WorldWideScience

Sample records for early primate microcebus

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (Primates, Cheirogaleidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Aujard, Fabienne; Holota, Hélène; Murienne, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    We report the high-coverage complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the gray mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. The sequencing has been performed on an Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform, with a genome skimming strategy. The total length of this mitogenome is 16 963 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage are similar to those reported from other primate's mitochondrial genomes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here will be useful for comparative genomics studies in primates.

  2. Acoustic divergence in the communication of cryptic species of nocturnal primates (Microcebus ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Elke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central question in evolutionary biology is how cryptic species maintain species cohesiveness in an area of sympatry. The coexistence of sympatrically living cryptic species requires the evolution of species-specific signalling and recognition systems. In nocturnal, dispersed living species, specific vocalisations have been suggested to act as an ideal premating isolation mechanism. We studied the structure and perception of male advertisement calls of three nocturnal, dispersed living mouse lemur species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, the golden brown mouse lemur (M. ravelobensis and the Goodman's mouse lemur (M. lehilahytsara. The first two species occur sympatrically, the latter lives allopatrically to them. Results A multi-parameter sound analysis revealed prominent differences in the frequency contour and in the duration of advertisement calls. To test whether mouse lemurs respond specifically to calls of the different species, we conducted a playback experiment with M. murinus from the field using advertisement calls and alarm whistle calls of all three species. Individuals responded significantly stronger to conspecific than to heterospecific advertisement calls but there were no differences in response behaviour towards statistically similar whistle calls of the three species. Furthermore, sympatric calls evoked weaker interest than allopatric advertisement calls. Conclusion Our results provide the first evidence for a specific relevance of social calls for speciation in cryptic primates. They furthermore support that specific differences in signalling and recognition systems represent an efficient premating isolation mechanism contributing to species cohesiveness in sympatrically living species.

  3. Resveratrol Metabolism in a Non-Human Primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Quadrupole Time of Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Claude Menet; Julia Marchal; Alexandre Dal-Pan; Méryam Taghi; Valérie Nivet-Antoine; Delphine Dargère; Olivier Laprévote; Jean-Louis Beaudeux; Fabienne Aujard; Jacques Epelbaum; Charles-Henry Cottart

    2014-01-01

    The grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a non-human primate used to study the ageing process. Resveratrol is a polyphenol that may increase lifespan by delaying age-associated pathologies. However, no information about resveratrol absorption and metabolism is available for this primate. Resveratrol and its metabolites were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in male mouse-lemur plasma (after 200 mg.kg-1 of oral resveratrol) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), c...

  4. Primate Torpor: Regulation of Stress-activated Protein Kinases During Daily Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle K. Biggar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Very few selected species of primates are known to be capable of entering torpor. This exciting discovery means that the ability to enter a natural state of dormancy is an ancestral trait among primates and, in phylogenetic terms, is very close to the human lineage. To explore the regulatory mechanisms that underlie primate torpor, we analyzed signal transduction cascades to discover those involved in coordinating tissue responses during torpor. The responses of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family members to primate torpor were compared in six organs of control (aroused versus torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. The proteins examined include extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, c-jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs, MAPK kinase (MEK, and p38, in addition to stress-related proteins p53 and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27. The activation of specific MAPK signal transduction pathways may provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of torpor-responsive genes or the regulation of selected downstream cellular processes. In response to torpor, each MAPK subfamily responded differently during torpor and each showed organ-specific patterns of response. For example, skeletal muscle displayed elevated relative phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during torpor. Interestingly, adipose tissues showed the highest degree of MAPK activation. Brown adipose tissue displayed an activation of ERK1/2 and p38, whereas white adipose tissue showed activation of ERK1/2, p38, MEK, and JNK during torpor. Importantly, both adipose tissues possess specialized functions that are critical for torpor, with brown adipose required for non-shivering thermogenesis and white adipose utilized as the primary source of lipid fuel for torpor. Overall, these data indicate crucial roles of MAPKs in the regulation of primate organs during torpor.

  5. Primate Torpor:Regulation of Stress-activated Protein Kinases During Daily Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyle K Biggar; Cheng-Wei Wu; Shannon N Tessier; Jing Zhang; Fabien Pifferi; Martine Perret; Kenneth B Storey

    2015-01-01

    Very few selected species of primates are known to be capable of entering torpor. This exciting discovery means that the ability to enter a natural state of dormancy is an ancestral trait among primates and, in phylogenetic terms, is very close to the human lineage. To explore the regulatory mechanisms that underlie primate torpor, we analyzed signal transduction cascades to discover those involved in coordinating tissue responses during torpor. The responses of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members to primate torpor were compared in six organs of control (aroused) versus torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. The proteins examined include extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), c-jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs), MAPK kinase (MEK), and p38, in addition to stress-related proteins p53 and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). The activation of specific MAPK signal transduction pathways may provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of torpor-responsive genes or the regulation of selected down-stream cellular processes. In response to torpor, each MAPK subfamily responded differently dur-ing torpor and each showed organ-specific patterns of response. For example, skeletal muscle displayed elevated relative phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during torpor. Interestingly, adipose tissues showed the highest degree of MAPK activation. Brown adipose tissue displayed an activation of ERK1/2 and p38, whereas white adipose tissue showed activation of ERK1/2, p38, MEK, and JNK during torpor. Importantly, both adipose tissues possess specialized functions that are critical for torpor, with brown adipose required for non-shivering thermogenesis and white adipose utilized as the primary source of lipid fuel for torpor. Overall, these data indicate crucial roles of MAPKs in the regulation of primate organs during torpor.

  6. Effects of chronic calorie restriction or dietary resveratrol supplementation on insulin sensitivity markers in a primate, Microcebus murinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Marchal

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes and hyperinsulinemia increases with age, inducing metabolic failure and limiting lifespan. Calorie restriction (CR without malnutrition delays the aging process, but its long-term application to humans seems difficult. Resveratrol (RSV, a dietary polyphenol, appears to be a promising CR mimetic that can be easily administered in humans. In this work, we hypothesized that both CR and RSV impact insulin sensitivity in a non-human primate compared to standard-fed control (CTL animals. Four- to five-year-old male grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were assigned to three dietary groups: a CTL group, a CR group receiving 30% fewer calories than the CTL and a RSV group receiving the CTL diet supplemented with RSV (200 mg·day(-1·kg(-1. Insulin sensitivity and glycemia were assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index evaluation after 21 or 33 months of chronic treatment. Resting metabolic rate was also measured to assess the potential relationships between this energy expenditure parameter and insulin sensitivity markers. No differences were found after a 21-month period of treatment, except for lower glucose levels 30 min after glucose loading in CR animals. After 33 months, CR and RSV decreased glycemia after the oral glucose loading without decreasing fasting blood insulin. A general effect of treatment was observed on the HOMA-IR index, with an 81% reduction in CR animals and 53% in RSV animals after 33 months of treatment compared to CTL. Chronic CR and dietary supplementation with RSV affected insulin sensitivity by improving the glucose tolerance of animals without disturbing their baseline insulin secretion. These results suggest that both CR and RSV have beneficial effects on metabolic alterations, although these effects are different in amplitude between the two anti-aging treatments and potentially rely on different metabolic

  7. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus population to infer social contacts and vector potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohdy Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus, parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus. These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g, arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1 the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2 due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3 individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. Results We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Conclusions Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only

  8. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  9. Resveratrol metabolism in a non-human primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Menet

    Full Text Available The grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a non-human primate used to study the ageing process. Resveratrol is a polyphenol that may increase lifespan by delaying age-associated pathologies. However, no information about resveratrol absorption and metabolism is available for this primate. Resveratrol and its metabolites were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in male mouse-lemur plasma (after 200 mg.kg-1 of oral resveratrol by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC, coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF mass spectrometer used in full-scan mode. Data analyses showed, in MSE mode, an ion common to resveratrol and all its metabolites: m/z 227.072, and an ion common to dihydro-resveratrol metabolites: m/z 229.08. A semi-targeted study enabled us to identify six hydrophilic resveratrol metabolites (one diglucurono-conjugated, two monoglucurono-conjugated, one monosulfo-conjugated and two both sulfo- and glucurono-conjugated derivatives and three hydrophilic metabolites of dihydro-resveratrol (one monoglucurono-conjugated, one monosulfo-conjugated, and one both sulfo- and glucurono-conjugated derivatives. The presence of such metabolites has been already detected in the mouse, rat, pig, and humans. Free resveratrol was measurable for several hours in mouse-lemur plasma, and its two main metabolites were trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and trans-resveratrol-3-sulfate. Free dihydro-resveratrol was not measurable whatever the time of plasma collection, while its hydrophilic metabolites were present at 24 h after intake. These data will help us interpret the effect of resveratrol in mouse lemurs and provide further information on the inter-species characteristics of resveratrol metabolism.

  10. Distinct transcriptome expression of the temporal cortex of the primate Microcebus murinus during brain aging versus Alzheimer's disease-like pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronza Abdel Rassoul

    Full Text Available Aging is the primary risk factor of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the molecular events occurring during brain aging are extremely complex and still largely unknown. For a better understanding of these age-associated modifications, animal models as close as possible to humans are needed. We thus analyzed the transcriptome of the temporal cortex of the primate Microcebus murinus using human oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix. Gene expression profiles were assessed in the temporal cortex of 6 young adults, 10 healthy old animals and 2 old, "AD-like" animals that presented ß-amyloid plaques and cortical atrophy, which are pathognomonic signs of AD in humans. Gene expression data of the 14,911 genes that were detected in at least 3 samples were analyzed. By SAM (significance analysis of microarrays, we identified 47 genes that discriminated young from healthy old and "AD-like" animals. These findings were confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA. ANOVA of the expression data from the three groups identified 695 genes (including the 47 genes previously identified by SAM and PCA with significant changes of expression in old and "AD-like" in comparison to young animals. About one third of these genes showed similar changes of expression in healthy aging and in "AD-like" animals, whereas more than two thirds showed opposite changes in these two groups in comparison to young animals. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the 695 markers indicated that each group had distinct expression profiles which characterized each group, especially the "AD-like" group. Functional categorization showed that most of the genes that were up-regulated in healthy old animals and down-regulated in "AD-like" animals belonged to metabolic pathways, particularly protein synthesis. These data suggest the existence of compensatory mechanisms during physiological brain aging that disappear in "AD-like" animals. These results open

  11. Regulation of the PI3K/AKT Pathway and Fuel Utilization During Primate Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon N. Tessier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus from Madagascar present an excellent model for studies of torpor regulation in a primate species. In the present study, we analyzed the response of the insulin signaling pathway as well as controls on carbohydrate sparing in six different tissues of torpid versus aroused gray mouse lemurs. We found that the relative level of phospho-insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 was significantly increased in muscle, whereas the level of phospho-insulin receptor (IR was decreased in white adipose tissue (WAT of torpid animals, both suggesting an inhibition of insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 signaling during torpor in these tissues. By contrast, the level of phospho-IR was increased in the liver. Interestingly, muscle, WAT, and liver occupy central roles in whole body homeostasis and each displays regulatory controls operating at the plasma membrane. Changes in other tissues included an increase in phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3α (GSK3α and decrease in phospho-ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6 in the heart, and a decrease in phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR in the kidney. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH that gates carbohydrate entry into mitochondria is inhibited via phosphorylation by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (e.g., PDK4. In the skeletal muscle, the protein expression of PDK4 and phosphorylated PDH at Ser 300 was increased, suggesting inhibition during torpor. In contrast, there were no changes in levels of PDH expression and phosphorylation in other tissues comparing torpid and aroused animals. Information gained from these studies highlight the molecular controls that help to regulate metabolic rate depression and balance energetics during primate torpor.

  12. Regulation of the PI3K/AKT Pathway and Fuel Utilization During Primate Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shannon N Tessier; Jing Zhang; Kyle K Biggar; Cheng-Wei Wu; Fabien Pifferi; Martine Perret; f Kenneth B Storey

    2015-01-01

    Gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) from Madagascar present an excellent model for studies of torpor regulation in a primate species. In the present study, we analyzed the response of the insulin signaling pathway as well as controls on carbohydrate sparing in six different tissues of torpid versus aroused gray mouse lemurs. We found that the relative level of phospho-insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) was significantly increased in muscle, whereas the level of phospho-insulin receptor (IR) was decreased in white adipose tissue (WAT) of torpid animals, both suggesting an inhibition of insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling during torpor in these tissues. By contrast, the level of phospho-IR was increased in the liver. Interestingly, muscle,WAT, and liver occupy central roles in whole body homeostasis and each displays regulatory con-trols operating at the plasma membrane. Changes in other tissues included an increase in phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3a (GSK3a) and decrease in phospho-ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) in the heart, and a decrease in phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the kidney. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) that gates carbohydrate entry into mitochondria is inhibited via phosphory-lation by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (e.g., PDK4). In the skeletal muscle, the protein expres-sion of PDK4 and phosphorylated PDH at Ser 300 was increased, suggesting inhibition during torpor. In contrast, there were no changes in levels of PDH expression and phosphorylation in other tissues comparing torpid and aroused animals. Information gained from these studies high-light the molecular controls that help to regulate metabolic rate depression and balance energetics during primate torpor.

  13. Resveratrol Metabolism in a Non-Human Primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Quadrupole Time of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menet, Marie-Claude; Marchal, Julia; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Taghi, Méryam; Nivet-Antoine, Valérie; Dargère, Delphine; Laprévote, Olivier; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Aujard, Fabienne; Epelbaum, Jacques; Cottart, Charles-Henry

    2014-01-01

    The grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a non-human primate used to study the ageing process. Resveratrol is a polyphenol that may increase lifespan by delaying age-associated pathologies. However, no information about resveratrol absorption and metabolism is available for this primate. Resveratrol and its metabolites were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in male mouse-lemur plasma (after 200 mg.kg−1 of oral resveratrol) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer used in full-scan mode. Data analyses showed, in MSE mode, an ion common to resveratrol and all its metabolites: m/z 227.072, and an ion common to dihydro-resveratrol metabolites: m/z 229.08. A semi-targeted study enabled us to identify six hydrophilic resveratrol metabolites (one diglucurono-conjugated, two monoglucurono-conjugated, one monosulfo-conjugated and two both sulfo- and glucurono-conjugated derivatives) and three hydrophilic metabolites of dihydro-resveratrol (one monoglucurono-conjugated, one monosulfo-conjugated, and one both sulfo- and glucurono-conjugated derivatives). The presence of such metabolites has been already detected in the mouse, rat, pig, and humans. Free resveratrol was measurable for several hours in mouse-lemur plasma, and its two main metabolites were trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and trans-resveratrol-3-sulfate. Free dihydro-resveratrol was not measurable whatever the time of plasma collection, while its hydrophilic metabolites were present at 24 h after intake. These data will help us interpret the effect of resveratrol in mouse lemurs and provide further information on the inter-species characteristics of resveratrol metabolism. PMID:24663435

  14. Caloric restriction or resveratrol supplementation and ageing in a non-human primate: first-year outcome of the RESTRIKAL study in Microcebus murinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Terrien, Jérémy; Pifferi, Fabien; Botalla, Roger; Hardy, Isabelle; Marchal, Julia; Zahariev, Alexandre; Chery, Isabelle; Zizzari, Philippe; Perret, Martine; Picq, Jean Luc; Epelbaum, Jacques; Blanc, Stéphane; Aujard, Fabienne

    2011-03-01

    A life-long follow-up of physiological and behavioural functions was initiated in 38-month-old mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) to test whether caloric restriction (CR) or a potential mimetic compound, resveratrol (RSV), can delay the ageing process and the onset of age-related diseases. Based on their potential survival of 12 years, mouse lemurs were assigned to three different groups: a control (CTL) group fed ad libitum, a CR group fed 70% of the CTL caloric intake and a RSV group (200 mg/kg.day(-1)) fed ad libitum. Since this prosimian primate exhibits a marked annual rhythm in body mass gain during winter, animals were tested throughout the year to assess body composition, daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), physical activity and hormonal levels. After 1 year, all mouse lemurs seemed in good health. CR animals showed a significantly decreased body mass compared with the other groups during long day period only. CR or RSV treatments did not affect body composition. CR induced a decrease in DEE without changes in RMR, whereas RSV induced a concomitant increase in DEE and RMR without any obvious modification of locomotor activity in both groups. Hormonal levels remained similar in each group. In summary, after 1 year of treatment CR and RSV induced differential metabolic responses but animals successfully acclimated to their imposed diets. The RESTRIKAL study can now be safely undertaken on a long-term basis to determine whether age-associated alterations in mouse lemurs are delayed with CR and if RSV can mimic these effects.

  15. Touchscreen-based cognitive tasks reveal age-related impairment in a primate aging model, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Joly

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs are suggested to represent promising novel non-human primate models for aging research. However, standardized and cross-taxa cognitive testing methods are still lacking. Touchscreen-based testing procedures have proven high stimulus control and reliability in humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to adapt these procedures to mouse lemurs, thereby exploring the effect of age. We measured appetitive learning and cognitive flexibility of two age groups by applying pairwise visual discrimination (PD and reversal learning (PDR tasks. On average, mouse lemurs needed 24 days of training before starting with the PD task. Individual performances in PD and PDR tasks correlate significantly, suggesting that individual learning performance is unrelated to the respective task. Compared to the young, aged mouse lemurs showed impairments in both PD and PDR tasks. They needed significantly more trials to reach the task criteria. A much higher inter-individual variation in old than in young adults was revealed. Furthermore, in the PDR task, we found a significantly higher perseverance in aged compared to young adults, indicating an age-related deficit in cognitive flexibility. This study presents the first touchscreen-based data on the cognitive skills and age-related dysfunction in mouse lemurs and provides a unique basis to study mechanisms of inter-individual variation. It furthermore opens exciting perspectives for comparative approaches in aging, personality, and evolutionary research.

  16. Touchscreen-based cognitive tasks reveal age-related impairment in a primate aging model, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Marine; Ammersdörfer, Sandra; Schmidtke, Daniel; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs are suggested to represent promising novel non-human primate models for aging research. However, standardized and cross-taxa cognitive testing methods are still lacking. Touchscreen-based testing procedures have proven high stimulus control and reliability in humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to adapt these procedures to mouse lemurs, thereby exploring the effect of age. We measured appetitive learning and cognitive flexibility of two age groups by applying pairwise visual discrimination (PD) and reversal learning (PDR) tasks. On average, mouse lemurs needed 24 days of training before starting with the PD task. Individual performances in PD and PDR tasks correlate significantly, suggesting that individual learning performance is unrelated to the respective task. Compared to the young, aged mouse lemurs showed impairments in both PD and PDR tasks. They needed significantly more trials to reach the task criteria. A much higher inter-individual variation in old than in young adults was revealed. Furthermore, in the PDR task, we found a significantly higher perseverance in aged compared to young adults, indicating an age-related deficit in cognitive flexibility. This study presents the first touchscreen-based data on the cognitive skills and age-related dysfunction in mouse lemurs and provides a unique basis to study mechanisms of inter-individual variation. It furthermore opens exciting perspectives for comparative approaches in aging, personality, and evolutionary research.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in primates. The example of the mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus: From detection of pathological aging to therapeutic evaluations Imagerie par résonance magnétique chez les primates. L’exemple du microcèbe murin (Microcebus murinus : De la détection du vieillissement cérébral pathologique à l'évaluation thérapeutique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine El Tannir El Tayara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aging is a major public health issue in our societies as the aged population increases dramatically. It leads in many cases to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD. Rodents and particularly transgenic mice are widely used as models for research on physiopathology of cerebral aging, neurodegenerative diseases and for the evaluation of therapies. However these models do not mimic all the pathophysiological aspects of human diseases. Complementary models such as non-human primates are phylogenetically close to humans and thus more predictive of drug efficiency in humans. Mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a small primate (about 12cm, 100g described as a useful model of cerebral aging and as a potential model of AD. Indeed several animals develop age-associated cerebral alterations like amyloidosis and other cerebral changes. Non invasive medical imaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be used to follow-up brain changes in these animals. In this review, we present how mouse lemurs can be followed-up by MRI and how MRI can be used during therapeutic evaluations and other applications in this model. MR images can be used to follow-up cerebral anatomy in mouse lemurs. It allows for the description of age-associated atrophic processes, age-associated iron accumulation, and vascular anatomy (thanks to MR angiography. Cerebral glucose uptake can be studied in mouse lemurs with other in vivo imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET. In this case, MRI can be used as a support for quantification of radioligand uptake in specific structures. Ex vivo MR imaging is another MR protocol that can be used to describe cerebral aging in lemurs. It provides high resolution 3D histological brain images and allows for studying exquisite anatomical details or microhemorrhages. Finally, MRI can be used to practice cerebral surgery in lemurs and determine coordinates for stereotactic injections. It can

  18. Evidence for a convergent slowdown in primate molecular rates and its implications for the timing of early primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiper, Michael E; Seiffert, Erik R

    2012-04-17

    A long-standing problem in primate evolution is the discord between paleontological and molecular clock estimates for the time of crown primate origins: the earliest crown primate fossils are ~56 million y (Ma) old, whereas molecular estimates for the haplorhine-strepsirrhine split are often deep in the Late Cretaceous. One explanation for this phenomenon is that crown primates existed in the Cretaceous but that their fossil remains have not yet been found. Here we provide strong evidence that this discordance is better-explained by a convergent molecular rate slowdown in early primate evolution. We show that molecular rates in primates are strongly and inversely related to three life-history correlates: body size (BS), absolute endocranial volume (EV), and relative endocranial volume (REV). Critically, these traits can be reconstructed from fossils, allowing molecular rates to be predicted for extinct primates. To this end, we modeled the evolutionary history of BS, EV, and REV using data from both extinct and extant primates. We show that the primate last common ancestor had a very small BS, EV, and REV. There has been a subsequent convergent increase in BS, EV, and REV, indicating that there has also been a convergent molecular rate slowdown over primate evolution. We generated a unique timescale for primates by predicting molecular rates from the reconstructed phenotypic values for a large phylogeny of living and extinct primates. This analysis suggests that crown primates originated close to the K-Pg boundary and possibly in the Paleocene, largely reconciling the molecular and fossil timescales of primate evolution.

  19. The primate hippocampus: ontogeny, early insult and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2005-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that in primates, as in rodents, the hippocampus shows a developmental continuum that affects memory abilities from infancy to adulthood. In primates relatively few hippocampal-dependent abilities (e.g. some aspects of recognition memory) are present in early infancy, whereas others (e.g. relational memory) begin to show adult-like characteristics around 2 years of age in monkeys and 5-7 years in humans. Profound and persistent memory loss resulting from insult to the hippocampus in infancy becomes evident in everyday behavior only later in childhood. This pattern of results suggests a maturational gradient within the medial temporal lobe memory system, with most abilities crucially dependent upon the hippocampus emerging in later stages of development, supporting a model of hierarchical organization of memory within the medial temporal lobe.

  20. A case of adult cannibalism in the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Anni

    2012-09-01

    Cannibalism, defined as the eating of conspecific flesh, has been observed in a number of primate species, although it is still a relatively rare phenomenon. In cases where primates were seen feeding on an individual of the same species, the victims have exclusively been infants or juveniles. Here, I report an event of a free-living, adult male gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, cannibalizing an adult conspecific female that died of an unknown cause. This observation has implications for the basic ecology of the species and highlights the potential for great flexibility in diet and behavior by a primate. This is, to my knowledge, the first communication of cannibalistic behavior in this species, as well as the first reported case of a nonhuman primate cannibalizing an adult conspecific.

  1. Chromosomal evolution in Malagasy lemurs. VII. Phylogenic relationships between Propithecus, Avahi (Indridae), Microcebus (Cheirogaleidae), and Lemur (Lemuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpler, Y; Couturier, J; Warter, S; Dutrillaux, B

    1983-01-01

    A chromosomal banding study was carried out on Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi, P. verreauxi deckeni, and Avahi laniger laniger. Comparison of their karyotypes with those of Microcebus murinus and Lemur fulvus led to reconstruction of the ancestral Lemuriform karyotype and a determination that the branch leading to the Indridae was isolated very early, before the separation of the Lemuridae from the Cheirogaleidae. The karyotype of Avahi remained highly ancestral, whereas that of P. verreauxi was considerably modified, chiefly by Robersonian translocations.

  2. New discoveries of early Paleocene (Torrejonian) primates from the Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silcox, Mary T; Williamson, Thomas E

    2012-12-01

    Primates underwent a period of diversification following the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs. Although the Order first appeared near the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, it is not until the Torrejonian (the second North American Land Mammal Age of the Paleocene) that a diversity of families began to emerge. One of the lithological units critical to understanding this first primate adaptive radiation is the early Paleocene Nacimiento Formation of the San Juan Basin (SJB; New Mexico). Primates previously described from this formation comprise six species of palaechthonid and paromomyid plesiadapiforms, all known from very limited material. Collecting has increased the sample of primate specimens more than fivefold. Included in the new sample is the first specimen of a picrodontid plesiadapiform from the Torrejonian of the SJB, referable to Picrodus calgariensis, and the first paromomyid specimen complete enough to allow for a species level taxonomic assignment, representing a new species of Paromomys. With respect to the 'Palaechthonidae', the current report describes large collections of Torrejonia wilsoni and Palaechthon woodi, and the first new specimens attributed to Plesiolestes nacimienti and Anasazia williamsoni since 1972 and 1994, respectively. These collections demonstrate previously unknown morphological variants, including the presence of a metaconid on the p4 of some specimens of T. wilsoni, a discovery that supports previous inferences about a close relationship between Torrejonia and Plesiolestes problematicus. This new sample considerably improves our knowledge of the poorly understood 'Palaechthonidae', and about the biostratigraphy, biogeography, and early evolution of North American primates. In particular, the rarity of paromomyids, the continuing absence of plesiadapid and carpolestid plesiadapiforms, and the presence of a number of endemic palaechthonid species in the SJB contrast with plesiadapiform samples from contemporaneous deposits to the

  3. Habitat corridor utilization by the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, in the littoral forest fragments of south eastern Madagascar. ... and vegetation structure represent suitable habitat for mouse le- ..... ment of tropical forest biodiversity in a human-modified world. Biological .... major histocompatibility complex in the Malagasy mouse lemur, Microce-.

  4. The early development of the nervous system in staged insectivore and primate embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R

    1980-10-01

    The early development of the nervous system was studied in stage embryos of hemicentetes semispinosus, Microcebus murinus, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus appella, Cebus albifrons, macaca mulatta, and Homo sapiens. The specimens were assigned to Carnegie stages 11-13. Serial transverse sections were examined and graphic reconstructions were prepared. The early development of the neural tube is basically similar in all the species investigated but differences in detail are noticeable. The mesencephalic flexure serves in all cases as a landmark for malpighi's tripartite subdivision of the brain. The nonhuman embryos seem to show a little more variation than the human in the closure of the neuropores in relation to somitic count. With the exception of the later-appearing terminal-vomeronasal component, all major portions of the neural crest as classified by O'Rahilly ('65) are represented in both the nonhuman and the human embryos studied. No crest is present at the level of rhombomere 1, nor at rhombomere 3 except in the platyrrhines and some human embryos, nor at rhombomere 5 except in certain human specimens. An indication of the division of the trigeminal ganglion into its primary divisions is rare at stage 11 (C. apella), may be visible at stage 12 (Alouatta, macaca, Homo), and is definite (in Homo) at stage 13. Ganglionic contributions from head ectoderm (epipharyngeal placodes), as previously described in the human and some other vertebrate embryos, were sought and found in Cebus apella. In both nonhuman and human, a tendency is noted whereby the rostral limit of the occipitospinal crest, high at stage 11, seems to descend relatively at stage 12, and ascend again at stage 13 (at least in the human) to become associated with the appearance of the accessory and hypoglossal nerves. In general, the motor components of the nerves are identifiable before the sensory elements, and, in the present study, nerve fibers were first observed in the human at stage 13 in some of

  5. Torpor use during gestation and lactation in a primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Cindy I.; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2012-02-01

    Torpor is an energy-saving mechanism that allows endotherms to overcome energetic challenges. Torpor should be avoided during reproduction because of potential incompatibility with offspring growth. To test if torpor can be used during gestation and lactation to compensate for food shortage, we exposed reproductive female grey mouse lemurs ( Microcebus murinus), a heterothermic primate, to different levels of food availability. Torpor use was characterised by daily skin temperature profiles, and its energetic outcome was assessed from changes in body mass. Food shortage triggered torpor during the end of the gestation period ( n = 1), ranging from shallow in response to 40% food restriction to deep daily torpor in response to 80% restriction. During the early period of lactation, females fed ad libitum ( n = 2) or exposed to a 40% restriction ( n = 4) remained normothermic; but 80% food restricted females ( n = 5) gave priority to energy saving, increasing the frequency and depth of torpor bouts. The use of torpor was insufficient to compensate for 80% energetic shortage during lactation resulting in loss of mass from the mother and delayed growth in the pups. This study provides the first evidence that a heterothermic primate can use torpor to compensate for food shortages even during reproduction. This physiological flexibility likely evolved as a response to climate-driven fluctuations in food availability in Madagascar.

  6. Early development of neuronal activity in the primate hippocampus in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazipov, R; Esclapez, M; Caillard, O; Bernard, C; Khalilov, I; Tyzio, R; Hirsch, J; Dzhala, V; Berger, B; Ben-Ari, Y

    2001-12-15

    Morphological studies suggest that the primate hippocampus develops extensively before birth, but little is known about its functional development. Patch-clamp recordings of hippocampal neurons and reconstruction of biocytin-filled pyramidal cells were performed in slices of macaque cynomolgus fetuses delivered by cesarean section. We found that during the second half of gestation, axons and dendrites of pyramidal cells grow intensively by hundreds of micrometers per day to attain a high level of maturity near term. Synaptic currents appear around midgestation and are correlated with the level of morphological differentiation of pyramidal cells: the first synapses are GABAergic, and their emergence correlates with the growth of apical dendrite into stratum radiatum. A later occurrence of glutamatergic synaptic currents correlates with a further differentiation of the axodendritic tree and the appearance of spines. Relying on the number of dendritic spines, we estimated that hundreds of new glutamatergic synapses are established every day on a pyramidal neuron during the last third of gestation. Most of the synaptic activity is synchronized in spontaneous slow ( approximately 0.1 Hz) network oscillations reminiscent of the giant depolarizing potentials in neonatal rodents. Epileptiform discharges can be evoked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline by the last third of gestation, and postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors contribute to the termination of epileptiform discharges. Comparing the results obtained in primates and rodents, we conclude that the template of early hippocampal network development is conserved across the mammalian evolution but that it is shifted toward fetal life in primate.

  7. Microsatellite analyses reveal fine-scale genetic structure in grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredsted, T; Pertoldi, C; Schierup, M H; Kappeler, P M

    2005-07-01

    Information on genetic structure can be used to complement direct inferences on social systems and behaviour. We studied the genetic structure of the solitary grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a small, nocturnal primate endemic to western Madagascar, with the aim of getting further insight on its breeding structure. Tissue samples from 167 grey mouse lemurs in an area covering 12.3 km2 in Kirindy Forest were obtained from trapping. The capture data indicated a noncontinuous distribution of individuals in the study area. Using 10 microsatellite markers, significant genetic differentiation in the study area was demonstrated and dispersal was found to be significantly male biased. Furthermore, we observed an overall excess of homozygotes in the total population (F(IT) = 0.131), which we interpret as caused by fine-scale structure with breeding occurring in small units. Evidence for a clumped distribution of identical homozygotes was found, supporting the notion that dispersal distance for breeding was shorter than that for foraging, i.e. the breeding neighbourhood size is smaller than the foraging neighbourhood size. In conclusion, we found a more complex population structure than what has been previously reported in studies performed on smaller spatial scales. The noncontinuous distribution of individuals and the effects of social variables on the genetic structure have implications for the interpretation of social organization and the planning of conservation activities that may apply to other solitary and endangered mammals as well.

  8. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  9. Consequences of early adverse rearing experience (EARE) on development: insights from non-human primate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Early rearing experiences are important in one's whole life, whereas early adverse rearing experience (EARE) is usually related to various physical and mental disorders in later life. Although there were many studies on human and animals, regarding the effect of EARE on brain development, neuroendocrine systems, as well as the consequential mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Due to the close genetic relationship and similarity in social organizations with humans, non-human primate (NHP) studies were performed for over 60 years. Various EARE models were developed to disrupt the early normal interactions between infants and mothers or peers. Those studies provided important insights of EARE induced effects on the physiological and behavioral systems of NHPs across life span, such as social behaviors (including disturbance behavior, social deficiency, sexual behavior, etc), learning and memory ability, brain structural and functional developments (including influences on neurons and glia cells, neuroendocrine systems, e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, etc). In this review, the effects of EARE and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms were comprehensively summarized and the possibility of rehabilitation was discussed. PMID:28271667

  10. Early-life stress, corpus callosum development, hippocampal volumetrics, and anxious behavior in male nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Andrea; Perera, Tarique D; Abdallah, Chadi G; Garrido, Griselda; Tang, Cheuk Y; Martinez, Jose; Mathew, Sanjay J; Gorman, Jack M; Rosenblum, Leonard A; Smith, Eric L P; Dwork, Andrew J; Shungu, Dikoma C; Kaffman, Arie; Gelernter, Joel; Coplan, Jeremy D; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-04-30

    Male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) were subjected to the variable foraging demand (VFD) early stress paradigm as infants, MRI scans were completed an average of 4 years later, and behavioral assessments of anxiety and ex-vivo corpus callosum (CC) measurements were made when animals were fully matured. VFD rearing was associated with smaller CC size, CC measurements were found to correlate with fearful behavior in adulthood, and ex-vivo CC assessments showed high consistency with earlier MRI measures. Region of interest (ROI) hippocampus and whole brain voxel-based morphometry assessments were also completed and VFD rearing was associated with reduced hippocampus and inferior and middle temporal gyri volumes. The animals were also characterized according to serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR), and the effect of genotype on imaging parameters was explored. The current findings highlight the importance of future research to better understand the effects of stress on brain development in multiple regions, including the corpus callosum, hippocampus, and other regions involved in emotion processing. Nonhuman primates provide a powerful model to unravel the mechanisms by which early stress and genetic makeup interact to produce long-term changes in brain development, stress reactivity, and risk for psychiatric disorders.

  11. Characterization of blood biochemical markers during aging in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus: impact of gender and season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal Julia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematologic and biochemical data are needed to characterize the health status of animal populations over time to determine the habitat quality and captivity conditions. Blood components and the chemical entities that they transport change predominantly with sex and age. The aim of this study was to utilize blood chemistry monitoring to establish the reference levels in a small prosimian primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus. Method In the captive colony, mouse lemurs may live 10–12 years, and three age groups for both males and females were studied: young (1–3 years, middle-aged (4–5 years and old (6–10 years. Blood biochemical markers were measured using the VetScan Comprehensive Diagnostic Profile. Because many life history traits of this primate are highly dependent on the photoperiod (body mass and reproduction, the effect of season was also assessed. Results The main effect of age was observed in blood markers of renal functions such as creatinine, which was higher among females. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen significantly increased with age and is potentially linked to chronic renal insufficiency, which has been described in captive mouse lemurs. The results demonstrated significant effects related to season, especially in blood protein levels and glucose rates; these effects were observed regardless of gender or age and were likely due to seasonal variations in food intake, which is very marked in this species. Conclusion These results were highly similar with those obtained in other primate species and can serve as references for future research of the Grey Mouse Lemur.

  12. Invading Europe: did climate or geography trigger early Eocene primate dispersals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The Palaeocene-Eocene transition is characterized by a significant turnover of mammalian taxa in the fossil record of the northern continents, and primates are among the groups that make their first appearance at this time. One of the many questions that remain to be answered with regard to the earliest evolution of primates is the reason for their sudden and virtually simultaneous appearance in the fossil records of Asia, Europe and North America. The most obvious environmental correlate of the Palaeocene-Eocene transition is a sharp but relatively short-lived warming event leading up to the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and evidenced in the stratigraphic record by a negative delta(13)C excursion. It remains unclear, however, whether or how this warming event may have influenced Palaeocene-Eocene faunal turnovers. This paper explores the hypothesis that environmental changes associated with the PETM facilitated an invasion of Western Europe by primates by comparing the ecological structure of local mammalian fauna immediately before and following the Palaeocene-Eocene transition. The results suggest that changes to the ecological profile of local mammalian fauna were relatively small and did not favour an invasion by primates, although a major uncertainty remains with respect to the availability of arboreal niches. At present it seems more likely that the invasion of western Europe by primates was due to the breakdown of one or more dispersal barriers close to the end of the Palaeocene.

  13. Modulation of Gene Expression in Key Survival Pathways During Daily Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle K. Biggar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A variety of mammals employ torpor as an energy-saving strategy in environments of marginal or severe stress either on a daily basis during their inactive period or on a seasonal basis during prolonged multi-day hibernation. Recently, a few Madagascar lemur species have been identified as the only primates that exhibit torpor; one of these is the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus. To explore the regulatory mechanisms that underlie daily torpor in a primate, we analyzed the expression of 28 selected genes that represent crucial survival pathways known to be involved in squirrel and bat hibernation. Array-based real-time PCR was used to compare gene expression in control (aroused versus torpid lemurs in five tissues including the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, heart, and brown adipose tissue. Significant differences in gene expression during torpor were revealed among genes involved in glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, antioxidant defense, apoptosis, hypoxia signaling, and protein protection. The results showed upregulation of select genes primarily in liver and brown adipose tissue. For instance, both tissues showed elevated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (ppargc, ferritin (fth1, and protein chaperones during torpor. Overall, the data show that the expression of only a few genes changed during lemur daily torpor, as compared with the broader expression changes reported for hibernation in ground squirrels. These results provide an indication that the alterations in gene expression required for torpor in lemurs are not as extensive as those needed for winter hibernation in squirrel models. However, identification of crucial genes with altered expression that support lemur torpor provides key targets to be explored and manipulated toward a goal of translational applications of inducible torpor as a treatment option in human biomedicine.

  14. Modulation of Gene Expression in Key Survival Pathways During Daily Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyle K Biggar; Cheng-Wei Wu; Shannon N Tessier; Jing Zhang; Fabien Pifferi; Martine Perret; Kenneth B Storey

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mammals employ torpor as an energy-saving strategy in environments of marginal or severe stress either on a daily basis during their inactive period or on a seasonal basis during prolonged multi-day hibernation. Recently, a few Madagascar lemur species have been iden-tified as the only primates that exhibit torpor; one of these is the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). To explore the regulatory mechanisms that underlie daily torpor in a primate, we ana-lyzed the expression of 28 selected genes that represent crucial survival pathways known to be involved in squirrel and bat hibernation. Array-based real-time PCR was used to compare gene expression in control (aroused) versus torpid lemurs in five tissues including the liver, kidney,skeletal muscle, heart, and brown adipose tissue. Significant differences in gene expression during torpor were revealed among genes involved in glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, antioxidant defense, apoptosis, hypoxia signaling, and protein protection. The results showed upregulation of select genes primarily in liver and brown adipose tissue. For instance, both tissues showed elevated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (ppargc), ferritin (fth1), and protein chaperones during torpor. Overall, the data show that the expression of only a few genes changed during lemur daily torpor, as compared with the broader expression changes reported for hibernation in ground squirrels. These results provide an indication that the alterations in gene expression required for torpor in lemurs are not as extensive as those needed for winter hibernation in squirrel models. However, identification of crucial genes with altered expression that support lemur torpor provides key targets to be explored and manipulated toward a goal of translational applications of inducible torpor as a treatment option in human biomedicine.

  15. Induction of Antioxidant and Heat Shock Protein Responses During Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wei Wu; Kyle K Biggar; Jing Zhang; Shannon N Tessier; Fabien Pifferi; Martine Perret; Kenneth B Storey

    2015-01-01

    A natural tolerance of various environmental stresses is typically supported by various cytoprotective mechanisms that protect macromolecules and promote extended viability. Among these are antioxidant defenses that help to limit damage from reactive oxygen species and chaper-ones that help to minimize protein misfolding or unfolding under stress conditions. To understand the molecular mechanisms that act to protect cells during primate torpor, the present study charac-terizes antioxidant and heat shock protein (HSP) responses in various organs of control (aroused)and torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. Protein expression of HSP70 and HSP90a was elevated to 1.26 and 1.49 fold, respectively, in brown adipose tissue during torpor as compared with control animals, whereas HSP60 in liver of torpid animals was 1.15 fold of that in control (P<0.05). Among antioxidant enzymes, protein levels of thioredoxin 1 were elevated to 2.19 fold in white adipose tissue during torpor, whereas Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase 1 levels rose to 1.1 fold in skeletal muscle (P<0.05). Additionally, total antioxidant capacity was increased to 1.6 fold in liver during torpor (P<0.05), while remaining unchanged in the five other tissues. Overall, our data suggest that antioxidant and HSP responses are modified in a tissue-specific manner during daily torpor in gray mouse lemurs. Furthermore, our data also show that cytoprotective strategies employed during primate torpor are distinct from the strategies in rodent hibernation as reported in previous studies.

  16. Biologie Moléculaire et Phylogenèse des Lémuriformes (Primates de Madagascar)

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Membres du jury: Pr. Y. RUMPLER Pr. P. DARLU Pr. R. ALBIGNAC Dr. A. HANAUER; Molecular biology and Lemuriformes (Malagasy Primates) phylogeny In this study most of the species included in the Lemuridae (Eulemur, Hapalemur, Varecia), Indriidae (Indri, Propithecus, Avahi), Lepilemuridae, Cheirogaleidae (Cheirogaleus, Microcebus, Mirza) and Daubentonia are used, as well as a sub-fossile (Megaladapis edwardsi) and two Tupaia species. Mitochondrial sequences from a cytochrome b fragment (357 bp) a...

  17. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Cindy I; Huchard, Elise; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months) or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month). Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation) to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth) in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important reproductive

  18. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy I Canale

    Full Text Available The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month. Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important

  19. Dental microwear and microstructure in early oligocene primates from the Fayum, Egypt: implications for diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaford, M F; Maas, M C; Simons, E L

    1996-12-01

    Textbook descriptions usually portray the Fayum anthropoideans as frugivores, with Parapithecus grangeri including a folivorous component in its diet and Apidium a component of hard-object feeding. Recent work with modern mammals has shown that analyses of both dental microwear and dental microstructure may yield insights into diet and tooth use. The purpose of this study was to combine these two techniques to gain a better perspective on the paleobiology of the Fayum higher primates. Dental microwear analyses involved the use of high resolution epoxy casts of Aegyptopithecus, Parapithecus, and Apidium housed in the Duke University Primate Center. Scanning electron micrographs were taken at x500, and all microwear features in each micrograph were digitized. For microstructure analyses, molar teeth were sectioned in a variety of planes, lightly etched, and photographed in the SEM. Results of the dental microwear analyses indicate that the three Fayum anthropoideans all clustered with modern primate frugivores but that there were also significant differences between Aegyptopithecus and the other two Fayum genera. By contrast, dental microstructure analyses showed important differences between Apidium and the other two genera. The reason for these differences probably lies in a combination of body size and dietary differences, with Aegyptopithecus occasionally feeding on hard objects and Apidium maximizing wear resistance through a unique emphasis of radial (rather than decussating) enamel.

  20. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The spatia

  1. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The spatia

  2. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The

  3. Consequences of early adverse rearing experience(EARE) on development: insights from non-human primate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-18

    Early rearing experiences are important in one's whole life, whereas early adverse rearing experience(EARE) is usually related to various physical and mental disorders in later life. Although there were many studies on human and animals, regarding the effect of EARE on brain development, neuroendocrine systems, as well as the consequential mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Due to the close genetic relationship and similarity in social organizations with humans, non-human primate(NHP) studies were performed for over 60 years. Various EARE models were developed to disrupt the early normal interactions between infants and mothers or peers. Those studies provided important insights of EARE induced effects on the physiological and behavioral systems of NHPs across life span, such as social behaviors(including disturbance behavior, social deficiency, sexual behavior, etc), learning and memory ability, brain structural and functional developments(including influences on neurons and glia cells, neuroendocrine systems, e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis, etc). In this review, the effects of EARE and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms were comprehensively summarized and the possibility of rehabilitation was discussed.

  4. The early postnatal nonhuman primate neocortex contains self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihane Homman-Ludiye

    Full Text Available The postnatal neocortex has traditionally been considered a non-neurogenic region, under non-pathological conditions. A few studies suggest, however, that a small subpopulation of neural cells born during postnatal life can differentiate into neurons that take up residence within the neocortex, implying that postnatal neurogenesis could occur in this region, albeit at a low level. Evidence to support this hypothesis remains controversial while the source of putative neural progenitors responsible for generating new neurons in the postnatal neocortex is unknown. Here we report the identification of self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs derived from the postnatal day 14 (PD14 marmoset monkey primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex. While neuronal maturation within V1 is well advanced by PD14, we observed cells throughout this region that co-expressed Sox2 and Ki67, defining a population of resident proliferating progenitor cells. When cultured at low density in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2, dissociated V1 tissue gave rise to multipotent neurospheres that exhibited the ability to differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. While the capacity to generate neurones and oligodendrocytes was not observed beyond the third passage, astrocyte-restricted neurospheres could be maintained for up to 6 passages. This study provides the first direct evidence for the existence of multipotent NPCs within the postnatal neocortex of the nonhuman primate. The potential contribution of neocortical NPCs to neural repair following injury raises exciting new possibilities for the field of regenerative medicine.

  5. The early postnatal nonhuman primate neocortex contains self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homman-Ludiye, Jihane; Merson, Tobias D; Bourne, James A

    2012-01-01

    The postnatal neocortex has traditionally been considered a non-neurogenic region, under non-pathological conditions. A few studies suggest, however, that a small subpopulation of neural cells born during postnatal life can differentiate into neurons that take up residence within the neocortex, implying that postnatal neurogenesis could occur in this region, albeit at a low level. Evidence to support this hypothesis remains controversial while the source of putative neural progenitors responsible for generating new neurons in the postnatal neocortex is unknown. Here we report the identification of self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the postnatal day 14 (PD14) marmoset monkey primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex). While neuronal maturation within V1 is well advanced by PD14, we observed cells throughout this region that co-expressed Sox2 and Ki67, defining a population of resident proliferating progenitor cells. When cultured at low density in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), dissociated V1 tissue gave rise to multipotent neurospheres that exhibited the ability to differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. While the capacity to generate neurones and oligodendrocytes was not observed beyond the third passage, astrocyte-restricted neurospheres could be maintained for up to 6 passages. This study provides the first direct evidence for the existence of multipotent NPCs within the postnatal neocortex of the nonhuman primate. The potential contribution of neocortical NPCs to neural repair following injury raises exciting new possibilities for the field of regenerative medicine.

  6. Effects of Early IL-17A Neutralization on Disease Induction in a Primate Model of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kap, Yolanda S.; Jagessar, S. Anwar; Driel, Nikki; Blezer, Erwin; Bauer, Jan; van Meurs, Marjan; Smith, Paul; Laman, Jon D.; Bert A. ‘t Hart

    2010-01-01

    We report on the effect of antibody-mediated neutralization of interleukin (IL)-17A in a non-human primate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model induced with recombinant human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (rhMOG). We tested a human-anti-human IL-17A-antibody in two doses (3 and 30 mg/kg) against placebo (PBS). The treatment was started 1 day before EAE induction and continued throughout the experiment. Although all monkeys developed clinically evident EAE, the onset of ...

  7. Cytokine and Antioxidant Regulation in the Intestine of the Gray Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus During Torpor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon N. Tessier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During food shortages, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus of Madagascar experiences daily torpor thereby reducing energy expenditures. The present study aimed to understand the impacts of torpor on the immune system and antioxidant response in the gut of these animals. This interaction may be of critical importance given the trade-off between the energetically costly immune response and the need to defend against pathogen entry during hypometabolism. The protein levels of cytokines and antioxidants were measured in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and large intestine of aroused and torpid lemurs. While there was a significant decrease of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α in the duodenum and jejunum during torpor as compared to aroused animals, there was no change in anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed decreased levels of cytokines (IL-12p70 and M-CSF, and several chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2 but an increase in MIP-1α in the jejunum of the torpid animals. In addition, we evaluated antioxidant response by examining the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity provided by metabolites such as glutathione (and others. Our results indicated that levels of antioxidant enzymes did not change between torpor and aroused states, although antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the ileum during torpor. These data suggest a suppression of the immune response, likely as an energy conservation measure, and a limited role of antioxidant defenses in supporting torpor in lemur intestine.

  8. Multiple ectoparasites infest Microcebus griseorufus at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie R. Godfrey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mouse lemur Microcebus griseorufus at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve and general vicinity in southwestern Madagascar were surveyed for ectoparasites as part of a year-long behavioral and ecological study. Of 249 individual mouse lemurs examined, 74 were positively identified as hosting ectoparasites. Ticks from 20 mouse lemurs and lice in a subset of two individuals captured in a 90 ha gallery forest (Parcel 1 were preserved in 70 % ethanol or EDTA and stored for analysis and for identification. Two species of Haemaphysalis ticks are represented in the sample, H. lemuris and possibly H. simplex, a tick previously reported on tenrecs, birds and rats. Synchronous development of ticks may pose a risk for vector - borne diseases at the reserve especially during the dry season. The louse represented in the sample belongs to the order Anoplura (sucking lice, and resembles Lemurpediculus verruculosus, previously reported on Microcebus rufus in eastern Madagascar. RÉSUMÉUn inventaire d’ectoparasites a été réalisé dans le cadre d’une étude de longue durée portant sur le comportement et l’écologie de Microcebus griseorufus dans trois parcelles forestières de Beza Mahafaly et ses environs. Sur les 249 microcèbes observés, 74 individus étaient infestés d’ectoparasites. La majorité de ces individus infestés, soit 97,3 %, provenait de la parcelle 1 de la réserve. Des poux et des tiques recensés sur ces animaux ont été immédiatement retirés puis préservés dans l’éthanol 70 % ou dans l’EDTA à des fins d’analyse et d’identification. Deux espèces de tiques ont été identifiées, Haemaphysalis lemuris et probablement H. simplex, cette dernière n’était préalablement connue que pour infester les tenrecs, les oiseaux et les rats.Les rongeurs jouent un rôle significatif en tant qu’hôtes pour près de la moitié des larves et des nymphes d’ixodes de tiques du monde, y compris H. simplex. Les rats sont connus

  9. The evolution of neocortex in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    We can learn about the evolution of neocortex in primates through comparative studies of cortical organization in primates and those mammals that are the closest living relatives of primates, in conjunction with brain features revealed by the skull endocasts of fossil archaic primates. Such studies suggest that early primates had acquired a number of features of neocortex that now distinguish modern primates. Most notably, early primates had an array of new visual areas, and those visual areas widely shared with other mammals had been modified. Posterior parietal cortex was greatly expanded with sensorimotor modules for reaching, grasping, and personal defense. Motor cortex had become more specialized for hand use, and the functions of primary motor cortex were enhanced by the addition and development of premotor and cingulate motor areas. Cortical architecture became more varied, and cortical neuron populations became denser overall than in nonprimate ancestors. Primary visual cortex had the densest population of neurons, and this became more pronounced in the anthropoid radiation. Within the primate clade, considerable variability in cortical size, numbers of areas, and architecture evolved.

  10. Cytokine and Antioxidant Regulation in the Intestine of the Gray Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus) During Torpor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shannon N Tessier; Barbara A Katzenback; Fabien Pifferi; Martine Perret; Kenneth B Storey

    2015-01-01

    During food shortages, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) of Madagascar expe-riences daily torpor thereby reducing energy expenditures. The present study aimed to understand the impacts of torpor on the immune system and antioxidant response in the gut of these animals. This interaction may be of critical importance given the trade-off between the energetically costly immune response and the need to defend against pathogen entry during hypometabolism. The pro-tein levels of cytokines and antioxidants were measured in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and large intestine of aroused and torpid lemurs. While there was a significant decrease of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-a) in the duodenum and jejunum during tor-por as compared to aroused animals, there was no change in anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed decreased levels of cytokines (IL-12p70 and M-CSF), and several chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) but an increase in MIP-1a in the jejunum of the torpid animals. In addition, we evaluated antioxidant response by examining the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity provided by metabolites such as glutathione (and others). Our results indicated that levels of antioxidant enzymes did not change between torpor and aroused states, although antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the ileum during torpor. These data suggest a sup-pression of the immune response, likely as an energy conservation measure, and a limited role of antioxidant defenses in supporting torpor in lemur intestine.

  11. Moderate evidence for a Lombard effect in a phylogenetically basal primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schopf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When exposed to enhanced background noise, humans avoid signal masking by increasing the amplitude of the voice, a phenomenon termed the Lombard effect. This auditory feedback-mediated voice control has also been found in monkeys, bats, cetaceans, fish and some frogs and birds. We studied the Lombard effect for the first time in a phylogenetically basal primate, the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus. When background noise was increased, mouse lemurs were able to raise the amplitude of the voice, comparable to monkeys, but they did not show this effect consistently across context/individuals. The Lombard effect, even if representing a generic vocal communication system property of mammals, may thus be affected by more complex mechanisms. The present findings emphasize an effect of context, and individual, and the need for further standardized approaches to disentangle the multiple system properties of mammalian vocal communication, important for understanding the evolution of the unique human faculty of speech and language.

  12. Signals of recent spatial expansions in the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikhi Lounès

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleistocene events have shaped the phylogeography of many taxa worldwide. Their genetic signatures in tropical species have been much less explored than in those living in temperate regions. We analysed the genetic structure of a Malagasy primate species, a mouse lemur with a wide distribution (M. murinus, in order to investigate such phylogeographic processes on a large tropical island. We also evaluated the effects of anthropogenic pressures (fragmentation/deforestation and natural features (geographic distance, rivers on genetic structure in order to complement our understanding of past and present processes of genetic differentiation. Results The analysis of the mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 195 samples from 15 study sites (10 from a continuous forest and five from isolated forest fragments from two adjacent Inter-River-Systems (IRSs revealed that forest fragmentation and the river restrict gene flow, thereby leading to an increased genetic differentiation between populations beyond the effect of isolation-by-distance. Demographic simulations detected signals of two successive spatial expansions that could be preliminarily dated to the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. The haplotype network revealed geographic structure and showed deep molecular divergences within and between the IRSs that would be congruent with a two-step colonization scenario. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis of a relatively recent spatial expansion of the grey mouse lemur in northwestern Madagascar, which may also explain why this taxon, in contrast to its congeners, has not yet undergone allopatric speciation in the studied area and possibly across its presently wide range.

  13. Exceptional expansion and conservation of a CT-repeat complex in the core promoter of PAXBP1 in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadparast, Saeid; Bayat, Hadi; Biglarian, Akbar; Ohadi, Mina

    2014-08-01

    Adaptive evolution may be linked with the genomic distribution and function of short tandem repeats (STRs). Proximity of the core promoter STRs to the +1 transcription start site (TSS), and their mutable nature are characteristics that highlight those STRs as a novel source of interspecies variation. The PAXBP1 gene (alternatively known as GCFC1) core promoter contains the longest STR identified in a Homo sapiens gene core promoter. Indeed, this core promoter is a stretch of four consecutive CT-STRs. In the current study, we used the Ensembl, NCBI, and UCSC databases to analyze the evolutionary trend and functional implication of this CT-STR complex in six major lineages across vertebrates, including primates, non-primate mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. We observed exceptional expansion (≥4-repeats) and conservation of this CT-STR complex across primates, except prosimians, Microcebus murinus and Otolemur garnettii (Fisher exact Pprimate lineages. Different length alleles across the PAXBP1 core promoter CT-STRs significantly altered gene expression in vitro (Pprimates and non-primates. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of expansion and conservation of a STR complex co-occurring specifically with the primate lineage.

  14. The use of discriminant analysis for evaluation of early-response multiple biomarkers of radiation exposure using non-human primate 6-Gy whole-body radiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil; Farese, A.M.; MacVittie, T.J. [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Bressler Research Building, Room 7-039, University of Maryland-Baltimore, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Manglapus, G.L.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The present need to rapidly identify severely irradiated individuals in mass-casualty and population-monitoring scenarios prompted an evaluation of potential protein biomarkers to provide early diagnostic information after exposure. The level of specific proteins measured using immunodiagnostic technologies may be useful as protein biomarkers to provide early diagnostic information for acute radiation exposures. Herein we present results from on-going studies using a non-human primate (NHP) 6-Gy X-rays ( 0.13Gymin{sup -1}) whole-body radiation model. Protein targets were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in blood plasma before, 1, and 2 days after exposure. Exposure of 10 NHPs to 6 Gy resulted in the up-regulation of plasma levels of (a) p21 WAF1/CIP1, (b) interleukin 6 (IL-6), (c) tissue enzyme salivary {alpha}-amylase, and (d) C-reactive protein. Data presented show the potential utility of protein biomarkers selected from distinctly different pathways to detect radiation exposure. A correlation analysis demonstrated strong correlations among different combinations of four candidate radiation-responsive blood protein biomarkers. Data analyzed with use of multivariate discriminant analysis established very successful separation of NHP groups: 100% discrimination power for animals with correct classification for separation between groups before and 1 day after irradiation, and 95% discrimination power for separation between groups before and 2 days after irradiation. These results also demonstrate proof-in-concept that multiple protein biomarkers provide early diagnostic information to the medical community, along with classical biodosimetric methodologies, to effectively manage radiation casualty incidents.

  15. [Does Alzheimer's disease exist in all primates? Alzheimer pathology in non-human primates and its pathophysiological implications (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, A; Álvarez, M I; López-Rodríguez, A B; Toledano-Díaz, A; Fernández-Verdecia, C I

    2014-01-01

    In the ageing process there are some species of non-human primates which can show some of the defining characteristics of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) of man, both in neuropathological changes and cognitive-behavioural symptoms. The study of these species is of prime importance to understand AD and develop therapies to combat this neurodegenerative disease. In this second part of the study, these AD features are discussed in the most important non-experimental AD models (Mouse Lemur -Microcebus murinus, Caribbean vervet -Chlorocebus aethiops, and the Rhesus and stump-tailed macaque -Macaca mulatta and M. arctoides) and experimental models (lesional, neurotoxic, pharmacological, immunological, etc.) non-human primates. In all these models cerebral amyloid neuropathology can occur in senility, although with different levels of incidence (100% in vervets;Alzheimer's) senility in these species are difficult to establish due to the lack of cognitive-behavioural studies in the many groups analysed, as well as the controversy in the results of these studies when they were carried out. However, in some macaques, a correlation between a high degree of functional brain impairment and a large number of neuropathological changes ("possible AD") has been found. In some non-human primates, such as the macaque, the existence of a possible continuum between "normal" ageing process, "normal" ageing with no deep neuropathological and cognitive-behavioural changes, and "pathological ageing" (or "Alzheimer type ageing"), may be considered. In other cases, such as the Caribbean vervet, neuropathological changes are constant and quite marked, but its impact on cognition and behaviour does not seem to be very important. This does assume the possible existence in the human senile physiological regression of a stable phase without dementia even if neuropathological changes appeared. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. [Caloric restriction in primates: how efficient as an anti-aging approach?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Julia; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne

    2012-12-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is the only non-genetic intervention known to date to slow the onset of age-related diseases and increase average and maximum lifespan in several species. Its interest is continually growing, particularly for the identification of mechanisms involved in increasing longevity. Unlike studies in invertebrate and rodent models have provided some indication about the mechanisms of the CR, the efficacy of CR as an anti-aging protocol in primates has not yet been fully established. In this review we present the advantages of using non human primates as relevant models to the study of human aging in general and specifically in the context of therapeutic interventions applicable to humans, such as CR. Through the longitudinal findings in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), we stress the importance of primate studies in the context of research on aging and their potential to advance the development of molecules which can mimic the beneficial effects of CR, already observed in some species, without imposing a reduced calorie diet.

  17. Early Transcriptional Signatures of the Immune Response to a Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Candidate in Non-human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouts, Fiona R.; Popper, Stephen J.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Stinchcomb, Dan T.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Relman, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of a vaccine against dengue faces unique challenges, including the complexity of the immune responses to the four antigenically distinct serotypes. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling provides insight into the pathways and molecular features that underlie responses to immune system stimulation, and may facilitate predictions of immune protection. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we measured early transcriptional responses in the peripheral blood of cynomolgus macaques following vaccination with a live, attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate, TDV, which is based on a DENV-2 backbone. Different doses and routes of vaccine administration were used, and viral load and neutralizing antibody titers were measured at different time-points following vaccination. All 30 vaccinated animals developed a neutralizing antibody response to each of the four dengue serotypes, and only 3 of these animals had detectable serum viral RNA after challenge with wild-type dengue virus (DENV), suggesting protection of vaccinated animals to DENV infection. The vaccine induced statistically significant changes in 595 gene transcripts on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 as compared with baseline and placebo-treated animals. Genes involved in the type I interferon (IFN) response, including IFI44, DDX58, MX1 and OASL, exhibited the highest fold-change in transcript abundance, and this response was strongest following double dose and subcutaneous (versus intradermal) vaccine administration. In addition, modules of genes involved in antigen presentation, dendritic cell activation, and T cell activation and signaling were enriched following vaccination. Increased abundance of gene transcripts related to T cell activation on day 5, and the type I IFN response on day 7, were significantly correlated with the development of high neutralizing antibody titers on day 30. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that early transcriptional responses may be

  18. Early Transcriptional Signatures of the Immune Response to a Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Candidate in Non-human Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona R Strouts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of a vaccine against dengue faces unique challenges, including the complexity of the immune responses to the four antigenically distinct serotypes. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling provides insight into the pathways and molecular features that underlie responses to immune system stimulation, and may facilitate predictions of immune protection.In this study, we measured early transcriptional responses in the peripheral blood of cynomolgus macaques following vaccination with a live, attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate, TDV, which is based on a DENV-2 backbone. Different doses and routes of vaccine administration were used, and viral load and neutralizing antibody titers were measured at different time-points following vaccination. All 30 vaccinated animals developed a neutralizing antibody response to each of the four dengue serotypes, and only 3 of these animals had detectable serum viral RNA after challenge with wild-type dengue virus (DENV, suggesting protection of vaccinated animals to DENV infection. The vaccine induced statistically significant changes in 595 gene transcripts on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 as compared with baseline and placebo-treated animals. Genes involved in the type I interferon (IFN response, including IFI44, DDX58, MX1 and OASL, exhibited the highest fold-change in transcript abundance, and this response was strongest following double dose and subcutaneous (versus intradermal vaccine administration. In addition, modules of genes involved in antigen presentation, dendritic cell activation, and T cell activation and signaling were enriched following vaccination. Increased abundance of gene transcripts related to T cell activation on day 5, and the type I IFN response on day 7, were significantly correlated with the development of high neutralizing antibody titers on day 30.These results suggest that early transcriptional responses may be predictive of development of adaptive immunity to TDV

  19. Seasonal variation in the abundance and distribution of ticks that parasitize Microcebus griseorufus at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia A. Rodriguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR, Madagascar, mouse lemurs (Microcebus griseorufus are parasitized by multiple species of haemaphysaline ticks. At present we know little about the role ticks play in wild lemur populations and how they can alter interspecies relationships within communities or impact host fitness. In order to better understand these dynamics at BMSR, we examined parasite-host interactions as well as the ecology of mouse lemurs and their infesting ticks, Haemaphysalis lemuris and H. sp. cf. simplex. We show that season, host sex, and habitat influence the relative abundance of ticks on mouse lemurs. Specifically, infestations occur only during the dry season (May–October, are higher in males, and are higher at the study site with the most ground cover and with greater density of large-bodied hosts. Microcebus likely experience decreased susceptibility to tick infestations during the wet season because at that time they rarely if ever descend to the ground. Similarly, male mouse lemurs have higher infestation rates than females because of the greater time they spend traveling and foraging on the ground. During the dry season, Microcebus likely serve as hosts for the tenrec tick, H. sp. cf. simplex, when tenrecs hibernate. In turn, during the wet season when mouse lemurs rarely descend to the ground, other small mammals at the reserve may serve as maintenance hosts for populations of immature ticks. The synchronous development of larvae and nymphs could present high risk for vector-borne disease in Microcebus. This study also provides a preliminary description of the ecology and life cycle of the most common lemur tick, H. lemuris.

  20. Property in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2011-01-01

    Property is rare in most nonhuman primates, most likely because their lifestyles are not conducive to it. Nonetheless, just because these species do not frequently maintain property does not mean that they lack the propensity to do so. Primates show respect for possession, as well as behaviors related to property, such as irrational decision…

  1. Property in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2011-01-01

    Property is rare in most nonhuman primates, most likely because their lifestyles are not conducive to it. Nonetheless, just because these species do not frequently maintain property does not mean that they lack the propensity to do so. Primates show respect for possession, as well as behaviors related to property, such as irrational decision…

  2. Raptors and primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, W Scott; Berger, Lee R

    2013-01-01

    Most scholars agree that avoiding predators is a central concern of lemurs, monkeys, and apes. However, given uncertainties about the frequency with which primates actually become prey, the selective importance of predation in primate evolution continues to be debated. Some argue that primates are often killed by predators, while others maintain that such events are relatively rare. Some authors have contended that predation's influence on primate sociality has been trivial; others counter that predation need not occur often to be a powerful selective force. Given the challenges of documenting events that can be ephemeral and irregular, we are unlikely ever to amass the volume of systematic, comparative data we have on such topics as feeding, social dynamics, or locomotor behavior. Nevertheless, a steady accumulation of field observations, insight gained from natural experiments, and novel taphonomic analyses have enhanced understanding of how primates interact with several predators, especially raptors, the subject of this review. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Compatibility counts: MHC-associated mate choice in a wild promiscuous primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensow, Nina; Eberle, Manfred; Sommer, Simone

    2008-03-07

    The mechanisms and temporal aspects of mate choice according to genetic constitution are still puzzling. Recent studies indicate that fitness is positively related to diversity in immune genes (MHC). Both sexes should therefore choose mates of high genetic quality and/or compatibility. However, studies addressing the role of MHC diversity in pre- and post-copulatory mate choice decisions in wild-living animals are few. We investigated the impact of MHC constitution and of neutral microsatellite variability on pre- and post-copulatory mate choice in both sexes in a wild population of a promiscuous primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). There was no support for pre-copulatory male or female mate choice, but our data indicate post-copulatory mate choice that is associated with genetic constitution. Fathers had a higher number of MHC supertypes different from those of the mother than randomly assigned males. Fathers also had a higher amino acid distance to the females' MHC as well as a higher total number of MHC supertypes and a higher degree of microsatellite heterozygosity than randomly assigned males. Female cryptic choice may be the underlying mechanism that operates towards an optimization of the genetic constitution of offspring. This is the first study that provides support for the importance of the MHC constitution in post-copulatory mate choice in non-human primates.

  4. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Picq

    Full Text Available The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12 and aged (n = 8 adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.

  5. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Le Tallec

    Full Text Available Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8 were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  6. Predictors of orbital convergence in primates: a test of the snake detection hypothesis of primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Bradley, Brenda J; Kamilar, Jason M

    2011-09-01

    Traditional explanations for the evolution of high orbital convergence and stereoscopic vision in primates have focused on how stereopsis might have aided early primates in foraging or locomoting in an arboreal environment. It has recently been suggested that predation risk by constricting snakes was the selective force that favored the evolution of orbital convergence in early primates, and that later exposure to venomous snakes favored further degrees of convergence in anthropoid primates. Our study tests this snake detection hypothesis (SDH) by examining whether orbital convergence among extant primates is indeed associated with the shared evolutionary history with snakes or the risk that snakes pose for a given species. We predicted that orbital convergence would be higher in species that: 1) have a longer history of sympatry with venomous snakes, 2) are likely to encounter snakes more frequently, 3) are less able to detect or deter snakes due to group size effects, and 4) are more likely to be preyed upon by snakes. Results based on phylogenetically independent contrasts do not support the SDH. Orbital convergence shows no relationship to the shared history with venomous snakes, likelihood of encountering snakes, or group size. Moreover, those species less likely to be targeted as prey by snakes show significantly higher values of orbital convergence. Although an improved ability to detect camouflaged snakes, along with other cryptic stimuli, is likely a consequence of increased orbital convergence, this was unlikely to have been the primary selective force favoring the evolution of stereoscopic vision in primates.

  7. Battelle Primate Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, R E; Wierman, E L; Málaga, C A; Baer, J F; LeMieux, T P

    1991-05-01

    The Battelle Primate Facility houses one of the largest collections of neotropical primates in the United States. The facility is a research resource for undergraduate and graduate students. Battelle staff, as well as staff and faculty from U.S. and international institutions. Researchers have access to the animals for a variety of studies encompassing several disciplines, a large collection of preserved tissues, and an extensive biomedical database. The facility is a World Health Organization Collaborative Center for Clinical Pathology of Neotropical Primates and is involved with the Peruvian Primatological Project in Iquitos, Peru, which provides opportunities for research in primatology and conservation.

  8. Diurnality, nocturnality, and the evolution of primate visual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankel-Simons, F; Rasmussen, D T

    2008-01-01

    Much of the recent research on the evolution of primate visual systems has assumed that a minimum number of shifts have occurred in circadian activity patterns over the course of primate evolution. The evolutionary origins of key higher taxonomic groups have been interpreted by some researchers as a consequence of a rare shift from nocturnality to diurnality (e.g., Anthropoidea) or from diurnality to nocturnality (e.g., Tarsiidae). Interpreting the evolution of primate visual systems with an ecological approach without parsimony constraints suggests that the evolutionary transitions in activity pattern are more common than what would be allowed by parsimony models, and that such transitions are probably less important in the origin of higher level taxa. The analysis of 17 communities of primates distributed widely around the world and through geological time shows that primate communities consistently contain both nocturnal and diurnal forms, regardless of the taxonomic sources of the communities. This suggests that primates in a community will adapt their circadian pattern to fill empty diurnal or nocturnal niches. Several evolutionary transitions from one pattern to the other within narrow taxonomic groups are solidly documented, and these cases probably represent a small fraction of such transitions throughout the Cenozoic. One or more switches have been documented among platyrrhine monkeys, Malagasy prosimians, Eocene omomyids, Eocene adapoids, and early African anthropoids, with inconclusive but suggestive data within tarsiids. The interpretation of living and extinct primates as fitting into one of two diarhythmic categories is itself problematic, because many extant primates show significant behavioral activity both nocturnally and diurnally. Parsimony models routinely interpret ancestral primates to have been nocturnal, but analyses of morphological and genetic data indicate that they may have been diurnal, or that early primate radiations were likely to

  9. Exceptional diversity of mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) in the Makira region with the description of one new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radespiel, Ute; Olivieri, Gillian; Rasolofoson, David W; Rakotondratsimba, Gilbert; Rakotonirainy, Odon; Rasoloharijaona, Solofonirina; Randrianambinina, Blanchard; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah H; Ratelolahy, Felix; Randriamboavonjy, Tahirihasina; Rasolofoharivelo, Tovonanahary; Craul, Mathias; Rakotozafy, Lucien; Randrianarison, Rose M

    2008-11-01

    Although the number of described lemur species has increased considerably over the last 20 years, detailed biogeographic data are still lacking from many geographic regions, in particular in the eastern part of Madagascar. This study investigated mouse lemur species diversity in a previously unstudied Inter-River-System in the eastern Makira region. Three sites were visited and 26 individuals were sampled and characterized with 13 external morphometric measurements. Standard phylogenetic analyses were performed on the basis of sequences of three mitochondrial loci by including representatives of all other published mouse lemur species for comparison. The analyses revealed the presence of three mouse lemur species in one study site, two of which were previously undescribed. The two new species are genetically distinct and belong to the larger-bodied mouse lemur species on the island, whereas the third species, Microcebus mittermeieri, belongs to the smaller-bodied mouse lemur species. The study fully describes one of the new species. This study and other lemur inventories suggest that the Makira region is particularly rich in lemur species and the lack of any protected zone in this area should now attract the urgent attention of conservation stakeholders.

  10. Nutritional contributions of insects to primate diets: implications for primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Bryer, Margaret A H; Takahashi, Maressa; Gilbert, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Insects and other invertebrates form a portion of many living and extinct primate diets. We review the nutritional profiles of insects in comparison with other dietary items, and discuss insect nutrients in relation to the nutritional needs of living primates. We find that insects are incorporated into some primate diets as staple foods whereby they are the majority of food intake. They can also be incorporated as complements to other foods in the diet, providing protein in a diet otherwise dominated by gums and/or fruits, or be incorporated as supplements to likely provide an essential nutrient that is not available in the typical diet. During times when they are very abundant, such as in insect outbreaks, insects can serve as replacements to the usual foods eaten by primates. Nutritionally, insects are high in protein and fat compared with typical dietary items like fruit and vegetation. However, insects are small in size and for larger primates (>1 kg) it is usually nutritionally profitable only to consume insects when they are available in large quantities. In small quantities, they may serve to provide important vitamins and fatty acids typically unavailable in primate diets. In a brief analysis, we found that soft-bodied insects are higher in fat though similar in chitin and protein than hard-bodied insects. In the fossil record, primates can be defined as soft- or hard-bodied insect feeders based on dental morphology. The differences in the nutritional composition of insects may have implications for understanding early primate evolution and ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental processes and canine dimorphism in primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary T; Miller, Ellen R; Gunnell, Gregg F

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of canine sexual dimorphism is important for interpreting the developmental biology, socioecology and phylogenetic position of primates. All current evidence for extant primates indicates that canine dimorphism is achieved through bimaturism rather than via differences in rates of crown formation time. Using incremental growth lines, we charted the ontogeny of canine formation within species of Eocene Cantius, the earliest known canine-dimorphic primate, to test whether canine dimorphism via bimaturism was developmentally canalized early in primate evolution. Our results show that canine dimorphism in Cantius is achieved primarily through different rates of crown formation in males and females, not bimaturism. This is the first demonstration of rate differences resulting in canine dimorphism in any primate and therefore suggests that canine dimorphism is not developmentally homologous across Primates. The most likely interpretation is that canine dimorphism has been selected for at least twice during the course of primate evolution. The power of this approach is its ability to identify underlying developmental processes behind patterns of morphological similarity, even in long-extinct primate species.

  12. High-fat diet consumption during pregnancy and the early post-natal period leads to decreased α cell plasticity in the nonhuman primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sarah M; Pound, Lynley D; Bishop, Jacalyn M; Takahashi, Diana L; Kostrba, Ashley M; Smith, M Susan; Grove, Kevin L

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of poor maternal nutrition and metabolic health on the development of islets of the nonhuman primate (NHP). Interestingly, fetal offspring of high fat diet (HFD) fed animals had normal total islet and β cell mass; however, there was a significant reduction in α cell mass, and decreased expression of transcription factors involved in α cell differentiation. In juvenile animals all offspring maintained on a HFD during the postweaning period demonstrated increases in total islet mass, however, the control offspring displaying increased islet number, and HFD offspring displayed increased islet size. Finally, while control offspring had increases in α and β cells, the HFD offspring had increases only in β cell number. These studies indicate that consumption of a HFD diet during pregnancy in the NHP, independent of maternal metabolic health, causes long-term abnormalities in α cell plasticity that may contribute to chronic disease susceptibility.

  13. The unstable CCTG repeat responsible for myotonic dystrophy type 2 originates from an AluSx element insertion into an early primate genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuaki Kurosaki

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2 is a subtype of the myotonic dystrophies, caused by expansion of a tetranucleotide CCTG repeat in intron 1 of the zinc finger protein 9 (ZNF9 gene. The expansions are extremely unstable and variable, ranging from 75-11,000 CCTG repeats. This unprecedented repeat size and somatic heterogeneity make molecular diagnosis of DM2 difficult, and yield variable clinical phenotypes. To better understand the mutational origin and instability of the ZNF9 CCTG repeat, we analyzed the repeat configuration and flanking regions in 26 primate species. The 3'-end of an AluSx element, flanked by target site duplications (5'-ACTRCCAR-3'or 5'-ACTRCCARTTA-3', followed the CCTG repeat, suggesting that the repeat was originally derived from the Alu element insertion. In addition, our results revealed lineage-specific repetitive motifs: pyrimidine (CT-rich repeat motifs in New World monkeys, dinucleotide (TG repeat motifs in Old World monkeys and gibbons, and dinucleotide (TG and tetranucleotide (TCTG and/or CCTG repeat motifs in great apes and humans. Moreover, these di- and tetra-nucleotide repeat motifs arose from the poly (A tail of the AluSx element, and evolved into unstable CCTG repeats during primate evolution. Alu elements are known to be the source of microsatellite repeats responsible for two other repeat expansion disorders: Friedreich ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia type 10. Taken together, these findings raise questions as to the mechanism(s by which Alu-mediated repeats developed into the large, extremely unstable expansions common to these three disorders.

  14. Quantification of neocortical ratios in stem primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Adam; Bloch, Jonathan I; Silcox, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Extant euprimates (=crown primates) have a characteristically expanded neocortical region of the brain relative to that of other mammals, but the timing of that expansion in their evolutionary history is poorly resolved. Examination of anatomical landmarks on fossil endocasts of Eocene euprimates suggests that significant neocortical expansion relative to contemporaneous mammals was already underway. Here, we provide quantitative estimates of neocorticalization in stem primates (plesiadapiforms) relevant to the question of whether relative neocortical expansion was uniquely characteristic of the crown primate radiation. Ratios of neocortex to endocast surface areas were calculated for plesiadapiforms using measurements from virtual endocasts of the paromomyid Ignacius graybullianus (early Eocene, Wyoming) and the microsyopid Microsyops annectens (middle Eocene, Wyoming). These data are similar to a published estimate for the plesiadapid, Plesiadapis tricuspidens, but contrast with those calculated for early Tertiary euprimates in being within the 95% confidence intervals for archaic mammals generally. Interpretation of these values is complicated by the paucity of sampled endocasts for older stem primates and euarchontogliran outgroups, as well as by a combination of effects related to temporal trends, allometry, and taxon-unique specializations. Regardless, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift in brain organization occurred in the first euprimates, likely in association with elaborations to the visual system.

  15. Earliest known simian primate found in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinot, M; Mahboubi, M

    1992-05-28

    The record of early fossil Simiiformes (Anthropoidea) from the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula has increased dramatically in recent years. We report here the discovery of a new, diminutive and much older (Early or Middle Eocene) simian from an Algerian locality, Glib Zegdou. This species is smaller than any other living or fossil African simiiform. Derived similarities shared with Aegyptopithecus suggest that the new genus is more closely related to propliopithecines than to oligopithecines, implying that these two subfamilies differentiated during the Early Eocene. The new discovery confirms predictions about the great antiquity of Simiiformes and emphasizes a long and endemic African history for higher primates.

  16. Preimplantation Development in Primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.B.Croxatto

    1992-01-01

    Essential phenomena involved in preimplamation development, notably cleavageand cell differentiation, are considered from the point of view of their relationships andtheir role in the formation of the blastocyst. The time course of egg transport from theovary to the site of implantation and the requirements.for in vitro development in pri-mate species for which there are some data are compared. Finally the ultrastructural features of human preimptantation development are analyzed, It is concluded that muchmore descriptive information of preimpltmtation development in primates needs to beaccrued to elaborate a comparative view.

  17. The earliest fossil evidence for sexual dimorphism in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtalka, Leonard; Stucky, Richard K.; Beard, K. C.

    1990-01-01

    Recently obtained material of the early Eocene primate Notharctus venticolus, including two partial skulls from a single stratigraphic horizon, provides the geologically earliest evidence of sexual dimorphism in canine size and shape in primates and the only unequivocal evidence for such dimorphism in strepsirhines. By analogy with living platyrrhines, these data suggest that Notharctus venticolus may have lived in polygynous social groups characterized by a relatively high level of intermale competition for mates and other limited resources. The anatomy of the upper incisors and related evidence imply that Notharctus is not as closely related to extant lemuriform primates as has been recently proposed. The early Eocene evidence for canine sexual dimorphism reported here, and its occurrence in a nonanthropoid, indicates that in the order Primates such a condition is either primitive or evolved independently more than once.

  18. Mutual mate choice in a female-dominant and sexually monomorphic primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Doris; Huchard, Elise; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Perret, Martine

    2012-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism is common in polygynous species, where intrasexual competition is often thought to drive the evolution of large male body size, and in turn, male behavioral dominance over females. In Madagascar, the entire lemur radiation, which embraces diverse mating systems, lacks sexual dimorphism and exhibits frequent female dominance over males. The evolution of such morphological and behavioral peculiarities, often referred to as "the lemur syndrome," has proven difficult to understand. Among other hypotheses, a potential role of intersexual selection has been repeatedly proposed but hardly ever tested. Here, we investigate whether female choice favors small and compliant males, and whether male choice favors large females in captive gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Detailed analysis of a combination of behavioral observations and hormonal data available for both sexes shows that (1) females accept more matings from males with higher fighting abilities, (2) males adjust their investment in intrasexual competition to female fertility, and (3) both male and female strategies are weakly influenced by the body mass of potential partners, in directions contradicting our predictions. These results do not suggest a prominent role of intersexual selection in the evolution and maintenance of the lemur syndrome but rather point to alternative mechanisms relating to male-male competition, specifically highlighting an absence of relationship between male body mass and fighting ability. Finally, our findings add to the growing body of evidence suggesting flexible sex roles, by showing the expression of mutual mate choice in a female-dominant, sexually monomorphic and promiscuous primate.

  19. Impending extinction crisis of the world's primates: Why primates matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A; Rylands, Anthony B; Roos, Christian; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola; Nijman, Vincent; Heymann, Eckhard W; Lambert, Joanna E; Rovero, Francesco; Barelli, Claudia; Setchell, Joanna M; Gillespie, Thomas R; Mittermeier, Russell A; Arregoitia, Luis Verde; de Guinea, Miguel; Gouveia, Sidney; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Shanee, Sam; Shanee, Noga; Boyle, Sarah A; Fuentes, Agustin; MacKinnon, Katherine C; Amato, Katherine R; Meyer, Andreas L S; Wich, Serge; Sussman, Robert W; Pan, Ruliang; Kone, Inza; Li, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman primates, our closest biological relatives, play important roles in the livelihoods, cultures, and religions of many societies and offer unique insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and the threat of emerging diseases. They are an essential component of tropical biodiversity, contributing to forest regeneration and ecosystem health. Current information shows the existence of 504 species in 79 genera distributed in the Neotropics, mainland Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Alarmingly, ~60% of primate species are now threatened with extinction and ~75% have declining populations. This situation is the result of escalating anthropogenic pressures on primates and their habitats-mainly global and local market demands, leading to extensive habitat loss through the expansion of industrial agriculture, large-scale cattle ranching, logging, oil and gas drilling, mining, dam building, and the construction of new road networks in primate range regions. Other important drivers are increased bushmeat hunting and the illegal trade of primates as pets and primate body parts, along with emerging threats, such as climate change and anthroponotic diseases. Often, these pressures act in synergy, exacerbating primate population declines. Given that primate range regions overlap extensively with a large, and rapidly growing, human population characterized by high levels of poverty, global attention is needed immediately to reverse the looming risk of primate extinctions and to attend to local human needs in sustainable ways. Raising global scientific and public awareness of the plight of the world's primates and the costs of their loss to ecosystem health and human society is imperative.

  20. Cognitive Performances Are Selectively Enhanced during Chronic Caloric Restriction or Resveratrol Supplementation in a Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Julia; Picq, Jean-Luc; Aujard, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Effects of an 18-month treatment with a moderate, chronic caloric restriction (CR) or an oral supplementation with resveratrol (RSV), a potential CR mimetic, on cognitive and motor performances were studied in non-human primates, grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Thirty-three adult male mouse lemurs were assigned to three different groups: a control (CTL) group fed ad libitum, a CR group fed 70% of the CTL caloric intake, and an RSV group (RSV supplementation of 200 mg.kg−1.day−1) fed ad libitum. Three different cognitive tests, two motor tests, one emotional test and an analysis of cortisol level were performed in each group. Compared to CTL animals, CR or RSV animals did not show any change in motor performances evaluated by rotarod and jump tests, but an increase in spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in both groups. Working memory was improved by both treatments in the spontaneous alternation task. Despite a trend for CR group, only RSV supplementation increased spatial memory performances in the circular platform task. Finally, none of these treatments induced additional stress to the animals as reflected by similar results in the open field test and cortisol analyses compared to CTL animals. The present data provided the earliest evidence for a beneficial effect of CR or RSV supplementation on specific cognitive functions in a primate. Taken together, these results suggest that RSV could be a good candidate to mimic long-term CR effects and support the growing evidences that nutritional interventions can have beneficial effects on brain functions even in adults. PMID:21304942

  1. Voxel-based morphometry analyses of in-vivo MRI in the aging mouse lemur primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen John Sawiak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral atrophy is one of the most widely brain alterations associated to aging. A clear relationship has been established between age-associated cognitive impairments and cerebral atrophy. The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a small primate used as a model of age-related neurodegenerative processes. It is the first nonhuman primate in which cerebral atrophy has been correlated with cognitive deficits. Previous studies of cerebral atrophy in this model were based on time consuming manual delineation or measurement of selected brain regions from magnetic resonance images (MRI. These measures could not be used to analyse regions that cannot be easily outlined such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert or the subiculum. In humans, morphometric assessment of structural changes with age is generally performed with automated procedures such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The objective of our work was to perform user-independent assessment of age-related morphological changes in the whole brain of large mouse lemur populations thanks to VBM. The study was based on the SPMMouse toolbox of SPM 8 and involved thirty mouse lemurs aged from 1.9 to 11.3 years. The automatic method revealed for the first time atrophy in regions where manual delineation is prohibitive (nucleus basalis of Meynert, subiculum, prepiriform cortex, Brodmann areas 13-16, hypothalamus, putamen, thalamus, corpus callosum. Some of these regions are described as particularly sensitive to age-associated alterations in humans. The method revealed also age-associated atrophy in cortical regions (cingulate, occipital, parietal, nucleus septalis, and the caudate. Manual measures performed in some of these regions were in good agreement with results from automatic measures. The templates generated in this study as well as the toolbox for SPM8 can be downloaded. These tools will be valuable for future evaluation of various treatments that are tested to modulate cerebral aging in lemurs.

  2. Species diversity and postcranial anatomy of eocene primates from Shanghuang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebo, Daniel L; Dagosto, Marian; Ni, Xijun; Beard, K Christopher

    2012-11-01

    The middle Eocene Shanghuang fissure-fillings, located in southern Jiangsu Province in China near the coastal city of Shanghai (Fig. 1), contain a remarkably diverse array of fossil primates that provide a unique window into the complex role played by Asia during early primate evolution.1 Compared to contemporaneous localities in North America or Europe, the ancient primate community sampled at the Shanghuang fissure-fillings is unique in several ways. Although Shanghuang has some typical Eocene primates (Omomyidae and Adapoidea), it also contains the earliest known members of the Tarsiidae and Anthropoidea (Fig. 2), and some new taxa that are not as yet known from elsewhere. It exhibits a large number of primate species, at least 18, most of which are very small (15-500 g), including some of the smallest primates that have ever been recovered.

  3. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  4. Afrotarsius chatrathi, first tarsiiform primate (? Tarsiidae) from Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, E.L.; Bown, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    Tarsiiform primates have long been regarded as a Laurasian group, with an extensive fossil record in the Eocene of North America and Europe1-4 and two important but less well-known records from Asia5,6. The only living genus is Tarsius (Tarsiidae), whereas all of the fossil tarsier-like primates are usually placed in the extinct family Omomyidae3. We now report the discovery of Afrotarsius chatrathi from early Oligocene rocks of Fayum Province, Egypt. This is the first known tarsiiform primate from Africa. Compared with fossil primates, the molar tooth morphology of this diminutive prosimian is most similar to that of the European Eocene microchoerine Pseudoloris; however, the closest similarity is to the molars of Tarsius. Because the phylogenetic relationships among living Tarsius and the omomyids remain unclear7,8 and because of the fragmentary nature of the only known specimen of this new primate, allocation of Afrotarsius to either Omomyidae or Tarsiidae is necessarily provisional. As we believe that its molar teeth are more like those of Tarsius than of any omomyids (including Pseudoloris), we tentatively assign the new genus to the extant family Tarsiidae as its only known fossil representative. Recovery of a Tarsius-like primate from Africa suggests that it or its ancestors might have been immigrants from Europe, may have been derived from an unknown Asian stock related to the ancestry of Tarsius, or may have originated in Africa. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D; Timm, Robert M; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B; Perry, George H; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2016-04-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders Scandentia (treeshrews), Dermoptera (colugos), and Primates. The ancestral state of primate color vision is therefore uncertain. Here, we report on the genes (OPN1SW and OPN1LW) that encode SWS1 and M/LWS opsins in seven species of treeshrew, including the sole nocturnal scandentian Ptilocercus lowii. In addition, we examined the opsin genes of the Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), an enduring ecological analogue in the debate on primate origins. Our results indicate: 1) retention of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity in C. derbianus and a shift from UV to blue spectral sensitivities at the base of Euarchonta; 2) ancient pseudogenization of OPN1SW in the ancestors of P. lowii, but a signature of purifying selection in those of C. derbianus; and, 3) the absence of OPN1LW polymorphism among diurnal treeshrews. These findings suggest functional variation in the color vision of nocturnal mammals and a distinctive visual ecology of early primates, perhaps one that demanded greater spatial resolution under light levels that could support cone-mediated color discrimination.

  6. Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelti, Fathia; Dhenain, Marc; Terrien, Jérémy; Picq, Jean-Luc; Hardy, Isabelle; Champeval, Delphine; Perret, Martine; Schenker, Esther; Epelbaum, Jacques; Aujard, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (rs=0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (rs=0.56) and hippocampus (rs=−0.62) or septum (rs=−0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes. PMID:28039490

  7. Brains, genes, and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Callaway, Edward M; Caddick, Sarah J; Churchland, Patricia; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A; Miller, Cory T; Mitchell, Jude F; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R; Movshon, J Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Silva, Afonso C; Strick, Peter L; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-05-06

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators, and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward.

  8. The evolution of the primate foot from the earliest primates to the Miocene hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, G C; Rose, M D

    1983-01-01

    The fossil evidence relating to the evolution of the primate foot is reviewed and evaluated. Many of the characteristic features of the primate foot had evolved by the early Tertiary over 40 million years ago. Probably the most significant of these developments was the progressive migration of the talus to a position over the calcaneum. These morphological features are followed through the Miocene hominoid genera from East Africa, Europe, and South Asia. While some features of Miocene hominoids, especially those relating to climbing abilities, are still evident in the predominantly bipedal earliest hominids of the Plio-Pleistocene, there is no evidence yet from the Miocene of the first stages in the evolution of that bipedalism.

  9. Phylogenetic relations between microbats, megabats and primates (Mammalia: Chiroptera and Primates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, J D; Jamieson, B G; Robson, S K; Hall, L S; McAnally, K I; Cooper, H M

    1989-11-30

    We examine the paraphylectic hypothesis of bat origins, both in the light of previous discussions, and in the light of new evidence from our analyses of neurological traits and wing morphology. Megabats share with primates a variety of complex details in the organization of neural pathways that have not been found in any other mammalian group, particularly not in microbats. The features previously used to link microbats and megabats have been examined and found to be questionable bases for support of a monophyletic origin. In particular, morphological analyses of the musculoskeletal adaptations associated with the flight apparatus are consistent with two separate origins of the mammalian wing. Taken together, these analyses suggest that megabats evolved from an early branch of the primate lineage. This branch was comprised of moderate-sized, phytophagous gliders, of which the other living descendants are the dermopterans. Microbats, in contrast, probably evolved much earlier from small, agile insectivores whose forelimbs had long metacarpals in relation to their phalanges.

  10. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M.; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Travis, Dominic A.; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Knights, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  11. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial retrieval but not spatial learning in the non-human primate grey mouse lemur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman

    Full Text Available A bulk of studies in rodents and humans suggest that sleep facilitates different phases of learning and memory process, while sleep deprivation (SD impairs these processes. Here we tested the hypothesis that SD could alter spatial learning and memory processing in a non-human primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, which is an interesting model of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Two sets of experiments were performed. In a first set of experiments, we investigated the effects of SD on spatial learning and memory retrieval after one day of training in a circular platform task. Eleven male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in three different conditions: without SD as a baseline reference, 8 h of SD before the training and 8 h of SD before the testing. The SD was confirmed by electroencephalographic recordings. Results showed no effect of SD on learning when SD was applied before the training. When the SD was applied before the testing, it induced an increase of the amount of errors and of the latency prior to reach the target. In a second set of experiments, we tested the effect of 8 h of SD on spatial memory retrieval after 3 days of training. Twenty male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in this set of experiments. In this condition, the SD did not affect memory retrieval. This is the first study that documents the disruptive effects of the SD on spatial memory retrieval in this primate which may serve as a new validated challenge to investigate the effects of new compounds along physiological and pathological aging.

  12. Chronology of primate discoveries in Myanmar: influences on the anthropoid origins debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochon, Russell L; Gunnell, Gregg F

    2002-01-01

    The history of primate paleontology in Asia is long and complex, beginning with the first discoveries of fossil primates on the Indian subcontinent in the early 1830's. The first Eocene mammals from Asia were collected in Myanmar and described in 1916, while the first primates, Pondaungia and Amphipithecus, were described in 1927 and 1937, respectively, both from the Pondaung Formation in Myanmar. For the next 60 years, these two Pondaung taxa remained as the only known Eocene primates from Myanmar and one of the few records of Eocene primates from all of Asia. Taxonomically, Pondaungia and Amphipithecus were linked with a number of different groups, including archaic, hoofed ungulates (condylarths), adapiform primates, omomyid primates, and anthropoids. While no consensus existed, Pondaungia and Amphipithecus were most commonly compared with anthropoids. Beginning in the late 1990s, new primates were discovered in Myanmar, including smaller-bodied forms such as Bahinia and Myanmarpithecus. Also, new and better specimens of the larger-bodied Pondaungia and Amphipithecus began to appear, including the first cranial and postcranial fragments. Evaluations based on these new specimens, especially the postcrania, indicate that the two larger-bodied Myanmar taxa are adapiform primates that show their closest affinities to North American notharctines. The smaller-bodied taxa remain enigmatic, but may share their closest affinities with North American and Asian omomyid primates and Asian Tarsius. None of the known Asian primate taxa appear closely related to African anthropoids, which suggests that true anthropoids did not reach Asia until the latest Oligocene or earliest Miocene. These facts make an Asian origin for Anthropoidea unlikely. Additional and earlier evidence from both Asia and Africa is required before the ultimate origin of anthropoids can be determined. It appears possible that true anthropoids were an ancient radiation that may have been part of a Gondwanan

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinot, Nina; Jouin, Mélanie; Lhomme-Duchadeuil, Adrien; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory) that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ω3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ω3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ω3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ω3 PUFA (n = 6 per group). Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ω3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, pfatty acids may represent a valuable dietary strategy to improve behavioural and cognitive functions.

  14. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  15. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F; Campbell, Kenneth E; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-23

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  16. A Molecular Phylogeny of Living Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Polina; Johnson, Warren E.; Roos, Christian; Seuánez, Hector N.; Horvath, Julie E.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Kessing, Bailey; Pontius, Joan; Roelke, Melody; Rumpler, Yves; Schneider, Maria Paula C.; Silva, Artur; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (∼8 Mb) from 186 primates representing 61 (∼90%) of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species. PMID:21436896

  17. 42 CFR 71.53 - Nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonhuman primates. 71.53 Section 71.53 Public... FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.53 Nonhuman primates. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the... nonhuman primates from a foreign country within a period of 31 days, beginning with the importation...

  18. SOME EVOLUTIONARY TENDENCIES OF NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES: Algunas tendencias evolutivas de los primates neotropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS R. DEFLER

    body weights, much less terrestrial adaptation, prehensile tails for some, and conservative phenotypes. Additionally monogamous forms of platyrrhini share a tendency for rapid chromosome evolution with one monogamous group of catarrhines (Hylobatids or gibbons. The phyletic history of the platyrrhine monkeys seems to contrast with that of the catarrhine inasmuch as there was a very early division (Miocene of the New World monkeys into groups that exist today, whereas the appearance of Old World primate family groups seemed to have occurred much more recently in the Plio-Pleistocene. Some of these tendencies can be explained hypothetically, looking at ecological characteristics suggested for the new continent while other tendencies are perhaps the result of random evolutionary pathways taken during the course of evolution such as genetic drift and founder effect. Nevertheless there is still much work to be done to be able to recognize the singularities of the Platyrrines and to appreciate the details of their evolution.

  19. Hormones and Human and Nonhuman Primate Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Robin Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review information pertaining to the hormonal regulation of nonhuman primate growth, with specific focus on the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and adrenal androgens. Hormones of the GH-IGF axis are consistently associated with measures of growth - linear, weight, or both - during the growth period; in adulthood, concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3, and GH-binding protein are not associated with any measures of size. Comparing patterns of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) may be especially relevant for understanding whether the childhood stage of growth and development is unique to humans and perhaps other apes. Genetic, hormonal, and morphological data on adrenarche in other nonhuman primate species suggest that this endocrine transition is delayed in humans, chimpanzees, and possibly gorillas, while present very early in postnatal life in macaques. This suggests that although perhaps permitted by an extension of the pre-adolescent growth period, childhood builds upon existing developmental substrates rather than having been inserted de novo into an ancestral growth trajectory. Hormones can provide insight regarding the evolution of the human growth trajectory. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Dynamic Actin Gene Family Evolution in Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liucun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Actin is one of the most highly conserved proteins and plays crucial roles in many vital cellular functions. In most eukaryotes, it is encoded by a multigene family. Although the actin gene family has been studied a lot, few investigators focus on the comparison of actin gene family in relative species. Here, the purpose of our study is to systematically investigate characteristics and evolutionary pattern of actin gene family in primates. We identified 233 actin genes in human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, rhesus monkey, and marmoset genomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that actin genes in the seven species could be divided into two major types of clades: orthologous group versus complex group. Codon usages and gene expression patterns of actin gene copies were highly consistent among the groups because of basic functions needed by the organisms, but much diverged within species due to functional diversification. Besides, many great potential pseudogenes were found with incomplete open reading frames due to frameshifts or early stop codons. These results implied that actin gene family in primates went through “birth and death” model of evolution process. Under this model, actin genes experienced strong negative selection and increased the functional complexity by reproducing themselves.

  1. Primates' Socio-Cognitive Abilities: What Kind of Comparisons Makes Sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnit, Jill T

    2015-09-01

    Referential gestures are of pivotal importance to the human species. We effortlessly make use of each others' referential gestures to attend to the same things, and our ability to use these gestures show themselves from very early in life. Almost 20 years ago, James Anderson and colleagues presented an experimental paradigm with which to examine the use of referential gestures in non-human primates: the object-choice task. Since then, numerous object-choice studies have been made, not only with primates but also with a range of other animal taxa. Surprisingly, several non-primate species appear to perform better in the object-choice task than primates do. Different hypotheses have been offered to explain the results. Some of these have employed generalizations about primates or subsets of primate taxa that do not take into account the unparalleled diversity that exists between species within the primate order on parameters relevant to the requirements of the object-choice task, such as social structure, feeding ecology, and general morphology. To examine whether these broad primate generalizations offer a fruitful organizing framework within which to interpret the results, a review was made of all published primate results on the use of gazing and glancing cues with species ordered along the primate phylogenetic tree. It was concluded that differences between species may be larger than differences between ancestry taxa, and it is suggested that we need to start rethinking why we are testing animals on experimental paradigms that do not take into account what are the challenges of their natural habitat.

  2. Pathogenesis of varicelloviruses in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwendijk, Werner J D; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2015-01-01

    Varicelloviruses in primates comprise the prototypic human varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and its non-human primate homologue, simian varicella virus (SVV). Both viruses cause varicella as a primary infection, establish latency in ganglionic neurons and reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster in their respective hosts. VZV is endemic worldwide and, although varicella is usually a benign disease in childhood, VZV reactivation is a significant cause of neurological disease in the elderly and in immunocompromised individuals. The pathogenesis of VZV infection remains ill-defined, mostly due to the species restriction of VZV that impedes studies in experimental animal models. SVV infection of non-human primates parallels virological, clinical, pathological and immunological features of human VZV infection, thereby providing an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of varicella and herpes zoster in its natural host. In this review, we discuss recent studies that provided novel insight in both the virus and host factors involved in the three elementary stages of Varicellovirus infection in primates: primary infection, latency and reactivation.

  3. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  5. Nuclear transfer in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Wolf, Don P

    2006-01-01

    The nonhuman primate is a highly relevant model for the study of human diseases, and currently there is a significant need for populations of animals with specific genotypes that can not be satisfied by the capture of animals from the wild or by conventional breeding. There is an even greater need for genetically identical animals in vaccine development or tissue transplantation research, where immune system function is under study. Efficient somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedures could provide a source for genetically identical nonhuman primates for biomedical research. SCNT offers the possibility of cloning animals using cultured cells and potentially provides an alternative approach for the genetic modification of primates. The opportunity to introduce precise genetic modifications into cultured cells by gene targeting procedures, and then use these cells as nuclear donors in SCNT, has potential application in the production of loss-of-function monkey models of human diseases. We were initially successful in producing monkeys by NT using embryonic blastomeres as the source of donor nuclei and have repeated that success. However, when somatic cells are used as nuclear donor cells, the developmental potential of monkey SCNT embryos is limited, and somatic cell cloning has not yet been accomplished in primates. High rates of in vitro development to blastocysts, comparable with in vitro fertilization controls, and successful production of rhesus monkeys by NT from embryonic blastomeres suggests that basic cloning procedures, including enucleation, fusion, and activation, are consistent with the production of viable embryos. Although modifications or additional steps in SCNT are clearly warranted, the basic procedures will likely be similar to those extant for embryonic cell NT. In this chapter, we describe detailed protocols for rhesus macaque embryonic cell NT, including oocyte and embryo production, micromanipulation, and embryo transfer in nonhuman

  6. Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane CÄSAR, Klaus ZUBERBÜHLER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller. In some species, there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls, but call sequences and the combinations generated by them. These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation. Until recently, however, most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old World species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys, which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities. To address this, we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates. Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses. A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances, often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters, while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats. This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians, suggesting an early evolutionary origin. Second, recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types. These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously, notably predator type and location. Since meaningful call sequences have already been

  7. Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristiane C(A)SAR; Klaus ZUBERB(U)HLER

    2012-01-01

    There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller.In some species,there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls,but call sequences and the combinations generated by them.These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation.Until recently,however,most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old Word species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys,which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities.To address this,we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates.Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses.A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances,often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters,while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats.This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians,suggesting an early evolutionary origin.Second,recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types.These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously,notably predator type and location.Since meaningful call sequences have already been described in Old Word primates,we suggest

  8. Calorie restriction and resveratrol supplementation prevent age-related DNA and RNA oxidative damage in a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, J; Dal-Pan, A; Epelbaum, J; Blanc, S; Mueller, S; Wittig Kieffer, M; Metzger, F; Aujard, F

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a key factor in the aging process and in the development of age-related diseases. Because nutritional interventions such as caloric restriction (CR) delay the onset of age-related diseases and increase the lifespan of many species, the impact of a moderate CR was tested on male grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), which have a median survival time of 5.7 years in captivity. The effects of CR on these lemurs were compared with a potential mimetic, resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenol naturally found in grapes. We hypothesized that both CR and RSV impact oxidative DNA and RNA damage compared to standard-fed control (CTL) animals. Adult (3-4 years old) male mouse lemurs were assigned to three dietary groups: a CTL group, a CR group receiving 30% fewer calories than the CTL and a RSV group receiving the CTL diet supplemented with RSV (200 mg·day(-1)·kg(-1)). Oxidative stress was estimated after 3, 9, 15 and 21 months of treatment using the measurement of oxidized nucleosides in urine samples by mass spectrometry. The resting metabolic rate, adjusted for changes in body composition, was also measured to assess the potential relationship between oxygen consumption and oxidative damage markers. This study provides evidence for oxidative stress accumulation with age in grey mouse lemur. Dietary interventions resulted in a short-term increase in oxidative stress levels followed by reduced levels with increasing age. Moreover, in this photoperiod-dependent heterotherm primate, seasonal variations in oxidative stress were observed, which was likely due to a season-dependent, cost-benefit trade-off between torpor use and oxidative stress.

  9. Some Evolutionary Tendencies of Neotropical Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defler Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract

    The evolution of neotropical primates has occurred isolated from other primates of the world so that there is a distinct evolutionary history. There are various characteristics of neotropical primates (Platyrrhini that are quite distinct from those of the Old World (Catarrhini, including the dental formula, the position of cranial plates, the anatomy of the auditory apparatus, average body weights much less, much less terrestrial adaptation, prehensile tails for some, and conservative phenotypes. Additionally monogamous forms of platyrrhini share a tendency for rapid chromosome evolution with one monogamous group of catarrhines. The phyletic history of the platyrrhine monkeys seems to contrast with that of the catarrhine inasmuch as there was a very early division of the New World monkeys into groups that exist today, whereas the appearance of Old World primate family groups seemed to have happened much more recently in the Plio-Pleistocene. Some of these tendencies can be explained hypothetically, looking at ecological characteristics suggested for the new continent while other tendencies are perhaps the result of random evolutionary pathways taken during the course of evolution. Nevertheless there is still much work to do to be able to recognize the singularities of the Platyrrines

  10. From the MPTP-treated primate to the treatment of motor complications in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The MPTP-treated primate has proved to be a highly predictive model of the effects of dopaminergic drugs in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and for the avoidance of motor complications. Using MPTP-treated primates, new dopaminergic therapies have been devised alongside novel treatment strategies and novel routes of administration while providing knowledge on how to use dopaminergic drugs in a manner that avoids the onset of motor complications. The use of MPTP-treated primates led to the concept of continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) and the early introduction of dopamine receptor agonists as monotherapy for PD for the prevention of dyskinesia. However, CDS does not explain the differences in dyskinesia induction that exist between L-dopa and dopamine receptor agonists, and a more rationale approach to therapy involves continuous drug delivery (CDD). CDD has been explored in the MPTP-treated primate and this review focuses on some of the evidence showing that the delivery of dopaminergic drugs in PD is key to the avoidance of dyskinesia while maintaining therapeutic efficacy. Other types of motor complication, such as "wearing off" and "on-off" remain to be explored in MPTP-treated primates and the model has yet to be used to examine non-motor components of PD. Despite having been employed for almost 25 years, the MPTP-treated primate has many potential uses in the future that will further improve the treatment of PD.

  11. The Special Column of Primate Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoguo LI; Guest Editor

    2010-01-01

    @@ It is a long-term policy to publish SPECIAL COLUMNs in Current Zoology, and I am delighted that the journal is publishing this special colunm devoted to the topic of Primate Behavior. The eight papers in this seetion present significant new data and synthesize these findings with existing information on sexual selection of human-being and behaviors of living primates.

  12. A mitogenomic phylogeny of living primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstermeier, Knut; Zinner, Dietmar; Brameier, Markus; Meyer, Matthias; Kreuz, Eva; Hofreiter, Michael; Roos, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Primates, the mammalian order including our own species, comprise 480 species in 78 genera. Thus, they represent the third largest of the 18 orders of eutherian mammals. Although recent phylogenetic studies on primates are increasingly built on molecular datasets, most of these studies have focused on taxonomic subgroups within the order. Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes have proven to be extremely useful in deciphering within-order relationships even up to deep nodes. Using 454 sequencing, we sequenced 32 new complete mt genomes adding 20 previously not represented genera to the phylogenetic reconstruction of the primate tree. With 13 new sequences, the number of complete mt genomes within the parvorder Platyrrhini was widely extended, resulting in a largely resolved branching pattern among New World monkey families. We added 10 new Strepsirrhini mt genomes to the 15 previously available ones, thus almost doubling the number of mt genomes within this clade. Our data allow precise date estimates of all nodes and offer new insights into primate evolution. One major result is a relatively young date for the most recent common ancestor of all living primates which was estimated to 66-69 million years ago, suggesting that the divergence of extant primates started close to the K/T-boundary. Although some relationships remain unclear, the large number of mt genomes used allowed us to reconstruct a robust primate phylogeny which is largely in agreement with previous publications. Finally, we show that mt genomes are a useful tool for resolving primate phylogenetic relationships on various taxonomic levels.

  13. Primate Research at KIZ Captures Worldwide Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ "It is bigger than anything I've ever seen," exclaimed Prof.Frances Gotch of the Londonbased Imperial College when visiting the Center of Experimental Primates at the CAS Institute of Zoology (KIZ)."This facility undoubtedly could be of great service to the rest of the world," added Prof. Gotch, an HIV-vaccine researcher who formerly worked with primates in Europe.

  14. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  15. Ocular oxyspirurosis of primates in zoos: intermediate host, worm morphology, and probable origin of the infection in the Moscow zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E; Spiridonov, S; Bain, O

    2007-12-01

    Over the last century, only two cases of ocular oxyspirurosis were recorded in primates, both in zoos, and two species were described: in Berlin, Germany, Oxyspirura (O.) conjunctivalis from the lemurid Microcebus murinus, later also found in the lorisid Loris gracilis; in Jacksonville, Florida, O. (O.) youngi from the cercopithecid monkey Erythrocebus patas. In the present case from the Moscow zoo, oxyspirurosis was recorded in several species of Old World lemuriforms and lorisiforms, and some South American monkeys. i) The intermediate host was discovered to be a cockroach, as for O. (O.) mansoni, a parasite of poultry. The complete sequence identity between ITS-1 rDNA from adult nematodes of the primate and that of the larval worms from the vector, Nauphoete cinerea, confirmed their conspecificity. ii) Parasites from Moscow zoo recovered from Nycticebus c. coucang were compared morphologically to those from other zoos. The length and shape of the gubernaculum, used previously as a distinct character, were found to be variable. However, the vulvar bosses arrangement, the distal extremity of left spicule and the position of papillae of the first postcloacal pair showed that the worms in the different samples were not exactly identical and that each set seemed characteristic of a particular zoo. iii) The presence of longitudinal cuticular crests in the infective stage as well as in adult worms was recorded. Together with several other morphological and biological characters (long tail and oesophagus, cockroach vector), this confirmed that Oxyspirura is not closely related to Thelazia, another ocular parasite genus. iv) The disease in the Moscow zoo is thought to have started with Nycticebus pygmaeus imported fromVietnam, thus the suggestion was that Asiatic lorisids were at the origin of the Moscow set of cases. The natural host(s) for the Berlin and Jacksonville cases remain unknown but they are unlikely to be the species found infected in zoos. Consequently the

  16. Ocular oxyspirurosis of primates in zoos: intermediate host, worm morphology, and probable origin of the infection in the Moscow zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, only two cases of ocular oxyspirurosis were recorded in primates, both in zoos, and two species were described: in Berlin, Germany, Oxyspirura (O. conjunctivalis from the lemurid Microcebus murinus, later also found in the lorisid Loris gracilis; in Jacksonville, Florida, O. (O. youngi from the cercopithecid monkey Erythrocebus patas. In the present case from the Moscow zoo, oxyspirurosis was recorded in several species of Old World lemuriforms and lorisiforms, and some South American monkeys. i The intermediate host was discovered to be a cockroach, as for O. (O. mansoni, a parasite of poultry. The complete sequence identity between ITS-1 rDNA from adult nematodes of the primate and that of the larval worms from the vector, Nauphoete cinerea, confirmed their conspecificity. ii Parasites from Moscow zoo recovered from Nycticebus c. coucang were compared morphologically to those from other zoos. The length and shape of the gubernaculum, used previously as a distinct character, were found to be variable. However, the vulvar bosses arrangement, the distal extremity of left spicule and the position of papillae of the first postcloacal pair showed that the worms in the different samples were not exactly identical and that each set seemed characteristic of a particular zoo. iii The presence of longitudinal cuticular crests in the infective stage as well as in adult worms was recorded. Together with several other morphological and biological characters (long tail and oesophagus, cockroach vector, this confirmed that Oxyspirura is not closely related to Thelazia, another ocular parasite genus. iv The disease in the Moscow zoo is thought to have started with Nycticebus pygmaeus imported fromVietnam, thus the suggestion was that Asiatic lorisids were at the origin of the Moscow set of cases. The natural host(s for the Berlin and Jacksonville cases remain unknown but they are unlikely to be the species found infected in zoos

  17. Impending extinction crisis of the world’s primates: Why primates matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Roos, Christian; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Nekaris, K. Anne-Isola; Nijman, Vincent; Heymann, Eckhard W.; Lambert, Joanna E.; Rovero, Francesco; Barelli, Claudia; Setchell, Joanna M.; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Arregoitia, Luis Verde; de Guinea, Miguel; Gouveia, Sidney; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Shanee, Sam; Shanee, Noga; Boyle, Sarah A.; Fuentes, Agustin; MacKinnon, Katherine C.; Amato, Katherine R.; Meyer, Andreas L. S.; Wich, Serge; Sussman, Robert W.; Pan, Ruliang; Kone, Inza; Li, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman primates, our closest biological relatives, play important roles in the livelihoods, cultures, and religions of many societies and offer unique insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and the threat of emerging diseases. They are an essential component of tropical biodiversity, contributing to forest regeneration and ecosystem health. Current information shows the existence of 504 species in 79 genera distributed in the Neotropics, mainland Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Alarmingly, ~60% of primate species are now threatened with extinction and ~75% have declining populations. This situation is the result of escalating anthropogenic pressures on primates and their habitats—mainly global and local market demands, leading to extensive habitat loss through the expansion of industrial agriculture, large-scale cattle ranching, logging, oil and gas drilling, mining, dam building, and the construction of new road networks in primate range regions. Other important drivers are increased bushmeat hunting and the illegal trade of primates as pets and primate body parts, along with emerging threats, such as climate change and anthroponotic diseases. Often, these pressures act in synergy, exacerbating primate population declines. Given that primate range regions overlap extensively with a large, and rapidly growing, human population characterized by high levels of poverty, global attention is needed immediately to reverse the looming risk of primate extinctions and to attend to local human needs in sustainable ways. Raising global scientific and public awareness of the plight of the world’s primates and the costs of their loss to ecosystem health and human society is imperative. PMID:28116351

  18. Temporal Progression of Pneumonic Plague in Blood of Nonhuman Primate: A Transcriptomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-22

    Seppala R, Koskinen P, Leino A, Peuravuori H, Vahlberg T, et al. (2011) Early detection of severe sepsis in the emergency room: diagnostic value of...and misidentification by multiple automated platforms further underlines the need for a reliable early detection technique [7]. Y. pestis is a rod... detected in rodent [11] and primate [12] blood until 72 h post-exposure. A comprehensive investigation of the early host-pathogen dynamics would be of a

  19. Comparing primate crania: The importance of fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, John G; Gilbert, Christopher C; Baden, Andrea L

    2016-10-01

    Extant primate crania represent a small subset of primate crania that have existed. The main objective here is to examine how the inclusion of fossil crania changes our understanding of primate cranial diversity relative to analyses of extant primates. We hypothesize that fossil taxa will change the major axes of cranial shape, occupy new areas of morphospace, change the relative diversity of major primate clades, and fill in notable gaps separating major primate taxa/clades. Eighteen 3D landmarks were collected on 157 extant and fossil crania representing 90 genera. Data were subjected to a Generalized Procrustes Analysis then principal components analysis. Relative diversity between clades was assessed using an F-statistic. Fossil taxa do not significantly alter major axes of cranial shape, but they do occupy unique areas of morphospace, change the relative diversity between clades, and fill in notable gaps in primate cranial evolution. Strepsirrhines remain significantly less diverse than anthropoids. Fossil hominins fill the gap in cranial morphospace between extant great apes and modern humans. The morphospace outlined by living primates largely includes that occupied by fossil taxa, suggesting that the cranial diversity of living primates generally encompasses the total diversity that has evolved in this Order. The evolution of the anthropoid cranium was a significant event allowing anthropoids to achieve significantly greater cranial diversity compared to strepsirrhines. Fossil taxa fill in notable gaps within and between clades, highlighting their transitional nature and eliminating the appearance of large morphological distances between extant taxa, particularly in the case of extant hominids. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Special issue: Comparative biogeography of Neotropical primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Di Fiore, Anthony; Boubli, Jean P

    2015-01-01

    New research presented in this special issue of Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution on the "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Neotropical Primates" greatly improves our understanding of the evolutionary history of the New World monkeys and provides insights into the multiple platyrrhine radiations, diversifications, extinctions, and recolonizations that have taken place over time and over space in the Neotropics. Here, we synthesize genetic and biogeographic research from the past several years to construct an overarching hypothesis for platyrrhine evolution. We also highlight continuing controversies in Neotropical primate biogeography, such as whether the location of origin of platyrrhines was Africa or Asia; whether Patagonian fossil primates are stem or crown platyrrhines; and whether cis- and trans-Andean Neotropical primates were subject to vicariance through Andes mountain building, or instead diversified through isolation in mountain valleys after skirting around the Andes on the northwestern coast of South America. We also consider the role of the Amazon River and its major tributaries in shaping platyrrhine biodiversity, and how and when primates from the Amazon reached the Atlantic Forest. A key focus is on primate colonizations and extirpations in Central America, the Andes, and the seasonally dry tropical forests and savannas (such as the Llanos, Caatinga, and Cerrado habitats), all ecosystems that have been understudied up until now for primates. We suggest that most primates currently inhabiting drier open habitats are relatively recent arrivals, having expanded from rainforest habitats in the Pleistocene. We point to the Pitheciidae as the taxonomic group most in need of further phylogenetic and biogeographic research. Additionally, genomic studies on the Platyrrhini are deeply needed and are expected to bring new surprises and insights to the field of Neotropical primate biogeography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Workshop summary: neotropical primates in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Suzette D; Abee, Christian R; Mansfield, Keith G

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes presentations and discussions at an NIH-sponsored workshop on Neotropical Primates in Biomedical Research, held in September 2010. Neotropical primates (New World monkeys), with their smaller size, faster maturation, and shorter lifespans than Old World monkeys, are efficient models and present unique opportunities for studying human health and disease. After overviews of the most commonly used neotropical species-squirrel monkeys, marmosets, and owl monkeys-speakers described the use of neotropical primates in specific areas of immunology, infectious disease, neuroscience, and physiology research. Presentations addressed the development of new research tools: immune-based reagents, fMRI technologies suited to these small primates, sequencing of the marmoset genome, the first germline transgenic monkey, and neotropical primate induced pluripotent stem cells. In the discussions after the presentations, participants identified challenges to both continued use and development of new uses of neotropical primates in research and suggested the following actions to address the challenges: (1) mechanisms to support breeding colonies of some neotropical species to ensure a well-characterized domestic source; (2) resources for the continuing development of critical research tools to improve the immunological and hormonal characterization of neotropical primates; (3) improved opportunities for networking among investigators who use neotropical primates, training and other measures to improve colony and veterinary management, and continued research on neotropical primate management and veterinary care issues; (4) support for development activities to produce models that are more affordable and more efficient for moving research "from benchside to bedside"; and (5) establishment of a small program that would fund "orphan" species.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vinot

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ω3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ω3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ω3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus, a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ω3 PUFA (n = 6 per group. Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ω3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, p<0.05, while the spontaneous locomotor activity was reduced by 31% in ω3-supplemented animals (p<0.001, a parameter that can be linked with lowered anxiety. The long-term dietary ω3 PUFA supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive performances in the adult mouse lemur. The supplementation of human food with ω3 fatty

  3. Prosocial primates: selfish and unselfish motivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frans B. M. de Waal; Malini Suchak

    2010-01-01

    Non-human primates are marked by well-developed prosocial and cooperative tendencies as reflected in the way they support each other in fights, hunt together, share food and console victims of aggression...

  4. Biokinetics of Plutonium in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A; Gesell, Thomas F; Harris, Jason T; Brey, Richard R

    2016-10-01

    A major source of data on metabolism, excretion and retention of plutonium comes from experimental animal studies. Although old world monkeys are one of the closest living relatives to humans, certain physiological differences do exist between these nonhuman primates and humans. The objective of this paper was to describe the metabolism of plutonium in nonhuman primates using the bioassay and retention data obtained from macaque monkeys injected with plutonium citrate. A biokinetic model for nonhuman primates was developed by adapting the basic model structure and adapting the transfer rates described for metabolism of plutonium in adult humans. Significant changes to the parameters were necessary to explain the shorter retention of plutonium in liver and skeleton of the nonhuman primates, differences in liver to bone partitioning ratio, and significantly higher excretion of plutonium in feces compared to that in humans.

  5. Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This article...... reviews some functional principles and structures that are generally thought to underlie the primate visual cortex, and attempts to extract biological principles that could further advance computer vision research. Organized for a computer vision audience, we present functional principles...... of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...

  6. Colombian and Peruvian Primate Censusing Studies,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    34PG ’AMR 0719) from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and funds from the Instituto de Desarrollo de los Recursos Naturales Renovables...04 FEB. 7?5 En Iia. " Discusion de la cirta convenio para el Desorrolla do un Proyocto do investi-&iciones Piologicas solbre Primates no humanos onl...adecuadas para garantizar la utilizacion y la pe.-petuidad de especies de primates no humanos . 2- Realizar investigaciones de campo para determinar: el estado

  7. Secondary expansion of the transient subplate zone in the developing cerebrum of human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Alvaro; Krsnik, Zeljka; Kostović, Ivica; Rakic, Pasko

    2016-08-30

    The subplate (SP) was the last cellular compartment added to the Boulder Committee's list of transient embryonic zones [Bystron I, Blakemore C, Rakic P (2008) Nature Rev Neurosci 9(2):110-122]. It is highly developed in human and nonhuman primates, but its origin, mode, and dynamics of development, resolution, and eventual extinction are not well understood because human postmortem tissue offers only static descriptive data, and mice cannot serve as an adequate experimental model for the distinct regional differences in primates. Here, we take advantage of the large and slowly developing SP in macaque monkey to examine the origin, settling pattern, and subsequent dispersion of the SP neurons in primates. Monkey embryos exposed to the radioactive DNA replication marker tritiated thymidine ([(3)H]dT, or TdR) at early embryonic ages were killed at different intervals postinjection to follow postmitotic cells' positional changes. As expected in primates, most SP neurons generated in the ventricular zone initially migrate radially, together with prospective layer 6 neurons. Surprisingly, mostly during midgestation, SP cells become secondarily displaced and widespread into the expanding SP zone, which becomes particularly wide subjacent to the association cortical areas and underneath the summit of its folia. We found that invasion of monoamine, basal forebrain, thalamocortical, and corticocortical axons is mainly responsible for this region-dependent passive dispersion of the SP cells. Histologic and immunohistochemical comparison with the human SP at corresponding fetal ages indicates that the same developmental events occur in both primate species.

  8. Anthropoid versus strepsirhine status of the African Eocene primates Algeripithecus and Azibius: craniodental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Marivaux, Laurent; Lebrun, Renaud; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Fara, Emmanuel; Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Hautier, Lionel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Lazzari, Vincent; Mebrouk, Fateh; Peigné, Stéphane; Sudre, Jean; Tafforeau, Paul; Valentin, Xavier; Mahboubi, Mahammed

    2009-01-01

    Recent fossil discoveries have demonstrated that Africa and Asia were epicentres for the origin and/or early diversification of the major living primate lineages, including both anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans) and crown strepsirhine primates (lemurs, lorises and galagos). Competing hypotheses favouring either an African or Asian origin for anthropoids rank among the most hotly contested issues in paleoprimatology. The Afrocentric model for anthropoid origins rests heavily on the >45 Myr old fossil Algeripithecus minutus from Algeria, which is widely acknowledged to be one of the oldest known anthropoids. However, the phylogenetic position of Algeripithecus with respect to other primates has been tenuous because of the highly fragmentary fossils that have documented this primate until now. Recently recovered and more nearly complete fossils of Algeripithecus and contemporaneous relatives reveal that they are not anthropoids. New data support the idea that Algeripithecus and its sister genus Azibius are the earliest offshoots of an Afro–Arabian strepsirhine clade that embraces extant toothcombed primates and their fossil relatives. Azibius exhibits anatomical evidence for nocturnality. Algeripithecus has a long, thin and forwardly inclined lower canine alveolus, a feature that is entirely compatible with the long and procumbent lower canine included in the toothcomb of crown strepsirhines. These results strengthen an ancient African origin for crown strepsirhines and, in turn, strongly challenge the role of Africa as the ancestral homeland for anthropoids. PMID:19740889

  9. Social knowledge and signals in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Thore J; Sheehan, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Primates are notable for having a rich and detailed understanding of their social environment and there has been great interest in the evolution and function of social knowledge in primates. Indeed, primates have been shown to have impressive understandings of not only other group members but also the complex relationships among them. To be useful, however, social knowledge requires memories from previous encounters and observations about individual traits that are stable. Here, we argue that social systems or traits that make social knowledge more costly or less accurate will favor signals that either supplement or replace social knowledge. Thus, the relationship between signals and social knowledge can be complementary or antagonistic depending on the type of signal. Our goal in this review is to elucidate the relationships between signals and social knowledge in primates. We categorize signals into three types, each with different relationships to social knowledge. (1) Identity signals directly facilitate social knowledge, (2) current-state signals supplement information gained through social knowledge, and (3) badges of status replace social knowledge. Primates rely extensively on identity information, but it remains to be determined to what extent this is based on receiver perception of individual variation or senders using identity signals. Primates frequently utilize current-state signals including signals of intent to augment their interactions with familiar individuals. Badges of status are rare in primates, and the cases where they are used point to a functional and evolutionary trade-off between badges of status and social knowledge. However, the nature of this relationship needs further exploration.

  10. A purified population of multipotent cardiovascular progenitors derived from primate pluripotent stem cells engrafts in postmyocardial infarcted nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blin, Guillaume; Nury, David; Stefanovic, Sonia; Neri, Tui; Guillevic, Oriane; Brinon, Benjamin; Bellamy, Valérie; Rücker-Martin, Catherine; Barbry, Pascal; Bel, Alain; Bruneval, Patrick; Cowan, Chad; Pouly, Julia; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Gouadon, Elodie; Binder, Patrice; Hagège, Albert; Desnos, Michel; Renaud, Jean-François; Menasché, Philippe; Pucéat, Michel

    2010-04-01

    Cell therapy holds promise for tissue regeneration, including in individuals with advanced heart failure. However, treatment of heart disease with bone marrow cells and skeletal muscle progenitors has had only marginal positive benefits in clinical trials, perhaps because adult stem cells have limited plasticity. The identification, among human pluripotent stem cells, of early cardiovascular cell progenitors required for the development of the first cardiac lineage would shed light on human cardiogenesis and might pave the way for cell therapy for cardiac degenerative diseases. Here, we report the isolation of an early population of cardiovascular progenitors, characterized by expression of OCT4, stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1), and mesoderm posterior 1 (MESP1), derived from human pluripotent stem cells treated with the cardiogenic morphogen BMP2. This progenitor population was multipotential and able to generate cardiomyocytes as well as smooth muscle and endothelial cells. When transplanted into the infarcted myocardium of immunosuppressed nonhuman primates, an SSEA-1+ progenitor population derived from Rhesus embryonic stem cells differentiated into ventricular myocytes and reconstituted 20% of the scar tissue. Notably, primates transplanted with an unpurified population of cardiac-committed cells, which included SSEA-1- cells, developed teratomas in the scar tissue, whereas those transplanted with purified SSEA-1+ cells did not. We therefore believe that the SSEA-1+ progenitors that we have described here have the potential to be used in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  11. Episodic evolution of prolactin gene in primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; DUAN Ziyuan; JIA Lu; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we obtained exon 2―5 of prolactin (PRL) gene from four primate species by PCR and sequencing. Adding other genes available in GenBank, we calculate amino acid substitution rates for prolactin gene in primate. Comparison of nonsynonymous substitution rate to synonymous substitution rate ratios shows no evidence of positive selection for any lineage of primate prolactin gene. According to this and the facts that (I) no sites under positive selection are inferred by using maximum-likelihood method; (ii) among 32 amino acid replacement that occurred along the rapid evolutionary phase, only two are included in the 40 functionally important residues, indicating that amino acid replacement tends to occur in those functionally unimportant residues; (iii) partial of prolactin function is replaced by placental lactogen in primate at the rapid evolutionary phase of prolactin gene, we thus deem that it is relaxation of purifying selection to some extent rather than positive selection that enforces the rapid evolution of primate prolactin gene.

  12. How primates (including us!) respond to inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F

    2008-01-01

    Responding negatively to inequity is not a uniquely human trait. Some of our closest evolutionary ancestors respond negatively when treated less well than a conspecific. Comparative work between humans and other primates can help elucidate the evolutionary underpinnings of humans' social preferences. Results from studies of nonhuman primates, in particular chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, are presented in comparison to human results that have been collected during economic game studies in humans, such as in the Ultimatum Game or Impunity Game. Among nonhuman primates, a frequent behavioral reaction to inequity is to refuse to continue the interaction. While in some cases this response appears to be caused by the inequitable distribution, in others, it seems to be caused by another individual's inequitable behavior. While these reactions are similar to those of humans, this reaction does not appear to be a sense of fairness in the way that we think of it in humans. Neither nonhuman primate species alters their behavior when they are the benefited individual, and in an experimental situation, chimpanzees do not alter their behavior to obtain food for their partner as well as for themselves. Although there are differences between human and nonhuman primate responses, such studies allow us to better understand the evolution of our own responses to inequity. Given the strong behavioral reactions that even monkeys show to inequitable treatment, it is not surprising that humans are concerned with equity. Such comparisons increase understanding of issues such as healthcare disparities in humans.

  13. Developmental and functional biology of the primate fetal adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesiano, S; Jaffe, R B

    1997-06-01

    The unique characteristics of the primate (particularly human) fetal adrenal were first realized in the early 1900s when its morphology was examined in detail and compared with that of other species. The unusual architecture of the human fetal adrenal cortex, with its unique and disproportionately enlarged fetal zone, its compact definitive zone, and its dramatic remodeling soon after birth captured the interest of developmental anatomists. Many detailed anatomical studies describing the morphology of the developing human fetal adrenal were reported between 1920 and 1960, and these morphological descriptions have not changed significantly. More recently, it has become clear that fetal adrenal cortical growth involves cellular hypertrophy, hyperplasia, apoptosis, and migration and is best described by the migration theory, i.e. cells proliferate in the periphery, migrate centripetally, differentiate during their migration to form the functional cortical zones, and then likely undergo apoptosis in the center of the cortex. Consistent with this model, cells of intermediate phenotype, arranged in columnar cords typical of migration, have been identified between the definitive and fetal zones. This cortical area has been referred to as the transitional zone and, based on the expression of steroidogenic enzymes, we consider it to be a functionally distinct cortical zone. Elegant experiments during the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated the central role of the primate fetal adrenal cortex in establishing the estrogenic milieu of pregnancy. Those findings were among the first indications of the function and physiological role of the human fetal adrenal cortex and led Diczfalusy and co-workers to propose the concept of the feto-placental unit, in which DHEA-S produced by the fetal adrenal cortex is used by the placenta for estrogen synthesis. Tissue and cell culture techniques, together with improved steroid assays, revealed that the fetal zone is the primary source of DHEA

  14. Operant nociception in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Brian D; Bergman, Jack

    2014-09-01

    The effective management of pain is a longstanding public health concern. Morphine-like opioids have long been front-line analgesics, but produce undesirable side effects that can limit their application. Slow progress in the introduction of novel improved medications for pain management over the last 5 decades has prompted a call for innovative translational research, including new preclinical assays. Most current in vivo procedures (eg, tail flick, hot plate, warm water tail withdrawal) assay the effects of nociceptive stimuli on simple spinal reflexes or unconditioned behavioral reactions. However, clinical treatment goals may include the restoration of previous behavioral activities, which can be limited by medication-related side effects that are not measured in such procedures. The present studies describe an apparatus and procedure to study the disruptive effects of nociceptive stimuli on voluntary behavior in nonhuman primates, and the ability of drugs to restore such behavior through their analgesic actions. Squirrel monkeys were trained to pull a cylindrical thermode for access to a highly palatable food. Next, sessions were conducted in which the temperature of the thermode was increased stepwise until responding stopped, permitting the determination of stable nociceptive thresholds. Tests revealed that several opioid analgesics, but not d-amphetamine or Δ(9)-THC, produced dose-related increases in threshold that were antagonist sensitive and efficacy dependent, consistent with their effects using traditional measures of antinociception. Unlike traditional reflex-based measures, however, the results also permitted the concurrent evaluation of response disruption, providing an index with which to characterize the behavioral selectivity of antinociceptive drugs.

  15. Osteological evidence for the evolution of activity pattern and visual acuity in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, R F; Kirk, E C

    2000-10-01

    Examination of orbit size and optic foramen size in living primates reveals two adaptive phenomena. First, as noted by many authors, orbit size is strongly correlated with activity pattern. Comparisons of large samples of extant primates consistently reveal that nocturnal species exhibit proportionately larger orbits than diurnal species. Furthermore, nocturnal haplorhines (Tarsius and Aotus) have considerably larger orbits than similar-sized nocturnal strepsirrhines. Orbital hypertrophy in Tarsius and Aotus accommodates the enormously enlarged eyes of these taxa. This extreme ocular hypertrophy seen in extant nocturnal haplorhines is an adaptation for both enhanced visual acuity and sensitivity in conditions of low light intensity. Second, the relative size of the optic foramen is highly correlated with the degree of retinal summation and inferred visual acuity. Diurnal haplorhines exhibit proportionately larger optic foramina, less central retinal summation, and much higher visual acuity than do all other primates. Diurnal strepsirrhines exhibit a more subtle but significant parallel enlargement of the optic foramen and a decrease in retinal summation relative to the condition seen in nocturnal primates. These twin osteological variables of orbit size and optic foramen size may be used to draw inferences regarding the activity pattern, retinal anatomy, and visual acuity of fossil primates. Our measurements demonstrate that the omomyiforms Microchoerus, Necrolemur, Shoshonius, and Tetonius, adapiform Pronycticebus, and the possible lorisiform Plesiopithecus were likely nocturnal on the basis of orbit diameter. The adapiforms Leptadapis, Adapis, and Notharctus, the phylogenetically enigmatic Rooneyia, the early anthropoids Proteopithecus, Catopithecus, and Aegyptopithecus, and early platyrrhine Dolichocebus were likely diurnal. The activity pattern of the platyrrhine Tremacebus is obscure. Plesiopithecus, Pronycticebus, Microchoerus, and Necrolemur probably had

  16. Progress with nonhuman primate embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Don P; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Pau, K-Y Francis; Lester, Linda

    2004-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells hold potential in the fields of regenerative medicine, developmental biology, tissue regeneration, disease pathogenicity, and drug discovery. Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are now available in primates, including man, rhesus, and cynomologous monkeys. Monkey ES cells serve as invaluable clinically relevant models for studies that can't be conducted in humans because of practical or ethical limitations, or in rodents because of differences in physiology and anatomy. Here, we review the current status of nonhuman primate research with ES cells, beginning with a description of their isolation, characterization, and availability. Substantial limitations still plague the use of primate ES cells, such as their required growth on feeder layers, poor cloning efficiency, and restricted availability. The ability to produce homogenous populations of both undifferentiated as well as differentiated phenotypes is an important challenge, and genetic approaches to achieving these objectives are discussed. Finally, safety, efficiency, and feasibility issues relating to the transplantation of ES-derived cells are considered.

  17. Convergent evolution in primates and an insectivore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffelli, Dario; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin, Edward M.

    2003-04-16

    The cardiovascular risk factor apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) has a puzzling distribution among mammals, its presence being limited to a subset of primates and a member of the insectivore lineage, the hedgehog. To explore the evolutionary history of apo(a), we performed extensive genomic sequence comparisons of multiple species with and without an apo(a) gene product, such as human, baboon, hedgehog, lemurand mouse. This analysis indicated that apo(a) arose independently in a subset of primates, including baboon and human, and an insectivore, the hedgehog, and was not simply lost by species lacking it. The similar structural domains shared by the hedgehog and primate apo(a) indicate that they were formed by a unique molecular mechanism involving the convergent evolution of paralogous genes in these distantspecies.

  18. From sweeping to the caress: similarities and discrepancies between human and non-human primates' pleasant touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Clara Grandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Affective touch plays a key role in affiliative behavior, offering a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics, both in humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it has been speculated that the CT fiber system is a specific coding channel for affiliative touch that occurs during skin-to-skin interactions with conspecifics. In humans, this touch is commonly referred to as the caress, and its correlation with the CT fiber system has been widely demonstrated. It has been hypothesized that the sweeping touch that occurs during grooming in non-human primates may modulate the CT fibers, with recent preliminary studies on rhesus monkeys supporting this hypothesis. The present mini-review proposes a comparison between the pleasant touch, caress and sweeping of humans and non-human primates, respectively. The currently available data was therefore reviewed regarding i the correlation between pleasant touch and CT fibers both in humans and non-human primates, ii the autonomic effects, iii the encoding at the central nervous system, iv the development from early life to adulthood, and v the potential applications of pleasant touch in the daily lives of both humans and non-human primates. Moreover, by considering both the similarities and discrepancies between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, a possible evolutionary mechanism can be proposed that has developed from sweeping as a utilitarian action with affiliative meaning among monkeys, to the caress as a purely affective gesture associated with humans.

  19. Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Brain Size in Primates

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Reproductive competition among males has long been considered a powerful force in the evolution of primates. The evolution of brain size and complexity in the Order Primates has been widely regarded as the hallmark of primate evolutionary history. Despite their importance to our understanding of primate evolution, the relationship between sexual selection and the evolutionary development of brain size is not well studied. The present research examines the evolutionary relationship between bra...

  20. Recent advances in primate nutritional ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, Nicoletta

    2017-04-01

    Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences. From a nutritional perspective, several theories including energy and protein-to-fiber maximization, nutrient mixing, and toxin avoidance, have been proposed to explain the food choices of non-human primates. However, more recently, analytical frameworks such as nutritional geometry have been incorporated into primatology to explore, using a multivariate approach, the synergistic effects of multiple nutrients, secondary metabolites, and energy requirements on primate food choice. Dietary strategies associated with nutrient balancing highlight the tradeoffs that primates face in bypassing or selecting particular feeding sites and food items. In this Special Issue, the authors bring together a set of studies focusing on the nutritional ecology of a diverse set of primate taxa characterized by marked differences in dietary emphasis. The authors present, compare, and discuss the diversity of strategies used by primates in diet selection, and how species differences in ecology, physiology, anatomy, and phylogeny can affect patterns of nutrient choice and nutrient balancing. The use of a nutritionally explicit analytical framework is fundamental to identify the nutritional requirements of different individuals of a given species, and through its application, direct conservation efforts can be applied to regenerate and protect specific foods and food patches that offer the opportunity of a

  1. Percussive technology in human evolution: an introduction to a comparative approach in fossil and living primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-11-19

    Percussive technology is part of the behavioural suite of several fossil and living primates. Stone Age ancestors used lithic artefacts in pounding activities, which could have been most important in the earliest stages of stone working. This has relevant evolutionary implications, as other primates such as chimpanzees and some monkeys use stone hammer-and-anvil combinations to crack hard-shelled foodstuffs. Parallels between primate percussive technologies and early archaeological sites need to be further explored in order to assess the emergence of technological behaviour in our evolutionary line, and firmly establish bridges between Primatology and Archaeology. What are the anatomical, cognitive and ecological constraints of percussive technology? How common are percussive activities in the Stone Age and among living primates? What is their functional significance? How similar are archaeological percussive tools and those made by non-human primates? This issue of Phil. Trans. addresses some of these questions by presenting case studies with a wide chronological, geographical and disciplinary coverage. The studies presented here cover studies of Brazilian capuchins, captive chimpanzees and chimpanzees in the wild, research on the use of percussive technology among modern humans and recent hunter-gatherers in Australia, the Near East and Europe, and archaeological examples of this behaviour from a million years ago to the Holocene. In summary, the breadth and depth of research compiled here should make this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, a landmark step forward towards a better understanding of percussive technology, a unique behaviour shared by some modern and fossil primates.

  2. Gene expression ontogeny of spermatogenesis in the marmoset uncovers primate characteristics during testicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zachary Yu-Ching; Hirano, Takamasa; Shibata, Shinsuke; Seki, Naomi M; Kitajima, Ryunosuke; Sedohara, Ayako; Siomi, Mikiko C; Sasaki, Erika; Siomi, Haruhiko; Imamura, Masanori; Okano, Hideyuki

    2015-04-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis has been investigated extensively in rodents and a strictly controlled developmental process has been defined at cellular and molecular levels. In comparison, primate spermatogenesis has been far less well characterized. However, important differences between primate and rodent spermatogenesis are emerging so it is not always accurate to extrapolate findings in rodents to primate systems. Here, we performed an extensive immunofluorescence study of spermatogenesis in neonatal, juvenile, and adult testes in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) to determine primate-specific patterns of gene expression that underpin primate germ cell development. Initially we characterized adult spermatogonia into two main classes; mitotically active C-KIT(+)Ki67(+) cells and mitotically quiescent SALL4(+)PLZF(+)LIN28(+)DPPA4(+) cells. We then explored the expression of a set of markers, including PIWIL1/MARWI, VASA, DAZL, CLGN, RanBPM, SYCP1 and HAPRIN, during germ cell differentiation from early spermatocytes through round and elongating spermatids, and a clear program of gene expression changes was determined as development proceeded. We then examined the juvenile marmoset testis. Markers of gonocytes demonstrated two populations; one that migrates to the basal membrane where they form the SALL4(+) or C-KIT(+) spermatogonia, and another that remains in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. This later population, historically identified as pre-spermatogonia, expressed meiotic and apoptotic markers and were eliminated because they appear to have failed to correctly migrate. Our findings provide the first platform of gene expression dynamics in adult and developing germ cells of the common marmoset. Although we have characterized a limited number of genes, these results will facilitate primate spermatogenesis research and understanding of human reproduction.

  3. Promiscuity and the primate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, C L; Gittleman, J L; Antonovics, J

    2000-11-10

    The behavioral and ecological factors involved in immune system evolution remain poorly explored. We present a phylogenetic analysis of white blood cell counts in primates to test three hypotheses related to disease risk: increases in risk are expected with group size or population density, exposure to soil-borne pathogens, and mating promiscuity. White blood cell counts were significantly greater in species where females have more mating partners, indicating that the risk of sexually transmitted disease is likely to be a major factor leading to systematic differences in the primate immune system.

  4. Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

  5. Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

  6. 76 FR 13120 - Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 71 RIN 0920-AA23 Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates AGENCY... (42 CFR 71.53) for the importation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs). Written comments were to be... the imporation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for the...

  7. 76 FR 677 - Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Health and Human Services 42 CFR Part 71 Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates; Proposed Rule... Primates AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Department of Health and Human... regulations for the importation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for...

  8. Disproportional representation of primates in the ecological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Eckhard W; Zinner, Dietmar; Ganzhorn, Jörg U

    2013-01-01

    We address the question why papers dealing with the ecology of primates are so sparsely represented in the general ecological literature. A literature analyses based on entries in Web of Science and PrimateLit reveals that despite a large number of papers published on primates in general and on the ecology of primates, only a very small fraction of these papers is published in high-ranking international ecological journals. We discuss a number of potential reasons for the disproportion and highlight the problems associated with experimental research on wild primates and constraints on sample size as major issues.

  9. Recent advances on the knowledge of the Eocene primates from the Pyrenean Basins (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Femenias-Gual, Joan; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    The Eocene was one of the warmest epochs of the Cenozoic and documented the first occurrence of several orders of modern mammals. Among them, Euprimates underwent a very important radiation favored by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Two main groups reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, Adapiformes and Omomyiformes, which are related to the main clades of living primates (strepsirrhines and haplorhines, respectively). In the Iberian Peninsula, Eocene primates have been known since the 1960s, when several fossil sites containing prosimian remains were discovered. Nevertheless, it was not until 2010 that the research on Eocene primates from Spain has increased strikingly, and the results achieved in this last stage have surpassed those of the whole past century in terms of number of publications. Besides some interesting findings in the Ebro, Almazán and Miranda-Trebiño basins, the Pyrenees have yielded the most abundant record of Eocene primates from the Iberian Peninsula, constituting therefore an excellent region for evaluating the evolution of primates through this epoch. In the early Eocene continental deposits of the Àger area, adapiforms are well represented, with three species of the genus Agerinia. Besides, the only record of Plesiadapiformes (archaic primates) from Spain has been documented in this zone. The middle Eocene is particularly well represented in the Eastern Pyrenees. In the section of Sant Jaume de Frontanyà, three primate species have been described in the last years. The adapiform Anchomomys frontanyensis and the omomyiform Pseudoloris pyrenaicus, found in the oldest levels of the section, and the omomyiform Necrolemur anadoni, identified in the youngest levels, have allowed reconstructing the relationships of these taxa with their correlatives found in other parts of Europe. Late Eocene deposits with mammal remains crop out in the area of La Pobla de Segur. The most relevant fossil

  10. Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other releva

  11. Processing Of Visual Information In Primate Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Van Essen, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews and analyzes information-processing strategies and pathways in primate retina and visual cortex. Of interest both in biological fields and in such related computational fields as artificial neural networks. Focuses on data from macaque, which has superb visual system similar to that of humans. Authors stress concept of "good engineering" in understanding visual system.

  12. [Experimental whooping cough of nonhuman primate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrava, D T; Medkova, A Iu; Siniashina, L N; Shevtsova, Z V; Matua, A Z; Kondzharia, I G; Barkaia, V S; Elistratova, Zh V; Karataev, G I; Mikvabia, Z Ia; Gintsburg, A L

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable success in study of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors, pathogenesis of whooping cough, duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence, types and mechanisms of immune response are still keep underinvestigated. It can be explained by the absence ofadequate experimental animal model for pertussis study. Our study estimates clinical and laboratory parameters of whooping cough in non-human primates of the Old World in the process of intranasan infection by virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Also the duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence in animals was investigated. 14 animal units of 4 species of non-human primates of the Old World were used for intranasal infection. The examination of infect animals included: visual exploration of nasopharynx, thermometry, clinical and biochemical blood analyses, identification ofB. pertussis, using microbiologic and molecular genetic analyses, estimation of innate and adoptive immune factors. The development of infectious process was accompanied by generation of B. pertussis bacteria, catarrhal inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa, leucocytosis, hypoglycemia specific for pertussis, and activation of innate and adaptive immunity for all primates regardless of specie were seen. While repeated experimental infection in primates single bacterial colonies were registered during only first week after challenge. It occurs like the absence of inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa and the lack of laboratory marks of whooping cough, recorded after first challenge. The evident booster effect of humoral immunity was observed. As a model for investigation of B. pertussis bacteria persistence and immune response against whooping cough we suggest the usage of rhesus macaque as more available to experiments.

  13. Tracking Alu evolution in New World primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batzer Mark A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alu elements are Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs in primate genomes that have proven useful as markers for studying genome evolution, population biology and phylogenetics. Most of these applications, however, have been limited to humans and their nearest relatives, chimpanzees. In an effort to expand our understanding of Alu sequence evolution and to increase the applicability of these markers to non-human primate biology, we have analyzed available Alu sequences for loci specific to platyrrhine (New World primates. Results Branching patterns along an Alu sequence phylogeny indicate three major classes of platyrrhine-specific Alu sequences. Sequence comparisons further reveal at least three New World monkey-specific subfamilies; AluTa7, AluTa10, and AluTa15. Two of these subfamilies appear to be derived from a gene conversion event that has produced a recently active fusion of AluSc- and AluSp-type elements. This is a novel mode of origin for new Alu subfamilies. Conclusion The use of Alu elements as genetic markers in studies of genome evolution, phylogenetics, and population biology has been very productive when applied to humans. The characterization of these three new Alu subfamilies not only increases our understanding of Alu sequence evolution in primates, but also opens the door to the application of these genetic markers outside the hominid lineage.

  14. Primate molecular phylogenetics in a genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Nelson; Sterner, Kirstin N

    2013-02-01

    A primary objective of molecular phylogenetics is to use molecular data to elucidate the evolutionary history of living organisms. Dr. Morris Goodman founded the journal Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution as a forum where scientists could further our knowledge about the tree of life, and he recognized that the inference of species trees is a first and fundamental step to addressing many important evolutionary questions. In particular, Dr. Goodman was interested in obtaining a complete picture of the primate species tree in order to provide an evolutionary context for the study of human adaptations. A number of recent studies use multi-locus datasets to infer well-resolved and well-supported primate phylogenetic trees using consensus approaches (e.g., supermatrices). It is therefore tempting to assume that we have a complete picture of the primate tree, especially above the species level. However, recent theoretical and empirical work in the field of molecular phylogenetics demonstrates that consensus methods might provide a false sense of support at certain nodes. In this brief review we discuss the current state of primate molecular phylogenetics and highlight the importance of exploring the use of coalescent-based analyses that have the potential to better utilize information contained in multi-locus data.

  15. Homeostasis in primates in hyperacceleration fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Various homeostatic responses of a nonhuman primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) to acute changes in the acceleration environment were examined. When these animals were exposed to a hyperdynamic field the body temperature was consistently depressed and the animals showed behavioral indications of increased drowsiness. Further, time of day played a significant role in influencing these responses.

  16. Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other releva

  17. Optogenetics Advances in Primate Visual Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Mehrdad; Remington, Evan

    2016-04-06

    In this issue of Neuron, Klein et al. (2016) used cell-type-specific optogenetics and electrical microstimulation to characterize the koniocellular geniculocortical projections in nonhuman primates. Their work offers a powerful platform for refining our understanding of the mechanisms of visual information processing in the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex.

  18. Homeostasis in primates in hyperacceleration fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Various homeostatic responses of a nonhuman primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) to acute changes in the acceleration environment were examined. When these animals were exposed to a hyperdynamic field the body temperature was consistently depressed and the animals showed behavioral indications of increased drowsiness. Further, time of day played a significant role in influencing these responses.

  19. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena.

  20. Evolution and allometry of calcaneal elongation in living and extinct primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug M Boyer

    Full Text Available Specialized acrobatic leaping has been recognized as a key adaptive trait tied to the origin and subsequent radiation of euprimates based on its observed frequency in extant primates and inferred frequency in extinct early euprimates. Hypothesized skeletal correlates include elongated tarsal elements, which would be expected to aid leaping by allowing for increased rates and durations of propulsive acceleration at takeoff. Alternatively, authors of a recent study argued that pronounced distal calcaneal elongation of euprimates (compared to other mammalian taxa was related primarily to specialized pedal grasping. Testing for correlations between calcaneal elongation and leaping versus grasping is complicated by body size differences and associated allometric affects. We re-assess allometric constraints on, and the functional significance of, calcaneal elongation using phylogenetic comparative methods, and present an evolutionary hypothesis for the evolution of calcaneal elongation in primates using a Bayesian approach to ancestral state reconstruction (ASR. Results show that among all primates, logged ratios of distal calcaneal length to total calcaneal length are inversely correlated with logged body mass proxies derived from the area of the calcaneal facet for the cuboid. Results from phylogenetic ANOVA on residuals from this allometric line suggest that deviations are explained by degree of leaping specialization in prosimians, but not anthropoids. Results from ASR suggest that non-allometric increases in calcaneal elongation began in the primate stem lineage and continued independently in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Anthropoid and lorisid lineages show stasis and decreasing elongation, respectively. Initial increases in calcaneal elongation in primate evolution may be related to either development of hallucal-grasping or a combination of grasping and more specialized leaping behaviors. As has been previously suggested, subsequent

  1. Evolution and allometry of calcaneal elongation in living and extinct primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Seiffert, Erik R; Gladman, Justin T; Bloch, Jonathan I

    2013-01-01

    Specialized acrobatic leaping has been recognized as a key adaptive trait tied to the origin and subsequent radiation of euprimates based on its observed frequency in extant primates and inferred frequency in extinct early euprimates. Hypothesized skeletal correlates include elongated tarsal elements, which would be expected to aid leaping by allowing for increased rates and durations of propulsive acceleration at takeoff. Alternatively, authors of a recent study argued that pronounced distal calcaneal elongation of euprimates (compared to other mammalian taxa) was related primarily to specialized pedal grasping. Testing for correlations between calcaneal elongation and leaping versus grasping is complicated by body size differences and associated allometric affects. We re-assess allometric constraints on, and the functional significance of, calcaneal elongation using phylogenetic comparative methods, and present an evolutionary hypothesis for the evolution of calcaneal elongation in primates using a Bayesian approach to ancestral state reconstruction (ASR). Results show that among all primates, logged ratios of distal calcaneal length to total calcaneal length are inversely correlated with logged body mass proxies derived from the area of the calcaneal facet for the cuboid. Results from phylogenetic ANOVA on residuals from this allometric line suggest that deviations are explained by degree of leaping specialization in prosimians, but not anthropoids. Results from ASR suggest that non-allometric increases in calcaneal elongation began in the primate stem lineage and continued independently in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Anthropoid and lorisid lineages show stasis and decreasing elongation, respectively. Initial increases in calcaneal elongation in primate evolution may be related to either development of hallucal-grasping or a combination of grasping and more specialized leaping behaviors. As has been previously suggested, subsequent increases in calcaneal

  2. Primates in 21st century ecosystems: does primate conservation promote ecosystem conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norconk, Marilyn A; Boinski, Sue; Forget, Pierre-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the American Journal of Primatology were among the participants in an invited symposium at the 2008 Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation meeting in Paramaribo, Suriname. They were asked to assess how essential primates are to tropical ecosystems and, given their research interests, discuss how primate research contributes to the broader understanding about how ecosystems function. This introduction to the issue is divided into three parts: a review of the roles that nonhuman primates play in tropical ecosystems; the implementation of large-scale landscape methods used to identify primate densities; and concerns about the increasingly porous boundaries between humans, nonhuman primates, and pathogens. Although 20th century primate research created a rich database on individual species, including both theoretical and descriptive approaches, the dual effects of high human population densities and widespread habitat destruction should warn us that creative, interdisciplinary and human-related research is needed to solve 21st century problems. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Occurrence and distribution of Indian primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K.K.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Global and regional species conservation efforts are hindered by poor distribution data and range maps. Many Indian primates face extinction, but assessments of population status are hindered by lack of reliable distribution data. We estimated the current occurrence and distribution of 15 Indian primates by applying occupancy models to field data from a country-wide survey of local experts. We modeled species occurrence in relation to ecological and social covariates (protected areas, landscape characteristics, and human influences), which we believe are critical to determining species occurrence in India. We found evidence that protected areas positively influence occurrence of seven species and for some species are their only refuge. We found evergreen forests to be more critical for some primates along with temperate and deciduous forests. Elevation negatively influenced occurrence of three species. Lower human population density was positively associated with occurrence of five species, and higher cultural tolerance was positively associated with occurrence of three species. We find that 11 primates occupy less than 15% of the total land area of India. Vulnerable primates with restricted ranges are Golden langur, Arunachal macaque, Pig-tailed macaque, stump-tailed macaque, Phayre's leaf monkey, Nilgiri langur and Lion-tailed macaque. Only Hanuman langur and rhesus macaque are widely distributed. We find occupancy modeling to be useful in determining species ranges, and in agreement with current species ranking and IUCN status. In landscapes where monitoring efforts require optimizing cost, effort and time, we used ecological and social covariates to reliably estimate species occurrence and focus species conservation efforts. ?? Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Variation in the molecular clock of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorjani, Priya; Amorim, Carlos Eduardo G; Arndt, Peter F; Przeworski, Molly

    2016-09-20

    Events in primate evolution are often dated by assuming a constant rate of substitution per unit time, but the validity of this assumption remains unclear. Among mammals, it is well known that there exists substantial variation in yearly substitution rates. Such variation is to be expected from differences in life history traits, suggesting it should also be found among primates. Motivated by these considerations, we analyze whole genomes from 10 primate species, including Old World Monkeys (OWMs), New World Monkeys (NWMs), and apes, focusing on putatively neutral autosomal sites and controlling for possible effects of biased gene conversion and methylation at CpG sites. We find that substitution rates are up to 64% higher in lineages leading from the hominoid-NWM ancestor to NWMs than to apes. Within apes, rates are ∼2% higher in chimpanzees and ∼7% higher in the gorilla than in humans. Substitution types subject to biased gene conversion show no more variation among species than those not subject to it. Not all mutation types behave similarly, however; in particular, transitions at CpG sites exhibit a more clocklike behavior than do other types, presumably because of their nonreplicative origin. Thus, not only the total rate, but also the mutational spectrum, varies among primates. This finding suggests that events in primate evolution are most reliably dated using CpG transitions. Taking this approach, we estimate the human and chimpanzee divergence time is 12.1 million years,​ and the human and gorilla divergence time is 15.1 million years​.

  5. Variable postpartum responsiveness among humans and other primates with "cooperative breeding": A comparative and evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdy, Sarah B

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".Until recently, evolutionists reconstructing mother-infant bonding among human ancestors relied on nonhuman primate models characterized by exclusively maternal care, overlooking the highly variable responsiveness exhibited by mothers in species with obligate reliance on allomaternal care and provisioning. It is now increasingly recognized that apes as large-brained, slow maturing, and nutritionally dependent for so long as early humans were, could not have evolved unless "alloparents" (group members other than genetic parents), in addition to parents, had helped mothers to care for and provision offspring, a rearing system known as "cooperative breeding." Here I review situation-dependent maternal responses ranging from highly possessive to permissive, temporarily distancing, rejecting, or infanticidal, documented for a small subset of cooperatively breeding primates. As in many mammals, primate maternal responsiveness is influenced by physical condition, endocrinological priming, prior experience and local environments (especially related to security). But mothers among primates who evolved as cooperative breeders also appear unusually sensitive to cues of social support. In addition to more "sapient" or rational decision-making, humankind's deep history of cooperative breeding must be considered when trying to understand the extremely variable responsiveness of human mothers.

  6. Social network analysis in the study of nonhuman primates: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lauren J.N.; Lehmann, Julia; Ramos-Fernández, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Advances over the last fifteen years have made social network analysis (SNA) a powerful tool for the study of nonhuman primate social behavior. Although many SNA-based techniques have been only very recently adopted in primatological research, others have been commonly used by primatologists for decades. The roots of SNA also stem from some of the same conceptual frameworks as the majority of nonhuman primate behavioral research. The rapid development of SNA in recent years has led to questions within the primatological community of where and how SNA fits within this field. We aim to address these questions by providing an overview of the historical relationship between SNA and the study of nonhuman primates. We begin with a brief history of the development of SNA, followed by a detailed description of the network-based visualization techniques, analytical methods and conceptual frameworks which have been employed by primatologists since as early as the 1960s. We also introduce some of the latest advances to SNA, thereby demonstrating that this approach contains novel tools for study of nonhuman primate social behavior which may be used to shed light on questions that cannot be addressed fully using more conventional methods. PMID:21433047

  7. Taxonomy and conservation of Vietnam's primates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Mary E; Sterling, Eleanor J; Hurley, Martha M

    2011-11-01

    Vietnam has the highest number of primate taxa overall (24-27) and the highest number of globally threatened primate taxa (minimum 20) in Mainland Southeast Asia. Conservation management of these species depends in part on resolving taxonomic uncertainties, which remain numerous among the Asian primates. Recent research on genetic, morphological, and acoustic diversity in Vietnam's primates has clarified some of these uncertainties, although a number of significant classification issues still remain. Herein, we summarize and compare the major current taxonomic classifications of Vietnam's primates, discuss recent advances in the context of these taxonomies, and suggest key areas for additional research to best inform conservation efforts in a region crucial to global primate diversity. Among the most important next steps for the conservation of Vietnam's primates is a new consensus list of Asian primates that resolves current differences between major taxonomies, incorporates recent research advances, and recognizes units of diversity at scales below the species-level, whether termed populations, morphs, or subspecies. Priority should be placed on recognizing distinct populations, regardless of the species concept in use, in order to foster the evolutionary processes necessary for primate populations to cope with inevitable environmental changes. The long-term conservation of Vietnam's primates depends not only on an accepted and accurate taxonomy but also on funding for on-the-ground conservation activities, including training, and the continued dedication and leadership of Vietnamese researchers and managers.

  8. Current progress with primate embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James A; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Wolf, Don P

    2006-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can proliferate indefinitely, maintain an undifferentiated pluripotent state and differentiate into any cell type. Differentiation of ESCs into various specific cell-types may be able to cure or alleviate the symptoms of various degenerative diseases. Unresolved issues regarding maintaining function, possible apoptosis and tumor formation in vivo mean a prudent approach should be taken towards advancing ESCs into human clinical trials. Rhesus macaques provide the ideal model organism for testing the feasibility, efficacy and safety of ESC based therapies and significant numbers of primate ESC lines are now available. In this review, we will summarize progress in evaluating the genetic and epigenetic integrity of primate ESCs, examine their current use in pre-clinical trials and discuss the potential of producing ESC-derived cell populations that are genetically identical (isogenic) to the host by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  9. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anuja; Qiu, Zhifang; Farnsworth, Steven L; Hemmi, Jacob J; Li, Miao; Pickering, Alexander V; Hornsby, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells from nonhuman primates (NHPs) have unique roles in cell biology and regenerative medicine. Because of the relatedness of NHPs to humans, NHP iPS cells can serve as a source of differentiated derivatives that can be used to address important questions in the comparative biology of primates. Additionally, when used as a source of cells for regenerative medicine, NHP iPS cells serve an invaluable role in translational experiments in cell therapy. Reprogramming of NHP somatic cells requires the same conditions as previously established for human cells. However, throughout the process, a variety of modifications to the human cell protocols must be made to accommodate significant species differences.

  10. [Ecotourism disturbances to non-human primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peng-Lai; Xiang, Zuo-Fu

    2013-02-01

    In tandem with economic growth and rising living conditions, ecotourism has increasingly gained popularity among the Chinese public. Non-human primates, as charismatic animals and the closest relatives of human beings, have shown a strong affinity in attracting the general public and raising money, and for that reason a variety of monkey parks, valleys, and islands are becoming increasingly popular in China. Though successful in raising a substantial sum of money for the managing agency of a nature reserve, there may be negative impacts on monkey groups used in ecotourism. Here, to establish effective guards for non-human primates involved in ecotourism, we present a review on tourism disturbance and summarize the negative impacts on behavioral patterns, reproduction, and health condition of animals.

  11. Evolution of the hepcidin gene in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossi Alessandro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepcidin/LEAP-1 is an iron regulatory hormone originally identified as an antimicrobial peptide. As part of a systematic analysis of the evolution of host defense peptides in primates, we have sequenced the orthologous gene from 14 species of non-human primates. Results The sequence of the mature peptide is highly conserved amongst all the analyzed species, being identical to the human one in great apes and gibbons, with a single residue conservative variation in Old-World monkeys and with few substitutions in New-World monkeys. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that hepcidin's role as a regulatory hormone, which involves interaction with a conserved receptor (ferroportin, may result in conservation over most of its sequence, with the exception of the stretch between residues 15 and 18, which in New-World monkeys (as well as in other mammals shows a significant variation, possibly indicating that this structural region is involved in other functions.

  12. Optogenetics in primates: a shining future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Annelies; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-07-01

    To understand the functional role of specific neurons in micro- and macro-brain circuitry, health, and disease, it is critical to control their activity precisely. This ambitious goal was first achieved by optogenetics, allowing researchers to increase or decrease neural activity artificially with high temporal and spatial precision. In contrast to the revolution optogenetics engendered in invertebrate and rodent research, only a few studies have reported optogenetic-induced neuronal and behavioral effects in primates. Such studies are nonetheless critical before optogenetics can be applied in a clinical setting. Here, we review the state-of-the-art tools for performing optogenetics in mammals, emphasizing recent neuronal and behavioral results obtained in nonhuman primates.

  13. Silencing, positive selection and parallel evolution: busy history of primate cytochromes C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Pierron

    Full Text Available Cytochrome c (cyt c participates in two crucial cellular processes, energy production and apoptosis, and unsurprisingly is a highly conserved protein. However, previous studies have reported for the primate lineage (i loss of the paralogous testis isoform, (ii an acceleration and then a deceleration of the amino acid replacement rate of the cyt c somatic isoform, and (iii atypical biochemical behavior of human cyt c. To gain insight into the cause of these major evolutionary events, we have retraced the history of cyt c loci among primates. For testis cyt c, all primate sequences examined carry the same nonsense mutation, which suggests that silencing occurred before the primates diversified. For somatic cyt c, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses yielded the same tree topology. The evolutionary analyses show that a fast accumulation of non-synonymous mutations (suggesting positive selection occurred specifically on the anthropoid lineage root and then continued in parallel on the early catarrhini and platyrrhini stems. Analysis of evolutionary changes using the 3D structure suggests they are focused on the respiratory chain rather than on apoptosis or other cyt c functions. In agreement with previous biochemical studies, our results suggest that silencing of the cyt c testis isoform could be linked with the decrease of primate reproduction rate. Finally, the evolution of cyt c in the two sister anthropoid groups leads us to propose that somatic cyt c evolution may be related both to COX evolution and to the convergent brain and body mass enlargement in these two anthropoid clades.

  14. Molecular evolution of prolactin in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, O Caryl; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa O; Makri, Georgia; Wallis, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Pituitary prolactin, like growth hormone (GH) and several other protein hormones, shows an episodic pattern of molecular evolution in which sustained bursts of rapid change contrast with long periods of slow evolution. A period of rapid change occurred in the evolution of prolactin in primates, leading to marked sequence differences between human prolactin and that of nonprimate mammals. We have defined this burst more precisely by sequencing the coding regions of prolactin genes for a prosimian, the slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus), and a New World monkey, the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Slow loris prolactin is very similar in sequence to pig prolactin, so the episode of rapid change occurred during primate evolution, after the separation of lines leading to prosimians and higher primates. Marmoset prolactin is similar in sequence to human prolactin, so the accelerated evolution occurred before divergence of New World monkeys and Old World monkeys/apes. The burst of change was confined largely to coding sequence (nonsynonymous sites) for mature prolactin and is not marked in other components of the gene sequence. This and the observations that (1) there was no apparent loss of function during the episode of rapid evolution, (2) the rate of evolution slowed toward the basal rate after this burst, and (3) the distribution of substitutions in the prolactin molecule is very uneven support the idea that this episode of rapid change was due to positive adaptive selection. In the slow loris and marmoset there is no evidence for duplication of the prolactin gene, and evidence from another New World monkey (Cebus albifrons) and from the chimpanzee and human genome sequences, suggests that this is the general position in primates, contrasting with the situation for GH genes. The chimpanzee prolactin sequence differs from that of human at two residues and comparison of human and chimpanzee prolactin gene sequences suggests that noncoding regions associated with regulating

  15. Argentine hemorrhagic fever: a primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbacher, M C; Calello, M A; Colillas, O J; Rondinone, S N; Frigerio, M J

    1979-01-01

    Experimental Junin virus infection of a New World primate, Callithrix jacchus, was evaluated. The virus produced anorexia, loss of weight, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms and terminated in death. Virus was recovered from urine, blood samples and all tissues taken at autopsy. These preliminary observations show that several aspects of the experimental disease in C. jacchus are quite similar to severe natural Argentine hemorrhagic fever of man.

  16. SOME EVOLUTIONARY TENDENCIES OF NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS R. DEFLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La evolución de los primates neotropicales ha transcurrido aislada o de forma independiente a la de otros primates del mundo, porque poseen una historia evolutiva diferente. Hay varias caracte- rísticas de los primates neotropicales (Platirrinos que son bien distintas a las del viejo mundo (Catarrinos, incluyendo la fórmula dental, el arreglo de las placas craneales, la anatomía del aparato auditivo, pesos corporales menores, una menor adaptación a comportamientos terrestres, algunos poseen colas prensiles y baja diferenciación fenotípica. Formas monógamas de platirri- nos comparten una tendencia de evolución cromosómica rápida con un grupo monógamo de Catarrinos (los Hilobátidos o gibones. La historia filogenética de platirrinos, contrasta con la de catarrinos debido a una división filética antigua (mioceno de los primates del nuevo mundo en dos grupos, con características filogenéticas expresadas en las especies actuales. En contraste, la diferenciación de catarrinos con características que se pueden identificar en especies actuales no sucedió sino hasta el Plio-Pleistoceno. Algunas de estas tendencias, pueden ser explicadas hipotéticamente teniendo en cuenta las características ecológicas planteadas en el nuevo con- tinente; otras tendencias tal vez son el resultado de caminos evolutivos tomados al azar durante la evolución del grupo o, como resultado tanto de deriva genética como de un efecto fundador. Sin embargo, queda mucho trabajo para reconocer la totalidad de las singularidades de los platirrinos y poder apreciar los detalles de su evolución.

  17. Tree shrews at the German Primate Center

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, E

    2015-01-01

    For many years, Tupaia (family Tupaiidae), most commonly known as tree shrews, have been studied almost exclusively by zoologists resulting in a controversial debate on their taxonomic status among mammals. Today, tree shrews are placed in the order Scandentia; they are valuable, widely accepted and increasingly used model animals as an alternative to rodents and non-human primates in biomedical research. After a brief description on how tree shrews entered science and their...

  18. Disposition of homovanillic acid in the primate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.L.; Keenan, R.W.; Maas, J.W.; Asch, R.H.

    1987-09-01

    Prior studies have shown that homovanillic acid is the principal metabolite of dopamine in the primate central nervous system (CNS). In studies of primates given deuterated homovanillic acid systemically, however, only 50% of the administered amounts have been recovered in the urine over the next 4-48 hr. These findings have left it unclear whether there is a slowly turning-over compartment of homovanillic acid, conversion of homovanillic acid to another compound, or excretion of homovanillic acid from the body by a nonrenal route. We synthesized (/sup 3/H)homovanillic acid and administered it intravenously to four rhesus monkeys. Over the subsequent 4 hr, 94.9 +/- 8.9% (SD) of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine, almost entirely as homovanillic acid. These results are consistent with the interpretation that, in primates, there is not a major body pool of homovanillic acid with slow turnover, nor is metabolism to other compounds significant, nor is there evidence for nonrenal excretion.

  19. Emotions, stress, and maternal motivation in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-06-01

    Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, facilitate the reduction and eventual termination of maternal investment associated with infant weaning. Although laboratory studies of rodents and socially deprived rhesus monkeys have suggested that nulliparous females are neophobic and find infant stimuli aversive, recent primate research indicates that neophobia or aversion to infant stimuli do not occur in females with normal developmental experience. Furthermore, although some rodent and human studies have shown that lactation is accompanied by physiological hyporesponsiveness to stress, other studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans indicate that mothers are highly vulnerable to stress and that stress-induced dysregulation of emotions can interfere with maternal motivation and parenting behavior. It is possible that some aspects of the emotional and experiential regulation of maternal motivation and parental behavior are different in different mammalian species. However, variation in the environments in which subjects are tested and in their developmental experience may also be responsible for the some discrepancies between the results of different studies.

  20. Theory of Auditory Thresholds in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael J.

    2001-03-01

    The influence of thermal pressure fluctuations at the tympanic membrane has been previously investigated as a possible determinant of the threshold of hearing in humans (L.J. Sivian and S.D. White, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. IV, 4;288(1933).). More recent work has focussed more precisely on the relation between statistical mechanics and sensory signal processing by biological means in creatures' brains (W. Bialek, in ``Physics of Biological Systems: from molecules to species'', H. Flyvberg et al, (Eds), p. 252; Springer 1997.). Clinical data on the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in humans and other primates (W.C. Stebbins, ``The Acoustic Sense of Animals'', Harvard 1983.) has long been available. I have derived an expression for the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in primates, including humans, by first calculating the frequency dependence of thermal pressure fluctuations at eardrums from damped normal modes excited in model ear canals of given simple geometry. I then show that most of the features of the clinical data are directly related to the frequency dependence of the ratio of thermal noise pressure arising from without to that arising from within the masking bandwidth which signals must dominate in order to be sensed. The higher intensity of threshold signals in primates smaller than humans, which is clinically observed over much but not all of the human auditory spectrum is shown to arise from their smaller meatus dimensions. note

  1. The ecology of primate material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Four Decades of Ground-Breaking Research in the Reproductive and Developmental Sciences: The Infant Primate Research Laboratory at the University of Washington National Primate Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbacher, Thomas M.; Grant, Kimberly S.; Worlein, Julie; Ha, James; Curnow, Eliza; Juul, Sandra; Sackett, Gene P.

    2017-01-01

    The Infant Primate Research Laboratory (IPRL) was established in the 1970s at the University of Washington as a visionary project of Dr. Gene (Jim) P. Sackett. Supported by a collaboration between the Washington National Primate Research Center and the Center on Human Health and Disability, the IPRL operates under the principle that learning more about the causes of abnormal development in macaque monkeys will provide important insights into mechanisms underlying childhood neurodevelopmental disorders. Over the past forty years, a broad range of research projects have been conducted at the IPRL. Some have described the normal expression of species-typical behaviors in nursery-reared macaques while others have focused on specific issues in perinatal medicine and research. This article will review the unique history of the IPRL and the scientific contributions produced by research conducted in the laboratory. Past and present investigations at the IPRL have explored the consequences of adverse early rearing, low-birth-weight, prematurity, epilepsy, chemical/drug exposure, viral infection, diarrheal disease, vaccine safety, assisted reproductive technologies and perinatal hypoxia on growth and development. New directions of investigation include the production of a transgenic primate model using our embryonic stem cell-based technology to better understand and treat heritable forms of human mental retardation such as fragile X. PMID:23873400

  3. Comparative Triceps Surae Morphology in Primates: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Jandy B.; Daniel Schmitt

    2011-01-01

    Primate locomotor evolution, particularly the evolution of bipedalism, is often examined through morphological studies. Many of these studies have examined the uniqueness of the primate forelimb, and others have examined the primate hip and thigh. Few data exist, however, regarding the myology and function of the leg muscles, even though the ankle plantar flexors are highly important during human bipedalism. In this paper, we draw together data on the fiber type and muscle mass variation in t...

  4. A comparative psychophysical approach to visual perception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Toyomi; Fujita, Kazuo

    2009-04-01

    Studies on the visual processing of primates, which have well developed visual systems, provide essential information about the perceptual bases of their higher-order cognitive abilities. Although the mechanisms underlying visual processing are largely shared between human and nonhuman primates, differences have also been reported. In this article, we review psychophysical investigations comparing the basic visual processing that operates in human and nonhuman species, and discuss the future contributions potentially deriving from such comparative psychophysical approaches to primate minds.

  5. Agroecosystems and primate conservation in the tropics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro; Raboy, Becky E; Oliveira, Leonardo C

    2012-08-01

    Agroecosystems cover more than one quarter of the global land area (ca. 50 million km(2) ) as highly simplified (e.g. pasturelands) or more complex systems (e.g. polycultures and agroforestry systems) with the capacity to support higher biodiversity. Increasingly more information has been published about primates in agroecosystems but a general synthesis of the diversity of agroecosystems that primates use or which primate taxa are able to persist in these anthropogenic components of the landscapes is still lacking. Because of the continued extensive transformation of primate habitat into human-modified landscapes, it is important to explore the extent to which agroecosystems are used by primates. In this article, we reviewed published information on the use of agroecosystems by primates in habitat countries and also discuss the potential costs and benefits to human and nonhuman primates of primate use of agroecosystems. The review showed that 57 primate taxa from four regions: Mesoamerica, South America, Sub-Saharan Africa (including Madagascar), and South East Asia, used 38 types of agroecosystems as temporary or permanent habitats. Fifty-one percent of the taxa recorded in agroecosystems were classified as least concern in the IUCN Red List, but the rest were classified as endangered (20%), vulnerable (18%), near threatened (9%), or critically endangered (2%). The large proportion of threatened primates in agroecosystems suggests that agroecosystems may play an important role in landscape approaches to primate conservation. We conclude by discussing the value of agroecosystems for primate conservation at a broad scale and highlight priorities for future research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Alopecia: Possible Causes and Treatments, Particularly in Captive Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) occurs in some nonhuman primates housed in captivity and is of concern to colony managers and veterinarians. Here we review the characteristics, potential causes, and treatments for this condition. Although we focus on nonhuman primates, relevant research on other mammalian species is discussed also, due to the relative paucity of studies on alopecia in the primate literature. We first discuss the cycle of hair growth and explain how this cycle can be disrupted to produce...

  7. Successive radiations, not stasis, in the South American primate fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jason A; Sterner, Kirstin N; Matthews, Luke J; Burrell, Andrew S; Jani, Rachana A; Raaum, Ryan L; Stewart, Caro-Beth; Disotell, Todd R

    2009-04-07

    The earliest Neotropical primate fossils complete enough for taxonomic assessment, Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus, date to approximately 20 Ma. These have been interpreted as either closely related to extant forms or as extinct stem lineages. The former hypothesis of morphological stasis requires most living platyrrhine genera to have diverged before 20 Ma. To test this hypothesis, we collected new complete mitochondrial genomes from Aotus lemurinus, Saimiri sciureus, Saguinus oedipus, Ateles belzebuth, and Callicebus donacophilus. We combined these with published sequences from Cebus albifrons and other primates to infer the mitochondrial phylogeny. We found support for a cebid/atelid clade to the exclusion of the pitheciids. Then, using Bayesian methods and well-supported fossil calibration constraints, we estimated that the platyrrhine most recent common ancestor (MRCA) dates to 19.5 Ma, with all major lineages diverging by 14.3 Ma. Next, we estimated catarrhine divergence dates on the basis of platyrrhine divergence scenarios and found that only a platyrrhine MRCA less than 21 Ma is concordant with the catarrhine fossil record. Finally, we calculated that 33% more change in the rate of evolution is required for platyrrhine divergences consistent with the morphologic stasis hypothesis than for a more recent radiation. We conclude that Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus are likely too old to be crown platyrrhines, suggesting they were part of an extinct early radiation. We note that the crown platyrrhine radiation was concomitant with the radiation of 2 South American xenarthran lineages and follows a global temperature peak and tectonic activity in the Andes.

  8. The adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Daniel Marques Almeida; Maia, Rafael; de Albuquerque Ajuz, Rafael Cavalcanti; De Moraes, Pedro Zurvaino Palmeira Melo Rosa; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras

    2014-08-01

    The complex evolution of primate color vision has puzzled biologists for decades. Primates are the only eutherian mammals that evolved an enhanced capacity for discriminating colors in the green-red part of the spectrum (trichromatism). However, while Old World primates present three types of cone pigments and are routinely trichromatic, most New World primates exhibit a color vision polymorphism, characterized by the occurrence of trichromatic and dichromatic females and obligatory dichromatic males. Even though this has stimulated a prolific line of inquiry, the selective forces and relative benefits influencing color vision evolution in primates are still under debate, with current explanations focusing almost exclusively at the advantages in finding food and detecting socio-sexual signals. Here, we evaluate a previously untested possibility, the adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection. By combining color vision modeling data on New World and Old World primates, as well as behavioral information from human subjects, we demonstrate that primates exhibiting better color discrimination (trichromats) excel those displaying poorer color visions (dichromats) at detecting carnivoran predators against the green foliage background. The distribution of color vision found in extant anthropoid primates agrees with our results, and may be explained by the advantages of trichromats and dichromats in detecting predators and insects, respectively.

  9. Why is a landscape perspective important in studies of primates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Fahrig, Lenore

    2014-10-01

    With accelerated deforestation and fragmentation through the tropics, assessing the impact that landscape spatial changes may have on biodiversity is paramount, as this information is required to design and implement effective management and conservation plans. Primates are expected to be particularly dependent on the landscape context; yet, our understanding on this topic is limited as the majority of primate studies are at the local scale, meaning that landscape-scale inferences are not possible. To encourage primatologists to assess the impact of landscape changes on primates, and help future studies on the topic, we describe the meaning of a "landscape perspective" and evaluate important assumptions of using such a methodological approach. We also summarize a number of important, but unanswered, questions that can be addressed using a landscape-scale study design. For example, it is still unclear if habitat loss has larger consistent negative effects on primates than habitat fragmentation per se. Furthermore, interaction effects between habitat area and other landscape effects (e.g., fragmentation) are unknown for primates. We also do not know if primates are affected by synergistic interactions among factors at the landscape scale (e.g., habitat loss and diseases, habitat loss and climate change, hunting, and land-use change), or whether landscape complexity (or landscape heterogeneity) is important for primate conservation. Testing for patterns in the responses of primates to landscape change will facilitate the development of new guidelines and principles for improving primate conservation.

  10. Late Middle Eocene primate from Myanmar and the initial anthropoid colonization of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Beard, K Christopher; Kyaw, Aung Aung; Soe, Aung Naing; Sein, Chit; Lazzari, Vincent; Marivaux, Laurent; Marandat, Bernard; Swe, Myat; Rugbumrung, Mana; Lwin, Thit; Valentin, Xavier; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-06-26

    Reconstructing the origin and early evolutionary history of anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans) is a current focus of paleoprimatology. Although earlier hypotheses frequently supported an African origin for anthropoids, recent discoveries of older and phylogenetically more basal fossils in China and Myanmar indicate that the group originated in Asia. Given the Oligocene-Recent history of African anthropoids, the colonization of Africa by early anthropoids hailing from Asia was a decisive event in primate evolution. However, the fossil record has so far failed to constrain the nature and timing of this pivotal event. Here we describe a fossil primate from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, Afrasia djijidae gen. et sp. nov., that is remarkably similar to, yet dentally more primitive than, the roughly contemporaneous North African anthropoid Afrotarsius. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Afrasia and Afrotarsius are sister taxa within a basal anthropoid clade designated as the infraorder Eosimiiformes. Current knowledge of eosimiiform relationships and their distribution through space and time suggests that members of this clade dispersed from Asia to Africa sometime during the middle Eocene, shortly before their first appearance in the African fossil record. Crown anthropoids and their nearest fossil relatives do not appear to be specially related to Afrotarsius, suggesting one or more additional episodes of dispersal from Asia to Africa. Hystricognathous rodents, anthracotheres, and possibly other Asian mammal groups seem to have colonized Africa at roughly the same time or shortly after anthropoids gained their first toehold there.

  11. Evolution of posterior parietal cortex and parietal-frontal networks for specific actions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Jon H; Stepniewska, Iwona

    2016-02-15

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an extensive region of the human brain that develops relatively late and is proportionally large compared with that of monkeys and prosimian primates. Our ongoing comparative studies have led to several conclusions about the evolution of this posterior parietal region. In early placental mammals, PPC likely was a small multisensory region much like PPC of extant rodents and tree shrews. In early primates, PPC likely resembled that of prosimian galagos, in which caudal PPC (PPCc) is visual and rostral PPC (PPCr) has eight or more multisensory domains where electrical stimulation evokes different complex motor behaviors, including reaching, hand-to-mouth, looking, protecting the face or body, and grasping. These evoked behaviors depend on connections with functionally matched domains in premotor cortex (PMC) and motor cortex (M1). Domains in each region compete with each other, and a serial arrangement of domains allows different factors to influence motor outcomes successively. Similar arrangements of domains have been retained in New and Old World monkeys, and humans appear to have at least some of these domains. The great expansion and prolonged development of PPC in humans suggest the addition of functionally distinct territories. We propose that, across primates, PMC and M1 domains are second and third levels in a number of parallel, interacting networks for mediating and selecting one type of action over others.

  12. Late Middle Eocene primate from Myanmar and the initial anthropoid colonization of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Beard, K. Christopher; Kyaw, Aung Aung; Soe, Aung Naing; Sein, Chit; Lazzari, Vincent; Marivaux, Laurent; Marandat, Bernard; Swe, Myat; Rugbumrung, Mana; Lwin, Thit; Valentin, Xavier; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Reconstructing the origin and early evolutionary history of anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans) is a current focus of paleoprimatology. Although earlier hypotheses frequently supported an African origin for anthropoids, recent discoveries of older and phylogenetically more basal fossils in China and Myanmar indicate that the group originated in Asia. Given the Oligocene-Recent history of African anthropoids, the colonization of Africa by early anthropoids hailing from Asia was a decisive event in primate evolution. However, the fossil record has so far failed to constrain the nature and timing of this pivotal event. Here we describe a fossil primate from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, Afrasia djijidae gen. et sp. nov., that is remarkably similar to, yet dentally more primitive than, the roughly contemporaneous North African anthropoid Afrotarsius. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Afrasia and Afrotarsius are sister taxa within a basal anthropoid clade designated as the infraorder Eosimiiformes. Current knowledge of eosimiiform relationships and their distribution through space and time suggests that members of this clade dispersed from Asia to Africa sometime during the middle Eocene, shortly before their first appearance in the African fossil record. Crown anthropoids and their nearest fossil relatives do not appear to be specially related to Afrotarsius, suggesting one or more additional episodes of dispersal from Asia to Africa. Hystricognathous rodents, anthracotheres, and possibly other Asian mammal groups seem to have colonized Africa at roughly the same time or shortly after anthropoids gained their first toehold there. PMID:22665790

  13. Properties of virion transactivator proteins encoded by primate cytomegaloviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Peter A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a betaherpesvirus that causes severe disease in situations where the immune system is immature or compromised. HCMV immediate early (IE gene expression is stimulated by the virion phosphoprotein pp71, encoded by open reading frame (ORF UL82, and this transactivation activity is important for the efficient initiation of viral replication. It is currently recognized that pp71 acts to overcome cellular intrinsic defences that otherwise block viral IE gene expression, and that interactions of pp71 with the cell proteins Daxx and ATRX are important for this function. A further property of pp71 is the ability to enable prolonged gene expression from quiescent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 genomes. Non-human primate cytomegaloviruses encode homologs of pp71, but there is currently no published information that addresses their effects on gene expression and modes of action. Results The UL82 homolog encoded by simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV, strain Colburn, was identified and cloned. This ORF, named S82, was cloned into an HSV-1 vector, as were those from baboon, rhesus monkey and chimpanzee cytomegaloviruses. The use of an HSV-1 vector enabled expression of the UL82 homologs in a range of cell types, and permitted investigation of their abilities to direct prolonged gene expression from quiescent genomes. The results show that all UL82 homologs activate gene expression, and that neither host cell type nor promoter target sequence has major effects on these activities. Surprisingly, the UL82 proteins specified by non-human primate cytomegaloviruses, unlike pp71, did not direct long term expression from quiescent HSV-1 genomes. In addition, significant differences were observed in the intranuclear localization of the UL82 homologs, and in their effects on Daxx. Strikingly, S82 mediated the release of Daxx from nuclear domain 10 substructures much more rapidly than pp71 or the other proteins tested. All

  14. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Bloch, Jonathan I; Gilbert, Christopher C; Groenke, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans). Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21), tegulae (n = 4), and grooming claws (n = 10), and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7). Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae) and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  15. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Maiolino

    Full Text Available Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans. Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21, tegulae (n = 4, and grooming claws (n = 10, and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  16. Primate malarias: Diversity, distribution and insights for zoonotic Plasmodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Faust

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protozoans within the genus Plasmodium are well-known as the causative agents of malaria in humans. Numerous Plasmodium species parasites also infect a wide range of non-human primate hosts in tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. Studying this diversity can provide critical insight into our understanding of human malarias, as several human malaria species are a result of host switches from non-human primates. Current spillover of a monkey malaria, Plasmodium knowlesi, in Southeast Asia highlights the permeability of species barriers in Plasmodium. Also recently, surveys of apes in Africa uncovered a previously undescribed diversity of Plasmodium in chimpanzees and gorillas. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to quantify the global distribution, host range, and diversity of known non-human primate malaria species. We used published records of Plasmodium parasites found in non-human primates to estimate the total diversity of non-human primate malarias globally. We estimate that at least three undescribed primate malaria species exist in sampled primates, and many more likely exist in unstudied species. The diversity of malaria parasites is especially uncertain in regions of low sampling such as Madagascar, and taxonomic groups such as African Old World Monkeys and gibbons. Presence–absence data of malaria across primates enables us to highlight the close association of forested regions and non-human primate malarias. This distribution potentially reflects a long coevolution of primates, forest-adapted mosquitoes, and malaria parasites. The diversity and distribution of primate malaria are an essential prerequisite to understanding the mechanisms and circumstances that allow Plasmodium to jump species barriers, both in the evolution of malaria parasites and current cases of spillover into humans.

  17. Why Primates? The Importance of Nonhuman Primates for Understanding Human Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel J.; Santos, Laurie R.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the thematic collection by noting some striking similarities in the cognitive abilities of human infants and nonhuman primates. What are the implications of these similarities for our comprehension of human infant cognition? After providing a brief historical and conceptual background on comparative behavioral research, we discuss how…

  18. Prediction of economic choice by primate amygdala neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Hernádi, István; Schultz, Wolfram

    2012-11-13

    The amygdala is a key structure of the brain's reward system. Existing theories view its role in decision-making as restricted to an early valuation stage that provides input to decision mechanisms in downstream brain structures. However, the extent to which the amygdala itself codes information about economic choices is unclear. Here, we report that individual neurons in the primate amygdala predict behavioral choices in an economic decision task. We recorded the activity of amygdala neurons while monkeys chose between saving liquid reward with interest and spending the accumulated reward. In addition to known value-related responses, we found that activity in a group of amygdala neurons predicted the monkeys' upcoming save-spend choices with an average accuracy of 78%. This choice-predictive activity occurred early in trials, even before information about specific actions associated with save-spend choices was available. For a substantial number of neurons, choice-differential activity was specific for free, internally generated economic choices and not observed in a control task involving forced imperative choices. A subgroup of choice-predictive neurons did not show relationships to value, movement direction, or visual stimulus features. Choice-predictive activity in some amygdala neurons was preceded by transient periods of value coding, suggesting value-to-choice transitions and resembling decision processes in other brain systems. These findings suggest that the amygdala might play an active role in economic decisions. Current views of amygdala function should be extended to incorporate a role in decision-making beyond valuation.

  19. Comparison of experimental respiratory tularemia in three nonhuman primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Audrey R; Alves, Derron A; Frick, Ondraya; Erwin-Cohen, Rebecca; Porter, Aimee; Norris, Sarah; Waag, David; Nalca, Aysegul

    2015-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, which is transmitted to humans most commonly by contact with infected animals, tick bites, or inhalation of aerosolized bacteria. F. tularensis is highly infectious via the aerosol route; inhalation of as few as 10-50 organisms can cause pneumonic tularemia. Left untreated, the pneumonic form has more than >30% case-fatality rate but with early antibiotic intervention can be reduced to 3%. This study compared tularemia disease progression across three species of nonhuman primates [African green monkey (AGM), cynomolgus macaque (CM), and rhesus macaque (RM)] following aerosolized F. tularensis Schu S4 exposure. Groups of the animals exposed to various challenge doses were observed for clinical signs of infection and blood samples were analyzed to characterize the disease pathogenesis. Whereas the AGMs and CMs succumbed to disease following challenge doses of 40 and 32 colony forming units (CFU), respectively, the RM lethal dose was 276,667 CFU. Following all challenge doses that caused disease, the NHPs experienced weight loss, bacteremia, fever as early as 4 days post exposure, and tissue burden. Necrotizing-to-pyogranulomatous lesions were observed most commonly in the lung, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Overall, the CM model consistently manifested pathological responses similar to those resulting from inhalation of F. tularensis in humans and thereby most closely emulates human tularemia disease. The RM model displayed a higher tolerance to infection and survived exposures of up to 15,593 CFU of aerosolized F. tularensis.

  20. The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Anne; Joffe, Steven; Miller, Franklin G

    2016-07-01

    In the midst of the recent Ebola outbreak, scientific developments involving infection challenge experiments on nonhuman primates (NHPs) sparked hope that successful treatments and vaccines may soon become available. Yet these studies pose a stark ethical quandary. On the one hand, they represent an important step in developing novel therapies and vaccines for Ebola and the Marburg virus, with the potential to save thousands of human lives and to protect whole communities from devastation; on the other hand, they intentionally expose sophisticated animals to severe suffering and a high risk of death. Other studies that infect NHPs with a lethal disease in order to test interventions that may prove beneficial for humans pose the same ethical difficulty. Some advocates have argued that all research on primates should be phased out, and ethicists have questioned whether a moral justification of primate research is possible. A 2010 European Union directive banned virtually all research on great apes, and 2013 guidelines from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), based upon recommendations in an influential 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, eliminated most biomedical research with chimpanzees in the United States. But studies involving other NHPs face no comparable restrictions. Should research on NHPs other than great apes be subject to tighter restrictions than it currently is? In this article, we explore this general question in the context of one particular type of biomedical research: infection challenge studies. We advocate a presumptive prohibition on infection challenge experiments in NHPs, but we also argue that exceptions to this prohibition are permissible, subject to strict substantive and procedural safeguards, when necessary to avert substantial loss of human life or severe morbidity for a substantial number of people.

  1. Trabecular bone structure in the primate wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Ann-Marie; Tofanelli, Sergio; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Kivell, Tracy L

    2014-05-01

    Trabecular (or cancellous) bone has been shown to respond to mechanical loading throughout ontogeny and thus can provide unique insight into skeletal function and locomotion in comparative studies of living and fossil mammalian morphology. Trabecular bone of the hand may be particularly functionally informative because the hand has more direct contact with the substrate compared with the remainder of the forelimb during locomotion in quadrupedal mammals. This study investigates the trabecular structure within the wrist across a sample of haplorhine primates that vary in locomotor behaviour (and thus hand use) and body size. High-resolution microtomographic scans were collected of the lunate, scaphoid, and capitate in 41 individuals and eight genera (Homo, Gorilla, Pan, Papio, Pongo, Symphalangus, Hylobates, and Ateles). We predicted that particular trabecular parameters would 1) vary across suspensory, quadrupedal, and bipedal primates based on differences in hand use and load, and 2) scale with carpal size following similar allometric patterns found previously in other skeletal elements across a larger sample of mammals and primates. Analyses of variance (trabecular parameters analysed separately) and principal component analyses (trabecular parameters analysed together) revealed no clear functional signal in the trabecular structure of any of the three wrist bones. Instead, there was a large degree of variation within suspensory and quadrupedal locomotor groups, as well as high intrageneric variation within some taxa, particularly Pongo and Gorilla. However, as predicted, Homo sapiens, which rarely use their hands for locomotion and weight support, were unique in showing lower relative bone volume (BV/TV) compared with all other taxa. Furthermore, parameters used to quantify trabecular structure within the wrist scale with size generally following similar allometric patterns found in trabeculae of other mammalian skeletal elements. We discuss the challenges

  2. Grasping primate development: Ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse W; Heard-Booth, Amber N

    2016-09-01

    Young primates have relatively large hands and feet for their body size, perhaps enhancing grasping ability. We test the hypothesis that selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for these scaling trends by examining the ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella). If selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for the observed patterns of hand and foot growth in primates, we predicted that fingers and toes would be longer early in life and proportionally decline with age. We measured the lengths of manual and pedal metapodials and phalanges in a mixed-longitudinal radiographic sample. Bone lengths were (a) converted into phalangeal indices (summed non-distal phalangeal length/metapodial length) to test for age-related changes in intrinsic proportions and (b) fit to Gompertz models of growth to test for differences in the dynamics of phalangeal versus metapodial growth. Manual and pedal phalangeal indices nearly universally decreased with age in capuchin monkeys. Growth curve analyses revealed that metapodials generally grew at a faster rate, and for a longer duration, than corresponding phalanges. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that primates are under selection for increased grasping ability early in life. Relatively long digits may be functionally adaptive for growing capuchins, permitting a more secure grasp on both caregivers and arboreal supports, as well as facilitating early foraging. Additional studies of primates and other mammals, as well as tests of grasping performance, are required to fully evaluate the adaptive significance of primate hand and foot growth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mechanisms of dietary response in mice and primates: a role for EGR1 in regulating the reaction to human-specific nutritional content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Weng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Humans have a widely different diet from other primate species, and are dependent on its high nutritional content. The molecular mechanisms responsible for adaptation to the human diet are currently unknown. Here, we addressed this question by investigating whether the gene expression response observed in mice fed human and chimpanzee diets involves the same regulatory mechanisms as expression differences between humans and chimpanzees. RESULTS: Using mouse and primate transcriptomic data, we identified the transcription factor EGR1 (early growth response 1 as a putative regulator of diet-related differential gene expression between human and chimpanzee livers. Specifically, we predict that EGR1 regulates the response to the high caloric content of human diets. However, we also show that close to 90% of the dietary response to the primate diet found in mice, is not observed in primates. This might be explained by changes in tissue-specific gene expression between taxa. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the gene expression response to the nutritionally rich human diet is partially mediated by the transcription factor EGR1. While this EGR1-driven response is conserved between mice and primates, the bulk of the mouse response to human and chimpanzee dietary differences is not observed in primates. This result highlights the rapid evolution of diet-related expression regulation and underscores potential limitations of mouse models in dietary studies.

  4. Demand for nonhuman primate resources in the age of biodefense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jean L; Carrion, Richardo

    2005-01-01

    The demand for nonhuman primates will undoubtedly increase to meet biomedical needs in this current age of biodefense. The availability of funding has increased the research on select agents and has created a requirement to validate results in relevant primate models. This review provides a description of current and potential biological threats that are likely to require nonhuman primates for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. Primates have been an invaluable resource in the dissection of viral disease pathogenesis as well as in testing vaccine efficacy. DNA vaccine approaches have been studied successfully for Ebola, Lassa, and anthrax in nonhuman primate models. Nonhuman primate research with monkeypox has provided insight into the role of cytokines in limiting disease severity. Biodefense research that has focused on select agents of bacterial origin has also benefited from nonhuman primate studies. Rhesus macaques have traditionally been the model of choice for anthrax research and have yielded successful findings in vaccine development. In plague research, African green monkeys have contributed to vaccine development. However, the disadvantages of current vaccines will undoubtedly require the generation of new vaccines, thus increasing the need for nonhuman primate research. Unfortunately, the current biosafety level (BSL)-3 and BSL-4 facilities equipped to perform this research are limited, which may ultimately impede progress in this era of biodefense.

  5. Primate bites in Gibraltar--minor casualty quirk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A C

    1989-10-01

    In one year 55 patients presented to the casualty department of St Bernard's Hospital, Gibraltar, with a primate bite. The implications of such wounds on the health of these patients is contrasted with the morbidity and mortality associated with primate bites in the African subcontinent.

  6. New primate first metatarsals from the Paleogene of Egypt and the origin of the anthropoid big toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren A; Seiffert, Erik R; Boyer, Doug M; Jacobs, Rachel L; St Clair, Elizabeth M; Simons, Elwyn L

    2012-07-01

    The specialized grasping feet of primates, and in particular the nature of the hallucal grasping capabilities of living strepsirrhines and tarsiers (i.e., 'prosimians'), have played central roles in the study of primate origins. Prior comparative studies of first metatarsal (Mt1) morphology have documented specialized characters in living prosimians that are indicative of a more abducted hallux, which in turn is often inferred to be related to an increased ability for powerful grasping. These include a well-developed peroneal process and a greater angle of the proximal articular surface relative to the long axis of the diaphysis. Although known Mt1s of fossil prosimians share these characters with living non-anthropoid primates, Mt1 morphology in the earliest crown group anthropoids is not well known. Here we describe two Mt1s from the Fayum Depression of Egypt - one from the latest Eocene (from the ∼34 Ma Quarry L-41), and one from the later early Oligocene (from the ∼29-30 Ma Quarry M) - and compare them with a sample of extant and fossil primate Mt1s. Multivariate analyses of Mt1 shape variables indicate that the Fayum specimens are most similar to those of crown group anthropoids, and likely belong to the stem catarrhines Catopithecus and Aegyptopithecus specifically, based on analyses of size. Also, phylogenetic analyses with 16 newly defined Mt1 characters support the hypotheses that "prosimian"-like Mt1 features evolved along the primate stem lineage, while crown anthropoid Mt1 morphology and function is derived among primates, and likely differed from that of basal stem anthropoids. The derived loss of powerful hallucal grasping as reflected in the Mt1 morphology of crown anthropoids may reflect long-term selection for improved navigation of large-diameter, more horizontal branches at the expense of movement in smaller, more variably inclined branches in the arboreal environment.

  7. Distinctive patterns of evolution of the δ-globin gene (HBD in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moleirinho

    Full Text Available In most vertebrates, hemoglobin (Hb is a heterotetramer composed of two dissimilar globin chains, which change during development according to the patterns of expression of α- and β-globin family members. In placental mammals, the β-globin cluster includes three early-expressed genes, ε(HBE-γ(HBG-ψβ(HBBP1, and the late expressed genes, δ (HBD and β (HBB. While HBB encodes the major adult β-globin chain, HBD is weakly expressed or totally silent. Paradoxically, in human populations HBD shows high levels of conservation typical of genes under strong evolutionary constraints, possibly due to a regulatory role in the fetal-to-adult switch unique of Anthropoid primates. In this study, we have performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and comparative analysis of the two adult β-like globin genes in a set of diverse mammalian taxa, focusing on the evolution and functional divergence of HBD in primates. Our analysis revealed that anthropoids are an exception to a general pattern of concerted evolution in placental mammals, showing a high level of sequence conservation at HBD, less frequent and shorter gene conversion events. Moreover, this lineage is unique in the retention of a functional GATA-1 motif, known to be involved in the control of the developmental expression of the β-like globin genes. We further show that not only the mode but also the rate of evolution of the δ-globin gene in higher primates are strictly associated with the fetal/adult β-cluster developmental switch. To gain further insight into the possible functional constraints that have been shaping the evolutionary history of HBD in primates, we calculated dN/dS (ω ratios under alternative models of gene evolution. Although our results indicate that HBD might have experienced different selective pressures throughout primate evolution, as shown by different ω values between apes and Old World Monkeys + New World Monkeys (0.06 versus 0.43, respectively, these estimates

  8. Primate theory of mind: a state of the art review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Såvel mennesket som andre primater have store hjerner med store hjernebarker. Det er blevet foreslået, at primaters store hjerner skyldes de komplekse sociale krav, der kommer af at skulle leve i store grupper. Inden for de sidste 40 år er der blevet lavet meget forskning inden for primaters socio......-cognitive evner og siden Premack & Woodruff (1978) for første gang introducerede begrebet "theory of mind", er der blevet foretaget mange laboratorie-forsøg om mennesker og andre primaters evne til at attribuere mentale tilstande til andre. I nærværende artikel er størstedelen af disse forsøg med andre primater...

  9. The outer subventricular zone and primate-specific cortical complexification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehay, Colette; Kennedy, Henry; Kosik, Kenneth S

    2015-02-18

    Evolutionary expansion and complexification of the primate cerebral cortex are largely linked to the emergence of the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ), a uniquely structured germinal zone that generates the expanded primate supragranular layers. The primate OSVZ departs from rodent germinal zones in that it includes a higher diversity of precursor types, inter-related in bidirectional non-hierarchical lineages. In addition, primate-specific regulatory mechanisms are operating in primate cortical precursors via the occurrence of novel miRNAs. Here, we propose that the origin and evolutionary importance of the OSVZ is related to genetic changes in multiple regulatory loops and that cell-cycle regulation is a favored target for evolutionary adaptation of the cortex.

  10. What Cognitive Representations Support Primate Theory of Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-01

    Much recent work has examined the evolutionary origins of human mental state representations. This work has yielded strikingly consistent results: primates show a sophisticated ability to track the current and past perceptions of others, but they fail to represent the beliefs of others. We offer a new account of the nuanced performance of primates in theory of mind (ToM) tasks. We argue that primates form awareness relations tracking the aspects of reality that other agents are aware of. We contend that these awareness relations allow primates to make accurate predictions in social situations, but that this capacity falls short of our human-like representational ToM. We end by explaining how this new account makes important new empirical predictions about primate ToM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Primate Socioecology: New Insights from Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Peter M.

    Primate males have only recently returned to the center stage of socioecological research. This review surveys new studies that examine variation in the behavior of adult males and their role in social evolution. It is shown that group size, composition, and social behavior are determined not only by resource distribution, predation risk, and other ecological factors, but that life history traits and social factors, especially those related to sexual coercion, can have equally profound consequences for social systems. This general point is illustrated by examining male behavior at three levels: the evolution of permanent associations between males and females, the causes and consequences of variation in the number of males between group-living species, and the determinants of social relationships within and between the sexes. Direct and indirect evidence reviewed in connection with all three questions indicates that the risk of infanticide has been a pervasive force in primate social evolution. Several areas are identified for future research on male life histories that should contribute to a better understanding of male reproductive strategies and corresponding female counterstrategies.

  12. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Cloning of non-human primates: the road "less traveled by".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparman, Michelle L; Tachibana, Masahito; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M

    2010-01-01

    Early studies on cloning of non-human primates by nuclear transfer utilized embryonic blastomeres from preimplantation embryos which resulted in the reproducible birth of live offspring. Soon after, the focus shifted to employing somatic cells as a source of donor nuclei (somatic cell nuclear transfer, SCNT). However, initial efforts were plagued with inefficient nuclear reprogramming and poor embryonic development when standard SCNT methods were utilized. Implementation of several key SCNT modifications was critical to overcome these problems. In particular, a non-invasive method of visualizing the metaphase chromosomes during enucleation was developed to preserve the reprogramming capacity of monkey oocytes. These modifications dramatically improved the efficiency of SCNT, yielding high blastocyst development in vitro. To date, SCNT has been successfully used to derive pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from adult monkey skin fibroblasts. These remarkable advances have the potential for development of human autologous ESCs and cures for many human diseases. Reproductive cloning of nonhuman primates by SCNT has not been achieved yet. We have been able to establish several pregnancies with SCNT embryos which, so far, did not progress to term. In this review, we summarize the approaches, obstacles and accomplishments of SCNT in a non-human primate model.

  14. Cloning of non-human primates: the road “less traveled by”

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPARMAN, MICHELLE L.; TACHIBANA, MASAHITO; MITALIPOV, SHOUKHRAT M.

    2011-01-01

    Early studies on cloning of non-human primates by nuclear transfer utilized embryonic blastomeres from preimplantation embryos which resulted in the reproducible birth of live offspring. Soon after, the focus shifted to employing somatic cells as a source of donor nuclei (somatic cell nuclear transfer, SCNT). However, initial efforts were plagued with inefficient nuclear reprogramming and poor embryonic development when standard SCNT methods were utilized. Implementation of several key SCNT modifications was critical to overcome these problems. In particular, a non-invasive method of visualizing the metaphase chromosomes during enucleation was developed to preserve the reprogramming capacity of monkey oocytes. These modifications dramatically improved the efficiency of SCNT, yielding high blastocyst development in vitro. To date, SCNT has been successfully used to derive pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from adult monkey skin fibroblasts. These remarkable advances have the potential for development of human autologous ESCs and cures for many human diseases. Reproductive cloning of nonhuman primates by SCNT has not been achieved yet. We have been able to establish several pregnancies with SCNT embryos which, so far, did not progress to term. In this review, we summarize the approaches, obstacles and accomplishments of SCNT in a non-human primate model. PMID:21404187

  15. Dental senescence in a long-lived primate links infant survival to rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen J.; Arrigo-Nelson, Summer J.; Pochron, Sharon T.; Semprebon, Gina M.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    Primates tend to be long-lived, and, except for humans, most primate females are able to reproduce into old age. Although aging in most mammals is accompanied by dental senescence due to advanced wear, primates have low-crowned teeth that wear down before old age. Because tooth wear alters crown features gradually, testing whether early dental senescence causes reproductive senescence has been difficult. To identify whether and when low-crowned teeth compromise reproductive success, we used a 20-year field study of Propithecus edwardsi, a rainforest lemur from Madagascar with a maximum lifespan of >27 years. We analyzed tooth wear in three dimensions with dental topographic analysis by using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology. We report that tooth wear exposes compensatory shearing blades that maintain dental function for 18 years. Beyond this age, female fertility remains high; however infants survive only if lactation seasons have elevated rainfall. Therefore, low-crowned teeth accommodate wear to a point, after which reproductive success closely tracks environmental fluctuations. These results suggest a tooth wear-determined, but rainfall-mediated, onset of reproductive senescence. Additionally, our study indicates that even subtle changes in climate may affect reproductive success of rainforest species. PMID:16260727

  16. Protozoan parasites in group-living primates: testing the biological island hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin A; Bowman, Dwight D; Ghai, Ria R; Gogarten, Jan F; Goldberg, Tony L; Rothman, Jessica M; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Walsh, Chesley

    2012-06-01

    A series of articles by W.J. Freeland published in the 1970s proposed that social organization and behavioral processes were heavily influenced by parasitic infections, which led to a number of intriguing hypotheses concerning how natural selection might act on social factors because of the benefits of avoiding parasite infections. For example, Freeland [1979] showed that all individuals within a given group harbored identical gastrointestinal protozoan faunas, which led him to postulate that social groups were akin to "biological islands" and suggest how this isolation could select specific types of ranging and dispersal patterns. Here, we reexamine the biological island hypothesis by quantifying the protozoan faunas of the same primate species examined by Freeland in the same location; our results do not support this hypothesis. In contrast, we quantified two general changes in protozoan parasite community of primates in the study area of Kibale National Park, Uganda, over the nearly 35 years between sample collections: (1) the colobines found free of parasites in the early 1970s are now infected with numerous intestinal protozoan parasites and (2) groups are no longer biological islands in terms of their protozoan parasites. Whatever the ultimate explanation for these changes, our findings have implications for studies proposing selective forces shaping primate behavior and social organization. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Lymphoid neogenesis in skin of human hand, nonhuman primate, and rat vascularized composite allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautz, Theresa; Zelger, Bettina G; Nasr, Isam W; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Barth, Rolf N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Brandacher, Gerald; Weissenbacher, Annemarie; Zelger, Bernhard; Cavadas, Pedro; Margreiter, Raimund; Lee, W P Andrew; Pratschke, Johann; Lakkis, Fadi G; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of skin rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) remain incompletely understood. The formation of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO) in hand transplantation has been recently described. We assess this phenomenon in experimental and clinical VCA rejection. Skin biopsies of human (n = 187), nonhuman primate (n = 11), and rat (n = 15) VCAs were analyzed for presence of TLO. A comprehensive immunohistochemical assessment (characterization of the cell infiltrate, expression of adhesion molecules) including staining for peripheral node addressin (PNAd) was performed and correlated with rejection and time post-transplantation. TLO were identified in human, nonhuman primate, and rat skin samples. Expression of PNAd was increased in the endothelium of vessels upon rejection in human skin (P = 0.003) and correlated with B- and T-lymphocyte numbers and LFA-1 expression. PNAd expression was observed at all time-points after transplantation and increased significantly after year 5. In nonhuman primate skin, PNAd expression was found during inflammatory conditions early and late after transplantation. In rat skin, PNAd expression was strongly associated with acute rejection and time post-transplantation. Lymphoid neogenesis and TLO formation can be uniformly found in experimental and human VCA. PNAd expression in vascular endothelium correlates with skin rejection and T- and B-cell infiltration.

  18. Spatio-temporal extension in site of origin for cortical calretinin neurons in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eHladnik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of cortical GABAergic neurons can be defined by parvalbumin, somatostatin or calretinin expression. In most mammalians parvalbumin and somatostatin interneurons have constant proportions, each representing 5-7% of the total neuron number. In contrast, there is a 3 fold increase in the proportion of calretinin interneurons, which do not exceed 4% in rodents and reach 12% in higher order areas of primate cerebral cortex. In rodents almost all parvalbumin and somatostatin interneurons originate from the medial part of the subpallial proliferative structure, the ganglionic eminence (GE, while almost all calretinin interneurons originate from its caudal part. The spatial pattern of cortical GABAergic neurons origin from the GE is preserved in the monkey and human brain. However, it could be expected that the evolution is changing developmental rules to enable considerable expansion of calretinin interneuron population. During the early fetal period in primates cortical GABAergic neurons are almost entirely generated in the subpallium, as in rodents. Already at that time the primate caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE shows a relative increase in size and production of calretinin interneurons. During the second trimester of gestation, that is the main neurogenetic stage in primates without clear correlates found in rodents, the pallial production of cortical GABAergic neurons together with the extended persistence of the GE is observed. We propose that the CGE could be the main source of calretinin interneurons for the posterior and lateral cortical regions, but not for the frontal cortex. The associative granular frontal cortex represents around one third of the cortical surface and contains almost half of cortical calretinin interneurons. The majority of calretinin interneurons destined for the frontal cortex could be generated in the pallium, especially in the newly evolved outer subventricular zone that becomes the main pool of

  19. Our Origins: How and Why We Do and Do Not Differ from Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Peter

    Questions about human origins and uniqueness are at the core of unraveling the essential building blocks of human nature. Probably no other single topic has received more attention across the sciences and humanities than the question of what makes us human and how humans differ from other primates and animals. Evolutionary anthropologists can contribute important comparative evidence to this debate because they adopt a broad perspective that considers both the ancestors of the human species as well as its closest living biological relatives. In this chapter, I review some recent insights into human nature based on this perspective. My focus is on social behavior and its underlying adaptations and mechanisms, because this is the realm of man's most salient features. In contrast to many mainstream contributions on this topic, I emphasize shared behavioral similarities between humans and other primates and outline their underlying mechanisms. These behavioral features shared with other primates include much of our homeostatic behavior and many of our emotions and cognitive abilities, so that together they appear to represent the submerged part of an iceberg. I also briefly summarize some of the uniquely human traits forming the tip of the iceberg and outline current attempts to explain their origin. Accordingly, in this context shared intentionality represents a crucial psychological mechanism that may have been reinforced by a switch to a cooperative breeding system in early Homo evolution. In conclusion, this essay contends that the key essential building block defining human nature is like the core of a Russian doll, while all the outer layers represent our vertebrate, mammalian, and primate legacies.

  20. Postcopulatory sexual selection influences baculum evolution in primates and carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    The extreme morphological variability of the baculum across mammals is thought to be the result of sexual selection (particularly, high levels of postcopulatory selection). However, the evolutionary trajectory of the mammalian baculum is little studied and evidence for the adaptive function of the baculum has so far been elusive. Here, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to reconstruct baculum evolution across the mammalian class and investigate the rate of baculum length evolution within the primate order. We then test the effects of testes mass (postcopulatory sexual selection), polygamy, seasonal breeding and intromission duration on the baculum in primates and carnivores. The ancestral mammal did not have a baculum, but both ancestral primates and carnivores did. No relationship was found between testes mass and baculum length in either primates or carnivores. Intromission duration correlated with baculum presence over the course of primate evolution, and prolonged intromission predicts significantly longer bacula in extant primates and carnivores. Both polygamous and seasonal breeding systems predict significantly longer bacula in primates. These results suggest the baculum plays an important role in facilitating reproductive strategies in populations with high levels of postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:27974519

  1. A comparative neurological approach to emotional expressions in primate vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Grandjean, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Different approaches from different research domains have crystallized debate over primate emotional processing and vocalizations in recent decades. On one side, researchers disagree about whether emotional states or processes in animals truly compare to those in humans. On the other, a long-held assumption is that primate vocalizations are innate communicative signals over which nonhuman primates have limited control and a mirror of the emotional state of the individuals producing them, despite growing evidence of intentional production for some vocalizations. Our goal is to connect both sides of the discussion in deciphering how the emotional content of primate calls compares with emotional vocal signals in humans. We focus particularly on neural bases of primate emotions and vocalizations to identify cerebral structures underlying emotion, vocal production, and comprehension in primates, and discuss whether particular structures or neuronal networks solely evolved for specific functions in the human brain. Finally, we propose a model to classify emotional vocalizations in primates according to four dimensions (learning, control, emotional, meaning) to allow comparing calls across species.

  2. Fast evolution of growth hormone receptor in primates and ruminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zhenfang; LI Ying; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) evolves very slowly in most of mammals, but the evolutionary rates appear to have increased markedly on two occasions during the evolution of primates and ruminants. To investigate the evolutionary pattern of growth hormone receptor (GHR), we sequenced the extracellular domain of GHR genes from four primate species. Our results suggested that GHR in mammal also shows an episodic evolutionary pattern, which is consistent with that observed in pituitary growth hormone. Further analysis suggested that this pattern of rapid evolution observed in primates and ruminants is likely the result of coevolution between pituitary growth hormone and its receptor.

  3. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics, including sentence and discourse processing, can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions.

  4. Conserved Sequence Processing in Primate Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Petkov, Christopher I

    2017-02-01

    An important aspect of animal perception and cognition is learning to recognize relationships between environmental events that predict others in time, a form of relational knowledge that can be assessed using sequence-learning paradigms. Humans are exquisitely sensitive to sequencing relationships, and their combinatorial capacities, most saliently in the domain of language, are unparalleled. Recent comparative research in human and nonhuman primates has obtained behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for evolutionarily conserved substrates involved in sequence processing. The findings carry implications for the origins of domain-general capacities underlying core language functions in humans. Here, we synthesize this research into a 'ventrodorsal gradient' model, where frontal cortex engagement along this axis depends on sequencing complexity, mapping onto the sequencing capacities of different species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental enrichment for primates in laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan-Smith, H. M.

    2010-06-01

    Environmental enrichment is a critical component of Refinement, one of the 3Rs underlying humane experimentation on animals. In this paper I discuss why primates housed in laboratories, which often have constraints of space and study protocols, are a special case for enrichment. I outline a framework for categorising the different types of enrichment, using the marmoset as a case study, and summarise the methods used to determine what animals want/prefer. I briefly review the arguments that enrichment does not negatively affect experimental outcomes. Finally I focus on complexity and novelty, choice and control, the underlying features of enrichment that makes it successful, and how combined with a thorough understanding of natural history we can put effective enrichment into practice in laboratories. Throughout the paper I emphasise the need to evaluate enrichment to ensure it is having the desired effect.

  6. Laser-induced primate glaucoma. II. Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Pederson, J E

    1984-11-01

    A sustained, moderate pressure elevation was produced in 15 nonhuman primate eyes by application of laser energy to the trabecular meshwork. By light and electron microscopy, the trabecular beams were blunted, and scattered synechiae were present. Backward bowing of the lamina cribrosa, partial loss of the myelin sheath surrounding axonal segments just posterior to the lamina, and diffuse axonal loss involving the entire nerve cross section were noted. A quantitative analysis of this axonal loss revealed that eyes with moderate nerve head damage (cup-disc ratio, 0.6 to 0.8) had only 38% to 69% of the expected normal axonal count. The eyes with nearly total cupping (cup-disc ratio, 0.9 to 1.0) maintained between 10% and 36% of the normal axonal count. The disc changes in these experimental eyes are similar to those previously described in human eyes with glaucoma.

  7. Mediodorsal thalamus and cognition in nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G Baxter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies in nonhuman primates have provided new insights into the role of the medial thalamus in different aspects of cognitive function. The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD, by virtue of its connectivity with the frontal cortex, has been implicated in an array of cognitive functions. Rather than serving as an engine or relay for the prefrontal cortex, this area seems to be more specifically involved in regulating plasticity and flexibility of prefrontal-dependent cognitive functions. Focal damage to MD may also exacerbate the effects of damage to other subcortical relays. Thus a wide range of distributed circuits and cognitive functions may be disrupted from focal damage within the medial thalamus (for example as a consequence of stroke or brain injury. Conversely, this region may make an interesting target for neuromodulation of cognitive function via deep brain stimulation or related methods, in conditions associated with dysfunction of these neural circuits.

  8. Comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Trygve E.; Miller, Jeremy A.; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Dalley, Rachel A.; Royall, Joshua J.; Lemon, Tracy; Shapouri, Sheila; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Bertagnolli, Darren; Bickley, Kristopher; Boe, Andrew; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Byrnes, Emi; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cate, Shelby; Chapin, Mike; Chen, Jefferey; Dee, Nick; Desta, Tsega; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Dotson, Nadia; Ebbert, Amanda; Fulfs, Erich; Gee, Garrett; Gilbert, Terri L.; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Ben; Gu, Guangyu; Hall, Jon; Haradon, Zeb; Haynor, David R.; Hejazinia, Nika; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Howard, Robert; Jochim, Jay; Kinnunen, Marty; Kriedberg, Ali; Kuan, Chihchau L.; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Luong, Lon; Mastan, Naveed; May, Ryan; Melchor, Jose; Mosqueda, Nerick; Mott, Erika; Ngo, Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D.; Parry, Sheana; Pendergraft, Julie; Potekhina, Lydia; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L.; Roberts, Tyson; Rogers, Brandon; Roll, Kate; Rosen, David; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Shi, Shu; Sjoquist, Nathan; Sodt, Andy J.; Townsend, Robbie; Velasquez, Lissette; Wagley, Udi; Wakeman, Wayne B.; White, Cassandra; Bennett, Crissa; Wu, Jennifer; Young, Rob; Youngstrom, Brian L.; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gibbs, Richard A.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Hohmann, John G.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hevner, Robert F.; Molnár, Zoltán; Phillips, John W.; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R.; Amaral, David G.; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed S.

    2017-01-01

    The transcriptional underpinnings of brain development remain poorly understood, particularly in humans and closely related non-human primates. We describe a high resolution transcriptional atlas of rhesus monkey brain development that combines dense temporal sampling of prenatal and postnatal periods with fine anatomical parcellation of cortical and subcortical regions associated with human neuropsychiatric disease. Gene expression changes more rapidly before birth, both in progenitor cells and maturing neurons, and cortical layers and areas acquire adult-like molecular profiles surprisingly late postnatally. Disparate cell populations exhibit distinct developmental timing but also unexpected synchrony of processes underlying neural circuit construction including cell projection and adhesion. Candidate risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders including primary microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia show disease-specific spatiotemporal enrichment within developing neocortex. Human developmental expression trajectories are more similar to monkey than rodent, and approximately 9% of genes show human-specific regulation with evidence for prolonged maturation or neoteny. PMID:27409810

  9. Optic nerve fast axonal transport abnormalities in primates. Occurrence after short posterior ciliary artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L

    1980-11-01

    Fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate (Aotus trivirgatus) optic nerve were studied in ten eyes at various intervals after occlusion of the lateral short posterior ciliary circulation. Evidence of focal axonal ischemia, as indicated by swelling of mitochondria and dissolution of cytoplasmic detail, was noted as early as one hour after occlusion. Accumulation of mitochondria, microvesicles, and dense bodies, indicating focal interruption of axonal transport mechanisms, was noted in eyes examined at 2, 4, and 6 hours. This accumulation of organelles was limited to the region of the lamina cribrosa. Nerve head abnormalities were not seen in two eyes studied at two weeks.

  10. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  11. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad

  12. Transgenic nonhuman primates for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models that represent human diseases constitute an important tool in understanding the pathogenesis of the diseases, and in developing effective therapies. Neurodegenerative diseases are complex disorders involving neuropathologic and psychiatric alterations. Although transgenic and knock-in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and Huntington's disease (HD have been created, limited representation in clinical aspects has been recognized and the rodent models lack true neurodegeneration. Chemical induction of HD and PD in nonhuman primates (NHP has been reported, however, the role of intrinsic genetic factors in the development of the diseases is indeterminable. Nonhuman primates closely parallel humans with regard to genetic, neuroanatomic, and cognitive/behavioral characteristics. Accordingly, the development of NHP models for neurodegenerative diseases holds greater promise for success in the discovery of diagnoses, treatments, and cures than approaches using other animal species. Therefore, a transgenic NHP carrying a mutant gene similar to that of patients will help to clarify our understanding of disease onset and progression. Additionally, monitoring disease onset and development in the transgenic NHP by high resolution brain imaging technology such as MRI, and behavioral and cognitive testing can all be carried out simultaneously in the NHP but not in other animal models. Moreover, because of the similarity in motor repertoire between NHPs and humans, it will also be possible to compare the neurologic syndrome observed in the NHP model to that in patients. Understanding the correlation between genetic defects and physiologic changes (e.g. oxidative damage will lead to a better understanding of disease progression and the development of patient treatments, medications and preventive approaches for high risk individuals. The impact of the transgenic NHP model in understanding the role which

  13. Prosocial primates: selfish and unselfish motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Frans B M; Suchak, Malini

    2010-09-12

    Non-human primates are marked by well-developed prosocial and cooperative tendencies as reflected in the way they support each other in fights, hunt together, share food and console victims of aggression. The proximate motivation behind such behaviour is not to be confused with the ultimate reasons for its evolution. Even if a behaviour is ultimately self-serving, the motivation behind it may be genuinely unselfish. A sharp distinction needs to be drawn, therefore, between (i) altruistic and cooperative behaviour with knowable benefits to the actor, which may lead actors aware of these benefits to seek them by acting cooperatively or altruistically and (ii) altruistic behaviour that offers the actor no knowable rewards. The latter is the case if return benefits occur too unpredictably, too distantly in time or are of an indirect nature, such as increased inclusive fitness. The second category of behaviour can be explained only by assuming an altruistic impulse, which-as in humans-may be born from empathy with the recipient's need, pain or distress. Empathy, a proximate mechanism for prosocial behaviour that makes one individual share another's emotional state, is biased the way one would predict from evolutionary theories of cooperation (i.e. by kinship, social closeness and reciprocation). There is increasing evidence in non-human primates (and other mammals) for this proximate mechanism as well as for the unselfish, spontaneous nature of the resulting prosocial tendencies. This paper further reviews observational and experimental evidence for the reciprocity mechanisms that underlie cooperation among non-relatives, for inequity aversion as a constraint on cooperation and on the way defection is dealt with.

  14. Origen y evolución de los Platyrrhini (Primates, Anthropoidea), con especial referencia a los registros de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Tejedor, M F

    1998-01-01

    The are new light about the Platyrrhini origin provided by the fossil record of the Old World, which demonstrates that catarrhines and platyrrhines are certainly a monophyletic group. Although the exact provenance of the Platyrrhini is uncertain at this time, some characters of the latter are shared with primitive anthropoid primates from the Fayum Depression, in the Egyptian late Eocene-early Oligocene, and then we can accept an African origin for platyrrhines. Symplesiomorphies exhibited by...

  15. Placentation in the colugos Cynocephalus volans and Galeopterus variegatus (Dermoptera) and the transition from labyrinthine to villous placentation in primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A. M.; Mess, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Phylogenetics and genomics place colugos as the sister group to primates. Therefore their placentation is of interest in an evolutionary perspective. Previous accounts are fragmentary, not readily accessible and sometimes contradictory. Methods We have examined archival material...... covering the early development of fetal membranes and placenta, the fate of the yolk sac and definitive placentation. Results Initially the trophoblast extended over a rather broad but shallow area, enclosing maternal blood spaces. After expansion of the exocoelom it became covered by somatic mesoderm...

  16. CDX2 in the formation of the trophectoderm lineage in primate embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip; Sparman, Michelle; Tachibana, Masahito; Clepper, Lisa; Woodward, Joy; Gokhale, Sumita; Wolf, Don; Hennebold, Jon; Hurlbut, William; Grompe, Markus; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2009-11-01

    The first lineage decision during mammalian development is the establishment of the trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM). The caudal-type homeodomain protein Cdx2 is implicated in the formation and maintenance of the TE in the mouse. However, the role of CDX2 during early embryonic development in primates is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that CDX2 mRNA levels were detectable in rhesus monkey oocytes, significantly upregulated in pronuclear stage zygotes, diminished in early cleaving embryos but restored again in compact morula and blastocyst stages. CDX2 protein was localized to the nucleus of TE cells but absent altogether in the ICM. Knockdown of CDX2 in monkey oocytes resulted in formation of early blastocyst-like embryos that failed to expand and ceased development. However, the ICM lineage of CDX2-deficient embryos supported the isolation of functional embryonic stem cells. These results provide evidence that CDX2 plays an essential role in functional TE formation during primate embryonic development.

  17. Skeletal remains of a diminutive primate from the Paleocene of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Gerhard

    2008-10-01

    Most living mammal orders, including our own, started their career during the first 10 million years of the Cenozoic, the Age of Mammals. The fossil record documents that early Paleogene adaptive radiations of various clades included tiny species of the size of living shrews. Remains of particularly diminutive limb bones are described from the late Paleocene site of Walbeck, Sachsen-Anhalt. Discovered in 1939, it has remained the only known Paleocene mammal-bearing locality from Germany. The remains are referred to the family Adapisoriculidae, which is considered on the basis of the present postcranial evidence to represent plesiadapiform primates rather than alleged lipotyphlan insectivores as previously proposed. The Walbeck fossils compete with the Early Eocene species Toliapina vinealis from Europe and Picromomys petersonorum from North America for the status of the smallest known primate, fossil and living. Their estimated body weights are as small as 10 g. The limb bones show features related to enhanced flexion at the elbow and hip joint, suggesting arboreal habits and environments such as terminal branches. The diminutive size and tooth morphology suggest feeding on small insects and other invertebrates. Postcranials are important to assess early radiations, such tiny specimens as the present ones are extremely scarce in the fossil record, however.

  18. Evolution of the brain and intelligence in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gerhard; Dicke, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Primates are, on average, more intelligent than other mammals, with great apes and finally humans on top. They generally have larger brains and cortices, and because of higher relative cortex volume and neuron packing density (NPD), they have much more cortical neurons than other mammalian taxa with the same brain size. Likewise, information processing capacity is generally higher in primates due to short interneuronal distance and high axonal conduction velocity. Across primate taxa, differences in intelligence correlate best with differences in number of cortical neurons and synapses plus information processing speed. The human brain stands out by having a large cortical volume with relatively high NPD, high conduction velocity, and high cortical parcellation. All aspects of human intelligence are present at least in rudimentary form in nonhuman primates or some mammals or vertebrates except syntactical language. The latter can be regarded as a very potent "intelligence amplifier." Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Emergent Patterns of Social Affiliation in Primates, a Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puga-Gonzalez, Ivan; Hildenbrandt, Hanno; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    2009-01-01

    Many patterns of affiliative behaviour have been described for primates, for instance: reciprocation and exchange of grooming, grooming others of similar rank, reconciliation of fights, and preferential reconciliation with more valuable partners. For these patterns several functions and underlying c

  20. Comparative triceps surae morphology in primates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jandy B; Schmitt, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Primate locomotor evolution, particularly the evolution of bipedalism, is often examined through morphological studies. Many of these studies have examined the uniqueness of the primate forelimb, and others have examined the primate hip and thigh. Few data exist, however, regarding the myology and function of the leg muscles, even though the ankle plantar flexors are highly important during human bipedalism. In this paper, we draw together data on the fiber type and muscle mass variation in the ankle plantar flexors of primates and make comparisons to other mammals. The data suggest that great apes, atelines, and lorisines exhibit similarity in the mass distribution of the triceps surae. We conclude that variation in triceps surae may be related to the shared locomotor mode exhibited by these groups and that triceps surae morphology, which approaches that of humans, may be related to frequent use of semiplantigrade locomotion and vertical climbing.

  1. Comparative Triceps Surae Morphology in Primates: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandy B. Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primate locomotor evolution, particularly the evolution of bipedalism, is often examined through morphological studies. Many of these studies have examined the uniqueness of the primate forelimb, and others have examined the primate hip and thigh. Few data exist, however, regarding the myology and function of the leg muscles, even though the ankle plantar flexors are highly important during human bipedalism. In this paper, we draw together data on the fiber type and muscle mass variation in the ankle plantar flexors of primates and make comparisons to other mammals. The data suggest that great apes, atelines, and lorisines exhibit similarity in the mass distribution of the triceps surae. We conclude that variation in triceps surae may be related to the shared locomotor mode exhibited by these groups and that triceps surae morphology, which approaches that of humans, may be related to frequent use of semiplantigrade locomotion and vertical climbing.

  2. Brain size and ecology in small mammals and primates.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons of brain-body size relationships within small mammal and primate families reveal intergeneric differences related to diet and foraging strategy. These same associations between relative brain size and ecology are also evident among interfamily comparisons.

  3. Reconstructing the ups and downs of primate brain evolution: implications for adaptive hypotheses and Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stephen H; Capellini, Isabella; Barton, Robert A; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2010-01-27

    Brain size is a key adaptive trait. It is often assumed that increasing brain size was a general evolutionary trend in primates, yet recent fossil discoveries have documented brain size decreases in some lineages, raising the question of how general a trend there was for brains to increase in mass over evolutionary time. We present the first systematic phylogenetic analysis designed to answer this question. We performed ancestral state reconstructions of three traits (absolute brain mass, absolute body mass, relative brain mass) using 37 extant and 23 extinct primate species and three approaches to ancestral state reconstruction: parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo. Both absolute and relative brain mass generally increased over evolutionary time, but body mass did not. Nevertheless both absolute and relative brain mass decreased along several branches. Applying these results to the contentious case of Homo floresiensis, we find a number of scenarios under which the proposed evolution of Homo floresiensis' small brain appears to be consistent with patterns observed along other lineages, dependent on body mass and phylogenetic position. Our results confirm that brain expansion began early in primate evolution and show that increases occurred in all major clades. Only in terms of an increase in absolute mass does the human lineage appear particularly striking, with both the rate of proportional change in mass and relative brain size having episodes of greater expansion elsewhere on the primate phylogeny. However, decreases in brain mass also occurred along branches in all major clades, and we conclude that, while selection has acted to enlarge primate brains, in some lineages this trend has been reversed. Further analyses of the phylogenetic position of Homo floresiensis and better body mass estimates are required to confirm the plausibility of the evolution of its small brain mass. We find that for our dataset the Bayesian analysis for

  4. Reconstructing the ups and downs of primate brain evolution: implications for adaptive hypotheses and Homo floresiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain size is a key adaptive trait. It is often assumed that increasing brain size was a general evolutionary trend in primates, yet recent fossil discoveries have documented brain size decreases in some lineages, raising the question of how general a trend there was for brains to increase in mass over evolutionary time. We present the first systematic phylogenetic analysis designed to answer this question. Results We performed ancestral state reconstructions of three traits (absolute brain mass, absolute body mass, relative brain mass using 37 extant and 23 extinct primate species and three approaches to ancestral state reconstruction: parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo. Both absolute and relative brain mass generally increased over evolutionary time, but body mass did not. Nevertheless both absolute and relative brain mass decreased along several branches. Applying these results to the contentious case of Homo floresiensis, we find a number of scenarios under which the proposed evolution of Homo floresiensis' small brain appears to be consistent with patterns observed along other lineages, dependent on body mass and phylogenetic position. Conclusions Our results confirm that brain expansion began early in primate evolution and show that increases occurred in all major clades. Only in terms of an increase in absolute mass does the human lineage appear particularly striking, with both the rate of proportional change in mass and relative brain size having episodes of greater expansion elsewhere on the primate phylogeny. However, decreases in brain mass also occurred along branches in all major clades, and we conclude that, while selection has acted to enlarge primate brains, in some lineages this trend has been reversed. Further analyses of the phylogenetic position of Homo floresiensis and better body mass estimates are required to confirm the plausibility of the evolution of its small brain

  5. Reconstructing the ups and downs of primate brain evolution: implications for adaptive hypotheses and Homo floresiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Brain size is a key adaptive trait. It is often assumed that increasing brain size was a general evolutionary trend in primates, yet recent fossil discoveries have documented brain size decreases in some lineages, raising the question of how general a trend there was for brains to increase in mass over evolutionary time. We present the first systematic phylogenetic analysis designed to answer this question. Results We performed ancestral state reconstructions of three traits (absolute brain mass, absolute body mass, relative brain mass) using 37 extant and 23 extinct primate species and three approaches to ancestral state reconstruction: parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo. Both absolute and relative brain mass generally increased over evolutionary time, but body mass did not. Nevertheless both absolute and relative brain mass decreased along several branches. Applying these results to the contentious case of Homo floresiensis, we find a number of scenarios under which the proposed evolution of Homo floresiensis' small brain appears to be consistent with patterns observed along other lineages, dependent on body mass and phylogenetic position. Conclusions Our results confirm that brain expansion began early in primate evolution and show that increases occurred in all major clades. Only in terms of an increase in absolute mass does the human lineage appear particularly striking, with both the rate of proportional change in mass and relative brain size having episodes of greater expansion elsewhere on the primate phylogeny. However, decreases in brain mass also occurred along branches in all major clades, and we conclude that, while selection has acted to enlarge primate brains, in some lineages this trend has been reversed. Further analyses of the phylogenetic position of Homo floresiensis and better body mass estimates are required to confirm the plausibility of the evolution of its small brain mass. We find that for our

  6. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, Amanda D.; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L.; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D.; Timm, Robert M.; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B.; Perry, George H.; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders...

  7. Feeding on Phytoestrogens: Implications of Estrogenic Plants for Primate Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Wasserman, Michael David

    2011-01-01

    As most primates depend heavily on plant foods, the chemical composition of edible plant parts, both nutritional and detrimental, are of key importance in understanding primate ecology and evolution. One class of plant compounds of strong current interest due to their potential ability to alter the fertility, fecundity, and survival of both males and females are phytoestrogens. These plant compounds mimic the activity of vertebrate estrogens mainly through binding with the estrogen receptor...

  8. Convergent evolution of escape from hepaciviral antagonism in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maulik R; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Horner, Stacy M; Gale, Michael; Malik, Harmit S

    2012-01-01

    The ability to mount an interferon response on sensing viral infection is a critical component of mammalian innate immunity. Several viruses directly antagonize viral sensing pathways to block activation of the host immune response. Here, we show that recurrent viral antagonism has shaped the evolution of the host protein MAVS--a crucial component of the viral-sensing pathway in primates. From sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of MAVS from 21 simian primates, we found that MAVS has evolved under strong positive selection. We focused on how this positive selection has shaped MAVS' susceptibility to Hepatitis C virus (HCV). We functionally tested MAVS proteins from diverse primate species for their ability to resist antagonism by HCV, which uses its protease NS3/4A to cleave human MAVS. We found that MAVS from multiple primates are resistant to inhibition by the HCV protease. This resistance maps to single changes within the protease cleavage site in MAVS, which protect MAVS from getting cleaved by the HCV protease. Remarkably, most of these changes have been independently acquired at a single residue 506 that evolved under positive selection. We show that "escape" mutations lower affinity of the NS3 protease for MAVS and allow it to better restrict HCV replication. We further show that NS3 proteases from all other primate hepaciviruses, including the highly divergent GBV-A and GBV-C viruses, are functionally similar to HCV. We conclude that convergent evolution at residue 506 in multiple primates has resulted in escape from antagonism by hepaciviruses. Our study provides a model whereby insights into the ancient history of viral infections in primates can be gained using extant host and virus genes. Our analyses also provide a means by which primates might clear infections by extant hepaciviruses like HCV.

  9. Towards Transgenic Primates: What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Hui; WANG Phillip L.; TSIEN Joe Z.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans, monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the precUnical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases. Various powerful genetic tech-nologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models. We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and limitations for systematic production of transgenic primates.

  10. Models of stress in nonhuman primates and their relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jerrold S; Hamel, Amanda F

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Such models have typically examined the effects of stress on the animals' behavior, endocrine function (primarily the HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems), and, in some cases, immune status. Manipulations such as relocation and/or removal of an animal from its current social group or, alternatively, formation of a new social group can have adverse effects on all of these outcome measures that may be either transient or more persistent depending on the species, sex, and other experimental conditions. Social primates may also experience significant stress associated with their rank in the group's dominance hierarchy. Finally, stress during prenatal development or during the early postnatal period may have long-lasting neurobiological and endocrine effects that manifest in an altered ability to cope behaviorally and physiologically with later challenges. Whereas early exposure to severe stress usually results in deficient coping abilities, certain kinds of milder stressors can promote subsequent resilience in the animal. We conclude that studies of stress in nonhuman primates can model many features of stress exposure in human populations and that such studies can play a valuable role in helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of stress in human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction.

  11. Old world monkeys and new age science: the evolution of nonhuman primate systems virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Robert E; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Korth, Marcus J; Katze, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primate (NHP) biomedical models are critical to our understanding of human health and disease, yet we are still in the early stages of developing sufficient tools to support primate genomic research that allow us to better understand the basis of phenotypic traits in NHP models of disease. A mere 7 years ago, the limited NHP transcriptome profiling that was being performed was done using complementary DNA arrays based on human genome sequences, and the lack of NHP genomic information and immunologic reagents precluded the use of NHPs in functional genomic studies. Since then, significant strides have been made in developing genomics capabilities for NHP research, from the rhesus macaque genome sequencing project to the construction of the first macaque-specific high-density oligonucleotide microarray, paving the way for further resource development and additional primate sequencing projects. Complete published draft genome sequences are now available for the chimpanzee ( Chimpanzee Sequencing Analysis Consortium 2005), bonobo ( Prufer et al. 2012), gorilla ( Scally et al. 2012), and baboon ( Ensembl.org 2013), along with the recently completed draft genomes for the cynomolgus macaque and Chinese rhesus macaque. Against this backdrop of both expanding sequence data and the early application of sequence-derived DNA microarrays tools, we will contextualize the development of these community resources and their application to infectious disease research through a literature review of NHP models of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and models of respiratory virus infection. In particular, we will review the use of -omics approaches in studies of simian immunodeficiency virus and respiratory virus pathogenesis and vaccine development, emphasizing the acute and innate responses and the relationship of these to the course of disease and to the evolution of adaptive immunity.

  12. Primates on display: Potential disease consequences beyond bushmeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Human interactions with nonhuman primates vary tremendously, from daily cultural engagements and food commodities, to pet ownership and tourist encounters. These interactions provide opportunities for the exchange of pathogenic organisms (both zoonoses and anthroponoses). As exposures are not limited to areas where bushmeat usage continues to be a major problem, we must work to understand better our motivations for engaging in activities like owning primates as pets and having direct physical contact with wild primates within the context of nature-based tourism. These topics, and the theoretical potential for pathogen transmission, are reviewed in the present manuscript. This is followed by a case study utilizing 3845 survey responses collected from four international locations known for primate-based tourism, with results indicating that while a majority of people understand that they can give/get diseases to/from wild primates, a surprising percentage would still touch or feed these animals if given the opportunity. Many people still choose to touch and/or own primates, as their drive to bond with animals outweighs some basic health behaviors. Desires to tame, control, or otherwise establish emotional connections with other species, combined with the central role of touch for exploring our environment, necessitate the development of better communication and educational campaigns to minimize risks of emerging infectious diseases. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  13. Primates and the evolution of long, slow life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James Holland

    2011-09-27

    Primates are characterized by relatively late ages at first reproduction, long lives and low fertility. Together, these traits define a life-history of reduced reproductive effort. Understanding the optimal allocation of reproductive effort, and specifically reduced reproductive effort, has been one of the key problems motivating the development of life-history theory. Because of their unusual constellation of life-history traits, primates play an important role in the continued development of life-history theory. In this review, I present the evidence for the reduced reproductive effort life histories of primates and discuss the ways that such life-history tactics are understood in contemporary theory. Such tactics are particularly consistent with the predictions of stochastic demographic models, suggesting a key role for environmental variability in the evolution of primate life histories. The tendency for primates to specialize in high-quality, high-variability food items may make them particularly susceptible to environmental variability and explains their low reproductive-effort tactics. I discuss recent applications of life-history theory to human evolution and emphasize the continuity between models used to explain peculiarities of human reproduction and senescence with the long, slow life histories of primates more generally.

  14. The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Simon M; Hager, Yfke; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-04-12

    There are consistent individual differences in human intelligence, attributable to a single 'general intelligence' factor, g. The evolutionary basis of g and its links to social learning and culture remain controversial. Conflicting hypotheses regard primate cognition as divided into specialized, independently evolving modules versus a single general process. To assess how processes underlying culture relate to one another and other cognitive capacities, we compiled ecologically relevant cognitive measures from multiple domains, namely reported incidences of behavioural innovation, social learning, tool use, extractive foraging and tactical deception, in 62 primate species. All exhibited strong positive associations in principal component and factor analyses, after statistically controlling for multiple potential confounds. This highly correlated composite of cognitive traits suggests social, technical and ecological abilities have coevolved in primates, indicative of an across-species general intelligence that includes elements of cultural intelligence. Our composite species-level measure of general intelligence, 'primate g(S)', covaried with both brain volume and captive learning performance measures. Our findings question the independence of cognitive traits and do not support 'massive modularity' in primate cognition, nor an exclusively social model of primate intelligence. High general intelligence has independently evolved at least four times, with convergent evolution in capuchins, baboons, macaques and great apes.

  15. Diversity, habitat preferences, and conservation of the primates of Southern Assam, India: The story of a primate paradise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Khairujjaman Mazumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern part of Assam in India, a part of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, harbors a myriad number of wild plant and animal species. Although there is only one protected area, the Barail Wildlife Sanctuary (Cachar district and a few reserve forests (RFs, there are as many as eight primates inhabiting the region – a diversity hardly found elsewhere. In addition to the protected area and RFs, tea gardens and secondary forests also serve as habitats for animals. The border areas of the region with the states of Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Tripura are among the most important abodes of these primates. Unfortunately, these primates are under constant threat from multiple sources. The present article provides an extensive survey of the available literature on the primates of southern Assam with reference to their distribution, habitat preferences, threats, and conservation. Additionally, data from field observations of the author are also presented.

  16. Imaging Mitochondrial Organization in Living Primate Oocytes and Embryos using Multiphoton Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squirrell, J.M.; Schramm, R.D.; Paprocki, A.M.; Wokosin, D.L.; Bavister, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    We employed multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) to image changes in mitochondrial distribution in living rhesus monkey embryos. This method of imaging does not impair development; thus, the same specimen can be visualized multiple times at various developmental stages. Not only does this increase the amount of information that can be gathered on a single specimen but it permits the correlation of early events with subsequent development in the same specimen. Here we demonstrate the utility of MPLSM for determining changes in mitochondrial organization at various developmental stages and show that rhesus zygotes possess a distinct accumulation of mitochondria between the pronuclei prior to syngamy. We present evidence that suggests that this pronuclear accumulation may be positively correlated with development to the blastocyst stage—in the same embryo—thereby illustrating how MPLSM can be used to correlate cellular dynamics of primate oocytes and early embryos with their developmental potential. Understanding the relationship between mitochondrial distribution and the subsequent development of mammalian embryos, particularly primates, will increase our ability to improve embryo culture technologies, including those used for human assisted reproduction. PMID:12807671

  17. Primate diversification inferred from phylogenies and fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, James P

    2017-09-14

    Biodiversity arises from the balance between speciation and extinction. Fossils record the origins and disappearance of organisms, and the branching patterns of molecular phylogenies allow estimation of speciation and extinction rates, but the patterns of diversification are frequently incongruent between these two data sources. I tested two hypotheses about the diversification of primates based on ∼600 fossil species and 90% complete phylogenies of living species: 1) diversification rates increased through time; 2) a significant extinction event occurred in the Oligocene. Consistent with the first hypothesis, analyses of phylogenies consistently supported increasing speciation rates and negligible extinction rates. In contrast, fossils showed that while speciation rates increased, speciation and extinction rates tended to be nearly equal, resulting in zero net diversification. Partially supporting the second hypothesis, the fossil data recorded a clear pattern of diversity decline in the Oligocene, although diversification rates were near zero. The phylogeny supported increased extinction ∼34 Ma, but also elevated extinction ∼10 Ma, coinciding with diversity declines in some fossil clades. The results demonstrated that estimates of speciation and extinction ignoring fossils are insufficient to infer diversification and information on extinct lineages should be incorporated into phylogenetic analyses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. What is the optimal anthropoid primate diet?

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmelt, H

    2001-01-01

    Following Socrates' advice "You should learn all you can from those who know. Everyone should watch himself throughout his life, and notice what sort of meat and drink and what form of exercise suit his constitution, and he should regulate them in order to enjoy good health." Based on biological, chemical and physical considerations I have attempted to synthesize guide lines for an optimal diet from the vast literature. For an offshoot of the primate line it may be wise not to stray too far from the line's surprisingly uniform predominantly frugi- and herbi-vorous diet that is only lightly supplemented by hunted small mammals, eggs, nuts, insects, etc. By dry weight raw wild fruit contains fats, proteins, carbohydrates, digested and undigested fiber in the approximate proportions 5 : 7 : 14 : 17 : 17. The fat component contains both essential fatty acids, about 23% linoleic and 16% alpha-linolenic, the latter severely lacking in Western diets. The practical problem is how to as best as possible, but not relig...

  19. [Diversity and development of positional behavior in non-human primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Pei; Guo, Song-Tao; Wei, Wei; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-10-01

    In long-term evolution, wildlife in general and primates in particular have formed specific patterns of behavior to adapt to a diverse variety of habitat environments. Current research on positional behavior in non-human primates has been found to explain a great deal about primate adaptability diversification, ecology, anatomy and evolution. Here, we summarize the noted classifications and differences in seasonal, site-specific and sex-age positional behaviors while also reviewing the development and status of non-human primate positional behavior research. This review is intended to provide reference for the future research of non-human primates and aid in further research on behavioral ecology of primates.

  20. Preliminary analysis of the mitochondrial genome evolutionary pattern in primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHAO; Xingtao ZHANG; Xingkui TAO; Weiwei WANG; Ming LI

    2012-01-01

    Since the birth of molecular evolutionary analysis,primates have been a central focus of study and mitochondrial DNA is well suited to these endeavors because of its unique features.Surprisingly,to date no comprehensive evaluation of the nucleotide substitution patterns has been conducted on the mitochondrial genome of primates.Here,we analyzed the evolutionary patterns and evaluated selection and recombination in the mitochondrial genomes of 44 Primates species downloaded from GenBank.The results revealed that a strong rate heterogeneity occurred among sites and genes in all comparisons.Likewise,an obvious decline in primate nucleotide diversity was noted in the subunit rRNAs and tRNAs as compared to the protein-coding genes.Within 13 protein-coding genes,the pattern of nonsynonymous divergence was similar to that of overall nucleotide divergence,while synonymous changes differed only for individual genes,indicating that the rate heterogeneity may result from the rate of change at nonsynonymous sites.Codon usage analysis revealed that there was intermediate codon usage bias in primate protein-coding genes,and supported the idea that GC mutation pressure might determine codon usage and that positive selection is not the driving force for the codon usage bias.Neutrality tests using site-specific positive selection from a Bayesian framework indicated no sites were under positive selection for any gene,consistent with near neutrality.Recombination tests based on the pairwise homoplasy test statistic supported complete linkage even for much older divergent primate species.Thus,with the exception of rate heterogeneity among mitochondrial genes,evaluating the validity assumed complete linkage and selective neutrality in primates prior to phylogenetic or phylogeographic analysis seems unnecessary.

  1. Are Synonymous Sites in Primates and Rodents Functionally Constrained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nicholas; Graur, Dan

    2016-01-01

    It has been claimed that synonymous sites in mammals are under selective constraint. Furthermore, in many studies the selective constraint at such sites in primates was claimed to be more stringent than that in rodents. Given the larger effective population sizes in rodents than in primates, the theoretical expectation is that selection in rodents would be more effective than that in primates. To resolve this contradiction between expectations and observations, we used processed pseudogenes as a model for strict neutral evolution, and estimated selective constraint on synonymous sites using the rate of substitution at pseudosynonymous and pseudononsynonymous sites in pseudogenes as the neutral expectation. After controlling for the effects of GC content, our results were similar to those from previous studies, i.e., synonymous sites in primates exhibited evidence for higher selective constraint that those in rodents. Specifically, our results indicated that in primates up to 24% of synonymous sites could be under purifying selection, while in rodents synonymous sites evolved neutrally. To further control for shifts in GC content, we estimated selective constraint at fourfold degenerate sites using a maximum parsimony approach. This allowed us to estimate selective constraint using mutational patterns that cause a shift in GC content (GT ↔ TG, CT ↔ TC, GA ↔ AG, and CA ↔ AC) and ones that do not (AT ↔ TA and CG ↔ GC). Using this approach, we found that synonymous sites evolve neutrally in both primates and rodents. Apparent deviations from neutrality were caused by a higher rate of C → A and C → T mutations in pseudogenes. Such differences are most likely caused by the shift in GC content experienced by pseudogenes. We conclude that previous estimates according to which 20-40% of synonymous sites in primates were under selective constraint were most likely artifacts of the biased pattern of mutation.

  2. Preliminary analysis of the mitochondrial genome evolutionary pattern in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Xingtao; Tao, Xingkui; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Since the birth of molecular evolutionary analysis, primates have been a central focus of study and mitochondrial DNA is well suited to these endeavors because of its unique features. Surprisingly, to date no comprehensive evaluation of the nucleotide substitution patterns has been conducted on the mitochondrial genome of primates. Here, we analyzed the evolutionary patterns and evaluated selection and recombination in the mitochondrial genomes of 44 Primates species downloaded from GenBank. The results revealed that a strong rate heterogeneity occurred among sites and genes in all comparisons. Likewise, an obvious decline in primate nucleotide diversity was noted in the subunit rRNAs and tRNAs as compared to the protein-coding genes. Within 13 protein-coding genes, the pattern of nonsynonymous divergence was similar to that of overall nucleotide divergence, while synonymous changes differed only for individual genes, indicating that the rate heterogeneity may result from the rate of change at nonsynonymous sites. Codon usage analysis revealed that there was intermediate codon usage bias in primate protein-coding genes, and supported the idea that GC mutation pressure might determine codon usage and that positive selection is not the driving force for the codon usage bias. Neutrality tests using site-specific positive selection from a Bayesian framework indicated no sites were under positive selection for any gene, consistent with near neutrality. Recombination tests based on the pairwise homoplasy test statistic supported complete linkage even for much older divergent primate species. Thus, with the exception of rate heterogeneity among mitochondrial genes, evaluating the validity assumed complete linkage and selective neutrality in primates prior to phylogenetic or phylogeographic analysis seems unnecessary.

  3. LOGISMOS-B for primates: primate cortical surface reconstruction and thickness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Sanchez, Mar; Shi, Yundi; Sonka, Milan

    2015-03-01

    Cortical thickness and surface area are important morphological measures with implications for many psychiatric and neurological conditions. Automated segmentation and reconstruction of the cortical surface from 3D MRI scans is challenging due to the variable anatomy of the cortex and its highly complex geometry. While many methods exist for this task in the context of the human brain, these methods are typically not readily applicable to the primate brain. We propose an innovative approach based on our recently proposed human cortical reconstruction algorithm, LOGISMOS-B, and the Laplace-based thickness measurement method. Quantitative evaluation of our approach was performed based on a dataset of T1- and T2-weighted MRI scans from 12-month-old macaques where labeling by our anatomical experts was used as independent standard. In this dataset, LOGISMOS-B has an average signed surface error of 0.01 +/- 0.03mm and an unsigned surface error of 0.42 +/- 0.03mm over the whole brain. Excluding the rather problematic temporal pole region further improves unsigned surface distance to 0.34 +/- 0.03mm. This high level of accuracy reached by our algorithm even in this challenging developmental dataset illustrates its robustness and its potential for primate brain studies.

  4. Male infanticide leads to social monogamy in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, Christopher; Atkinson, Quentin D; Dunbar, Robin I M; Shultz, Susanne

    2013-08-13

    Although common in birds, social monogamy, or pair-living, is rare among mammals because internal gestation and lactation in mammals makes it advantageous for males to seek additional mating opportunities. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of social monogamy among mammals: as a male mate-guarding strategy, because of the benefits of biparental care, or as a defense against infanticidal males. However, comparative analyses have been unable to resolve the root causes of monogamy. Primates are unusual among mammals because monogamy has evolved independently in all of the major clades. Here we combine trait data across 230 primate species with a Bayesian likelihood framework to test for correlated evolution between monogamy and a range of traits to evaluate the competing hypotheses. We find evidence of correlated evolution between social monogamy and both female ranging patterns and biparental care, but the most compelling explanation for the appearance of monogamy is male infanticide. It is only the presence of infanticide that reliably increases the probability of a shift to social monogamy, whereas monogamy allows the secondary adoption of paternal care and is associated with a shift to discrete ranges. The origin of social monogamy in primates is best explained by long lactation periods caused by altriciality, making primate infants particularly vulnerable to infanticidal males. We show that biparental care shortens relative lactation length, thereby reducing infanticide risk and increasing reproductive rates. These phylogenetic analyses support a key role for infanticide in the social evolution of primates, and potentially, humans.

  5. Grooming reciprocation among female primates: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Aureli, Filippo

    2008-02-23

    The theory of reciprocal altruism offers an explanation for the evolution of altruistic behaviours among unrelated animals. Among primates, grooming is one of the most common altruistic behaviours. Primates have been suggested to exchange grooming both for itself and for rank-related benefits. While previous meta-analyses have shown that they direct their grooming up the hierarchy and exchange it for agonistic support, no comprehensive evaluation of grooming reciprocation has been made. Here we report on a meta-analysis of grooming reciprocation among female primates based on 48 social groups belonging to 22 different species and 12 genera. The results of this meta-analysis showed that female primates groom preferentially those group mates that groom them most. To the extent allowed by the availability of kinship data, this result holds true when controlling for maternal kinship. These results, together with previous findings, suggest that primates are indeed able to exchange grooming both for itself and for different rank-related benefits.

  6. The Genetic and Evolutionary Drives behind Primate Color Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hunt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Primate color vision is based on two to three cone types in the retina, each expressing a different class of visual pigment, making them the only mammals that possess trichromacy. These pigment classes are the short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1 pigment and the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS pigment, orthologues of the same pigments found in many other vertebrates, as well as the middle wavelength-sensitive (MWS pigment, a paralogue to the LWS pigment. Trichromacy was achieved differently in Old World and New World primates. In Old World primates, a duplication of the LWS opsin gene occurred giving rise to a “red-sensitive” or L pigment and a “green-sensitive” or M pigment. Their corresponding L and M genes are adjacent on the X chromosome which, together with their high sequence homology, is the underlying cause for the high frequency of red-green color blindness seen in humans. In New World primates and prosimians, however, the mechanism leading to trichromacy, with one exception, is based on a single polymorphic LWS gene, from which different allelic variants encode pigments with differing spectral peaks. X chromosome inactivation limits expression to just one gene per photoreceptor meaning that trichromacy is only seen in females; while all male are red-green color blind. Despite several leading hypotheses, the reasons for the different evolutionary paths taken by Old and New World primates for trichromacy are still unclear and remain to be confirmed.

  7. Led by the nose: Olfaction in primate feeding ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Omer; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction, the sense of smell, was a latecomer to the systematic investigation of primate sensory ecology after long years in which it was considered to be of minor importance. This view shifted with the growing understanding of its role in social behavior and the accumulation of physiological studies demonstrating that the olfactory abilities of some primates are on a par with those of olfactory-dependent mammals such as dogs and rodents. Recent years have seen a proliferation of physiological, behavioral, anatomical, and genetic investigations of primate olfaction. These investigations have begun to shed light on the importance of olfaction in the process of food acquisition. However, integration of these works has been limited. It is therefore still difficult to pinpoint large-scale evolutionary scenarios, namely the functions that the sense of smell fulfills in primates' feeding ecology and the ecological niches that favor heavier reliance on olfaction. Here, we review available behavioral and physiological studies of primates in the field or captivity and try to elucidate how and when the sense of smell can help them acquire food.

  8. Meaning, intention, and inference in primate vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Julia; Price, Tabitha

    2016-10-20

    Two core questions in the study of speech evolution are whether nonhuman primate signals should be conceived as referential, and what the role of social cognition is in primate communication. Current evidence suggests that the structure of primate vocalizations is largely innate and related to the affective/motivational state of the caller, with a probabilistic and underdetermined relationship between specific events and calls. Moreover, nonhuman primates do not appear to express or comprehend communicative or informative intent, which is in line with a lack of mental state attribution to others. We argue that nonhuman primate vocalizations as well as gestures should be best conceived as goal-directed, where signallers are sensitive to the relation between their signalling and receivers' responses. Receivers in turn use signals to predict signaller behaviour. In combination with their ability to integrate information from multiple sources, this renders the system as a whole relatively powerful, despite the lack of higher-order intentionality on the side of sender or receiver. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  10. Evolution of coding microsatellites in primate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loire, Etienne; Higuet, Dominique; Netter, Pierre; Achaz, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites (SSRs) are highly susceptible to expansions and contractions. When located in a coding sequence, the insertion or the deletion of a single unit for a mono-, di-, tetra-, or penta(nucleotide)-SSR creates a frameshift. As a consequence, one would expect to find only very few of these SSRs in coding sequences because of their strong deleterious potential. Unexpectedly, genomes contain many coding SSRs of all types. Here, we report on a study of their evolution in a phylogenetic context using the genomes of four primates: human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and macaque. In a set of 5,015 orthologous genes unambiguously aligned among the four species, we show that, except for tri- and hexa-SSRs, for which insertions and deletions are frequently observed, SSRs in coding regions evolve mainly by substitutions. We show that the rate of substitution in all types of coding SSRs is typically two times higher than in the rest of coding sequences. Additionally, we observe that although numerous coding SSRs are created and lost by substitutions in the lineages, their numbers remain constant. This last observation suggests that the coding SSRs have reached equilibrium. We hypothesize that this equilibrium involves a combination of mutation, drift, and selection. We thus estimated the fitness cost of mono-SSRs and show that it increases with the number of units. We finally show that the cost of coding mono-SSRs greatly varies from function to function, suggesting that the strength of the selection that acts against them can be correlated to gene functions.

  11. Primate phylogeny studied by comparative determinant analysis. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K

    1993-01-01

    In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.

  12. Primate-specific evolution of an LDLR enhancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-Fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Wang, Qianben; Moses, Alan M.; Chanan, Sumita; Brown, Myles; Eisen, Michael B.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin,Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2005-12-01

    Sequence changes in regulatory regions have often been invoked to explain phenotypic divergence among species, but molecular examples of this have been difficult to obtain. In this study we identified an anthropoid primate-specific sequence element that contributed to the regulatory evolution of the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Using a combination of close and distant species genomic sequence comparisons coupled with in vivo and in vitro studies, we found that a functional cholesterol-sensing sequence motif arose and was fixed within a pre-existing enhancer in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Our study demonstrates one molecular mechanism by which ancestral mammalian regulatory elements can evolve to perform new functions in the primate lineage leading to human.

  13. A mechatronic platform for behavioral analysis on nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Vespignani, Massimo; Formica, Domenico; Cavallo, Giuseppe; Di Sorrentino, Eugenia Polizzi; Sabbatini, Gloria; Truppa, Valentina; Mirolli, Marco; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Keller, Flavio; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2012-03-01

    In this work we present a new mechatronic platform for measuring behavior of nonhuman primates, allowing high reprogrammability and providing several possibilities of interactions. The platform is the result of a multidisciplinary design process, which has involved bio-engineers, developmental neuroscientists, primatologists, and roboticians to identify its main requirements and specifications. Although such a platform has been designed for the behavioral analysis of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), it can be used for behavioral studies on other nonhuman primates and children. First, a state-of-the-art principal approach used in nonhuman primate behavioral studies is reported. Second, the main advantages of the mechatronic approach are presented. In this section, the platform is described in all its parts and the possibility to use it for studies on learning mechanism based on intrinsic motivation discussed. Third, a pilot study on capuchin monkeys is provided and preliminary data are presented and discussed.

  14. Cocaine is pharmacologically active in the nonhuman primate fetal brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, Helene; Fowler, Joanna S; Rooney, William D

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third-trimester ......Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third......-trimester pregnant nonhuman primates, cocaine at doses typically used by drug abusers significantly increased brain glucose metabolism to the same extent in the mother as in the fetus (approximately 100%). Inasmuch as brain glucose metabolism is a sensitive marker of brain function, the current findings provide...

  15. Primate vocalization, gesture, and the evolution of human language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A; Liebal, Katja; Pika, Simone

    2008-12-01

    The performance of language is multimodal, not confined to speech. Review of monkey and ape communication demonstrates greater flexibility in the use of hands and body than for vocalization. Nonetheless, the gestural repertoire of any group of nonhuman primates is small compared with the vocabulary of any human language and thus, presumably, of the transitional form called protolanguage. We argue that it was the coupling of gestural communication with enhanced capacities for imitation that made possible the emergence of protosign to provide essential scaffolding for protospeech in the evolution of protolanguage. Similarly, we argue against a direct evolutionary path from nonhuman primate vocalization to human speech. The analysis refines aspects of the mirror system hypothesis on the role of the primate brain's mirror system for manual action in evolution of the human language-ready brain.

  16. Morphology of the shoulder muscles in Sapajus apella (Primates: Cebidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Oliveira Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of nonhuman primates has been very important, due to the similarities with the human species. Many animal species, especially primates, have been used in medical and biological researches. Sapajus apella is a species with usual and abundant incidence in the Southeastern Region. This paper aimed to study the stabilizing muscles of the shoulder in the tufted capuchin monkey and compare them to those in human beings, with the purpose of providing information to anatomical and functional interpretations which will be useful for further studies on comparative anatomy. Four specimens of S. apella from the Human Anatomy Laboratory of Universidade Federal de Uberlandia were used. The specimens were prepared through dissection of the stabilizing muscles of the shoulder and preserved in formaldehyde solution. It was observed that the shoulder stabilizing muscles of the S. apella present morphological similarities, regarding origin and branching, with those found in human beings, as well as in other primates.

  17. The Jaw Adductor Resultant and Estimated Bite Force in Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. G. Perry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We reconstructed the jaw adductor resultant in 34 primate species using new data on muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA and data on skull landmarks. Based on predictions by Greaves, the resultant should (1 cross the jaw at 30% of its length, (2 lie directly posterior to the last molar, and (3 incline more anteriorly in primates that need not resist large anteriorly-directed forces. We found that the resultant lies significantly posterior to its predicted location, is significantly posterior to the last molar, and is significantly more anteriorly inclined in folivores than in frugivores. Perhaps primates emphasize avoiding temporomandibular joint distraction and/or wide gapes at the expense of bite force. Our exploration of trends in the data revealed that estimated bite force varies with body mass (but not diet and is significantly greater in strepsirrhines than in anthropoids. This might be related to greater contribution from the balancing-side jaw adductors in anthropoids.

  18. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Primate dietary ecology in the context of food mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiner-Collier, Susan; Scott, Robert S; Chalk-Wilayto, Janine; Cheyne, Susan M; Constantino, Paul; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Elgart, Alison A; Glowacka, Halszka; Loyola, Laura C; Ossi-Lupo, Kerry; Raguet-Schofield, Melissa; Talebi, Mauricio G; Sala, Enrico A; Sieradzy, Pawel; Taylor, Andrea B; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wright, Barth W; Yamashita, Nayuta; Lucas, Peter W; Vogel, Erin R

    2016-09-01

    Substantial variation exists in the mechanical properties of foods consumed by primate species. This variation is known to influence food selection and ingestion among non-human primates, yet no large-scale comparative study has examined the relationships between food mechanical properties and feeding strategies. Here, we present comparative data on the Young's modulus and fracture toughness of natural foods in the diets of 31 primate species. We use these data to examine the relationships between food mechanical properties and dietary quality, body mass, and feeding time. We also examine the relationship between food mechanical properties and categorical concepts of diet that are often used to infer food mechanical properties. We found that traditional dietary categories, such as folivory and frugivory, did not faithfully track food mechanical properties. Additionally, our estimate of dietary quality was not significantly correlated with either toughness or Young's modulus. We found a complex relationship among food mechanical properties, body mass, and feeding time, with a potential interaction between median toughness and body mass. The relationship between mean toughness and feeding time is straightforward: feeding time increases as toughness increases. However, when considering median toughness, the relationship with feeding time may depend upon body mass, such that smaller primates increase their feeding time in response to an increase in median dietary toughness, whereas larger primates may feed for shorter periods of time as toughness increases. Our results emphasize the need for additional studies quantifying the mechanical and chemical properties of primate diets so that they may be meaningfully compared to research on feeding behavior and jaw morphology.

  20. Scaling of cerebral blood perfusion in primates and marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S; Angove, Sophie E; Snelling, Edward P; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of primates involved increasing body size, brain size and presumably cognitive ability. Cognition is related to neural activity, metabolic rate and rate of blood flow to the cerebral cortex. These parameters are difficult to quantify in living animals. This study shows that it is possible to determine the rate of cortical brain perfusion from the size of the internal carotid artery foramina in skulls of certain mammals, including haplorrhine primates and diprotodont marsupials. We quantify combined blood flow rate in both internal carotid arteries as a proxy of brain metabolism in 34 species of haplorrhine primates (0.116-145 kg body mass) and compare it to the same analysis for 19 species of diprotodont marsupials (0.014-46 kg). Brain volume is related to body mass by essentially the same exponent of 0.70 in both groups. Flow rate increases with haplorrhine brain volume to the 0.95 power, which is significantly higher than the exponent (0.75) expected for most organs according to 'Kleiber's Law'. By comparison, the exponent is 0.73 in marsupials. Thus, the brain perfusion rate increases with body size and brain size much faster in primates than in marsupials. The trajectory of cerebral perfusion in primates is set by the phylogenetically older groups (New and Old World monkeys, lesser apes) and the phylogenetically younger groups (great apes, including humans) fall near the line, with the highest perfusion. This may be associated with disproportionate increases in cortical surface area and mental capacity in the highly social, larger primates.

  1. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  2. Z-DNA immunoreactivity in fixed metaphase chromosomes of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas-Péquignot, E; Derbin, C; Malfoy, B; Taillandier, E; Leng, M; Dutrillaux, B

    1983-10-01

    Antibodies against Z-DNA bind to fixed metaphase chromosomes of man and Cebus albifrons (Platyrrhini, Primate). By indirect immunofluorescence and indirect immunoperoxidase techniques, a heavy staining is detected in some segments of chromosomes of C. albifrons. These segments correspond to R-band-positive heterochromatin, which has a high G + C-base content. Euchromatin of human and Cebus chromosomes show a weak and heterogeneous staining that consistently reproduces an R- and T-banding pattern in both species. Because chromosome homologies previously were demonstrated between these distantly related species by chromosome banding, our results suggest that Z-DNA has been conserved during the course of primate evolution.

  3. Primate-Specific Evolution of an LDLR Enhancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Wang, Qianben; Moses, Alan M.; Chanan, Sumita; Brown, Myles; Eisen, Michael B.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin,Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2006-06-28

    Sequence changes in regulatory regions have often beeninvoked to explain phenotypic divergence among species, but molecularexamples of this have been difficult to obtain. In this study, weidentified an anthropoid primate specific sequence element thatcontributed to the regulatory evolution of the LDL receptor. Using acombination of close and distant species genomic sequence comparisonscoupled with in vivo and in vitro studies, we show that a functionalcholesterol-sensing sequence motif arose and was fixed within apre-existing enhancer in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Ourstudy demonstrates one molecular mechanism by which ancestral mammalianregulatory elements can evolve to perform new functions in the primatelineage leading to human.

  4. Variabilidad del microdesgaste dental bucal en primates catarrhini

    OpenAIRE

    Galbany, Jordi; Romero, Alejandro; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    El análisis del patrón de microestriación dental ha demostrado ser un buen indicador de la dieta y del comportamiento relacionado con la alimentación de los humanos modernos, los primates actuales, homínidos y primates fósiles, incluso entre poblaciones de la misma especie. La composición de la dieta, así como el entorno ecológico o la presencia de polvo u otras partículas abrasivas en los alimentos están relacionados con la formación del microdesgaste dental en el esmalte de las superficies ...

  5. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonhuman primates. 3.87 Section 3.87 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.87 Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and...

  6. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist on primordial follicle survival in the primate ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaman, Jill; Arbogast, Laura K; Friedman, Chad I; Danforth, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist on primordial follicle reserve in the primate ovary. A prospective basic research study in which 10 juvenile cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) had 1 ovary surgically removed. Six animals were then treated with the GnRH antagonist antide (1.0 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, and 4 animals were treated with vehicle. After treatment the contralateral ovary was removed and both ovaries were prepared for assessment of primordial, primary, and secondary follicle numbers. Antide treatment resulted in a modest (13%) but significant decrease in primordial follicle number in juvenile macaques (p = 0.048, n = 6). Three animals demonstrated a marked reduction in primordial follicles (19%, 25%, 36%) and 3 animals had no (primordial follicles after antide treatment. Control animals demonstrated no change in primordial follicle number following vehicle treatment. Antide had no effect on primary, secondary, or early antral follicle numbers and did not affect circulating estradiol concentrations. In contrast to mice, in which GnRH antagonist treatment markedly reduces primordial follicle reserve, the effect of antide in nonhuman primates was less dramatic and somewhat variable. These data suggest there may be a subset of animals susceptible to the adverse effects of GnRH antagonist on primordial follicle survival.

  7. Light-dark cycle synchronization of circadian rhythm in blind primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Alex M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, several papers have shown that a small subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, which project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and contain a new photopigment called melanopsin, are the photoreceptors involved in light-dark entrainment in rodents. In our primate colony, we found a couple of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus that had developed progressive and spontaneous visual deficiency, most likely because of retinal degeneration of cones and/or rods. In this study, we evaluated the photoresponsiveness of the circadian system of these blind marmosets. Methods Two blind and two normal marmosets were kept in cages with a controlled light-dark cycle (LD to study photoentrainment, masking, and phase response to a dark pulse. Results Blind marmosets were entrained with the new LD cycle when light onsets were delayed and advanced by 6 hours. In constant light conditions, blind marmosets free-ran with a period of 23.2 hours, while normal animals free-ran with a period of 23.6 hours. All marmosets responded to dark pulses in the early subjective day with phase delays and with phase advances in the late subjective day. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that light can synchronize circadian rhythms of blind marmosets and consequently, that this species could be a good primate model for circadian photoreception studies.

  8. Human object-similarity judgments reflect and transcend the primate-IT object representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eMur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Primate inferior temporal (IT cortex is thought to contain a high-level representation of objects at the interface between vision and semantics. This suggests that the perceived similarity of real-world objects might be predicted from the IT representation. Here we show that objects that elicit similar activity patterns in human IT tend to be judged as similar by humans. The IT representation explained the human judgments better than early visual cortex, other ventral stream regions, and a range of computational models. Human similarity judgments exhibited category clusters that reflected several categorical divisions that are prevalent in the IT representation of both human and monkey, including the animate/inanimate and the face/body division. Human judgments also reflected the within-category representation of IT. However, the judgments transcended the IT representation in that they introduced additional categorical divisions. In particular, human judgments emphasized human-related additional divisions between human and nonhuman animals and between man-made and natural objects. Human IT was more similar to monkey IT than to human judgments. One interpretation is that IT has evolved visual feature detectors that distinguish between animates and inanimates and between faces and bodies because these divisions are fundamental to survival and reproduction for all primate species, and that other brain systems serve to more flexibly introduce species-dependent and evolutionarily more recent divisions.

  9. A Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Model in Non-Human Primates (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salegio, Ernesto A; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Sparrey, Carolyn J; Camisa, William; Fischer, Jason; Leasure, Jeremi; Buckley, Jennifer; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S; Rosenzweig, Ephron S; Moseanko, Rod; Strand, Sarah; Hawbecker, Stephanie; Lemoy, Marie-Josee; Haefeli, Jenny; Ma, Xiaokui; Nielson, Jessica L; Edgerton, V R; Ferguson, Adam R; Tuszynski, Mark H; Beattie, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    The development of a non-human primate (NHP) model of spinal cord injury (SCI) based on mechanical and computational modeling is described. We scaled up from a rodent model to a larger primate model using a highly controllable, friction-free, electronically-driven actuator to generate unilateral C6-C7 spinal cord injuries. Graded contusion lesions with varying degrees of functional recovery, depending upon pre-set impact parameters, were produced in nine NHPs. Protocols and pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to optimize the predictability of outcomes by matching impact protocols to the size of each animal's spinal canal, cord, and cerebrospinal fluid space. Post-operative MRI confirmed lesion placement and provided information on lesion volume and spread for comparison with histological measures. We evaluated the relationships between impact parameters, lesion measures, and behavioral outcomes, and confirmed that these relationships were consistent with our previous studies in the rat. In addition to providing multiple univariate outcome measures, we also developed an integrated outcome metric describing the multivariate cervical SCI syndrome. Impacts at the higher ranges of peak force produced highly lateralized and enduring deficits in multiple measures of forelimb and hand function, while lower energy impacts produced early weakness followed by substantial recovery but enduring deficits in fine digital control (e.g., pincer grasp). This model provides a clinically relevant system in which to evaluate the safety and, potentially, the efficacy of candidate translational therapies.

  10. The effect of head-down tilt and water immersion on intracranial pressure in nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Lanny C.; Mckeever, Kenneth H.; Skidmore, Michael G.; Hines, John; Severs, Walter B.

    1992-01-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) is investigated in primates during and after -6-deg head-down tilt (HDT) and immersion in water to examine the effects of the headward fluid shift related to spaceflight. Following the HDT the primates are subjected to head-out thermoneutral water immersion, and the ICP is subsequently measured. ICP is found to increase from 3.8 +/- 1.1 to 5.3 +/- 1.3 mm Hg during the horizontal control period. ICP stabilizes at -6.3 +/- 1.3 mm Hg and then increases to -2.2 +/- 1.9 mm Hg during partial immersion, and ICP subsequently returns to preimmersion levels after immersion. These data indicate that exposure to HDT or water immersion lead to an early sharp increase in ICP, and water immersion alone leads to higher ICP levels. A significant conclusion of the work is that the ICP did not approach pathological levels, and this finding is relevant to human spaceflight research.

  11. Loss of naive T cells and repertoire constriction predict poor response to vaccination in old primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicin-Sain, Luka; Smyk-Pearson, Susan; Smyk-Paerson, Sue; Currier, Noreen; Byrd, Laura; Koudelka, Caroline; Robinson, Tammie; Swarbrick, Gwendolyn; Tackitt, Shane; Legasse, Alfred; Fischer, Miranda; Nikolich-Zugich, Dragana; Park, Byung; Hobbs, Theodore; Doane, Cynthia J; Mori, Motomi; Axthelm, Michael K; Axthelm, Michael T; Lewinsohn, Deborah A; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko

    2010-06-15

    Aging is usually accompanied by diminished immune protection upon infection or vaccination. Although aging results in well-characterized changes in the T cell compartment of long-lived, outbred, and pathogen-exposed organisms, their relevance for primary Ag responses remain unclear. Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the loss of naive T cells, their partial replacement by oligoclonal memory populations, and the consequent constriction of TCR repertoire limit the Ag responses in aging primates. We show in this study that aging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exhibit poor CD8 T cell and B cell responses in the blood and poor CD8 responses in the lungs upon vaccination with the modified vaccinia strain Ankara. The function of APCs appeared to be maintained in aging monkeys, suggesting that the poor response was likely intrinsic to lymphocytes. We found that the loss of naive CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the appearance of persisting T cell clonal expansions predicted poor CD8 responses in individual monkeys. There was strong correlation between early CD8 responses in the transitory CD28+ CD62L- CD8+ T cell compartment and the peak Ab titers upon boost in individual animals, as well as a correlation of both parameters of immune response to the frequency of naive CD8+ T cells in old but not in adult monkeys. Therefore, our results argue that T cell repertoire constriction and naive cell loss have prognostic value for global immune function in aging primates.

  12. Human Object-Similarity Judgments Reflect and Transcend the Primate-IT Object Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, Marieke; Meys, Mirjam; Bodurka, Jerzy; Goebel, Rainer; Bandettini, Peter A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Primate inferior temporal (IT) cortex is thought to contain a high-level representation of objects at the interface between vision and semantics. This suggests that the perceived similarity of real-world objects might be predicted from the IT representation. Here we show that objects that elicit similar activity patterns in human IT (hIT) tend to be judged as similar by humans. The IT representation explained the human judgments better than early visual cortex, other ventral-stream regions, and a range of computational models. Human similarity judgments exhibited category clusters that reflected several categorical divisions that are prevalent in the IT representation of both human and monkey, including the animate/inanimate and the face/body division. Human judgments also reflected the within-category representation of IT. However, the judgments transcended the IT representation in that they introduced additional categorical divisions. In particular, human judgments emphasized human-related additional divisions between human and non-human animals and between man-made and natural objects. hIT was more similar to monkey IT than to human judgments. One interpretation is that IT has evolved visual-feature detectors that distinguish between animates and inanimates and between faces and bodies because these divisions are fundamental to survival and reproduction for all primate species, and that other brain systems serve to more flexibly introduce species-dependent and evolutionarily more recent divisions.

  13. Evolutionary modeling and correcting for observation error support a 3/5 brain-body allometry for primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Voje, Kjetil L; Hansen, Thomas F

    2016-05-01

    The tight brain-body allometry across mammals and primates has motivated and informed many hypotheses about brain evolution in humans and other taxa. While a 2/3 or a 3/4 scaling is often at the core of such research, such exponents are derived from estimates based on particular statistical and evolutionary assumptions without careful consideration of how either may influence findings. Here we quantify primate brain-body allometry using phylogenetic comparative methods based on models of both adaptive and constrained evolution, and estimate and account for observational error in both response and predictor variables. Our results supported an evolutionary model in which brain size is directly constrained to evolve in unison with body size, rather than adapting to changes in the latter. The effects of controlling for phylogeny and observation error were substantial, and our analysis yielded a novel 3/5 scaling exponent for primate brain-body evolutionary allometry. Using this exponent with the latest brain- and body-size estimates to calculate new encephalization quotients for apes, humans, and fossil hominins, we found early hominins were substantially more encephalized than previously thought. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "Vision for Action" in Young Children Aligning Multi-Featured Objects: Development and Comparison with Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragaszy, Dorothy Munkenbeck; Kuroshima, Hika; Stone, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Effective vision for action and effective management of concurrent spatial relations underlie skillful manipulation of objects, including hand tools, in humans. Children's performance in object insertion tasks (fitting tasks) provides one index of the striking changes in the development of vision for action in early life. Fitting tasks also tap children's ability to work with more than one feature of an object concurrently. We examine young children's performance on fitting tasks in two and three dimensions and compare their performance with the previously reported performance of adult individuals of two species of nonhuman primates on similar tasks. Two, three, and four year-old children routinely aligned a bar-shaped stick and a cross-shaped stick but had difficulty aligning a tomahawk-shaped stick to a matching cut-out. Two year-olds were especially challenged by the tomahawk. Three and four year-olds occasionally held the stick several inches above the surface, comparing the stick to the surface visually, while trying to align it. The findings suggest asynchronous development in the ability to use vision to achieve alignment and to work with two and three spatial features concurrently. Using vision to align objects precisely to other objects and managing more than one spatial relation between an object and a surface are already more elaborated in two year-old humans than in other primates. The human advantage in using hand tools derives in part from this fundamental difference in the relation between vision and action between humans and other primates.

  15. Oldest skeleton of a plesiadapiform provides additional evidence for an exclusively arboreal radiation of stem primates in the Palaeocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Stephen G. B.; Williamson, Thomas E.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Silcox, Mary T.; Sargis, Eric J.

    2017-05-01

    Palaechthonid plesiadapiforms from the Palaeocene of western North America have long been recognized as among the oldest and most primitive euarchontan mammals, a group that includes extant primates, colugos and treeshrews. Despite their relatively sparse fossil record, palaechthonids have played an important role in discussions surrounding adaptive scenarios for primate origins for nearly a half-century. Likewise, palaechthonids have been considered important for understanding relationships among plesiadapiforms, with members of the group proposed as plausible ancestors of Paromomyidae and Microsyopidae. Here, we describe a dentally associated partial skeleton of Torrejonia wilsoni from the early Palaeocene (approx. 62 Ma) of New Mexico, which is the oldest known plesiadapiform skeleton and the first postcranial elements recovered for a palaechthonid. Results from a cladistic analysis that includes new data from this skeleton suggest that palaechthonids are a paraphyletic group of stem primates, and that T. wilsoni is most closely related to paromomyids. New evidence from the appendicular skeleton of T. wilsoni fails to support an influential hypothesis based on inferences from craniodental morphology that palaechthonids were terrestrial. Instead, the postcranium of T. wilsoni indicates that it was similar to that of all other plesiadapiforms for which skeletons have been recovered in having distinct specializations consistent with arboreality.

  16. Trypanosomes of non-human primates from the National Centre of Primates, Ananindeua, State of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziccardi Mariangela

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosome infections were sought in 46 non-human primates captured principally in Amazonian Brazil. Twenty-two (47.8% were infected with four Trypanosoma species: T. cruzi, T. minasense, T. devei and T. rangeli. These preliminary results confirmed the high prevalence and diversity of natural infections with trypanosomes in primates from Brazilian Amazon and were the first formal record of simian infections with trypanosomes in the State of Acre. The presence of T. cruzi-like and T. rangeli-like parasites are recorded in four new hosts.

  17. Using non-human primates to benefit humans: research and organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Emerging biotechnology may soon allow the creation of genetically human organs inside animals, with non-human primates (henceforth simply "primates") and pigs being the best candidate species. This prospect raises the question of whether creating organs in primates in order to then transplant them into humans would be more (or less) acceptable than using them for research. In this paper, we examine the validity of the purported moral distinction between primates and other animals, and analyze the ethical acceptability of using primates to create organs for human use.

  18. [Leptospiral antibodies in a Colombian zoo's neotropical primates and workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Marlyn H; Astudillo, Miryam; Sánchez, Jorge A; González, Lina M; Varela, Néstor

    2011-10-01

    Detecting antibodies against Leptospira spp. in Neotropical primates and workers in a Colombian Zoo and identifying the risk factors associated with the disease. A cross-sectional study was performed regarding 65 Neotropical primates and 20 zookeepers. The samples were processed by microagglutination test (MAT) using a reference strain collection consisting of 21 Leptospira serovars. The people being evaluated were given a structured survey to identify risk factors. There was 25 % (5/20) Leptospira spp. infection seroprevalence in the staff and 23.07 % (15/65) in Neotropical monkeys. The most frequently occurring serovars in workers were bataviae, gryppotyphosa and ranarum; icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona and ranarum were the predominant serovars in non-human primates. The black spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps), white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons) and white-footed tamarin (Saguinus leucopus) showed the highest reactivity. Most of the personnel were using protective clothing. The contact between primates and zookeepers involving different Leptospira sp. serovars was evident. Zoo personnel using protective clothing and their length of experience were considered to be protective factors for the disease. There may be a risk of Leptospira transmission between zoo animals and staff, and it is therefore important to strengthen active surveillance and implement promotion and prevention programs.

  19. The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterck, E.H.M.; Watts, David P.; Schaik, C.P. van

    2002-01-01

    Considerable interspecifc variation in female social relationships occurs in gregarious primates, par- ticularly with regard to agonism and cooperation be- tween females and to the quality of female relationships with males. This variation exists alongside variation in female philopatry and dispersa

  20. Differences in auditory timing between human and nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; Merchant, H.

    2014-01-01

    The gradual audiomotor evolution hypothesis is proposed as an alternative interpretation to the auditory timing mechanisms discussed in Ackermann et al.'s article. This hypothesis accommodates the fact that the performance of nonhuman primates is comparable to humans in single-interval tasks (such

  1. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife.

  2. Human parainfluenza virus type 3 in wild nonhuman primates, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Michihito; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Thomas, Yuka; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Mweene, Aaron S; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) genome was detected in 4 baboons in Zambia. Antibody for HPIV3 was detected in 13 baboons and 6 vervet monkeys in 2 distinct areas in Zambia. Our findings suggest that wild nonhuman primates are susceptible to HPIV3 infection.

  3. A survey of diabetes prevalence in zoo-housed primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, C W; Fuller, G A; Dennis, P M

    2013-01-01

    In humans, type II diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas is capable of producing insulin but cells do not appropriately respond to insulin with an uptake of glucose. While multiple factors are associated with type II diabetes in humans, a high calorie diet and limited exercise are significant risk factors for the development of this disease. Zoo primates, with relatively high caloric density diets and sedentary lifestyles, may experience similar conditions that could predispose them to the development of diabetes. We surveyed all Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) facilities with primates in their collections to determine the prevalence of diabetes, diagnosis and treatment methods, and treatment outcomes. Nearly 30% of responding institutions reported at least one diabetic primate in their current collection. Although the majority of reported cases were in Old World Monkeys (51%), all major taxonomic groups were represented. Females represented nearly 80% of the diagnosed cases. A wide variety of diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment techniques were reported. It is clear from these results diabetes should be considered prominently in decisions relating to diet, weight and activity levels in zoo-housed primates, as well as discussions surrounding animal health and welfare.

  4. Unique pattern of enzootic primate viruses in Gibraltar macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Pizarro, Mark; Shaw, Eric; Cortes, John; Fuentes, Agustin; Barry, Peter; Lerche, Nicholas; Grant, Richard; Cohn, Douglas; Jones-Engel, Lisa

    2008-07-01

    Because Gibraltar's macaques (Macaca sylvanus) have frequent contact with humans, we assayed 79 macaques for antibodies to enzootic primate viruses. All macaques were seronegative for herpesvirus B, simian T-cell lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus, and rhesus cytomegalovirus. Seroprevalence of simian foamy virus reached 88% among adult animals.

  5. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  6. Chromosomal evolution of the PKD1 gene family in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczak Michael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Kirsch S, Pasantes J, Wolf A, Bogdanova N, Münch C, Pennekamp P, Krawczak M, Dworniczak B, Schempp W: Chromosomal evolution of the PKD1 gene family in primates. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008, 8:263 (doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-263

  7. Nonhuman Primates Prefer Slow Tempos but Dislike Music Overall

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21]…

  8. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: Contributions from Comparative Research with Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental psychology is a discipline that has the potential to integrate conceptual approaches to the study of behavioral development derived from psychology and biology as well as empirical data from humans and animals. Comparative research with animals, and especially with nonhuman primates, can provide evidence of adaptation in…

  9. Molecular Evolution of the Glycosyltransferase 6 Gene Family in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Mattos, Patricia Jeanne de Souza; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Glycosyltransferase 6 gene family includes ABO, Ggta1, iGb3S, and GBGT1 genes and by three putative genes restricted to mammals, GT6m6, GTm6, and GT6m7, only the latter is found in primates. GT6 genes may encode functional and nonfunctional proteins. Ggta1 and GBGT1 genes, for instance, are pseudogenes in catarrhine primates, while iGb3S gene is only inactive in human, bonobo, and chimpanzee. Even inactivated, these genes tend to be conversed in primates. As some of the GT6 genes are related to the susceptibility or resistance to parasites, we investigated (i) the selective pressure on the GT6 paralogs genes in primates; (ii) the basis of the conservation of iGb3S in human, chimpanzee, and bonobo; and (iii) the functional potential of the GBGT1 and GT6m7 in catarrhines. We observed that the purifying selection is prevalent and these genes have a low diversity, though ABO and Ggta1 genes have some sites under positive selection. GT6m7, a putative gene associated with aggressive periodontitis, may have regulatory function, but experimental studies are needed to assess its function. The evolutionary conservation of iGb3S in humans, chimpanzee, and bonobo seems to be the result of proximity to genes with important biological functions. PMID:28044107

  10. A SINE-based dichotomous key for primate identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herke, Scott W; Xing, Jinchuan; Ray, David A; Zimmerman, Jacquelyn W; Cordaux, Richard; Batzer, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    For DNA samples or 'divorced' tissues, identifying the organism from which they were taken generally requires some type of analytical method. The ideal approach would be robust even in the hands of a novice, requiring minimal equipment, time, and effort. Genotyping SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) is such an approach as it requires only PCR-related equipment, and the analysis consists solely of interpreting fragment sizes in agarose gels. Modern primate genomes are known to contain lineage-specific insertions of Alu elements (a primate-specific SINE); thus, to demonstrate the utility of this approach, we used members of the Alu family to identify DNA samples from evolutionarily divergent primate species. For each node of a combined phylogenetic tree (56 species; n=8 [Hominids]; 11 [New World monkeys]; 21 [Old World monkeys]; 2 [Tarsiformes]; and, 14 [Strepsirrhines]), we tested loci (>400 in total) from prior phylogenetic studies as well as newly identified elements for their ability to amplify in all 56 species. Ultimately, 195 loci were selected for inclusion in this Alu-based key for primate identification. This dichotomous SINE-based key is best used through hierarchical amplification, with the starting point determined by the level of initial uncertainty regarding sample origin. With newly emerging genome databases, finding informative retrotransposon insertions is becoming much more rapid; thus, the general principle of using SINEs to identify organisms is broadly applicable.

  11. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  12. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  13. Human quadrupeds, primate quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza J Shapiro

    Full Text Available Since 2005, an extensive literature documents individuals from several families afflicted with "Uner Tan Syndrome (UTS," a condition that in its most extreme form is characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, loss of balance and coordination, impaired cognitive abilities, and habitual quadrupedal gait on hands and feet. Some researchers have interpreted habitual use of quadrupedalism by these individuals from an evolutionary perspective, suggesting that it represents an atavistic expression of our quadrupedal primate ancestry or "devolution." In support of this idea, individuals with "UTS" are said to use diagonal sequence quadrupedalism, a type of quadrupedal gait that distinguishes primates from most other mammals. Although the use of primate-like quadrupedal gait in humans would not be sufficient to support the conclusion of evolutionary "reversal," no quantitative gait analyses were presented to support this claim. Using standard gait analysis of 518 quadrupedal strides from video sequences of individuals with "UTS", we found that these humans almost exclusively used lateral sequence-not diagonal sequence-quadrupedal gaits. The quadrupedal gait of these individuals has therefore been erroneously described as primate-like, further weakening the "devolution" hypothesis. In fact, the quadrupedalism exhibited by individuals with UTS resembles that of healthy adult humans asked to walk quadrupedally in an experimental setting. We conclude that quadrupedalism in healthy adults or those with a physical disability can be explained using biomechanical principles rather than evolutionary assumptions.

  14. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly repo

  15. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; Ham, van der Ineke J.M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; Wezel, van Richard J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly repo

  16. Monkeys in space: primate neural data suggest volumetric representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehky, Sidney R; Sereno, Anne B; Sereno, Margaret E

    2013-10-01

    The target article does not consider neural data on primate spatial representations, which we suggest provide grounds for believing that navigational space may be three-dimensional rather than quasi-two-dimensional. Furthermore, we question the authors' interpretation of rat neurophysiological data as indicating that the vertical dimension may be encoded in a neural structure separate from the two horizontal dimensions.

  17. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.; Postma, A.; Ham, I.J. van der; Klink, P.C.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly repo

  18. Molecules and mating: positive selection and reproductive behaviour in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Leslie A; Innocent, Simeon H S

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is generally thought to be more costly than asexual reproduction. However, it does have the advantage of accelerating rates of adaptation through processes such as recombination and positive selection. Comparative studies of the human and nonhuman primate genomes have demonstrated that positive selection has played an important role in the evolutionary history of humans and other primates. To date, many dozens of genes, thought to be affected by positive selection, have been identified. In this chapter, we will focus on genes that are associated with mating behaviours and reproductive processes, concentrating on genes that are most likely to enhance reproductive success and that also show evidence of positive selection. The genes encode phenotypic features that potentially influence mate choice decisions or impact the evolution and function of genes involved in the perception and regulation of, and the response to, phenotypic signals. We will also consider genes that influence precopulatory behavioural traits in humans and nonhuman primates, such as social bonding and aggression. The evolution of post-copulatory strategies such as sperm competition and selective abortion may also evolve in the presence of intense competition and these adaptations will also be considered. Although behaviour may not be solely determined by genes, the evidence suggests that the genes discussed in this chapter have some influence on human and nonhuman primate behaviour and that positive selection on these genes results in some degree of population differentiation and diversity.

  19. Alopecia: possible causes and treatments, particularly in captive nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2009-02-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) occurs in some nonhuman primates housed in captivity and is of concern to colony managers and veterinarians. Here we review the characteristics, potential causes, and treatments for this condition. Although we focus on nonhuman primates, relevant research on other mammalian species is discussed also, due to the relative paucity of studies on alopecia in the primate literature. We first discuss the cycle of hair growth and explain how this cycle can be disrupted to produce alopecia. Numerous factors may be related to hair loss and range from naturally occurring processes (for example, seasonality, aging) to various biologic dysfunctions, including vitamin and mineral imbalances, endocrine disorders, immunologic diseases, and genetic mutations. We also address bacterial and fungal infections, infestation by parasites, and atopic dermatitis as possible causes of alopecia. Finally, we examine the role of psychogenic factors, such as stress. Depending on the presumed cause of the hair loss, various treatment strategies can be pursued. Alopecia in nonhuman primates is a multifaceted disorder with many potential sources. For this reason, appropriate testing for various disease conditions should be completed before alopecia is considered to be related to stress.

  20. Molecular Evolution of the Glycosyltransferase 6 Gene Family in Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Evanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosyltransferase 6 gene family includes ABO, Ggta1, iGb3S, and GBGT1 genes and by three putative genes restricted to mammals, GT6m6, GTm6, and GT6m7, only the latter is found in primates. GT6 genes may encode functional and nonfunctional proteins. Ggta1 and GBGT1 genes, for instance, are pseudogenes in catarrhine primates, while iGb3S gene is only inactive in human, bonobo, and chimpanzee. Even inactivated, these genes tend to be conversed in primates. As some of the GT6 genes are related to the susceptibility or resistance to parasites, we investigated (i the selective pressure on the GT6 paralogs genes in primates; (ii the basis of the conservation of iGb3S in human, chimpanzee, and bonobo; and (iii the functional potential of the GBGT1 and GT6m7 in catarrhines. We observed that the purifying selection is prevalent and these genes have a low diversity, though ABO and Ggta1 genes have some sites under positive selection. GT6m7, a putative gene associated with aggressive periodontitis, may have regulatory function, but experimental studies are needed to assess its function. The evolutionary conservation of iGb3S in humans, chimpanzee, and bonobo seems to be the result of proximity to genes with important biological functions.

  1. As Threats of Violence Escalate, Primate Researchers Stand Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Scientists doing research on primates are increasingly being subjected to threats and acts of violence from animal rights groups. The intimidation has resulted in many laboratories taking extensive security measures. Some scientists claim, however, that there is no surrogate for animal research in understanding human diseases. There are fears that…

  2. Nonhuman Primate IFITM Proteins Are Potent Inhibitors of HIV and SIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Wilkins

    Full Text Available Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM proteins are potent antiviral factors shown to restrict the infection of many enveloped viruses, including HIV. Here we report cloning and characterization of a panel of nonhuman primate IFITMs. We show that, similar to human IFITM, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins inhibit HIV and other primate lentiviruses. While some nonhuman primate IFITM proteins are more potent than human counterparts to inhibit HIV-1, they are generally not effective against HIV-2 similar to that of human IFITMs. Notably, depending on SIV strains and also IFITM species tested, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins exhibit distinct activities against SIVs; no correlation was found to support the notion that IFITM proteins are most active in non-natural primate hosts. Consistent with our recent findings for human IFITMs, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins interact with HIV-1 Env and strongly act in viral producer cells to impair viral infectivity and block cell-to-cell transmission. Accordingly, knockdown of primate IFITM3 increases HIV-1 replication in nohuman primate cells. Interestingly, analysis of DNA sequences of human and nonhuman primate IFITMs suggest that IFITM proteins have been undergoing purifying selection, rather than positive selection typical for cellular restriction factors. Overall, our study reveals some new and unexpected features of IFITMs in restricting primate lentiviruses, which enhances our understanding of virus-host interaction and AIDS pathogenesis.

  3. Quality management for the international transportation of non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Elmore

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Safe and humane transportation of live animals requires dedicated, informed personnel who carefully plan and attend to the details of appropriate animal care and handling throughout the shipping process. Specifically, although transportation of non-human primates shares goals common to all live animal transport, it also poses unique challenges stemming from the nature of these animals. Some of these unique challenges of transporting non-human primates, include the impact of public perception of non-human primates as cargo, maintaining biosecurity of non-human primate cargo, safety of both the non-human primate and public contacts, meeting the vital husbandry needs of varying species of non-human primates and compliance with numerous regulatory agencies, which may have overlapping responsibilities. This discussion will focus on these important considerations, as they relate to the legal international transportation of non-human primates for scientific use.

  4. Longitudinal characterization of Escherichia coli in healthy captive nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Clayton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tracts of nonhuman primates are well known to harbor Escherichia coli, a known commensal of humans and animals. While E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the mammalian gut, it also exists in a number of pathogenic forms or pathotypes, including those with predisposition for the GI tract, as well the urogenital tract. Diarrhea in captive nonhuman primates (NHPs has long been a problem in both zoo settings and research colonies, including the Como Zoo. It is an animal welfare concern, as well as a public health concern. E. coli has not been extensively studied in correlation with diarrhea in captive primates; therefore, a study was performed during the summer of 2009 in collaboration with a zoo in Saint Paul, MN, which was experiencing an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea among their NHP collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected weekly from each member of the primate collection, between June and August of 2009, and E. coli were isolated. A total of 33 individuals were included in the study, representing eight species. E. coli isolates were examined for their genetic relatedness, phylogenetic relationships, plasmid replicon types, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A number of isolates were identified containing virulence genes commonly found in several different E. coli pathotypes, and there was evidence of clonal transmission of isolates between animals and over time. Overall, the manifestation of chronic diarrhea in the Como Zoo primate collection is a complex problem whose solution will require regular screening for microbial agents and consideration of environmental causes. This study provides some insight towards the sharing of enteric bacteria between such animals.

  5. Survey of environmental enhancement programs for laboratory primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C; Weed, James L; Crockett, Carolyn M; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2007-04-01

    Animal welfare regulations in the United States require that nonhuman primate environmental enhancement plans be made in accordance with currently accepted professional standards; however, little information is available for quantifying common practice. Here we report the results of a 2003 survey that was sent to individuals overseeing enrichment programs at a variety of primate research institutions. The surveys requested information on program administration and management, implementation standards, procedures, and constraints pertaining to major categories of environmental enrichment, as well as intervention plans for animals exhibiting behavioral pathologies. Data were obtained on the management of 35,863 primates in 22 facilities. Behavioral scientists performed program oversight at the majority of facilities. Most programs reported recent changes, most commonly due to external site visits, and least commonly resulting from internal review. Most facilities' institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) included of individuals with behavioral expertise, and about two-thirds reported that enrichment issues could influence research protocol design. While most primates were reported to be housed socially (73%), social housing for indoor-housed primates appears to have changed little over the past 10 years. Research protocol issues and social incompatibility were commonly cited constraints. Implementation of feeding, manipulanda, and structural enrichment was relatively unconstrained, and contributions to these aspects of behavioral management generally included individuals in a wide variety of positions within a facility. In contrast, enrichment devices were used on a less widespread basis within facilities, and positive reinforcement programs that involved dedicated trainers were rare. We suggest that altering the role of the IACUC would be a productive avenue for increasing the implementation of social housing, and that an emphasis on prevention rather

  6. Indices of environmental temperatures for primates in open habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Russell A; Weingrill, Tony; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S Peter; Hill, Russel A; Barrett, Luise

    2004-01-01

    Studies of thermoregulation in primates are under-represented in the literature, although there is sufficient evidence to suggest that temperature represents an important ecological constraint. One of the problems in examining thermoregulation in primates, however, is the difficulty in quantifying the thermal environment, since shade temperatures, solar radiation, humidity and wind speed all serve to alter an animal's 'perceived' temperature. Since animals respond to their perceived temperature, we need methods to account for each of these factors, both individually and collectively, if we are to understand the integrated impact of the thermal environment on primates. Here, we present a review of some thermal indices currently available. Black bulb temperatures can account for the effect of solar radiation, with wind chill equivalent temperatures and the heat index providing quantifiable estimates of the relative impact of wind speed and humidity, respectively. We present three potential indices of the 'perceived environmental temperature' (PET) that account for the combined impact of solar radiation, humidity and wind speed on temperature, and perform a preliminary test of all of the climatic indices against behavioural data from a field study of chacma baboons ( Papio cynocephalus ursinus) at De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. One measure of the perceived environmental temperature, PET2, is an effective thermal index, since it enters the models for feeding and resting behaviour, and also accounts for levels of allogrooming. Solar radiation intensity is an important factor underlying these relationships, although the wind chill equivalent temperature and humidity enter the models for other behaviours. Future studies should thus be mindful of the impact of each of these elements of the thermal environment. A detailed understanding of primate thermoregulation will only come with the development of biophysical models of the thermal characteristics of the species

  7. Microcephaly genes and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in primate brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S H; Mundy, N I

    2013-04-01

    Microcephaly genes are amongst the most intensively studied genes with candidate roles in brain evolution. Early controversies surrounded the suggestion that they experienced differential selection pressures in different human populations, but several association studies failed to find any link between variation in microcephaly genes and brain size in humans. Recently, however, sex-dependent associations were found between variation in three microcephaly genes and human brain size, suggesting that these genes could contribute to the evolution of sexually dimorphic traits in the brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that microcephaly genes contribute to the evolution of sexual dimorphism in brain mass across anthropoid primates using a comparative approach. The results suggest a link between selection pressures acting on MCPH1 and CENPJ and different scores of sexual dimorphism. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Threonine 53 in α-synuclein is conserved in long-living non-primate animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Claus; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

    2009-01-01

    α-Synuclein is the main constituent of Lewy bodies in familial and sporadic cases of Parkinson's disease (PD). Autosomal dominant point mutations, gene duplications or triplications in the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene cause hereditary forms of PD. One of the α-synuclein point mutations, Ala53Thr......, is associated with increased oligomerization toxicity leading to familial early-onset PD in humans. The amino acid in position 53 in α-synuclein is an alanine in humans, great apes and Old World primates. However, this amino acid is a threonine in the α-synuclein of all other examined species, including New...... World monkeys. Here, we present DNA sequence analysis of SNCA and the deduced amino acid sequences of α-synuclein cloned from various different species, ranging from fish to mammals, which are known for their long-living potential. In all these investigated species the 53Thr is found. We conclude...

  9. Molecular estimates of primate divergences and new hypotheses for primate dispersal and the origin of modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, U; Gullberg, A; Burguete, A S; Janke, A

    2000-01-01

    The concept of recent hominoid divergences has been a mainstay in molecular primatology since the 1970's. However, the ages allocated to the calibration points used to establish these divergence times and the estimates resulting from their application, notably the commonly accepted divergence between Pan (chimpanzees) and Homo 5 million years before present (MYBP), are now palaeontologically refutable. Here we estimate the ages of various primate divergences using three references with a more detailed fossil record than any of the traditional primate calibration points. Our findings suggest that the latter yield datings that are too recent by a factor of about two. For example, our estimates place the divergence between Pan and Homo 10.5-13 MYBP. The revised estimates of primate divergence times suggest a new hypothesis for primate evolution and dispersal: that the divergence between strepsirhines (lorises, lemurs) and anthropoids was contemporary with the break-up of Southern continents about 90 MYBP, with strepsirhines becoming isolated on Madagascar and later dispersing to Africa (and Asia) and anthropoids evolving in South America and subsequently colonizing Africa (and Asia), or possibly North America. In addition we present a new hypothesis, which accommodates the strikingly similar coalescence times for human mitochondrial DNA and the Y-chromosome. This hypothesis posits a common mitochondrial and Y-chromosome bottleneck about 400,000 years ago, associated with the origination of the human 2n = 46 karyotype, obstructing genetic exchange with the 2n = 48 Homo contemporaries.

  10. Community ecology of the Middle Miocene primates of La Venta, Colombia: the relationship between ecological diversity, divergence time, and phylogenetic richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Brandon C

    2010-04-01

    It has been suggested that the degree of ecological diversity that characterizes a primate community correlates positively with both its phylogenetic richness and the time since the members of that community diverged (Fleagle and Reed in Primate communities. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 92-115, 1999). It is therefore questionable whether or not a community with a relatively recent divergence time but high phylogenetic richness would be as ecologically variable as a community with similar phylogenetic richness but a more distant divergence time. To address this question, the ecological diversity of a fossil primate community from La Venta, Colombia, a Middle Miocene platyrrhine community with phylogenetic diversity comparable with extant platyrrhine communities but a relatively short time since divergence, was compared with that of modern Neotropical primate communities. Shearing quotients and molar lengths, which together are reliable indicators of diet, for both fossil and extant species were plotted against each other to describe the dietary ''ecospace'' occupied by each community. Community diversity was calculated as the area of the minimum convex polygon encompassing all community members. The diversity of the fossil community was then compared with that of extant communities to test whether the fossil community was less diverse than extant communities while taking phylogenetic richness into account. Results indicate that the La Ventan community was not significantly less ecologically diverse than modern communities, supporting the idea that ecological diversification occurred along with phylogenetic diversification early in platyrrhine evolution.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of perfusion-diffusion mismatch in rodent and non-human primate stroke models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Timothy Q

    2013-06-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and long-term disability. Non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used for the early detection of ischemic stroke and the longitudinal monitoring of novel treatment strategies. Recent advances in MRI techniques have enabled improved sensitivity and specificity to detecting ischemic brain injury and monitoring functional recovery. This review describes recent progresses in the development and application of multimodal MRI and image analysis techniques to study experimental stroke in rats and non-human primates.

  12. Using naturalistic utterances to investigate vocal communication processing and development in human and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkington, William J; Taglialatela, Jared P; Lewis, James W

    2013-11-01

    Humans and several non-human primates possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). However, the use of speech and other broadly defined categories of behaviorally relevant natural sounds has led to many discrepancies regarding where voice-sensitivity occurs, and more generally the identification of cortical networks, "proto-networks" or protolanguage networks, and pathways that may be sensitive or selective for certain aspects of vocalization processing. In this prospective review we examine different approaches for exploring vocal communication processing, including pathways that may be, or become, specialized for conspecific utterances. In particular, we address the use of naturally produced non-stereotypical vocalizations (mimicry of other animal calls) as another category of vocalization for use with human and non-human primate auditory systems. We focus this review on two main themes, including progress and future ideas for studying vocalization processing in great apes (chimpanzees) and in very early stages of human development, including infants and fetuses. Advancing our understanding of the fundamental principles that govern the evolution and early development of cortical pathways for processing non-verbal communication utterances is expected to lead to better diagnoses and early intervention strategies in children with communication disorders, improve rehabilitation of communication disorders resulting from brain injury, and develop new strategies for intelligent hearing aid and implant design that can better enhance speech signals in noisy environments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives".

  13. Primates as Predictors of Mammal Community Diversity in the Forest Ecosystems of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Kathleen M.; Goodman, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of species is the typical metric for identifying priority areas for conservation. Since most biodiversity remains poorly studied, a subset of charismatic species, such as primates, often stand as surrogates for total biodiversity. A central question is therefore, how effectively do primates predict the pooled species richness of other mammalian taxa? We used lemurs as indicator species to predict total non-primate mammal community richness in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar. We combine environmental and species occurrence data to ascertain the extent to which primate diversity can predict (1) non-primate mammal α-diversity (species richness), (2) non-primate complementarity, and (3) non-primate β-diversity (species turnover). Our results indicate that primates are effective predictors of non-primate mammal community diversity in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar after controlling for habitat. When individual orders of mammals are considered, lemurs effectively predict the species richness of carnivorans and rodents (but not afrosoricids), complementarity of rodents (but not carnivorans or afrosoricids), and all individual components of β-diversity. We conclude that lemurs effectively predict total non-primate community richness. However, surrogate species alone cannot achieve complete representation of biodiversity. PMID:26334525

  14. Primates as Predictors of Mammal Community Diversity in the Forest Ecosystems of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Kathleen M; Goodman, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of species is the typical metric for identifying priority areas for conservation. Since most biodiversity remains poorly studied, a subset of charismatic species, such as primates, often stand as surrogates for total biodiversity. A central question is therefore, how effectively do primates predict the pooled species richness of other mammalian taxa? We used lemurs as indicator species to predict total non-primate mammal community richness in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar. We combine environmental and species occurrence data to ascertain the extent to which primate diversity can predict (1) non-primate mammal α-diversity (species richness), (2) non-primate complementarity, and (3) non-primate β-diversity (species turnover). Our results indicate that primates are effective predictors of non-primate mammal community diversity in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar after controlling for habitat. When individual orders of mammals are considered, lemurs effectively predict the species richness of carnivorans and rodents (but not afrosoricids), complementarity of rodents (but not carnivorans or afrosoricids), and all individual components of β-diversity. We conclude that lemurs effectively predict total non-primate community richness. However, surrogate species alone cannot achieve complete representation of biodiversity.

  15. Primate vocal communication: a useful tool for understanding human speech and language evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E

    2011-04-01

    Language is a uniquely human trait, and questions of how and why it evolved have been intriguing scientists for years. Nonhuman primates (primates) are our closest living relatives, and their behavior can be used to estimate the capacities of our extinct ancestors. As humans and many primate species rely on vocalizations as their primary mode of communication, the vocal behavior of primates has been an obvious target for studies investigating the evolutionary roots of human speech and language. By studying the similarities and differences between human and primate vocalizations, comparative research has the potential to clarify the evolutionary processes that shaped human speech and language. This review examines some of the seminal and recent studies that contribute to our knowledge regarding the link between primate calls and human language and speech. We focus on three main aspects of primate vocal behavior: functional reference, call combinations, and vocal learning. Studies in these areas indicate that despite important differences, primate vocal communication exhibits some key features characterizing human language. They also indicate, however, that some critical aspects of speech, such as vocal plasticity, are not shared with our primate cousins. We conclude that comparative research on primate vocal behavior is a very promising tool for deepening our understanding of the evolution of human speech and language, but much is still to be done as many aspects of monkey and ape vocalizations remain largely unexplored.

  16. Epigenetic reprogramming by somatic cell nuclear transfer in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparman, Michelle; Dighe, Vikas; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip; Ma, Hong; Ramsey, Cathy; Pedersen, Darlene; Clepper, Lisa; Nighot, Prashant; Wolf, Don; Hennebold, Jon; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2009-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that somatic cells from adult primates could be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the low efficiency with donor cells from one monkey necessitated the need for large oocyte numbers. Here, we demonstrate nearly threefold higher blastocyst development and embryonic stem (ES) cell derivation rates with different nuclear donor cells. Two ES cell lines were isolated using adult female rhesus macaque skin fibroblasts as nuclear donors and oocytes retrieved from one female, following a single controlled ovarian stimulation. In addition to routine pluripotency tests involving in vitro and in vivo differentiation into various somatic cell types, primate ES cells derived from reprogrammed somatic cells were also capable of contributing to cells expressing markers of germ cells. Moreover, imprinted gene expression, methylation, telomere length, and X-inactivation analyses were consistent with accurate and extensive epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cells by oocyte-specific factors.

  17. Comparative primate neurobiology and the evolution of brain language systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K

    2014-10-01

    Human brain specializations supporting language can be identified by comparing human with non-human primate brains. Comparisons with chimpanzees are critical in this endeavor. Human brains are much larger than non-human primate brains, but human language capabilities cannot be entirely explained by brain size. Human brain specializations that potentially support our capacity for language include firstly, wider cortical minicolumns in both Broca's and Wernicke's areas compared with great apes; secondly, leftward asymmetries in Broca's area volume and Wernicke's area minicolumn width that are not found in great apes; and thirdly, arcuate fasciculus projections beyond Wernicke's area to a region of expanded association cortex in the middle and inferior temporal cortex involved in processing word meaning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The origins of non-human primates' manual gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Katja; Call, Josep

    2012-01-12

    The increasing body of research into human and non-human primates' gestural communication reflects the interest in a comparative approach to human communication, particularly possible scenarios of language evolution. One of the central challenges of this field of research is to identify appropriate criteria to differentiate a gesture from other non-communicative actions. After an introduction to the criteria currently used to define non-human primates' gestures and an overview of ongoing research, we discuss different pathways of how manual actions are transformed into manual gestures in both phylogeny and ontogeny. Currently, the relationship between actions and gestures is not only investigated on a behavioural, but also on a neural level. Here, we focus on recent evidence concerning the differential laterality of manual actions and gestures in apes in the framework of a functional asymmetry of the brain for both hand use and language.

  19. Curing color blindness--mice and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2014-08-21

    It has been possible to use viral-mediated gene therapy to transform dichromatic (red-green color-blind) primates to trichromatic. Even though the third cone type was added after the end of developmental critical periods, treated animals acquired red-green color vision. What happened in the treated animals may represent a recapitulation of the evolution of trichromacy, which seems to have evolved with the acquisition of a third cone type without the need for subsequent modification to the circuitry. Some transgenic mice in which a third cone type was added also acquired trichromacy. However, compared with treated primates, red-green color vision in mice is poor, indicating large differences between mice and monkeys in their ability to take advantage of the new input. These results have implications for understanding the limits and opportunities for using gene therapy to treat vision disorders caused by defects in cone function. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  20. Curing Color Blindness—Mice and Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2014-01-01

    It has been possible to use viral-mediated gene therapy to transform dichromatic (red-green color-blind) primates to trichromatic. Even though the third cone type was added after the end of developmental critical periods, treated animals acquired red-green color vision. What happened in the treated animals may represent a recapitulation of the evolution of trichromacy, which seems to have evolved with the acquisition of a third cone type without the need for subsequent modification to the circuitry. Some transgenic mice in which a third cone type was added also acquired trichromacy. However, compared with treated primates, red-green color vision in mice is poor, indicating large differences between mice and monkeys in their ability to take advantage of the new input. These results have implications for understanding the limits and opportunities for using gene therapy to treat vision disorders caused by defects in cone function. PMID:25147187

  1. Localization of b-defensin genes in non human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ventura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Defensins are a family of host defence peptides that play an important role in the innate immunity of mammalian and avian species. In humans, four b-defensins have been isolated so far, corresponding to the products of the genes DEFB1 (h-BD1, GenBank accession number NM_005218; DEFB4 (h-Bd2, NM_004942.2, DEFB103 (h-BD3, NM_018661; and DEFB104 (hBD4, NM_080389 mapping on chromosome 8p23.22. We have localized b- defensin genes on metaphasic chromosomes of great apes and several non-human primate species to determine their physical mapping. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization and BAC probes containing the four b-defensin genes, we have mapped the homologous regions to the b-defensin genes on chromosome 8p23-p.22 in non-human primates, while no signals were detected on prosimians chromosomes.

  2. Non-Human Primate Models of Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schmitt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox, one of the most destructive diseases, has been successfully eradicated through a worldwide vaccination campaign. Since immunization programs have been stopped, the number of people with vaccinia virus induced immunity is declining. This leads to an increase in orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in humans, as well as in animals. Additionally, potential abuse of Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox, or monkeypox virus, as agents of bioterrorism, has renewed interest in development of antiviral therapeutics and of safer vaccines. Due to its high risk potential, research with VARV is restricted to two laboratories worldwide. Therefore, numerous animal models of other OPXV infections have been developed in the last decades. Non-human primates are especially suitable due to their close relationship to humans. This article provides a review about on non-human primate models of orthopoxvirus infections.

  3. Cocaine is pharmacologically active in the nonhuman primate fetal brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, Helene; Fowler, Joanna S; Rooney, William D

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third......-trimester pregnant nonhuman primates, cocaine at doses typically used by drug abusers significantly increased brain glucose metabolism to the same extent in the mother as in the fetus (approximately 100%). Inasmuch as brain glucose metabolism is a sensitive marker of brain function, the current findings provide...... evidence that cocaine use by a pregnant mother will also affect the function of the fetal brain. We are also unique in showing that cocaine's effects in brain glucose metabolism differed in pregnant (increased) and nonpregnant (decreased) animals, which suggests that the psychoactive effects of cocaine...

  4. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria;

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... priming. Replication deficient adenoviral vectors have been demonstrated to induce potent CD8+ T-cell response in mice, primates and humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether replication-deficient adenovectors could overcome the risk of overwhelming antigen stimulation during...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...

  5. Z-DNA immunoreactivity in fixed metaphase chromosomes of primates.

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas-Péquignot, E; Derbin, C; Malfoy, B; Taillandier, E; Leng, M; Dutrillaux, B

    1983-01-01

    Antibodies against Z-DNA bind to fixed metaphase chromosomes of man and Cebus albifrons (Platyrrhini, Primate). By indirect immunofluorescence and indirect immunoperoxidase techniques, a heavy staining is detected in some segments of chromosomes of C. albifrons. These segments correspond to R-band-positive heterochromatin, which has a high G + C-base content. Euchromatin of human and Cebus chromosomes show a weak and heterogeneous staining that consistently reproduces an R- and T-banding patt...

  6. The coevolution of innovation and technical intelligence in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ana F; Reader, Simon M; Street, Sally E; Whalen, Andrew; Laland, Kevin N

    2016-03-19

    In birds and primates, the frequency of behavioural innovation has been shown to covary with absolute and relative brain size, leading to the suggestion that large brains allow animals to innovate, and/or that selection for innovativeness, together with social learning, may have driven brain enlargement. We examined the relationship between primate brain size and both technical (i.e. tool using) and non-technical innovation, deploying a combination of phylogenetically informed regression and exploratory causal graph analyses. Regression analyses revealed that absolute and relative brain size correlated positively with technical innovation, and exhibited consistently weaker, but still positive, relationships with non-technical innovation. These findings mirror similar results in birds. Our exploratory causal graph analyses suggested that technical innovation shares strong direct relationships with brain size, body size, social learning rate and social group size, whereas non-technical innovation did not exhibit a direct relationship with brain size. Nonetheless, non-technical innovation was linked to brain size indirectly via diet and life-history variables. Our findings support 'technical intelligence' hypotheses in linking technical innovation to encephalization in the restricted set of primate lineages where technical innovation has been reported. Our findings also provide support for a broad co-evolving complex of brain, behaviour, life-history, social and dietary variables, providing secondary support for social and ecological intelligence hypotheses. The ability to gain access to difficult-to-extract, but potentially nutrient-rich, resources through tool use may have conferred on some primates adaptive advantages, leading to selection for brain circuitry that underlies technical proficiency.

  7. Understanding the control of ingestive behavior in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E; Moore, Carla J; Ethun, Kelly F; Johnson, Zachary P

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Ingestive behavior in free-ranging populations of nonhuman primates is influenced by resource availability and social group organization and provides valuable insight on the evolution of ecologically adaptive behaviors and physiological systems. As captive populations were established, questions regarding proximate mechanisms that regulate food intake in these animals could be more easily addressed. The availability of these captive populations has led to the use of selected species to understand appetite control or metabolic physiology in humans. Recognizing the difficulty of quantitating food intake in free-ranging groups, the use of captive, singly-housed animals provided a distinct advantage though, at the same time, produced a different social ecology from the animals' natural habitat. However, the recent application of novel technologies to quantitate caloric intake and energy expenditure in free-feeding, socially housed monkeys permits prospective studies that can accurately define how food intake changes in response to any number of interventions in the context of a social environment. This review provides an overview of studies examining food intake using captive nonhuman primates organized into three areas: a) neurochemical regulation of food intake in nonhuman primates; b) whether exposure to specific diets during key developmental periods programs differences in diet preferences or changes the expression of feeding related neuropeptides; and c) how psychosocial factors influence appetite regulation. Because feeding patterns are driven by more than just satiety and orexigenic signals, appreciating how the social context influences pattern of feeding in nonhuman primates may be quite informative for understanding the biological complexity of feeding in humans.

  8. Modelling primate control of grasping for robotics applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleinhans, A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV) Workshops, Zurich, Switzerland, 7 September 2014 Modelling primate control of grasping for robotics applications Ashley Kleinhans1, Serge Thill2, Benjamin Rosman1, Renaud Detry3 & Bryan Tripp4 1 CSIR..., South Africa 2 University of Skovde, Sweden3 University of Liege, Belgium 4 University of Waterloo, Canada Abstract The neural circuits that control grasping and perform related visual processing have been studied extensively in Macaque monkeys...

  9. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D.; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J.; Romo, Ranulfo; Wallis, Jonathan D.; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas, and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. Based on our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computations over multiple temporal ranges. PMID:25383900

  10. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, John D.; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J.; Romo, Ranulfo,; Wallis, Jonathan D.; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; WANG Xiao-jing

    2014-01-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas, and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. Based on our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computat...

  11. Thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer in primate eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L

    1980-09-01

    Thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer is studied in the eyes of three primate species. Measurements are made at various points throughout the fundus, including the peripapillary, arcuate, macular (area centralis), equatorial, and peripheral parts of the retina. Anatomic findings are compared with the clinical appearance of retinal light reflexes in these way. It is proposed that the nature of this light reflex is, in part, determined by the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer.

  12. Morphology of axonal transport abnormalities in primate eyes.

    OpenAIRE

    Radius, R L; Anderson, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the retina and optic nerve head was studied in primate eyes after central retinal artery occlusion. Within 2 hours of the vascular occlusion the inner retinal layers undergo watery (isosmotic) swelling. This watery swelling of axons and astroglia extends into the nerve head as far back as the anterior boundary of the scleral lamina cribrosa. The swelling is increased 4 hours after the occlusion, and by 24 hours disintegration has occurred. At the optic nerve head mitocho...

  13. Primate comparative neuroscience using magnetic resonance imaging: promises and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mars, Rogier B.; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Verhagen, Lennart; Sallet, Jérôme; Karla L. Miller; Robin I. M. Dunbar; Barton, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Primate comparative anatomy is an established field that has made rich and substantial contributions to neuroscience. However, the labor-intensive techniques employed mean that most comparisons are often based on a small number of species, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn. In this review we explore how new developments in magnetic resonance imaging have the potential to apply comparative neuroscience to a much wider range of species, allowing it to realize an even...

  14. Figure-ground modulation in awake primate thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, H. E.; Andolina, I.M.; Shipp, S. D.; Adams, D. L.; J. Cudeiro; Salt, T. E.; Sillito, A M

    2015-01-01

    Figure-ground discrimination refers to the perception of an object, the figure, against a nondescript background. Neural mechanisms of figure-ground detection have been associated with feedback interactions between higher centers and primary visual cortex and have been held to index the effect of global analysis on local feature encoding. Here, in recordings from visual thalamus of alert primates, we demonstrate a robust enhancement of neuronal firing when the figure, as opposed to the ground...

  15. Changes in the primate trade in indonesian wildlife markets over a 25-year period: Fewer apes and langurs, more macaques, and slow lorises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna; Wirdateti; Nekaris, K A I

    2015-12-29

    Indonesia has amongst the highest primate species richness, and many species are included on the country's protected species list, partially to prevent over-exploitation. Nevertheless traders continue to sell primates in open wildlife markets especially on the islands of Java and Bali. We surveyed 13 wildlife markets in 2012-2014 and combined our results with previous surveys from 1990-2009 into a 122-survey dataset with 2,424 records of 17 species. These data showed that the diversity of species in trade decreased over time, shifting from rare rainforest-dwelling primates traded alongside more widespread species that are not confined to forest to the latter type only. In the 1990s and early 2000s orangutans, gibbons and langurs were commonly traded alongside macaques and slow lorises but in the last decade macaques and slow lorises comprised the bulk of the trade. In 2012-2014 we monitored six wildlife markets in Jakarta, Bandung and Garut (all on Java), and Denpasar (Bali). During 51 surveys we recorded 1,272 primates of eight species. Traders offered long-tailed macaque (total 1,007 individuals) and three species of slow loris (228 individuals) in five of the six markets, whereas they traded ebony langurs (18 individuals), and pig-tailed macaques (14 individuals) mostly in Jakarta. Pramuka and Jatinegara markets, both in Jakarta, stood out as important hubs for the primate trade, with a clear shift in importance over time from the former to the latter. Slow lorises, orangutans, gibbons and some langurs are protected under Indonesian law, which prohibits all trade in them; of these protected species, only the slow lorises remained common in trade throughout the 25-year period. Trade in non-protected macaques and langurs is subject to strict regulations-which market traders did not follow-making all the market trade in primates that we observed illegal. Trade poses a substantial threat to Indonesian primates, and without enforcement, the sheer volume of trade may

  16. Glucocorticoid hormone resistance during primate evolution: receptor-mediated mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrousos, G P; Renquist, D; Brandon, D; Eil, C; Pugeat, M; Vigersky, R; Cutler, G B; Loriaux, D L; Lipsett, M B

    1982-03-01

    The concentrations of total and protein-unbound plasma cortisol of New World monkeys are higher than those of Old World primates and prosimians. The urinary free-cortisol excretion also is increased markedly. However, there is no physiologic evidence of increased cortisol effect. These findings suggest end-organ resistance to glucocorticoids. This was confirmed by showing that the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis is resistant to suppression by dexamethasone. To study this phenomenon, glucocorticoid receptors were examined in circulating mononuclear leukocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from both New and Old World species. The receptor content is the same in all species, but the New World monkeys have a markedly decreased binding affinity for dexamethasone. Thus, the resistance of these species to the action of cortisol is due to the decreased binding affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor. This presumed mutation must have occurred after the bifurcation of Old and New World primates (approximately 60 x 10(6) yr ago) and before the diversion of the New World primates from each other (approximately 15 x 10(6) yr ago).

  17. Comparative analysis of Meissner's corpuscles in the fingertips of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verendeev, Andrey; Thomas, Christian; McFarlin, Shannon C; Hopkins, William D; Phillips, Kimberley A; Sherwood, Chet C

    2015-07-01

    Meissner's corpuscles (MCs) are tactile mechanoreceptors found in the glabrous skin of primates, including fingertips. These receptors are characterized by sensitivity to light touch, and therefore might be associated with the evolution of manipulative abilities of the hands in primates. We examined MCs in different primate species, including common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, n = 5), baboon (Papio anubis, n = 2), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta, n = 3), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, n = 3), bonobo (Pan paniscus, n = 1) and human (Homo sapiens, n = 8). Fingertips of the first, second and fourth digits were collected from both hands of specimens, dissected and histologically stained using hematoxylin and eosin. The density (MCs per 1 mm(2) ) and the size (cross-sectional diameter of MCs) were quantified. Overall, there were no differences in the densities of MCs or their size among the digits or between the hands for any species examined. However, MCs varied across species. We found a trend for higher densities of MCs in macaques and humans compared with chimpanzees and bonobos; moreover, apes had larger MCs than monkeys. We further examined whether the density or size of MCs varied as a function of body mass, measures of dexterity and dietary frugivory. Among these variables, only body size accounted for a significant amount of variation in the size of MCs.

  18. Characterization of interleukin-8 receptors in non-human primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, V.; Coto, E.; Gonzalez-Roces, S.; Lopez-Larrea, C. [Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Interleukin-8 is a chemokine with a potent neutrophil chemoatractant activity. In humans, two different cDNAs encoding human IL8 receptors designated IL8RA and IL8RB have been cloned. IL8RA binds IL8, while IL8RB binds IL8 as well as other {alpha}-chemokines. Both human IL8Rs are encoded by two genes physically linked on chromosome 2. The IL8RA and IL8RB genes have open reading frames (ORF) lacking introns. By direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction products, we sequenced the IL8R genes of cell lines from four non-human primates: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and macaca. The IL8RB encodes an ORF in the four non-human primates, showing 95%-99% similarity to the human IL8RB sequence. The IL8RA homologue in gorilla and chimpanzee consisted of two ORF 98%-99% identical to the human sequence. The macaca and orangutan IL8RA homologues are pseudogenes: a 2 base pair insertion generated a sequence with several stop codons. In addition, we describe the physical linkage of these genes in the four non-human primates and discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. A new Late Eocene anthropoid primate from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Y; Suteethorn, V; Jaeger, J J; Ducrocq, S

    1997-01-30

    The fossil record of anthropoid primates from the Middle Eocene of South Asia is so far restricted to two genera (Pondaungia cotteri Pilgrim, 1937 and Amphipithecus mogaungensis Colbert, 1937 from the Eocene Pondaung deposits of Burma) whose anthropoid status and phylogenetic position have long been under debate because they represent the oldest highly derived fossil primates of anthropoid grade. Moreover, several new African taxa, some of which are even older, have been recently included in the suborder Anthropoidea, suggesting an African origin for this group. Conversely, new fossil primates recently discovered in China (Eosimias) have been related to the most primitive representatives of Anthropoidea, alternatively suggesting an Asian origin and a probable Asian radiation centre. We report here the discovery of a new anthropoid from the Thai Late Eocene locality of Krabi, which displays several additional anthropoid characters with regard to those of the Eocene Burmese genera. This species, which is about the size of the Fayum Aegyptopithecus, can be related to the Burmese forms, and it further provides strong additional evidence for a southeast Asian evolutionary centre for anthropoids.

  20. A map of visual space in the primate entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Nathaniel J; Jutras, Michael J; Buffalo, Elizabeth A

    2012-11-29

    Place-modulated activity among neurons in the hippocampal formation presents a means to organize contextual information in the service of memory formation and recall. One particular spatial representation, that of grid cells, has been observed in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of rats and bats, but has yet to be described in single units in primates. Here we examined spatial representations in the EC of head-fixed monkeys performing a free-viewing visual memory task. Individual neurons were identified in the primate EC that emitted action potentials when the monkey fixated multiple discrete locations in the visual field in each of many sequentially presented complex images. These firing fields possessed spatial periodicity similar to a triangular tiling with a corresponding well-defined hexagonal structure in the spatial autocorrelation. Further, these neurons showed theta-band oscillatory activity and changing spatial scale as a function of distance from the rhinal sulcus, which is consistent with previous findings in rodents. These spatial representations may provide a framework to anchor the encoding of stimulus content in a complex visual scene. Together, our results provide a direct demonstration of grid cells in the primate and suggest that EC neurons encode space during visual exploration, even without locomotion.

  1. Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooriyama, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hideo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio; Nishida, Toshisada; Iwaki, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania (Mahale). In this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in Mahale: red colobus (Procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), and chimpanzees. Fecal samples were examined microscopically, and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, larvae, and adult worms. Three nematodes (Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris sp.), Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba spp. were found in all five primate species. The following infections were identified: Bertiella studeri was found in chimpanzees and yellow baboons; Balantidium coli was found in yellow baboons; three nematodes (Streptopharagus, Primasubulura, an undetermined genus of Spirurina) and Dicrocoeliidae gen. sp. were found in red-tailed monkeys, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons; Chitwoodspirura sp. was newly identified in red colobus and red-tailed monkeys; Probstmayria gombensis and Troglocorys cava were newly identified in chimpanzees, together with Troglodytella abrassarti; and Enterobius sp. was newly identified in red colobus. The parasitological data reported for red colobus, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons in Mahale are the first reports for these species.

  2. Allelic Lineages of the Ficolin Genes (FCNs) Are Passed from Ancestral to Descendant Primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Tina; Nissen, Janna; Fog, Lea Munthe

    2011-01-01

    -human primates. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of the FCN1-3 genes were sequenced in the following primate species: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, baboon and common marmoset. We found that the exon organisation of the FCN genes was very similar between all the non......-human primates and the human FCN genes. Several variations in the FCN genes were found in more than one primate specie suggesting that they were carried from one species to another including humans. The amino acid diversity of the ficolins among human and non-human primate species was estimated by calculating...... the Shannon entropy revealing that all three proteins are generally highly conserved. Ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 showed the highest diversity, whereas ficolin-3 was more conserved. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 were present in non-human primate sera with the same characteristic oligomeric structures as seen in human...

  3. Allelic lineages of the ficolin genes (FCNs) are passed from ancestral to descendant primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Tina; Nissen, Janna; Munthe-Fog, Lea

    2011-01-01

    -human primates. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of the FCN1-3 genes were sequenced in the following primate species: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, baboon and common marmoset. We found that the exon organisation of the FCN genes was very similar between all the non......-human primates and the human FCN genes. Several variations in the FCN genes were found in more than one primate specie suggesting that they were carried from one species to another including humans. The amino acid diversity of the ficolins among human and non-human primate species was estimated by calculating...... the Shannon entropy revealing that all three proteins are generally highly conserved. Ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 showed the highest diversity, whereas ficolin-3 was more conserved. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 were present in non-human primate sera with the same characteristic oligomeric structures as seen in human...

  4. Primates´ socio-cognitive abilities: What kind of comparisons makes sense?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill

    2015-01-01

    presented an experimental paradigm with which to examine the use of referential gestures in non-human primates: the object-choice task. Since then, numerous object-choice studies have been made, not only with primates but also with a range of other animal taxa. Surprisingly, several non-primate species...... are testing animals on experimental paradigms that do not take into account what are the challenges of their natural habitat....

  5. Adrenarche in nonhuman primates: the evidence for it and the need to redefine it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, A J; Bernstein, R M; Nguyen, A D

    2012-08-01

    Adrenarche is most commonly defined as a prepubertal increase in circulating adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfo-conjugate (DHEAS). This event is thought to have evolved in humans and some great apes but not in Old World monkeys, perhaps to promote brain development. Whether adrenarche represents a shared, derived developmental event in humans and our closest relatives, adrenal androgen secretion (and its regulation) is of considerable clinical interest. Specifically, adrenal androgens play a significant role in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian disease and breast and prostate cancers. Understanding the development of androgen secretion by the human adrenal cortex and identifying a suitable model for its study are therefore of central importance for clinical and evolutionary concerns. This review will examine the evidence for adrenarche in nonhuman primates (NHP) and suggest that a broader definition of this developmental event is needed, including morphological, biochemical, and endocrine criteria. Using such a definition, evidence from recent studies suggests that adrenarche evolved in Old World primates but spans a relatively brief period early in development compared with humans and some great apes. This emphasizes the need for frequent longitudinal sampling in evaluating developmental changes in adrenal androgen secretion as well as the tenuous nature of existing evidence of adrenarche in some species among the great apes. Central to an understanding of the regulation of adrenal androgen production in humans is the recognition of the complex nature of adrenarche and the need for more carefully conducted comparative studies and a broader definition in order to promote investigation among NHP in particular.

  6. Disodium cromoglycate, a mast-cell stabilizer, alters postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Pautler, E.L.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure, and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with systemic hypotension and a dramatic release of mast-cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomena and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or BRL 22321 before exposure to 100 Gy whole-body gamma radiation. Hypothalamic and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. The data indicated that DSCG was successful in diminishing postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow. Irradiated animals pretreated with DSCG, showed only a 10% decrease in hypothalamic blood flow 60 min postradiation, while untreated, irradiated animals showed a 57% decrease. The cortical blood flow of DSCG treated, irradiated animals showed a triphasic response, with a decrease of 38% at 10 min postradiation, then a rise to 1% below baseline at 20 min, followed by a fall to 42% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. In contrast, the untreated, irradiated animals showed a steady decrease in cortical blood flow to 79% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. There was no significant difference in blood-pressure response between the treated and untreated, irradiated animals. Systemic blood pressure showed a 60% decrease at 10 min postradiation, falling to a 71% decrease by 60 min.

  7. Experimental primates and non-human primate (NHP) models of human diseases in China: current status and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Pang, Wei; Hu, Xin-Tian; Li, Jia-Li; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-11-18

    Non-human primates (NHPs) are phylogenetically close to humans, with many similarities in terms of physiology, anatomy, immunology, as well as neurology, all of which make them excellent experimental models for biomedical research. Compared with developed countries in America and Europe, China has relatively rich primate resources and has continually aimed to develop NHPs resources. Currently, China is a leading producer and a major supplier of NHPs on the international market. However, there are some deficiencies in feeding and management that have hampered China's growth in NHP research and materials. Nonetheless, China has recently established a number of primate animal models for human diseases and achieved marked scientific progress on infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases, reproductive diseases, neurological diseases, and ophthalmic diseases, etc. Advances in these fields via NHP models will undoubtedly further promote the development of China's life sciences and pharmaceutical industry, and enhance China's position as a leader in NHP research. This review covers the current status of NHPs in China and other areas, highlighting the latest developments in disease models using NHPs, as well as outlining basic problems and proposing effective countermeasures to better utilize NHP resources and further foster NHP research in China.

  8. Assessment of tropism and effectiveness of new primate-derived hybrid recombinant AAV serotypes in the mouse and primate retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Charbel Issa

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV have been shown to be safe in the treatment of retinal degenerations in clinical trials. Thus, improving the efficiency of viral gene delivery has become increasingly important to increase the success of clinical trials. In this study, structural domains of different rAAV serotypes isolated from primate brain were combined to create novel hybrid recombinant AAV serotypes, rAAV2/rec2 and rAAV2/rec3. The efficacy of these novel serotypes were assessed in wild type mice and in two models of retinal degeneration (the Abca4(-/- mouse which is a model for Stargardt disease and in the Pde6b(rd1/rd1 mouse in vivo, in primate tissue ex-vivo, and in the human-derived SH-SY5Y cell line, using an identical AAV2 expression cassette. We show that these novel hybrid serotypes can transduce retinal tissue in mice and primates efficiently, although no more than AAV2/2 and rAAV2/5 serotypes. Transduction efficiency appeared lower in the Abca4(-/- mouse compared to wild type with all vectors tested, suggesting an effect of specific retinal diseases on the efficiency of gene delivery. Shuffling of AAV capsid domains may have clinical applications for patients who develop T-cell immune responses following AAV gene therapy, as specific peptide antigen sequences could be substituted using this technique prior to vector re-treatments.

  9. Sexual dimorphism and laterality in the evolution of the primate prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaers, Jeroen B; Mulvaney, Poppy I; Soligo, Christophe; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Social selective pressures are commonly considered as the main driving force of primate brain evolution. Primate social behaviour is, however, known to be sexually dimorphic, and no previous study has made a direct comparison between male and female brain structures across species. We quantify sex-specific evolutionary trends in the prefrontal cortex of anthropoid primates (including humans) to investigate how sexual selection has shaped brain evolution in primates. The prefrontal cortex is of particular importance to the investigation of sexual dimorphism in primate brain evolution because of its association to those cognitive capacities central to primate (and human) evolution: sociality and higher-order cognitive processing. Our results demonstrate sex-by-hemisphere differences in the evolution of the prefrontal cortex in humans and non-human anthropoid primates congruent with the principal selective pressures considered to underlie anthropoid behavioural evolution. Our findings further show how sexual selection can shape brain adaptation in primates and provide an evolutionary framework for interpreting sex and sex-by-hemisphere differences in cortical organization in humans and non-human primates. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Sex determination in miocene catarrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J

    1995-04-01

    Canines of fossil hominoids and primitive catarrhines from several early, middle, and late Miocene sites were analyzed according to the shape indices described in Kelley (1995) and compared to those of males and females of extant great apes. In bivariate plots of the fossil canines utilizing the indices, 90% of the upper canines and 85% of the lower canines fell within or just outside the exclusively male or exclusively female territories delimited by the extant great apes. The remainder fell in the male-female overlap zones. Sex assignments based on these distributions were nearly 100% concordant with classifications according to canine height, suggesting a high degree of accuracy. There were various taxon-specific shifts in bivariate space among fossil genera, reflecting subtle differences in canine shape between taxa within the overall pattern of similarity to extant great apes as a whole. In many cases these shifts are matched by particular extant-ape species and subspecies, while other fossil taxa have no exact analogue for canine shape among the extant great apes. However, the pattern of spatial segregation of canines identified as either male or female at each of the sites largely mirrors that of males and females within the extant-ape sample, indicating that Miocene catarrhines shared with extant great apes a common pattern of shape differences between male and female canines, regardless of taxon-specific morphologies. These observations demonstrate that the canines of fossil catarrhines can be sexed with a high degree of confidence based solely on intrinsic features of shape. This will permit more reliable characterizations of morphological sexual dimorphism among fossil species. It is also argued that canine shape is a more reliable indicator of sex in fossil taxa than are canine/molar size ratios.

  11. On folivory, competition, and intelligence: generalisms, overgeneralizations, and models of primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Considerations of primate behavioral evolution often proceed by assuming the ecological and competitive milieus of particular taxa via their relative exploitation of gross food types, such as fruits versus leaves. Although this "fruit/leaf dichotomy" has been repeatedly criticized, it continues to be implicitly invoked in discussions of primate socioecology and female social relationships and is explicitly invoked in models of brain evolution. An expanding literature suggests that such views have severely limited our knowledge of the social and ecological complexities of primate folivory. This paper examines the behavior of primate folivore-frugivores, with particular emphasis on gray langurs (traditionally, Semnopithecus entellus) within the broader context of evolutionary ecology. Although possessing morphological characteristics that have been associated with folivory and constrained activity patterns, gray langurs are known for remarkable plasticity in ecology and behavior. Their diets are generally quite broad and can be discussed in relation to Liem's Paradox, the odd coupling of anatomical feeding specializations with a generalist foraging strategy. Gray langurs, not coincidentally, inhabit arguably the widest range of habitats for a nonhuman primate, including high elevations in the Himalayas. They provide an excellent focal point for examining the assumptions and predictions of behavioral, socioecological, and cognitive evolutionary models. Contrary to the classical descriptions of the primate folivore, Himalayan and other gray langurs-and, in actuality, many leaf-eating primates-range widely, engage in resource competition (both of which have previously been noted for primate folivores), and solve ecological problems rivaling those of more frugivorous primates (which has rarely been argued for primate folivores). It is maintained that questions of primate folivore adaptation, temperate primate adaptation, and primate evolution more generally cannot be

  12. Djebelemur, a Tiny Pre-Tooth-Combed Primate from the Eocene of Tunisia: A Glimpse into the Origin of Crown Strepsirhines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Essid, El Mabrouk; Marzougui, Wissem; Ammar, Hayet Khayati; Lebrun, Renaud; Marandat, Bernard; Merzeraud, Gilles; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Vianey-Liaud, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular clock estimates of crown strepsirhine origins generally advocate an ancient antiquity for Malagasy lemuriforms and Afro-Asian lorisiforms, near the onset of the Tertiary but most often extending back to the Late Cretaceous. Despite their inferred early origin, the subsequent evolutionary histories of both groups (except for the Malagasy aye-aye lineage) exhibit a vacuum of lineage diversification during most part of the Eocene, followed by a relative acceleration in diversification from the late Middle Eocene. This early evolutionary stasis was tentatively explained by the possibility of unrecorded lineage extinctions during the early Tertiary. However, this prevailing molecular view regarding the ancient origin and early diversification of crown strepsirhines must be viewed with skepticism due to the new but still scarce paleontological evidence gathered in recent years. Methodological/Principal Findings Here, we describe new fossils attributable to Djebelemur martinezi, a≈50 Ma primate from Tunisia (Djebel Chambi). This taxon was originally interpreted as a cercamoniine adapiform based on limited information from its lower dentition. The new fossils provide anatomical evidence demonstrating that Djebelemur was not an adapiform but clearly a distant relative of lemurs, lorises and galagos. Cranial, dental and postcranial remains indicate that this diminutive primate was likely nocturnal, predatory (primarily insectivorous), and engaged in a form of generalized arboreal quadrupedalism with frequent horizontal leaping. Djebelemur did not have an anterior lower dentition as specialized as that characterizing most crown strepsirhines (i.e., tooth-comb), but it clearly exhibited a transformed antemolar pattern representing an early stage of a crown strepsirhine-like adaptation (“pre-tooth-comb”). Conclusions/Significance These new fossil data suggest that the differentiation of the tooth-comb must postdate the djebelemurid divergence, a view

  13. Djebelemur, a tiny pre-tooth-combed primate from the Eocene of Tunisia: a glimpse into the origin of crown strepsirhines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Marivaux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular clock estimates of crown strepsirhine origins generally advocate an ancient antiquity for Malagasy lemuriforms and Afro-Asian lorisiforms, near the onset of the Tertiary but most often extending back to the Late Cretaceous. Despite their inferred early origin, the subsequent evolutionary histories of both groups (except for the Malagasy aye-aye lineage exhibit a vacuum of lineage diversification during most part of the Eocene, followed by a relative acceleration in diversification from the late Middle Eocene. This early evolutionary stasis was tentatively explained by the possibility of unrecorded lineage extinctions during the early Tertiary. However, this prevailing molecular view regarding the ancient origin and early diversification of crown strepsirhines must be viewed with skepticism due to the new but still scarce paleontological evidence gathered in recent years. METHODOLOGICAL/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe new fossils attributable to Djebelemur martinezi, a≈50 Ma primate from Tunisia (Djebel Chambi. This taxon was originally interpreted as a cercamoniine adapiform based on limited information from its lower dentition. The new fossils provide anatomical evidence demonstrating that Djebelemur was not an adapiform but clearly a distant relative of lemurs, lorises and galagos. Cranial, dental and postcranial remains indicate that this diminutive primate was likely nocturnal, predatory (primarily insectivorous, and engaged in a form of generalized arboreal quadrupedalism with frequent horizontal leaping. Djebelemur did not have an anterior lower dentition as specialized as that characterizing most crown strepsirhines (i.e., tooth-comb, but it clearly exhibited a transformed antemolar pattern representing an early stage of a crown strepsirhine-like adaptation ("pre-tooth-comb". CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These new fossil data suggest that the differentiation of the tooth-comb must postdate the djebelemurid

  14. Septo-temporal distribution and lineage progression of hippocampal neurogenesis in a primate (Callithrix jacchus in comparison to mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard eAmrein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult born neurons in the hippocampus show species-specific differences in their numbers, the pace of their maturation and their spatial distribution. Here, we present quantitative data on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus that demonstrate parts of the lineage progression and age-related changes. Proliferation was largely (~70% restricted to stem cells or early progenitor cells, whilst the remainder of the cycling pool could be assigned almost exclusively to Tbr2+, intermediate precursor cells in both neonate and adult animals (20-122 months. Proliferating DCX+ neuroblasts were virtually absent in adults, although rare MCM2+/DCX+ co-expression reveals a small, persisting proliferative potential. Co-expression of DCX with calretinin was very limited in marmosets, suggesting that these markers label distinct maturational stages. In adult marmosets, numbers of MCM2+, Ki67+, and significantly Tbr2+, DCX+ and CR+ cells declined with age. The distributions of granule cells, proliferating cells and DCX+ young neurons along the hippocampal longitudinal axis were equal in marmosets and mice. In both species, a gradient along the hippocampal septo-temporal axis was apparent for DCX+ and resident granule cells. Both cell numbers are higher septally than temporally, whilst proliferating cells were evenly distributed along this axis. Relative to resident granule cells however, the ratio of proliferating cells and DCX+ neurons remained constant in the septal, middle and temporal hippocampus. In marmosets, the extended phase of the maturation of young neurons that characterizes primate hippocampal neurogenesis was due to the extension in a large CR+/DCX- cell population. This clear dissociation between DCX+ and CR+ young neurons has not been reported for other species and may therefore represent a key primate specific feature of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  15. Different Evolutionary Origins for the Reach and the Grasp: An Explanation for Dual Visuomotor Channels in Primate Parietofrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni M Karl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dual Visuomotor Channel Theory proposes that manual prehension consists of two temporally integrated movements, each subserved by distinct visuomotor pathways in occipitoparietofrontal cortex. The Reach is mediated by a dorsomedial pathway and transports the hand in relation to the target’s extrinsic properties (i.e., location and orientation. The Grasp is mediated by a dorsolateral pathway and opens, preshapes, and closes the hand in relation to the target’s intrinsic properties (i.e., size and shape. Here, neuropsychological, developmental, and comparative evidence is reviewed to show that the Reach and the Grasp have different evolutionary origins. First, the removal or degradation of vision causes prehension to decompose into its constituent Reach and Grasp components, which are then executed in sequence or isolation. Similar decomposition occurs in optic ataxic patients following cortical injury to the Reach and Grasp pathways and after corticospinal tract lesions in non-human primates. Second, early nonvisual PreReach and PreGrasp movements develop into mature Reach and Grasp movements but are only integrated under visual control after a prolonged developmental period. Third, comparative studies reveal many similarities between stepping movements and the Reach and between food handling movements and the Grasp, suggesting that the Reach and Grasp are derived from different evolutionary antecedents. The evidence is discussed in relation to the ideas that dual visuomotor channels in primate parietofrontal cortex emerged as a result of distinct evolutionary origins for the Reach and Grasp; that foveated vision in primates serves to integrate the Reach and Grasp into a single prehensile act; and, that flexible recombination of discrete Reach and Grasp movements under various forms of sensory and cognitive control can produce adaptive behavior.

  16. Evolution of Multilevel Social Systems in Nonhuman Primates and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, Cyril C; Chapais, Bernard; Zinner, Dietmar

    2012-10-01

    Multilevel (or modular) societies are a distinct type of primate social system whose key features are single-male-multifemale, core units nested within larger social bands. They are not equivalent to fission-fusion societies, with the latter referring to routine variability in associations, either on an individual or subunit level. The purpose of this review is to characterize and operationalize multilevel societies and to outline their putative evolutionary origins. Multilevel societies are prevalent in three primate clades: papionins, Asian colobines, and hominins. For each clade, we portray the most parsimonious phylogenetic pathway leading to a modular system and then review and discuss likely socioecological conditions promoting the establishment and maintenance of these societies. The multilevel system in colobines (most notably Rhinopithecus and Nasalis) has likely evolved as single-male harem systems coalesced, whereas the multilevel system of papionins (Papio hamadryas, Theropithecus gelada) and hominins most likely arose as multimale-multifemale groups split into smaller units. We hypothesize that, although ecological conditions acted as preconditions for the origin of multilevel systems in all three clades, a potentially important catalyst was intraspecific social threat, predominantly bachelor threat in colobines and female coercion/infanticide in papionins and humans. We emphasize that female transfers within bands or genetic relationships among leader males help to maintain modular societies by facilitating interunit tolerance. We still lack a good or even basic understanding of many facets of multilevel sociality. Key remaining questions are how the genetic structure of a multilevel society matches the observed social effort of its members, to what degree cooperation of males of different units is manifest and contributes to band cohesion, and how group coordination, communication, and decision making are achieved. Affiliative and cooperative

  17. Considering the Influence of Nonadaptive Evolution on Primate Color Vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Jacobs

    Full Text Available Color vision in primates is variable across species, and it represents a rare trait in which the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation are fairly well-understood. Research on primate color vision has largely focused on adaptive explanations for observed variation, but it remains unclear why some species have trichromatic or polymorphic color vision while others are red-green color blind. Lemurs, in particular, are highly variable. While some species are polymorphic, many closely-related species are strictly dichromatic. We provide the first characterization of color vision in a wild population of red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer, Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar with a sample size (87 individuals; NX chromosomes = 134 large enough to detect even rare variants (0.95 probability of detection at ≥ 3% frequency. By sequencing exon 5 of the X-linked opsin gene we identified opsin spectral sensitivity based on known diagnostic sites and found this population to be dichromatic and monomorphic for a long wavelength allele. Apparent fixation of this long allele is in contrast to previously published accounts of Eulemur species, which exhibit either polymorphic color vision or only the medium wavelength opsin. This unexpected result may represent loss of color vision variation, which could occur through selective processes and/or genetic drift (e.g., genetic bottleneck. To indirectly assess the latter scenario, we genotyped 55 adult red-bellied lemurs at seven variable microsatellite loci and used heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests to assess if this population may have experienced a recent genetic bottleneck. Results of heterozygosity excess but not M-ratio tests suggest a bottleneck might have occurred in this red-bellied lemur population. Therefore, while selection may also play a role, the unique color vision observed in this population might have been influenced by a recent genetic bottleneck. These results emphasize the

  18. Considering the Influence of Nonadaptive Evolution on Primate Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rachel L; Bradley, Brenda J

    2016-01-01

    Color vision in primates is variable across species, and it represents a rare trait in which the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation are fairly well-understood. Research on primate color vision has largely focused on adaptive explanations for observed variation, but it remains unclear why some species have trichromatic or polymorphic color vision while others are red-green color blind. Lemurs, in particular, are highly variable. While some species are polymorphic, many closely-related species are strictly dichromatic. We provide the first characterization of color vision in a wild population of red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer, Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar) with a sample size (87 individuals; NX chromosomes = 134) large enough to detect even rare variants (0.95 probability of detection at ≥ 3% frequency). By sequencing exon 5 of the X-linked opsin gene we identified opsin spectral sensitivity based on known diagnostic sites and found this population to be dichromatic and monomorphic for a long wavelength allele. Apparent fixation of this long allele is in contrast to previously published accounts of Eulemur species, which exhibit either polymorphic color vision or only the medium wavelength opsin. This unexpected result may represent loss of color vision variation, which could occur through selective processes and/or genetic drift (e.g., genetic bottleneck). To indirectly assess the latter scenario, we genotyped 55 adult red-bellied lemurs at seven variable microsatellite loci and used heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests to assess if this population may have experienced a recent genetic bottleneck. Results of heterozygosity excess but not M-ratio tests suggest a bottleneck might have occurred in this red-bellied lemur population. Therefore, while selection may also play a role, the unique color vision observed in this population might have been influenced by a recent genetic bottleneck. These results emphasize the need to

  19. Mating strategies in primates: a game theoretical approach to infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, James E; Pandit, Sagar A; van Schaik, Carel P; Pradhan, Gauri R

    2011-04-07

    Infanticide by newly immigrated or newly dominant males is reported among a variety of taxa, such as birds, rodents, carnivores and primates. Here we present a game theoretical model to explain the presence and prevalence of infanticide in primate groups. We have formulated a three-player game involving two males and one female and show that the strategies of infanticide on the males' part and polyandrous mating on the females' part emerge as Nash equilibria that are stable under certain conditions. Moreover, we have identified all the Nash equilibria of the game and arranged them in a novel hierarchical scheme. Only in the subspace spanned by the males are the Nash equilibria found to be strict, and hence evolutionarily stable. We have therefore proposed a selection mechanism informed by adaptive dynamics to permit the females to transition to, and remain in, optimal equilibria after successive generations. Our model concludes that polyandrous mating by females is an optimal strategy for the females that minimizes infanticide and that infanticide confers advantage to the males only in certain regions of parameter space. We have shown that infanticide occurs during turbulent changes accompanying male immigration into the group. For changes in the dominance hierarchy within the group, we have shown that infanticide occurs only in primate groups where the chance for the killer to sire the next infant is high. These conclusions are confirmed by observations in the wild. This model thus has enabled us to pinpoint the fundamental processes behind the reproductive decisions of the players involved, which was not possible using earlier theoretical studies.

  20. Different responses to reward comparisons by three primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani D Freeman

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to the role of cooperative breeding in the evolution of behavior. In many measures, cooperative breeders are more prosocial than non-cooperatively breeding species, including being more likely to actively share food. This is hypothesized to be due to selective pressures specific to the interdependency characteristic of cooperatively breeding species. Given the high costs of finding a new mate, it has been proposed that cooperative breeders, unlike primates that cooperate in other contexts, should not respond negatively to unequal outcomes between themselves and their partner. However, in this context such pressures may extend beyond cooperative breeders to other species with pair-bonding and bi-parental care.Here we test the response of two New World primate species with different parental strategies to unequal outcomes in both individual and social contrast conditions. One species tested was a cooperative breeder (Callithrix spp. and the second practiced bi-parental care (Aotus spp.. Additionally, to verify our procedure, we tested a third confamilial species that shows no such interdependence but does respond to individual (but not social contrast (Saimiri spp.. We tested all three genera using an established inequity paradigm in which individuals in a pair took turns to gain rewards that sometimes differed from those of their partners.None of the three species tested responded negatively to inequitable outcomes in this experimental context. Importantly, the Saimiri spp responded to individual contrast, as in earlier studies, validating our procedure. When these data are considered in relation to previous studies investigating responses to inequity in primates, they indicate that one aspect of cooperative breeding, pair-bonding or bi-parental care, may influence the evolution of these behaviors. These results emphasize the need to study a variety of species to gain insight in to how decision-making may

  1. Assessing habitat utilization by neotropical primates: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mark D

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to ascertain habitat utilization, in relation to forest structural variation, by a multi-species group of primates in tropical lowland rainforest in Southeast Peru during dry season. A new approach to assessing habitat utilization was used. Habitat variation was described by structural and indicator variables collected in quadrats along transects through a study area within Terra Firme and Floodplain forest. Variables were grouped into 'factors' accounting for most of the variation by means of a Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Presence or absence of the primates within the quadrats, assessed by repeat transect surveys, was taken to indicate habitat preferences. Discrimination between the habitat and forest structure in areas of primate presence as opposed to absence was carried out by means of Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). This highlighted patterns in most utilized habitat. Vertical utilization of the forest was also assessed along with presence in bamboo and general activity on encounter. Suggestions of habitat preference and utilization are made for each of the six sympatric species studied, based on significantly discriminating habitat factors, vertical stratification on encounter and relationships with bamboo. Saguinus fuscicollis and Cebus moloch appeared as habitat generalists. Cebus apella, Saimiri sciureus, and Aotus spp., exhibited varying degrees of preference for habitat factors suggesting disturbed forest, Cebus albifrons was more generalistic but with a possible association with primary, naturally disturbed forest. C. apella was encountered in Terra Firme forest significantly more than in Floodplain. For S. sciureus, C. moloch, and C. apella, upper understory was the most utilized forest layer, for C. albifrons, middle canopy and for S. sciureus and Aotus spp., lower understory. Both positive and negative relationships with bamboo were highlighted. Significant positive relationships between Aotus spp., and bamboo suggest

  2. Observation of arterial blood pressure of the primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, J. P.; Henry, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The developments are reported in physiological instrumentation, surgical procedures, measurement and data analysis techniques, and the definition of flight experiments to determine the effects of prolonged weightlessness on the cardiovascular system of subhuman primates. The development of an implantable telemetric data acquisition system is discussed along with cardiovascular research applications in renal hemodynamics. It is concluded that the implant technique permits a valid interpretation, free of emotional response, for the manipulated variable on physiological functions. It also allows a better definition of normal physiological baseline conditions.

  3. Nonhuman Primate Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various species from which induced pluripotent stem cells have been derived, nonhuman primates (NHPs have a unique role as preclinical models. Their relatedness to humans and similar physiology, including central nervous system, make them ideal for translational studies. We review here the progress made in deriving and characterizing iPS cell lines from different NHP species. We focus on iPS cell lines from the marmoset, a small NHP in which several human disease states can be modeled. The marmoset can serve as a model for the implementation of patient-specific autologous cell therapy in regenerative medicine.

  4. The animal welfare act as applied to primate animal laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindaman, D F

    1983-01-01

    The Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 89-544, as amended) was passed by Congress to assure the humane care and treatment of certain warmblooded animals bought, sold, held, or transported for purposes of research, exhibition, or for use as pets. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for administering the minimum care and treatment requirements promulgated under the authorities of this law. This paper presents in some detail the requirements and responsibilities of users of nonhuman primates for research, testing, or experimentation.

  5. An evolutionarily conserved sexual signature in the primate brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Reinius

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of a potential biological sexual signature in the human brain is a heavily disputed subject. In order to provide further insight into this issue, we used an evolutionary approach to identify genes with sex differences in brain expression level among primates. We reasoned that expression patterns important to uphold key male and female characteristics may be conserved during evolution. We selected cortex for our studies because this specific brain region is responsible for many higher behavioral functions. We compared gene expression profiles in the occipital cortex of male and female humans (Homo sapiens, a great ape and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, an old world monkey, two catarrhine species that show abundant morphological sexual dimorphism, as well as in common marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus, a new world monkey which are relatively sexually monomorphic. We identified hundreds of genes with sex-biased expression patterns in humans and macaques, while fewer than ten were differentially expressed between the sexes in marmosets. In primates, a general rule is that many of the morphological and behavioral sexual dimorphisms seen in polygamous species, such as macaques, are typically less pronounced in monogamous species such as the marmosets. Our observations suggest that this correlation may also be reflected in the extent of sex-biased gene expression in the brain. We identified 85 genes with common sex-biased expression, in both human and macaque and 2 genes, X inactivation-specific transcript (XIST and Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1, that were consistently sex-biased in the female direction in human, macaque, and marmoset. These observations imply a conserved signature of sexual gene expression dimorphism in cortex of primates. Further, we found that the coding region of female-biased genes is more evolutionarily constrained compared to the coding region of both male-biased and non sex-biased brain

  6. Clonal propagation of primate offspring by embryo splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A W; Dominko, T; Luetjens, C M; Neuber, E; Martinovich, C; Hewitson, L; Simerly, C R; Schatten, G P

    2000-01-14

    Primates that are identical in both nuclear and cytoplasmic components have not been produced by current cloning strategies, yet such identicals represent the ideal model for investigations of human diseases. Here, genetically identical nonhuman embryos were produced as twin and larger sets by separation and reaggregation of blastomeres of cleavage-stage embryos. A total of 368 multiples were created by the splitting of 107 rhesus embryos with four pregnancies established after 13 embryo transfers (31% versus 53% in vitro fertilization controls). The birth of Tetra, a healthy female cloned from a quarter of an embryo, proves that this approach can result in live offspring.

  7. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more inv...

  8. Oldest known euarchontan tarsals and affinities of Paleocene Purgatorius to Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Boyer, Doug M; Clemens, William A

    2015-02-03

    Earliest Paleocene Purgatorius often is regarded as the geologically oldest primate, but it has been known only from fossilized dentitions since it was first described half a century ago. The dentition of Purgatorius is more primitive than those of all known living and fossil primates, leading some researchers to suggest that it lies near the ancestry of all other primates; however, others have questioned its affinities to primates or even to placental mammals. Here we report the first (to our knowledge) nondental remains (tarsal bones) attributed to Purgatorius from the same earliest Paleocene deposits that have yielded numerous fossil dentitions of this poorly known mammal. Three independent phylogenetic analyses that incorporate new data from these fossils support primate affinities of Purgatorius among euarchontan mammals (primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Astragali and calcanei attributed to Purgatorius indicate a mobile ankle typical of arboreal euarchontan mammals generally and of Paleocene and Eocene plesiadapiforms specifically and provide the earliest fossil evidence of arboreality in primates and other euarchontan mammals. Postcranial specializations for arboreality in the earliest primates likely played a key role in the evolutionary success of this mammalian radiation in the Paleocene.

  9. Enumeration of Objects and Substances in Non-Human Primates: Experiments with Brown Lemurs ("Eulemur Fulvus")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neha; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Blanco, Marissa; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    Both human infants and adult non-human primates share the capacity to track small numbers of objects across time and occlusion. The question now facing developmental and comparative psychologists is whether similar mechanisms give rise to this capacity across the two populations. Here, we explore whether non-human primates' object tracking…

  10. Zoo Praxis and Theories: Teaching the Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frances

    2004-01-01

    Zoo projects that encourage reflective learning and are legitimate undertakings for untrained undergraduates are hard to develop. In this article, the author, as a professor in anthropology, discusses and teaches primate studies. His pedagogical goal in teaching primate studies is to enhance the process of learning, and to consider that students…

  11. A classification system for describing anthropogenic influence on nonhuman primate populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Tracie

    2015-07-01

    Many nonhuman primates live in proximity to humans, and all studied primate populations are influenced in some ways by human interaction. While the effects of human interference on primate behavior and ecology are an important area of research in contemporary primatology, to date there is no systematic way to report the types or level of anthropogenic influence for a primate study population. In this paper, I introduce a diagnostic classification system that will allow primate field researchers to clearly and consistently report anthropogenic conditions at their study sites. This system provides a way to identify population conditions for four major variables: landscape, human-nonhuman primate interface, diet, and predation risk. The incredible diversity of the Order Primates necessitates a descriptive system that is applicable across a wide range of habitat types, social groupings, and ecological roles, so the proposed classification system has been specifically designed to avoid quantitative ranking. Instead, the system is intended to provide a standardized way to report a wealth of population and site information in a simple format. This will allow for meta-analysis of specific conditions across study sites, leading to a greater understanding of the effects of different forms of anthropogenic influence on primate behavior and ecology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Meeting report: Spontaneous lesions and diseases in wild, captive-bred, and zoo-housed nonhuman primates and in nonhuman primate species used in drug safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasseville, V G; Mansfield, K G; Mankowski, J L; Tremblay, C; Terio, K A; Mätz-Rensing, K; Gruber-Dujardin, E; Delaney, M A; Schmidt, L D; Liu, D; Markovits, J E; Owston, M; Harbison, C; Shanmukhappa, S; Miller, A D; Kaliyaperumal, S; Assaf, B T; Kattenhorn, L; Macri, S Cummings; Simmons, H A; Baldessari, A; Sharma, P; Courtney, C; Bradley, A; Cline, J M; Reindel, J F; Hutto, D L; Montali, R J; Lowenstine, L J

    2012-11-01

    The combination of loss of habitat, human population encroachment, and increased demand of select nonhuman primates for biomedical research has significantly affected populations. There remains a need for knowledge and expertise in understanding background findings as related to the age, source, strain, and disease status of nonhuman primates. In particular, for safety/biomedical studies, a broader understanding and documentation of lesions would help clarify background from drug-related findings. A workshop and a minisymposium on spontaneous lesions and diseases in nonhuman primates were sponsored by the concurrent Annual Meetings of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology held December 3-4, 2011, in Nashville, Tennessee. The first session had presentations from Drs Lowenstine and Montali, pathologists with extensive experience in wild and zoo populations of nonhuman primates, which was followed by presentations of 20 unique case reports of rare or newly observed spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates (see online files for access to digital whole-slide images corresponding to each case report at http://www.scanscope.com/ACVP%20Slide%20Seminars/2011/Primate%20Pathology/view.apml). The minisymposium was composed of 5 nonhuman-primate researchers (Drs Bradley, Cline, Sasseville, Miller, Hutto) who concentrated on background and spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates used in drug safety studies. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques were emphasized, with some material presented on common marmosets. Congenital, acquired, inflammatory, and neoplastic changes were highlighed with a focus on clinical, macroscopic, and histopathologic findings that could confound the interpretation of drug safety studies.

  13. A unified framework for the organisation of the primate auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eBaumann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In nonhuman primates a scheme for the organisation of the auditory cortex is frequently used to localise auditory processes. The scheme allows a common basis for comparison of functional organisation across nonhuman primate species. However, although a body of functional and structural data in nonhuman primates supports an accepted scheme of nearly a dozen neighbouring functional areas, can this scheme be directly applied to humans? Attempts to expand the scheme of auditory cortical fields in humans have been severely hampered by a recent controversy about the organisation of tonotopic maps in humans, centred on two different models with radically different organisation. We point out observations that reconcile the previous models and suggest a distinct model in which the human cortical organisation is much more like that of other primates. This unified framework allows a more robust and detailed comparison of auditory cortex organisation across primate species including humans.

  14. Aging in the natural world: comparative data reveal similar mortality patterns across primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Anne M; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Morris, William F; Strier, Karen B; Alberts, Susan C

    2011-03-11

    Human senescence patterns-late onset of mortality increase, slow mortality acceleration, and exceptional longevity-are often described as unique in the animal world. Using an individual-based data set from longitudinal studies of wild populations of seven primate species, we show that contrary to assumptions of human uniqueness, human senescence falls within the primate continuum of aging; the tendency for males to have shorter life spans and higher age-specific mortality than females throughout much of adulthood is a common feature in many, but not all, primates; and the aging profiles of primate species do not reflect phylogenetic position. These findings suggest that mortality patterns in primates are shaped by local selective forces rather than phylogenetic history.

  15. Behavioral and brain asymmetries in primates: a preliminary evaluation of two evolutionary hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D; Misiura, Maria; Pope, Sarah M; Latash, Elitaveta M

    2015-11-01

    Contrary to many historical views, recent evidence suggests that species-level behavioral and brain asymmetries are evident in nonhuman species. Here, we briefly present evidence of behavioral, perceptual, cognitive, functional, and neuroanatomical asymmetries in nonhuman primates. In addition, we describe two historical accounts of the evolutionary origins of hemispheric specialization and present data from nonhuman primates that address these specific theories. Specifically, we first discuss the evidence that genes play specific roles in determining left-right differences in anatomical and functional asymmetries in primates. We next consider and present data on the hypothesis that hemispheric specialization evolved as a by-product of increasing brain size relative to the surface area of the corpus callosum in different primate species. Last, we discuss some of the challenges in the study of hemispheric specialization in primates and offer some suggestions on how to advance the field.

  16. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. An implantable wireless neural interface for recording cortical circuit dynamics in moving primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borton, David A.; Yin, Ming; Aceros, Juan; Nurmikko, Arto

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Neural interface technology suitable for clinical translation has the potential to significantly impact the lives of amputees, spinal cord injury victims and those living with severe neuromotor disease. Such systems must be chronically safe, durable and effective. Approach. We have designed and implemented a neural interface microsystem, housed in a compact, subcutaneous and hermetically sealed titanium enclosure. The implanted device interfaces the brain with a 510k-approved, 100-element silicon-based microelectrode array via a custom hermetic feedthrough design. Full spectrum neural signals were amplified (0.1 Hz to 7.8 kHz, 200× gain) and multiplexed by a custom application specific integrated circuit, digitized and then packaged for transmission. The neural data (24 Mbps) were transmitted by a wireless data link carried on a frequency-shift-key-modulated signal at 3.2 and 3.8 GHz to a receiver 1 m away by design as a point-to-point communication link for human clinical use. The system was powered by an embedded medical grade rechargeable Li-ion battery for 7 h continuous operation between recharge via an inductive transcutaneous wireless power link at 2 MHz. Main results. Device verification and early validation were performed in both swine and non-human primate freely-moving animal models and showed that the wireless implant was electrically stable, effective in capturing and delivering broadband neural data, and safe for over one year of testing. In addition, we have used the multichannel data from these mobile animal models to demonstrate the ability to decode neural population dynamics associated with motor activity. Significance. We have developed an implanted wireless broadband neural recording device evaluated in non-human primate and swine. The use of this new implantable neural interface technology can provide insight into how to advance human neuroprostheses beyond the present early clinical trials. Further, such tools enable mobile

  18. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  19. Scaling of convex hull volume to body mass in modern primates, non-primate mammals and birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Brassey

    Full Text Available The volumetric method of 'convex hulling' has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (vol(CH from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within vol(CH has remained unclear. Specifically, when vol(CH scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r(2 = 0.97-0.99 and low mean percentage prediction error (11-20%. Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85-1.00, p = 0.08. Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.91, p = 0.011 and apparent density (volCH/Mb therefore decreases with mass (r(2 = 0.36, p<0.05. In contrast, primates scale body mass to vol(CH with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01-1.12, p = 0.05 and apparent density therefore increases with size (r(2 = 0.46, p = 0.025. We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the 'missing mass' of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat.

  20. Interactions between social structure, demography, and transmission determine disease persistence in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie J Ryan

    Full Text Available Catastrophic declines in African great ape populations due to disease outbreaks have been reported in recent years, yet we rarely hear of similar disease impacts for the more solitary Asian great apes, or for smaller primates. We used an age-structured model of different primate social systems to illustrate that interactions between social structure and demography create 'dynamic constraints' on the pathogens that can establish and persist in primate host species with different social systems. We showed that this varies by disease transmission mode. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs require high rates of transmissibility to persist within a primate population. In particular, for a unimale social system, STIs require extremely high rates of transmissibility for persistence, and remain at extremely low prevalence in small primates, but this is less constrained in longer-lived, larger-bodied primates. In contrast, aerosol transmitted infections (ATIs spread and persist at high prevalence in medium and large primates with moderate transmissibility;, establishment and persistence in small-bodied primates require higher relative rates of transmissibility. Intragroup contact structure - the social network - creates different constraints for different transmission modes, and our model underscores the importance of intragroup contacts on infection prior to intergroup movement in a structured population. When alpha males dominate sexual encounters, the resulting disease transmission dynamics differ from when social interactions are dominated by mother-infant grooming events, for example. This has important repercussions for pathogen spread across populations. Our framework reveals essential social and demographic characteristics of primates that predispose them to different disease risks that will be important for disease management and conservation planning for protected primate populations.

  1. Interactions between social structure, demography, and transmission determine disease persistence in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sadie J; Jones, James H; Dobson, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic declines in African great ape populations due to disease outbreaks have been reported in recent years, yet we rarely hear of similar disease impacts for the more solitary Asian great apes, or for smaller primates. We used an age-structured model of different primate social systems to illustrate that interactions between social structure and demography create 'dynamic constraints' on the pathogens that can establish and persist in primate host species with different social systems. We showed that this varies by disease transmission mode. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) require high rates of transmissibility to persist within a primate population. In particular, for a unimale social system, STIs require extremely high rates of transmissibility for persistence, and remain at extremely low prevalence in small primates, but this is less constrained in longer-lived, larger-bodied primates. In contrast, aerosol transmitted infections (ATIs) spread and persist at high prevalence in medium and large primates with moderate transmissibility;, establishment and persistence in small-bodied primates require higher relative rates of transmissibility. Intragroup contact structure - the social network - creates different constraints for different transmission modes, and our model underscores the importance of intragroup contacts on infection prior to intergroup movement in a structured population. When alpha males dominate sexual encounters, the resulting disease transmission dynamics differ from when social interactions are dominated by mother-infant grooming events, for example. This has important repercussions for pathogen spread across populations. Our framework reveals essential social and demographic characteristics of primates that predispose them to different disease risks that will be important for disease management and conservation planning for protected primate populations.

  2. Oscillatory Correlates of Memory in Non-human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Michael J.; Buffalo, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to navigate through our environment, explore with our senses, track the passage of time, and integrate these various components to form the experiences which make up our lives is shared among humans and animals. The use of animal models to study memory, coupled with electrophysiological techniques that permit the direct measurement of neural activity as memories are formed and retrieved, has provided a wealth of knowledge about these mechanisms. Here, we discuss current knowledge regarding the specific role of neural oscillations in memory, with particular emphasis on findings derived from non-human primates. Some of these findings provide evidence for the existence in the primate brain of mechanisms previously identified only in rodents and other lower mammals, while other findings suggest parallels between memory-related activity and processes observed in other cognitive modalities, including attention and sensory perception. Taken together, these results provide insight into how network activity may be organized to promote memory formation, and suggest that key aspects of this activity are similar across species, providing important information about the organization of human memory. PMID:23867554

  3. Euthanasia Assessment in Ebola Virus Infected Nonhuman Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis K. Warren

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple products are being developed for use against filoviral infections. Efficacy for these products will likely be demonstrated in nonhuman primate models of filoviral disease to satisfy licensure requirements under the Animal Rule, or to supplement human data. Typically, the endpoint for efficacy assessment will be survival following challenge; however, there exists no standardized approach for assessing the health or euthanasia criteria for filovirus-exposed nonhuman primates. Consideration of objective criteria is important to (a ensure test subjects are euthanized without unnecessary distress; (b enhance the likelihood that animals exhibiting mild or moderate signs of disease are not prematurely euthanized; (c minimize the occurrence of spontaneous deaths and loss of end-stage samples; (d enhance the reproducibility of experiments between different researchers; and (e provide a defensible rationale for euthanasia decisions that withstands regulatory scrutiny. Historic records were compiled for 58 surviving and non-surviving monkeys exposed to Ebola virus at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Clinical pathology parameters were statistically analyzed and those exhibiting predicative value for survival are reported. These findings may be useful for standardization of objective euthanasia assessments in rhesus monkeys exposed to Ebola virus and may serve as a useful approach for other standardization efforts.

  4. Producing primate embryonic stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J A; Pedersen, D A; Clepper, L L; Nelson, M; Sanger, W G; Gokhale, S; Wolf, D P; Mitalipov, S M

    2007-11-22

    Derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells genetically identical to a patient by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) holds the potential to cure or alleviate the symptoms of many degenerative diseases while circumventing concerns regarding rejection by the host immune system. However, the concept has only been achieved in the mouse, whereas inefficient reprogramming and poor embryonic development characterizes the results obtained in primates. Here, we used a modified SCNT approach to produce rhesus macaque blastocysts from adult skin fibroblasts, and successfully isolated two ES cell lines from these embryos. DNA analysis confirmed that nuclear DNA was identical to donor somatic cells and that mitochondrial DNA originated from oocytes. Both cell lines exhibited normal ES cell morphology, expressed key stem-cell markers, were transcriptionally similar to control ES cells and differentiated into multiple cell types in vitro and in vivo. Our results represent successful nuclear reprogramming of adult somatic cells into pluripotent ES cells and demonstrate proof-of-concept for therapeutic cloning in primates.

  5. Primate ABO Gene is under Weak Positive Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Santos EVANOVICH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABO locus presents three main alleles: A, B and O. A and B encode glycosyltransferases that catalyze the addiction of an N-GalNac and D-galactose to a precursor substance (H substance, producing A and B antigens, while the O allele does not produce a functional protein. The presence of A and B antigens have been associated to resistance against infectious agents which could use them as attachment factors increasing the virulence of some parasitic agents. As these antigens are not restrict to humans, analyses them in others species, for instance non-human primates, may be crucial to understand the relationship between pathogens and ABO phenotypes. Despite of the relevance of this issue, in the last decade few studies have addressed, mainly in New World Monkeys (NWM, natural reservoir of tropical diseases in Amazon Region. In order to understand the evolution of the ABO system in the primates, it has been obtained the partial sequence of the most important exon of ABO gene (exon 7, in platyrrhini families: Atelidae, Pithecidae and Cebidae. Then, it has been compared the sequences obtained those present in the literature, and measured the selective pressure. The present results shown that residues 266 and 268 are also crucial to distinguish A and B phenotypes in the platyrrhines, such as in catarrhines, and the 266 codon is under positive selection, although the most site codons are under action of purifying selection.

  6. Manipulation complexity in primates coevolved with brain size and terrestriality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldstab, Sandra A; Kosonen, Zaida K; Koski, Sonja E; Burkart, Judith M; van Schaik, Carel P; Isler, Karin

    2016-04-14

    Humans occupy by far the most complex foraging niche of all mammals, built around sophisticated technology, and at the same time exhibit unusually large brains. To examine the evolutionary processes underlying these features, we investigated how manipulation complexity is related to brain size, cognitive test performance, terrestriality, and diet quality in a sample of 36 non-human primate species. We categorized manipulation bouts in food-related contexts into unimanual and bimanual actions, and asynchronous or synchronous hand and finger use, and established levels of manipulative complexity using Guttman scaling. Manipulation categories followed a cumulative ranking. They were particularly high in species that use cognitively challenging food acquisition techniques, such as extractive foraging and tool use. Manipulation complexity was also consistently positively correlated with brain size and cognitive test performance. Terrestriality had a positive effect on this relationship, but diet quality did not affect it. Unlike a previous study on carnivores, we found that, among primates, brain size and complex manipulations to acquire food underwent correlated evolution, which may have been influenced by terrestriality. Accordingly, our results support the idea of an evolutionary feedback loop between manipulation complexity and cognition in the human lineage, which may have been enhanced by increasingly terrestrial habits.

  7. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals evolution of primate brain architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Degang; Guo, Lei; Zhu, Dajiang; Li, Kaiming; Li, Longchuan; Chen, Hanbo; Zhao, Qun; Hu, Xiaoping; Liu, Tianming

    2013-11-01

    Evolution of the brain has been an inherently interesting problem for centuries. Recent studies have indicated that neuroimaging is a powerful technique for studying brain evolution. In particular, a variety of reports have demonstrated that consistent white matter fiber connection patterns derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography reveal common brain architecture and are predictive of brain functions. In this paper, based on our recently discovered 358 dense individualized and common connectivity-based cortical landmarks (DICCCOL) defined by consistent fiber connection patterns in DTI datasets of human brains, we derived 65 DICCCOLs that are common in macaque monkey, chimpanzee and human brains and 175 DICCCOLs that exhibit significant discrepancies amongst these three primate species. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations not only demonstrated the consistencies of anatomical locations and structural fiber connection patterns of these 65 common DICCCOLs across three primates, suggesting an evolutionarily preserved common brain architecture but also revealed regional patterns of evolutionarily induced complexity and variability of those 175 discrepant DICCCOLs across the three species.

  8. The Evolution of Trypanosomes Infecting Humans and Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Jamie

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences and clade taxon composition, this paper adopts a biogeographical approach to understanding the evolutionary relationships of the human and primate infective trypanosomes, Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei, T. rangeli and T. cyclops. Results indicate that these parasites have divergent origins and fundamentally different patterns of evolution. T. cruzi is placed in a clade with T. rangeli and trypanosomes specific to bats and a kangaroo. The predominantly South American and Australian origins of parasites within this clade suggest an ancient southern super-continent origin for ancestral T. cruzi, possibly in marsupials. T. brucei clusters exclusively with mammalian, salivarian trypanosomes of African origin, suggesting an evolutionary history confined to Africa, while T. cyclops, from an Asian primate appears to have evolved separately and is placed in a clade with T. (Megatrypanum species. Relating clade taxon composition to palaeogeographic evidence, the divergence of T. brucei and T. cruzi can be dated to the mid-Cretaceous, around 100 million years before present, following the separation of Africa, South America and Euramerica. Such an estimate of divergence time is considerably more recent than those of most previous studies based on molecular clock methods. Perhaps significantly, Salivarian trypanosomes appear, from these data, to be evolving several times faster than Schizotrypanum species, a factor which may have contributed to previous anomalous estimates of divergence times.

  9. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species.

  10. Promiscuous primates engage in same-sex genital interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Geoff R; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    Same-sex genital interactions (SSGIs) occur across the order primates, yet explaining their maintenance in evolutionary terms appears problematic; as such interactions seem to counteract reproductive goals. We hypothesised that in more promiscuous species, where sexual motivation, mating effort, and non-conceptive heterosexual behaviour are greater, SSGIs may also occur at greater frequencies without necessarily impeding reproduction. We found that the expression of both male and female SSGIs were greater in multimale systems than in unimale ones. Both male and female SSGIs were positively correlated with the degree of promiscuity (relative testes mass). As mating system confers biases in the sex ratio that may influence the expression of SSGIs, we controlled for availability of members of the same-sex. When employing this control, results were largely congruent. For males, SSGIs were expressed more frequently in multimale systems. For both sexes, SSGIs were expressed more frequently with greater relative testes mass. We suggest SSGIs in primates may be a neutral by-product of selection for increases in promiscuous sexual activity, and that in certain instances these interactions may be co-opted to facilitate adaptive social functions.

  11. Home range overlap as a driver of intelligence in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, Cyril C

    2015-04-01

    Various socioecological factors have been suggested to influence cognitive capacity in primates, including challenges associated with foraging and dealing with the complexities of social life. Alexander [Alexander, 1989]. Evolution of the human psyche. In: Mellars P, Stringer C, editors. The human revolution: Behavioural and biological perspectives on the origins of modern humans. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p 455-513] proposed an integrative model for the evolution of human cognitive abilities and complex sociality that incorporates competition among coalitions of conspecifics (inter-group conflict) as a major selective pressure. However, one of the premises of this model, i.e., that when confronted with inter-group conflict selection should favor enhanced cognition, has remained empirically untested. Using a comparative approach on species data, I aimed to test the prediction that primate species (n = 104) that face greater inter-group conflict have higher cognitive abilities (indexed by endocranial volume). The degree of inter-group conflict/complexity was approximated via the variable home range overlap among groups. I found a significant relationship between home range overlap and endocranial volume, even after controlling for other predictor variables and covariates such as group size and body mass. I conclude that brain size evolution cannot be attributed exclusively to social factors such as group size, but likely reflects a variety of social and ecological determinants including inter-group conflict which poses cognitive demands on monitoring both the wider social milieu as well as spatial attributes of the habitat.

  12. Identifying constraints in the evolution of primate societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Bernard

    2013-05-19

    The evolutionary study of social systems in non-human primates has long been focused on ecological determinants. The predictive value of socio-ecological models remains quite low, however, in particular because such equilibrium models cannot integrate the course of history. The use of phylogenetic methods indicates that many patterns of primate societies have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. For example, the study of social relations in macaques revealed that their social systems are made of sets of correlated behavioural traits. Some macaque species are portrayed by marked social intolerance, a steep dominance gradient and strong nepotism, whereas others display a higher level of social tolerance, relaxed dominance and a weaker influence of kinship. Linkages between behavioural traits occur at different levels of organization, and act as constraints that limit evolutionary responses to external pressures. Whereas these constraints can exert strong stabilizing selection that opposes the potential changes required by the ecological environment, selective mechanisms may have the potential to switch the whole social system from one state to another by acting primarily on some key behavioural traits that could work as pacemakers.

  13. Patterns of Gut Bacterial Colonization in Three Primate Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Erin A.; Rodrigo, Allen; Yoder, Anne D.

    2015-01-01

    Host fitness is impacted by trillions of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that facilitate development and are inextricably tied to life history. During development, microbial colonization primes the gut metabolism and physiology, thereby setting the stage for adult nutrition and health. However, the ecological rules governing microbial succession are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between host lineage, captive diet, and life stage and gut microbiota characteristics in three primate species (infraorder, Lemuriformes). Fecal samples were collected from captive lemur mothers and their infants, from birth to weaning. Microbial DNA was extracted and the v4 region of 16S rDNA was sequenced on the Illumina platform using protocols from the Earth Microbiome Project. Here, we show that colonization proceeds along different successional trajectories in developing infants from species with differing dietary regimes and ecological profiles: frugivorous (fruit-eating) Varecia variegata, generalist Lemur catta, and folivorous (leaf-eating) Propithecus coquereli. Our analyses reveal community membership and succession patterns consistent with previous studies of human infants, suggesting that lemurs may serve as a useful model of microbial ecology in the primate gut. Each lemur species exhibits distinct species-specific bacterial diversity signatures correlating to life stages and life history traits, implying that gut microbial community assembly primes developing infants at species-specific rates for their respective adult feeding strategies. PMID:25970595

  14. Cognitive consilience: Primate non-primary neuroanatomical circuits underlying cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Van Hout Solari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia form the basis ofcognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Understanding the principles ofneuroanatomical organization in these structures is critical to understanding the functions theyperform and ultimately how the human brain works. We have manually distilled and synthesizedhundreds of primate neuroanatomy facts into a single interactive visualization. The resultingpicture represents the fundamental neuroanatomical blueprint upon which cognitive functionsmust be implemented. Within this framework we hypothesize and detail 7 functional circuitscorresponding to psychological perspectives on the brain: consolidated long-term declarativememory, short-term declarative memory, working memory/information processing, behavioralmemory selection, behavioral memory output, cognitive control, and cortical information flow regulation. Each circuit is described in terms of distinguishable neuronal groups including thecerebral isocortex (9 pyramidal neuronal groups, parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus,thalamus (4 neuronal groups, basal ganglia (7 neuronal groups, metencephalon, basal forebrainand other subcortical nuclei. We focus on neuroanatomy related to primate non-primary corticalsystems to elucidate the basis underlying the distinct homotypical cognitive architecture. To dis-play the breadth of this review, we introduce a novel method of integrating and presenting datain multiple independent visualizations: an interactive website (www.cognitiveconsilience.comand standalone iPhone and iPad applications. With these tools we present a unique, annotatedview of neuroanatomical consilience (integration of knowledge.

  15. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Anne M; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K; Fedigan, Linda M; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B; Morris, William F

    2016-03-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution.

  16. Patterns of gut bacterial colonization in three primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A McKenney

    Full Text Available Host fitness is impacted by trillions of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that facilitate development and are inextricably tied to life history. During development, microbial colonization primes the gut metabolism and physiology, thereby setting the stage for adult nutrition and health. However, the ecological rules governing microbial succession are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between host lineage, captive diet, and life stage and gut microbiota characteristics in three primate species (infraorder, Lemuriformes. Fecal samples were collected from captive lemur mothers and their infants, from birth to weaning. Microbial DNA was extracted and the v4 region of 16S rDNA was sequenced on the Illumina platform using protocols from the Earth Microbiome Project. Here, we show that colonization proceeds along different successional trajectories in developing infants from species with differing dietary regimes and ecological profiles: frugivorous (fruit-eating Varecia variegata, generalist Lemur catta, and folivorous (leaf-eating Propithecus coquereli. Our analyses reveal community membership and succession patterns consistent with previous studies of human infants, suggesting that lemurs may serve as a useful model of microbial ecology in the primate gut. Each lemur species exhibits distinct species-specific bacterial diversity signatures correlating to life stages and life history traits, implying that gut microbial community assembly primes developing infants at species-specific rates for their respective adult feeding strategies.

  17. The collective action problem in primate territory economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Erik P; Hellriegel, Barbara; van Schaik, Carel P

    2013-05-22

    Group-living animals often do not maintain territories, but instead have highly overlapping ranges, even though in principle these are economically defendable. We investigate whether this absence of range defence reflects a collective action problem, since a territory can be considered a public good. In a comparative analysis comprising 135 primate species, we find a positive association between range overlap and group size, controlling for economic defendability and phylogenetic non-independence. We subsequently demonstrate that groups with multiple adults of both sexes suffer levels of range overlap twice as high as groups with only a single adult representative of either sex, consistent with the presence of a collective action problem. Finally, we reveal that this collective action problem can be overcome through philopatry of the larger sex. These results suggest that a social complication of group living is a stronger determinant of between-group relations among social animals than ecological factors, but also that collective defence is still achieved where the dominant sex is philopatric and effective defence is critical to reproductive success and survival. In addition, our findings support the idea that human-like warfare, defined as escalated collective territorial conflict, has an evolutionary basis reflected by cases of convergent evolution among non-human primates.

  18. Pollical oblique ligament in humans and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Marvin

    2003-04-01

    A morphological study of the oblique ligament in the thumb is presented. The ligament was consistently described in human specimens and compared with dissections of non-human primates from different species. The oblique ligament was found in some, but not all, specimens in each of the following species examined: chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, anubis baboon, hamadryas baboon, squirrel monkey, lemur and marmoset. A revised identity of the oblique ligament is proposed as a reinforced distal border of a fibro-osseous annular pollical flexor sheath and whose function is not independent of the flexor sheath. The constant presence and tendinous trait of the pollical oblique ligament in humans, when compared with non-human primates, supports the notion that the oblique ligament strengthens the pollical flexor sheath in humans for restraint of the flexor pollicis longus tendon during forceful precision pinching. A derivation of the pollical oblique ligament is considered as representing a vestigial radial limb of a flexor pollicis superficialis tendon in the thumb.

  19. Evolution of the Central Sulcus Morphology in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Coulon, Olivier; Bogart, Stephanie; Mangin, Jean- François; Sherwood, Chet C.; Grabowski, Mark W.; Bennett, Allyson J.; Pierre, Peter J.; Fears, Scott; Woods, Roger; Hof, Patrick R.; Vauclair, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The central sulcus (CS) divides the pre- and post-central gyri along the dorsal-ventral plane of which all motor and sensory functions are topographically organized. The motor-hand area of the precentral gyrus or knob has been described as the anatomical substrate of the hand in humans. Given the importance of the hand in primate evolution, here we examined the evolution of the motor-hand area by comparing the relative size and pattern of cortical folding of the CS surface area from magnetic resonance images in 131 primates including Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. We found that humans and great apes have a well-formed motor-hand area that can be seen in the variation in depth of the CS along the dorsal-ventral plane. We further found that great apes have relatively large CS surface areas compared to Old World monkeys. However, relative to great apes, humans have a small motor-hand area in terms of both adjusted and absolute surface areas. PMID:25139259

  20. Primate drum kit: a system for studying acoustic pattern production by non-human primates using acceleration and strain sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravignani, Andrea; Matellán Olivera, Vicente; Gingras, Bruno; Hofer, Riccardo; Rodríguez Hernández, Carlos; Sonnweber, Ruth-Sophie; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2013-07-31

    The possibility of achieving experimentally controlled, non-vocal acoustic production in non-human primates is a key step to enable the testing of a number of hypotheses on primate behavior and cognition. However, no device or solution is currently available, with the use of sensors in non-human animals being almost exclusively devoted to applications in food industry and animal surveillance. Specifically, no device exists which simultaneously allows: (i) spontaneous production of sound or music by non-human animals via object manipulation, (ii) systematical recording of data sensed from these movements, (iii) the possibility to alter the acoustic feedback properties of the object using remote control. We present two prototypes we developed for application with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) which, while fulfilling the aforementioned requirements, allow to arbitrarily associate sounds to physical object movements. The prototypes differ in sensing technology, costs, intended use and construction requirements. One prototype uses four piezoelectric elements embedded between layers of Plexiglas and foam. Strain data is sent to a computer running Python through an Arduino board. A second prototype consists in a modified Wii Remote contained in a gum toy. Acceleration data is sent via Bluetooth to a computer running Max/MSP. We successfully pilot tested the first device with a group of chimpanzees. We foresee using these devices for a range of cognitive experiments.

  1. Primate Drum Kit: A System for Studying Acoustic Pattern Production by Non-Human Primates Using Acceleration and Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tecumseh Fitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of achieving experimentally controlled, non-vocal acoustic production in non-human primates is a key step to enable the testing of a number of hypotheses on primate behavior and cognition. However, no device or solution is currently available, with the use of sensors in non-human animals being almost exclusively devoted to applications in food industry and animal surveillance. Specifically, no device exists which simultaneously allows: (i spontaneous production of sound or music by non-human animals via object manipulation, (ii systematical recording of data sensed from these movements, (iii the possibility to alter the acoustic feedback properties of the object using remote control. We present two prototypes we developed for application with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes which, while fulfilling the aforementioned requirements, allow to arbitrarily associate sounds to physical object movements. The prototypes differ in sensing technology, costs, intended use and construction requirements. One prototype uses four piezoelectric elements embedded between layers of Plexiglas and foam. Strain data is sent to a computer running Python through an Arduino board. A second prototype consists in a modified Wii Remote contained in a gum toy. Acceleration data is sent via Bluetooth to a computer running Max/MSP. We successfully pilot tested the first device with a group of chimpanzees. We foresee using these devices for a range of cognitive experiments.

  2. Different scaling of white matter volume, cortical connectivity, and gyrification across rodent and primate brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissa eVentura-Antunes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of the cortical grey matter in evolution has been accompanied by an even faster expansion of the subcortical white matter volume and by folding of the grey matter surface, events traditionally considered to occur homogeneously across mammalian species. Here we investigate how white matter expansion and cortical folding scale across species of rodents and primates as the grey matter gains neurons. We find very different scaling rules of white matter expansion across the two orders, favoring volume conservation and smaller propagation times in primates. For a similar number of cortical neurons, primates have a smaller connectivity fraction and less white matter volume than rodents; moreover, as the cortex gains neurons, there is a much faster increase in white matter volume and in its ratio to grey matter volume in rodents than in primates. Order-specific scaling of the white matter can be attributed to different scaling of average fiber caliber and neuronal connectivity in rodents and primates. Finally, cortical folding increases as different functions of the number of cortical neurons in rodents and primates, scaling faster in the latter than in the former. While the neuronal rules that govern grey and white matter scaling are different across rodents and primates, we find that they can be explained by the same unifying model, with order-specific exponents. The different scaling of the white matter has implications for the scaling of propagation time and computational capacity in evolution, and calls for a reappraisal of developmental models of cortical expansion in evolution.

  3. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus infection in non-human primates in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Nath

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated 37 serum samples of non-human primates in Assam State Zoo and the Department of Forest and Environment, Govt. of Assam for seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection during the period from December, 2007 to November, 2009. Four serum samples were also collected from animal keepers of the zoo to investigate transmission of the disease to the attendants working with these primates. Competitive ELISA was performed using hepatitis A virus ELISA kit (Wanti Hep. AV to detect hepatitis A virus antibody in serum samples. Ten (27.21% of the non-human primate samples and three (75% human samples had detectable anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies. Living status of the non-human primates (Free living was a high potential risk for hepatitis A virus infection. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection had significant difference between free living non-human primates and captive non-human primates (P less than 0.05. No significant difference (p=0.86 was seen between male and female non-human primates

  4. A problem shared is a problem reduced: seeking efficiency in the conservation of felids and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, David W; Burnham, Dawn; Hinks, Amy E; Wrangham, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Threats faced by mammalian species can be grouped into one of a handful of categories, such as habitat loss, unsustainable hunting and persecution. Insofar as they face common threats, diverse species may benefit from the same conservation intervention, thereby offering efficiencies in conservation action. We explore this proposition for primates and felids by examining coarse scale overlaps in geographical distributions, using IUCN Red List assessments of the primary threats posed to each species. A global analysis of primates and felids that face common threats reveals the greatest overlap is in Central and South Asia, where up to 14 primates and felids co-occur. More than 80% of the land where at least 1 threatened species of either primate or felid occurs also contains at least one threatened species of the other taxon, yet over 60% of these grid cells containing both threatened primates and felids lie outside Conservation International's hot spots. A review of IUCN Action Plans of the threats to felids and primates strongly supports the hypothesis that they are often the same and occur in the same place. In principle, steps to conserve big cats have the potential to benefit several species of threatened primates, and vice versa.

  5. Response of frugivorous primates to changes in fruit supply in a northern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourthé, I

    2014-08-01

    Few attempts have been made to understand how spatiotemporal changes in fruit supply influence frugivores in tropical forests. The marked spatiotemporal variation in fruit supply can affect frugivore abundance and distribution, but studies addressing the effects of this variation on primates are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate how the spatiotemporal distribution of fruits influences the local distribution of three frugivorous primates in the eastern part of the Maracá Ecological Station, a highly seasonal Amazonian rainforest. Specifically, it was hypothesised that primate distribution will track changes in fruit supply, resulting that sites with high fruit availability should be heavily used by primates. During a 1-year study, fruit supply (ground fruit surveys) and primate density (line-transects) were monitored in twelve 2 km-long transects at monthly intervals. Fruit supply varied seasonally, being low during the dry season. The density of Ateles belzebuth was positively related to fruit supply during fruit shortage, but Cebus olivaceus and Alouatta macconnelli did not follow the same pattern. The supply of Sapotaceae fruit was an important component determining local distribution of A. belzebuth during the overall fruit shortage. Highly frugivorous primates such as A. belzebuth respond to seasonal decline in fruit supply by congregating at places with high fruit supply in this forest, particularly, those with many individuals of species of Sapotaceae. This study underscores the importance of small-scale spatiotemporal changes of fruit supply as a key component of frugivorous primate ecology in highly seasonal environments.

  6. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus infection in non-human primates in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Nath

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated 37 serum samples of non-human primates in Assam State Zoo and the Department of Forest and Environment, Govt. of Assam for seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection during the period from December, 2007 to November, 2009. Four serum samples were also collected from animal keepers of the zoo to investigate transmission of the disease to the attendants working with these primates. Competitive ELISA was performed using hepatitis A virus ELISA kit (Wanti Hep. AV to detect hepatitis A virus antibody in serum samples. Ten (27.21% of the non-human primate samples and three (75% human samples had detectable anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies. Living status of the non-human primates (Free living was a high potential risk for hepatitis A virus infection. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection had significant difference between free living non-human primates and captive non-human primates (P less than 0.05. No significant difference (p=0.86 was seen between male and female non-human primates

  7. Chromosomal evolution of the PKD1 gene family in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczak Michael

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is mostly caused by mutations in the PKD1 (polycystic kidney disease 1 gene located in 16p13.3. Moreover, there are six pseudogenes of PKD1 that are located proximal to the master gene in 16p13.1. In contrast, no pseudogene could be detected in the mouse genome, only a single copy gene on chromosome 17. The question arises how the human situation originated phylogenetically. To address this question we applied comparative FISH-mapping of a human PKD1-containing genomic BAC clone and a PKD1-cDNA clone to chromosomes of a variety of primate species and the dog as a non-primate outgroup species. Results Comparative FISH with the PKD1-cDNA clone clearly shows that in all primate species studied distinct single signals map in subtelomeric chromosomal positions orthologous to the short arm of human chromosome 16 harbouring the master PKD1 gene. Only in human and African great apes, but not in orangutan, FISH with both BAC and cDNA clones reveals additional signal clusters located proximal of and clearly separated from the PKD1 master genes indicating the chromosomal position of PKD1 pseudogenes in 16p of these species, respectively. Indeed, this is in accordance with sequencing data in human, chimpanzee and orangutan. Apart from the master PKD1 gene, six pseudogenes are identified in both, human and chimpanzee, while only a single-copy gene is present in the whole-genome sequence of orangutan. The phylogenetic reconstruction of the PKD1-tree reveals that all human pseudogenes are closely related to the human PKD1 gene, and all chimpanzee pseudogenes are closely related to the chimpanzee PKD1 gene. However, our statistical analyses provide strong indication that gene conversion events may have occurred within the PKD1 family members of human and chimpanzee, respectively. Conclusion PKD1 must have undergone amplification very recently in hominid evolution. Duplicative

  8. Primate brain architecture and selection in relation to sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunn Charles L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and competitive demands often differ between the sexes in mammals. These differing demands should be expected to produce variation in the relative sizes of various brain structures. Sexual selection on males can be predicted to influence brain components handling sensory-motor skills that are important for physical competition or neural pathways involving aggression. Conversely, because female fitness is more closely linked to ecological factors and social interactions that enable better acquisition of resources, social selection on females should select for brain components important for navigating social networks. Sexual and social selection acting on one sex could produce sexual dimorphism in brain structures, which would result in larger species averages for those same brain structures. Alternatively, sex-specific selection pressures could produce correlated effects in the other sex, resulting in larger brain structures for both males and females of a species. Data are presently unavailable for the sex-specific sizes of brain structures for anthropoid primates, but under either scenario, the effects of sexual and social selection should leave a detectable signal in average sizes of brain structures for different species. Results The degree of male intra-sexual selection was positively correlated with several structures involved in autonomic functions and sensory-motor skills, and in pathways relating to aggression and aggression control. The degree of male intra-sexual selection was not correlated with relative neocortex size, which instead was significantly positively correlated with female social group size, but negatively correlated with male group size. Conclusion Sexual selection on males and social selection on females have exerted different effects on primate brain architecture. Species with a higher degree of male intra-sexual selection carry a neural signature of an evolutionary history centered on

  9. Evolutionary and Functional Analysis of Old World Primate TRIM5 Reveals the Ancient Emergence of Primate Lentiviruses and Convergent Evolution Targeting a Conserved Capsid Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R McCarthy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread distribution of lentiviruses among African primates, and the lack of severe pathogenesis in many of these natural reservoirs, are taken as evidence for long-term co-evolution between the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs and their primate hosts. Evidence for positive selection acting on antiviral restriction factors is consistent with virus-host interactions spanning millions of years of primate evolution. However, many restriction mechanisms are not virus-specific, and selection cannot be unambiguously attributed to any one type of virus. We hypothesized that the restriction factor TRIM5, because of its unique specificity for retrovirus capsids, should accumulate adaptive changes in a virus-specific fashion, and therefore, that phylogenetic reconstruction of TRIM5 evolution in African primates should reveal selection by lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs. We analyzed complete TRIM5 coding sequences of 22 Old World primates and identified a tightly-spaced cluster of branch-specific adaptions appearing in the Cercopithecinae lineage after divergence from the Colobinae around 16 million years ago. Functional assays of both extant TRIM5 orthologs and reconstructed ancestral TRIM5 proteins revealed that this cluster of adaptations in TRIM5 specifically resulted in the ability to restrict Cercopithecine lentiviruses, but had no effect (positive or negative on restriction of other retroviruses, including lentiviruses of non-Cercopithecine primates. The correlation between lineage-specific adaptations and ability to restrict viruses endemic to the same hosts supports the hypothesis that lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs were present in Africa and infecting the ancestors of Cercopithecine primates as far back as 16 million years ago, and provides insight into the evolution of TRIM5 specificity.

  10. Molecular and evolutionary analyses of formyl peptide receptors suggest the absence of VNO-specific FPRs in primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yang; Peng Shi

    2010-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) were observed to expand in rodents and were recently suggested as candidate vomeronasal chemo-sensory receptors. Since vomeronasal chemosensory receptors usually underwent positive selection and evolved concordantiy with the vomeronasal organ (VNO) morphology, we surveyed FPRs in primates in which VNO morphology is greatly diverse and thus it would provide us a clearer view of VNO-FPRs evolution. By screening available primate genome sequences, we obtained the FPR repertoires in representative primate species. As a result, we did not find FPR family size expansion in primates. Further analyses showed no evolutionary force variance between primates with or without VNO structure, which indicated that there was no functional divergence among primates FPRs. Our results suggest that primates lack the VNO-specific FPRs and the FPR expansion is not a common phenomenon in mammals outside rodent lineage, regardless of VNO complexity.

  11. Molecular and evolutionary analyses of formyl peptide receptors suggest the absence of VNO-specific FPRs in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Shi, Peng

    2010-12-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) were observed to expand in rodents and were recently suggested as candidate vomeronasal chemosensory receptors. Since vomeronasal chemosensory receptors usually underwent positive selection and evolved concordantly with the vomeronasal organ (VNO) morphology, we surveyed FPRs in primates in which VNO morphology is greatly diverse and thus it would provide us a clearer view of VNO-FPRs evolution. By screening available primate genome sequences, we obtained the FPR repertoires in representative primate species. As a result, we did not find FPR family size expansion in primates. Further analyses showed no evolutionary force variance between primates with or without VNO structure, which indicated that there was no functional divergence among primates FPRs. Our results suggest that primates lack the VNO-specific FPRs and the FPR expansion is not a common phenomenon in mammals outside rodent lineage, regardless of VNO complexity.

  12. Exceptionally long 5' UTR short tandem repeats specifically linked to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar-Aligoodarzi, P; Mohammadparast, S; Zaker-Kandjani, B; Talebi Kakroodi, S; Jafari Vesiehsari, M; Ohadi, M

    2015-09-10

    We have previously reported genome-scale short tandem repeats (STRs) in the core promoter interval (i.e. -120 to +1 to the transcription start site) of protein-coding genes that have evolved identically in primates vs. non-primates. Those STRs may function as evolutionary switch codes for primate speciation. In the current study, we used the Ensembl database to analyze the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) between +1 and +60 of the transcription start site of the entire human protein-coding genes annotated in the GeneCards database, in order to identify "exceptionally long" STRs (≥5-repeats), which may be of selective/adaptive advantage. The importance of this critical interval is its function as core promoter, and its effect on transcription and translation. In order to minimize ascertainment bias, we analyzed the evolutionary status of the human 5' UTR STRs of ≥5-repeats in several species encompassing six major orders and superorders across mammals, including primates, rodents, Scandentia, Laurasiatheria, Afrotheria, and Xenarthra. We introduce primate-specific STRs, and STRs which have expanded from mouse to primates. Identical co-occurrence of the identified STRs of rare average frequency between 0.006 and 0.0001 in primates supports a role for those motifs in processes that diverged primates from other mammals, such as neuronal differentiation (e.g. APOD and FGF4), and craniofacial development (e.g. FILIP1L). A number of the identified STRs of ≥5-repeats may be human-specific (e.g. ZMYM3 and DAZAP1). Future work is warranted to examine the importance of the listed genes in primate/human evolution, development, and disease.

  13. Hind limb proportions and kinematics: are small primates different from other small mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2005-09-01

    Similar in body size, locomotor behaviour and morphology to the last common ancestor of Primates, living small quadrupedal primates provide a convenient model for investigating the evolution of primate locomotion. In this study, the hind limb kinematics of quadrupedal walking in mouse lemurs, brown lemurs, cotton-top tamarins and squirrel monkeys are analysed using cineradiography. The scaling of hind limb length to body size and the intralimb proportions of the three-segmented hind limb are taken into consideration when kinematic similarities and differences are discussed. Hind limb kinematics of arboreal quadrupedal primates, ranging in size between 100 g and 3000 g, are size independent and resemble the hind limb kinematics of small non-cursorial mammals. A common feature seen in smaller mammals, in general, is the horizontal position of the thigh at touchdown and of the lower leg at lift-off. Thus, the maximum bone length is immediately transferred into the step length. The vertical position of the leg at the beginning of a step cycle and of the thigh at lift-off contributes the same distance to pivot height. Step length and pivot height increase proportionally with hind limb length, because intralimb proportions of the hind limb remain fairly constant. Therefore, the strong positive allometric scaling of the hind limb in arboreal quadrupedal primates affects neither the kinematics of hind limb segments nor the total angular excursion of the limb. The angular excursion of the hind limb in quadrupedal primates is equal to that of other non-cursorial mammals. Hence, hind limb excursion in larger cercopithecine primates differs from that of other large mammals due to the decreasing angular excursion as part of convergent cursorial adaptations in several phylogenetic lineages of mammals. Typical members of those phylogenetic groups are traditionally used in comparison with typical primates, and therefore the ;uniqueness' of primate locomotor characteristics is

  14. Beneficial and cautionary outcomes of resveratrol supplementation in pregnant nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Victoria H J; Pound, Lynley D; Thorn, Stephanie R; Gillingham, Melanie B; Thornburg, Kent L; Friedman, Jacob E; Frias, Antonio E; Grove, Kevin L

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol has been proposed as a potential therapeutic to improve metabolic health during pregnancy, yet little is known about the fetal effects of this maternal dietary supplement. We hypothesized that when administered to pregnant nonhuman primates (NHPs), resveratrol would increase uterine blood flow and mitigate the harmful consequences of maternal Western-style diet (WSD) consumption. NHPs were fed a WSD (36% fat) supplemented with 0.37% resveratrol throughout pregnancy. Outcomes were compared with cohorts fed WSD alone and control chow (14% fat) to distinguish between WSD and resveratrol-specific effects in these animals. In the early third trimester, uterine blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound before fetal delivery and tissue collection. Resveratrol resulted in 30% maternal weight loss and improved glucose tolerance, increased uterine artery volume blood flow, and decreased placental inflammation and liver triglyceride deposition. In addition, fetal pancreatic mass was enlarged by 42%, with a 12-fold increase in proliferation by Ki67 immunohistochemistry. These results demonstrate that resveratrol use during pregnancy yields improvements in maternal and placental phenotype with beneficial effects in the fetal liver but an unexplained and concerning alteration in fetal pancreatic development, which strongly cautions against the use of resveratrol by pregnant women. © FASEB.

  15. Gene therapy for red-green colour blindness in adult primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Katherine; Hauswirth, William W; Li, Qiuhong; Connor, Thomas B; Kuchenbecker, James A; Mauck, Matthew C; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2009-10-08

    Red-green colour blindness, which results from the absence of either the long- (L) or the middle- (M) wavelength-sensitive visual photopigments, is the most common single locus genetic disorder. Here we explore the possibility of curing colour blindness using gene therapy in experiments on adult monkeys that had been colour blind since birth. A third type of cone pigment was added to dichromatic retinas, providing the receptoral basis for trichromatic colour vision. This opened a new avenue to explore the requirements for establishing the neural circuits for a new dimension of colour sensation. Classic visual deprivation experiments have led to the expectation that neural connections established during development would not appropriately process an input that was not present from birth. Therefore, it was believed that the treatment of congenital vision disorders would be ineffective unless administered to the very young. However, here we show that the addition of a third opsin in adult red-green colour-deficient primates was sufficient to produce trichromatic colour vision behaviour. Thus, trichromacy can arise from a single addition of a third cone class and it does not require an early developmental process. This provides a positive outlook for the potential of gene therapy to cure adult vision disorders.

  16. A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yannam, Govardhana Rao [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Han, Bing [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Setoyama, Kentaro [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamamoto, Toshiyuki [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Ito, Ryotaro; Brooks, Jenna M. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzman-Lepe, Jorge [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Galambos, Csaba [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Fong, Jason V. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Deutsch, Melvin; Quader, Mubina A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamanouchi, Kosho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kabarriti, Rafi; Mehta, Keyur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ≥40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevated alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury.

  17. Generation of Integration-free and Region-Specific Neural Progenitors from Primate Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Lu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal and adult human and monkey fibroblasts were infected with Sendai virus containing the Yamanaka factors for 24 hr, then they were cultured in a chemically defined medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, transforming growth factor (TGF-β inhibitor SB431542, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β inhibitor CHIR99021 at 39°C for inactivation of the virus. Induced neural progenitor (iNP colonies appeared as early as day 13 and can be expanded for >20 passages. Under the same defined condition, no induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC colonies formed at either 37°C or 39°C. The iNPs predominantly express hindbrain genes and differentiate into hindbrain neurons, and when caudalized, they produced an enriched population of spinal motor neurons. Following transplantation into the forebrain, the iNP-derived cells retained the hindbrain identity. The ability to generate defined, integration-free iNPs from adult primate fibroblasts under a defined condition with predictable fate choices will facilitate disease modeling and therapeutic development.

  18. Vasoconstrictor eicosanoids and impaired microvascular function in inactive and insulin-resistant primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, S M; Belcik, J T; Bader, L; Kievit, P; Grove, K L; Lindner, J R

    2016-10-01

    The inability to augment capillary blood volume (CBV) in response to insulin or glucose is thought to contribute to insulin resistance (IR) by limiting glucose uptake in key storage sites. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to impaired CBV augmentation early in the onset of IR may lead to new future therapies. We hypothesized that inactivity alters the balance of vasoactive eicosanoids and contributes to microvascular IR. In ten activity-restricted (AR) and six normal activity adult male rhesus macaques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound of skeletal muscle blood flow and CBV was performed at baseline and during intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Plasma was analyzed for vasoconstrictor hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and the ratio of vasodilatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their less biologically active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) as an indirect measure of soluble epoxide hydrolase activity. AR primates were IR during IVGTT and had a 45% lower glucose-stimulated CBV response. Vasoconstrictor 18-HETE and 19-HETE and the DHET/EET ratio were markedly elevated in the AR group and correlated inversely with the CBV response. In addition, levels of 18-HETE and 19-HETE correlated directly with microvascular IR. We conclude that a shift toward increased eicosanoid vasoconstrictor tone correlates with abnormal skeletal muscle vascular recruitment and may contribute to IR.

  19. Learning of spatial statistics in nonhuman primates: contextual cueing in baboons (Papio papio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Annabelle; Fagot, Joel

    2013-06-15

    A growing number of theories of cognition suggest that many of our behaviors result from the ability to implicitly extract and use statistical redundancies present in complex environments. In an attempt to develop an animal model of statistical learning mechanisms in humans, the current study investigated spatial contextual cueing (CC) in nonhuman primates. Twenty-five baboons (Papio papio) were trained to search for a target (T) embedded within configurations of distrators (L) that were either predictive or non-predictive of the target location. Baboons exhibited an early CC effect, which remained intact after a 6-week delay and stable across extensive training of 20,000 trials. These results demonstrate the baboons' ability to learn spatial contingencies, as well as the robustness of CC as a cognitive phenomenon across species. Nevertheless, in both the youngest and oldest baboons, CC required many more trials to emerge than in baboons of intermediate age. As a whole, these results reveal strong similarities between CC in humans and baboons, suggesting similar statistical learning mechanisms in these two species. Therefore, baboons provide a valid model to investigate how statistical learning mechanisms develop and/or age during the life span, as well as how these mechanisms are implemented in neural networks, and how they have evolved throughout the phylogeny.

  20. A computer touch screen system and training procedure for use with primate infants: Results from pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Dorothy J; Sackett, Gene P

    2008-03-01

    Computerized cognitive and perceptual testing has resulted in many advances towards understanding adult brain-behavior relations across a variety of abilities and species. However, there has been little migration of this technology to the assessment of very young primate subjects. We describe a training procedure and software that was developed to teach infant monkeys to interact with a touch screen computer. Eighteen infant pigtail macaques began training at 90-postnatal days and five began at 180-postnatal days. All animals were trained to reliably touch a stimulus presented on a computer screen and no significant differences were found between the two age groups. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using computers to assess cognitive and perceptual abilities early in development.

  1. Comparison of ICRP 67 and Other Plutonium Systemic Model Predictions with the Biokinetic Data from Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Deepesh; Krage, Eric Stephen; Brey, Richard Ray; Guilmette, Raymond A

    2016-04-01

    Despite the presence of a relatively large amount of human data available on the metabolism of plutonium, the experimental animal data is still important in constructing and parameterizing the biokinetic models. Recognizing this importance, the biokinetic data obtained from studies done by P.W. Durbin in nonhuman primates (NHP) were evaluated against the ICRP 67 systemic model and the two human models developed thereafter. The default transfer rates recommended for adult humans in these models predict the urinary excretion in NHP to a certain extent. However, they were unable to describe the fecal excretion rates several days post intake and the activities in skeleton and liver at the time of the death. These inconsistencies between the human reference models and the NHP biokinetic data are the result of metabolic and physiological differences between the species, as demonstrated by early biokinetic studies.

  2. [Molecular cloning of Tupaia belangeri chinensis neuropeptide Y and homology comparison with other analogues from primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Lv, Long-Bao; Lai, Ren

    2012-02-01

    Much attention has been payed to tree shrews for their close phylogenetic relationship with primates, small size, and short reproductive cycle. Especially, they are considered as excellent experiential animals for medicine or/and disease research. A nucleotide sequence encoding neuropeptide Y(NPY) precursor has been cloned from the cDNA library of Tupaia belangeri chinensis. Sequence alignment revealed that the sequence homology with primate NPY was up to 96.9%. The phylogenetic analysis based on NPY precursor sequence revealed that the tree shrew has a close relationship with primates.

  3. The glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor correlates, anatomical variation and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Martorell, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    [spa] La Tesis Doctoral con título "the glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor correlates, anatomical variation and evolution" trata sobre las adaptaciones anatómicas en la articulación del hombro (articulación glenohumeral) de los primates hominoideos. La acción de las fuerzas ejercidas durante la locomoción modelan la forma de la articulación, determinado el rango de movimientos que los animales pueden alcanzar. Los primates hominoideos destacan por tener articulaciones muy móvi...

  4. Experimental maternal and neonatal folate status relationships in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, D E; Ausman, L M; Meadows, C A; Thenen, S W

    1989-07-01

    The influence of maternal dietary folic acid intake on folate status was studied in Cebus albifrons monkeys by feeding 10 or 250 micrograms/100 kcal dietary folic acid during pregnancy and 4 wk postpartum. Maternal, infant, and nonpregnant hematologic indices; blood and liver folate concentrations; and urinary formiminoglutamic acid excretion all varied with dietary folate intake and pregnancy status as did milk folate concentration in lactating dams. Maternal folate status, determined by plasma, red blood cell, and milk folate concentrations, as well as urinary formiminoglutamic acid excretion, all were correlated significantly with liver folate concentrations in neonates (r = 0.740, r = 0.919, r = 0.936, and r = -0.851, respectively). Results in these primates showed that neonatal folate status was related significantly to the dietary folate intake and folate status of the mother during pregnancy and lactation.

  5. The transport of vitamin D in the serum of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, R; van Baelen, H; de Moor, P

    1976-12-01

    "Transcalciferin" (the serum transport protein for cholecalciferol and related substances) of two New World monkeys, Cebus apella and Cebus albifrons, was found to be immunologically identical with the transcalciferin of other monkeys and partially with that of man. In contrast with the alpha-globulin mobility of the transcalciferin of other primates, the transcalciferin of cebus monkey has the electrophoretic mobility of albumin. Most of the serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was precipitable with isolated monospecific anti-(human transcalciferin) gamma-globulins but not with anti-(human albumin) gamma-globulins. These results indicate that the transport of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the cebus monkey is not due to albumin itself but to transcalciferin with the electrophoretic mobility of albumin. Similar variants of transcalciferin also exist in man.

  6. Comparative primate neuroimaging: insights into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K

    2014-01-01

    Comparative neuroimaging can identify unique features of the human brain and teach us about human brain evolution. Comparisons with chimpanzees, our closest living primate relative, are critical in this endeavor. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to compare brain size development, brain structure proportions and brain aging. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to compare resting brain glucose metabolism. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been used to compare auditory and visual system pathways, as well as resting-state networks of connectivity. Finally, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been used to compare structural connectivity. Collectively, these methods have revealed human brain specializations with respect to development, cortical organization, connectivity, and aging. These findings inform our knowledge of the evolutionary changes responsible for the special features of the modern human mind.

  7. Neuronal correlates of metacognition in primate frontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans are metacognitive: they monitor and control their cognition. Our hypothesis was that neuronal correlates of metacognition reside in the same brain areas responsible for cognition, including frontal cortex. Recent work demonstrated that non-human primates are capable of metacognition, so we recorded from single neurons in the frontal eye field, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and supplementary eye field of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that performed a metacognitive visual-oculomotor task. The animals made a decision and reported it with a saccade, but received no immediate reward or feedback. Instead, they had to monitor their decision and bet whether it was correct. Activity was correlated with decisions and bets in all three brain areas, but putative metacognitive activity that linked decisions to appropriate bets occurred exclusively in the SEF. Our results offer a survey of neuronal correlates of metacognition and implicate the SEF in linking cognitive functions over short periods of time. PMID:22884334

  8. Heterogeneity of life histories in a nonhuman primate population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Steiner, Uli

    2014-01-01

    histories within a primate population is generated by density-dependent dynamics, the demographic data of Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques over 40 years and 7000 individuals was used. A multi-stage model using a first-order Markov process describing reproductive dynamics was constructed and annual entropy......Identifying the sources of variation in life histories, whether fixed (heritable) and/or dynamic differences, remains a fundamental task to address in order to understand the meaning and significance of phenotypic variation within populations. To test whether the variation among individual life...... will be used as a null model in order to determine if simulated trajectories fit to those observed among individuals in the population. Differences fixed at birth are expected to result in higher variance among trajectories compared to the null model. Distinguishing between neutral (dynamic) processes...

  9. Mosaic Evolution of Brainstem Motor Nuclei in Catarrhine Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth D. Dobson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial motor nucleus volume coevolves with both social group size and primary visual cortex volume in catarrhine primates as part of a specialized neuroethological system for communication using facial expressions. Here, we examine whether facial nucleus volume also coevolves with functionally unrelated brainstem motor nuclei (trigeminal motor and hypoglossal due to developmental constraints. Using phylogenetically informed multiple regression analyses of previously published brain component data, we demonstrate that facial nucleus volume is not correlated with the volume of other motor nuclei after controlling for medulla volume. Our results show that brainstem motor nuclei can evolve independently of other developmentally linked structures in association with specific behavioral ecological conditions. This finding provides additional support for the mosaic view of brain evolution.

  10. A perceptual pitch boundary in a non-human primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pitch is an auditory percept critical to the perception of music and speech, and for these harmonic sounds, pitch is closely related to the repetition rate of the acoustic wave. This paper reports a test of the assumption that non-human primates and especially rhesus monkeys perceive the pitch of these harmonic sounds much as humans do. A new procedure was developed to train macaques to discriminate the pitch of harmonic sounds and thereby demonstrate that the lower limit for pitch perception in macaques is close to 30 Hz, as it is in humans. Moreover, when the phases of successive harmonics are alternated to cause a pseudo-doubling of the repetition rate, the lower pitch boundary in macaques decreases substantially, as it does in humans. The results suggest that both species use neural firing times to discriminate pitch, at least for sounds with relatively low repetition rates.

  11. Molecular systematics of higher primates: genealogical relations and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, M M; Koop, B F; Slightom, J L; Goodman, M; Tennant, M R

    1988-01-01

    We obtained 5' and 3' flanking sequences (5.4 kilobase pairs) from the psi eta-globin gene region of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and combined them with available nucleotide data. The completed sequence, representing 10.8 kilobase pairs of contiguous noncoding DNA, was compared to the same orthologous regions available for human (Homo sapiens, as represented by five different alleles), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). The nucleotide sequence for Macaca mulatta provided the outgroup perspective needed to evaluate better the relationships of humans and great apes. Pairwise comparisons and parsimony analysis of these orthologues clearly demonstrated (i) that humans and great apes share a high degree of genetic similarity and (ii) that humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas form a natural monophyletic group. These conclusions strongly favor a genealogical classification for higher primates consisting of a single family (Hominidae) with two subfamilies (Homininae for Homo, Pan, and Gorilla and Ponginae for Pongo). PMID:3174657

  12. Primate conservation: integrating communities through environmental education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Suzana M

    2010-05-01

    Environmental education has evolved over the years to respond to the varied complexities found in the different localities where it is practiced. In many parts of the world where biodiversity is rich, social conditions are poor, so educators have included sustainable development alternatives to better the environment and the livelihoods of local communities. Primate conservation education programs, which are often based in areas that face such challenges, have been a vanguard in creating means to integrate people with their natural environment and thus conquer supporters for the protection of natural habitats. In the search for effectiveness they have adopted evaluation methods to help assess what was offered. An example from Brazil is described in this commentary.

  13. ICRP 67 Biokinetic Models for AM-241 Applied to Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomairy, Nada A; Brey, Richard R; Guilmette, Raymond A

    2017-05-01

    Between 1960 and 1985, Patricia Durbin and colleagues performed studies on the distribution of intravenously and intramuscularly injected Am citrate with dosages ranging from 16 to 32 kBq kg in 30 male and female non-human primates (NHP). Dr. Durbin died unexpectedly in March of 2009, leaving much of the extensive serial blood, bioassay, and autopsy data from these NHP studies unanalyzed. As part of the experimental design, serial blood samples were taken, and urine and feces samples were collected separately for the duration of the study. The measurements of urine, fecal excretion, blood samples, and organ burden data obtained from the animals were used to evaluate the transfer rates of the ICRP 67 biokinetic model for Am. Seven cases, in which the primates were administered Am citrate by intravenous injection, were evaluated using the ICRP 67 systemic model. There were differences ranging from 51.4% underestimated to 102.7% overestimated activity between the predicted intake, which was calculated using IMBA Professional Plus software and based upon the urine bioassay data and the actual activity. The difference between the predicted activity at the time of death in the liver and skeleton using IMBA professional software and the value of the measured activity at the time of death were also compared. Generally, the ratios of predicted activity in the liver and skeleton at the time of death to the measured activity were consistently more than 1. However, the ratios were less than 1 in the skeleton for animals that were sacrificed 2,199 and 973 d post injection. The posterior probability distributions for model parameters derived using WeLMoS method were inconsistent with the ICRP 67 default parameters. The prediction made based on the posterior probability distributions for model parameters derived using WeLMoS gave the best fit to these data; however, the modified parameters overestimated the activity in almost all cases. The difference between the predicted Am

  14. Immune system evolution among anthropoid primates: parasites, injuries and predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Stuart; Cowlishaw, Guy; Bennett, Peter M

    2002-05-22

    In this study we investigate whether present-day variation in a key component of the immune system (baseline leucocyte concentrations) represents evolutionary adaptation to ecological factors. In particular, we test three hypotheses, namely that leucocyte concentrations will be positively related to one of the following: risk of disease transmission between hosts, which is related to host abundance (hypothesis 1), risk of disease infection from the environment due to parasite viability and abundance (hypothesis 2), and risk of injury and subsequent infection, for example following attacks by predators (hypothesis 3). No support was found for hypothesis 1: neither population density nor group size were associated with variation in leucocyte concentrations. Hypothesis 2 was supported: for both sexes, lymphocyte and phagocyte concentrations were positively correlated with annual rainfall, as predicted if interspecific variation in the immune system is related to parasite prevalence (primates suffer higher rates of parasitism in wetter habitats). Support was also provided for hypothesis 3: for both males and females, platelet concentrations were negatively related to body mass, as predicted if injury risk affects immune system evolution, because animals with larger body mass have a relatively lower surface area available to injury. Additional support was provided for hypothesis 3 by the finding that for males, the sex which plays the active role in troop defence and retaliation against predators, concentration of platelets was positively correlated with rate of predation. In conclusion, our analysis suggests that the risk of disease infection from the environment and the risk of injury have played a key role in immune system evolution among anthropoid primates.

  15. Emergent patterns of social affiliation in primates, a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Puga-Gonzalez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many patterns of affiliative behaviour have been described for primates, for instance: reciprocation and exchange of grooming, grooming others of similar rank, reconciliation of fights, and preferential reconciliation with more valuable partners. For these patterns several functions and underlying cognitive processes have been suggested. It is, however, difficult to imagine how animals may combine these diverse considerations in their mind. Although the co-variation hypothesis, by limiting the social possibilities an individual has, constrains the number of cognitive considerations an individual has to take, it does not present an integrated theory of affiliative patterns either. In the present paper, after surveying patterns of affiliation in egalitarian and despotic macaques, we use an individual-based model with a high potential for self-organisation as a starting point for such an integrative approach. In our model, called GrooFiWorld, individuals group and, upon meeting each other, may perform a dominance interaction of which the outcomes of winning and losing are self-reinforcing. Besides, if individuals think they will be defeated, they consider grooming others. Here, the greater their anxiety is, the greater their "motivation" to groom others. Our model generates patterns similar to many affiliative patterns of empirical data. By merely increasing the intensity of aggression, affiliative patterns in the model change from those resembling egalitarian macaques to those resembling despotic ones. Our model produces such patterns without assuming in the mind of the individual the specific cognitive processes that are usually thought to underlie these patterns (such as recordkeeping of the acts given and received, a tendency to exchange, memory of the former fight, selective attraction to the former opponent, and estimation of the value of a relationship. Our model can be used as a null model to increase our understanding of affiliative

  16. A Non-Human Primate Model of Severe Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Luis F.; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Hinojosa, Cecilia A.; Soni, Nilam J.; Shenoy, Anukul T.; Gilley, Ryan P.; Gonzalez-Juarbe, Norberto; Noda, Julio R.; Winter, Vicki T.; de la Garza, Melissa A.; Shade, Robert E.; Coalson, Jacqueline J.; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Anzueto, Antonio; Orihuela, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and infectious death in adults worldwide. A non-human primate model is needed to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of severe pneumonia, identify diagnostic tools, explore potential therapeutic targets, and test clinical interventions during pneumococcal pneumonia. Objective To develop a non-human primate model of pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods Seven adult baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were surgically tethered to a continuous monitoring system that recorded heart rate, temperature, and electrocardiography. Animals were inoculated with 109 colony-forming units of S. pneumoniae using bronchoscopy. Three baboons were rescued with intravenous ampicillin therapy. Pneumonia was diagnosed using lung ultrasonography and ex vivo confirmation by histopathology and immunodetection of pneumococcal capsule. Organ failure, using serum biomarkers and quantification of bacteremia, was assessed daily. Results Challenged animals developed signs and symptoms of pneumonia 4 days after infection. Infection was characterized by the presence of cough, tachypnea, dyspnea, tachycardia and fever. All animals developed leukocytosis and bacteremia 24 hours after infection. A severe inflammatory reaction was detected by elevation of serum cytokines, including Interleukin (IL)1Ra, IL-6, and IL-8, after infection. Lung ultrasonography precisely detected the lobes with pneumonia that were later confirmed by pathological analysis. Lung pathology positively correlated with disease severity. Antimicrobial therapy rapidly reversed symptomology and reduced serum cytokines. Conclusions We have developed a novel animal model for severe pneumococcal pneumonia that mimics the clinical presentation, inflammatory response, and infection kinetics seen in humans. This is a novel model to test vaccines and treatments, measure biomarkers to diagnose pneumonia, and predict outcomes. PMID:27855182

  17. High reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Le Foll

    Full Text Available Although tobacco appears highly addictive in humans, there has been persistent controversy about the ability of its psychoactive ingredient nicotine to induce self-administration behavior in laboratory animals, bringing into question nicotine's role in reinforcing tobacco smoking. Because of ethical difficulties in inducing nicotine dependence in naïve human subjects, we explored reinforcing effects of nicotine in experimentally-naive non-human primates given access to nicotine for periods of time up to two years. Five squirrel monkeys with no experimental history were allowed to intravenously self-administer nicotine by pressing one of two levers. The number of presses on the active lever needed to obtain each injection was fixed (fixed-ratio schedule or increased progressively with successive injections during the session (progressive-ratio schedule, allowing evaluation of both reinforcing and motivational effects of nicotine under conditions of increasing response cost. Over time, a progressive shift toward high rates of responding on the active lever, but not the inactive lever, developed. The monkeys' behavior was clearly directed toward nicotine self-administration, rather than presentation of environmental stimuli associated with nicotine injection. Both schedules of reinforcement revealed a high motivation to self-administer nicotine, with monkeys continuing to press the lever when up to 600 lever-presses were needed for each injection of nicotine. Thus, nicotine, by itself, in the absence of behavioral or drug-exposure history, is a robust and highly effective reinforcer of drug-taking behavior in a non-human primate model predictive of human behavior. This supports the use of nicotinic ligands for the treatment of smokers, and this novel preclinical model offers opportunities to test future medications for the treatment of nicotine dependence.

  18. Primate cathelicidin orthologues display different structures and membrane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgera, Francesca; Vaccari, Lisa; Antcheva, Nikolinka; Scaini, Denis; Pacor, Sabrina; Tossi, Alessandro

    2009-02-01

    The human cathelicidin LL-37 displays both direct antibacterial activities and the capacity to modulate host-cell activities. These depend on structural characteristics that are subject to positive selection for variation, as observed in a previous analysis of the CAMP gene (encoding LL-37) in primates. The altered balance between cationic and anionic residues in different primate orthologues affects intramolecular salt-bridging and influences the stability of the helical conformation and tendency to aggregate in solution of the peptide. In the present study, we have analysed the effects of these structural variations on membrane interactions for human LL-37, rhesus RL-37 and orang-utan LL-37, using several complementary biophysical and biochemical methods. CD and ATR (attenuated total reflection)-FTIR (Fourier-transform IR) spectroscopy on model membranes indicate that RL-37, which is monomeric and unstructured in bulk solution [F-form (free form)], and human LL-37, which is partly structured and probably aggregated [A-form (aggregated form)], bind biological membranes in different manners. RL-37 may insert more deeply into the lipid bilayer than LL-37, which remains aggregated. AFM (atomic force microscopy) performed on the same supported bilayer as used for ATR-FTIR measurements suggests a carpet-like mode of permeabilization for RL37 and formation of more defined worm-holes for LL-37. Comparison of data from the biological activity on bacterial cells with permeabilization of model membranes indicates that the structure/aggregation state also affects the trajectory of the peptides from bulk solution through the outer cell-wall layers to the membrane. The results of the present study suggest that F-form cathelicidin orthologues may have evolved to have primarily a direct antimicrobial defensive capacity, whereas the A-forms have somewhat sacrificed this to gain host-cell modulating functions.

  19. Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren A; Ruff, Christopher B; Simons, Erin L R; Organ, Jason M

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the cross-sectional geometry of long bones in African apes have documented that shape ratios derived from second moments of area about principle axes (e.g., Imax /Imin ) are often correlated with habitual locomotor behaviors. For example, humeral cross-sections tend to appear more circular in more arboreal and forelimb suspensory chimpanzees compared with terrestrial quadrupedal gorillas. These data support the hypothesis that cross-sections that are more circular in shape are adapted for multidirectional loading regimes and bending moments encountered when using acrobatic locomotor behaviors. Whether a more circular humerus reflects greater use of forelimb suspension in other primates and nonprimate mammals is unknown. In this study, cross-sections at or near midshaft of the humerus were obtained from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data. In broad comparisons, observed differences in morphology follow predicted patterns. Humeri of suspensory sloths are circular. Humeri of the more suspensory hominoids tend to be more circular than those of quadrupedal taxa. Humeri of the suspensory atelines are similar to hominoids, while those of Cebus are more like nonsuspensory cercopithecoids. There is, however, considerable overlap between taxa and within finer comparisons variation between species are not in the predicted direction. Thus, although Imax /Imin ratios of the humerus are informative for characterizing generalized locomotor modes (i.e., forelimb suspensory vs. quadrupedal), additional structural information is needed for more fine-grained assessments of locomotion.

  20. Scaling of convex hull volume to body mass in modern primates, non-primate mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassey, Charlotte A; Sellers, William I

    2014-01-01

    The volumetric method of 'convex hulling' has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (vol(CH)) from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb) to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within vol(CH) has remained unclear. Specifically, when vol(CH) scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r(2) = 0.97-0.99) and low mean percentage prediction error (11-20%). Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85-1.00, p = 0.08). Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.91, p = 0.011) and apparent density (volCH/Mb) therefore decreases with mass (r(2) = 0.36, pprimates scale body mass to vol(CH) with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01-1.12, p = 0.05) and apparent density therefore increases with size (r(2) = 0.46, p = 0.025). We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the 'missing mass' of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat.

  1. Do robots have goals? How agent cues influence action understanding in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Glasauer, Stefan; Burkart, Judith M

    2013-06-01

    The capacity to understand goals and intentions emerges early and universally in humans and is a basic precondition for the interpretation and prediction of others' actions, be it other humans, animals, or even robots. It is unclear, however, how this goal attribution system is acquired, in particular with regard to the role of prior experience with the actor and visual characteristics that are necessary. In four preferential looking time experiments we examined how familiarity, appearance, and movement of different agents influence the capability of marmosets to perceive the behavior of these agents as goal directed. To this end we compared the monkeys' reactions to the same goal-directed actions performed by four different agents: a human actor, a conspecific, a monkey-like small robot, and a black box. The results showed that monkeys attributed goals to the human actor, the conspecific, and the robot, but not the box. Thus, the monkeys extended their capacity for goal attribution not only to familiar agents, but also to agents not previously encountered, provided that they had some conspecific-like features. Our results suggest that in non-human primates, the system for goal attribution does not require previous experience with a specific agent or agent-category, as long as it exhibits certain visual characteristics like face, body or legs. Furthermore, the results suggest that the capacity to attribute goals emerged very early during evolution and, at least in marmoset monkeys, does not necessarily require pre-learned associations in order to fulfill its function when dealing with unfamiliar agents.

  2. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin ameliorates ischemic stroke in nonhuman primates: longitudinal observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira T; Haida, Munetaka; Ohba, Hiroyuki; Yamano, Mariko; Fukumoto, Dai; Tsukada, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) is protective early after brain ischemia in rats and nonhuman primates, but it remains unclear whether the protection persists and confers any benefits beyond the acute phase of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Ten monkeys underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion, received LEH (2 mL/kg, n = 5) or saline (2 mL/kg, n = 5) 5 min later, and reperfusion 3 h later. Positron emission tomography studies were repeated for the cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (CMRO2 ) as well as glucose (CMRglc) up to 8 days after reperfusion, when the animals were euthanized for morphological studies. There was no difference in O2 metabolism until 3 h after reperfusion, when CMRO2 was significantly better preserved in the cortex, but not in basal ganglia, on Day 0 in LEH-treated monkeys. The extent of cortical infarction (saline 68 ± 10% vs. LEH 38 ± 9%, P < 0.05) and CMRO2 (mild suppression: saline 34 ± 10% vs. LEH 14 ± 4%, P < 0.05) remained significantly better preserved 8 days later, when CMRglc showed a similar pattern of cortical protection (mild suppression: saline 49 ± 15% vs. LEH 37 ± 4%, P < 0.05) in LEH-treated monkeys, together with regained body weight. Somatic weight control, morphological integrity, CMRO2 , and CMRglc were better preserved immediately, as well as 8 days after occlusion and reperfusion of the middle cerebral artery in monkeys receiving LEH early after onset of ischemia.

  3. Non-human Primate Models for Brain Disorders - Towards Genetic Manipulations via Innovative Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zilong; Li, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    Modeling brain disorders has always been one of the key tasks in neurobiological studies. A wide range of organisms including worms, fruit flies, zebrafish, and rodents have been used for modeling brain disorders. However, whether complicated neurological and psychiatric symptoms can be faithfully mimicked in animals is still debatable. In this review, we discuss key findings using non-human primates to address the neural mechanisms underlying stress and anxiety behaviors, as well as technical advances for establishing genetically-engineered non-human primate models of autism spectrum disorders and other disorders. Considering the close evolutionary connections and similarity of brain structures between non-human primates and humans, together with the rapid progress in genome-editing technology, non-human primates will be indispensable for pathophysiological studies and exploring potential therapeutic methods for treating brain disorders.

  4. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis in free-living primates of the genus Callithrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Mafra

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Ehrlichia are Gram-negative and coccoid-shaped microorganisms that cause ehrlichiosis – a serious infectious disease that often leads to death. These bacteria present a strong zoonotic potential and primates may act as reservoir hosts. This study involved a molecular analysis to detect these microorganisms in blood samples collected from nineteen primates of the genus Callithrix living free in an Atlantic Forest fragment in the municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of the 19 primates was found to be infected with Ehrlichia canis. This finding points to a new wild host of E. canis with a strong potential for transmission to humans because of its increasing contact with people. This is the first report of Ehrlichia spp. in primate of the genus Callithrix.

  5. Uterine transplantation in primates: a mini-review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, I; Banno, K; Mihara, M; Hara, H; Kato, Y; Suganuma, N; Aoki, D

    2014-05-01

    Assisted reproductive technology has improved markedly in recent years, and many infertile patients have had children with the use of this technology. However, women with infertility due to an absent or nonfunctional uterus currently have no option of having a genetically linked child other than gestational surrogacy. Uterus transplantation (UTx) is now a possible approach for women with uterine-factor infertility to deliver a child. UTx studies have been performed in many animals, and accumulation of data from these studies has brought UTx within reach of clinical application. This has led to performance of UTx in humans in Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Sweden. However, there has yet to be a delivery after allogeneic UTx in primates. More basic studies in primates are needed, and data from research in primates can provide important information for establishment of UTx in humans. In this review, we summarize the literature on UTx studies, with a focus on primates, both human and nonhuman.

  6. High prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A virus among captive nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-nguanmoo, Pattaratida; Thawornsuk, Nutchanart; Rianthavorn, Pornpimol; Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Poovorawan, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can infect not only humans but also several other nonhuman primates. This study has been conducted to evaluate the comprehensive anti-HAV seroprevalence in captive nonhuman primate populations in Thailand. The prevalence of antibodies against HAV in 96 captive nonhuman primates of 11 species was evaluated by competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA). HAV antibodies were found in 64.7% (11/17) of macaques, 85.7% (6/7) of langurs, 28.4% (10/35) of gibbons, and 94.6% (35/37) of orangutans. However, anti-HAV IgM was not found in any sera. These results indicate that the majority of captive nonhuman primates in Thailand were exposed to HAV. It is possible that some of the animals were infected prior to capture.

  7. Alterations in mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum from heart and skeletal muscle of horizontally casted primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordahl, L. A.; Stone, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Horizontally body-casted rhesus monkeys are used as an animal model in order to study the physiological changes known as cardiovascular deconditioning which occur during weightless conditions. No difference was found between the experimental and control animals in heart mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation which indicates that no apparent changes occurred in the primary energy-producing system of the heart. A marked increase in cytochrome oxidase activity was observed in the casted primate heart mitochondria compared to controls, while a 25% decrease in respiratory substrate-supported calcium uptake was found in casted primate heart mitochondria compared to controls. Sacroplasmic reticulum isolated from the primate hearts revealed marked changes in calcium transport activities. It is concluded that the marked depression in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum functions indicates altered calcium homeostasis in the casted-primate heart which could be a factor in cardiovascular deconditioning.

  8. Studying Primate Carpal Kinematics in Three Dimensions Using a Computed‐Tomography‐Based Markerless Registration Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orr, Caley M; Leventhal, Evan L; Chivers, Spencer F; Marzke, Mary W; Wolfe, Scott W; Crisco, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    .... Reconstructing locomotor and manipulative capabilities of the wrist in extinct species requires a detailed understanding of wrist biomechanics in extant primates and the relationship between carpal form and function...

  9. Enhancing nonhuman primate care and welfare through the use of positive reinforcement training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laule, Gail; Whittaker, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are excellent subjects for the enhancement of care and welfare through training. The broad range of species offers tremendous behavioral diversity, and individual primates show varying abilities to cope with the stressors of captivity, which differ depending on the venue. Biomedical facilities include small single cages, pair housing, and breeding corrals with large social groups. Zoos have social groupings of differing sizes, emphasizing public display and breeding. Sanctuaries have nonbreeding groups of varying sizes and often of mixed species. In every venue, the primary objective is to provide good quality care, with minimal stress. Positive reinforcement training improves care and reduces stress by enlisting a primate's voluntary cooperation with targeted activities, including both husbandry and medical procedures. It can also improve socialization, reduce abnormal behaviors, and increase species-typical behaviors. This article reviews the results already achieved with positive reinforcement training and suggests further possibilities for enhancing primate care and welfare.

  10. Current research on the organization and function of the visual system in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaas JH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jon H Kaas, Pooja Balaram Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAll primates, including humans, are highly visual creatures.1–3 We rely heavily on visual cues for basic adaptive behaviors such as finding food, mates, and shelter; as well as more complex behaviors such as parental care and the formation of social hierarchies. Throughout the course of primate evolution, our dependence on visual cues has increased with each adaptive advantage acquired from visually guided behavior; and so has the demand for greater and more efficient processing of visual information in primate brains. Consequently, the number, size, and complexity of brain structures involved in visual processing has expanded dramatically in the primate order, far more than those of any other species in the mammalian lineage.2,4 As we have learned to interact with the world using visual cues, our brains have evolved to absorb, manipulate, and react to visual information in increasingly effective ways. Individual brain structures dedicated to vision in primates also frequently exhibit anatomical and functional specializations that are not present in other mammals. These adaptations are not present in most nonprimate mammals, partly because many species rely on other sensory modalities for their individual behaviors. Thus, understanding how we, as humans, perceive the visual world around us begins with learning how vision is processed in the primate brain. Furthermore, learning how vision in primates differs both structurally and functionally from vision in nonprimate mammals, and determining how those changes enable adaptive traits in the primate lineage, will allow us to understand the truly unique phenomenon of human visual behavior.

  11. Towards Transgenic Primates:What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Phillip; L.; TSIEN; Joe; Z.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans,monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the preclinical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases.Various powerful genetic tech-nologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models.We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and limitations for systematic production of transgenic primates.

  12. Trypanoxyuris (Paraoxyuronema) lagothricis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in Lagothrix cana (Primates: Atelidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Ferreira Junior, Francisco Carlos; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2013-01-01

    During necropsy of a specimen of Lagothrix cana (É. Geoffroy, 1812) (Primates: Atelidae) from the Brazilian Amazon, pinworms were found in the large intestine. The intensity of infection was 64 parasites (17 males and 47 females) and there were no gross pathological changes related to parasitism. After morphological analysis the parasites were identified as Trypanoxyuris (Paraoxyuronema) lagothricis (Buckley, 1931) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae). This is the first record of this oxyurid species in primates in Brazil.

  13. Macroevolutionary dynamics and historical biogeography of primate diversification inferred from a species supermatrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Springer

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and patterns of biogeographic descent among primate species are both complex and contentious. Here, we generate a robust molecular phylogeny for 70 primate genera and 367 primate species based on a concatenation of 69 nuclear gene segments and ten mitochondrial gene sequences, most of which were extracted from GenBank. Relaxed clock analyses of divergence times with 14 fossil-calibrated nodes suggest that living Primates last shared a common ancestor 71-63 Ma, and that divergences within both Strepsirrhini and Haplorhini are entirely post-Cretaceous. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction of non-avian dinosaurs played an important role in the diversification of placental mammals. Previous queries into primate historical biogeography have suggested Africa, Asia, Europe, or North America as the ancestral area of crown primates, but were based on methods that were coopted from phylogeny reconstruction. By contrast, we analyzed our molecular phylogeny with two methods that were developed explicitly for ancestral area reconstruction, and find support for the hypothesis that the most recent common ancestor of living Primates resided in Asia. Analyses of primate macroevolutionary dynamics provide support for a diversification rate increase in the late Miocene, possibly in response to elevated global mean temperatures, and are consistent with the fossil record. By contrast, diversification analyses failed to detect evidence for rate-shift changes near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary even though the fossil record provides clear evidence for a major turnover event ("Grande Coupure" at this time. Our results highlight the power and limitations of inferring diversification dynamics from molecular phylogenies, as well as the sensitivity of diversification analyses to different species concepts.

  14. Human and non-human primate genomes share hotspots of positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Enard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Among primates, genome-wide analysis of recent positive selection is currently limited to the human species because it requires extensive sampling of genotypic data from many individuals. The extent to which genes positively selected in human also present adaptive changes in other primates therefore remains unknown. This question is important because a gene that has been positively selected independently in the human and in other primate lineages may be less likely to be involved in human specific phenotypic changes such as dietary habits or cognitive abilities. To answer this question, we analysed heterozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the genomes of single human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and macaque individuals using a new method aiming to identify selective sweeps genome-wide. We found an unexpectedly high number of orthologous genes exhibiting signatures of a selective sweep simultaneously in several primate species, suggesting the presence of hotspots of positive selection. A similar significant excess is evident when comparing genes positively selected during recent human evolution with genes subjected to positive selection in their coding sequence in other primate lineages and identified using a different test. These findings are further supported by comparing several published human genome scans for positive selection with our findings in non-human primate genomes. We thus provide extensive evidence that the co-occurrence of positive selection in humans and in other primates at the same genetic loci can be measured with only four species, an indication that it may be a widespread phenomenon. The identification of positive selection in humans alongside other primates is a powerful tool to outline those genes that were selected uniquely during recent human evolution.

  15. A remarkable cranium of Plesiopithecus teras (Primates, Prosimii) from the Eocene of Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993 specimens of a highly distinctive primate, named Plesiopithecus teras [Simons, E.L. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 10743-10747], were found at site L-41 in late Eocene deposits of the Fayum Depression, Egypt. The most important of these specimens consists of a nearly complete skull, which facilitates the evaluation of affinities of this primate. Characteristics of the known material now demonstrate that Plesiopithecus is a prosimian, although mandibular molar morp...

  16. Cellular scaling rules for the brains of an extended number of primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabi, Mariana; Collins, Christine E; Wong, Peiyan; Torres, Laila B; Kaas, Jon H; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2010-01-01

    What are the rules relating the size of the brain and its structures to the number of cells that compose them and their average sizes? We have shown previously that the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and the remaining brain structures increase in size as a linear function of their numbers of neurons and non-neuronal cells across 6 species of primates. Here we describe that the cellular composition of the same brain structures of 5 other primate species, as well as humans, conform to the scaling rules identified previously, and that the updated power functions for the extended sample are similar to those determined earlier. Accounting for phylogenetic relatedness in the combined dataset does not affect the scaling slopes that apply to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, but alters the slope for the remaining brain structures to a value that is similar to that observed in rodents, which raises the possibility that the neuronal scaling rules for these structures are shared among rodents and primates. The conformity of the new set of primate species to the previous rules strongly suggests that the cellular scaling rules we have identified apply to primates in general, including humans, and not only to particular subgroups of primate species. In contrast, the allometric rules relating body and brain size are highly sensitive to the particular species sampled, suggesting that brain size is neither determined by body size nor together with it, but is rather only loosely correlated with body size. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Evidence of public engagement with science: visitor learning at a zoo-housed primate research centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M Waller

    Full Text Available Primate behavioural and cognitive research is increasingly conducted on direct public view in zoo settings. The potential of such facilities for public engagement with science is often heralded, but evidence of tangible, positive effects on public understanding is rare. Here, the effect of a new zoo-based primate research centre on visitor behaviour, learning and attitudes was assessed using a quasi-experimental design. Zoo visitors approached the primate research centre more often when a scientist was present and working with the primates, and reported greater awareness of primates (including conservation compared to when the scientist was not present. Visitors also reported greater perceived learning when the scientist was present. Installation of information signage had no main effect on visitor attitudes or learning. Visitors who interacted with the signage, however, demonstrated increased knowledge and understanding when asked about the specific information present on the signs (which was related to the ongoing facial expression research at the research centre. The findings show that primate behaviour research centres on public view can have a demonstrable and beneficial effect on public understanding of science.

  18. Trabecular architecture of the manual elements reflects locomotor patterns in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Stacey A

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of trabecular bone has proven sensitive to loading patterns in the long bones and metacarpal heads of primates. It is expected that we should also see differences in the manual digits of primates that practice different methods of locomotion. Primate proximal and middle phalanges are load-bearing elements that are held in different postures and experience different mechanical strains during suspension, quadrupedalism, and knuckle walking. Micro CT scans of the middle phalanx, proximal phalanx and the metacarpal head of the third ray were used to examine the pattern of trabecular orientation in Pan, Gorilla, Pongo, Hylobates and Macaca. Several zones, i.e., the proximal ends of both phalanges and the metacarpal heads, were capable of distinguishing between knuckle-walking, quadrupedal, and suspensory primates. Orientation and shape seem to be the primary distinguishing factors but differences in bone volume, isotropy index, and degree of anisotropy were seen across included taxa. Suspensory primates show primarily proximodistal alignment in all zones, and quadrupeds more palmar-dorsal orientation in several zones. Knuckle walkers are characterized by having proximodistal alignment in the proximal ends of the phalanges and a palmar-dorsal alignment in the distal ends and metacarpal heads. These structural differences may be used to infer locmotor propensities of extinct primate taxa.

  19. Functional morphology of the hallucal metatarsal with implications for inferring grasping ability in extinct primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenberger, Katherine E; Boyer, Doug M; Orr, Caley M; Jacobs, Rachel L; Femiani, John C; Patel, Biren A

    2015-03-01

    Primate evolutionary morphologists have argued that selection for life in a fine branch niche resulted in grasping specializations that are reflected in the hallucal metatarsal (Mt1) morphology of extant "prosimians", while a transition to use of relatively larger, horizontal substrates explains the apparent loss of such characters in anthropoids. Accordingly, these morphological characters-Mt1 torsion, peroneal process length and thickness, and physiological abduction angle-have been used to reconstruct grasping ability and locomotor mode in the earliest fossil primates. Although these characters are prominently featured in debates on the origin and subsequent radiation of Primates, questions remain about their functional significance. This study examines the relationship between these morphological characters of the Mt1 and a novel metric of pedal grasping ability for a large number of extant taxa in a phylogenetic framework. Results indicate greater Mt1 torsion in taxa that engage in hallucal grasping and in those that utilize relatively small substrates more frequently. This study provides evidence that Carpolestes simpsoni has a torsion value more similar to grasping primates than to any scandentian. The results also show that taxa that habitually grasp vertical substrates are distinguished from other taxa in having relatively longer peroneal processes. Furthermore, a longer peroneal process is also correlated with calcaneal elongation, a metric previously found to reflect leaping proclivity. A more refined understanding of the functional associations between Mt1 morphology and behavior in extant primates enhances the potential for using these morphological characters to comprehend primate (locomotor) evolution.

  20. Primate energy input and the evolutionary transition to energy-dense diets in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmen, Bruno; Pasquet, Patrick; Masi, Shelly; Koppert, Georgius J A; Wells, Jonathan C K; Hladik, Claude Marcel

    2017-06-14

    Humans and other large-brained hominins have been proposed to increase energy turnover during their evolutionary history. Such increased energy turnover is plausible, given the evolution of energy-rich diets, but requires empirical confirmation. Framing human energetics in a phylogenetic context, our meta-analysis of 17 wild non-human primate species shows that daily metabolizable energy input follows an allometric relationship with body mass where the allometric exponent for mass is 0.75 ± 0.04, close to that reported for daily energy expenditure measured with doubly labelled water in primates. Human populations at subsistence level (n = 6) largely fall within the variation of primate species in the scaling of energy intake and therefore do not consume significantly more energy than predicted for a non-human primate of equivalent mass. By contrast, humans ingest a conspicuously lower mass of food (-64 ± 6%) compared with primates and maintain their energy intake relatively more constantly across the year. We conclude that our hominin hunter-gatherer ancestors did not increase their energy turnover beyond the allometric relationship characterizing all primate species. The reduction in digestive costs due to consumption of a lower mass of high-quality food, as well as stabilization of energy supply, may have been important evolutionary steps enabling encephalization in the absence of significantly raised energy intakes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Trabecular architecture of the manual elements reflects locomotor patterns in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A Matarazzo

    Full Text Available The morphology of trabecular bone has proven sensitive to loading patterns in the long bones and metacarpal heads of primates. It is expected that we should also see differences in the manual digits of primates that practice different methods of locomotion. Primate proximal and middle phalanges are load-bearing elements that are held in different postures and experience different mechanical strains during suspension, quadrupedalism, and knuckle walking. Micro CT scans of the middle phalanx, proximal phalanx and the metacarpal head of the third ray were used to examine the pattern of trabecular orientation in Pan, Gorilla, Pongo, Hylobates and Macaca. Several zones, i.e., the proximal ends of both phalanges and the metacarpal heads, were capable of distinguishing between knuckle-walking, quadrupedal, and suspensory primates. Orientation and shape seem to be the primary distinguishing factors but differences in bone volume, isotropy index, and degree of anisotropy were seen across included taxa. Suspensory primates show primarily proximodistal alignment in all zones, and quadrupeds more palmar-dorsal orientation in several zones. Knuckle walkers are characterized by having proximodistal alignment in the proximal ends of the phalanges and a palmar-dorsal alignment in the distal ends and metacarpal heads. These structural differences may be used to infer locmotor propensities of extinct primate taxa.

  2. Predicting folivorous primate abundance: validation of a nutritional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin A; Chapman, Lauren J; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Lawes, Michael J; McDowell, Lee R

    2004-02-01

    Understanding the determinants of animal abundance has become more vital as ecologists are increasingly asked to apply their knowledge to the construction of informed management plans. However, there are few general models are available to explain variation in abundance. Some notable exceptions are studies of folivorous primates, in which the protein-to-fiber ratio of foods has been shown to predict biomass. Here we examine the generality of Milton's [American Naturalist 114:363-378, 1979] protein/fiber model by providing a detailed analysis of diet selection in black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza), and applying the model to populations shown to be stable; an assumption not previously examined. Based on observations of two groups of black-and-white colobus in Kibale National Park, Uganda, and one group in a forest fragment, we documented that the animals selected young leaves that had more protein, were more digestible, and had a higher protein-to-fiber ratio than mature leaves. The mature leaves did not differ from young leaves with respect to secondary compounds or mineral content (with the exceptions of copper and zinc). All of the colobus groups selected foods with a high protein-to-fiber ratios. However, one group also selected more digestible foods, and in another group, foraging efforts were positively related to zinc and negatively related to potassium. Previous studies that examined Milton's protein/fiber model did not demonstrate that the study populations were stable. If some populations were not at carrying capacity, then the correlations drawn between food availability and/or quality and folivore biomass may have been spurious. To address this issue, we censused a series of forest fragments in 1995 and again in 2000. We found that the populations in these fragments had declined from 165 in 1995 to 119 animals in 2000. However, based on evidence of population stability and lack of forest disturbance, we concluded that five of the original

  3. A new species of Apidium (Anthropoidea, Parapithecidae) from the Sirt Basin, central Libya: First record of Oligocene primates from Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, K Christopher; Coster, Pauline M C; Salem, Mustafa J; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Apidium is the most common primate currently known from a newly discovered site near Zallah Oasis in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. Based on current knowledge of the associated fauna, this new species of Apidium is early Oligocene in age, being roughly contemporaneous with faunas from Quarries G and V in the upper part of the Jebel Qatrani Formation in Egypt that also contain species of Apidium. A phylogenetic analysis based on dental characters indicates that the new species of Apidium from Libya is the sister group of Apidium phiomense. Apidium bowni and Apidium moustafai from the Jebel Qatrani Formation in the Fayum are similar in age to the new species of Apidium from Libya, but both of these Egyptian species are more distantly related to A. phiomense from younger stratigraphic levels in the Fayum. This phylogenetic pattern underscores the benefit of enhanced geographic sampling of the fossil record, even in cases where local records are thought to be reasonably comprehensive and well documented. Oligocene parapithecids can be partitioned into two clades corresponding to the subfamilies Parapithecinae (containing Parapithecus and Simonsius) and Qatraniinae (including Qatrania and Apidium). Climatic deterioration during the early Oligocene may have impacted the macroevolutionary dynamics of early Afro-Arabian anthropoids by fostering the fragmentation of forest habitats, thereby promoting allopatric speciation among widespread populations of Apidium and other arboreal taxa.

  4. Theories about evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B v