piccione, Gabriella; Roccato, Stefano; Rossi, Alberto; Sale, Annalisa; Strizzolo, Stefania; Zotos, Spyridon; Urbani, Anna; Ald, Flavia; Bianchi, Barbara; Cappellari, Paola; Conti, Raffaello; De Battisti, Laura; Lazzarin, Ermanna; Merlin, Silvia; Migliorini, Giuseppe; Pozzan, Tecla; Sarto, Lucio; Visonà, Stefania; Brazzoli, Andrea; Campi, Antonella; Carmagnani, Roberta; Giambelli, Sabrina; Gianella, Annalisa; Lunardi, Lino; Madaghiele, Davide; Maestrelli, Paola; Paiola, Lidia; Posteri, Elisa; Viola, Loretta; Zamberlan, Valentina; Zenari, Marta; Tosato, Sarah; Zanoni, Martina; Bonadonna, Giovanni; Bonomo, Mariacristina; Santonastaso, Paolo; Cremonese, Carla; Scocco, Paolo; Veronese, Angela; Anderle, Patrizia; Angelozz, Andrea; Amalric, Isabelle; Baron, Gabriella; Candeago, Enrico Bruttomesso Fabio; Castelli, Franco; Chieco, Maria; Cremonese, Carla; Di Costanzo, Enrico; Derossi, Mario; Doriguzzi, Michele; Galvano, Osvaldo; Lattanz, Marcello; Lezzi, Roberto; Marcato, Marisa; Marcolin, Alessandro; Marini, Franco; Matranga, Manlio; Scalabrin, Donato; Zucchetto, Maria; Zadro, Flavio; Austoni, Giovanni; Bianco, Maria; Bordino, Francesca; Dario, Filippo; De Risio, Alessandro; Gatto, Aldo; Granà, Simona; Favero, Emanuele; Franceschin, Anna; Friederici, Silvia; Marangon, Vanna; Pascolo, Michela; Ramon, Luana; Scocco, Paolo; Veronese, Angela; Zambolin, Stefania; Riolo, Rossana; Buffon, Antonella; Cremonese, Carla; Di Bortolo, Elena; Friederici, Silvia; Fortin, Stefania; Marcato, Marisa; Matarrese, Francesco; Mogni, Simona; Codemo, Novella; Russi, Alessio; Silvestro, Alessandra; Turella, Elena; Viel, Paola; Dominoni, Anna; Andreose, Lorenzo; Boemio, Mario; Bressan, Loretta; Cabbia, Arianna; Canesso, Elisabetta; Cian, Romina; Dal Piccol, Claudia; Dalla Pasqua, Maria Manuela; Di Prisco, Anna; Mantellato, Lorena; Luison, Monica; Morgante, Sandra; Santi, Mirna; Sacillotto, Moreno; Scabbio, Mauro; Sponga, Patrizia; Sguotto, M Luisa; Stach, Flavia; Vettorato, M Grazia; Martinello, Giorgio; Dassiè, Francesca; Marino, Stefano; Cibiniel, Linda; Masetto, Ilenia; Marcato, Marisa; Cabianca, Oscar; Valente, Amalia; Caberlotto, Livio; Passoni, Alberto; Flumian, Patrizia; Daniel, Luigino; Gion, Massimo; Stanziale, Stanziale; Alborino, Flora; Bortolozzo, Vladimiro; Bacelle, Lucio; Bicciato, Leonarda; Basso, Daniela; Navaglia, Filippo; Manoni, Fabio; Ercolin, Mauro; Neri, Giovanni; Giubilini, Franco; Imbesi, Massimiliano; Leuci, Emanuela; Mazzi, Fausto; Semrov, Enrico; Giovanni, Castel S; Taro e Ceno, Valli; Ovest, Polo; Anelli, Silvio; Amore, Mario; Bigi, Laura; Britta, Welsch; Anna, Giovanna Barazzoni; Bonatti, Uobes; Borziani, Maria; Crosato, Isabella; Galluccio, Raffaele; Galeotti, Margherita; Gozzi, Mauro; Greco, Vanna; Guagnini, Emanuele; Pagani, Stefania; Maccherozzi, Malvasi; Marchi, Francesco; Melato, Ermanno; Mazzucchi, Elena; Marzullo, Franco; Pellegrini, Pietro; Petrolini, Nicoletta; Volta, Paolo; Anelli, Silvio; Bonara, Franca; Brusamonti, Elisabetta; Croci, Roberto; Flamia, Ivana; Fontana, Francesca; Losi, Romina; Mazzi, Fausto; Marchioro, Roberto; Pagani, Stefania; Raffaini, Luigi; Ruju, Luca; Saginario, Antonio; Tondelli, M Grazia; Marrama, Donatella; Bernardelli, Lucia; Bonacini, Federica; Florindo, Annaluisa; Merli, Marina; Nappo, Patrizia; Sola, Lorena; Tondelli, Ornella; Tonna, Matteo; Torre, M Teresa; Tosatti, Morena; Venturelli, Gloria; Zampolla, Daria; Bernardi, Antonia; Cavalli, Cinzia; Cigala, Lorena; Ciraudo, Cinzia; Di Bari, Antonia; Ferri, Lorena; Gombi, Fabiana; Leurini, Sonia; Mandatelli, Elena; Maccaferri, Stefano; Oroboncoide, Mara; Pisa, Barbara; Ricci, Cristina; Poggi, Enrica; Zurlini, Corrado; Malpeli, Monica; Colla, Rossana; Teodori, Elvira; Vecchia, Luigi; D'Andrea, Rocco; Trenti, Tommaso; Paolini, Paola; Mazzi, Fausto; Carpeggiani, Paolo; Pileggi, Francesca; Ghigi, Daniela; Gagliostro, Mariateresa; Pratelli, Michela; Rucci, Paola; Lazzaro, S; Antonelli, Antonio; Battistini, Luana; Bellini, Francesca; Bonini, Eva; Capelli, Caterina Bruschi Rossella; DiDomizio, Cinzia; Drei, Chiara; Fucci, Giuseppe; Gualandi, Alessandra; Grazia, Maria Rosaria; Losi, Anna M; Mazzoni, Federica Mazzanti Paola; Marangoni, Daniela; Monna, Giuseppe; Morselli, Marco; Oggioni, Alessandro; Oprandi, Silvio; Paganelli, Walter; Passerini, Morena; Piscitelli, Maria; Reggiani, Gregorio; Rossi, Gabriella; Salvatori, Federica; Trasforini, Simona; Uslenghi, Carlo; Veggetti, Simona; Bartolucci, Giovanna; Baruffa, Rosita; Bellini, Francesca; Bertelli, Raffaella; Borghi, Lidia; Ciavarella, Patrizia; DiDomizio, Cinzia; Monna, Giuseppe; Oggioni, Alessandro; Paltrinieri, Elisabetta; Rizzardi, Francesco; Serra, Piera; Suzzi, Damiano; Carlo, Uslenghi; Piscitelli, Maria; Arienti, Paolo; Aureli, Fabio; Avanzi, Rosita; Callegari, Vincenzo; Corsino, Alessandra; Host, Paolo; Michetti, Rossella; Pratelli, Michela; Rizzo, Francesco; Simoncelli, Paola; Soldati, Elena; Succi, Eraldo; Bertozzi, Massimo; Canetti, Elisa; Cavicchioli, Luca; Ceccarelli, Elisa; Cenni, Stefano; Marzola, Glenda; Gallina, Vanessa; Leoni, Carla; Olivieri, Andrea; Piccolo, Elena; Ravagli, Sabrina; Russo, Rosaria; Tedeschini, Daniele; Verenini, Marina; Abram, Walter; Granata, Veronica; Curcio, Alessandro; Guerra, Giovanni; Granini, Samuela; Natali, Lara; Montanari, Enrica; Pasi, Fulvia; Ventura, Umbertina; Valenti, Stefania; Francesca, Masi; Farneti, Rossano; Ravagli, Paolo; Floris, Romina; Maroncelli, Otello; Volpones, Gianbattista; Casali, Donatella; Miceli, Maurizio; Bencini, Andrea; Cellini, Massimo; De Biase, Luca; Barbara, Leonardo; Charles, Liedl; Pratesi, Cristina; Tanini, Andrea; Cellini, Massimo; Miceli, Maurizio; Loparrino, Riccardo; Pratesi, Cristina; Ulivelli, Cinzia; Cussoto, Cristina; Dei, Nico; Fumanti, Enrico; Pantani, Manuela; Zeloni, Gregorio; Bellini, Rossella; Cellesi, Roberta; Dorigo, Nadia; Gullì, Patrizia; Ialeggio, Luisa; Pisanu, Maria; Rinaldi, Graziella; Konze, Angela; Cocchi, Angelo; Meneghelli, Anna; Bianco, Mario; Modignani, Litta; Frova, Maria; Monzani, Emiliano; Zanobio, Alberto; Malagoli, Marina; Pagani, Roberto; Barbera, Simona; Morganti, Carla; Monzani, Emiliano; Amadè, Elisabetta Sarzi; Brambilla, Virginia; Montanari, Anita; Caterina, Giori; Lopez, Carmelo; Marocchi, Alessandro; Moletta, Andrea; Sberna, Maurizio; Cascio, M Teresa; Scarone, Silvio; Manzone, Maria Laura; Barbara, Barbera; Mari, Luisa; Manzone, Maria L; Razzini, Edoardo; Bianchi, Yvonne; Pellizzer, M Rosa; Verdecchia, Antonella; Sferrazza, M Gabriella; Manzone, M Laura; Pismataro, Rosa; D'Eril, Gian Vico Melzi; Barassi, Alessandra; Pacciolla, Rosana; Faraci, Gloria; Torresani, Stefano; Rosmini, Bolzano; Carpi, Fabio; Soelva, Margit; Anderlan, Monica; De Francesco, Michele; Duregger, Efi; Torresani, Stefano; Vettori, Carla; Doimo, Sabrina; Kompatscher, Erika; Soelva, Margit; Torresani, Stefano; Forer, Michael; Kerschbaumer, Helene; Gampe, Anna; Nicoletti, Maira; Acerbi, Chiara; Aquilino, Daniele; Azzali, Silvia; Bensi, Luca; Bissoli, Sarah; Cappellari, Davide; Casana, Elisa; Campagnola, Nadia; Dal Corso, Elisa; Di Micco, Elisabetta; Gobbi, Erika; Ferri, Laura; Gobbi, Erika; Mairaghi, Laura; Malak, Sara; Mesiano, Luca; Paterlini, Federica; Perini, Michela; Puliti, Elena Maria; Rispoli, Rosaria; Rizzo, Elisabetta; Sergenti, Chiara; Soave, Manuela; Alpi, Andrea; Bislenghi, Laura; Bolis, Tiziana; Colnaghi, Francesca; Fascendini, Simona; Grignani, Silvia; Meneghelli, Anna; Patelli, Giovanni; Faravelli, Carlo; Casale, Silvia; Zimmermann, Christa; Deledda, Giuseppe; Goss, Claudia; Mazzi, Mariangela; Rimondini, Michela; Gennarelli, Massimo; Scassellati, Catia; Bonvicini, Cristian; Longo, Sara; Bocchio Chiavetto, Luisella; Zanardini, Roberta; Ventriglia, Mariacarla; Squitti, Rosanna; Frisoni, Giovanni; Pievani, Michela; Balestrieri, Matteo; Brambilla, Paolo; Perlini, Cinzia; Marinelli, Veronica; Bellani, Marcella; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Atzori, Manfredo; Mazzi, Fausto; Carpeggiani, Paolo; Beltramello, Alberto; Alessandrini, Franco; Pizzini, Francesca; Zoccatelli, Giada; Sberna, Maurizio; Konze, Angela; Politi, Pierluigi; Emanuele, Enzo; Brondino, Natascia; Martino, Gianvito; Bergami, Alessandra; Zarbo, Roberto; Riva, Marco Andrea; Fumagalli, Fabio; Molteni, Raffaella; Calabrese, Francesca; Guidotti, Gianluigi; Luoni, Alessia; Macchi, Flavia; Artioli, Stefania; Baldetti, Marco; Bizzocchi, Milena; Bolzon, Donatella; Bonello, Elisa; Cacciari, Giorgia; Carraresi, Claudia; Cascio, M Teresa; Caselli, Gabriele; Furlato, Karin; Garlassi, Sara; Gavarini, Alessandro; Lunardi, Silvia; Macchetti, Fabio; Marteddu, Valentina; Plebiscita, Giorgia; Poli, Sara; Totaro, Stefano; Bebbington, Paul; Birchwood, Max; Dazzan, Paola; Kuipers, Elisabeth; Thornicroft, Graham; Pariante, Carmine; Lawrie, Steve; Pariante, Carmine; Soares, Jair C

    2012-05-30

    Multi-element interventions for first-episode psychosis (FEP) are promising, but have mostly been conducted in non-epidemiologically representative samples, thereby raising the risk of underestimating the complexities involved in treating FEP in 'real-world' services. The Psychosis early Intervention and Assessment of Needs and Outcome (PIANO) trial is part of a larger research program (Genetics, Endophenotypes and Treatment: Understanding early Psychosis - GET UP) which aims to compare, at 9 months, the effectiveness of a multi-component psychosocial intervention versus treatment as usual (TAU) in a large epidemiologically based cohort of patients with FEP and their family members recruited from all public community mental health centers (CMHCs) located in two entire regions of Italy (Veneto and Emilia Romagna), and in the cities of Florence, Milan and Bolzano. The GET UP PIANO trial has a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled design. The randomized units (clusters) are the CMHCs, and the units of observation are the centers' patients and their family members. Patients in the experimental group will receive TAU plus: 1) cognitive behavioral therapy sessions, 2) psycho-educational sessions for family members, and 3) case management. Patient enrollment will take place over a 1-year period. Several psychopathological, psychological, functioning, and service use variables will be assessed at baseline and follow-up. The primary outcomes are: 1) change from baseline to follow-up in positive and negative symptoms' severity and subjective appraisal; 2) relapse occurrences between baseline and follow-up, that is, episodes resulting in admission and/or any case-note records of re-emergence of positive psychotic symptoms. The expected number of recruited patients is about 400, and that of relatives about 300. Owing to the implementation of the intervention at the CMHC level, the blinding of patients, clinicians, and raters is not possible, but every effort will be made

  11. The early Earth atmosphere and early life catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia

    2014-01-01

    Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.

  12. Ottaviano Mascarino in Tivoli: the Church of San Nicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pistolesi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay aims to include the church of St. Nicholas in Tivoli, built between 1588 and 1596 for the Roman hospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, between Ottaviano Mascarino’s works: in that period he was official architect of that religious hospital order. The allocation relies mainly on documents kept in the State Archive of Rome, but is also supported by a detailed analysis of the type and elements of the architectural language. The chapel is compared with some drawings of Mascarino: one of them reproduces the plan of the church of S. Maria del Piano in Capranica, designed by Vignola, from which our building unquestionably derives. The comparison with the drawings quoted in the text emphasizes a real research conducted by Mascarino, who used to repeat some shapes and stylistic elements in his projects of sacred and civil architecture. The essay finally enters the chapel in the context of the Roman architectural production of the end of the sixteenth century, but also notes how some aspects seem to anticipate compositional schemes that will emerge permanently in the early decades of the next century. Keywords: Aedicule-shaped facade, banded architectural order,  biaxial plan, two-apsed hall, Ottaviano Mascarino.

  13. THE HAREM THROUGH THE EYES OF THE EUROPEANS: REALITY AND FANTASY / BATILILAR GÖZÜYLE HAREM: GERÇEK VE FANTEZİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alev BAYSAL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available “Haremi Hümayun”, as generally known Harem,was the Sultan’s private quarters. In fact, as a wordderived from Arabic, it meant a secluded or forbiddenplace, usually a home or a private property. It was calledas “Golden Cage” in which most beautiful odalisqueswere in competition to capture the heart of ‘Sultan’ andwhere the most dangerous tricks were played to obtainpower. The Harem, in the Ottoman Empire, was firstfounded in the reign of Orhan Gazi (1326-1360 and,during the reign of Mehmet the Conqueror (1451-1481, itturned into a kind of social institution that wouldinfluence the state affairs in the future (Pierce 42. Fromthe late sixteenth century onward, especially in theseventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Harem becamea center of attraction for western travelers, artists andwriters. However, it was impossible for the Europeans toobserve it closely. That’s why they fictionalized the Haremboth in their paintings and writings. Lady Mary WortleyMontague who resided in Istanbul in the early eighteenthcentury as a wife of an English Ambassador tried todepict the reality from a different and female perspective.She presented her point of view in her Letters. In thispaper, these highly fictionalized representations of theHarem will be discussed with reference to the Englishwritings, and the reasons why the life in the Harem appealed to the Western imagination will be analyzed bydrawing upon the fictional accounts.

  14. Oral vaccination: where we are?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silin, Dmytro S; Lyubomska, Oksana V; Jirathitikal, Vichai; Bourinbaiar, Aldar S

    2007-07-01

    As early as 900 years ago, the Bedouins of the Negev desert were reported to kill a rabid dog, roast its liver and feed it to a dog-bitten person for three to five days according to the size and number of bites [1] . In sixteenth century China, physicians routinely prescribed pills made from the fleas collected from sick cows, which purportedly prevented smallpox. One may dismiss the wisdom of the Bedouins or Chinese but the Nobel laureate, Charles Richet, demonstrated in 1900 that feeding raw meat can cure tuberculous dogs - an approach he termed zomotherapy. Despite historical clues indicating the feasibility of oral vaccination, this particular field is notoriously infamous for the abundance of dead-end leads. Today, most commercial vaccines are delivered by injection, which has the principal limitation that recipients do not like needles. In the last few years, there has been a sharp increase in interest in needle-free vaccine delivery; new data emerges almost daily in the literature. So far, there are very few licensed oral vaccines, but many more vaccine candidates are in development. Vaccines delivered orally have the potential to take immunization to a fundamentally new level. In this review, the authors summarize the recent progress in the area of oral vaccines.

  15. Plagio e commercio nelle guide tardocinquecentesche dedicate a Napoli e Pozzuoli

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    Harald Hendrix

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism and commerce in late sixteenth-century guides to the city of Naples and its districtThis essay illustrates how strongly chorographical texts depend on intertextual borrowings from previous materials, up to the point of becoming a patchwork of quotations from earlier texts. It highlights how this characteristic feature of chorography becomes the object of an unusually early debate on plagiarism. This polemic between two clearly competing Neapolitan intellectuals, Tomaso Costo and Scipione Mazzella, denotes how in the 1590s the status of chorography was changing considerably. Hendrix argues that the growing numbers of visitors to a city like Naples, particularly those coming from far away, lured publishers and authors alike as of the 1580s to transform conventional chorography conceived in a context of local pride into a commercially attractive product targeting this new audience. This went along with a re-framing of existing chorographical materials, not only causing concern with regard to its dubious status oscillating between intertextuality and plagiarism, but also in view of the urban identity presented no longer to wellinformed citizens but rather now to foreign visitors much more dependent on the accuracy and reliability of the given information.

  16. La industria textil en Tierra de Campos afines de la Edad Media

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    Hipólito Rafael OLIVA HERRER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente articulo trata de analizar el desarrollo de la industria textil rural en la región de Tierra de Campos, en torno al tradicional centro de producción textil de Palencia, a fines del XV y comienzos del XVI. La producción en el entorno rural conoció un amplio desarrollo basado en la producción de paños de calidad media-baja destinados al consumo interno, y dio lugar a formas organizativas complejas que se constituyeron en una alternativa frente al sistema gremial imperante en la urbe palentina, implicando intereses de un amplio espectro de grupos sociales.ABSTRACT: The present article aims to analyze the spreading of the rural textile industry in the region of Tierra de Campos in the late fifteenth and the early sixteenth centuries, around the traditional productive centre of Palencia. Here rural clothing experienced an important development based on the production of low and medium quality cloth under a putting-out system directed to interregional trade. The interests around rural industry involved a wide range of social groups, giving rise to complex organization forms and arising as an alternative to the traditional gudd stmcture.

  17. Human intestinal parasites from a Mamluk Period cesspool in the Christian quarter of Jerusalem: Potential indicators of long distance travel in the 15th century AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Prag, Kay; Clamer, Christa; Humbert, Jean-Baptiste; Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this research is to determine which parasites were present in a mediaeval latrine from the old city of Jerusalem. This latrine contains fragments of pottery from the Middle East and also from Italy, suggesting links of some kind with Europe. Excavation identified two separate entry chutes emptying in a shared cesspool. Radiocarbon dating and pottery analysis is compatible with a date of use in the late fifteenth century and early sixteenth century. Twelve coprolites (preserved stool) and mixed cesspool sediment were analysed with light microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Six species of intestinal parasites were identified. These were the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), Taenia sp. (beef/pork/asiatic tapeworm) Diphyllobothrium sp. (fish tapeworm), and two protozoa that can cause dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis). While roundworm and whipworm were found in every sample, the other parasite species were present in only one or two samples each, suggesting that only a minority of those using the latrine were infected with those species. The role of Jerusalem as a site for long distance trade, migration or pilgrimage is considered when interpreting the Italian pottery and the parasites present, especially E. histolytica and Diphyllobothrium sp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ASPECTE PRIVIND CIRCULAŢIA TURISTICĂ RELIGIOASĂ. STUDIU DE CAZ: MĂNĂSTIREA NUCET, JUDEŢUL DÂMBOVIŢA

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    Liviu Mușat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On religious tourist movement. Case study on Nucet Monastery, Dâmboviţa County. One of the most important religious pilgrimages, with a remarkable dynamics from year to year, is the one that takes place at Nucet Monastery, in Dâmboviţa County. More precisely, the pilgrimage to Crucea de Leac (the Healing Cross, located in close proximity to the monastery, on the Life-giving Spring. The monastery dates back to the early sixteenth century and its foundation is attributed to boyar Gherghina Pârcălab, one of Prince Radu the Handsome’s uncles. Throughout time, it has undergone many transformations. In 1940, it was abandoned and it was re-established as monastery in 1994. The study aimed to highlight the profile of the high number of pilgrims attending this event - reaching several thousands and increasing every year - and to issue some recommendations on how to increase its attractiveness and economic impact. In this regard, I prepared a questionnaire for 119 subjects who participated in the pilgrimage on the Life-giving Spring, celebrated on the 6th of May 2016. The results of this survey, the conclusions I have drawn and the recommendations I have issued are the subject of this material.

  19. The oldest anatomical handmade skull of the world c. 1508: 'the ugliness of growing old' attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missinne, Stefaan J

    2014-06-01

    The author discusses a previously unknown early sixteenth-century renaissance handmade anatomical miniature skull. The small, naturalistic skull made from an agate (calcedonia) stone mixture (mistioni) shows remarkable osteologic details. Dr. Saban was the first to link the skull to Leonardo. The three-dimensional perspective of and the search for the senso comune are discussed. Anatomical errors both in the drawings of Leonardo and this skull are presented. The article ends with the issue of physiognomy, his grotesque faces, the Perspective Communis and his experimenting c. 1508 with the stone mixture and the human skull. Evidence, including the Italian scale based on Crazie and Braccia, chemical analysis leading to a mine in Volterra and Leonardo's search for the soul in the skull are presented. Written references in the inventory of Salai (1524), the inventory of the Villa Riposo (Raffaello Borghini 1584) and Don Ambrogio Mazenta (1635) are reviewed. The author attributes the skull c. 1508 to Leonardo da Vinci.

  20. Pilgrim Souvenir: Hood of Cherries

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    Amy Jeffs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This lead alloy badge from the British Museum represents a medieval hood repurposed as a sack for a harvest of cherries. It measures 38 by 30 millimetres and was cast integrally with its pin and clasp in a three-part mould. When first made, it would have shone like silver. Badges were purchased in their millions by pilgrims between the late twelfth and early sixteenth centuries, as attractive, wearable and cheap souvenirs of their visits to holy sites. By the later Middle Ages badges were also worn as general symbols of devotion, as livery insignia, and as humorous or amorous tokens; which of these categories the “hood of cherries” badge falls into is debatable. Five of them have been found: three in Salisbury, and another in London, while the provenance of the fifth is unknown. Their cataloguers reluctantly associate them with the cult of St Dorothy, whose emblem is a basket of fruit, although Spencer expressed concern that, “a fashionable hood seems far removed from her story.” There are also possible alternative explanations to its meaning, which will be explored here.

  1. شيخ البلد ودوره في الإدارة المدنية من خلال مخطوط قانون على الأسواق

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    محمد بوشنافي

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The post of Cheikh al-Baled was considered an important strategic function within the city, especially as it was associated with economic life and was in direct contact with the supreme authority of the mandate. It should be noted that this post was not created with the advent of the Ottomans, Because of the social structure of the Moroccan society, which is based on the idea of the tribe, which is also subject to the Sheikh, and entered the Ottomans to Algeria during the sixteenth century kept this position, and made him a formal position in the Ottoman Civil Administration. The Cheikh el baled is mentioned in most of the local and foreign sources, which give us important details about its owner, its function and its place in the pyramid of civil administration. Among these sources is the book of the Protocols. We also find a mention in the sources of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries such as Shaw , Tassy, Peyssonnel, and others. Haedo remains among those who have not spoken in this post, although he has been engaged in many posts and issues by writing "Topography of the City of Algiers."

  2. The Ottoman Empire and the policy of alliances: Franco-Ottoman relations in the transition from the XVIth to XVIIth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Türkçelik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Western historiography considered the Ottoman Empire as a marginal and antagonist factor, the Ottomans were an integral component of the history of Early Modern age. The conscientious policy of balance of power towards the Christian powers made Ottomans a crucial element in the struggle for hegemony. The Franco-Turkish alliance that was established in the reigns of Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent mainly depended on mutual enmity against Spanish hegemony in Europe. In the late sixteenth century, after the death of Henry III the French Wars of Religion gave rise to a chaotic situation in which the Catholic King sought the opportunity to place France under its control. This could have caused an irreversible change in the balance of power in the Mediterranean, an unacceptable situation for the geostrategic interests of the Ottoman sultans. The Ottoman Empire played a major role in the French foreign policy against Spanish claims during the different phases of the reign of Henry IV. Even Clement VIII implicitly instrumentalized Ottoman- French friendship to strengthen both its own position as well as that of France with respect to the Spanish Monarchy. This article aims to demonstrate the limits and efficiencies of politics of alliance in the transition from the sixteenth to the seventeenth century considering the role of England and the Republic of Venice.

  3. Ordinary and extraordinary prices in the Giolito Libri spirituali sales List

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    Giliola Barbero

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates an early modern sales list of books, the Libri spirituali di stampa of the Venetian Giolito publishing house. This printed list, kept in the Biblioteca Comunale Augusta in Perugia, includes the descriptions of 81 devotional and religious sixteenth century books with their prices expressed in Venetian lire (an account money. The aim of the research is to illustrate the price policy of the Giolito firm between 1587 and 1592, and the segment of the market they intended to serve. For this purpose, on the basis of the books priced, the list has been dated and placed in chronological relation with other already known Giolito sales catalogues. In the second part of the article, average prices per printing sheet are calculated and the relationships between prices and dates, languages and formats are taken into consideration. In the end, the reasons why some few editions were proposed on the market at a higher price are discussed. The list is published in the Appendix.

  4. Reflections on the Status of Hungarian Loanwords in Old Romanian Translations

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    Pál Enikő

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Translation has always been important for religion as a way of preaching God's word. The first Romanian translations of religious texts, including the first (although incomplete translation of the Bible, date from the sixteenth century. In this early period of Romanian writing, Romanian translators encountered several problems in conveying the meaning of these texts of a great complexity. Some of the difficulties were due to the source texts available in the epoch, others to the ideal of literal translation, to the principle of legitimacy or to the relatively poor development of Romanian language which limited the translators' options. The present study focuses on the causes and purposes for which lexical items of Hungarian origin interweave old Romanian translations. In this epoch, Hungarian influence was favoured by a complex of political, legal, administrative and socioculturel factors, sometimes even forced by these circumstances. On the one hand, given the premises of vivid contacts between Romanians and Hungarians in the regions where the old Romanian translations (or their originals can be located, a number of Hungarian loanwords of folk origin penetrated these texts. On the other hand, when using Hungarian sources, translators have imported useful source language caiques and loanwords, which have enriched Romanian language.

  5. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS AFTER RADICAL CYSTECTOMY

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    V. O. Mager

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy (RCE is associated with a considerable number of early postoperative complications as before. Based on 10 years’ experience, this paper demonstrates the frequency (33.9 % and types of early complications following RCE, as well as postoperative mortality (5.5 % and its resulting causes. Although postoperative mortality is relatively low today, the frequency of early postoperative complications remains high as before.

  6. Early rehabilitation and participation in focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Hanne; Buhl, Inge; Roenn-Smidt, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Early neurorehabilitation is an interdisciplinary field. Thus, in order to eliminate unnecessary barriers for individuals with severe acquired brain injury in early rehabilitation, we need rehabilitation science that supports both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Participation can...... be studied directly and indirectly. This commentary proposes that active participation and the ‘‘lived body’’ are essential terms in early rehabilitation of severe ABI patients, and a description of how these terms are interpreted and handled in the practice is needed....

  7. Genetics of Severe Early Onset Epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    Epilepsy; Epileptic Encephalopathy; Ohtahara Syndrome; Infantile Spasms; Dravet Syndrome; Malignant Migrating Partial Epilepsy of Infancy; Early Myoclonic Epileptic Encephalopathy; PCDH19-related Epilepsy and Related Conditions

  8. Positioning and early mobilisation in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Moira; Penney, Maree; Russell, Petra; Bailey, Emma

    Stroke unit care, providing early rehabilitation, improves long-term outcomes for patients following a stroke. Early mobilisation and good positioning are recognised as key aspects of care in stroke units. Nurses working on stroke units have an important role because they are able to implement positioning and early mobilisation strategies 24 hours a day, reducing the risk of complications and improving functional recovery. Patients benefit if nurses work effectively with the therapy team in positioning and early mobilisation. Nurses also need appropriate training and expertise to make best use of specialist equipment.

  9. Scientific spirit in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Samacá Bohórquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Play and fun are key elements in the pedagogical work with five-year school children, since the teacher is required to carry out a hermeneutical and phenomenological exercise coming from the interaction among the different languages used by children to communicate their thoughts, emotions and ideas. In order to reflect about the scientific spirit in early childhood, it is necessary firstly to think about how its logic develops and operates and about the need to recognize in the sociocultural environment the possibilities to stimulate talents or the limitations demarcating their development, secondly, teaching practice must be thought in order to establish dialogue forums with students to know their needs and interests and guide their searches. To meet other is possible for children to the extent that the dialogical principle of knowledge interaction is recognized and the discovery of tensions and meeting points around the educational praxis, as an approach to infant’s rationality and his/her ways of learning, towards the social construction of boy and girl gender identity in our society.

  10. Early vision and focal attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  11. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  12. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  13. Cosmology and the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhigna

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning the universe was in a hot dense state nearly 13.8 billion years ago. The thermal history of the universe was traced back to an era when the temperature was about 1012K. At this early time, the universe was filled with particles-mostly photons and leptons- whose interactions are hopefully weak enough to allow this medium to be treated as a more or less ideal gas. However, if we look back a little further, into the first 0.0001 second of cosmic history when the temperature was above 1012K. At such temperatures, there will be present in thermal equilibrium copious numbers of strongly interacting particles-mostly masons and baryons-with a mean interparticle distance less than a Compton wavelength. These particles will be in a state of continual mutual interaction, and cannot reasonably be expected to obey any simple equation of state. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10-36seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10-33and 10-32seconds. Matter and energy created in this time. Right after that space expanded exponentially with enormous rate of 74.3 +/-2.1Km per second per Mpc. Undergraduate student and researcher of the string theory, quantum gravity, cosmology and quantum biology.

  14. Cerebellar ataxia of early onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Sumimasa; Miyake, Shota; Yamada, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko; Yamada, Kazuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    Eight cases of childhood cerebellar ataxia were reported. All these cases showed chronic cerebellar ataxia with early onset, and the other diseases of cerebellum such as infections, neoplasms and storage diseases were excluded by clinical symptoms and laboratory findings including blood counts, blood chemistry, lactate, pyruvate, ceruloplasmine, urinalysis, serum immunoglobulins, amino acid analysis in blood and urine, CSF analysis, leukocyte lysosomal enzymes, MCV, EMG, EEG and brain X-CT. Two pairs of siblings were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis were cerebellar type (5), spinocerebellar type (1), one Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome and undetermined type (1). The age of onset was 1 to 5 years. The chief complaint was motor developmental delay in 6 cases; among them 5 patients could walk alone at the ages of 2 to 3 years'. Mental retardation was observed in 7 cases and epilepsy in 2. TRH was effective in 5 cases. The MRI study revealed that the area of medial sagittal slice of the cerebellum was reduced significantly in all cases and also that of pons was reduced in 5 cases. Different from typical adult onset spinocerebellar degenerations, most of the present cases have achieved slow developmental milestones and the clinical course was not progressive. Genetic factors are suspected in the pathogenesis of this disease in some cases. (author)

  15. Early Byzantine steelyard from Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial aim of this paper was to present scholarly circles with a detailed report about the insufficiently known Early Byzantine steelyard beam (Figs. 2-5; Pl. I/1 treasured in Belgrade City Museum (further in the text BCM together with a small counterweight (Fig. 6; Pl. I/2 which, judging by its dimensions and weight, does not belong to it. However, after inspecting the documentation of BCM and the National Museum in Belgrade (further in the text NMB, the supposition that the steelyard beam from BCM represents a part of the same hoard with the well known counterweight (Fig. 7 in the form of a bust of a Byzantine empress, and the unpublished chain system with hooks for hanging loads (Fig. 8; Pl. IV, which are kept in NMB, was confirmed. The detailed examination of the museum inventory records shed light on the set of circumstances which led to the separation of the parts of the Belgrade steelyard. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177007: Romanizacija, urbanizacija i transformacija urbanih centara civilnog,vojnog i rezidencijalnog karaktera u rimskim provincijama na tlu Srbije

  16. On a chaotic early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Kenji.

    1974-11-01

    The theories regarding the origin of galaxies and elements are reviewed in this paper, and the assumptions made for these theories are discussed. It has been assumed that the universe has always been isotropic and homogeneous from the beginning of cosmic expansion. At the stage of very high density that any local irregularities such as galaxies cannot exist, the admissible deviation in this case from the mean value is only the statistical or quantum fluctuation of matter density, spatial curvature or their growth. It should be considered that the chemical composition of matters at the earliest stage consisted of most fundamental particles. However, if the fluctuation of matter density is statistical, the present values are too small. As for the origin of elements, it depends strongly on the period when cosmic radiation appeared. The final mass ratios of elements are given from the present baryon mass density, and are in agreement with observed values. The assumption of hot universe seems good. However, the time-independent ratio of photon number to baryon number is hardly understood. It is reasonable to assume for the early universe an inhomogeneous model whose space-time curvature is of turbulent character, according to weak cosmological principle. The inhomogeneous models to be considered are weakly non-linear perturbation theory, anti-Newtonian approximation and post anti-Newtonian approximation. Smoothing-out process, the origin of cosmic microwave radiation, the origin of galaxies and the origin of chemical elements are discussed. (Kato, T.)

  17. Rodrigo de Ceballos's Magnificat cycle on the eight tones: A description and comparison with similar cycles by Cristobal de Morales and Francisco Guerrero

    OpenAIRE

    García Botero, María Marcela; Professor, Music History and Theory, Music Department, University of Texas Pan American, United States of America

    2005-01-01

    Until recently the music of Rodrigo de Ceballos (ca. 1525/30–1581) had been largely ignored by musicologists under the assumption that most of it was lost or preserved in deteriorated manuscripts. Research by the musicologist Robert Snow proved this assumption wrong and placed the composer among important figures of Spanish music during the sixteenth century. Ceballos’s style is influenced by the music of two major Spanish composers of the sixteenth century, Cristóbal de Morales (1500–1553) a...

  18. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  19. Near Heterophoria in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinsky, Erin; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to measure near heterophoria in young children to determine the impact of early growth and development on the alignment of the eyes. Methods. Fifty young children (≥2 and accommodation responses, in the absence of optical correction, were measured using simultaneous Purkinje image tracking and photorefraction technology (MCS PowerRefractor, PR). The resulting heterophorias, and both accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) and convergence accommodation/convergence (CA/C) ratios were then computed as a function of age, refractive error, and an alternating cover test. Results. The mean heterophoria after approximately 60 seconds of dissociation at a 33-cm viewing distance was 5.0 prism diopters (pd) of exophoria (SD ± 3.7) in the children (78% of children > 2 pd exophoric) and 5.6 pd of exophoria (SD ± 4.7) in adults (69% of adults > 2pd exophoric; a nonsignificant difference), with no effect of age between 2 and 6 years. In these children, heterophoria was not significantly correlated with AC/A (r = 0.25), CA/C (r = 0.12), or refractive error (r = 0.21). The mean difference between heterophoria measurements from the PR and the clinical cover test was −2.4 pd (SD = ±3.4), with an exophoric bias in the PR measurements. Conclusions. Despite developmental maturation of interpupillary distance, refractive error, and AC/A, in a typical sample of young children the predominant dissociated position is one of exophoria. PMID:25634983

  20. From early wireless to Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A

    1998-01-01

    Medical information has been transmitted using wireless technologies for almost 80 years. A "wired wireless" electronic stethoscope was developed by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in the early 1920's, for potential use in ship-to-shore transmission of cardiac sounds. [Winters SR. Diagnosis by wireless. Scientific American June 11, 1921, p. 465] Today, wireless is used in a wide range of medical applications and at sites from transoceanic air flights to offshore oil platforms to Mt. Everest. 'Wireless LANs' are often used in medical environments. Typically, nurses and physicians in a hospital or clinic use hand-held "wireless thin client" pen computers that exchange patient information and images with the hospital server. Numerous companies, such as Fujitsu (article below) and Cruise Technologies (www.cruisetech.com) manufacture handheld pen-entry computers. One company, LXE, integrates radio-frequency (RF) enhanced hand-held computers specifically designed for production use within a wireless LAN (www.lxe.com). Other companies (Proxim, Symbol, and others) supply the wireless RF LAN infrastructure for the enterprise. Unfortunately, there have been problems with widespread deployment of wireless LANs. Perhaps the biggest impediment has been the lack of standards. Although an international standard (IEEE 802.11) was adopted in 1997, most wireless LAN products still are not compatible with the equipment of competing companies. A problem with the current standard for LAN adapters is that throughput is limited to 3 Mbps--compared to at least 10 Mbps, and often 100 Mbps, in a hard-wired Ethernet LAN. An II Mbps standard is due out in the next year or so, but it will be at least 2 years before standards-compliant products are available. This story profiles some of the ways that wireless is being used to overcome gaps in terrestrial and within-enterprise communication.